These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Morphological and endocrine correlates of dominance in male ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).  

E-print Network

??An investigation of the correlation between a number of behavioral, morphological and physiological parameters and dominance status of male Ring-necked Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) was undertaken.… (more)

Lumas, Kathy A.

1982-01-01

2

Neck Strength Imbalance Correlates With Increased Head Acceleration in Soccer Heading  

PubMed Central

Background: Soccer heading is using the head to directly contact the ball, often to advance the ball down the field or score. It is a skill fundamental to the game, yet it has come under scrutiny. Repeated subclinical effects of heading may compound over time, resulting in neurologic deficits. Greater head accelerations are linked to brain injury. Developing an understanding of how the neck muscles help stabilize and reduce head acceleration during impact may help prevent brain injury. Hypothesis: Neck strength imbalance correlates to increasing head acceleration during impact while heading a soccer ball. Study Design: Observational laboratory investigation. Methods: Sixteen Division I and II collegiate soccer players headed a ball in a controlled indoor laboratory setting while player motions were recorded by a 14-camera Vicon MX motion capture system. Neck flexor and extensor strength of each player was measured using a spring-type clinical dynamometer. Results: Players were served soccer balls by hand at a mean velocity of 4.29 m/s (±0.74 m/s). Players returned the ball to the server using a heading maneuver at a mean velocity of 5.48 m/s (±1.18 m/s). Mean neck strength difference was positively correlated with angular head acceleration (rho = 0.497; P = 0.05), with a trend toward significance for linear head acceleration (rho = 0.485; P = 0.057). Conclusion: This study suggests that symmetrical strength in neck flexors and extensors reduces head acceleration experienced during low-velocity heading in experienced collegiate players. Clinical Relevance: Balanced neck strength may reduce head acceleration cumulative subclinical injury. Since neck strength is a measureable and amenable strength training intervention, this may represent a modifiable intrinsic risk factor for injury. PMID:24459547

Dezman, Zachary D.W.; Ledet, Eric H.; Kerr, Hamish A.

2013-01-01

3

Endovascular occlusion of intracranial aneurysms with electrically detachable coils: Correlation of aneurysm neck size and treatment results  

SciTech Connect

To devise a method to measure aneurysm neck size on angiographic films, and to correlate the sizes obtained with the extent of endovascular aneurysm occlusion, performed with electrically detachable coils. The angiograms of 79 intracranial aneurysms treated by endovascular occlusion using electrically detachable coils were retrospectively analyzed. A method using the average reported caliber of the major intracranial vessels was applied to determine the aneurysm neck sizes on the diagnostic angiograms. The cases were divided into two groups according to neck size, 4 mm being the discriminative value for small and wide necks. The posttreatment angiogram of each case was analyzed to evaluate the degree of occlusion achieved by the technique. Necks were successfully measured in 95% of the aneurysms. Complete aneurysm thrombosis was observed in 85% of the small-necked aneurysms and in 15% of the wide-necked aneurysms. Accurate angiographic measurements of neck diameter can be obtained in most aneurysms. The size of an aneurysm neck correlates well with the results of the endovascular treatment. Small-necked aneurysms can be satisfactorily occluded with this technique. In wide-necked aneurysms this technique should be reserved for lesions having a high surgical risk. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Zubillaga, A.F.; Guglielmi, G.; Vinuela, F.; Duckwiler, G.R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1994-05-01

4

Correlation of corrosion and biomechanics in the retrieval of a single modular neck total hip arthroplasty design: modular neck total hip arthroplasty system.  

PubMed

Increased modularity of total hip arthroplasty components has occurred, with theoretical advantages and disadvantages. Recent literature indicates the potential for elevated revision rates of modular neck systems and the potential for local pseudotumor and metallosis formation at the modular neck/stem site. Retrieval analysis of one modular neck implant design including SEM (SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY) assessment was done and correlated with FEA (finite element analysis) as well as clinical features of patient demographics, implant and laboratory analysis. Correlation of the consistent corrosion locations to FEA indicates that the material and design features of this system may result in a biomechanical reason for failure. The stem aspect of the modular neck/stem junction may be at particular risk. PMID:25060562

Lanting, Brent A; Teeter, Matthew G; Vasarhelyi, Edward M; Ivanov, Todor G; Howard, James L; Naudie, Douglas D R

2015-01-01

5

Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck region: clinicopathological correlation in 25 cases.  

PubMed Central

Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP) of head and neck are rare tumours. Between 1972 and 1993, 25 cases of EMP of head and neck were seen at our institute. The clinical and pathological features and response to treatment are presented. At initial presentation, 23 (92%) patients presented with disease confined to a single extramedullary site only and two patients had in addition clinical involvement of cervical lymph nodes. All except these two patients received radiotherapy to the primary site only as initial treatment. Initial primary control of local disease was obtained in 16 of 24 (67%) patients treated with radical intent. With salvage treatment of further radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, local disease control was achieved in 21 of 24 (88%) patients. One patient was treated with palliative intent. Conversion to multiple myeloma was seen in two patients (8%). Pathologically, the tumours were classified into low, intermediate and high grade, which correlated closely with outcome. This classification has been used for the first time in extramedullary plasmacytomas and is based on the multiple myeloma grading criteria devised by Bartl et al (1987). Fifteen of eighteen (83%) low-grade tumours and only one of six (17%) intermediate- and high-grade tumours were locally controlled after primary radiotherapy. This is statistically significant for local control (P= 0.0019) but not for overall survival (P= 0.12). The median survival and 5-year overall survival is 68 months and 58.9% respectively. We recommend consideration of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with higher grade disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9062417

Susnerwala, S. S.; Shanks, J. H.; Banerjee, S. S.; Scarffe, J. H.; Farrington, W. T.; Slevin, N. J.

1997-01-01

6

Correlation between dose to the pharyngeal constrictors and patient quality of life and late dysphagia following chemo-IMRT for head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAim of this study was to correlate dose to pharyngeal constrictors (PC) with subjective and observer-based assessments of swallowing in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing concomitant chemo-IMRT.

Shreerang A. Bhide; Sarah Gulliford; Rehan Kazi; Iman El-Hariry; Kate Newbold; Kevin J. Harrington; Christopher M. Nutting

2009-01-01

7

Elevated P53 expression correlates with a history of heavy smoking in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.  

PubMed Central

Expression of the tumour suppressor gene p53 was examined in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck using two p53 antibodies, PAb 421 and PAb 1801. Elevated p53 expression was found in 67% of the 73 patients investigated. P53 expression was not found to correlate with whether the patient had been previously treated or not, nor any of the clinico-pathological parameters. However a correlation was found between the patients smoking history and positive p53 staining. Six out of seven non-smokers did not express p53 whereas 29 of 37 heavy smokers were found to have elevated p53 expression (P less than 0.005). Also, of a group of ten patients who had given up smoking more than 5 years ago, nine had elevated expression. Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between heavy smoking and head and neck cancer. The present study indicate a genetic link for this correlation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1911200

Field, J. K.; Spandidos, D. A.; Malliri, A.; Gosney, J. R.; Yiagnisis, M.; Stell, P. M.

1991-01-01

8

Genetic determination and correlation of body weight and body mass index (BMI) and cross-sectional geometric parameters of the femoral neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  This study aimed to examine the genetic determination of body weight, body mass index (BMI) and cross-sectional geometric parameters of the femoral neck including cross-sectional area (CSA), cortical thickness (CT), sectional modulus (Z), and buckling ratio (BR), and to test the genetic correlation between body weight\\/BMI and the femoral neck geometric parameters.Methods  A total of 929 healthy subjects from 292 Chinese

Hong Xu; Ji-Rong Long; Yan-Jun Yang; Fei-Yan Deng; Hong-Wen Deng

2006-01-01

9

Clinico-Pathological Correlation of ?-Catenin and Telomere Dysfunction in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Tumorigenesis is a complex process of accumulated alteration in function of multiple genes and pathways. Wnt signalling pathway is involved in various differentiation events during embryonic development and is conserved in various species. Objective: A multicentre collaborative initiative is undertaken to study the occurrence, prognosis and molecular mechanism of HNSCC (Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma) which is highly prevalent in eastern parts of India. From a large cohort of HNSCC tissue repository, 67 cases were selected for multi-parametric investigation. Results: 67 cases showed stable ?-catenin expression. We have seen correlation, if any, of the transcription factor - ?-catenin, telomere maintenance and shelterin complex proteins - TRF2, Rap1 and hTert with respect to tumor differentiation and telomere dysfunction. Immunohistochemistry of ?-catenin protein showed stable and high expression in tumor when compared to stroma. MDSCC (Moderately Differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma) cases expressed nuclear expression of ?-catenin in invasive fronts and showed increased genomic instability. Higher frequency of Anaphase bridges was observed ranging from <3% in normal cut margin to 13% in WDSCC (Well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma) and 18% in MDSCC (Moderately differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma). There was significant decrease in telomere length in MDSCC (<4) when compared to the normal cut margin samples (<7). Quantitative Real Time-PCR confirmed a significant correlationship between stable ?-catenin expression and poor clinical and pathological outcome. Conclusion: The Stabilisation and accumulation of ?-catenin was significant and correlated well with de-differentiation process as well as prognosis and therapy outcome of the patients in the cohort. Expression status of molecular markers such as ?-catenin, hTert, TRF2 and RAP1 correlate significantly with the process of tumorigenesis and prognosis and may play a role in therapeutic management of Head and neck patients. PMID:25653721

Padhi, Swatishree; Saha, Arka; Kar, Madhabananda; Ghosh, Chinmoy; Adhya, Amit; Baisakh, Manas; Mohapatra, Nachiketa; Venkatesan, Shriram; Hande, Manoor Prakash; Banerjee, Birendranath

2015-01-01

10

Neck pain  

MedlinePLUS

Pain - neck; Neck stiffness ... this as having a stiff neck. If neck pain involves nerves, you may feel numbness, tingling, or ... A common cause of neck pain is muscle strain or tension. Usually, ... Such activities include: Bending over a desk for hours Poor ...

11

Correlation between risk factors and subsequent surgical management following internal fixation of intracapsular femoral neck fractures in patients under the age of 60 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Regarding intracapsular femoral neck fractures, the main focus of research is the correlation between fracture-related complications\\u000a and prognostic factors. To evaluate the correlation between complications required surgery (fracture-related treatment) and,\\u000a among others, several less extensively investigated prognostic factors (day of surgery, co-morbidities, hospital type) in\\u000a a 2-year period following internal fixation in patients under the age of 60 years with

A. Sebestyén; F. Tóth; J. Sándor; J. Nyárády; I. Boncz

12

DNA Repair Biomarkers XPF and Phospho-MAPKAP Kinase 2 Correlate with Clinical Outcome in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Induction chemotherapy is a common therapeutic option for patients with locoregionally-advanced head and neck cancer (HNC), but it remains unclear which patients will benefit. In this study, we searched for biomarkers predicting the response of patients with locoregionally-advanced HNC to induction chemotherapy by evaluating the expression pattern of DNA repair proteins. Methods Expression of a panel of DNA-repair proteins in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded specimens from a cohort of 37 HNC patients undergoing platinum-based induction chemotherapy prior to definitive chemoradiation were analyzed using quantitative immunohistochemistry. Results We found that XPF (an ERCC1 binding partner) and phospho-MAPKAP Kinase 2 (pMK2) are novel biomarkers for HNSCC patients undergoing platinum-based induction chemotherapy. Low XPF expression in HNSCC patients is associated with better response to induction chemoradiotherapy, while high XPF expression correlates with a worse response (p?=?0.02). Furthermore, low pMK2 expression was found to correlate significantly with overall survival after induction plus chemoradiation therapy (p?=?0.01), suggesting that pMK2 may relate to chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions We identified XPF and pMK2 as novel DNA-repair biomarkers for locoregionally-advanced HNC patients undergoing platinum-based induction chemotherapy prior to definitive chemoradiation. Our study provides insights for the use of DNA repair biomarkers in personalized diagnostics strategies. Further validation in a larger cohort is indicated. PMID:25019640

Seiwert, Tanguy Y.; Wang, XiaoZhe; Heitmann, Jana; Villegas-Bergazzi, Vivian; Sprott, Kam; Finn, Stephen; O'Regan, Esther; Farrow, Allan D.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Lingen, Mark W.; Cohen, Ezra E. W.; Stenson, Kerstin; Weaver, David T.; Vokes, Everett E.

2014-01-01

13

Heparanase Localization and Expression by Head and Neck Cancer: Correlation with Tumor Progression and Patient Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate (HS) side chains of HS pro- teoglycans,themajorproteoglycansintheextracellular matrix and cell surfaces. Traditionally, heparanase ac- tivity was implicated in cellular invasion associated with angiogenesis, inflammation, and cancer metas- tasis. More recently, heparanase upregulation was documented in anincreasing number of primary human tumors, correlating with reduced postoperative sur- vival rate and enhanced tumor

Ilana Doweck; Victoria Kaplan-Cohen; Inna Naroditsky; Edmond Sabo; Neta Ilan; Israel Vlodavsky

2006-01-01

14

Kinetic analysis of dynamic 18F-fluoromisonidazole PET correlates with radiation treatment outcome in head-and-neck cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Hypoxia compromises local control in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC). In order to determine the value of [18F]-fluoromisonidazole (Fmiso) with regard to tumor hypoxia, a patient study with dynamic Fmiso PET was performed. For a better understanding of tracer uptake and distribution, a kinetic model was developed to analyze dynamic Fmiso PET data. Methods For 15 HNC patients, dynamic Fmiso PET examinations were performed prior to radiotherapy (RT) treatment. The data was analyzed using a two compartment model, which allows the determination of characteristic hypoxia and perfusion values. For different parameters, such as patient age, tumor size and standardized uptake value, the correlation to treatment outcome was tested using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U-test. Statistical tests were also performed for hypoxia and perfusion parameters determined by the kinetic model and for two different metrics based on these parameters. Results The kinetic Fmiso analysis extracts local hypoxia and perfusion characteristics of a tumor tissue. These parameters are independent quantities. In this study, different types of characteristic hypoxia-perfusion patterns in tumors could be identified. The clinical verification of the results, obtained on the basis of the kinetic analysis, showed a high correlation of hypoxia-perfusion patterns and RT treatment outcome (p = 0.001) for this initial patient group. Conclusion The presented study established, that Fmiso PET scans may benefit from dynamic acquisition and analysis by a kinetic model. The pattern of distribution of perfusion and hypoxia in the tissue is correlated to local control in HNC. PMID:16321146

Thorwarth, Daniela; Eschmann, Susanne-Martina; Scheiderbauer, Jutta; Paulsen, Frank; Alber, Markus

2005-01-01

15

Correlating Computed Tomography Perfusion Changes in the Pharyngeal Constrictor Muscles During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy to Dysphagia Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To measure changes in perfusion of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles (PCM) using CT perfusion (CTP) imaging during a course of definitive radiotherapy (RT) in head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients and correlate with dysphagia outcome after RT. Methods and Materials: Fifteen HNC patients underwent CTP imaging of the PCM at baseline and Weeks 2, 4, and 6 during RT and 6 weeks after RT. Blood flow and blood volume were measured in the PCM, and percentage change from baseline scan was determined. A single physician-based assessment of dysphagia was performed every 3 months after RT using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 grading system. Results: With a median follow-up of 28 months (range, 6-44 months), Grade 3 dysphagia was present in 7 of 15 patients, and 8 patients experienced Grade 0-2 dysphagia. The CTP parameters at Week 2 of RT demonstrated an increase in mean PCM blood flow of 161.9% vs. 12.3% (p = 0.007) and an increase in mean PCM blood volume of 96.6% vs. 8.7% (p = 0.039) in patients with 6-month post-RT Grade 3 dysphagia and Grade 0-2 dysphagia, respectively. On multivariate analysis, when adjusting for smoking history, tumor volume, and baseline dysphagia status, an increase in blood flow in the second week of RT was significant for 3- and 6-month Grade 3 dysphagia (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Perfusion changes in the PCM during Week 2 of RT in the PCM may predict the severity of dysphagia after HNC RT.

Truong, Minh Tam, E-mail: mitruong@bu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Saito, Naoko [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Qureshi, Muhammad M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Ozonoff, Al [Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Romesser, Paul B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Wang, Jimmy; Sakai, Osamu [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

2012-02-01

16

Neck Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Sex and Arthritis Neck Pain PRINT Download PDF Description Saying, “It’s a pain ... requires expensive or uncomfortable tests. What is neck pain? Acute strain may occur after sleeping in an ...

17

Pretreatment anemia is correlated with the reduced effectiveness of radiation and concurrent chemotherapy in advanced head and neck cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Pretreatment anemia is an adverse prognostic variable in squamous cell head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone. Tumor hypoxia is an adverse parameter for treatment with RT alone or with RT and concurrent chemotherapy (CCT). Tumor hypoxia is more prevalent in patients who present with pretreatment hemoglobin (Hgb) concentrations less than 13 g/dL. RT/CCT improves survival over RT alone in advanced HNC, and its use is becoming more widespread. This study was performed to evaluate whether pretreatment Hgb less than 13 g/dL was correlated with treatment outcome in patients with advanced HNC treated with a uniform regimen of RT/CCT. Methods and materials: The study population consisted of patients with AJCC Stage III or IV, M0 HNC who were treated with 70 to 72.5 Gy accelerated hyperfractionated RT (1.25 Gy b.i.d.) and CCT consisting of 2 cycles of CDDP (12-20 mg/m{sup 2}/d x 5 days) and continuous infusion 5-FU (600 mg/m{sup 2}/d x 5 days) during Week 1 and Week 6. A planned break in RT occurred during Week 4. These patients were enrolled on the experimental arm of a prospective randomized trial that compared this regimen to hyperfractionated irradiation alone from 1990 to 1996. RT/CCT was delivered as standard therapy from 1996 to 2000. The primary endpoint was failure-free survival (FFS). Secondary endpoints included local-regional control and overall survival. Results: One hundred and fifty-nine patients were treated from 1990 to 2000. The median (25-75%) pretreatment Hgb was 13.6 (12.2-13.5) g/dL. Hgb was 13 g/dL or higher in 105 patients and less than 13 g/dL in 54 patients. Primary tumor sites included oropharynx (43%), hypopharynx/larynx (36%), oral cavity (9%), and nasopharynx (6%). Seventy-eight percent of the patients with Hgb 13 g/dL or higher and 92% of the patients with Hgb less than 13 g/dL had a primary tumor stage of T3 or T4 (p = 0.01). Node-positive disease was present in 74 of 105 (70%) of patients with Hgb 13 g/dL or higher patients and in 36/54 (67%) of patients with Hgb less than 13 g/dL patients. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 42 months (range, 4-128 months). Five-year FFS was 75% for patients with Hgb 13 g/dL or higher vs. 50% for patients with Hgb less than 13 g/dL had a (p < 0.01). A total of 49 failures occurred in both patient cohorts. The median (25-75%) decrease in Hgb during RT/CCT was 2.2 (1.3-3.1) g/dL, both in patients who failed and in those who remained disease-free. Conclusion: Pretreatment Hgb less than 13 g/dL is correlated with adverse outcomes in advanced HNC patients treated with RT/CCT. Whether anemia actually causes poor outcomes remains unknown. The therapeutic effect of anemia correction is being evaluated in prospective trials.

Prosnitz, Robert G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]. E-mail: robert.prosnitz@duke.edu; Yao, Bin M.S. [Amgen, Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Farrell, Catherine L. [Amgen, Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Clough, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Brizel, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2005-03-15

18

A phase II trial of paclitaxel in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with correlative laboratory studies.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths. In general, early stage head and neck cancers are effectively treated with either radiation or surgery. More advanced tumors often require combined-modality therapy with both radiation therapy and surgery. Recent investigations indicate that the addition of chemotherapy may be helpful. One of the newer chemotherapy agents that appears to have significant activity against head and neck cancer is paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ). Paclitaxel, originally derived from the western yew Taxus brevifolia, acts by increasing the stability of microtubules and preventing mitosis. Recent evidence indicates that the microtubule system is vital to the release of various cytokines and that modulation of cytokine release may play a major role in the drug's antitumor activity. We report a phase II trial of paclitaxel in patients with head and neck cancer, not only to evaluate its clinical effects, but also to study its effect on cytokine release. We assessed interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to assess the serum of patients receiving paclitaxel and to detect cytokine release in vitro. The objective response rate was 36%, with 12% complete responses and 24% partial responses. No IL-1 beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha was detected in patient serum at any time during the infusion of paclitaxel or after overnight incubation with patient monocytes. No proIL-1 beta was detected in in vitro cultures of paclitaxel-treated patient monocytes. When monocytes were stimulated with endotoxin, IL-1 beta production was greatest at 48 hours, suggesting that paclitaxel can prime cells to produce greater quantities of cytokines after a second stimulus. PMID:7597432

Smith, R E; Thornton, D E; Allen, J

1995-06-01

19

Developmental biomechanics of neck musculature  

PubMed Central

Neck mechanics is central to head injury prevention since it is the musculoskeletal neck, which dictates the position and movement of the head. In the US, traumatic injury is the leading cause of death for children; however prevention is hampered by the lack of data concerning the mechanics of the immature head-and-neck. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify neck muscle strength and endurance across the maturation spectrum and correlate these with head-and-neck anthropometry. A factorial study was performed on 91 human subjects measuring head-and-neck anthropometry and neck strength and endurance in three bending directions (flexion, extension, and lateral) as a function of age (6–23 years). Using a custom device, neck maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force was measured in triplicate. Next, neck muscle endurance (sustained effort) was measured as the subjects’ ability to maintain 70% of peak force over 30 s. Linear regression of peak force and endurance as a function of age revealed each direction to significantly (p<0.0001) increase with age. The MVC force, averaged across all directions and normalized to the adult values, exhibits the following maturation curve: %MVC Force= ?0.0879(age)2+6.018(age)+8.120. Neck muscle strength, similar between young males and females, becomes disparate in adolescence and adulthood with males exhibiting greater strength. Bending direction differences were also found with extension strength being the greatest regardless of age and sex. Furthermore, neck circumference appears predictive of neck strength and endurance in children. Together, these relationships may facilitate improved design of injury prevention interventions. PMID:23127787

Lavallee, Amy V.; Ching, Randal P.; Nuckley, David J.

2012-01-01

20

Neck lump  

MedlinePLUS

... are often caused by cysts , such as sebaceous cysts . The thyroid gland may also produce swelling, or one or ... of the head or neck Radioactive thyroid scan Thyroid biopsy If ... a noncancerous mass or cyst, you may need surgery to remove it.

21

Cytogenetic alterations and their molecular genetic correlates in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a next generation window to the biology of disease.  

PubMed

Cytogenetic alterations underlie the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), whether tobacco and alcohol use, betel nut chewing, snuff or human papillomavirus (HPV) causes the disease. Many of the molecular genetic aberrations in HNSCC result from these cytogenetic alterations. This review presents a brief introduction to the epidemiology of HNSCC, and discusses the role of HPV in the disease, cytogenetic alterations and their frequencies in HNSCC, their molecular genetic and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) correlates, prognostic implications, and possible therapeutic considerations. The most frequent cytogenetic alterations in HNSCC are gains of 5p14-15, 8q11-12, and 20q12-13, gains or amplifications of 3q26, 7p11, 8q24, and 11q13, and losses of 3p, 4q35, 5q12, 8p23, 9p21-24, 11q14-23, 13q12-14, 18q23, and 21q22. To understand their effects on tumor cell biology and response to therapy, the cytogenetic findings in HNSCC are increasingly being examined in the context of the biochemical pathways they disrupt. The goal is to minimize morbidity and mortality from HNSCC using cytogenetic abnormalities to identify valuable diagnostic biomarkers for HNSCC, prognostic biomarkers of tumor behavior, recurrence risk, and outcome, and predictive biomarkers of therapeutic response to identify the most efficacious treatment for each individual patient's tumor, all based on a detailed understanding of the next generation biology of HNSCC. PMID:25183546

Gollin, Susanne M

2014-12-01

22

Nuclear NF-?B Expression Correlates With Outcome Among Patients With Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Primary Chemoradiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Background: To examine whether nuclear NF-?B expression correlates with outcome in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with primary chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 101 patients with locally advanced primary HNSCC were treated with definitive simultaneous CRT. Pretreatment biopsy specimens were analyzed for NF-?B p65 (RelA) nuclear immunoreactivity. A sample was assigned to be positive with more than 5% positive nuclear expression. The predictive relevance of NF-?B and clinicopathologic factors for overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local progression-free survival (LPFS), and metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was examined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: No significant differences between the groups were observed with regard to age, sex, total radiation dose, fractionation mode, total chemotherapy applied, T stage or grading. Patients with p65 nuclear positive biopsy specimens showed significantly a higher rate of lymph node metastasis (cN2c or cN3 status, P=.034). Within a mean follow-up time of 25 months (range, 2.33-62.96 months) OS, PFS, and DMFS were significantly poorer in the p65 nuclear positive group (P=.008, P=.027, and P=.008, respectively). These correlations remained significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: NF-?B/p65 nuclear expression is associated with increased lymphatic and hematogenous tumor dissemination and decreased survival in HNSCC patients treated with primary CRT. Our results may foster further investigation of a predictive relevance of NF-?B/p65 and its role as a suitable target for a molecular-based targeted therapy in HNSCC cancer.

Balermpas, Panagiotis [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, J. W. Goethe – University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, J. W. Goethe – University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt (Germany); Michel, Yvonne [Senckenberg Institute of Pathology, J. W. Goethe – University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt (Germany)] [Senckenberg Institute of Pathology, J. W. Goethe – University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagenblast, Jens [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, J. W. Goethe – University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt (Germany)] [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, J. W. Goethe – University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt (Germany); Seitz, Oliver [Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, J. W. Goethe – University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt (Germany)] [Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, J. W. Goethe – University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt (Germany); Sipek, Florian; Rödel, Franz; Rödel, Claus [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, J. W. Goethe – University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, J. W. Goethe – University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt (Germany); Fokas, Emmanouil, E-mail: emmanouil.fokas@kgu.de [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, J. W. Goethe – University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, J. W. Goethe – University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt (Germany)

2013-07-15

23

Correlated responses to long-term selection for clutch length in dwarf brown-egg layers carrying or not carrying the naked neck gene.  

PubMed

Two dwarf brown-egg layer lines, differing in their genotype for the naked neck gene (NA), line L2 (NA*NA/*NA) and line L1 (NA*N/*N), have been selected for 16 generations for increased average clutch length. A control line from the same base population, dwarf and segregating for the NA gene, was maintained by random mating. Genetic parameters were estimated by a multivariate derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood procedure, and the NA gene effect was estimated within the unselected control line. The studied traits included clutch traits, egg production traits, abnormal eggs, egg weight at 36 wk, and BW at 42 wk. The average clutch length, egg number, and maximum clutch length were normalized using the Box-Cox transformation. In response to 16 generations of direct selection for increased average clutch length, other egg production traits, such as laying rate and total egg number, have been indirectly improved in a dwarf layer genetic background. The estimated heritabilities were 0.406 to 0.424 for transformed average clutch length (TCL), 0.373 to 0.411 for transformed egg number (TEN), 0.529 to 0.559 for age at first egg (AFE), 0.275 to 0.282 for laying rate (LR), 0.455 for dutch number (CN), and 0.319 for the number of double-yolked eggs (DYEN). The TCL had high genetic correlations with TEN (0.777), LR (0.863), maximum clutch length (0.902), and CN (-0.845). Selection for increased average clutch length was an effective method for increasing egg production. Line L2 showed a higher egg weight than L1, which indicates that the combined effect of NA and DW genes was favorable to maintain egg weight when egg number could be improved. Line L1 showed a higher number of DYEN, suggesting that the regulation of follicular maturation was changed in this line. PMID:12762391

Chen, C F; Tixier-Boichard, M

2003-05-01

24

Pretreatment Apparent Diffusion Coefficient of the Primary Lesion Correlates With Local Failure in Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Chemoradiotherapy or Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of a primary lesion correlates with local failure in primary head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 38 patients with primary HNSCC (12 oropharynx, 20 hypopharynx, 4 larynx, 2 oral cavity) treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy with radiation dose to gross tumor volume equal to or over 60 Gy and who underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion-weighted imaging. Ten patients developed local failure during follow-up periods of 2.0 to 9.3 months, and the remaining 28 showed local control during follow-up periods of 10.5 to 31.7 months. The variables that could affect local failure (age, tumor volume, ADC, T stage, N stage, dose, treatment method, tumor location, and overall treatment time) were analyzed using logistic regression analyses for all 38 patients and for 17 patients with Stage T3 or T4 disease. Results: In univariate logistic analysis for all 38 cases, tumor volume, ADC, T stage, and treatment method showed significant (p < 0.05) associations with local failure. In multivariate analysis, ADC and T stage revealed significance (p < 0.01). In univariate logistic analysis for the 17 patients with Stage T3 or T4 disease, ADC and dose showed significant (p < 0.01) associations with local failure. In multivariate analysis, ADC alone showed significance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that pretreatment ADC, along with T stage, is a potential indicator of local failure in HNSCC treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy.

Hatakenaka, Masamitsu, E-mail: mhatake@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Matsuo, Yoshio; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Sunami, Shunya; Kamitani, Takeshi; Setoguchi, Taro; Yoshiura, Takashi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan); Nakashima, Torahiko [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan); Nishikawa, Kei [Radiology Center, Kyushu University Hospital, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan)

2011-10-01

25

Correlating planned radiation dose to the cochlea with primary site and tumor stage in patients with head and neck cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the study was to determine tumor characteristics that predict higher planned radiation (RT) dose to the cochlea in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). From 2004 to 2012, 99 patients with HNC underwent definitive IMRT to a median dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions, with the right and left cochlea-vestibular apparatus contoured for IMRT optimization as avoidance structures. If disease involvement was adjacent to the cochlea, preference was given to tumor coverage by prescription dose. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dose-volume histogram planning data, and mean planning dose to the cochlea (from left or right cochlea, receiving the greater amount of RT dose) was correlated to primary site and tumor stage. Mean (standard deviation) cochlear volume was 1.0 (0.60) cm{sup 3} with maximum and mean planned doses of 31.9 (17.5) Gy and 22.1 (13.7) Gy, respectively. Mean planned dose (Gy) to cochlea by tumor site was as follows: oral cavity (18.6, 14.4), oropharynx (21.7, 9.1), nasopharynx (36.3, 10.4), hypopharynx (14.9, 7.1), larynx (2.1, 0.62), others including the parotid gland, temporal bone, and paranasal sinus (33.6, 24.0), and unknown primary (25.6, 6.7). Average mean planned dose (Gy) to the cochlea in T0-T2 and T3-T4 disease was 22.0 and 29.2 Gy, respectively (p = 0.019). By site, a significant difference was noted for nasopharynx and others (31.6 and 50.7, p = 0.012) but not for oropharynx, oral cavity, and hypopharynx. Advanced T category predicted for higher mean cochlear dose, particularly for nasopharyngeal, parotid gland, temporal bone, and paranasal sinus HNC sites.

Zhang, Jeanette; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Truong, Minh Tam, E-mail: mitruong@bu.edu

2014-04-01

26

Neck Circumference and Cardio- Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Only few studies about neck circumference (NC) as a measure of cardio metabolic syndrome available from India. Study was conducted to establish an association between neck circumference and cardio metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South India. NCEP: ATPIII 2001 guideline was used for diagnosis of Cardio-metabolic syndrome among subjects. Neck circumference was measured and it was correlated with Cardio-metabolic syndrome. Results: Mean neck circumference was found to be 36.5 cms. Cardio-metabolic syndrome was present in 272 participants, of which 100 were females and 172 males. Among females 82(82%) had neck circumference >34cms, 18(18%) had <34cms and among males 117(68%)had NC >37cms and 55(32%) had NC<37cms. All individual parameter of cardio metabolic risk factor, i.e., BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, FBS, HDL & TG except waist/hip ratio were correlating with abnormal neck circumference when compared with those with normal neck circumference. Conclusion: Neck circumference with metabolic syndrome correlated better among females than males. Men with NC >37 cm and women with NC >34 cm are more prone for cardio metabolic syndrome and require additional evaluation. Measurement of NC is a simple, time saving, and least invasive measurement tool. PMID:25177592

Kumar, Nagendran Vijaya; Ismail, Mohammed H.; M, Girish; Tripathy, Monica

2014-01-01

27

Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model  

SciTech Connect

The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

28

Perfusion Estimated With Rapid Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates Inversely With Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Pimonidazole Staining in Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze, in a pilot study, rapidly acquired dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI data with a general two-compartment exchange tracer kinetic model and correlate parameters obtained with measurements of hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Eight patients were scanned before surgery. The DCE-MRI data were acquired with 1.5-s temporal resolution and analyzed using the two-compartment exchange tracer kinetic model to obtain estimates of parameters including perfusion and permeability surface area. Twelve to 16 h before surgery, patients received an intravenous injection of pimonidazole. Samples taken during surgery were used to determine the level of pimonidazole staining using immunohistochemistry and VEGF expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Correlations between the biological and imaging data were examined. Results: Of the seven tumors fully analyzed, those that were poorly perfused tended to have high levels of pimonidazole staining (r = -0.79, p = 0.03) and VEGF expression (r = -0.82, p = 0.02). Tumors with low permeability surface area also tended to have high levels of hypoxia (r = -0.75, p = 0.05). Hypoxic tumors also expressed higher levels of VEGF (r = 0.82, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Estimates of perfusion obtained with rapid DCE-MRI data in patients with head-and-neck cancer correlate inversely with pimonidazole staining and VEGF expression.

Donaldson, Stephanie B., E-mail: Stephanie.donaldson@physics.cr.man.ac.uk [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom) and North Western Medical Physics, The Christie, Manchester (United Kingdom); Betts, Guy [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bonington, Suzanne C. [Department of Radiology, The Christie, Manchester (United Kingdom); Homer, Jarrod J. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Department of Otolaryngology-Head-and-Neck Surgery, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester (United Kingdom); Slevin, Nick J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Christie, Manchester (United Kingdom); Kershaw, Lucy E.; Valentine, Helen [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Buckley, David L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kindgom) and Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

2011-11-15

29

Immunohistochemical detection of osteopontin in advanced head-and-neck cancer: Prognostic role and correlation with oxygen electrode measurements, hypoxia-inducible-factor-1{alpha}-related markers, and hemoglobin levels  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The tumor-associated glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is discussed as a plasma marker of tumor hypoxia. However, the association of immunohistochemical OPN expression in tumor sections with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), the hypoxia-related markers hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), or hemoglobin and systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels has not been investigated. Methods and Materials: Tumor tissue sections of 34 patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy were assessed by immunochemistry for the expression of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX. Relationship of OPN expression with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), HIF-1{alpha} and CA IX expression, hemoglobin and serum VEGF level, and clinical parameters was studied. Results: Bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation of positive OPN staining with low hemoglobin level (p = 0.02), high HIF-1{alpha} expression (p = 0.02), and high serum vascular endothelial growth factor level (p = 0.02) for advanced head-and-neck cancer. Furthermore, considering the 31 Stage IV patients, the median pO{sub 2} correlated significantly with the OPN expression (p = 0.02). OPN expression alone had only a small impact on prognosis. However, in a univariate Cox proportional hazard regression model, the expression of either OPN or HIF-1{alpha} or CA IX was associated with a 4.1-fold increased risk of death (p = 0.02) compared with negativity of all three markers. Conclusion: Osteopontin expression detected immunohistochemically is associated with oxygenation parameters in advanced head-and-neck cancer. When the results of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX immunohistochemistry are combined into a hypoxic profile, a strong and statistically significant impact on overall survival is found.

Bache, Matthias [Department of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Reddemann, Rolf [Department of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Institute of Pathology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Said, Harun M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen [Institute of Pathology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Taubert, Helge [Institute of Pathology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Becker, Axel [Department of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, Municipal Hospital, Dessau (Germany); Kuhnt, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Haensgen, Gabriele [Department of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Vordermark, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)]. E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de

2006-12-01

30

Head and Neck Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... increases your risk. In fact, 85 percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use, including smoking ...

31

[Deep neck infections].  

PubMed

Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible. PMID:17152800

Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

2006-01-01

32

Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 7 studies in the area of interpretation of correlation from the psychological point of view. The limitations and meanings of correlation methods have also been given. The statistical methods of calculating correlation, as given by 8 psychologists have been reported. Presents 22 reports, given by various psychologists, who have evaluated the tests using various correlation methods. Six studies were

James Burt Miner

1919-01-01

33

Questions about Neck Manipulation?  

MedlinePLUS

Questions About Neck Manipulation? Chiropractic is widely recognized as one of the safest drug-free, non-invasive therapies available for the treatment of ... of chiropractic, osteopaths and physical therapists provide--neck manipulation (also known as cervical manipulation)—with a certain ...

34

Correlation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter will discuss the concept of correlation , which is used in later chapters that will explain the concepts of validity and reliability. Here, the authors introduce the Pearson correlation coefficient, a statistic that is used with ratio

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2008-11-01

35

18F-FDG PET/CT-based gross tumor volume definition for radiotherapy in head and neck Cancer: a correlation study between suitable uptake value threshold and tumor parameters  

PubMed Central

Background To define a suitable threshold setting for gross tumor volume (GTV) when using 18Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomogram (PET/CT) for radiotherapy planning in head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods Fifteen HNC patients prospectively received PET/CT simulation for their radiation treatment planning. Biological target volume (BTV) was derived from PET/CT-based GTV of the primary tumor. The BTVs were defined as the isodensity volumes when adjusting different percentage of the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), excluding any artifact from surrounding normal tissues. CT-based primary GTV (C-pGTV) that had been previously defined by radiation oncologists was compared with the BTV. Suitable threshold level (sTL) could be determined when BTV value and its morphology using a certain threshold level was observed to be the best fitness of the C-pGTV. Suitable standardized uptake value (sSUV) was calculated as the sTL multiplied by the SUVmax. Results Our result demonstrated no single sTL or sSUV method could achieve an optimized volumetric match with the C-pGTV. The sTL was 13% to 27% (mean, 19%), whereas the sSUV was 1.64 to 3.98 (mean, 2.46). The sTL was inversely correlated with the SUVmax [sTL = -0.1004 Ln (SUVmax) + 0.4464; R2 = 0.81]. The sSUV showed a linear correlation with the SUVmax (sSUV = 0.0842 SUVmax + 1.248; R2 = 0.89). The sTL was not associated with the value of C-pGTVs. Conclusion In PET/CT-based BTV for HNC, a suitable threshold or SUV level can be established by correlating with SUVmax rather than using a fixed threshold. PMID:20813064

2010-01-01

36

Neck dissections: radical to conservative  

PubMed Central

Background Neck dissection is an important surgical procedure for the management of metastatic nodal disease in the neck. The gold standard of neck nodal management has been the radical neck dissection. Any modification in the neck dissection is always compared with this standard. Over the last few decades, in order to alleviate the morbidity of radical neck dissection, several modifications and conservative procedures have been advocated. These procedures retain certain lymphatic or non-lymphatic structures and have been shown not to compromise oncological safety. Methods A literature search of the Medline was carried out for all articles on neck dissections. The articles were systematically reviewed to analyze and trace the evolution of neck dissection. These were then categorized to address the nomenclature, management of node positive and node negative neck including those who had received chemoradiation. Results The present article discusses the neck nodal nomenclature, the radical neck dissection, its modifications and migration to more conservative procedures and possible advances in the near future. Conclusion Radical neck dissection is now replaced with modified radical neck dissections in most situations. Attempts are being made to replace modified radical neck dissections with selective neck dissections for early node positivity. Sentinel node biopsy is being studied to address the issue of node negative neck. More conservative surgeries are likely to replace the 'radical' surgeries of bygone era. This process is facilitated by earlier detection of the disease and better understanding of cancer biology. PMID:15836786

Harish, K

2005-01-01

37

Head and Neck Pathology: LC24-1 MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS OF HEAD AND NECK TUMORS.  

PubMed

Research has elucidated the detailed molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, tumour progression, and metastasis in different head and neck tumours in the recent decade. These advances have great impacts on pathology practices in areas including oral and head/neck squamous cell carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, head and neck paraganglioma and salivary gland tumours. (1) In oral and head/neck squamous cell carcinoma, human papilloma virus is an important independent prognostic variable and predictive factor for responsiveness to treatment. The presence of the virus is best reflected by immunohistochemical staining of p16. (2) In papillary thyroid carcinoma, presence of BRAF mutation is predictive of aggressive biological behaviour and could be useful for the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. (3) For head/neck paragangliomas, the clinical impact in pathology is the role of pathologist in the detection of SDHB by immunohistochemistry in paraganglioma as SDHB mutations are correlated with presence of metastasis and poor prognosis. (4) In salivary gland tumours, chromosomal translocations as detected by FISH, are useful for diagnosis of tumours like hyalinising clear cell carcinoma and mammary analog secretory carcinoma. In conclusion, awareness of new advances in molecular pathology is essential for proper management of patients with head and neck tumours. PMID:25188079

Lam, Alfred King-Yin

2014-10-01

38

Where is the neck?  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The alpha angle is the most used measurement to classify concavity of the femoral head-neck junction. It is not only used for treatment decisions for hip impingement, but also in cohort studies relating hip morphology and osteoarthritis. Alpha angle measurement requires identification of the femoral neck axis, the definition of which may vary between studies. The original “3-point method” uses 1 single point to construct the femoral neck axis, whereas the “anatomic method” uses multiple points and attempts to define the true anatomic neck axis. Depending on the method used, the alpha angle may or may not account for other morphological characteristics such as head-neck offset. Methods We compared 2 methods of alpha angle measurement (termed “anatomic” and “3-point”) in 59 cadaver femora and 83 cross-table lateral radiographs of asymptomatic subjects. Results were compared using Bland-Altman plots. Results Discrepancies of up to 13 degrees were seen between the methods. The 3-point method had an “equalizing effect” by disregarding femoral head position relative to the neck: in femora with high alpha angle, it resulted in lower values than anatomic measurement, and vice versa in femora with low alpha angles. Using the anatomic method, we derived a reference interval for the alpha angle in normal hips in the general population of 30–66 degrees. Interpretation We recommend the anatomic method because it also reflects the position of the femoral head on the neck. Consensus and standardization of technique of alpha angle measurement is warranted, not only for planar measurements but also for CT or MRI-based measurements. PMID:24650023

2014-01-01

39

The Relationship Between Neck Pain and Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Neck pain is a significant societal burden due to its high prevalence and healthcare costs. While physical activity can help to manage other forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain, little data exists on the relationship between physical activity and neck pain. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity levels between individuals with neck pain and healthy controls, and then to relate disability, fear of movement, and pain sensitivity measures to physical activity levels in each of the two participant groups. 21 participants were recruited for each of the two participant groups (n = 42). Data collection included the use of the Neck Disability Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, electrocutaneous (Neurometer® CPT) and pressure stimulation (JTech algometer) for quantitative sensory testing, and 5 days of subjective (Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity) and objective (BioTrainer II) measurements of physical activity. Analysis of Variance and Pearson’s Correlation were used to determine if differences and relationships exist between dependent variables both within and between groups. The results show that individuals with mild neck pain and healthy controls do not differ in subjectively and objectively measured physical activity. While participants with neck pain reported higher neck disability and fear of movement, these factors did not significantly relate to physical activity levels. Perceived activity level was related to pain threshold and tolerance at local neck muscles sites (C2 paraspinal muscle and upper trapezius muscle), whereas measured activity was related to generalized pain sensitivity, as measured at the tibialis anterior muscle site. PMID:24133553

Cheung, Janice; Kajaks, Tara; MacDermid, Joy C.

2013-01-01

40

Correlation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three hypothetical rock sections along an East-West transect are provided. Students correlate the three sections using the biostratigraphy of planktic forams (as a proxy for age), benthic forams (as a proxy of depth), and lithology (as a proxy of environment). Students are asked to provide an interpretation of the history of this depositional basin. An ash bed of known age is added and students are asked to determine if this new information affects their interpretation. Finally, an interesting lithologic feature is added, and students are asked to provide a geological explanation.

Pennilyn Higgins

41

The association between cervical spine curvature and neck pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative changes of the cervical spine are commonly accompanied by a reduction or loss of the segmental or global lordosis,\\u000a and are often considered to be a cause of neck pain. Nonetheless, such changes may also remain clinically silent. The aim\\u000a of this study was to examine the correlation between the presence of neck pain and alterations of the normal

D. Grob; H. Frauenfelder; A. F. Mannion

2007-01-01

42

[Ganglioneuroma of the neck].  

PubMed

Ganglioneuroma represents a benign neoplasia based on the sympathetic system, which should be assessed in the differential diagnosis of cervical tumefactions. The paper discusses the epidemiology and clinical aspects of this pathology and stresses the importance of taking these factors into account whenever a neoformation of the neck is diagnosed in children. PMID:2074950

Vadalà, G; Buffone, A; Calcamo, A; Mangiameli, A; Matera, R; Vadalà, V

1990-10-15

43

Anatomy of neck configuration in fission decay  

E-print Network

The anatomy of neck configuration in the fission decay of Uranium and Thorium isotopes is investigated in a microscopic study using Relativistic mean field theory. The study includes $^{236}U$ and $^{232}Th$ in the valley of stability and exotic neutron rich isotopes $^{250}U$, $^{256}U$, $^{260}U$, $^{240}Th$, $^{250}Th$, $^{256}Th$ likely to play important role in the r-process nucleosynthesis in stellar evolution. Following the static fission path, the neck configurations are generated and their composition in terms of the number of neutrons and protons are obtained showing the progressive rise in the neutron component with the increase of mass number. Strong correlation between the neutron multiplicity in the fission decay and the number of neutrons in the neck is seen. The maximum neutron-proton ratio is about 5 for $^{260}$U and $^{256}$Th suggestive of the break down of liquid-drop picture and inhibition of the fission decay in still heavier isotopes. Neck as precursor of a new mode of fission decay like multi-fragmentation fission may also be inferred from this study.

S. K. Patra; R. K. Choudhury; L. Satpathy

2010-05-10

44

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

2014-01-30

45

Can post–rt neck dissection be omitted for patients with head-and-neck cancer who have a negative pet scan after definitive radiation therapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeA prospective, single institution study was conducted to evaluate the role of positron emission tomography with fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) before and after definitive radiation therapy for patients with head-and-neck cancer. Correlation with CT or MRI imaging and pathologic findings at the time of planned neck dissection was made.

John W Rogers; Kathryn M Greven; W. Frederick McGuirt; John W Keyes; Dan W Williams; Nat E Watson; Kim Geisinger; James O Cappellari

2004-01-01

46

Head and Neck Paragangliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Head and neck paragangliomas are rare vascular tumors of neural crest origin that arise from extra-adrenal paraganglia of\\u000a the autonomic system. The nomenclature of these tumors has been confusing throughout the literature. Most are benign tumors\\u000a and rarely display malignant features. A majority of paragangliomas are sporadic with 10–30% representing familial cases.\\u000a Most present as an asymptomatic mass in the

Matthew O. Old; James L. Netterville

47

The Relationship of Forward Head Posture and Rounded Shoulders with Neck Pain in Iranian Office Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Office workers spend a long period of time behind a computer during working hours. The relation between the posture of sitting during work with computer and neck pain is still debatable. Even though some researchers claim a significant difference in head posture between patients with neck pain and pain-free participants, the FHP (forward head posture) has not always been associated with neck pain in literature. So, the purpose of this study was to discover the relationship between neck pain and improper posture in the head, cervicothoracic spine and shoulders. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to explore the relationships between neck pains, sagittal postures of cervical and thoracic spine and shoulders among office workers in two positions, straight looking forward and working position. 46 subjects without neck pain and 55 subjects with neck pain were evaluated using a photographic method. Thoracic and cervical postures were measured by the HT (High Thoracic), CV (Craniovertebral) angles respectively. Shoulder’s posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane by the acromion protrusion. Results: HT and CV angles were positively correlated with the presence of neck pain only in working position (p< 0.05). In straight looking forward position there was no significant difference between the two groups statistically (p>0.05). The difference of shoulder protrusion between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups was not significant. Conclusion: FHP and thoracic kyphosis were accompanied with neck pain. But shoulder posture was not correlated with neck pain. PMID:25250268

Nejati, Parisa; Lotfian, Sara; Moezy, Azar; Moezy, Azar; Nejati, Mina

2014-01-01

48

Bone Mineral Density in the Femoral Neck: Quantitative Assessment Using Dual-Energy Projection Radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different dual-energy projection radiography techniques were used to quantitate bone mineral density in the femoral neck. A heterogeneous population of normal aging individuals of both genders was studied. Using a dual-energy scanned projection method, femoral neck mineralization was shown to decline with age in men and women with normal endocrine status, and to correlate positively with serum calcium level

David J. Sartoris; F. Graham Sommer; Robert Marcus; Philip Madvig

49

Head & Neck Cancer Care Program  

E-print Network

OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER PROGRAM THYROID AND PARATHYROID PROGRAM · Alexander Colevas, MD · Vasu Divi, MD · ChrisHead & Neck Cancer Care Program NONPROFITORG. U.S.POSTAGE PAID PALOALTO,CA PERMITNO.188900BlakeWilburDrive PaloAlto,CA94304 Starting February 24, 2014, the Head & Neck Cancer Care Program is moving to a new

Bogyo, Matthew

50

Necking of Q&P steel during uniaxial tensile test with the aid of DIC technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lot of research has been focused on the necking process during the plastic deformation of sheet metals, but the localized necking is rarely distinguished form diffused necking by experiments, due to the limit of measurement equipment and method. Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) steel is a 3rd generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS). Its good combination of high strength and ductility ensures potential application in automobile industry. Uniaxial tensile tests of QP980 steel sheet at five strain rates are performed to investigate the necking process and the effect of strain rate on necking behavior of Q&P steel. Digital image correlation (DIC) method is applied during tensile tests, and evolutions of major strain, minor strain and normal strain distributions along gauge section of the tensile specimens are obtained. The diffused and localized necking strains are determined according to SWIFT necking theory and HILL necking theory respectively. The test results indicate that with the increasing of strain rate in the investigated range, the diffused necking strain decreases from 0.152 to 0.120 and localized necking strain decreases from 0.245 to 0.137. Meanwhile, the difference of the two strains decreases form 0.096 to 0.017. Thus it can be concluded that strain rate has an influence on both necking strains during the deformation of QP980 steel sheet. Diffused and localized necking strains are determined by uniaxial tensile tests with the aid of DIC technique and the effect of strain rate on necking strains is evaluated.

Ding, Lei; Lin, Jianping; Min, Junying; Pang, Zheng; Ye, You

2013-05-01

51

Evolution of neck vertebral shape and neck retraction at the transition to modern turtles: an integrated geometric morphometric approach.  

PubMed

The unique ability of modern turtles to retract their head and neck into the shell through a side-necked (pleurodiran) or hidden-necked (cryptodiran) motion is thought to have evolved independently in crown turtles. The anatomical changes that led to the vertebral shapes of modern turtles, however, are still poorly understood. Here we present comprehensive geometric morphometric analyses that trace turtle vertebral evolution and reconstruct disparity across phylogeny. Disparity of vertebral shape was high at the dawn of turtle evolution and decreased after the modern groups evolved, reflecting a stabilization of morphotypes that correspond to the two retraction modes. Stem turtles, which had a very simple mode of retraction, the lateral head tuck, show increasing flexibility of the neck through evolution towards a pleurodiran-like morphotype. The latter was the precondition for evolving pleurodiran and cryptodiran vertebrae. There is no correlation between the construction of formed articulations in the cervical centra and neck mobility. An increasing mobility between vertebrae, associated with changes in vertebral shape, resulted in a more advanced ability to retract the neck. In this regard, we hypothesize that the lateral tucking retraction of stem turtles was not only the precondition for pleurodiran but also of cryptodiran retraction. For the former, a kink in the middle third of the neck needed to be acquired, whereas for the latter modification was necessary between the eighth cervical vertebra and first thoracic vertebra. Our paper highlights the utility of 3D shape data, analyzed in a phylogenetic framework, to examine the magnitude and mode of evolutionary modifications to vertebral morphology. By reconstructing and visualizing ancestral anatomical shapes, we provide insight into the anatomical features underlying neck retraction mode, which is a salient component of extant turtle classification. PMID:25305281

Werneburg, Ingmar; Wilson, Laura A B; Parr, William C H; Joyce, Walter G

2015-03-01

52

Respiratory dysfunction in patients with chronic neck pain - influence of thoracic spine and chest mobility.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic neck pain exhibit various musculoskeletal deficits and respiratory dysfunction. As there is a link between thoracic and cervical spine motion, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between thoracic spine and chest mobility with respiratory function and neck disability. Nineteen patients with chronic neck pain (7 male, 46.6 ± 10.5 years) and 19 healthy subjects (7 male, 46.5 ± 9.9 years) participated. Spirometry was conducted to determine maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), maximal inspiratory (Pimax) and maximal expiratory pressure (Pemax). Thoracic spine mobility was measured using the Spinal Mouse(®). Chest expansion was assessed by subtracting chest circumference during maximal inspiration and expiration. Neck function was investigated by examining range of motion, forward head posture, neck flexor muscle synergy endurance and self-assessment (Neck disability index (NDI)). Correlation analyses and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted using MVV, Pimax and Pemax as independent variables. Thoracic spine mobility during flexion and chest expansion correlated significantly to MVV (r = 0.45 and 0.42), all neck motions (r between 0.39 and 0.59) and neck muscle endurance (rS = 0.36). Pemax and Pimax were related to NDI (r = -0.58 and -0.46). In the regression models, chest expansion was the only significant predictor for MVV, and Pemax was determined by neck muscle endurance. These results suggest that chronic neck pain patients should improve the endurance of the neck flexor muscles and thoracic spine and chest mobility. Additionally, these patients might benefit from respiratory muscle endurance training, possibly by increasing chest mobility and Pemax. PMID:24835338

Wirth, B; Amstalden, M; Perk, M; Boutellier, U; Humphreys, B K

2014-10-01

53

Thymic cyst in the neck.  

PubMed

A rare case of a thymic cyst in the neck containing both thymus and parathyroid tissue in a 7-year-old boy is presented. The clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, surgical management and histopathological features are described. The embryology of cervical thymic cysts and the differential diagnosis of cystic neck masses in children are briefly reviewed. The diagnosis is seldom made preoperatively. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for definitive diagnosis, resolution of symptoms and cure. PMID:15799585

Berenos-Riley, L; Manni, J J; Coronel, C; De Wilde, P C M

2005-01-01

54

Head and Neck Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Head and neck cancer (HNC) represents a broad spectrum of diseases that involves the nasal and oropharyngeal cavities, the\\u000a paranasal sinuses, the major and minor salivary glands, the larynx and the lymphatic tissues of the neck. The world-wide yearly\\u000a incidence exceeds over half a million cases. Tobacco (smoking and smokeless) and alcohol use are the principal risk factors,\\u000a however, a

Fausto Chiesa; Angelo Ostuni; Roberto Grigolato; Luca Calabrese

55

Incontinence, bladder neck mobility, and sphincter ruptures in primiparous women  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the function of the pelvic floor in primiparae before and during pregnancy with the status post partum concerning symptoms of incontinence, sphincter ruptures, bladder-neck mobility and the influence of the different modes of deliveries. Methods Questionnaire evaluating symptoms of urinary and anal incontinence in nulliparous women before and after delivery and correlating these symptoms with functional changes of the pelvic floor based on a careful gynaecologic examination as well as perineal and endoanal ultrasound. Results 112 women were included in our study and came for the first visit, 99 women returned for follow-up 6 months after childbirth. Stress and flatus incontinence significantly increased from before pregnancy (3 and 12%) to after childbirth (21 and 28%) in women with spontaneous delivery or vacuum extraction. No new symptoms occurred after c-section. There was no significant difference between the bladder neck position before and after delivery. The mobility of the bladder neck was significantly higher after vaginal delivery using a vacuum extraction compared to spontaneous delivery or c-section. The bladder neck in women with post partum urinary stress incontinence was significantly more mobile than in continent controls. The endoanal ultrasound detected seven occult sphincter defects without any correlation to symptoms of anal incontinence. Conclusion Several statistically significant changes of the pelvic floor after delivery were demonstrated. Spontaneous vaginal delivery or vacuum extraction increases the risk for stress or anal incontinence, delivery with vacuum extraction leads to higher bladder neck mobility and stress incontinent women have more mobile bladder necks than continent women. PMID:20696633

2010-01-01

56

Minimally invasive neck lifts: have they replaced neck lift surgery?  

PubMed

The aging neck is accompanied by an increase in submental fat, platysmal banding, and redundant dyspigmented skin. Creating a more acute cervicomental angle, distinct mandibular border, homogeneous skin tone, and smoother texture helps to achieve a more youthful appearance. The aesthetic provider's armamentarium has long had surgical techniques in the highest regard, but a new wave of minimally invasive procedures looks to offer a nonsurgical approach to cervicomental rejuvenation. Selecting the appropriate procedure for appropriate patients that will effectively meet their aesthetic goals and expectations is the core of successful neck rejuvenation. PMID:23731587

Dayan, Steven H; Arkins, John P; Chaudhry, Rahman

2013-05-01

57

Chiropractic and Neck Pain: Conservative Care of Cervical Pain, Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... this flexibility makes the neck very susceptible to pain and injury. The neck’s susceptibility to injury is ... normal aging, and everyday wear and tear. Neck pain can be very bothersome, and it can have ...

58

Femoral Neck Version Affects Medial Femorotibial Loading  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of the possible effect that femoral version may have on the bearing equilibrium conditions developed on the medial tibiofemoral compartment. A digital 3D solid model of the left physiological adult femur was used to create morphological variations of different neck-shaft angles (varus 115, normal 125, and valgus 135 degrees) and version angles (?10, 0, and +10 degrees). By means of finite element modeling and analysis techniques (FEM-FEA), a virtual experiment was executed with the femoral models aligned in a neutral upright position, distally supported on a fully congruent tibial tray and proximally loaded with a vertical only hip joint load of 2800?N. Equivalent stresses and their distribution on the medial compartment were computed and comparatively evaluated. Within our context, the neck-shaft angle proved to be of rather indifferent influence. Reduction of femoral version, however, appeared as the most influencing parameter regarding the tendency of the medial compartment to establish its bearing equilibrium towards posteromedial directions, as a consequence of the corresponding anteroposterior changes of the hip centre over the horizontal tibiofemoral plane. We found a correlation between femoral anteversion and medial tibiofemoral compartment contact pressure. Our findings will be further elucidated by more sophisticated FEM-FEA and by clinical studies that are currently planned. PMID:24959355

Papaioannou, T. A.; Digas, Georgios; Bikos, Ch.; Karamoulas, V.; Magnissalis, E. A.

2013-01-01

59

Head and Neck International Group (HNIG)  

Cancer.gov

The Head and Neck International Group was established in 2014 with the mission to promote and conduct high quality head and neck cancer clinical trials worldwide to improve outcomes in patients diagnosed with these diseases.

60

49 CFR 572.33 - Neck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Test Dummy § 572.33 Neck. (a) The neck consists of the assembly shown in drawing 78051-90, revision A...

2010-10-01

61

[Neck dissection for Head and Neck cancers: state of the art and classification].  

PubMed

The purposes of this article are to review the history and evolution of neck dissections, including an update on node levels and their anatomical landmark. A number of classification systems were proposed and subsequently established for neck dissection procedures. The system most often employed was published in 1991 by the American Head and Neck Society and American Academy of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery and revised in 2002 and 2008. According to this classification, neck dissections are grouped into four broad categories: radical neck dissection (RND), modified radical neck dissection (MRND), selective neck dissection (SND) and extended neck dissection (ERND). The choice between different surgeries depends on type and site of head and neck tumor as well nodal involvement. PMID:21453600

Pezzullo, L; Chiofalo, M G; Di Cecilia, M L; Marone, U

2011-03-01

62

Embryology and anatomy of the neck.  

PubMed

As a prelude to understanding pathologic conditions of the pediatric neck, this article presents the embryologic development of the neck, fascial planes, and key anatomic structures. Detailed discussion includes the normal development of the neck and illustrates, using selected CT and MR images, the fascial spaces, larynx and trachea, thyroid, parathyroid, and vascular and lymphatic anatomy. PMID:10658155

Stone, J A; Figueroa, R E

2000-02-01

63

Treatment of advanced neck metastases  

PubMed Central

Summary Despite the use of aggressive single or multimodality treatment protocols, patients with advanced cervical metastases, N2 and N3, have a poor prognosis because of their high risk of regional and distal failure. Moreover, N3 class does not allow resectability and curability to be defined. Numerous trials have been carried out in order to improve the oncological outcomes of patients with advanced metastases to the neck using a variety of multimodality therapy. At present, there is a trend toward the use of a definitive radiochemotherapy followed, or not, by neck dissection. In order to offer a panoramic view of the treatment protocols in use, data available in the literature, regarding the management of advanced neck disease using surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, in different associations, have been reviewed and our experience reported. The presence of advanced cervical metastases is a very poor prognostic factor. The combined treatment modality offers better chances of cure than single modality treatment. Surgery followed by radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy is an effective and well standardized approach. The use of planned neck dissection following chemoradiation is still debated. PMID:17633156

Spriano, G; Pellini, R; Manciocco, V; Ruscito, P

2006-01-01

64

Head and Neck Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Head and Neck Steering Committee (HNSC) was established in 2007. The HNSC is currently composed of the Steering Committee and three task forces. Members of HNSC include committee co-chairs, representatives from the Cooperative Groups, Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPOREs), community oncologists, biostatisticians, pathologists, patient advocates, and NCI staff.

65

Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

2015-01-30

66

Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

2014-11-18

67

Peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the femoral neck in 60 Japanese women.  

PubMed

Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is able to evaluate trabecular and cortical bone separately, and to determine geometric properties from cross-sectional images for noninvasive assessments of mechanical strength. In order to assess the diagnostic value of pQCT of the femoral neck, 60 healthy women were examined with a new pQCT machine, XCT-3000 (Norland-Stratec, Germany), which is suitable for direct measurement of the hip. The region of interest chosen was the center of the femoral neck. pQCT of the distal radius and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were also performed. The study demonstrated that total bone mineral density (BMD) (femoral MD) and trabecular BMD (femoral-TBD) decreased with advancing age. Percent cortical area showed a small but significant decrease with advancing age and % trabecular area increased slightly. Both the endosteal perimeter and the periosteal perimeter were relatively constant with aging. Bone strength index (BSI) and stress-strain index (SSI), which reflect the mechanical strength of bone, declined with advancing age, especially after menopause. Femoral TBD correlated strongly with femoral neck BMD by DXA and L2-L4 BMD by DXA but femoral-CBD did not correlate with femoral neck BMD by DXA. Volumetric BMD of the femoral neck and distal radius were closely correlated. It is concluded that (1) cortical thinning occurs with aging by endocortical resorption and loss of femoral-TBD; (2) loss of femoral-CBD occurred at a slower rate than radial CBD, perhaps due to the weight-bearing effect; (3) biomechanical parameters such as the BSI and SSI may reflect increasing fragility of the femoral neck in pre- and postmenopausal women; (4) pQCT of the femoral neck had diagnostic value at least equivalent to that of DXA or pQCT of the distal radius. PMID:10594163

Horikoshi, T; Endo, N; Uchiyama, T; Tanizawa, T; Takahashi, H E

1999-12-01

68

Fibromyxoma of the femoral neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of fibromyxoma of the long bone is presented. This benign bone tumor is more often found in the bones of the jaw, but is a rare lesion in extragnathic bones. In the presented case of a 28-year-old man the tumor was situated in the right femoral neck. In the roentgenograms it showed a cast-like osteolytic defect with unclear

C. P. Adler

1981-01-01

69

Prevalence, Practice Patterns and Evidence for Chronic Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective The primary objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of chronic neck pain in North Carolina, to describe health care use (providers, treatments and diagnostic testing) for chronic neck pain and to correlate health care use with current best evidence. Methods A cross-sectional, telephone survey of a representative sample of North Carolina households in 2006. Five thousand three hundred fifty seven households were contacted in 2006 to identify 141 non-institutionalized adults 21 years and older with chronic neck pain and no chronic low back pain. Subjects were interviewed about their health and health care use (i.e., provider, tests, and treatments). Patterns of health care use were compared to current systematic reviews. Results The estimated prevalence of chronic neck pain in 2006 among non-institutionalized individuals for the state of North Carolina was 2.2% (95% CI 1.7 – 2.6). Individuals with chronic neck pain were middle- aged (mean age 48.9 years and a majority were female (56%) and non-Hispanic White (81%). Subjects saw a mean of 5.21 (95% CI 4.8 – 5.6) provider types and had a mean of 21 visits. The types of treatments subjects reported varied with treatments such as electrotherapy stimulation (30.3%), corsets or braces (20.9%), massage (28.1%), ultrasound (27.3%), heat (57.0%) and cold (47.4%) having unclear or little benefit based on current best available reviews. Conclusion Based on current evidence for best practice, our findings indicate over utilization of diagnostic testing, narcotics and modalities, and the under utilization of effective treatments such as therapeutic exercise. PMID:20521306

Goode, Adam P.; Freburger, Janet; Carey, Timothy

2010-01-01

70

Strain energy in the femoral neck during exercise.  

PubMed

Physical activity is recommended to mitigate the incidence of hip osteoporotic fractures by improving femoral neck strength. However, results from clinical studies are highly variable and unclear about the effects of physical activity on femoral neck strength. We ranked physical activities recommended for promoting bone health based on calculations of strain energy in the femoral neck. According to adaptive bone-remodeling theory, bone formation occurs when the strain energy (S) exceeds its homeostatic value by 75%. The potential effectiveness of activity type was assessed by normalizing strain energy by the applied external load. Tensile strain provided an indication of bone fracture. External force and joint motion data for 15 low- and high-load weight-bearing and resistance-based activities were used. High-load activities included weight-bearing activities generating a ground force above 1 body-weight and maximal resistance exercises about the hip and the knee. Calculations of femoral loads were based on musculoskeletal and finite-element models. Eight of the fifteen activities were likely to trigger bone formation, with isokinetic hip extension (?S=722%), one-legged long jump (?S=572%), and isokinetic knee flexion (?S=418%) inducing the highest strain energy increase. Knee flexion induced approximately ten times the normalized strain energy induced by hip adduction. Strain and strain energy were strongly correlated with the hip-joint reaction force (R(2)=0.90-0.99; p<0.05) for all activities, though the peak load location was activity-dependent. None of the exercises was likely to cause fracture. Femoral neck mechanics is activity-dependent and maximum isokinetic hip-extension and knee-flexion exercises are possible alternative solutions to impact activities for improving femoral neck strength. PMID:24746018

Martelli, Saulo; Kersh, Mariana E; Schache, Anthony G; Pandy, Marcus G

2014-06-01

71

Effect of clinical symptoms on the indication for selective neck dissection for N0 carcinomas of the parotid gland  

PubMed Central

Lymph node metastasis is a major prognostic factor in parotid carcinoma, however, the pre-operative diagnosis of occult nodal metastasis is difficult in clinical N0 (cN0) parotid cancer patients. In addition, the indication of neck dissection in T1-3 cN0 patients is controversial. The current study investigated 17 patients with clinical T1-3 cN0 parotid cancer, and analyzed the correlation between patient symptoms/findings and pathological N status/tumor histological grade. In the statistical analysis, pain was found to significantly correlate with neck metastasis. Furthermore, cN0-staged patients without pain exhibited no neck metastasis. However, no significant correlation was identified between patient symptoms or findings and histological grade. These results indicate the possibility that selective neck dissection can be omitted for T1-3 cN0-staged patients without pain. PMID:24959272

MARUO, TAKASHI; FUJIMOTO, YASUSHI; YOSHIDA, KENJI; HIRAMATSU, MARIKO; SUZUKI, ATSUSHI; NISHIO, NAOKI; SHIMONO, MARIKO; NAKASHIMA, TSUTOMU

2014-01-01

72

Combination Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer  

Cancer.gov

No standard therapy currently exists for head and neck cancer that recurs after treatment with radiation. Laboratory studies have shown that bortezomib (Velcade), a new type of cancer drug called a proteasome inhibitor, inhibits growth of head and neck cancer cells. This clinical study is the first test of whether bortezomib can increase the effectiveness of repeat radiation treatment for patients whose head and neck cancer has recurred.

73

Treatment of neglected femoral neck fracture  

PubMed Central

Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU) femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course article is an analysis of available treatment options used for neglected femoral neck fracture in the literature and attempt to suggest treatment guides for neglected femoral neck fracture. We conducted the “Pubmed” search with the keywords “NU femoral neck fracture and/or neglected femoral neck fracture, muscle-pedicle bone graft in femoral neck fracture, fibular graft in femoral neck fracture and valgus osteotomy in femoral neck fracture.” A total of 203 print articles were obtained as the search result. Thirty three articles were included in the analysis and were categorized into four subgroups based on treatment options. (a) treated by muscle-pedicle bone grafting (MPBG), (b) closed/open reduction internal fixation and fibular grafting (c) open reduction and internal fixation with valgus osteotomy, (d) miscellaneous procedures. The data was pooled from all groups for mean neglect, the type of study (prospective or retrospective), classification used, procedure performed, mean followup available, outcome, complications, and reoperation if any. The outcome of neglected femoral neck fracture depends on the duration of neglect, as the changes occurring in the fracture area and fracture fragments decides the need and type of biological stimulus required for fracture union. In stage I and stage II (Sandhu's staging) neglected femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis with open reduction and bone grafting with MPBG or Valgus Osteotomy achieves fracture union in almost 90% cases. However, in stage III with or without AVN, the results of osteosynthesis are poor and the choice of treatment is replacement arthroplasty (hemi or total). PMID:25593354

Jain, Anil K; Mukunth, R; Srivastava, Amit

2015-01-01

74

Robotic surgery for head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

During the last decade, robotic surgery has evolved from a novelty to the preferred surgical method for urologic, gynecologic, thoracic, cardiothoracic, and gastrointestinal procedures. The use of robotics in head and neck surgery grew out of the success of other transoral surgical modalities used to remove head and neck tumors. This article reviews the evolution of head and neck surgery, the current capabilities of surgical robots, and anticipated future applications of this technology. PMID:22413648

Moore, Eric J; Price, Daniel L

2011-11-01

75

Immunology of Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The immune system plays a key role in the ­progression of head and neck cancer. A greater understanding of the important contribution\\u000a of the dysregulation and evasion of the immune system in the development and evolution of head and neck cancers should lead\\u000a to improved therapies and outcomes for patients. Head and neck cancer evades the host immune system through

Steve C. Lee; Robert L. Ferris

76

Objective classification of different head and neck positions and their influence on the radiographic pharyngeal diameter in sport horses  

PubMed Central

Background Various head and neck positions in sport horses are significant as they can interfere with upper airway flow mechanics during exercise. Until now, research has focused on subjectively described head and neck positions. The objective of this study was to develop an objective, reproducible method for quantifying head and neck positions accurately. Results Determining the angle between the ridge of the nose and the horizontal plane (ground angle) together with the angle between the ridge of nose and the line connecting the neck and the withers (withers angle) has provided values that allow precise identification of three preselected head and neck positions for performing sport horses. The pharyngeal diameter, determined on lateral radiographs of 35 horses, differed significantly between the established flexed position and the remaining two head and neck positions (extended and neutral). There was a significant correlation between the pharyngeal diameter and the ground angle (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient ?0.769, p?correlation coefficient 0.774, p?neck positions in sport horses. The ground angle and the withers angle show significant correlation with the measured pharyngeal diameter in resting horses. Hence, these angles provide an appropriate method for assessing the degree of head and neck flexion. Further research is required to examine the influence of increasing head and neck flexion and the related pharyngeal diameter on upper airway function in exercising horses. PMID:24886564

2014-01-01

77

Direct and remote constriction of membrane necks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical properties of membrane necks are relevant in vesiculation, a process that plays an essential role in cellular physiology. Because the neck's radius is, in general, finite, membrane scission and the consequent pinching off of the vesicle can only occur if it is narrowed to permit the necessary membrane topological reformation. Here we examine, in a simple single phase lipid vesicle, how external forces can promote neck constriction not only by direct compression at the neck but also, counterintuitively, by dilation at remote locations. These results provide a new perspective on the role played by actin polymerization in the process of endocytosis.

Boži?, Bojan; Guven, Jemal; Vázquez-Montejo, Pablo; Svetina, Saša

2014-05-01

78

Image cytometric nuclear texture features in inoperable head and neck cancer: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Image cytometry can measure numerous nuclear features which could be considered a surrogate end-point marker of molecular genetic changes in a nucleus. The aim of the study was to analyze image cytometric nuclear features in paired samples of primary tumor and neck metastasis in patients with inoperable carcinoma of the head and neck. Materials and methods. Image cytometric analysis of cell suspensions prepared from primary tumor tissue and fine needle aspiration biopsy cell samples of neck metastases from 21 patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy was performed. Nuclear features were correlated with clinical characteristics and response to therapy. Results Manifestation of distant metastases and new primaries was associated (p<0.05) with several chromatin characteristics from primary tumor cells, whereas the origin of index cancer and disease response in the neck was related to those in the cells from metastases. Many nuclear features of primary tumors and metastases correlated with the TNM stage. Conclusions A specific pattern of correlation between well-established prognostic indicators and nuclear features of samples from primary tumors and those from neck metastases was observed. Image cytometric nuclear features represent a promising candidate marker for recognition of biologically different tumor subgroups. PMID:22933933

Strojan-Flezar, Margareta; Lavrencak, Jaka; Zganec, Mario; Strojan, Primoz

2011-01-01

79

Inter-Vertebral Flexibility of the Ostrich Neck: Implications for Estimating Sauropod Neck Flexibility  

PubMed Central

The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus). The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50). This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data. PMID:23967284

Cobley, Matthew J.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Barrett, Paul M.

2013-01-01

80

Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES  

E-print Network

program of neck strengthening exercises as well as stretching exercises to increase flexibility and gentle stretching will help the muscles relax. Do not worry about headache development, unless direct Quick Treatment: Neck Pain See Your Healthcare Provider If Rehabilitation Exercises Rights and Wrongs

Virginia Tech

81

Neck organ of Artemia salina nauplii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina L.) to exist in a wide range of salinities results from an active excretion of sodium ions from the body into the external environment. Localization of NaCl in the neck organ suggests that this is the site of salt secretion. Ultrastructural studies support this view, the structure of the neck organ being

F. P. Conte; S. R. Hootman; P. J. Harris

1972-01-01

82

Update Head and Neck Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

Update Head and Neck Steering Committee NCI Clinical Trials Advisory Committee December 8, 2008 Co-Chairs Arlene Forastiere, M.D. David Schuller, M.D. Andrew Trotti, M.D. Primary Goal Increase productivity of clinical research involving head and neck

83

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Most head and neck cancers begin in the moist, mucus membranes lining the inside of the mouth, nose and throat. These membranes are made up of squamous cells and the head and neck cancers that grow in these cells are called squamous cell carcinomas.

84

Use of Gold in Head and Neck  

E-print Network

Use of Gold in Head and Neck Cancer Treatments Q & A with Dr. Frank McCormick UCSF Helen Diller in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at UCSF, is working on several techniques to use gold nanoparticles to improve the identification of cancer. "Gold is very interesting because it has extraordinary

Walter, Peter

85

Neck and shoulder complaints among sewing-machine operators: a study concerning frequency, symptomatology and dysfunction.  

PubMed

The occupation of sewing-machine operators (SMO) involves monotonous and repetitive tasks, performed in a work position equivalent to a static component of muscular load on the neck and shoulder. The present study concerns the occurrence of neck-shoulder problems in a population of SMO. A total of 224 SMO from four textile factories in the western part of Sweden were subjected to a comprehensive questionnaire about demographic, vocational, medical and psychosocial data. The Nordic Ministry Questionnaire specifically directed towards neck-shoulder complaints showed a prevalence rate during the last 12 months of 75% and during the last seven days a rate of 51%. Daily problems were experienced by 26%. Some 27% had had problems leading to restraints in work time and 37% in leisure time. Those SMO screening positive were clinically examined in an attempt to describe the clinical picture behind the complaints. Diagnoses were made according to specific criteria. The tension neck syndrome (TNS) was most frequent, followed by the cervical syndrome. In half of those examined, symptoms and findings were too unspecific for diagnosis. A positive correlation between the TNS and working hours per week suggests a daily prolonged static load on the neck and shoulder to be of importance for neck-shoulder problems among the SMO. PMID:15676820

Blåder, S; Barck-Holst, U; Danielsson, S; Ferhm, E; Kalpamaa, M; Leijon, M; Lindh, M; Markhede, G

1991-08-01

86

Preventing head and neck injury.  

PubMed

A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport. PMID:15911597

McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P

2005-06-01

87

Giant epidermoid cyst of the posterior neck.  

PubMed

A 49-year-old man was presented for evaluation of a painless mass on his right posterior neck. The mass had gradually enlarged for a 25-year period without inflammation or rupture. On physical examination, a round, nontender, soft-tissue mass, 8 cm in diameter, was noted on the right posterior neck. The neck is a common site of epidermoid cysts, but a mass more than 5 cm in diameter is rare. A contrast-enhanced neck computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed a 7.6 × 6.5 × 5.7 cm unilocular hypodense mass adjacent to the posterior neck muscles.The mass was completely excised under general anesthesia. A histopathologic examination of the excised specimen resulted in a diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the third postoperative day. There were no recurrences in a 2-year follow-up period. PMID:21586972

Kim, Cheesun; Park, Myong Chul; Seo, Seung Jo; Yoo, Young Moon; Jang, Yu Jin; Lee, Il Jae

2011-05-01

88

ADC biomarker for head and neck tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the World Cancer Report, by 2020, global incidence of cancer may increase by 50%, which means 15 million new cases. In 2000, malignant tumors were the cause of 12% of the almost 56 million deaths worldwide due to all causes[1-4]. 18 men and 19 women, with an average age of 53 ± 14 years with diagnosis of head and neck cancer were scanned using a 1.5-T MR imaging unit (Signa HDxt; GE Medical Systems). Echo-planar DW imaging was performed in the transverse plane before the contrast material injection. Three b values were applied: 40, 100, and 800 sec/mm2. Primary tumors and nodes were evaluated, with diameters greater than 43 ± 15mm. In our study, ADC data for b-values of 40 showed correlation for identification of malignancy in primary tumors, and in the case of nodes there is a tendency toward malignancy in sequences in which a b-value of 800 is used.

Pacheco-Bravo, Irlanda; Hidalgo-Tobon, Silvia; Zaragoza, Kena; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; De Celis-Alonso, Benito; Delgado-Hernandez, Rosa

2014-11-01

89

Determine the effect of neck muscle fatigue on dynamic visual acuity in healthy young adults  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether neck muscle fatigue affects dynamic visual acuity in healthy young participants. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a double-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty healthy young subjects (ages 21 to 30?years) participated in the study. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group performed an exercise designed to induce neck muscle fatigue and the control group preformed non-fatiguing sham exercises. [Results] There were significant differences in mean dynamic visual acuity between the two groups (0.26±0.11 LogMar versus 0.003±0.02 LogMar). Subjects in the experimental group showed a significant decline in their dynamic visual acuity compared with the control group. Dynamic visual acuity strongly correlated with neck muscle fatigue (r = 0.79). No significant differences in joint position error were observed between the two groups and no significant correlations between joint position error and neck muscle fatigue were observed (r = 0.23). [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that neck muscle fatigue negatively impacts dynamic visual acuity. Although not statistically significant, cervical spine proprioception as measured by the joint position error in the experimental group was diminished after fatigue.

Al Saif, Amer A.; Al Senany, Samira

2015-01-01

90

Rigidity and dorsiflexion of the neck in progressive supranuclear palsy and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rigidity and dorsiflexion of the neck are typical signs in progressive supranuclear palsy, but the responsible areas in the brain are unknown. To examine whether bilateral lesions of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) in the midbrain tegmentum contribute to the signs of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, we have made bilateral INC lesions in cats and tried to correlate

J Fukushima-Kudo; K Fukushima; K Tashiro

1987-01-01

91

Bilateral Femoral Neck Fracture-Related Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Bilateral femoral neck fracture is not common as unilateral femoral fracture. Femoral neck fracture generally occurs by the high energized traumas. Traffic accidents and fallings are the most common reason for this fracture kind. But suddenly and minor traumatic fractures is not common. Especially, in the hormonal and pathogenic fractures is not common. In this case minor traumatic bilateral femoral fracture is presented. The fracture occurs in the background of critical medical condition by hyperparathyroidism. It can be said chronic hyperparathyroidism conditions must be determined for femoral neck fracture. Because these patients many times fell little disturbed by this fracture, diagnosis can be missed many times.

Ezirmik, Naci; Yildiz, Kadri; Cadirci, Kenan

2011-01-01

92

Cancers of the head and neck  

SciTech Connect

The information in this text demonstrates the marked progress being made in the treatment of head and neck cancer, diseases which are among the most morbid in all medicine. New and promising surgical and radiotherapeutic techniques are discussed, including brachytherapy, hyperthermia, laser therapy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The timing of chemotherapy and the future rate of biologic modifiers and immune therapy are included. Innovative and creative surgical techniques geared towards improving the quality of life for head and neck patients are described. A final section of the volume covers other management problems including rhabdomyosarcoma and lymphomas of extranodal head and neck sites.

Jacobs, C. (Ed.)

1987-01-01

93

Pathology Case Study: Anterior Cervical Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a head & neck pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male has an increasing neck mass with a choking feeling. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

Schubert, Eric

2007-08-31

94

49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum test fixture (see § 572.33, Figure...perpendicular to the plane of motion of the pendulum's longitudinal centerline (see...skull) rotation with respect to the pendulum's longitudinal centerline....

2012-10-01

95

49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.  

...head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum test fixture (see § 572.33, Figure...perpendicular to the plane of motion of the pendulum's longitudinal centerline (see...skull) rotation with respect to the pendulum's longitudinal centerline....

2014-10-01

96

49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum test fixture (see § 572.33, Figure...perpendicular to the plane of motion of the pendulum's longitudinal centerline (see...skull) rotation with respect to the pendulum's longitudinal centerline....

2011-10-01

97

49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum test fixture (see § 572.33, Figure...perpendicular to the plane of motion of the pendulum's longitudinal centerline (see...skull) rotation with respect to the pendulum's longitudinal centerline....

2013-10-01

98

Treatment for Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, researchers seek to determine if giving concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy to patients with inoperable, recurrent head and neck cancer who were treated initially with radiation therapy will improve survival rates for these patients.

99

[Lipomas of the neck (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Histological particularities, clinical details, diagnosis, malignant transformation and therapy of adipose tissue tumors of the neck are demonstrated. This will be completed by the discription of two cases, concerning this problem. PMID:135166

Fügemann, W; Müller, R

1976-05-01

100

Prevention of complications in neck dissection  

PubMed Central

Background The neck dissection has remained a pivotal aspect of head and neck cancer management for over a century. During this time its role has expanded from a purely therapeutic option into an elective setting, in part promoted by efforts to reduce its morbidity. Objectives This review will consider the potential complications of neck dissection and on the basis of the available evidence describe both their management and prevention. Conclusion Although the neck dissection continues to provide clinicians with a method of addressing cervical disease, its reliability and safety can only be assured if surgeons remain cognisant of the potential complications and aim to minimise such morbidity by appropriate management in the peri-operative period. PMID:19822010

Kerawala, Cyrus J; Heliotos, Manolis

2009-01-01

101

Aging small Canada geese by neck plumage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The neck plumage method, a new technique for separating immature from adult Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in the hand, was evaluated by comparison with the notched tail feather and cloacal examination methods. Two (1.4 percent) of 141 geese examined were misaged, resulting in a 6 percent error in the immature-adult ratio obtained by the neck plumage method. The neck plumage method is a rapid aging method and reasonable accuracy (94 percent) can be obtained. It can also be used to differentiate immatures from adults on the ground at distances up to 175 yards, but was almost impossible to use when geese were in flight. As yet, the neck plumage method has only been tested on the subspecies (B. c. hutchinsii-parvipes complex) in the Tall-Grass Prairie population of small Canada geese.

Higgins, K.F.; Schoonover, L.J.

1969-01-01

102

Intrathecal bupivacaine for head and neck pain  

PubMed Central

Direct central nervous system (CNS) analgesic delivery is a useful option when more traditional means of dealing with chronic pain fail. Solutions containing local anesthetic have been effective in certain disease states, particularly in patients suffering from intractable head and neck pain. This review discusses historical aspects of CNS drug delivery and the role of intrathecal bupivacaine-containing solutions in refractory head and neck pain patients. PMID:22915879

Belverud, Shawn A; Mogilner, Alon Y; Schulder, Michael

2010-01-01

103

Modeling neck mobility in fossil turtles.  

PubMed

Turtles have the unparalleled ability to retract their heads and necks within their shell but little is known about the evolution of this trait. Extensive analysis of neck mobility in turtles using radiographs, CT scans, and morphometry reveals that basal turtles possessed less mobility in the neck relative to their extant relatives, although the anatomical prerequisites for modern mobility were already established. Many extant turtles are able to achieve hypermobility by dislocating the central articulations, which raises cautions about reconstructing the mobility of fossil vertebrates. A 3D-model of the Late Triassic turtle Proganochelys quenstedti reveals that this early stem turtle was able to retract its head by tucking it sideways below the shell. The simple ventrolateral bend seen in this stem turtle, however, contrasts with the complex double-bend of extant turtles. The initial evolution of neck retraction therefore occurred in a near-synchrony with the origin of the turtle shell as a place to hide the unprotected neck. In this early, simplified retraction mode, the conical osteoderms on the neck provided further protection. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 9999B: XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24497449

Werneburg, Ingmar; Hinz, Juliane K; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Volpato, Virginie; Natchev, Nikolay; Joyce, Walter G

2014-02-01

104

The effect of balance training on cervical sensorimotor function and neck pain.  

PubMed

The authors' aim was to evaluate the effect of balance training on cervical joint position sense in people with subclinical neck pain. Thirty-four participants were randomly assigned to balance training or to stay active. Sensorimotor function was determined before and after 5 weeks of training by assessing the ability to reproduce the neutral head position and a predefined rotated head position. After balance training, the intervention group showed improved joint repositioning accuracy and decreased pain whereas no effects were observed in the control group. A weak correlation was identified between reduced neck pain intensity and improved joint repositioning. The present data demonstrate that balance training can effectively improve cervical sensorimotor function and decrease neck pain intensity. PMID:23663191

Beinert, Konstantin; Taube, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

105

The relationship between cervical flexor endurance, cervical extensor endurance, VAS, and disability in subjects with neck pain  

PubMed Central

Background Several tests have been suggested to assess the isometric endurance of the cervical flexor (NFME) and extensors (NEE) muscles. This study proposes to determine whether neck flexors endurance is related to extensor endurance, and whether cervical muscle endurance is related to disability, pain amount and pain stage in subjects with neck pain. Methods Thirty subjects (18 women, 12 men, mean?±?SD age: 43?±?12 years) complaining of neck pain filled out the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale-Italian version (NPDS-I). They also completed the timed endurance tests for the cervical muscles. Results The mean endurance was 246.7?±?150 seconds for the NEE test, and 44.9?±?25.3 seconds for the NMFE test. A significant correlation was found between the results of these two tests (r?=?0.52, p?=?0.003). A positive relationship was also found between VAS and NPDS-I (r?=?0.549, p?=?0.002). The endurance rates were similar for acute/subacute and chronic subjects, whereas males demonstrated significantly higher values compared to females in NFME test. Conclusions These findings suggest that neck flexors and extensors endurance are correlated and that the cervical endurance is not significantly altered by the duration of symptoms in subjects with neck pain. PMID:24581272

2014-01-01

106

Post-traumatic coxa vara in children following screw fixation of the femoral neck  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The rare displaced fractures of the femoral neck in children need accurate reduction and rigid fixation. The implants commonly used for internal fixation in children are pins or screws. We evaluated the long-term outcome in children who sustained fractures of the proximal femur that were treated by screw fixation. Patients and methods All 22 children (mean age 12 (5–16) years) with fractures of the femoral neck that were treated with screw fixation (mean 2.4 (1–3) screws) at our department between 1990 and 2006 were evaluated. For measurement of outcome, the Harris hip score (HHS) was used and the development of post-traumatic coxa vara was assessed from the difference in the neck-shaft angle postoperatively and at the latest follow-up examination, after mean 4 (2–15) years. Results A loss of reduction was observed in 12 patients. There was a statistically significant correlation between the HHS and the changes in the neck-shaft angle. Interpretation Loss of reduction was found in more than half of the children. Screw fixation cannot be recommended for the treatment of femoral neck fractures in children due to a substantial number of post-traumatic coxa vara. PMID:20809743

2010-01-01

107

Reirradiation in head and neck cancers.  

PubMed

Salvage surgery is the mainstay of treatment for recurrences or secondary primary tumors in areas that were irradiated earlier. However, locoregional recurrence remains the main cause of death after surgery. Adjuvant reirradiation dramatically reduces locoregional recurrences but the risk-benefit ratio seems to be advantageous mostly for residual microscopic disease. In contrast, the rate of distant metastasis among reirradiated patients indicates that the local treatment alone is not sufficient. Full-dose exclusive chemo-reirradiation (over 60 Gy) can cure a subset of patients when surgery is not feasible. However, reirradiation is associated with a significant rate of severe toxicity and should, therefore, be compared with chemotherapy in randomized trials. Accrual may be difficult because of selection biases such as tumor volume, small volumes (largest axis less than 3-4 cm) being more likely to be irradiated. In addition, patients in poor general condition with severe comorbidities, organ dysfunction, or incomplete healing after salvage surgery, are unlikely to benefit from reirradiation. Noteworthy volumes to be reirradiated must be established between the head and neck surgeon and the radiation oncologist: the definition of the clinical target volume should be taken into account, the natural history of recurrent tumors, especially with regard to extension modalities, and the absence of strict correlation between imaging and histological real extension. This is even more critical with the advent of new irradiation techniques. Chemotherapy associations and new radiosensitizing agents are also under investigation. Comparison between reirradiation modalities is difficult because most trials are phase 2 mono-institutional trials. As selection of patients is a key issue, only phase 3 multiinstitutional trials can provide definitive results. PMID:21270718

Janot, Francois; Thariat, Juliette; Daly-Schweitzer, Nicolas

2011-08-01

108

Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture.  

PubMed

This study assesses femoral neck shortening and its effect on gait pattern and muscle strength in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation. Seventy-six patients from a multicenter randomized controlled trial participated. Patient characteristics and Short Form 12 and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were collected. Femoral neck shortening, gait parameters, and maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured and differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Variables of patients with little or no shortening, moderate shortening, and severe shortening were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Median femoral neck shortening was 1.1 cm. Subtle changes in gait pattern, reduced gait velocity, and reduced abductor muscle strength were observed. Age, weight, and Pauwels classification were risk factors for femoral neck shortening. Femoral neck shortening decreased gait velocity and seemed to impair gait symmetry and physical functioning. In conclusion, internal fixation of femoral neck fractures results in permanent physical limitations. The relatively young and healthy patients in our study seem capable of compensating. Attention should be paid to femoral neck shortening and proper correction with a heel lift, as inadequate correction may cause physical complaints and influence outcome. PMID:23823040

Zielinski, Stephanie M; Keijsers, Noël L; Praet, Stephan F E; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

2013-07-01

109

Neck Rejuvenation with Fractional CO2 Laser  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of 10,600nm fractional CO2 laser for neck aging at one month and one year after treatment. Design/Setting/Participants/Measurement: Twenty patients underwent 10,600nm fractional CO2 laser treatment over the entire neck. Clinical features of the patients were classified according to Baker classification. The degrees of skin laxity, jowling, fat deposition, and horizontal neck lines were evaluated using a 9-point scale, prior to treatment at one month and one year after the treatment. The patients were independently assessed by the authors at two different times in a blinded fashion. Results: Skin laxity, jowling, fat deposition, and horizontal neck lines scores were significantly lower than the baseline values at one month and one year. One-year follow-up values of the same parameters were still significantly lower than the baseline. No persistent complication developed after treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that fractional CO2 neck rejuvenation is an effective treatment option with long-term efficacy for patients who mainly have skin laxity and jowling together with skin surface pigmentation. PMID:25161757

Oram, Yasemin

2014-01-01

110

Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Treatment for patients with head and neck cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach. Radiotherapy is employed as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant to surgery. Each specific subsite dictates the appropriate radiotherapy techniques, fields, dose, and fractionation scheme. Quality of life is also an important issue in the management of head and neck cancer. The radiation-related complications have a tremendous impact on the quality of life. Modern radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and image-guided radiotherapy, can offer precise radiation delivery and reduce the dose to the surrounding normal tissues without compromise of target coverage. In the future, efforts should be made in the exploration of novel strategies to improve treatment outcome in patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:22550433

Yeh, Shyh-An

2010-01-01

111

Immunological status of patients in carcinoma head and neck.  

PubMed

The cell mediated immune response in 45 patients of cancer, head and neck was evaluated by various parameters and compared with 20 control cases. (DNCB) Dinitrochlorobenzene cutaneous reactivity in vivo was compared with T lymphocytes, estimated as active rosette forming cells (ARFC) and Total rosette forming cells (TRFC) in peripheral blood. The ratio of TRFC/ARFC was studied in various histological subtypes of cancer head and neck. Lymphocytic infiltration around tumor mass was correlated with peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL), ARFC and TRFC levels in blood. Significant difference was noted in the level of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). TRFC and ARFC between control cases and cancer patients. There was a marked increase in all three parameters i.e. PBL, TRFC, ARFC (P less than 0.001) and a positive DNCB reaction in Adenocarcinoma of nasopharynx, thyroid and salivary gland and a significant decrease in Squamous cell Carcinoma of oral cavity and larynx (p less than 0.001) associated with impaired DNCB sensitivity. These parameters serve as an assessment of the degree of immune reactivity of the host to the malignant tumours. PMID:2630426

Vasenwala, S M; Aziz, M; Rattan, A; Ahmad, K N

1989-09-01

112

Prediction of Neck Dissection Requirement After Definitive Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Background: This analysis was undertaken to assess the need for planned neck dissection in patients with a complete response (CR) of involved nodes after irradiation and to determine the benefit of a neck dissection in those with less than CR by tumor site. Methods: Our cohort included 880 patients with T1-4, N1-3M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, larynx, or hypopharynx who received treatment between 1994 and 2004. Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier Method, comparisons of rates with the log-rank test and prognostic factors by Cox's proportional hazard model. Results: Nodal CR occurred in 377 (43%) patients, of whom 365 patients did not undergo nodal dissection. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate of patients with CR was 92%. Two hundred sixty-eight of the remaining patients (53%) underwent neck dissections. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate for patients without a CR was 84%. Those who had a neck dissection fared better with 5-year actuarial regional control rates of 90% and 76% for those operated and those not operated (p < 0.001). Variables associated with poorer regional control rates included higher T and N stage, non-oropharynx cancers, non-CR, both clinical and pathological. Conclusions: With 92% 5-year neck control rate without neck dissection after CR, there is little justification for systematic neck dissection. The addition of a neck dissection resulted in higher neck control after partial response though patients with viable tumor on pathology specimens had poorer outcomes. The identification of that subgroup that benefits from additional treatment remains a challenge.

Thariat, Juliette [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology/IBDC CNRS UMR, Cancer Center Antoine-Lacassagne, University Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice, Cedex 2 (France); Ang, K. Kian; Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ahamad, Anesa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago); Williams, Michelle D. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Myers, Jeffrey N. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); El-Naggar, Adel K. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ginsberg, Lawrence E. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Glisson, Bonnie S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medicine, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Morrison, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Weber, Randal S. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garden, Adam S., E-mail: agarden@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2012-03-01

113

Prediction of Neck Dissection Requirement After Definitive Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND This analysis was undertaken to assess the need for planned neck dissection in patients with a complete response (CR) of involved nodes after irradiation, and to determine the benefit of a neck dissection in those with less than CR by tumor site. METHODS Our cohort included 880 patients with T1-4, N1-3M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, larynx or hypopharynx who received treatment between 1994 and 2004. Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier Method, comparisons of rates with the log-rank test and prognostic factors by Cox analyses. RESULTS Nodal CR occurred in 377 (43%) patients of whom 365 patients did not undergo nodal dissection. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate of patients with CR was 92%. Two hundred sixty-eight of the remaining patients (53%) underwent neck dissections. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate for patients without a CR was 84%. Those who had a neck dissection fared better with 5-year actuarial regional control rates of 90% and 76% for those operated and those not operated (p <.001). Variables associated with poorer regional control rates included higher T and N stage, non-oropharynx cancers, non-CR, both clinical and pathological. CONCLUSIONS With 92% 5-year neck control rate without neck dissection after CR, there is little justification for systematic neck dissection. The addition of a neck dissection resulted in higher neck control after partial response though patients with viable tumor on pathology specimens had poorer outcomes. The identification of that subgroup that benefits from additional treatment remains a challenge. PMID:22284033

Thariat, Juliette; Ang, K. Kian; Allen, Pamela K.; Ahamad, Anesa; Williams, Michelle D.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Rosenthal, David I.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Morrison, William H.; Weber, Randal S.; Garden, Adam S.

2014-01-01

114

49 CFR 572.123 - Neck assembly and test procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Neck assembly and test procedure. 572.123 Section 572.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...Six-year-old Child Test Dummy, Beta Version § 572.123 Neck assembly and test procedure. (a)...

2011-10-01

115

Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth  

MedlinePLUS

... Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth Main Content Are You ... Problems Too? Remember Are You Being Treated With Radiation for Cancer in Your Head or Neck? If ...

116

Genetics Home Reference: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... January 2015 What is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma? Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that ...

117

Comfort effects of a new car headrest with neck support.  

PubMed

This paper describes the design of a neck-/headrest to increase car comfort. Two studies were undertaken to create a new comfortable headrest with neck support. In experiment one, neck- and headrest data were gathered using 35 test subjects. The pressure distribution, stiffness of the foam material and position of the head and neck support were determined. In experiment two a full adjustable final headrest with adjustable neck support was constructed and tested with 12 subjects using a new adjustable headrest under virtual reality driving conditions. Experiment two showed that the headrest with the new/adjustable neck support was favoured by the majority of the subjects. 83% were satisfied with the stiffness of the material. 92% were satisfied with the size of the neck- and headrest. All subjects mentioned that the neck support is a comfort benefit in calm traffic conditions or on the motorway. PMID:21944482

Franz, M; Durt, A; Zenk, R; Desmet, P M A

2012-03-01

118

49 CFR 572.163 - Neck assembly and test procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy § 572.163 Neck assembly and test procedure. The neck assembly is...

2010-10-01

119

The relationship between survival and socio-economic status for head and neck cancer in Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Human papilloma virus (HPV) is emerging as the primary cause for some head and neck cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between head and neck cancer (HNC) survival and socioeconomic status (SES) in Canada, and to investigate changes in the relationship between HNC survival and SES from 1992 to 2005. Methods Cases were drawn from the Canadian Cancer Registry (1992–2005), and were categorized into three subsites: oropharynx, oral cavity, and “other” (hypopharynx, larynx, and nasopharynx). Demographic and socioeconomic information were extracted from the Canadian Census of Population data for the study period, which included three census years: 1991, 1996 and 2001. We linked cases to income quintiles (InQs) according to patients’ postal codes. Results Overall survival, without controlling for smoking, for oropharyngeal cancer increased dramatically from 1992–2005 in Canada. This increase in survival for oropharynx cancer was eliminated by the introduction of controls for smoking. Survival for all head and neck cancer subsites was strongly correlated with SES, as measured by income quintile, with lower InQ’s having lower survival than higher. Lastly, the magnitude of the difference in survival between the highest and lowest income quintiles increased significantly over the time period studied for oropharynx cancer, but did not statistically significantly change for oral cavity cancer or other head and neck cancers. Conclusions These data confirm a significant impact of socioeconomic deprivation on overall survival for head and neck cancers in Canada, and may provide indirect evidence that HPV-positive head and neck cancers are more common in higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:24422754

2014-01-01

120

Head and neck response of a finite element anthropomorphic test device and human body model during a simulated rotary-wing aircraft impact.  

PubMed

A finite element (FE) simulation environment has been developed to investigate aviator head and neck response during a simulated rotary-wing aircraft impact using both an FE anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and an FE human body model. The head and neck response of the ATD simulation was successfully validated against an experimental sled test. The majority of the head and neck transducer time histories received a CORrelation and analysis (CORA) rating of 0.7 or higher, indicating good overall correlation. The human body model simulation produced a more biofidelic head and neck response than the ATD experimental test and simulation, including change in neck curvature. While only the upper and lower neck loading can be measured in the ATD, the shear force, axial force, and bending moment were reported for each level of the cervical spine in the human body model using a novel technique involving cross sections. This loading distribution provides further insight into the biomechanical response of the neck during a rotary-wing aircraft impact. PMID:25085863

White, Nicholas A; Danelson, Kerry A; Gayzik, F Scott; Stitzel, Joel D

2014-11-01

121

Case Report: Nodular Fasciitis of Neck in Childhood.  

E-print Network

Case Report: Nodular Fasciitis of Neck in Childhood. Authors Saurabh Varshney, Professor & Head. Nodular Fasciitis of Neck in Childhood. Online J Health Allied Scs.2012;11(4):13. Available at URL: http, is the treatment of choice. A case of NF over the neck in a 05- year-old female not associated with trauma who

Carr, Leslie

122

Is extended selective supraomohyoid neck dissection indicated for treatment of oral cancer with clinically negative neck?  

PubMed

Oral cavity tumors may develop occult metastases to the cervical lymph nodes. Current imaging techniques and routine histopathologic methods may fail to detect lymph node micrometastases, but the surgeon has to electively dissect a neck at risk of developing clinical disease. Supraomohyoid neck dissection has been the elective surgery for treating a clinically negative neck in patients with oral cavity primaries. A literature review revealed that level IV nodes can be significantly affected by occult disease with and without metastases in level I-III lymph nodes. This means that level IV nodes have to be included in the supraomohyoid neck dissection, resulting in a more extensive surgical procedure to ensure a margin of oncological safety. PMID:11132709

Ferlito, A; Mannara, G M; Rinaldo, A; Politi, M; Robiony, M; Costa, F

2000-10-01

123

Quantitative measures of sagittal plane head-neck control: A test-retest reliability study.  

PubMed

Determining the reliability of measurements used to quantify head-neck motor control is necessary before they can be used to study the effects of injury or treatment interventions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the within- and between-day reliability of position tracking, position stabilization and force tracking tasks to quantify head-neck motor control. Ten asymptomatic subjects performed these tasks on two separate days. Position and force tracking tasks required subjects to track a pseudorandom square wave input signal by controlling their head-neck angular position (position tracking) or the magnitude of isometric force generated against a force sensor by the neck musculature (force tracking) in the sagittal plane. Position stabilization required subjects to maintain an upright head position while pseudorandom perturbations were applied to the upper body using a robotic platform. Within-day and between-day reliability of the frequency response curves were assessed using coefficients of multiple correlations (CMC). Root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bandpass signal energy, were computed for each task and between-day reliability was calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Within- and between-day CMCs for the position and force tracking tasks were all ?0.96, while CMCs for position stabilization ranged from 0.72 to 0.82. ICCs for the position and force tracking tasks were all ?0.93. For position stabilization, ICCs for RMSE and mean bandpass signal energy were 0.66 and 0.72, respectively. Measures of sagittal plane head-neck motor control using position tracking, position stabilization and force tracking tasks were demonstrated to be reliable. PMID:25553673

Popovich, John M; Reeves, N Peter; Priess, M Cody; Cholewicki, Jacek; Choi, Jongeun; Radcliffe, Clark J

2015-02-01

124

49 CFR 572.183 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...neck-headform assembly to the part 572 subpart E pendulum test fixture as shown in Figure U2-A...perpendicular to the plane of motion of the pendulum longitudinal centerline shown in Figure...or equivalent; (3) Release the pendulum from a height sufficient to allow...

2013-10-01

125

49 CFR 572.183 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...neck-headform assembly to the part 572 subpart E pendulum test fixture as shown in Figure U2-A...perpendicular to the plane of motion of the pendulum longitudinal centerline shown in Figure...or equivalent; (3) Release the pendulum from a height sufficient to allow...

2011-10-01

126

49 CFR 572.183 - Neck assembly.  

...neck-headform assembly to the part 572 subpart E pendulum test fixture as shown in Figure U2-A...perpendicular to the plane of motion of the pendulum longitudinal centerline shown in Figure...or equivalent; (3) Release the pendulum from a height sufficient to allow...

2014-10-01

127

49 CFR 572.183 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...neck-headform assembly to the part 572 subpart E pendulum test fixture as shown in Figure U2-A...perpendicular to the plane of motion of the pendulum longitudinal centerline shown in Figure...or equivalent; (3) Release the pendulum from a height sufficient to allow...

2012-10-01

128

Characterisation of explosive fragments injuring the neck.  

PubMed

Penetrating explosive fragments are the most common cause of neck injuries sustained by UK service personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Analysis of these fragments will enable future ballistic protective materials to be tested with appropriate projectiles. However, only a small number of fragments excised from the neck have been available for analysis and they are potentially unrepresentative. We analysed computed tomograms (CTs) of 110 consecutive UK soldiers whose necks were wounded by explosive fragments. Fragments were classified according to shape, and their dimensions used to estimate volume and mass. These calculations were then compared with the actual measurements of the excised fragments using a general linear model. The 2 most common shapes were cylinders (52%) and spheres (21%). Known and estimated masses were not significantly different (p=0.64). A fragment-simulating projectile of 0.49 g represented 85% of fragments retained in the neck. CT can accurately delineate the shape and mass of fragments, which increases the number from which the most appropriate simulated projectile can be designed. We think that this methodology should be applied to fragments retained in other parts of the body to enable broader recommendations to be made regarding the testing of ballistic materials used to protect service personnel. PMID:24012051

Breeze, J; Leason, J; Gibb, I; Allanson-Bailey, L; Hunt, N; Hepper, A; Spencer, P; Clasper, J

2013-12-01

129

Metrology and detonics: analysis of necking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the experiment discussed in the present paper is to study the deformation of a structure (here a copper cylinder) induced by explosives. During its expansion, the (initially 3-mm thick) cylinder keeps on thinning until fracture appears. Some tens of microseconds before failure, strain localization occurs, which induces mechanical necking. In order to characterize the time for the

G. Besnard; B. Etchessahar; J.-M. Lagrange; C. Voltz; F. Hild; S. Roux

2008-01-01

130

Giant osteochondroma of the talar neck.  

PubMed

Giant osteochondroma is an uncommon entity and it is rare in the foot and ankle region. It is extremely rare to originate from the talus. In this case report we present a case of giant osteochondroma arising from the talar neck measuring 100 mm × 90 mm × 30 mm. It is unique because of the size, site and the age at presentation. PMID:23415762

Al Mutani, Mohammed; Mahmood, Aatif; Chandrasekar, C R

2013-03-01

131

Isolated Enteric Cyst in the Neck  

PubMed Central

We report an extremely rare case of isolated enteric cyst in the neck region which was diagnosed on the histopathological examination. It was suspected to be duplication cyst on radiology. We have also evaluated the differential diagnosis and management issues. PMID:24868475

Mahore, Amit; Sankhe, Shilpa; Tikeykar, Vishakha

2014-01-01

132

Head and Neck Steering Committee Roster  

Cancer.gov

Head and Neck Steering Committee Roster Co-chairs Ezra Cohen, M.D.University of Chicago Chicago, IL John "Drew" Ridge, M.D., Ph.D.Fox Chase Cancer CenterPhiladelphia, PA Brian O'Sullivan, M.B.University of Toronto, Princess Margaret HospitalToronto, Ontario Members David

133

Neck dissection after radiochemotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Primary chemoradiation is a frequent treatment for locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Some authors\\u000a claim that a neck dissection (ND) is necessary in N2\\/N3 disease after this treatment in order to avoid regional recurrences.\\u000a The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of isolated nodal failure in patients with N2\\/N3 disease who achieved\\u000a a complete

Mario López Rodríguez; Laura Cerezo Padellano; Margarita Martín Martín; Felipe Couñago Lorenzo

2008-01-01

134

Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STUDY DESIGN. Muscle use evoked by exercise was determined by quantifying shifts in signal relaxation times of T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Images were collected at rest and after exercise at each of two intensities (moderate and intense) for each of four head movements: 1) extension, 2) flexion, 3) rotation, and 4) lateral flexion. OBJECTIVE. This study examined the intensity and pattern of neck muscle use evoked by various movements of the head. The results will help elucidate the pathophysiology, and thus methods for treating disorders of the cervical musculoskeletal system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in T2 has been shown to indicate muscle use during the activity. The noninvasive nature of magnetic resonance imaging appears to make it an ideal approach for studying the function of the complex neuromuscular system of the neck. METHODS. The extent of T2 increase was examined to gauge how intensely nine different neck muscles or muscle pairs were used in seven subjects. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation was assessed to infer the pattern of use among and within individual neck muscles or muscle pairs. RESULTS. Signal relaxation increased with exercise intensity for each head movement. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation also increased with exercise load. Neck muscles or muscle pairs extensively used to perform each head movement were: extension--semispinalis capitis and cervicis and splenius capitis; flexion--sternocleidomastoid and longus capitis and colli; rotation--splenius capitis, levator scapulae, scalenus, semispinalis capitis ipsilateral to the rotation, and sternocleidomastoid contralateral; and lateral flexion--sternocleidomastoid CONCLUSION. The results of this study, in part, agree with the purported functions of neck muscles derived from anatomic location. This also was true for the few selected muscles that have been examined in human electromyographic studies. Neck muscle function and morphology can be studied at a detailed level using exercise-induced shifts in magnetic resonance images.

Conley, M. S.; Meyer, R. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Feeback, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.

1995-01-01

135

Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks  

PubMed Central

The necks of the sauropod dinosaurs reached 15 m in length: six times longer than that of the world record giraffe and five times longer than those of all other terrestrial animals. Several anatomical features enabled this extreme elongation, including: absolutely large body size and quadrupedal stance providing a stable platform for a long neck; a small, light head that did not orally process food; cervical vertebrae that were both numerous and individually elongate; an efficient air-sac-based respiratory system; and distinctive cervical architecture. Relevant features of sauropod cervical vertebrae include: pneumatic chambers that enabled the bone to be positioned in a mechanically efficient way within the envelope; and muscular attachments of varying importance to the neural spines, epipophyses and cervical ribs. Other long-necked tetrapods lacked important features of sauropods, preventing the evolution of longer necks: for example, giraffes have relatively small torsos and large, heavy heads, share the usual mammalian constraint of only seven cervical vertebrae, and lack an air-sac system and pneumatic bones. Among non-sauropods, their saurischian relatives the theropod dinosaurs seem to have been best placed to evolve long necks, and indeed their necks probably surpassed those of giraffes. But 150 million years of evolution did not suffice for them to exceed a relatively modest 2.5 m. PMID:23638372

Wedel, Mathew J.

2013-01-01

136

Neck dissection with cervical sensory preservation in thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Recently, controversy has focused on the management of lymph node metastases, which represent approximately 90% of disease recurrences and may require considerable time, effort, and resources to diagnose and treat. Neck dissections play an essential role in the management of head and neck cancer. A modified radical neck dissection (MND) refers to resection of the lymph nodes in levels II through V and often including the central nodes in level VI. When performing modified neck dissection, we recommend to protect more reserved cervical plexus. The purpose is to better protect patient’s neck skin feeling. PMID:25083485

Xue, Shuai; Wang, Peisong

2013-01-01

137

Capability of a neck worn device to measure sleep/wake, airway position, and differentiate benign snoring from obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

To evaluate the accuracy of a neck-worn device in measuring sleep/wake, detecting supine airway position, and using loud snoring to screen for obstructive sleep apnea. Study A included 20 subjects who wore the neck-device during polysomnography (PSG), with 31 records obtained from diagnostic and split-night studies. Study B included 24 community-based snorers studied in-home for up to three-nights with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity measured with a validated Level III recorder. The accuracy of neck actigraphy-based sleep/wake was measured by assessing sleep efficiency (SE). Differences in sleep position measured at the chest and neck during PSG were compared to video-editing. Loud snoring acquired with an acoustic microphone was compared to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) by- and acrosspositions. Over-reported SE by neck actigraphy was inversely related to OSA severity. Measurement of neck and chest supine position were highly correlated with video-edits (r = 0.93, 0.78). Chest was bias toward over-estimating supine time while the majority of neck-device supine position errors occurred during CPAP titrations. Snoring was highly correlated with the overall, supine, and non-supine PSG-AHI (r = 0.79, 0.74, 0.83) and was both sensitive and specific in detecting overall, supine, and non-supine PSGAHI >10 (sensitivity = 81, 88, 82 %; specificity = 87, 79, 100 %). At home sleep testing-AHI > 10, the sensitivity and specificity of loud snoring was superior when users were predominantly non-supine as compared to baseline (sensitivity = 100, 92 %; specificity = 88, 77 %). Neck actigraphy appears capable of estimating sleep/wake. The accuracy of supine airway detection with the neck-device warrants further investigation. Measurement of loud snoring appears to provide a screening tool for differentiating positional apneic and benign snorers. PMID:24599632

Levendowski, Daniel J; Veljkovic, Bratislav; Seagraves, Sean; Westbrook, Philip R

2015-02-01

138

Prediction of Difficult Laryngoscopy in Obese Patients by Ultrasound Quantification of Anterior Neck Soft Tissue1  

PubMed Central

Prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in obese patients is challenging. In 50 morbidly obese patients, we quantified the neck soft tissue from skin to anterior aspect of trachea at the vocal cords using ultrasound. Thyromental distance <6 cm, mouth opening <4 cm, limited neck mobility, Mallampati score >2, abnormal upper teeth, neck circumference >45 cm, and sleep apnoea were considered predictors of difficult laryngoscopy. Of the nine (18%) difficult laryngoscopy cases, seven had obstructive sleep apnoea history; whereas, only 2 of the 41 easy laryngoscopy patients did (P<0.001). Difficult laryngoscopy patients had larger neck circumference [50 (3.8) vs. 43.5 (2.2) cm; P<0.001] and more pre-tracheal soft tissue [28 (2.7) mm vs. 17.5 (1.8) mm; P<0.001] [mean (SD)]. Soft tissue values completely separated difficult and easy laryngoscopies. None of the other predictors correlated with difficult laryngoscopy. Thus, an abundance of pretracheal soft tissue at the level of vocal cords is a good predictor of difficult laryngoscopy in obese patients. PMID:14616599

Ezri, T.; Gewürtz, G.; Sessler, D.I.; Medalion, B.; Szmuk, P.; Hagberg, C.; Susmallian, S.

2005-01-01

139

Integration of Biomarkers Including Molecular Targeted Therapies in Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Head and neck tumors comprise a wide spectrum of heterogeneous neoplasms for which biomarkers are needed to aid in earlier diagnosis, risk assessment and therapy response. The search for biomarkers includes evaluation of tumor tissues and surrogate materials by molecular, genomic and phenotypic means. Ideal biomarkers should be accurate and easy to perform, highly specific, objective, quantitative, and cost effective. Because of the heterogeneity of head and neck tumors, the integration of multiple selected markers in association with the histopathologic features is advocated for risk assessment. For targeted therapy, however, a single key molecule must be identified. Key molecules and pathways for targeted therapy include growth factor receptors, MAPk/ERk pathway, angiogenesis, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Over-expression and mutations of genes in these pathways including EGFR, VEGF, HER2, BRAF and RET, contribute to tumorigenesis in head and neck cancers from squamous carcinomas, to salivary adenocarcinomas and thyroid carcinomas, both follicular and c-cell derived. Monoclonal antibodies to the EGFR receptor and oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently being studied in multiple phase II and III clinical trials to determine their efficacy in head and neck cancers and correlative studies for biomarkers are on-going. PMID:20237991

2010-01-01

140

Novel Treatment of Neck Wrinkles with an Intradermal Radiofrequency Device  

PubMed Central

Neck wrinkles commonly develop owing to the aging process. However, recently, the number of patients with neck wrinkles has been increasing. Also, an increasing number of young patients have presented with this condition, possibly because of the effect of the head-down posture that they adopt when using their computer or smartphone. We report two cases of young adults with a prominent neck wrinkle. In case 1, a 29-year-old woman with a neck wrinkle was treated with six intradermal radiofrequency (RF) procedures. Her neck wrinkle was significantly improved with the RF treatment. In case 2, a 32-year-old woman with a wrinkle and generalized light brownish tiny papules on the neck was treated with three intradermal RF procedures simultaneously with 30% glycolic acid peeling. Her wrinkle and skin tone were improved dramatically. We conclude that intradermal RF has a considerable efficacy for reducing neck wrinkles. PMID:25673937

Hyun, Moo Yeol; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Myeung Nam; Hong, Chang Kwun; Kim, Hyuk; Koh, Hyun-Ju; Park, Won-Seok

2015-01-01

141

Benign neck metastasis of a testicular germ cell tumor.  

PubMed

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are relatively rare neoplasms considered to be curable malignancies since the introduction of cisplatin. The presence of neck metastasis has been reported, with fewer reports of metastatic mature teratoma. In this study, 3 cases of "benign neck" metastasis in patients with GCT between 1998 and 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. In all 3 cases the presenting clinical sign was a left lower neck mass, leading to the diagnosis of the primary site in the testis. All had surgical salvage following chemotherapy, with benign lesions or mature teratoma in histopathology of the neck mass. Chemotherapy was followed by salvage lower-half neck dissection showing benign features in the neck specimen, even though malignancy was proven histologically in other areas. Only 1 patient had a postoperative chyle leak, which resolved spontaneously after several days. Neck dissection is recommended in those patients because malignancy cannot be excluded. PMID:25594657

Gavriel, Haim; Kleid, Stephen

2015-01-01

142

Retrospective Study of Selective Submandibular Neck Dissection versus Radical Neck Dissection for N0 or N1 Necks in Level I Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of selective submandibular neck dissection (SMND) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with or without nodal metastasis. Patients. From a total of 384 patients with untreated OSCC who underwent radical excision, we identified 229 with clinically N0 necks and 68 with clinically N1 necks in level I. Main Outcome Measures. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year regional control and 5-year disease specific survival (DSS) were compared for SMND, radical neck dissection (RND), and modified radical neck dissection (MRND). Results. In clinically node-negative necks, the regional control rates were 85.2% with SMND and 83.3% with MRND (P = 0.89), and 5-year DSS rates were 86.5% and 87.0%, respectively, (P = 0.94). In clinically N1 necks, the regional control rates were 81.3% with SMND and 83.0% with RND (P = 0.72), and the DSS rates were 81.3% and 80.0%, respectively, (P = 0.94). Type of neck dissection was not significantly associated with regional control or DSS on either univariate or multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional hazard model. Conclusions. SMND can be effectively applied in elective and therapeutic management to patients with OSCC that are clinically assessed as N0 or N1 to level I of the neck. PMID:22690218

Yanai, Yuta; Sugiura, Tsuyoshi; Imajyo, Ikumi; Yoshihama, Naoya; Akimoto, Naonari; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Hayashi, Kohei; Fujinaga, Takahiro; Shirasuna, Kanemitsu; Takenoshita, Yasuharu; Mori, Yoshihide

2012-01-01

143

Neck-shortening effect on prosaccade reaction time formed through saccadic training accompanied by maintenance of neck flexion.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of neck-shortening on prosaccade reaction time formed through saccadic training accompanied by maintenance of neck flexion. The subjects were 30 university students who exhibited no significant shortening of prosaccade reaction time during maintenance of neck flexion, assigned to three groups: prosaccade training subjects at rest neck position (rest training group); prosaccade training subjects at 20 degrees neck flexion position (neck training group); and untrained subjects (control group). Saccadic training for 1 min was performed ten times per day, and the training period was 14 days. For the control group, no significant postural or training effects on reaction time were found. For both training groups, reaction time at the rest position after training was significantly shorter than that before training. For the neck training group, reaction time after training was significantly shorter at the neck flexion position than at the rest position. Conversely, no significant neck effect was found for the rest training group. This indicates that the shortening effect associated with maintenance of neck flexion on prosaccade reaction time is formed through saccadic training accompanied by maintenance of neck flexion. PMID:19711093

Kunita, Kenji; Fujiwara, Katsuo

2009-11-01

144

Treatment and prognosis of deep neck infections.  

PubMed

Deep neck infections could have serious threats for life of patients, if not noticed adequately. Early diagnosis and correct treatment planning can save the patient's lives and prevent complications of disease extension and also surgical procedures that in some instances may be performed in an emergent situation with higher complication rates. Herein, we have studied 815 cases of deep neck abscesses and infections with especial consideration to treatment and prognosis. In a retrospective case review, we studied 815 cases admitted in our medical center from 1998 until the year 2013. Only patients with abscesses or infections deeper than superficial layer of deep cervical fascia were included in this study, based on the review of their medical records. From 815 cases (485 males and 330 females) surgery was indicated and performed in 428 cases and the rest were treated medically. In cases with dental infections as the etiologic factor, dental procedures were performed as early as possible (extraction in almost all cases). Tracheostomy was performed in five cases. All of the patients in medical treatment group and most of the surgically managed patients were discharged while were stable with relative or complete resolution of their symptoms. One of our patients, a 15 year old boy died with symptoms suggestive for mediastinitis and air way compromise. Early diagnosis and medical management can be effective in treating deep neck infections. Dental infections and also procedures are the major cause in our patients, although tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess also were important leading causes with almost equal numbers in our series. Extraction of the infected tooth as early as possible while medical treatment is continued can be very helpful. In some cases it may be necessary to perform surgical exploration of the neck more than once, and finally, malignant neoplasia, somewhere in the head and neck should be considered in some cases, as in one of our patients with left side submandibular abscess whose underlying disorder was tongue SCC with neck metastasis. Prognosis can be excellent in both medically and surgically managed groups if started and designed early and promptly. PMID:25621269

Motahari, Seyyed Jafar; Poormoosa, Rostam; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Bahari, Milad; Shirazy, Seyyed Mohsen Hosseini; Khavarinejad, Freshteh

2015-03-01

145

Validation of the German version of the Neck Disability Index (NDI)  

PubMed Central

Background The Neck Disability Index (NDI) is the most commonly used outcome measure for neck pain. This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of a German version of the NDI. Cross-cultural translation and psychometric testing of the NDI were performed. Methods The 10-item NDI was translated into German and administered to 558 patients with chronic unspecific neck pain (Mean age 49.9?±?11.4 years, 76% female). The factor structure and reliability of the NDI were assessed using factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, split-half reliability (Spearman-Brown coefficient), and intra-class correlation (ICC2,1). To determine convergent validity, pain intensity (visual analog scale; VAS), pain on movement (VAS), and quality of life (Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire; SF-36) were correlated with the NDI. Correlation with range of motion and sensitivity to change were also assessed in a subsample of 49 patients. Results The mean NDI score was 32.75?±?13.09. Factor analysis revealed a single factor that explained 39.8% of the variance. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.81; Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.80; and intra-class correlation was 0.81 (95% confidence interval?=?0.78, 0.83). Significant correlations were found for pain intensity (r?=?0.22, p?Neck disability is associated with other measures of neck pain. PMID:24642209

2014-01-01

146

Femoral neck fractures: a changing paradigm.  

PubMed

Surgical interventions consisting of internal fixation (IF) or total hip replacement (THR) are required to restore patient mobility after hip fractures. Conventionally, this decision was based solely upon the degree of fracture displacement. However, in the last ten years, there has been a move to incorporate patient characteristics into the decision making process. Research demonstrating that joint replacement renders superior functional results when compared with IF, in the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures, has swayed the pendulum in favour of THR. However, a high risk of dislocation has always been the concern. Fortunately, there are newer technologies and alternative surgical approaches that can help reduce the risk of dislocation. The authors propose an algorithm for the treatment of femoral neck fractures: if minimally displaced, in the absence of hip joint arthritis, IF should be performed; if arthritis is present, or the fracture is displaced, then THR is preferred. PMID:25381407

Su, E P; Su, S L

2014-11-01

147

Combined tracheoesophageal transection after blunt neck trauma  

PubMed Central

Survival following tracheoesophageal transection is uncommon. Establishing a secure airway has the highest priority in trauma management. Understanding the mechanism of the incident can be a useful adjunct in predicting the likelihood and severity of specific anatomical patterns of injuries. We discuss published literature on combined tracheoesophageal injuries after blunt neck trauma and their outcome. A search of MEDLINE for papers published regarding tracheoesophageal injury was made. The literature search identified 14 such articles referring to a total of 27 patients. Age ranged from 3-73 years. The mechanism of injury was secondary to a rope/wire in 33%, metal bar in 4% of cases and unspecified in 63%. All of the patients were managed surgically. A number of tissues were used to protect the anastomosis including pleural and sternocleidomastoid muscle flaps. There were no reported mortalities. Patients with combined tracheoesophageal injury after blunt neck trauma require acute management of airway along with concomitant occult injuries. PMID:23723621

Hamid, Umar Imran; Jones, James Mark

2013-01-01

148

Combined tracheoesophageal transection after blunt neck trauma.  

PubMed

Survival following tracheoesophageal transection is uncommon. Establishing a secure airway has the highest priority in trauma management. Understanding the mechanism of the incident can be a useful adjunct in predicting the likelihood and severity of specific anatomical patterns of injuries. We discuss published literature on combined tracheoesophageal injuries after blunt neck trauma and their outcome. A search of MEDLINE for papers published regarding tracheoesophageal injury was made. The literature search identified 14 such articles referring to a total of 27 patients. Age ranged from 3-73 years. The mechanism of injury was secondary to a rope/wire in 33%, metal bar in 4% of cases and unspecified in 63%. All of the patients were managed surgically. A number of tissues were used to protect the anastomosis including pleural and sternocleidomastoid muscle flaps. There were no reported mortalities. Patients with combined tracheoesophageal injury after blunt neck trauma require acute management of airway along with concomitant occult injuries. PMID:23723621

Hamid, Umar Imran; Jones, James Mark

2013-04-01

149

Cutaneous Angiosarcoma of Head and Neck  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous angiosarcoma is a rare aggressive tumor of capillary and lymphatic endothelial cell origin. Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the head and neck regions seems to be a distinctive neoplasm with characteristic clinicopathologic features that differ from angiosarcoma in other anatomic locations. Angiosarcoma, regardless of their setting, has a bad prognosis. We presented here a case of 80 years old male, with multiple nontender grouped purple to red hemorrhagic vesicular and bullous lesions over left lower cheek and upper neck area, with bilateral cervical lymph nodes since 1 month. Computed tomography thorax showed nodular opacities in the right upper and midzones. Excisional biopsy showed characterstic “dissection of collagen” with mild nuclear atypia. Immunohistochemistry showed tumor cell positive for CD-31 and Fli-1. Patient died within 1 month of presentation. PMID:25484419

Vora, Rita; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Gupta, Rajat

2014-01-01

150

[Fracture of the femoral neck in children].  

PubMed

The femoral neck fractures in children are very rare. It is difficult to elaborate a standard of treatment of this disorder in children, because of a little amount of publications on this subject. The common complications which occur are physis premature closure, coxa vara, avascular necrosis of the head and neck of femur and ocasionally nonunion. The paper analyses 18 cases of fracture in children at the age of 4 to 16 years old (average 8 years old) who were treated at the clinic since 1990 to 2003. Cohort of patients included 7 boys and 11 girls. Fractures were classified according to Delbet: 4 cases of type II and 14 cases of type III. In 17 cases left and in 1 case right femur was involved. Operative treatment was performed by means of open reduction (anterior approach), and internal fixation: in 10 cases fixation with lag screws for cancellous bone; in 2 cases with lag screw and Kirschner wire; in 1 case fixation with angular blade. Postoperatively patients were placed in hip spica cast for 6 weeks. Full weightbearing was allowed after fracture united and AVN was excluded. Follow up time was from 1.5 to 12 years (average 6 years). Outcomes were analysed according to the fracture type and treatment kind. Functional and radiologic results were evaluated according to Ratliff's score. Basing on the analysed material, the authors of the essay conclude that patients with femoral neck fracture type II and type III according to Delbet, who had dislocation of the part of bone femur should have a surgical treatment applied, while the non-surgical treatment should be applied with the patients who have femoral neck fracture with no dislocation of the part of bone femur. PMID:17639913

Lipczyk, Zbigniew; Niedzielski, Kryspin; Kraska, Tomasz

2007-01-01

151

Translational Research in Head and Neck Oncology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Translational research in head and neck oncology has evolved dramatically. Ongoing discoveries in basic mechanisms of cancer\\u000a biology and technological advances in both diagnostic imaging and radiation delivery have enhanced the ability to improve\\u000a treatment outcomes. The overarching goal for all translational research should be to enlarge the armamentarium from which\\u000a clinicians can rationally select the most appropriate options for

David S. Yoo; David M. Brizel

152

Pathologic femoral neck fractures in children.  

PubMed

Pathologic fractures in children occur in a variety of malignant and benign pathologic processes. Pediatric pathologic femoral neck fractures are particularly rare. Until now, all reported cases have been isolated cases, small series, or cases reported in series of adult pathologic hip fractures. The present article is the first report of a relatively large series of pathologic femoral neck fractures in a pediatric population. We identified pathologic femoral neck fractures, including 2 basicervical fractures, in 15 children (9 boys, 6 girls) ranging in age from 18 months to 15 years (mean age, 9 years) and treated between 1960 and 2000. The pathologic diagnoses were fibrous dysplasia (5 children), unicameral bone cyst (2), Ewing's sarcoma (2), osteomyelitis (2), leukemia (1), rhabdomyosarcoma (1), osteogenesis imperfecta (1), and osteopetrosis (1). Treatment methods, including time to reduction and fixation, were reviewed in detail. One patient was lost to follow-up. All others were followed until union; mean long-term follow-up was 7 years (range, 1-16 years). All patients ultimately went on to union. Mean time to union was 19 weeks (range, 5-46 weeks). However, 2 patients died before 2 years. There was a 40% complication rate, with limb-length discrepancy being the most common (4 children). No patient developed avascular necrosis. Pathologic femoral neck fractures are rare in children. Pediatric patients who present with a pathologic hip fracture are at significant risk for complications. Physicians and family should be alerted to the prolonged course involved in treating these fractures to union. PMID:19340370

Shrader, M Wade; Schwab, Joseph H; Shaughnessy, William J; Jacofsky, David J

2009-02-01

153

Vertebral Distraction during Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Causes Postoperative Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective Vertebral distraction is routinely performed during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Overdistraction can injure the facet joints and may cause postoperative neck pain consequently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of distraction force during ACDF. Methods This study included 24 consecutive patients with single level cervical disc disease undergoing single level ACDF. We measure the maximum torque just before the the arm of the Caspar retractor was suspended by the rachet mechanism by turning the lever on the movable arm using a torque meter. In order to turn the lever using the torque driver, we made a linear groove on the top of the lever. We compared the neck disability index (NDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores between the high torque group (distraction force>6 kgf·cm) and the low torque group (distraction force?6 kgf·cm) at routine postoperative intervals of 1, 3, 5 days and 1, 3, 6 months. Results The VAS scores for posterior neck pain had a linear correlation with torque at postoperative 1st and 3rd days (y=0.99×-1.1, r2=0.82; y=0.77×-0.63, r2=0.73, respectively). VAS scores for posterior neck pain were lower in the low torque group than in the high torque group on both 1 and 3 days postoperatively (3.1±1.3, 2.6±1.0 compared with 6.0±0.6, 4.9±0.8, p<0.01). However, the difference in NDI scores was not statistically significant in all postoperative periods. Conclusion Vertebral distraction may cause posterior neck pain in the immediate postoperative days. We recommend not to distract the intervertebral disc space excessively with a force of more than 6.0 kgf·cm. PMID:23908702

Ha, Seung Man; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Oh, Seung Hun; Song, Ji Hwan; Kim, Hyoung Ihl

2013-01-01

154

Inverted drop testing and neck injury potential.  

PubMed

Inverted drop testing of vehicles is a methodology that has long been used by the automotive industry and researchers to test roof integrity and is currently being considered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as a roof strength test. In 1990 a study was reported which involved 8 dolly rollover tests and 5 inverted drop tests. These studies were conducted with restrained Hybrid III instrumented Anthropometric Test Devices (ATD) in production and rollcaged vehicles to investigate the relationship between roof strength and occupant injury potential. The 5 inverted drop tests included in the study provided a methodology producing "repeatable roof impacts" exposing the ATDs to the similar impact environment as those seen in the dolly rollover tests. Authors have conducted two inverted drop test sets as part of an investigation of two real world rollover accidents. Hybrid-III ATD's were used in each test with instrumented head and necks. Both test sets confirm that reduction of roof intrusion and increased headroom can significantly enhance occupant protection. In both test pairs, the neck force of the dummy in the vehicle with less crush and more survival space was significantly lower. Reduced roof crush and dynamic preservation of the occupant survival space resulted in only minor occupant contact and minimal occupant loading, establishing a clear causal relationship between roof crush and neck injuries. PMID:12724903

Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

2003-01-01

155

Perforator Flaps in Head and Neck Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Free tissue transfer has revolutionized the management of complex head and neck defects. Perforator flaps represent the most recent advance in the development of free flap surgery. These flaps are based on perforating vessels and can be harvested without significant damage to associated muscles, thereby reducing the postoperative morbidity associated with muscle-based flaps. Elevation of perforator flaps requires meticulous technique and can be more challenging than raising muscle-based flaps. Use of a Doppler device enables reliable identification of the perforating vessels and aids in the design of free-style free flaps, where the flaps are designed purely according to the perforator located. The major advantage of free-style free flaps is that an unlimited number of flaps can potentially be designed on much shorter pedicles. The anterolateral thigh flap is the most commonly used perforator flap in head and neck reconstruction. Its use is described in detail, as is use of other less common perforator flaps. This article also describes head and neck reconstruction in a region-specific manner and gives a short-list of suitable flaps based on the location of the defect. PMID:22550446

Chana, Jagdeep S.; Odili, Joy

2010-01-01

156

Head and Neck Cancers in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Head and neck cancers are the most common cancers in developing countries, especially in Southeast Asia. Head and neck cancers are more common in males compared to females. This is mainly attributed to tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, etc. Oral cancers are most common amongst all head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC). HNSCC in the developing world differ from those in the Western world in terms of age, site of disease, etiology, and molecular biology. Poverty, illiteracy, advanced stage at presentation, lack of access to health care, and poor treatment infrastructure pose a major challenge in management of these cancers. The annual GDP (gross domestic product) spent on health care is very low in developing countries compared to the developed countries. Cancer treatment leads to a significant financial burden on the cancer patients and their families. Several health programs have been implemented to curb this rising burden of disease. The main aims of these health programs are to increase awareness among people regarding tobacco and to improve access to health care facilities, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliative care. PMID:24808947

Joshi, Poonam; Dutta, Sourav; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Nair, Sudhir

2014-01-01

157

Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck  

PubMed Central

Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1–3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

2013-01-01

158

Acoustic estimation of neck fluid volume.  

PubMed

Recently we showed that fluid accumulation in the neck can narrow the upper airway (UA) and increase its collapsibility, which may exacerbate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the available methods for measuring neck fluid volume (NFV) are inconvenient and expensive. Narrowing of the UA due to fluid accumulation could change acoustic characteristics of respiratory sounds. In this study, we developed a novel approach for non-invasive estimation of NFV from acoustic measurements. Twenty-eight healthy subjects lay awake and supine for 90 min while NFV and tracheal sounds were measured simultaneously using bioimpedance and a microphone, respectively. Sets of tracheal sound features were calculated in time and frequency domains and were reduced using methods based on regression and minimum-redundancy-maximum-relevance. The resulting feature sets were applied to a multi-linear regression and a mixture-density neural network to estimate NFV. Our results show very small relative estimation errors of 1.25 and 3.23%, based on the regression and neural network methods, respectively. These results support the practical application of this technology in diagnosing fluid accumulation in the neck and its possible contributions to the pathogenesis of OSA. PMID:25103604

Yadollahi, A; Rudzicz, F; Mahallati, S; Coimbra, M; Bradley, T D

2014-10-01

159

Experimental Injury Biomechanics of the Pediatric Neck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor vehicle related crashes rank as the most common cause of spinal related injuries in the pediatric population (Platzer et al. 2007; Brown et al. 2001; Kokoska et al. 2001; Eleraky et al. 2000; Hamilton and Myles 1992a; Bonadio 1993; Babcock 1975). Pediatric spinal related trauma accounts for between 1 and 12 % of all spinal related injuries (Hamilton and Myles 1992a; Hadley et al. 1988; Aufdermaur 1974). Cervical spine trauma in children accounts for approximately 2 % of all cervical spinal injuries (Henrys et al. 1977). Approximately 1-2 % of all children admitted for traumatic injury are related to injuries to the cervical spine (Platzer et al. 2007; Brown et al. 2001; Kokoska et al. 2001; Orenstein et al. 1994; Rachesky et al. 1987). Overall, pediatric neck injury rates are significantly lower than adult rates; however, the neck injury rate in children between the ages of 11 and 15 years approaches the adult rate of 18.8 per 100,000 (McGrory et al 1993; Myers and Winkelstein 1995). For children less than 11 years of age, neck injuries are relatively rare (1.2 per 100,000), but have particularly devastating consequences (McGrory et al. 1993). The overall mortality rate amongst victims of pediatric spinal trauma is approximately 16-41 % but considerably higher for the youngest ages (Platzer et al. 2007; Brown et al. 2001; Kokoska et al. 2001; Eleraky et al. 2000; Givens et al. 1996; Orenstein et al. 1994; Hamilton and Myles 1992b).

Nightingale, Roger W.; Luck, Jason F.

160

Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: II. Analysis of Specific Subsets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forces generated in the cervical spine were evaluated for a substantial number of motor-vehicle occupants in an associated study.[1] Correlation between these forces and various occupant- and impact-related parameters was generally not high for the broad groupings of the population considered at that time. In this research, smaller subsets with more elements in common were extracted from the data to try to detect any underlying relationships that might exist for the neck force. Although correlation coefficients for these subsets were higher than those for the previous groupings in more than three-quarters of the matches undertaken, the values still did not indicate consistently good fits. This suggests that there is no simple relationship for the force within the cervical spine and this, in turn, means that the potential for neck injury has to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. 1. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: I. Overview of Large Population, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. in press (2000).

Shaibani, Saami J.

2000-03-01

161

X-pinch dynamics: Neck formation and implosion  

SciTech Connect

We propose a model that describes the neck formation and implosion in an X-pinch. The process is simulated to go in two stages. The first stage is neck formation. This stage begins with an electrical explosion of the wires forming the X-pinch, and at the end of the stage, a micropinch (neck) is formed in the region where the wires are crossed. The second stage is neck implosion. The implosion is accompanied by outflow of matter from the neck region, resulting in the formation of a “hot spot”. Analytical estimates obtained in the study under consideration indicate that these stages are approximately equal in duration. Having analyzed the neck implosion dynamics, we have verified a scaling which makes it possible to explain the observed dependences of the time of occurrence of an x-ray pulse on the X-pinch current and mass.

Oreshkin, V. I. [Institute of High Current Electronics, SB, RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Chaikovsky, S. A. [Institute of High Current Electronics, SB, RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Artyomov, A. P.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Fedunin, A. V.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S. [Institute of High Current Electronics, SB, RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

2014-10-15

162

Neck Pain in Military Helicopter Pilots: Prevalence and Associated Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim is to estimate the self-reported one-year prevalence of neck pain in military helicopter pilots and to compare work-related, individual, and health-related factors in the pilots with (neck pain group) and without (reference group) regular or continuous neck pain. A questionnaire was completed by 75% (n = 113) of all military helicopter pilots of the Royal Netherlands Air Force

Oord van den M. H. A. H; Loose de V; T. Meeuwsen; J. K. Sluiter; M. H. W. Frings-Dresen

2010-01-01

163

Neck Pain in Military Helicopter Pilots: Prevalence and Associated Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim is to estimate the self-reported one-year prevalence of neck pain in military helicopter pilots and to compare work-related, individual, and health-related factors in the pilots with (neck pain group) and without (reference group) regular or continuous neck pain, A questionnaire was completed by 75% (n = 113) of all military helicopter pilots of the Royal Netherlands Air Force

Marieke H. A. H. van den Oord; Veerle De Loose; Judith K. Sluiter; Monique H. W. Frings-Dresen

2010-01-01

164

Interventional neuroradiology applications in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery.  

PubMed

A review of the current clinical applications of a variety of percutaneous and endovascular interventional procedures of the extracranial head and neck is presented. After a description of general principles and embolic agents for interventional procedures, management of specific disorders is presented and procedural steps are described for epistaxis, embolization of vascular head and neck tumors, high-flow and low-flow cervical vascular malformations, head and neck trauma and bleeding, radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation of tumors, along with percutaneous biopsy within the head and neck. PMID:23153756

Jindal, Gaurav; Gemmete, Joseph; Gandhi, Dheeraj

2012-12-01

165

Corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks compared to titanium modular necks in a simulator test.  

PubMed

This study compared the corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks with that of titanium alloy modular necks at their junction to titanium-alloy femoral stem. Tests were performed in a dry assembly and two wet assemblies, one contaminated with calf serum and the other contaminated with calf serum and bone particles. Whereas the titanium modular neck tested in the dry assembly showed no signs of corrosion, the titanium modular necks tested in both wet assemblies showed marked depositions and corrosive attacks. By contrast, the tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks showed no traces of corrosion or chemical attack in any of the three assemblies. This study confirms the protective effect of tantalum coating the taper region of cobalt-chromium modular neck components, suggesting that the use of tantalum may reduce the risk of implant failure due to corrosion. PMID:24099841

Dorn, Ulrich; Neumann, Daniel; Frank, Mario

2014-04-01

166

p16(INK4a) /Ki-67 co-expression specifically identifies transformed cells in the head and neck region.  

PubMed

p16(INK4a) immunohistochemical overexpression is an overall reliable surrogate marker of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). However, cases of ambiguous p16(INK4a) overexpression are regularly detected in the head and neck: p16(INK4a) expression can be observed in non-malignant tissue, such as tonsillar crypt epithelium and a proportion of branchial cleft cysts. Additionally, diverse patterns of p16(INK4) expression can complicate interpretation of "p16(INK4a) -positivity". These aspects impede the unrestricted application of p16(INK4a) as a diagnostic marker in the head and neck. We hypothesized that combined detection of p16(INK4a) and the proliferation marker Ki-67 could support clarification of ambiguous p16(INK4a) expression in the head and neck by specifically indicating p16(INK4a) -expressing cells with proliferative activity. p16(INK4a) /Ki-67 co-expression in a combined staining procedure was correlated to distinct p16(INK4a) expression patterns and HPV status (HPV DNA followed by E6*I oncogene mRNA detection) in 147 HNSCC and 50 non-malignant head and neck samples. p16(INK4a) /Ki-67 co-expression only occurred in transformed cells of the head and neck. Co-expression was never detected in non-transformed cells. Combined p16(INK4a) /Ki-67 expression was stringently associated with a diffuse p16(INK4a) expression pattern. All HPV oncogene-expressing HNSCC showed p16(INK4a) /Ki-67 co-expression. We demonstrate that p16(INK4a) /Ki-67 co-expression occurs exclusively in transformed cells of the head and neck. Our findings indicate a substantial impact of combined p16(INK4a) /Ki-67 expression in the assessment of ambiguous p16(INK4a) expression in the head and neck by specifically identifying p16(INK4a) -expressing cells with proliferative activity. This property will be of considerable significance for head and neck histo- and cytopathology. PMID:25104331

Prigge, Elena-Sophie; Toth, Csaba; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Wagner, Steffen; Müller, Franziska; Wittekindt, Claus; Freier, Kolja; Plinkert, Peter; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Vinokurova, Svetlana; Klussmann, Jens Peter; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Reuschenbach, Miriam

2015-04-01

167

What a Pain in the Neck! Good Habits to Remember to Prevent Neck Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... on the arm of a couch. On the phone a lot? Use a speakerphone or headsets -- do not cradle the phone in your neck. Exercise. Treat your body to ... Bryn Mawr Ave., Ste 200 Rosemont, Illinois 60018 phone (847) 737-6000 fax (847) 754-4368 © 2015 ...

168

Fatigue During Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy: Prospective Study on 117 Consecutive Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Fatigue is an underevaluated cancer-related and treatment-related symptom. We analyzed fatigue in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 117 patients were enrolled (mean age, 58 years). Radiation therapy (median dose, 66 Gy) was given with either exclusive or postoperative intent in 52 and 65 patients, respectively. Chemotherapy (CT) was added before and/or during RT in 61 patients. The patients completed a 20-item questionnaire (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI-20]) before, during (weekly), and after RT. The impact of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors on fatigue was evaluated with unifactorial and multifactorial tests. Results: Fatigue level increased during RT reaching a maximum at Week 6 and then slowly decreased. In multivariate stepwise regression analysis age (inversely related, p < 0.05), psychologic disorders (p < 0.005), and previous head-and-neck surgery (inversely related, p < 0.005) were correlated with higher pre-RT fatigue level. Pre-RT fatigue score (p < 0.0001), induction and/or concomitant CT (p = 0.035), need of cortisone during RT (p = 0.005), and thyroid disorders (p = 0.032) were correlated with higher during-RT fatigue level. Pre-RT fatigue score (p < 0.0001), induction and/or concomitant CT (p < 0.001), and need of cortisone during RT (p < 0.005) were correlated with higher post-RT fatigue level. No impact of gender, performance status, comorbidities other than psychologic and thyroid, tumor stage/site, RT intent, dose, volume, duration, or toxicity was observed. Conclusion: Fatigue affects all patients undergoing RT for head-and-neck cancer, reaches maximum score at the 6th week of RT, and slowly decreases thereafter. Age, thyroid dysfunction, psychologic disorders, pre-RT fatigue score, CT, and cortisone use are correlated with RT-related fatigue levels.

Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy) and University of Milan, Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: barbara.fossa@ieo.it; Santoro, Luigi [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Alterio, Daniela [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Franchi, Benedetta [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Fiore, Maria Rosaria [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Fossati, Piero [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Kowalczyk, Anna [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk (Poland); Canino, Paola [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Ansarin, Mohssen [Division of Head and Neck Surgery, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Orecchia, Roberto [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy)

2007-06-01

169

Management of the neck in thyroid cancer.  

PubMed

The management of regional lymph nodes in thyroid carcinoma is guided by preoperative evaluation, histologic subtype, and often a consideration of data for potential benefit and morbidity of a neck dissection. The goal of lymphadenectomy is complete surgical resection of grossly evident metastatic disease and the removal of regional lymph node groups at highest risk for microscopic disease. Surgery should achieve disease eradication but preserve voice, airway, swallowing, and parathyroid function. This article discusses recommendations for addressing cervical lymph nodes in thyroid carcinoma, discusses current literature regarding the common histologic subtype (papillary carcinoma), and details our operative approach. PMID:25041957

Schoppy, David W; Holsinger, F Christopher

2014-08-01

170

Pathology Case Study: Left Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which six-year-old girl has neck mass five years after a liver transplant for biliary atresia. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Cohen, Lance

171

Imaging of Head and Neck Emergencies.  

PubMed

The anatomy of the head and neck contains very few structures that could be considered expendable and, consequently, is exceptionally intolerant to infection, inflammation, and injury. Acute pathologic processes in this body region, therefore, tend to result in significant suffering, functional impairment, or life endangerment if the diagnosis is missed or treatment is delayed. Many emergent processes within the cervical region also need to be considered for their possible impact on structures within the head and chest, into which there are many routes for potential communication. PMID:25476182

Brucker, Justin L; Gentry, Lindell R

2015-01-01

172

Intraarterial chemotherapy of head and neck tumors.  

PubMed

Forty-one patients with advanced recurrent or untreated and neck tumors were treated with intraarterial short-term (1-1 1/2 hr) infusion of cisplatin into the external carotid artery, achieving an immediate tumor response rate of 29.3%. Tumor extent within or beyond the territory of a single external carotid artery was the only significant factor identified affecting the tumor response rate (57.1% vs. 14.8%). Treatment with intraarterial chemotherapy using superselective catheterization before irradiation or surgery is beneficial in some patients. PMID:3082167

Lee, Y Y; Wallace, S; Dimery, I; Goepfert, H

1986-01-01

173

Sex-specific prediction of neck muscle volumes  

PubMed Central

Biomechanical analyses of the head and neck system require knowledge of neck muscle forces, which are often estimated from neck muscle volumes. Here we use magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of 17 subjects (6 females, 11 males) to develop a method to predict the volumes of 16 neck muscles by first predicting the total neck muscle volume (TMV) from subject sex and anthropometry, and then predicting individual neck muscle volumes using fixed volume proportions for each neck muscle. We hypothesized that the regression equations for total muscle volume as well as individual muscle volume proportions would be sex specific. We found that females have 59% lower TMV compared to males (females: 510±43 cm3, males: 814±64 cm3; p<0.0001) and that TMV (in cm3) was best predicted by a regression equation that included sex (male=0, female=1) and neck circumference (NC, in cm): TMV=269+13.7NC?233 Sex (adjusted R2=0.868; p<0.01). Individual muscle volume proportions were not sex specific for most neck muscles, although small sex differences existed for three neck muscles (obliqus capitis inferior, longus capitis, and sternocleidomastoid). When predicting individual muscle volumes in subjects not used to develop the model, coefficients of concordance ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. This method of predicting individual neck muscle volumes has the advantage of using only one sex-specific regression equation and one set of sex-specific volume proportions. These data can be used in biomechanical models to estimate muscle forces and tissue loads in the cervical spine. PMID:23351366

Zheng, Liying; Siegmund, Gunter; Ozyigit, Gulsum; Vasavada, Anita

2013-01-01

174

Is pressure pain sensitivity over the cervical musculature associated with neck disability in individuals with migraine?  

PubMed

The objective was to determine if disability due to neck pain is correlated with pressure pain sensitivity in the cervical muscles in patients with migraine. Thirty-two volunteers with migraine completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius and suboccipital muscles were also assessed. Data were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) and linear regression models (? < 0.05). Moderate negative correlations between NDI and PPT were obtained for the sternocleidomastoid (rs = -0.42; p = 0.001), upper trapezius (rs = -0.33; p = 0.001) and suboccipital muscles (rs = -0.41; p = 0.001). The linear regression revealed no association between NDI and PPT of sternocleidomastoid (? = 0.01; R(2) = 0.17), upper trapezius (? = 0.01; R(2) = 0.11) and suboccipital muscles (? = 0.02; R(2) = 0.17). NDI scores and PPT of the cervical muscles correlated moderately and was inversely proportional in patients with migraine, but the association was not linear, so both outcomes should be considered in the assessment of this population. PMID:25603745

Gonçalves, Maria Claudia; Chaves, Thaís Cristina; Florencio, Lidiane Lima; Carvalho, Gabriela Ferreira; Dach, Fabíola; Fernández-De-Las-Penãs, Cesar; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora

2015-01-01

175

78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...the actual data collection instrument. DATES: Comments must be...2900-- NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...65452

2013-10-31

176

Neck Forces and Moments and Head Accelerations in Side Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Although side-impact sled studies have investigated chest, abdomen, and pelvic injury mechanics, determination of head accelerations and the associated neck forces and moments is very limited. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the temporal forces and moments at the upper neck region and head angular accelerations and angular velocities using postmortem human subjects (PMHS).Methods: Anthropometric

Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar; Dennis J. Maiman; Mat Philippens; Jac Wismans

2009-01-01

177

Neck Proprioception Shapes Body Orientation and Perception of Motion  

PubMed Central

This review article deals with some effects of neck muscle proprioception on human balance, gait trajectory, subjective straight-ahead (SSA), and self-motion perception. These effects are easily observed during neck muscle vibration, a strong stimulus for the spindle primary afferent fibers. We first remind the early findings on human balance, gait trajectory, SSA, induced by limb, and neck muscle vibration. Then, more recent findings on self-motion perception of vestibular origin are described. The use of a vestibular asymmetric yaw-rotation stimulus for emphasizing the proprioceptive modulation of motion perception from the neck is mentioned. In addition, an attempt has been made to conjointly discuss the effects of unilateral neck proprioception on motion perception, SSA, and walking trajectory. Neck vibration also induces persistent aftereffects on the SSA and on self-motion perception of vestibular origin. These perceptive effects depend on intensity, duration, side of the conditioning vibratory stimulation, and on muscle status. These effects can be maintained for hours when prolonged high-frequency vibration is superimposed on muscle contraction. Overall, this brief outline emphasizes the contribution of neck muscle inflow to the construction and fine-tuning of perception of body orientation and motion. Furthermore, it indicates that tonic neck-proprioceptive input may induce persistent influences on the subject’s mental representation of space. These plastic changes might adapt motion sensitiveness to lasting or permanent head positional or motor changes. PMID:25414660

Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; Schieppati, Marco

2014-01-01

178

Conversation about Necks--and Minds and Bodies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that by considering necks in a literal sense it may be possible to envision new metaphors for understanding minds, bodies, and ways of knowing. Discusses necks as important signs for such ideas as beauty or fragility. Focuses on views of epistemology, such as the disembodied way of knowing. (CMK)

Jeffers, Carol S.

2000-01-01

179

Head and Neck Answers - MP/H Rules  

Cancer.gov

Answers and Rationale Head and Neck Case # Primary Data Item Name Preferred Answer Rationale Head/Neck 1 Is this a multiple primary? Yes/No Yes Tumors in sites with IC D-O-3 topography codes that are different at the second character are multiple

180

NECK LOCALIZATION AND GEOMETRY QUANTIFICATION OF INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSMS  

E-print Network

NECK LOCALIZATION AND GEOMETRY QUANTIFICATION OF INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSMS E. Sgouritsaa , A. Mohamedb ABSTRACT We present an approach for accurate localization of the neck of intracranial aneurysms the surface of the segmented vessel. We then separate the aneurysm from the parent vessels and localize its

Kakadiaris, Ioannis

181

A Modified Dissection Method to Preserve Neck Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neck is not only one of the more challenging anatomical regions to dissect but also has important application to clinical conditions, diseases, and procedures. In this study, we describe two simple modifications for dissection of the neck that (1) aid in the identification and preservation of the cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus and…

Hankin, Mark H.; Stoller, Jeremy L.

2009-01-01

182

Chiropractic spinal manipulation for neck pain: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chiropractic spinal manipulation (CSM) is often used as a treatment for neck pain. However, its effectiveness is unclear. The aim of this article was to evaluate systematically and critically the effectiveness of CSM for neck pain. Six electronic databases were searched for all relevant randomized clinical trials. Strict inclusion\\/exclusion criteria had been predefined. Key data were validated and extracted. Methodologic

Edzard Ernst

2003-01-01

183

Paragangliomas of the head and neck: diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paragangliomas of the head and neck (HNP) represent rare tumors of neural crest origin. They are highly vascular neoplasms that are benign in the majority of cases. The site of origin defines the name given those tumors. In the head and neck, they most commonly occur at the carotid bifurcation, where they are referred to as carotid body tumors (CBT).

C. C. Boedeker; G. J. Ridder; J. Schipper

2005-01-01

184

Head and Neck Cases - MP/H Rules  

Cancer.gov

Head and Neck Case 1 PATIENT HISTORY Patient History May 7, 2007 Otolaryngology Head & Neck Subjective: Patient was recently seen by a dentist, who noted a roughness in his lower alveolus, and wanted to have this evaluated prior to denture fitting.

185

Evidence for exercise therapy in mechanical neck disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of neck disorders being so common in the population, little evidence supporting effective interventions has been identified. The objective of this systematic review was to determine if various exercise methods are effective in treating the different mechanical neck disorders occurring in adults. Sixteen trials were included: nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and seven randomized comparative trials (CTs). The

H Sarig-Bahat

2003-01-01

186

The skull and neck of the basal theropod Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the skull and neck of Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis from specimens discovered recently in the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation of northwestern Argentina. The skull has a rectangular profile and a transversely narrow snout. Marked supratemporal depressions for jaw adductor musculature on the skull roof and a well-developed, sliding intra-mandibular joint suggest that Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis was an active predator. The neck

Paul C. Sereno; Fernando E. Novas

1994-01-01

187

Pain experience following radical treatment for head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an investigation into the quality of life of people in the year following radical treatment for head and neck cancer, it became apparent that pain was a significant problem. Therefore, the current study was conducted to gain an understanding of the incidence and nature of pain in people who had received radical treatment for head and neck cancer and

Zoe Whale; Patricia A. Lyne; Panos Papanikolaou

2001-01-01

188

Tuberculosis of gallbladder neck: a cause of cholecystitis with cholelithiasis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of gallbladder neck is not a very common problem reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of gallbladder neck tuberculosis complicated with chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis in a 55-year-old woman. Diagnosis was made postoperatively on surgical biopsy. PMID:23413288

Verma, S K; Mishra, Ashwini Kumar; Jaiswal, Ashish Kumar

2013-01-01

189

A head-neck-eye system that learns fault-tolerant saccades to 3-D targets using a self-organizing neural model.  

PubMed

This paper describes a head-neck-eye camera system that is capable of learning to saccade to 3-D targets in a self-organized fashion. The self-organized learning process is based on action perception cycles where the camera system performs micro saccades about a given head-neck-eye camera position and learns to map these micro saccades to changes in position of a 3-D target currently in view of the stereo camera. This motor babbling phase provides self-generated movement commands that activate correlated visual, spatial and motor information that are used to learn an internal coordinate transformation between vision and motor systems. The learned transform is used by resulting head-neck-eye camera system to accurately saccade to 3-D targets using many different combinations of head, neck, and eye positions. The interesting aspect of the learned transform is that it is robust to a wide variety of disturbances including reduced degrees of freedom of movement for the head, neck, one eye, or any combination of two of the three, movement of head and neck as a function of eye movements, changes in the stereo camera separation distance and changes in focal lengths of the cameras. These disturbances were not encountered during motor babbling phase. This feature points to general nature of the learned transform in its ability to control autonomous systems with redundant degrees of freedom in a very robust and fault-tolerant fashion. PMID:18775642

Srinivasa, Narayan; Grossberg, Stephen

2008-11-01

190

Swing of the surgical pendulum: a return to surgery for treatment of head and neck cancer in the 21st century?  

PubMed

Treatment for head and neck cancer has evolved significantly during the past 100 years. Beginning with Bilroth's total laryngectomy on New Year's Day in 1873, "radical" surgery remained the only accepted treatment for head and neck cancer when optimal local and regional control was the goal. Bigger was still better when it came to managing the primary tumor and the neck. The "commando" procedure and radical neck dissection were the hallmarks of this first generation of treatments of head-and-neck cancer. With the advent of microvascular reconstructive techniques, larger and more comprehensive resections could be performed. Despite these large resections and their "mutilating" sequelae, overall survival did not improve. Even for intermediate-stage disease in head-and-neck cancer, the 5-year survival rate did not improve >50%. Many concluded that more than the scalpel was needed for optimal local and regional control, especially for intermediate- and advanced-stage disease. Most important, the multidisciplinary teams must identify and correlate biomarkers in the tumor and host that predict for a response to therapy and for optimal functional recovery. As the pendulum swings back, a scientific approach using tissue biomarkers for the response to treatment in the setting of multidisciplinary trials must emerge as the new paradigm. In the postgenomic era, treatment decisions should be made based on functional and oncologic parameters-not just to avoid perceived morbidity. PMID:17848281

Holsinger, F Christopher; Weber, Randal S

2007-01-01

191

Photodynamic therapy in head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a special type of treatment involving the use of a photosensitizer or a photosensitizing agent along with a special type of light, which, combined together, induces production of a form of oxygen that is used to kill surrounding cells in different areas of the human body. Specification of the head and neck region requires different approaches due to the surrounding of vital structures. PDT can also be used to treat cells invaded with infections such as fungi, bacteria and viruses. The light beam placed in tumor sites activates locally applied drugs and kills the cancer cells. Many studies are taking place in order to invent better photosensitizers, working on a larger scale and to treat deeply placed and larger tumors. It seems that PDT could be used as an alternative surgical treatment in some tumor types; however, all clinicians should be aware that the surgical approach is still the treatment of choice. PDT is a very accurate and effective therapy, especially in early stages of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), and can greatly affect surgical outcomes in cancerous patients. We present a detailed review about photosensitizers, their use, and therapeutic advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24491903

Nelke, Kamil H; Pawlak, Wojciech; Leszczyszyn, Jaros?aw; Gerber, Hanna

2014-01-01

192

Photodynamic therapy in head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a special type of treatment involving the use of a photosensitizer or a photosensitizing agent along with a special type of light, which, combined together, induces production of a form of oxygen that is used to kill surrounding cells indifferent areas of the human body. Specification of the head and neck region requires different approaches due to the surrounding of vital structures. PDT can also be used to treat cells invaded with infections such as fungi, bacteria and viruses. The light beam placed in tumor sites activates locally applied drugs and kills the cancer cells. Many studies are taking place in order to invent better photosensitizers, working on a larger scale and to treat deeply placed and larger tumors. It seems that PDT could be used as an alternative surgical treatment in some tumor types; however, all clinicians should be aware that the surgical approach is still the treatment of choice. PDT is a very accurate and effective therapy, especially in early stages of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), and can greatly affect surgical outcomes in cancerous patients. We present a detailed review about photosensitizers,their use, and therapeutic advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24988638

Nelke, Kamil H; Pawlak, Wojciech; Leszczyszyn, Jaros?aw; Gerber, Hanna

2014-01-01

193

Fixation of the fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem implanted due to femoral neck fracture  

PubMed Central

Background Today, dislocated femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a cemented hip arthroplasty. However, cementing of the femoral component may lead to adverse effects and even death. Uncemented stems may lower these risks and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating may enhance integration, but prosthetic stability and clinical outcome in patients with osteoporotic bone have not been fully explored. We therefore studied fixation and clinical outcome in patients who had had a femoral neck fracture and who had received a fully HA-coated stem prosthesis. Patients and methods 50 patients with a dislocated femoral neck fracture were operated with the fully HA-coated Corail total or hemiarthroplasty. 38 patients, mean age 81 (70–96) years, were followed for 24 months with conventional radiographs, RSA, DEXA, and for clinical outcome. Results 31 of the 38 implants moved statistically significantly up to 3 months, mainly distally, mean 2.7 mm (max. 20 mm (SD 4.3)), and rotated into retroversion mean 3.3º (–1.8 to 17) (SD 4.3) and then appeared to stabilize. Distal stem migration was more pronounced if the stem was deemed to be too small. There was no correlation between BMD and stem migration. The migration did not result in any clinically adverse effects. Interpretation The fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem migrates during the first 3 months, but clinical outcome appears to be good, without any adverse events. PMID:22112154

2012-01-01

194

BUTIER CLAMS OR UTILE NECK CLAMS Butter clanlS (Saxidornus nuttali) and little-neck clams (Tapes  

E-print Network

SHELLFISH CLAMS BUTIER CLAMS OR UTILE NECK CLAMS Butter clanlS (Saxidornus nuttali) and little-neck clams (Tapes starninea) are found in Oregon, Washington, British Columbia and Alaska, where they are canned in varying quantities, princi- pally in the Puget Sound area. The clams are found in gravel

195

Modelling of Local Necking and Fracture in Aluminium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-linear Finite Element simulations are extensively used in forming and crashworthiness studies of automotive components and structures in which fracture need to be controlled. For thin-walled ductile materials, the fracture-related phenomena that must be properly represented are thinning instability, ductile fracture and through-thickness shear instability. Proper representation of the fracture process relies on the accuracy of constitutive and fracture models and their parameters that need to be calibrated through well defined experiments. The present study focuses on local necking and fracture which is of high industrial importance, and uses a phenomenological criterion for modelling fracture in aluminium alloys. As an accurate description of plastic anisotropy is important, advanced phenomenological constitutive equations based on the yield criterion YLD2000/YLD2003 are used. Uniaxial tensile tests and disc compression tests are performed for identification of the constitutive model parameters. Ductile fracture is described by the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion and an in-plane shear tests is performed to identify the fracture parameter. The reason is that in a well designed in-plane shear test no thinning instability should occur and it thus gives more direct information about the phenomenon of ductile fracture. Numerical simulations have been performed using a user-defined material model implemented in the general-purpose non-linear FE code LS-DYNA. The applicability of the model is demonstrated by correlating the predicted and experimental response in the in-plane shear tests and additional plane strain tension tests.

Achani, D.; Eriksson, M.; Hopperstad, O. S.; Lademo, O.-G.

2007-05-01

196

Femoral neck stress fracture in Air Force basic trainees.  

PubMed

Stress fractures are a common overuse problem among military trainees resulting in preventable morbidity, prolonged training, and long-term disability following military service. Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSFs) account for 2% of all stress fractures but result in disproportionate burden in terms of cost and convalescence. The purpose of this study was to describe and investigate FNSF in U.S. Air Force basic trainees and to present new data on risks factors for developing FNSF. We examined 47 cases of FNSF occurring in Air Force basic trainees between 2008 and 2011 and 94 controls using a matched case-control model. Analysis with t tests and conditional logistic regression found the risk of FNSF was not associated with body mass index or abdominal circumference. Female gender (p < 0.001) and slower run time significantly increased risk of FNSF (1.49 OR, p < 0.001; 95% CI 1.19-1.86). A greater number of push-up and sit-up repetitions significantly reduced risk of FNSF (0.55 OR, p = 0.03; 95% CI 0.32-0.93; 0.62 OR, p = 0.04; 95% CI 0.4-0.98) for females. In this study body mass index was not correlated with FNSF risk; however, physical fitness level on arrival to training and female gender were significantly associated with risk of FNSF. PMID:24402986

Kupferer, Kevin R; Bush, David M; Cornell, John E; Lawrence, Valerie A; Alexander, Jeffrey L; Ramos, Rosemarie G; Curtis, Denice

2014-01-01

197

Modelling of Local Necking and Fracture in Aluminium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Non-linear Finite Element simulations are extensively used in forming and crashworthiness studies of automotive components and structures in which fracture need to be controlled. For thin-walled ductile materials, the fracture-related phenomena that must be properly represented are thinning instability, ductile fracture and through-thickness shear instability. Proper representation of the fracture process relies on the accuracy of constitutive and fracture models and their parameters that need to be calibrated through well defined experiments. The present study focuses on local necking and fracture which is of high industrial importance, and uses a phenomenological criterion for modelling fracture in aluminium alloys. As an accurate description of plastic anisotropy is important, advanced phenomenological constitutive equations based on the yield criterion YLD2000/YLD2003 are used. Uniaxial tensile tests and disc compression tests are performed for identification of the constitutive model parameters. Ductile fracture is described by the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion and an in-plane shear tests is performed to identify the fracture parameter. The reason is that in a well designed in-plane shear test no thinning instability should occur and it thus gives more direct information about the phenomenon of ductile fracture. Numerical simulations have been performed using a user-defined material model implemented in the general-purpose non-linear FE code LS-DYNA. The applicability of the model is demonstrated by correlating the predicted and experimental response in the in-plane shear tests and additional plane strain tension tests.

Achani, D. [Structural Design, Offshore Construction Engineering, SUBSEA7, NO-4056 Tananger (Norway); Eriksson, M. [SINTEF Materials and chemistry, Applied mechanics and corrosion, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Hopperstad, O. S. [SIMLab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lademo, O.-G. [SINTEF Materials and chemistry, Applied mechanics and corrosion, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); SIMLab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

2007-05-17

198

Diagnostic delays in head and neck cancers.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancers are a significant and worsening health problem in the UK. In the absence of screening, minimising diagnostic delay after the onset of symptoms improves prognosis. Delay, from the patient's initial experience of symptoms to the ultimate diagnosis, consists of two elements--the delay prior to presenting to a clinician plus that due to the health professional consulted. This study aimed to establish the period of delay between recognition of the initial tumour symptoms and the formal diagnosis among a sample of patients recently diagnosed with head and neck cancer. Using a semistructured questionnaire, 133 men and 55 women were interviewed by a research nurse, and the results were related to the clinical findings. Tumour size at diagnosis was classified according to T1 (22%), T2 (29%), T3 (27%) and T4 (22%). Of the 186 patients with complete hospital records, 48 (26%) were diagnosed with cancer of the lip and oral cavity (CLOC). From the onset of symptoms to the patients' initial decision to seek professional advice, the median period was 4 weeks among those with CLOC and 3 weeks for those with other head and neck cancers (OHNC). The distribution was highly skewed with delays beyond 6 months occurring among 9% of the OHNC group, compared with 3% of CLOC. From the onset of symptoms to a consultant appointment, the median delay was 8 weeks for OHNC, but 12 weeks for CLOC, with delays beyond 6 months of 13% in each group, respectively. First symptoms included 'change in voice' (26%), 'pain' (27%), 'lump' or 'growth' (12%) as well as dysphagia, 'infection', 'sore throat', 'ulcers' or 'abscess'. No significant association was found between the nature of the first symptoms and the urgency with which patients interpreted their symptoms, nor was this related to diagnostic delay, sex, age or social class. It is concluded that there is substantial variation in time to clinical presentation, particularly for OHNC, although professional delay for the majority of these cases was minimal. For patients with CLOC there was less variation in patient delay, but clinician delay was relatively longer. PMID:10889616

Amir, Z; Kwan, S Y; Landes, D; Feber, T; Williams, S A

1999-12-01

199

Outcome With Neck Dissection After Chemoradiation for N3 Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the role of neck dissection (ND) after chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with N3 disease. Methods and Materials: From March 1998 to September 2006, 70 patients with HNSCC and N3 neck disease were treated with concomitant CRT as primary therapy. Response to treatment was assessed using clinical examination and computed tomography 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment. Neck dissection was not routinely performed and considered for those with less than complete response. Of the patients, 26 (37.1%) achieved clinical complete response (cCR) after CRT. A total of 31 (44.3%) underwent ND after partial response (cPR-ND). Thirteen patients (29.5%) did not achieve cCR and did not undergo ND for the following reasons: incomplete response/progression at primary site, refusal/contraindication to surgery, metastatic progression, or death. These patients were excluded from the analysis. Outcomes were computed using Kaplan-Meier curves and were compared with log rank tests. Results: Comparing the cCR and cPR-ND groups at 2 years, the disease-free survival was respectively 62.7% and 84.9% (p = 0.048); overall survival was 63.0% and 79.4% (p = 0.26), regional relapse-free survival was 87.8% and 96.0% (p = 0.21); and distant disease-free survival was 67.1% and 92.6% (p = 0.059). In the cPR-ND group, 71.0% had no pathologic evidence of disease (PPV of 29.0%). Conclusions: Patients with N3 disease achieving regional cPR and primary cCR who underwent ND seemed to have better outcomes than patients achieving global cCR without ND. Clinical assessment with computed tomography is not adequate for evaluating response to treatment. Because of the inherent limitations of our study, further confirmatory studies are warranted.

Igidbashian, Levon, E-mail: levonig@hotmail.co [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal-Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada); Fortin, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal-Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada); Guertin, Louis [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal-Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada); Soulieres, Denis [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal-Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada); Coulombe, Genevieve [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal-Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada); Belair, Manon [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal-Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada); Charpentier, Danielle [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal-Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada); Tabet, Jean-Claude [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal-Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal-Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada)

2010-06-01

200

Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary: Neck Dissection and Radiotherapy or Definitive Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Management of head and neck carcinoma from unknown primary (HNCUP) remains controversial, with neck dissection and radiotherapy (ND+RT) or definitive RT both commonly used. We aimed to characterize HNCUP and retrospectively compare outcomes for patients treated with ND+RT versus definitive RT. Methods From 1994-2009, 41 HNCUP patients underwent either ND+RT (n=22) or definitive RT+ concurrent chemotherapy (n=19) at our institution. Treatment outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier methods and log-rank test. Results There were no differences between patients treated with ND+RT and definitive RT in overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), or locoregional-relapse-free survival, freedom-from-locoregional failure, or freedom-from-distant failure. Among 17 ND+RT patients for whom human papillomavirus (HPV) status could be determined, HPV(+) patients trended towards improved OS (p=0.06)and PFS (p=0.15). Conclusions Neck dissection and post-op RT resulted in similar outcome as definitive RT. The prognostic implications of HPV(+) nodes in HNCUP are similar to those in oropharyngeal primary cancers. PMID:23996575

Koukourakis, Georgios V.; Gutfeld, Orit; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R.; Wolf, Gregory T.; McLean, Scott; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Schipper, Matthew J.; McHugh, Jonathan B.

2014-01-01

201

Giant cell tumor of the talar neck.  

PubMed

We describe a patient with a giant cell tumor in the talar head and neck of the left foot who was diagnosed as having osteochondritis dissecans and treated with arthroscopic drilling in this same location 3 years earlier. Giant cell tumors can be confused with several conditions, including giant cell reparative granulomas, brown tumors, and aneurysmal bone cysts. Giant cell tumors of bone typically occur in the epiphysis of long bones, including the distal femur and proximal tibia. They are uncommonly found in the small bones of the foot or ankle, and talar involvement is rare. Despite this rarity, the radiographic appearance and clinical signs of talar lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nontraumatic conditions in the foot. PMID:17507533

Selek, Hakan; Ozer, Hamza; Turanli, Sacit; Erdem, Ozlem

2007-01-01

202

[Multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck cancer].  

PubMed

A new multidisciplinary treatment for head and neck cancer was shown by focusing on the maxillary and oropharyngeal carcinoma. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy which consists of cisplatin and peplomycin was incorporated into it. In terms of maxillary carcinoma, 2 courses of chemotherapy were given with an interval of 2 weeks, followed by radiotherapy (40 Gy) combined with intraarterial chemotherapy (5-FU). When no cancer cells were detected at the completion of this therapy, adjuvant chemoimmunotherapy was given. When an apparent tumor was still revealed by CT, radical surgery was performed. When cancer cells were detected only by histological examination, additional radiotherapy up to 60 Gy was given by Linac. The results obtained were analysed in 14 cases. We also presented another type of multidisciplinary treatment in oropharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:2414482

Inuyama, Y; Fujii, M; Tanaka, J; Takaoka, T; Hosoda, H; Kohno, N

1985-07-01

203

Angiosarcoma of the head and neck.  

PubMed

Angiosarcoma of the head and neck is a rare tumour of vascular origin that affects the elderly. A 74-year-old man who presented with bruise-like macules of the scalp and face is reported. He was treated for a few months with different antibiotics and anti-allergic medication by his own family doctor, and referred for specialist opinion when he failed to derive any benefits from the medications. A biopsy was obtained from the lesion and proved to be an angiosarcoma. A review of the literature indicates that the most important prognostic factor in this particular disease is the size of the lesion on presentation, hence the importance of early diagnosis. This case is reported, and the literature for similar cases is reviewed, to highlight the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this uncommon aggressive tumour in an attempt to help in the process of early diagnosis. PMID:9102449

el-Sharkawi, S

1997-02-01

204

Pathology Case Study: Neck and Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 28-year-old female who, after a car accident, complained of a sharp pain of the anterior and posterior base of the neck on expiration and with exertion. Visitors are given patient history, radiology results, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

Benjamin, Vallo; Hummel-Levine, Pascale; Zagzag, David

2009-03-16

205

The Articulation of Sauropod Necks: Methodology and Mythology  

PubMed Central

Sauropods are often imagined to have held their heads high atop necks that ascended in a sweeping curve that was formed either intrinsically because of the shape of their vertebrae, or behaviorally by lifting the head, or both. Their necks are also popularly depicted in life with poses suggesting avian flexibility. The grounds for such interpretations are examined in terms of vertebral osteology, inferences about missing soft tissues, intervertebral flexibility, and behavior. Osteologically, the pronounced opisthocoely and conformal central and zygapophyseal articular surfaces strongly constrain the reconstruction of the cervical vertebral column. The sauropod cervico-dorsal vertebral column is essentially straight, in contrast to the curvature exhibited in those extant vertebrates that naturally hold their heads above rising necks. Regarding flexibility, extant vertebrates with homologous articular geometries preserve a degree of zygapophyseal overlap at the limits of deflection, a constraint that is further restricted by soft tissues. Sauropod necks, if similarly constrained, were capable of sweeping out large feeding surfaces, yet much less capable of retracting the head to explore the enclosed volume in an avian manner. Behaviorally, modern vertebrates generally assume characteristic neck postures which are close to the intrinsic curvature of the undeflected neck. With the exception of some vertebrates that can retract their heads to balance above their shoulders at rest (e.g., felids, lagomorphs, and some ratites), the undeflected neck generally predicts the default head height at rest and during locomotion. PMID:24205266

Stevens, Kent A.

2013-01-01

206

Role of MTA1 in head and neck cancers.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancers usually originate in the squamous cells that line the inner mucosal surfaces of the oral and the neck region. These cancers follow multifocal steps for progression that include risk of developing metastasis. Although therapeutics has advanced in the past decades, head and neck cancers continue to cause much morbidity and mortality. Even with the promising effect of targeted therapies, there is a need for a better evaluation of patients with head and neck cancers. Metastasis-associated tumour antigen 1 (MTA1), a chromatin modifier, is found as an integral part of nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylation (NuRD) complex. MTA1 is a biomarker for several solid tumours, and the overexpression of which have been documented in various cancers such as breast, ovarian, colon, prostrate etc. Interestingly also, a set of head and neck cancers shows MTA1 overexpression. However, recent evidences from clinical data raise a critical question on the role of MTA1 in head and neck cancers. This calls for a detailed review to the role of MTA1 in oral cancer. This review gives a brief account on the existing biological and molecular data in the context of head and neck cancer invasion and metastasis in relation to MTA1. PMID:25359583

Marzook, Hezlin; Deivendran, S; Kumar, Rakesh; Pillai, M Radhakrishna

2014-12-01

207

Planned neck dissection following chemo-radiotherapy in advanced HNSCC  

PubMed Central

Background Neck dissection has traditionally played an important role in the management of patients with regionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with radical radiotherapy alone. However, with the incorporation of chemotherapy in the therapeutic strategy for advanced HNSCC and resultant improvement in outcome the routine use of post chemo-radiotherapy neck dissection is being questioned. Methods Published data for this review was identified by systematically searching MEDLINE, CANCERLIT & EMBASE databases from 1995 until date with restriction to the English language. Results There is lack of high quality evidence on the role of planned neck dissection in advanced HNSCC treated with chemo-radiotherapy. A systematic literature search could identify only one small randomized controlled trial (Level I evidence) addressing this issue, albeit with major limitations. Upfront neck dissection followed by chemo-radiotherapy resulted in better disease-specific survival as compared to chemoradiation only. Several single arm prospective and retrospective reports were also identified with significant heterogeneity and often-contradictory conclusions. Conclusions Planned neck dissection after radical chemo-radiotherapy achieves a high level of regional control, but its ultimate benefit is limited to a small subset of patients only. Unless there are better non-invasive ways to identify residual viable disease, the role of such neck dissection shall remain debatable. A large randomized controlled trial addressing this issue is needed to clarify its role and provide evidence-based answers. PMID:15377383

Gupta, Tejpal; Agarwal, Jai Prakash

2004-01-01

208

[Stereotactic irradiation in head and neck cancers].  

PubMed

Stereotactic radiotherapy is increasingly used in head and neck tumours, either as a boost for dose escalation/early salvage, or in the reirradiation setting. We aimed to assess the level of evidence for each clinical setting and to discuss the different dose and frationation regimens. A search of the French and English literature was performed on PubMed until December 2013. Stereotactic reirradiation of locally recurrent squamous cell carcinomas can be performed with overall survival rates of about 12 months with good quality of life, and acceptable toxicity, based on several phase 2 trials and retrospective studies. Nasopharyngeal carcinomas may be irradiated with even better control rates. Late severe toxicities yield up to 20-30%. Patient and tumour selection criteria (limited volume) and dose constraints to the carotids (cumulative dose 110 Gy or less, to avoid the risk of potentially lethal carotid blowout) must be carefully chosen. Fractionated regimens (at least five fractions) should be preferred (30 Gy in five fractions to 36 Gy in six fractions). Methods derived from stereotactic, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may be used with conventional fractionation for larger tumours. Stereotactic irradiation may be associated with cetuximab; data with chemotherapy or other targeted therapies are still lacking. Stereotactic irradiation is also used as a boost after 46 Gy IMRT in several institutions or for early salvage (8 to 10 weeks following full dose irradiation with evidence of residual tumour) in squamous or nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Such indications should be evaluated prospectively in clinical trials. Data in salivary gland and sinonasal neoplasms are still scarce. In conclusion, stereotactic body radiation therapy has the potential as a boost or in the reirradiation setting to improve local control in head and neck tumours. Careful hypofractionation with planning caring for the dose to the main vessels is highly recommended. Prospective studies with prolonged follow-up (at least 2 years) should be encouraged. PMID:25059767

Benhaïm, C; Lapeyre, M; Thariat, J

2014-01-01

209

Multidetector Computed Tomographic Angiography (MDCTA) for Penetrating Neck Injuries  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of patients after penetrating neck injury has evolved over time. Previously, location of injury and symptoms were used to determine management. The contemporary management of penetrating neck injuries relies on physical examination. Patients with hard signs of vascular or aerodigestive tract injury require immediate operation, regardless of location of injury. Those with no signs can be observed. For the remainder with soft signs, multidetector computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) is a highly sensitive and specific screening modality for evaluating the vasculature and aerodigestive structures in the neck. Utilizing MDCTA, the patient can be safely directed towards operative intervention, observation, or further investigation. PMID:23908840

Pasley, Jason; Berg, Regan J.; Inaba, Kenji

2012-01-01

210

Advances in chemotherapy for head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Systemic chemotherapy is increasingly being used with radiotherapy for the radical treatment of advanced head and neck cancers. Chemotherapy offers modest benefits in the metastatic setting. Platinum containing agents are the most active drugs and form the mainstay of most chemotherapy schedules. In recent years taxanes have been shown activity in head and neck cancers and are being incorporated into neo-adjuvant and concomitant chemotherapy regimens. Targeted agents EGFR inhibitors like cetuximab, in particular have shown benefit in the metastatic and the concomitant setting. EGFR inhibitors and other targeted agents form the thrust of pre-clinical and clinical research into systemic treatment of head and neck cancer. PMID:20400360

Bhide, S A; Nutting, C M

2010-06-01

211

Multi-atlas segmentation in head and neck CT scans  

E-print Network

We investigate automating the task of segmenting structures in head and neck CT scans, to minimize time spent on manual contouring of structures of interest. We focus on the brainstem and left and right parotids. To generate ...

Arbisser, Amelia M

2012-01-01

212

Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about oral complications, such as mucositis and salivary gland dysfunction, that occur in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy to the head and neck.

213

A Septin-Dependent Diffusion Barrier at Dendritic Spine Necks  

E-print Network

Excitatory glutamatergic synapses at dendritic spines exchange and modulate their receptor content via lateral membrane diffusion. Several studies have shown that the thin spine neck impedes the access of membrane and ...

Ewers, Helge

214

Bilateral Simultaneous Femoral Neck and Shafts Fractures - A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous fractures of the femoral neck and shaft are not common injuries, though they cannot be considered rare. Herein, we report our experience with a patient with bilateral occurance of this injury. Up to the best of our knowkedge this is the first case reported in literature in which correct diagnosis was made initially. Both femurs were fixed using broad 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate and both necks were fixed using 6.5 mm cannulated screws. Femur fixation on one side was converted to retrograde nailing because of plate failure. Both neck fractures healed uneventfully. In spite of rarity of concomitant fractures of femoral neck and shaft, this injury must be approached carefully demanding especial attention and careful device selection.

Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Saied, Alireza

2014-01-01

215

Genome Study Yields Clues to Head and Neck Cancers  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have surveyed the genetic changes in nearly 300 head and neck cancers, revealing some previously unknown alterations that may play a role in the disease, including in patients whose cancer is associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

216

Mononuclear phagocytes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma microenvironments contain many immune cells and their secretory products. Many of\\u000a these cells belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system. The aim of this review is to study the interactions between mononuclear\\u000a phagocytes and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The role of inflammation in tumours and the cytokine interleukin-6\\u000a will be highlighted.

Kenneth Wilfried Kross; John-Helge Heimdal; Hans Jørgen Aarstad

2010-01-01

217

Sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) presenting as a mass in the neck.  

PubMed

We report three cases of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH), all of which presented as a solitary neck mass. This hypertrophic bone disorder has been well described in the Japanese literature, but is rarely encountered in North America. We discuss the clinical and pathological features of this disease, and review the world literature in order to bring this entity to the attention of the otolaryngologist, to whom it may present as a neck mass. PMID:2788752

Finkelstein, D M; Noyek, A M

1989-08-01

218

Modular neck prostheses in DDH patients: 11-year results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Total hip replacement in developmental dysplasia of the hip is a demanding procedure and usually requires dedicated devices\\u000a and special surgical techniques. Nevertheless, the described techniques have shown variable outcomes. The aim of this study\\u000a was to assess the 11-year outcomes of an off-the-shelf modular neck prosthesis in dysplastic patients and to evaluate the\\u000a ability of the modular neck system

Francesco Traina; Marcello De Fine; Enrico Tassinari; Alessandra Sudanese; Pierina Paola Calderoni; Aldo Toni

2011-01-01

219

Trends and Characteristics of Head and Neck Injury from Falls  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this retrospective descriptive hospital-based study was to determine the trend in the number, incidence and pattern of head and neck injuries involved with falls. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out of 1,952 patients who were treated at the Accident and Emergency and Trauma centres of Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar, for head (n = 1,629), neck (n = 225) and both (n = 98) injuries during the period 2001–2006. Head and neck injuries were determined according to the International Classification of Disease, ICD-10 criteria. Details of all the trauma patients who were involved in falls were extracted from the database of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), Hamad Medical Corporation. Results: The majority of the victims were non-Qataris (78.6%), men (86.6%) and in the age group 20–29 years (26.8%). There was a disproportionately higher incidence of head and neck injuries from falls during weekends (27.1%). Nearly half of the head and neck injuries from falls occurred at work (49.4%). Neck injuries (10.2%) were more severe than head injuries (7.3%). The incidence rate of head and neck injuries per 10,000 population increased from 2.1 in the year 2001 to 5.5 in 2006, particularly among the elderly population above 60 years of age (13.1 in 2003 to 18.6 in the year 2006). Superficial injury to the head (29.4%) was more common among trauma patients. Conclusion: The present study findings revealed that the incidence of head and neck injuries was higher among young adults and the elderly population. PMID:21969897

Bener, Abdulbari; Abdul Rahman, Yassir S.; Abdel Aleem, Eltayib Y.; Khalid, Muayad K.

2011-01-01

220

Paragangliomas of the Head & Neck: the KMC experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the clinical features, investigations, intra-operative findings, surgical approaches used and the results of\\u000a the treatment for paragangliomas of the head and neck. Retrospective study of 14 cases of paragangliomas in head and neck\\u000a seen over a period of 10 years including five carotid body tumors, seven glomus jugulares and two glomus tympanicums. HRCT\\u000a scans and bilateral carotid angiography

Sampath Chandra Prasad; Nikhil Thada; Pallavi; Kishore Chandra Prasad

2011-01-01

221

Proton Beam Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The goal of multimodality therapy for head and neck cancer is to improve the therapeutic ratio by increasing the tumor control\\u000a probability and decreasing treatment-related toxicity. Due to the close spatial relationship of head and neck cancers to numerous\\u000a normal anatomical structures, conventional photon radiation therapy can be associated with significant acute and long-term\\u000a treatment-related toxicities. Superior dose localization properties

Danielle N. Margalit; Judy A. Adams; Annie W. Chan

222

Arthroscopic Femoral Neck Osteoplasty in the Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement  

PubMed Central

Femoral neck osteoplasty is an integral component for successful treatment of femoroacetabular impingement. Current techniques allow this to be performed arthroscopically, and results are equivalent to those of open procedures when typical anterior and anterosuperior lesions are considered. The arthroscopic procedure is dependent on obtaining adequate visualization through capsular management and proper leg positioning, and it requires fluoroscopy to guide and verify an adequate resection. We present our preferred technique for arthroscopic femoral neck osteoplasty. PMID:24749017

Chow, Roxanne M.; Kuzma, Scott A.; Krych, Aaron J.; Levy, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

223

Proton Beam Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) has unique physical properties (e.g., Bragg Peak) that limit the amount of normal tissue\\u000a irradiated in the head and neck region while maximizing the radiation delivered to the tumor. Radiation therapy is commonly\\u000a used in both the primary and adjuvant setting for many head and neck malignancies. Limiting the unnecessary radiation to normal\\u000a tissues within

Steven J. Frank; Ugur Selek

2010-01-01

224

Evaluation and management of neck masses in children.  

PubMed

Neck masses in children usually fall into one of three categories: developmental, inflammatory/reactive, or neoplastic. Common congenital developmental masses in the neck include thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft cysts, dermoid cysts, vascular malformations, and hemangiomas. Inflammatory neck masses can be the result of reactive lymphadenopathy, infectious lymphadenitis (viral, staphylococcal, and mycobacterial infections; cat-scratch disease), or Kawasaki disease. Common benign neoplastic lesions include pilomatrixomas, lipomas, fibromas, neurofibromas, and salivary gland tumors. Although rare in children, malignant lesions occurring in the neck include lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Workup for a neck mass may include a complete blood count; purified protein derivative test for tuberculosis; and measurement of titers for Epstein-Barr virus, cat-scratch disease, cytomegalovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, and toxoplasmosis if the history raises suspicion for any of these conditions. Ultrasonography is the preferred imaging study for a developmental or palpable mass. Computed tomography with intravenous contrast media is recommended for evaluating a malignancy or a suspected retropharyngeal or deep neck abscess. Congenital neck masses are excised to prevent potential growth and secondary infection of the lesion. Antibiotic therapy for suspected bacterial lymphadenitis should target Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococcus. Lack of response to initial antibiotics should prompt consideration of intravenous antibiotic therapy, referral for possible incision and drainage, or further workup. If malignancy is suspected (accompanying type B symptoms; hard, firm, or rubbery consistency; fixed mass; supraclavicular mass; lymph node larger than 2 cm in diameter; persistent enlargement for more than two weeks; no decrease in size after four to six weeks; absence of inflammation; ulceration; failure to respond to antibiotic therapy; or a thyroid mass), the patient should be referred to a head and neck surgeon for urgent evaluation and possible biopsy. PMID:24695506

Meier, Jeremy D; Grimmer, Johannes Fredrik

2014-03-01

225

Prospective Imaging Biomarker Assessment of Mortality Risk in Patients Treated with Head and Neck Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The optimal roles for imaging-based biomarkers in the management of head and neck cancer remain undefined. Unresolved questions include whether functional or anatomic imaging biomarkers might improve mortality risk assessment for this disease. We addressed these issues in a prospective institutional trial. Methods and Materials Ninety-eight patients with locally advanced pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell cancer were enrolled. Each underwent pre-and post-chemoradiotherapy contrast-enhanced CT and FDG-PET/CT imaging. Imaging parameters were correlated with survival outcomes. Results Low post-radiation primary tumor FDG avidity correlated with improved survival on multivariate analysis; so too did complete primary tumor response by CT alone. Although both imaging modalities lacked sensitivity, each had high specificity and negative predictive value for disease-specific mortality risk assessment. Kaplan-Meier estimates confirmed that both CT and FDG-PET/CT stratify patients into distinct high- and low-probability survivorship groups on the basis of primary tumor response to radiotherapy. Subset analyses demonstrated that the prognostic value for each biomarker was primarily derived from patients at high risk for local treatment failure (HPV-negative disease, non-oropharyngeal primary disease, or tobacco use). Conclusions CT- and FDG-PET/CT-based biomarkers are useful clinical tools in head and neck cancer-specific mortality risk assessment following radiotherapy, particularly for high-risk HPV-unrelated disease. Focus should be placed on further refinement and corroboration of imaging-based biomarkers in future studies. PMID:20171802

Moeller, Benjamin J.; Rana, Vishal; Cannon, Blake A.; Williams, Michelle D.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Macapinlac, Homer A.; Lee, J. Jack; Ang, K. Kian; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Chronowski, Gregory M.; Frank, Steven J.; Morrison, William H.; Rosenthal, David I.; Weber, Randal S.; Garden, Adam S.; Lippman, Scott M.; Schwartz, David L.

2010-01-01

226

A Septin-Dependent Diffusion Barrier at Dendritic Spine Necks  

PubMed Central

Excitatory glutamatergic synapses at dendritic spines exchange and modulate their receptor content via lateral membrane diffusion. Several studies have shown that the thin spine neck impedes the access of membrane and solute molecules to the spine head. However, it is unclear whether the spine neck geometry alone restricts access to dendritic spines or if a physical barrier to the diffusion of molecules exists. Here, we investigated whether a complex of septin cytoskeletal GTPases localized at the base of the spine neck regulates diffusion across the spine neck. We found that, during development, a marker of the septin complex, Septin7 (Sept7), becomes localized to the spine neck where it forms a stable structure underneath the plasma membrane. We show that diffusion of receptors and bulk membrane, but not cytoplasmic proteins, is slower in spines bearing Sept7 at their neck. Finally, when Sept7 expression was suppressed by RNA interference, membrane molecules explored larger membrane areas. Our findings indicate that Sept7 regulates membrane protein access to spines. PMID:25494357

Petersen, Jennifer D.; Racz, Bence; Sheng, Morgan; Choquet, Daniel

2014-01-01

227

Surgical errors and risks – the head and neck cancer patient  

PubMed Central

Head and neck surgery is one of the basic principles of head and neck cancer therapy. Surgical errors and malpractice can have fatal consequences for the treated patients. It can lead to functional impairment and has impact in future chances for disease related survival. There are many risks for head and neck surgeons that can cause errors and malpractice. To avoid surgical mistakes, thorough preoperative management of patients is mandatory. As there are ensuring operability, cautious evaluation of preoperative diagnostics and operative planning. Moreover knowledge of anatomical structures of the head and neck, of the medical studies and data as well as qualification in modern surgical techniques and the surgeons ability for critical self assessment are basic and important prerequisites for head and neck surgeons in order to make out risks and to prevent from mistakes. Additionally it is important to have profound knowledge in nutrition management of cancer patients, wound healing and to realize and to be able to deal with complications, when they occur. Despite all precaution and surgical care, errors and mistakes cannot always be avoided. For that it is important to be able to deal with mistakes and to establish an appropriate and clear communication and management for such events. The manuscript comments on recognition and prevention of risks and mistakes in the preoperative, operative and postoperative phase of head and neck cancer surgery. PMID:24403972

Harréus, Ulrich

2013-01-01

228

Immunological approach in the evaluation of regional lymph nodes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.  

PubMed

In cancer, regional lymph node (LN) cells are one of the first components of the immune system to have contact with tumor cells or their products. Therefore, the phenotype and functional properties of hematopoietic cells present within the tumor-draining LN are important to understanding their role in the control of malignant cells. Based on the locoregional metastatic behavior of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCH&N) region, we analyzed tumor-draining lymph nodes from SCCH&N patients to obtain insights into regional tumor immunity. Using a three-color fluorescent labeling technique, surface antigen expression was visualized in mononuclear cells of lymph nodes that were obtained from head and neck cancer patients and compared to mononuclear cells of normal lymph nodes. Cell cycle analyses were performed using propidium iodide. Proliferation after phytohemagglutinin stimulation was measured by a sodium tetrazolium-based assay. LN histology was correlated with flow cytometric findings. Regional lymph nodes of head and neck cancer patients undergo morphologic and functional changes. Flow cytometry revealed a decrease in CD8(+) T cells and in some lymph nodes the presence of second or third populations of larger cells with distinct size and granularity that expressed both T (gammadelta/alphabeta) and different natural killer cell markers. Moreover, cell cycle analyses and proliferation assays showed a diminished response to mitogenic stimuli. These changes were found in both metastatic and hyperplastic lymph nodes from head and neck cancer patients; however, no alterations were found in control lymph nodes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from noncancer patients. The immune alterations detected in lymphocytes present within the draining lymph nodes of head and neck cancer patients may improve our understanding of how tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance. However, this dysfunction in local draining lymph nodes may not be detected systemically. PMID:11781066

Verastegui, Emma; Morales, Rocio; Barrera, José Luis; Müeller, Anja; Guzman, Beatriz; Meneses, Abelardo; Alfaro, Guillermo

2002-01-01

229

Enhanced Recovery for Fractured Neck of Femur  

PubMed Central

Enhanced recovery is now a standard model of care in most UK elective surgical units. For hip and knee arthroplasty this approach typically includes opioid-sparing anesthesia (OSA), local infiltration analgesia (LIA), and day of surgery mobilization. There is evidence that these interventions shorten hospital stay and improve outcomes, without increasing complications or readmissions. These interventions may also benefit patients undergoing surgery for femoral neck (hip) fractures. This group of patients are frail and elderly, and are at high risk from surgery, anesthesia, and opioid and bed rest-related complications. Hip fractures are also a major public health concern. They are common, expensive to treat, and associated with poor outcomes. Despite this there are no published descriptions of the use of OSA and LIA to enable day of surgery mobilization in patients with hip fractures. We present 3 patients who underwent hip fracture surgery according to an enhanced recovery protocol that incorporated all 3 interventions. In each case day of surgery mobilization was achieved safely and comfortably, without requirement for strong opioids postoperatively. The cases demonstrate that these interventions can be well tolerated by patients with hip fracture, including those with impaired mobility or cognitive function. The protocol is compatible with all common operations for hip fracture, and with spinal or general anesthesia. It is inexpensive and requires minimal expertise. It may have the potential to improve care and shorten hospital stay, while reducing cost. Further investigation is required. PMID:25360329

Rees, David; Kendrick, Emily; Bradshaw, Charlotte; Flavell, Esther; Deglurkar, Mukund

2014-01-01

230

Head and neck MRI of Kimura disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of our study was to describe the MR appearance of Kimura disease and to interpret the differences in appearance from malignant parotid gland tumours. Methods MR studies of seven patients with Kimura disease were reviewed. The MR studies included T1 weighted, T2 weighted, short tau inversion-recovery, diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. Results Typical Kimura disease featured subcutaneous lesions, continuously infiltrated parotid lesions from the subcutaneous lesions with or without intraparotid lymphadenopathies, and reactive cervical lymphadenopathies. The subcutaneous lesions showed gradual upward enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images. Reactive lymph nodes showed early enhancement on contrast-enhanced MR images and marked high intensity and low apparent diffusion coefficient values on DW images. Conclusion An indication for making the diagnosis of Kimura disease should be the subcutaneous tissue of the head and neck showing gradual upward enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and a lack of high intensity on DW images, associated with reactive lymph nodes. PMID:21849365

Horikoshi, T; Motoori, K; Ueda, T; Shimofusa, R; Hanazawa, T; Okamoto, Y; Ito, H

2011-01-01

231

Melanoma Metastases to the Neck Nodes: Role of Adjuvant Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To review experiences in the treatment of regionally advanced melanoma to the neck and/or parotid with emphasis on the role of adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Clinical and histopathologic data, treatment details, and outcomes in patients treated during the period 2000-2006 at the Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana, Slovenia, were reviewed. Results: A total of 40 patients with 42 dissections underwent surgery, and 43 patients with 45 dissections received irradiation postoperatively to a median equivalent dose (eqTD{sub 2}: 2 Gy/fraction, 1 fraction/day, 5 fractions/week) of 60 Gy (range, 47.8-78.8). Regional control 2 years after surgery was 56% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40-72%) and after postoperative radiotherapy 78% (CI 63-92%) (p = 0.015). On multivariate analysis, postoperative radiotherapy (yes vs. no: hazard ratio [HR] 6.3, CI 2.0-20.6) and sum of the risk factors present (i.e., risk factor score; HR 1.7 per score point, CI 1.2-2.6) were predictive for regional control. On logistic regression testing, the number of involved nodes was associated with the probability of distant metastases (p = 0.021). The incidence of late toxicity did not correlate with the mode of therapy, eqTD{sub 2}, or fractionation pattern. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy has the potential to compensate effectively for the negative impact of adverse histopatologic features to disease control in a dissected nodal basin. More conventionally fractionated radiotherapy regimens using fraction doses of 2-2.5 Gy, with cumulative eqTD{sub 2{>=}}60 Gy, are recommended. The number of involved lymph nodes is proposed as an additional criterion for limiting the implementation of adjuvant irradiation.

Strojan, Primoz, E-mail: pstrojan@onko-i.s [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jancar, Boris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cemazar, Maja [Department of Tumor Biology, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Perme, Maja Pohar [Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hocevar, Marko [Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2010-07-15

232

Altered Co-contraction of Cervical Muscles in Young Adults with Chronic Neck Pain during Voluntary Neck Motions  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Muscle co-contraction is important in stabilizing the spine. The aim of this study was to compare cervical muscle co-contraction in adults with and without chronic neck pain during voluntary movements. [Subjects and Methods] Surface electromyography of three paired cervical muscles was measured in fifteen young healthy subjects and fifteen patients with chronic neck pain. The subjects performed voluntary neck movements in the sagittal and coronal plane at slow speed. The co-contraction ratio was defined as the normalized integration of the antagonistic electromyography activities divided by that of the total muscle activities. [Results] The results showed that the co-contraction ratio of patients was greater during flexion movement, lesser during extension movement, slightly greater during right lateral bending, and slightly lesser during left lateral bending compared with in the controls. [Conclusion] The results suggested that neck pain patients exhibit greater antagonistic muscle activity during flexion and dominate-side bending movements to augment spinal stability, while neuromuscular control provides relatively less protection in the opposite movements. This study helps to specify the changes of the stiffness of the cervical spine in neck pain patients and provides a useful tool and references for clinical assessment of neck disorders. PMID:24764639

Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Liu, Wen-Yu; Wang, Shwu-Fen; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chuang, Yu-Fen

2014-01-01

233

Volume analysis of treatment response of head and neck lesions using 3D level set segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computerized system for segmenting lesions in head and neck CT scans was developed to assist radiologists in estimation of the response to treatment of malignant lesions. The system performs 3D segmentations based on a level set model and uses as input an approximate bounding box for the lesion of interest. In this preliminary study, CT scans from a pre-treatment exam and a post one-cycle chemotherapy exam of 13 patients containing head and neck neoplasms were used. A radiologist marked 35 temporal pairs of lesions. 13 pairs were primary site cancers and 22 pairs were metastatic lymph nodes. For all lesions, a radiologist outlined a contour on the best slice on both the pre- and post treatment scans. For the 13 primary lesion pairs, full 3D contours were also extracted by a radiologist. The average pre- and post-treatment areas on the best slices for all lesions were 4.5 and 2.1 cm2, respectively. For the 13 primary site pairs the average pre- and post-treatment primary lesions volumes were 15.4 and 6.7 cm 3 respectively. The correlation between the automatic and manual estimates for the pre-to-post-treatment change in area for all 35 pairs was r=0.97, while the correlation for the percent change in area was r=0.80. The correlation for the change in volume for the 13 primary site pairs was r=0.89, while the correlation for the percent change in volume was r=0.79. The average signed percent error between the automatic and manual areas for all 70 lesions was 11.0+/-20.6%. The average signed percent error between the automatic and manual volumes for all 26 primary lesions was 37.8+/-42.1%. The preliminary results indicate that the automated segmentation system can reliably estimate tumor size change in response to treatment relative to radiologist's hand segmentation.

Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Street, Ethan; Sahiner, Berkman; Gujar, Sachin; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Chan, Heang-Ping; Mukherji, Suresh K.

2008-03-01

234

How to construct and move a cat's neck.  

PubMed

Extensive information has been accumulated over the past several years about the head-neck sensory-motor system, in particular that relating to cats. Using still x-ray and cineradiographic analysis, the skeletal geometry of head-neck posture in three dimensions--when an animal is resting, actively orienting, or locomoting--is described. From these descriptions, cervical, vertebral, and craniocervical joint biomechanics for all three rotational dimensions are quantified. These behavioral data on muscle and skeletal movements have been incorporated in a biomechanical, functional anatomical model of the head-neck movement system. Individual as well as groups of neck muscles have been measured in detail and their kinematics determined. The role of a number of these muscles will be described for several reflex and voluntary behavioral contexts, including muscle co-contractions. Having established how each movement is accomplished, the neuronal sensory-motor reflex basis of head-neck system stabilization in space is addressed. The vestibular system is largely responsible for acquisition and maintenance of upright posture. The bilateral semicircular canals (horizontal, anterior, posterior) and otoliths (sacculus, utriculus) feed information differentially to specific neck muscles: these connections are reviewed with regard to the origin of the reflex are from each receptor to its destination of specific muscles. Behavioral data from normal animals, and from animals whose vestibular receptor systems are selectively lesioned, will be reviewed to complement the functional interpretation of the sensory-motor transformations. Finally, the requirements for space-time coordinated cat head-neck movements will be synthesized, based on biomechanics, muscle kinematics, canal/otolith connectivity, and selective lesion experiments. PMID:9178225

Graf, W; Keshner, E; Richmond, F J; Shinoda, Y; Statler, K; Uchino, Y

1997-01-01

235

Random Positional Variation Among the Skull, Mandible, and Cervical Spine With Treatment Progression During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: With 54{sup o} of freedom from the skull to mandible to C7, ensuring adequate immobilization for head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT) is complex. We quantify variations in skull, mandible, and cervical spine movement between RT sessions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head-and-neck RT patients underwent serial computed tomography. Patients underwent planned rescanning at 11, 22, and 33 fractions for a total of 93 scans. Coordinates of multiple bony elements of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine were used to calculate rotational and translational changes of bony anatomy compared with the original planning scan. Results: Mean translational and rotational variations on rescanning were negligible, but showed a wide range. Changes in scoliosis and lordosis of the cervical spine between fractions showed similar variability. There was no correlation between positional variation and fraction number and no strong correlation with weight loss or skin separation. Semi-independent rotational and translation movement of the skull in relation to the lower cervical spine was shown. Positioning variability measured by means of vector displacement was largest in the mandible and lower cervical spine. Conclusions: Although only small overall variations in position between head-and-neck RT sessions exist on average, there is significant random variation in patient positioning of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine elements. Such variation is accentuated in the mandible and lower cervical spine. These random semirigid variations in positioning of the skull and spine point to a need for improved immobilization and/or confirmation of patient positioning in RT of the head and neck.

Ahn, Peter H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)], E-mail: phahn@mdanderson.org; Ahn, Andrew I. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY (United States); Lee, C. Joe; Shen Jin; Miller, Ekeni; Lukaj, Alex; Milan, Elissa; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

2009-02-01

236

Postoperative IMRT in head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Aim of this work was to assess loco-regional disease control in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (pIMRT). For comparative purposes, risk features of our series have been analysed with respect to histopathologic adverse factors. Results were compared with an own historic conventional radiation (3DCRT) series, and with 3DCRT and pIMRT data from other centres. Between January 2002 and August 2006, 71 patients were consecutively treated with pIMRT for a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx (32), oral cavity (22), hypopharynx (7), larynx (6), paranasal sinus (3), and an unknown primary, respectively. Mean and median follow up was 19 months (2–48), and 17.6 months. 83% were treated with IMRT-chemotherapy. Mean prescribed dose was 66.3 Gy (60–70), delivered with doses per fraction of 2–2.3 Gy, respectively. Results 2-year local, nodal, and distant control rates were 95%, 91%, and 96%, disease free and overall survival 90% and 83%, respectively. The corresponding survival rates for the subgroup of patients with a follow up time >12 months (n = 43) were 98%, 95%, 98%, 93%, and 88%, respectively. Distribution according to histopathologic risk features revealed 15% and 85% patients with intermediate and high risk, respectively. All loco-regional events occurred in the high risk subgroup. Conclusion Surgery followed by postoperative IMRT in patients with substantial risk for recurrence resulted in high loco-regional tumor control rates compared with large prospective 3DCRT trials. PMID:17052346

Studer, Gabriela; Furrer, Katrin; Davis, Bernard J; Stoeckli, Sandro S; Zwahlen, Roger A; Luetolf, Urs M; Glanzmann, Christoph

2006-01-01

237

Hyperexcitability of cervical motor neurons during neck flexion in patients with Hirayama disease.  

PubMed

We recorded the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the affected thenar muscles during neck flexion in 4 patients in the early progressive phase of Hirayama disease. The MEP size significantly increased during neck flexion in patients compared with normal controls. In 2 patients who were treated with a neck collar, the intrinsic muscle atrophy gradually recovered together with increased grip power, and the time course of changes in MEP during neck flexion became normal after treatment with a neck collar for 7-16 months. The technique described here would be useful for evaluating the vulnerability of cervical motor neurons and the therapeutic effect of the neck collar in Hirayama disease. PMID:10782352

Imai, T; Shizukawa, H; Nakanishi, K; Kouge, N; Hiura, K; Kashiwagi, M; Chiba, S; Matsumoto, H

2000-01-01

238

Pattern of injuries to neck structures in hanging-an autopsy study.  

PubMed

One hundred eighty-nine cases of known dead bodies brought for medicolegal autopsy with alleged history of hanging were studied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, State Medico Legal Institute, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. All the findings noticed during detailed external examination and flap dissection of the neck were analyzed with special emphasis on correlation between the external and internal injuries on neck.There was a preponderance of males in the study group (70.9%), majority of them being middle-aged (64.9%). Among females, the major group was composed of adolescents and young adults (72.8%). Easily available materials were used as ligature materials. Soft materials such as saree, shawl, lungie, and so on were used as ligature by 47% of victims and hard materials such as coir rope, plastic rope, telephone cable, and so on were used by 29% of victims. Oblique ligature mark was noted in 94.2% of cases. The ligature mark was noncontinuous in 78% of cases. Horizontal ligature marks were noted in cases of partial hanging.Rupture of muscle fibers at the lower attachment of sternomastoid was seen in 19.6%, and carotid intimal tear was seen in 1.1% of cases. Fracture of hyoid bone at their greater horns was seen in 2.7% and thyroid cartilage in 5.3% of cases. Vertebral fracture and dislocation were noted between third and fourth cervical vertebrae in 1.6% of cases. Neck skeleton injuries were noted in persons older than 38 years. PMID:22922547

Jayaprakash, Sharija; Sreekumari, Kuttikatti

2012-12-01

239

Impact of warm ischemia on phosphorylated biomarkers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To quantitatively and visually characterize changes in phosphorylated biomarker expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma specimens from excision through 90 minutes of warm ischemia. Materials and Methods: Tissue biospecimens were procured prospectively. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma specimens from 5 patients were subdivided into three parts upon excision, exposed to warm ischemia of 15, 30, or 90 minutes, and routinely biobanked. Relative change in biomarker expression of p-Akt, p-ERK, and p-Stat3 was measured by immunoblot densitometry. Immunofluorescent stains were performed to visually supplement the quantitative analysis. Results: From 15 to 30 minutes of ex vivo ischemia, there was a significant decrease in p-Akt (p = 0.045) as the mean intensity fell by 44.9%. This decrease in p-Akt remained significant at the 90 minute time point (p = 0.015). From 15 to 30 minutes of ischemia, there was a trend toward a decline in p-ERK, which became significant by 90 minutes of ex vivo warm ischemia (p = 0.008). These changes were supported by qualitative differences in p-ERK fluorescence at 0 and 90 minutes warm ischemia. Conclusion: Some phosphorylated biomarkers of HNSCC remain highly dynamic during the period of ex vivo warm ischemia after surgical excision but before biobanking. These findings have critical implications for studies that attempt to correlate protein phosphorylation with clinical outcome. We conclude that ex vivo warm ischemia time is a major determinant of tissue quality that may explain inconsistent results from biomarker research in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25360219

Tower, Jacob I; Lingen, Mark W; Seiwert, Tanguy Y; Langerman, Alexander

2014-01-01

240

Biopsy diagnoses of clinically atypical pigmented lesions of the head and neck in adults.  

PubMed

A subset of facial melanoma in situ has histological features that overlap with those of "dysplastic" nevi. The authors evaluated this important diagnostic pitfall by assessing the frequency of melanoma as the final diagnosis in skin biopsies submitted over a 1-year period with a clinical impression of "atypical" or dysplastic nevus from the head or neck of adults. A total of 1998 biopsies met inclusion criteria. Final diagnoses included both melanocytic and nonmelanocytic processes. Clear trends were noted based on the age of the patient with benign nevi encompassing nearly 70% of specimens in patients aged 21-29 years and <10% in patients aged 70 years and above. The incidence of atypical nevi decreased with age (16% in 21-29 years, 3% in age 70+ years). Nineteen of the 180 (10%) atypical nevi in our series were located on the face (7, cheek; 6, forehead; 3, jawline; and 3, temple), a location not traditionally associated with atypical nevi. Facial atypical nevi were found in all age groups. Malignant melanoma accounted for 1.8% of all specimens increasing from 0% in the patients aged 21-29 years to 5% in patients aged 70 years and above. Caution is warranted when evaluating skin biopsies from sun-damaged skin of the head or neck of an older adult submitted with a clinical diagnosis of atypical nevus. However, the authors' findings suggest that atypical nevi with histological features of dysplastic nevi occur on the head and neck of adults, including elderly adults. The incidence of such lesions decreases with age as the incidence of melanoma increases, and careful clinicopathologic correlation is vital. PMID:25247672

Udovenko, Olga; Griffin, John R; Elston, Dirk M

2014-10-01

241

Therapeutic applications of botulinum neurotoxins in head and neck disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this article is to review the mechanism of action, physiological effects, and therapeutic applications of botulinum neurotoxins in the head and neck area. Study design An extensive literature search was performed using keywords. The resulting articles were analyzed for relevance in four areas: overview on botulinum neurotoxins, the role of botulinum neurotoxins in the management of salivary secretory disorders, the role of botulinum neurotoxins in the management of facial pain, and the role of botulinum neurotoxins in head and neck movement disorders. Institutional review board approval was not needed due the nature of the study. Results Botulinum neurotoxin therapy was demonstrated to be a valuable alternative to conventional medical therapy for many conditions affecting the head and neck area in terms of morbidly, mortality, and patient satisfaction with treatment outcomes. Conclusion Botulinum neurotoxin therapy provides viable alternatives to traditional treatment modalities for some conditions affecting the head and neck region that have neurological components. This therapy can overcome some of the morbidities associated with conventional therapy. More research is needed to determine the ideal doses of botulinum neurotoxin to treat different diseases affecting the head and neck regions. PMID:25544809

Alshadwi, Ahmad; Nadershah, Mohammed; Osborn, Timothy

2014-01-01

242

Contribution of biopsychosocial risk factors to nonspecific neck pain in office workers: A path analysis model.  

PubMed

Objective: The etiology of nonspecific neck pain is widely accepted to be multifactorial. Each risk factor has not only direct effects on neck pain but may also exert effects indirectly through other risk factors. This study aimed to test this hypothesized model in office workers. Methods: A one-year prospective cohort study of 559 healthy office workers was conducted. At baseline, a self-administered questionnaire and standardized physical examination were employed to gather biopsychosocial data. Follow-up data were collected every month for the incidence of neck pain. A regression model was built to analyze factors predicting the onset of neck pain. Path analysis was performed to examine direct and indirect associations between identified risk factors and neck pain. Results: The onset of neck pain was predicted by female gender, having a history of neck pain, monitor position not being level with the eyes, and frequently perceived muscular tension, of which perceived muscular tension was the strongest effector on the onset of neck pain. Gender, history of neck pain, and monitor height had indirect effects on neck pain that were mediated through perceived muscular tension. History of neck pain was the most influential effector on perceived muscular tension. Conclusions: The results of this study support the hypothesis that each risk factors may contribute to the development of neck pain both directly and indirectly. The combination of risk factors necessary to cause neck pain is likely occupation specific. Perceived muscular tension is hypothesized to be an early sign of musculoskeletal symptoms. PMID:25476863

Paksaichol, Arpalak; Lawsirirat, Chaipat; Janwantanakul, Prawit

2014-12-01

243

Cognitive Functioning After Radiotherapy or Chemoradiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform a comprehensive cognitive function (CF) assessment in patients who were relapse free after curative intent radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Patients underwent neuropsychological tests to assess their objective CF; completed questionnaires to assess subjective CF, quality of life, and affect; and underwent blood tests to assess hematologic, biochemical, endocrine, and cytokine status. Retrospectively, the dosimetry of incidental radiation to the brain was determined for all patients, and the dose intensity of cisplatin was determined in those who had undergone chemoradiotherapy. Results: A total of 10 patients were enrolled (5 treated with radiotherapy only and 5 with radiotherapy and cisplatin). The mean time from the end of treatment was 20 months (range, 9-41). All patients were able to complete the assessment protocol. Of the 10 patients, 9 had impaired objective CF, with memory the most severely affected. The severity of memory impairment correlated significantly with the radiation dose to the temporal lobes, and impaired dexterity correlated significantly with the radiation dose to the cerebellum, suggesting that these deficits might be treatment related. Patients receiving cisplatin appeared to have poorer objective CF than patients receiving only RT, although this difference did not achieve statistical significance, likely owing to the small sample size. Consistent with the published data, objective CF did not correlate with subjective CF or quality of life. No association was found between objective CF and patients' affect, hematologic, biochemical, endocrine, and cytokine status. Conclusion: Neuropsychological testing is feasible in squamous cell carcinoma of the head-and-neck survivors. The findings were suggestive of treatment-related cognitive dysfunction. These results warrant additional investigation.

Gan, Hui K. [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bernstein, Lori J. [Department of Psychosocial Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Brown, Jennifer [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ringash, Jolie; Vakilha, Mehrdad [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wang, Lisa [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Goldstein, David [Department of Otolaryngology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kim, John; Hope, Andrew; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Abdul Razak, Albiruni R.; Chen, Eric X. [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Siu, Lillian L., E-mail: lillian.siu@uhn.on.ca [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2011-09-01

244

Current advances in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies  

PubMed Central

Necessity is the mother of all inventions. This is also true in case of cancer therapy. With increasing incidence of head and neck malignancies, remarkable developments have been made towards cancer development and treatment which continues to be a major challenge. Approximately fifty percent of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy which contributes towards forty percent of curative treatment for cancer. New developments in radiation oncology have helped to improve outlook for patients and find more effective treatment. With the advent of new technologies, radiotherapy seems to be promising in patients with head and neck malignancies these advancements include Altered fractionation, Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, Image Guided Radiotherapy, Stereotactic radiation, Charged-particle radiotherapy, and Intraoperative radiotherapy. How to cite this article: Roopashri G, Baig M. Current advances in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):119-23 . PMID:24453456

Roopashri, G; Baig, Muqeet

2013-01-01

245

Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of Gingiva and Soft Tissue in Neck  

PubMed Central

Plasmacytoma is a malignant disease that present either in bone marrow (medullary plasmacytoma), within the bone (solitary plasmacytoma of bone), or outside of bone, as the extramedullary plasmacytoma. Extramedullary plasmacytoma accounts for 3% of all plasma cell tumours and approximately 90% of extramedullary plasmacytomas affect the head and neck region commonly affecting the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, tonsillar fossa and oral cavity. Multiple extramedullary plasmacytoma is defined when there is more than one extramedullary tumour of clonal plasma cells and such presentations are extremely rare. We report such a rare case of multiple extramedullary plasmacytoma involving gingiva and neck. Here is a case report of a 65-year-old female patient presenting with extramedullary plasmacytoma of the gingiva and soft tissue in neck. PMID:25584334

Faizuddin, Mohamed; D., Jayanthi; Malleshi, Suchetha .N; Venkatesh, Rashmi

2014-01-01

246

Designing biomarker studies for head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Although there is ample literature reporting on the identification of molecular biomarkers for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, none is currently recommended for routine clinical use. A major reason for this lack of progress is the difficulty in designing studies in head and neck cancer to clearly establish the clinical utility of biomarkers. Consequently, biomarker studies frequently stall at the initial discovery phase. In this article, we focus on biomarkers for use in clinical management, including selection of therapy. Using several contemporary examples, we identify some of the common deficiencies in study design that hinder success in biomarker development for this disease area, and we suggest some potential solutions. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance that can assist investigators to more efficiently move promising biomarkers in head and neck cancer from discovery to clinical practice PMID:25072057

Kim, Kelly Y; McShane, Lisa M; Conley, Barbara A

2014-07-01

247

Extramedullary plasmacytoma of gingiva and soft tissue in neck.  

PubMed

Plasmacytoma is a malignant disease that present either in bone marrow (medullary plasmacytoma), within the bone (solitary plasmacytoma of bone), or outside of bone, as the extramedullary plasmacytoma. Extramedullary plasmacytoma accounts for 3% of all plasma cell tumours and approximately 90% of extramedullary plasmacytomas affect the head and neck region commonly affecting the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, tonsillar fossa and oral cavity. Multiple extramedullary plasmacytoma is defined when there is more than one extramedullary tumour of clonal plasma cells and such presentations are extremely rare. We report such a rare case of multiple extramedullary plasmacytoma involving gingiva and neck. Here is a case report of a 65-year-old female patient presenting with extramedullary plasmacytoma of the gingiva and soft tissue in neck. PMID:25584334

Nair, Soumya K; Faizuddin, Mohamed; D, Jayanthi; Malleshi, Suchetha N; Venkatesh, Rashmi

2014-11-01

248

Defining value-driven care in head and neck oncology.  

PubMed

In the USA, increasing attention is being paid to adopting a value-based framework for measuring and ultimately improving health care delivery. Value is defined as the benefit achieved relative to costs. The numerator of the value equation includes quality of care and outcomes achieved. The denominator includes costs, both financial costs and harms of treatment. Herein, we describe these elements of value as they pertain to head and neck cancer. A particular focus is to identify areas of the value equation where physicians have some control. We examine quality in each of three dimensions: structure, process, and outcomes. We also adopt Porter's three-tiered hierarchy of outcomes model, with specific outcomes relevant to patients with head and neck and thyroid cancer. Finally, we review issues related to costs and harms. We believe these findings can serve as a framework for further efforts to drive value-based delivery of head and neck cancer care. PMID:25416318

Roman, Benjamin R; Awad, Mahmoud I; Patel, Snehal G

2015-01-01

249

Bilateral chylothorax following neck dissection: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Chylothorax is an extremely rare but potentially life-threatening complication after radical neck dissection. We report the case of a bilateral chylothorax after total thyroidectomy and cervico-central and cervico-lateral lymphadenectomy for thyroid carcinoma. Case presentation A 40-year-old European woman underwent total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Postoperatively she developed dyspnoea and pleural effusion. A chylothorax was found and the initial conservative therapy was not successful. She had to be operated on again and the thoracic duct was legated. Conclusion The case presentation reports a very rare complication after total thyroidectomy and neck dissection, but it has to be kept in mind to prevent dangerous complications. PMID:24885488

2014-01-01

250

Primary Bladder Neck Obstruction in Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) is a condition in which the bladder neck does not open appropriately or completely during voiding. Although the true prevalence of PBNO is difficult to ascertain, studies in both men and women with voiding dysfunction demonstrate a marked prevalence of the condition. Symptoms caused by PBNO include storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, nocturia) and voiding symptoms (decreased force of stream, hesitancy, incomplete emptying). There are multiple theories as to the etiology of PBNO, including muscular and neurologic dysfunction and fibrosis. The diagnosis of PBNO can be made precisely with videourodynamics, urodynamic testing with simultaneous pressure-flow measurement, and visualization of the bladder neck during voiding. Treatments vary from watchful waiting to medical therapy to surgery, depending on the severity of symptoms, urodynamic findings, and response to therapy. This article reviews the current state of the art with respect to the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of PBNO. PMID:16985885

Nitti, Victor W

2005-01-01

251

Diagnostic possibilities with multidimensional images in head and neck area using efficient registration and visualization methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several diseases in the head and neck area different imaging modalities are applied to the same patient.Each of these image data sets has its specific advantages and disadvantages. The combination of different methods allows to make the best use of the advantageous properties of each method while minimizing the impact of its negative aspects. Soft tissue alterations can be judged better in an MRI image while it may be unrecognizable in the relating CT. Bone tissue, on the other hand, is optimally imaged in CT. Inflammatory nuclei of the bone can be detected best by their increased signal in SPECT. Only the combination of all modalities let the physical come to an exact statement on pathological processes that involve multiple tissue structures. Several surfaces and voxel based matching functions we have tested allowed a precise merging by means of numerical optimization methods like e.g. simulated annealing without the complicated assertion of fiducial markers or the localization landmarks in 2D cross sectional slice images. The quality of the registration depends on the choice of the optimization procedure according to the complexity of the matching function landscape. Precise correlation of the multimodal head and neck area images together with its 2D and 3D presentation techniques provides a valuable tool for physicians.

Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Krol, Zdzislaw; Sader, Robert; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Gerhardt, Paul; Schweiger, Markus; Horch, Hans-Henning

1997-05-01

252

Exploring the Dynamic Core Microbiome of Plaque Microbiota during Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy Using Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

Radiotherapy is the primary treatment modality used for patients with head-and-neck cancers, but inevitably causes microorganism-related oral complications. This study aims to explore the dynamic core microbiome of oral microbiota in supragingival plaque during the course of head-and-neck radiotherapy. Eight subjects aged 26 to 70 were recruited. Dental plaque samples were collected (over seven sampling time points for each patient) before and during radiotherapy. The V1–V3 hypervariable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified, and the high-throughput pyrosequencing was performed. A total of 140 genera belonging to 13 phyla were found. Four phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria) and 11 genera (Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Capnocytophaga, Derxia, Neisseria, Rothia, Prevotella, Granulicatella, Luteococcus, and Gemella) were found in all subjects, supporting the concept of a core microbiome. Temporal variation of these major cores in relative abundance were observed, as well as a negative correlation between the number of OTUs and radiation dose. Moreover, an optimized conceptual framework was proposed for defining a dynamic core microbiome in extreme conditions such as radiotherapy. This study presents a theoretical foundation for exploring a core microbiome of communities from time series data, and may help predict community responses to perturbation as caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:23437114

Wang, Qian; Jiang, Yun-tao; Ma, Rui; Tang, Zi-sheng; Liu, Zheng; Liang, Jing-ping; Huang, Zheng-wei

2013-01-01

253

Standardization of Head and Neck Contouring Using the Acanthiomeatal Line  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived and actual chin position(s) used for radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancers in a variety of clinical settings. Dosimetrists were asked to describe the external landmarks used to set the chin position. The lateral treatment planning radiographic figures in Ang's textbook, Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancers: Indications and Techniques, were analyzed for chin position by drawing a horizontal line from the tip of the chin to the cervical spine. The physicians at 7 departments were asked to rate the chin positions used in their departments for head-and-neck simulations. Choices included: (1) mildly flexed, (2) neutral, (3) mildly extended, and (4) hyperextended. In addition, each center was asked to select 2 representative cases to show routine chin position. The dosimetrists fixed the chin in neutral position by placing a virtual plane defined by 3 points (the base of the nasal septum [acanthus] and the external auditory canals) perpendicular to the table top. The type of head holder was irrelevant. Eighty-two percent (31/38) of the figures in Ang's text showed positioning in the neutral position (tip of the chin intersected the cervical spine between C2-3/C3-4). Most (71.4%) of the radiotherapists thought their patients were treated in the hyperextended neck position but, in fact, 85.7% (12/14) of the simulations showed a neural neck position. Reproducible chin positioning can be obtained by using the acanthiomeatal line. Consistent use of this technique will create a uniformly positioned set of axial co-images that have consistent appearance of avoidance and lymphatic areas. This will simplify contouring on axial computed tomography (CT) images of the neck. Standardizing the chin position is an important step to developing a standardized atlas and developing an information tool for automated contouring.

Desai, Snehal [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Section of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Teh, Bin S. [Methodist Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: bteh@tmhs.org; Hinojosa, Jose [ABC Medical Center, Mexico City (Mexico); Bell, Bent C.; Paulino, Arnold C. [Methodist Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Butler, E. Brian [Methodist Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States)

2009-10-01

254

Racial Disparity Among the Head and Neck Cancer Population.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the USA, accounting for 3.3 % of all cancers. The incidence of head and neck cancer has plateaued recently; however, morbidity and mortality continue to remain high. Moreover, racial disparity between African-American and White patients has been studied in the head and neck community, and a vast difference still remains in mortality rate and late stage at presentation. A review of the English literature was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE for demographics, epidemiology, and studies that focused on the disparity in head and neck cancer between African-American and White patients. Age-adjusted incidence of head and neck cancer is increased in African-Americans, while the 5-year survival is decreased compared to Whites. African-American patients present with more advanced disease. When receiving similar multidisciplinary care, the overall survival was not significantly different, but racial disparity often persists in treatment regimens. Socioeconomic determinants such as insurance status play a critical role in racial disparity, along with low levels of public awareness, a lack of knowledge of specific risk factors, and a sense of mistrust that is seen in the African-American population. Disparity in the head and neck cancer community is worrisome, and although efforts have been taken to decrease the disparity, a significant difference exists. Fortunately, the disparity is reversible and can be eliminated. To do so, it is critical to extend to underserved community programs that provide appropriate screening and diagnosis, with subsequent follow-up and treatment following the standards of care. PMID:25398667

Daraei, Pedram; Moore, Charles E

2014-11-16

255

78 FR 36306 - Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...a claimant's diagnosis of a cervical spine condition. DATES: Written comments...Control No. 2900--NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability...

2013-06-17

256

A rare differential diagnosis to occupational neck pain: bilateral stylohyoid syndrome  

PubMed Central

Chronic neck pain is widely prevalent and a common source of disability in the working-age population. Etiology of chronic neck pain includes neck sprain, mechanical or muscular neck pain, myofascial pain syndrome, postural neck pain as well as pain due to degenerative changes. We report the case of a 42 year old secretary, complaining about a longer history of neck pain and limited movement of the cervical spine. Surprisingly, the adequate radiologic examination revealed a bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament complex. Her symptoms remained intractable from conservative treatment consisting of anti-inflammatory medication as well as physical therapy. Hence the patient was admitted to surgical resection of the ossified stylohyoid ligament complex. Afterwards she was free of any complaints and went back to work. Therefore, ossification of the stylohyoid ligament complex causing severe neck pain and movement disorder should be regarded as a rare differential diagnosis of occupational related neck pain. PMID:16800878

Kirchhoff, Gertrud; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Buhmann, Sonja; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Lenz, Miriam; Vogel, Tobias; Kichhoff, Rainer Maria

2006-01-01

257

Genetic diversity predicts outcomes in head and neck cancer  

Cancer.gov

A new measure of the heterogeneity – the variety of genetic mutations – of cells within a tumor appears to predict treatment outcomes of patients with the most common type of head and neck cancer. In the May 20 issue of the journal Cancer, investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital (a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary describe how their measure was a better predictor of survival than most traditional risk factors in a small group of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

258

Head and neck cancer in two American presidents: Case reports.  

PubMed

Two former U.S. presidents, Ulysses S. Grant and Grover Cleveland, were diagnosed with head and neck cancer in 1884 and 1893, respectively. A historical review of the risk factors, diagnoses, and treatments is examined and compared with modern-day interpretations. A comparison was made using the original diagnoses with today's equivalent diagnosis. Different treatment outcomes at the time of the original diagnoses relative to today's treatment are reviewed. Clinicians must be familiar with risk factors, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of head and neck cancer. PMID:22313921

Weinberg, Mea A; Wang, Beverly

2011-01-01

259

Complications of Head and Neck Reconstruction and Their Treatment  

PubMed Central

Head and neck reconstruction is an intensive multistep process that requires attention to detail to achieve a successful result. The knowledge and prevention of complications as well as their management is an essential part of the training of the surgeon participating in head and neck reconstruction. This article explores the general complications, including free flap failure, carotid artery blowout, hardware exposure, and ectropion, as well as regional complications relating to operations of the scalp, cranium, base of skull, midface, mandible, and pharyngoesophagus. PMID:22550450

Tan, Bien-Keem; Por, Yong-Chen; Chen, Hung-Chi

2010-01-01

260

Psychiatric aspects of head and neck cancer surgery.  

PubMed

Psychiatric problems of patients with head and neck cancer include reactions to disfiguring illness and treatment; adjustment to alterations of speech, eating, and other functions, including sex; changes in body image; alcohol and tobacco addiction; pain; organic brain syndromes; and dealing with terminal illness. Although speech is often compromised, head and neck patients can communicate and psychiatric work is possible. The consultation-liaison psychiatrist can provide considerable assistance by utilizing psychodynamic, behavioral, and pharmacologic modes of treatment and by working with family members and staff. PMID:3554183

Shapiro, P A; Kornfeld, D S

1987-03-01

261

Head and Neck Cancer: An Evolving Treatment Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Since the inception of this journal in 1948, the understanding of etiologic factors that contribute to and the treatment of head and neck cancer has evolved dramatically. Advances in surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have improved locoregional control, survival, and quality of life. The outcomes of these treatment modalities have shifted the focus of curative efforts from radical ablation to preservation and restoration of function. This evolution has been documented in the pages of Cancer for the past 6 decades. This review focuses on the evolution of treatment approaches for head and neck cancer and future directions while recognizing the historic contributions recorded within this journal. PMID:18798532

Cognetti, David M.; Weber, Randal S.; Lai, Stephen Y.

2009-01-01

262

Clindamycin-induced neutropenia following major head and neck surgery.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man undergoing major head and neck surgery received clindamycin for perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis. On the third postoperative day, he became acutely neutropenic. The neutropenia resolved 3 days later, after the administration of filgrastim. After ruling out other causes of acute neutropenia, we determined that the neutropenia was secondary to clindamycin toxicity. While clindamycin-induced neutropenia has been reported elsewhere, to our knowledge this is the first report of its occurrence following head and neck surgery. Otolaryngologists should be aware of this potentially serious reaction. PMID:22996716

Schmidt, Robert S; Reiter, Evan R

2012-09-01

263

WorldSID Dummy Head-Neck Biofidelity Response.  

PubMed

Accident studies indicate that serious neck injuries are generally infrequent in side crashes. However, given the rapid changes in side impact protection technology, such as side airbags and curtain systems, the nature of head-neck interactions is likely to change. Consequently, the newest generation of anthropomorphic test devices for side impact should provide realistic prediction of the head-neck kinematics and include meaningful measurements related to risk of head and neck injury. The WorldSID dummy has been assessed against a set of five test conditions that have been used to define biofidelity impact response targets. Three of the five test conditions are recommended by ISO TR9790 (ISO 1997), the NBDL 7.2 G, 6.9 m/s lateral sled impact reported by Ewing et al. (1977) and Wismans et al. (1986) , the Patrick and Chou lateral, 6.7 G 5.8 m/s (1976) and Tarriere lateral 12.2 g, 6,1 m/s sled impact (ISO 1997). Due to its expected loading environment, the dummy neck performance has also been evaluated for neck bending in frontal flexion and extension (Mertz and Patrick, 1971). The 5th test condition is the NBDL 45 degrees frontal-oblique sled test (Wismans 1986, Philippens 2004). The latter and two of the ISO TR9790 test conditions form the basis of the draft IHRA requirements for evaluating side impact dummy biomechanical responses. The paper reports on the findings of the assessment of the WorldSID pre-production dummy. The Mertz and Patrick OC moment-head angle corridor is used as supplemental requirement for frontal flexion-extension. The biofidelity requirements contain both kinematic and dynamic response targets. The neck has a good performance for NBDL lateral and Tarriere requirements, and the Mertz OC moment-flexion angle. The performance for the Patrick and Chou, the NBDL oblique test conditions and the Mertz OC moment extension angle are fair to marginal. The repeatability performance of the dummy was found to be good for all lateral and most oblique test parameters. The neck design does not allow much more further optimization without fundamental changes. PMID:17230277

Been, Bernard; Philippens, Mat; de Lange, Ronald; van Ratingen, Michiel

2004-11-01

264

Pictorial Essay: Early and Late-term Effects of Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to illustrate the cross-sectional imaging appearance of postradiation changes and complications of radiotherapy in the head and neck. Radiotherapy is an important treatment modality for head and neck cancer, and is often used in conjunction with chemotherapy. Recognition of the varied effects of radiotherapy to the head and neck region is essential to correctly

Aditya Bharatha; Eugene Yu; Sean P. Symons; Eric S. Bartlett

265

Prevalence and Risk Factor of Neck Pain in Elderly Korean Community Residents  

PubMed Central

Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact. PMID:23678258

Son, Kyeong Min; Cho, Nam H.; Lim, Seung Hun

2013-01-01

266

Vertically Oriented Femoral Neck Fractures: Mechanical Analysis of Four Fixation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Femoral neck fractures inyoung individuals are typically high angled shear fractures. These injuries are difficult to stabilize due to a strong varus displacement force across the hip with weight bearing. The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of four differing fixation techniques for stabilizing vertical shear femoral neck fractures. Methods: Vertical femoral neck fracture stability

Arash Aminian; Fan Gao; Wasyl W. Fedoriw; Li-Qun Zhang; David M. Kalainov; Bradley R. Merk

2007-01-01

267

IS THERE AN OPTION FOR A PNEUMATIC STABILIZATION OF SAUROPOD NECKS? - AN EXPERIMENTAL AND ANATOMICAL APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reconstructed distribution of the major pneumatic diverticula systems in the sauropod neck might hint towards pneumatic stabilization or operation of the long neck, which was investigated considering anatomical and mechanical aspects of soft- tissue reconstructions in the neck of sauropods as well as experimental data. The mechanical role of pneumatic bodies in a generalized segmented beam of Styrodur™ blocks,

Daniela Schwarz-Wings; Eberhard Frey

2008-01-01

268

Optical correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern recognition may supplement or replace certain navigational aids on spacecraft in docking or landing activities. The need to correctly identify terrain features remains critical in preparation of autonomous planetary landing. One technique that may solve this problem is optical correlation. Correlation has been successfully demonstrated under ideal conditions; however, noise significantly affects the ability of the correlator to accurately identify input signals. Optical correlation in the presence of noise must be successfully demonstrated before this technology can be incorporated into system design. An optical correlator is designed and constructed using a modified 2f configuration. Liquid crystal televisions (LCTV) are used as the spatial light modulators (SLM) for both the input and filter devices. The filter LCTV is characterized and an operating curve is developed. Determination of this operating curve is critical for reduction of input noise. Correlation of live input with a programmable filter is demonstrated.

Cotariu, Steven S.

1991-12-01

269

Factors Associated With Long-Term Dysphagia After Definitive Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The use of altered fractionation radiotherapy (RT) regimens, as well as concomitant chemotherapy and RT, to intensify therapy for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer can lead to increased rates of long-term dysphagia. Methods and Materials: We identified 122 patients who had undergone definitive RT for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer, after excluding those who had been treated for a second or recurrent head-and-neck primary, had Stage I-II disease, developed locoregional recurrence, had <12 months of follow-up, or had undergone postoperative RT. The patient, tumor, and treatment factors were correlated with a composite of 3 objective endpoints as a surrogate for severe long-term dysphagia: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube dependence at the last follow-up visit; aspiration on a modified barium swallow study or a clinical diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia; or the presence of a pharyngoesophageal stricture. Results: A composite dysphagia outcome occurred in 38.5% of patients. On univariate analysis, the primary site (p = 0.01), use of concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), RT schedule (p = 0.02), and increasing age (p = 0.04) were significantly associated with development of composite long-term dysphagia. The use of concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), primary site (p = 0.02), and increasing age (p = 0.02) remained significant on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The addition of concurrent chemotherapy to RT for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer resulted in increased long-term dysphagia. Early intervention using swallowing exercises, avoidance of nothing-by-mouth periods, and the use of intensity-modulated RT to reduce the dose to the uninvolved swallowing structures should be explored further in populations at greater risk of long-term dysphagia.

Caudell, Jimmy J.; Schaner, Philip E.; Meredith, Ruby F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Locher, Julie L. [Department of Medicine, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Nabell, Lisle M. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Carroll, William R.; Magnuson, J. Scott [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Spencer, Sharon A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bonner, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)], E-mail: jabonner@uabmc.edu

2009-02-01

270

Quality of information available via the internet for patients with head and neck cancer: are we improving?  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the type, content, accessibility and quality of information available via the internet for patients with head and neck cancer. The Google search engine was used to generate lists of the first 100 websites for general head and neck cancer and the first ten for head and neck cancers by anatomical location (160 total). Websites were evaluated with the validated DISCERN and LIDA instruments, the SMOG (Simple measure of gobbledygook) readability score and against the JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) criteria. 40 of the 160 websites ranked by Google were suitable for analysis. Seven websites (17.5 %) partially or fully achieved all four JAMA benchmarks and only one (2.5 %) site achieved none. 28 (70 %) included reference to quality of life factors. Correlations were identified between Google site rank and all four of our appraisal tools; LIDA (-0.966, p = 0.006), JAMA (-5.93, p = 0.028), DISCERN (-0.568, p = 0.037) and SMOG (4.678, p = 0.04). Google site rank and both government run sites (-35.38, p = 0.034) and sites run by universities or hospitals (-27.32, p = 0.016) also showed an association. Comparing our observations with those of Riordain in 2008, there has been little improvement in the quality of head and neck cancer information available online over this time. Given the variability in quality of information online, patients would benefit from being directed to reliable websites by clinicians. PMID:25370600

Best, James; Muzaffar, Jameel; Mitchell-Innes, Alistair

2014-11-01

271

Correlation methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for processing complex radar data with a computer using correlation functions is reviewed. Parameters including data storage, data reduction, and real time operation are addressed. Since complex auto- and cross-correlation functions are calculated and stored, almost no information is lost. These also can be analyzed in terms of the full correlation analysis of the spaced-antenna-drifts technique. The proposed approach therefore appears to be very feasible to suit most Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar applications.

Rottger, J.

1983-01-01

272

Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: I. Overview of Large Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific and medical data have been gathered for nearly 500 motor-vehicle occupants, whose dynamic response[1-2] was calculated to determine the forces generated at all potential injury sites. Particular attention was paid to the load within the cervical spine to examine the influence of certain variables relating to the occupant (height, weight, sex), the impact (magnitude, direction), and the neck itself (local vector, anatomical level). Exhaustive efforts were made to match the force with each variable using linear and logarithmic fits, but correlation coefficients were generally not high. These results might be influenced by the emphasis in this research to obtain the best statistics with large groupings of patients. Hence, a separate study with more detail is proposed as a significant continuation of this effort. 1. Proper Treatment of Complex Human Structures, Announcer 27 (4), 100 (1997); 2. Physics as a Key Element in the Complete Description of Dichotomies in Injury Distribution, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 274 (1999).

Shaibani, Saami J.

2000-03-01

273

[Intraarterial cytostatic therapy of head and neck: operative and cytostatic complications and side effects (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In the past 30 months 51 patients with squamous cell carcinomas in head and neck were treated by intraarterial application of cytostatic drugs. A catheter was placed in the external carotid artery below of the vessel supplying the tumor. For placement of the catheter the temporal and the superior thyroid artery were used. The right position of the catheter tip is important for achieving a high concentration of the cytostatic drugs in the tumor region. The wrong positioning of the catheter tip in the carotid bifurcation leads to perfusion or embolization in the internal carotid system. In one case we noted a persistent hemiplegia in three other cases temporary hemiplegia, due to perfusion of the brain with highly concentrated cytostatics. Postoperative bleeding of the arterial stump was noted in 3 cases. Local side effects of the cytostatics were mucositis, loss of hair and hyperpigmentation. The systemic side effects correlated with those after intravenous injection. PMID:6180271

Mika, H; Cataldo, M

1981-08-01

274

Preventing Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, patients undergoing combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy (chemoradiotherapy) for advanced head and neck cancer will receive intravenous palifermin or placebo before and during cancer treatment to prevent mucositis, a common but serious side effect of chemoradiotherapy for this type of cancer.

275

Kinematics of a Head-Neck Model Simulating Whiplash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A whiplash event is a relative motion between the head and torso that occurs in rear-end automobile collisions. In particular, the large inertia of the head results in a horizontal translation relative to the thorax. This paper describes a simulation of the motion of the head and neck during a rear-end (whiplash) collision. A head-neck model that qualitatively undergoes the same forces acting in whiplash and shows the same behavior is used to analyze the kinematics of both the head and the cervical spine and the resulting neck loads. The rapid acceleration during a whiplash event causes the extension and flexion of the cervical spine, which in turn can cause dislocated vertebrae, torn ligaments, intervertebral disc herniation, and other trauma that appear to be the likely causes of subsequent painful headache or neck pain symptoms. Thus, whiplash provides a connection between the dynamics of the human body and physics. Its treatment can enliven the usual teaching in kinematics, and both theoretical and experimental approaches provide an interesting biological context to teach introductory principles of mechanics.

Colicchia, Giuseppe; Zollman, Dean; Wiesner, Hartmut; Sen, Ahmet Ilhan

2008-02-01

276

Functional bladder neck obstruction in males: a progressive disorder?  

PubMed

Functional bladder neck obstruction is often an elusive cause of outlet obstruction in males. If the entity escapes timely diagnosis and treatment, it may progress to acute or chronic retention, terminating in renal failure. The diagnosis can be accurately made by a synchronous pressure flow electromyograph (EMG) study. This is a report on 16 men under 45 years of age encountered during the past 2.5 years. A high sustained detrusor pressure (mean 157 cm H2O) during voiding with poor flow (mean 9.89 ml/s) was observed in all patients. External sphincteric activity during EMG and video study was found to be completely quiescent at the time of voiding. All these patients had inadequate funneling and bladder neck opening. Some of these patients had intermittent bladder neck opening. Three patients presented with renal failure. Following therapy, renal function could be reversed back to normal in 2 patients. Clean intermittent catheterisation, pharmacotherapy using alpha-blockers and endoscopic bladder neck incision were the modalities used to treat this group of patients. PMID:1478227

Mishra, V K; Kumar, A; Kapoor, R; Srivastava, A; Bhandari, M

1992-01-01

277

Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm of the skin. The tumor most frequently affects elderly patients, with a preference for the head and neck. Incidence rates increase with sun exposure and after immunosuppression and organ transplantation. A significant proportion of MCC have been reported to occur in intimate association with malignant epithelial neoplasms. The genetic mechanisms underlying

Carlos Suárez; Juan Pablo Rodrigo; Alfio Ferlito; Kenneth O Devaney; Alessandra Rinaldo

2004-01-01

278

Kinesin's cover-neck bundle folds forward to generate force  

E-print Network

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138; eLaboratoire de Chimie Biophysique, CA, and approved October 16, 2008 (received for review May 27, 2008) Each step of the kinesin motor the cover-neck bundle. We tested this proposal by comparing optical trapping motility measurements of cover

279

Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Defects of the Head and Neck  

PubMed Central

Patients afflicted with head and neck cancer, traumatic injuries to the head and neck, or those with congenital or developmental defects benefit from multidisciplinary team management. The head and neck region participates in complex physiologic processes that can often be impeded by these circumstances. Evaluation of the patient by the maxillofacial prosthodontist can assist the other members of the team in providing treatment planning options for the patients. Intraoral defects arising from these circumstances can be treated with prosthodontics that serve to assist with speech, swallowing, and to some degree mastication. If chemotherapeutic or radiation modalities are also used to treat the head and neck, assessment of the patient by the maxillofacial prosthodontist may prove to identify factors that may predispose to undesirable sequelae. Preventive treatment by elective tooth extraction, prosthodontic assessment, and patient education prove to assist in predictable management of these oftentimes complex presenting conditions. Facial defects arising from similar circumstances can be an alternative or adjunct to plastic surgical reconstruction and offer the added advantage of tumor surveillance in susceptible patients. PMID:22550451

Salinas, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

280

Hypocalcemia after neck exploration for untreated primary hyperparathyroidism.  

PubMed

Hypocalcemia after neck exploration for hyperparathyroidism is an important postoperative management issue. With increasing acceptance of less invasive surgical approaches, hypocalcemia is less frequent. This study was conducted to evaluate postoperative hypocalcemia after current surgical exploration techniques in patients with untreated primary hyperparathyroidism. From the University of Louisville parathyroid database, charts of patients undergoing surgery for untreated primary hyperparathyroidism from May 1, 1998 to May 30, 2004 were reviewed. Data was analyzed based on age, sex, preoperative calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, preexisting diseases, and extent of neck exploration. One hundred sixty-nine patients were identified with adequate data for analysis. Transient postoperative hypocalcemia occurred in 21 per cent (36/169) for the total group, in 18 per cent (22/125) after minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy, and in 32 per cent (14/44) after bilateral neck exploration. Patients with postoperative hypocalcemia had a statistically significant association with older age and pre-existing hypertension. Patients with postoperative hypocalcemia were more likely to have undergone longer surgical procedures and were more likely to have had pre-existing diabetes and mental disorders. These findings were not statistically significant and were considered trends. The frequency of osteoporosis in the hypocalcemia group was increased but was not significant. Transient hypocalcemia occurred in 21 per cent of patients after parathyroid surgery. It was more likely after bilateral neck exploration, a longer duration of surgery, and with hypertension, diabetes, and mental disorders. PMID:17216827

Conn, C Adam; Clark, Jonathan; Bumpous, Jeffrey; Goldstein, Richard; Fleming, Muffin; Flynn, Michael B

2006-12-01

281

Transmission blocks for lower neck and inguinal lymph node radiotherapy.  

PubMed

We evaluate techniques for radiotherapy to low neck and inguinal lymph nodes. Partial transmission blocks (PTBs) simplify treatment planning, daily setup, and improve reproducibility and dose homogeneity. PTBs minimize the risk for dose misadministration to critical organs. Disadvantages include doses that are potentially lower to the medial cervical lymphatics and higher to the femur. PTBs can surmount common treatment planning problems. PMID:9586710

Rosenthal, D I; Chang, C H; Orr, K Y

1998-01-01

282

Neck Muscle Vibration Alters Visually Perceived Roll in Normals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine whether vibration of dorsal neck muscles or of the mastoid bone or of both modified the perception of visual orientation in the head roll-tilt plane in normal subjects. Measurements of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) were obtained from 26 normal human subjects. Subjects reported the SVV in the upright and in the

George J. McKenna; Grace C. Y. Peng; David S. Zee

2004-01-01

283

Tuberculosis of the head and neck – epidemiological and clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of our retrospective study was to review the clinical and epidemiological presentation of head and neck tuberculosis. Material and methods We analyzed the history of 73 patients with head and neck tuberculosis hospitalized in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, between 1983 and 2009. Results We found that 26 (35.6%) patients presented with lymph node tuberculosis, 20 (27.4%) with laryngeal tuberculosis, 10 (13.7%) with oropharyngeal tuberculosis, 9 (12.3%) with salivary gland tuberculosis, 3 (4.1%) with tuberculosis of paranasal sinuses, 3 (4.1%) with aural tuberculosis, and 2 (2.7%) with skin tuberculosis in the head and neck region. Within the group of patients with lymph node tuberculosis in 15 cases there were infected lymph nodes of the 2nd and 3rd cervical region and in 11 infected lymph nodes of the 1st cervical region. In 5 cases of laryngeal tuberculosis there was detected coexistence of cancer. Oropharyngeal tuberculosis in 7 cases was localized in tonsils, where in 1 case coexisting cancer was diagnosed. Chest X-ray was performed in all cases and pulmonary tuberculosis was identified in 26 (35.6%) cases. Conclusions We conclude that tuberculosis still remains a problem and must be taken into consideration in the diagnostic process. The coincidence of tuberculosis and cancer is remarkable in the head and neck region.

Bruzgielewicz, Antoni; Osuch-Wójcikewicz, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Chmielewski, Rafa?

2013-01-01

284

Epidemiology of head and neck cancer: Magnitude of the problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head and neck cancer comprises squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. There are similarities in their natural history, epidemiology and control. For these cancers premalignant changes can be identified. Smoking and drinking are the major risk factors. The geographical variations in incidence and mortality are indicative of differences in the prevalence of risk factors between countries. The dramatic

Lajos Döbróssy

2005-01-01

285

Hypofolatemia as a risk factor for head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancer (HNSCC) includes squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. Approximately 38,500 cases of HNSCC are estimated to occur in the USA in 2004, with 11,000 deaths. HNSCCs represent about 3% of all malignant tumors in the USA. However, in other parts of the world, as India, Southeast Asia or Brazil, the disease is much more prevalent. The standard therapeutic approach, focused on surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy, alone or in combination, has been in part modified in the last 30 years, but the overall survival of HNSCC patients has not substantially improved. To characterize and thus identify high-risk mucosal areas and preclinical tumors, molecular abnormalities in head and neck carcinogenesis have been extensively studied. Metabolic aspects in head and neck carcinogenesis have been less extensively studied. Nevertheless, we know that metabolic alterations, often aspecific, are frequently associated with cancer. These may be secondary or may precede tumor development and favorite progression. In particular, based upon our results, a role for folate deficiency as a risk factor in head and neck carcinogenesis seems plausible. A chemoprevention protocol with folate is at present feasible and ethically correct and is already in progress at our institution. Homocysteine levels in cancer patients are probably largely affected by the HNSCC phenotype. An accumulation of homocysteine might reveal a genetic defect which is theoretically a target for pharmacological therapy, for example by antifolic drugs. PMID:15608414

Paludetti, Gaetano; Almadori, Giovanni; Bussu, Francesco; Galli, Jacopo; Cadoni, Gabriella; Maurizi, Maurizio

2005-01-01

286

Chemopreventive Potential of Natural Compounds in Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most fatal cancers worldwide. Despite advances in the management of HNSCC, the overall survival for patients has not improved significantly due to advanced stages at diagnosis, high recurrence rate after surgical removal, and second primary tumor development, which underscore the importance of novel strategies for cancer prevention. Cancer chemoprevention,

Mohammad Aminur Rahman; A. R. M. Ruhul Amin; Dong M. Shin

2010-01-01

287

Neural Crest Origins of the Neck and Shoulder  

PubMed Central

Summary The neck and shoulder region of vertebrates has undergone a complex evolutionary history. In order to identify its underlying mechanisms we map the destinations of embryonic neural crest and mesodermal stem cells using novel Cre-recombinase mediated transgenesis. The single-cell resolution of this genetic labelling reveals cryptic cell boundaries traversing seemingly homogeneous skeleton of neck and shoulders. Within this complex assembly of bones and muscles we discern a precise code of connectivity that mesenchymal stem cells of neural crest and mesodermal origin both obey as they form muscle scaffolds. Neural crest anchors the head onto the anterior lining of the shoulder girdle, while a Hox gene controlled mesoderm links trunk muscles to the posterior neck and shoulder skeleton. The skeleton that we identify as neural crest is specifically affected in human Klippel-Feil syndrome, Sprengel’s deformity and Arnold-Chiari I/II malformation, providing first insights into their likely aetiology. We identify genes involved in the cellular modularity of neck and shoulder skeleton and propose a new methodology for determining skeletal homologies that is based on muscle attachments. This has allowed us to trace the whereabouts of the cleithrum, the major shoulder bone of extinct land vertebrate ancestors which appears to survive as the scapular spine in living mammals. PMID:16034409

Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Ahlberg, Per E.; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Iannarelli, Palma; Dennehy, Ulla; Richardson, William D.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Koentges, Georgy

2005-01-01

288

Language engineering: the real bottle neck of natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bottle neck in building a practical natural language processing system is not those problems which have been often discussed in research papers, but in ilandling much more dirty, exceptional (for theoreticians, but we frequently encounter) expressions. This panel will focus on the problem which has been rarely written but has been argued informally among researchers who have tried to

Makoto Nagao

1988-01-01

289

Associations Between Dietary Patterns and Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined the associations between dietary patterns and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or whether they differ by race. This was evaluated using data from a population-based case-control study (2002–2006) including 1,176 cases of head and neck SCC and 1,317 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls from central and eastern North Carolina whose diets had been assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis identified 2 patterns of intake: 1) high consumption of fruits, vegetables, and lean protein and 2) high consumption of fried foods, high-fat and processed meats, and sweets. Associations were estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for matching factors and confounders. Heterogeneity by tumor site (oral/pharyngeal vs. laryngeal) and effect-measure modification were also evaluated. Reduced odds of head and neck SCC were found for the fruit, vegetable, and lean protein pattern (for highest quartile vs. lowest, odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.39, 0.71). The fried foods, high-fat and processed meats, and sweets pattern was positively associated only with laryngeal cancer (odds ratio = 2.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.21, 3.72). These findings underline the importance of a dietary pattern rich in fruits and vegetables and low in high-fat and processed meats and sweets for prevention of head and neck cancer. PMID:22575416

Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Campbell, Marci; Weissler, Mark C.; Funkhouser, William K.; Olshan, Andrew F.

2012-01-01

290

Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck tumors refers to a new approach that aims at increasing the radiation dose gradient between the target tissues and the surrounding normal tissues at risk, thus offering the prospect of increasing the locore- gional control probability while decreasing the compli- cation rate. As a prerequisite, IMRT requires a proper selection and delineation

VINCENT GRÉGOIRE; WILFRIED DE NEVE; AVRAHAM EISBRUCH; NANCY LEE; DANIELLE VAN DEN WEYNGAERT

2007-01-01

291

CE Certificate - Head and Neck Breeze online training  

Cancer.gov

Certificate of Attendance The Participant is hereby granted 2 CEUs for attending the Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules Head and Neck - Breeze online training NCRA Event Number 2006-246 VtÜÉÄ [t{Ç ]É{ÇáÉÇ NCI-SEER

292

Trigeminal excitation of dorsal neck motoneurones in the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitation of dorsal neck motoneurones evoked by electrical stimulation of primary trigeminal afferents in the Gasserian ganglion has been investigated with intracellular recording from a-motoneurones in the cat. Single stimulation in the Gasserian ganglion ipsi-and contralateral to the recording side evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurones innervating the lateral head flexor muscle splenius (SPL) and the head elevator muscles

B. Alstermark; M. J. Pinter; S. Sasaki; B. Tantisira

1992-01-01

293

Progression of head and neck squamous cell cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squamous cell cancer in the head and neck region (HNSC) is unique concerning its progression since it remains locoregional for long time and visceral metastases develop only in a later stage of the disease. Accordingly, molecular markers of the local invasion and the lymphatic dissemination both have critical importance. HNSC progression is associated with deregulated control of cell proliferation and

József Tímár; Orsolya Csuka; Éva Remenár; Gábor Répássy; Miklós Kásler

2005-01-01

294

TGF? signaling in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) is a key regulator of epithelial cell proliferation, immune function and angiogenesis. Because TGF? signaling maintains epithelial homeostasis, dysregulated TGF? signaling is common in many malignancies, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Defective TGF? signaling in epithelial cells causes hyperproliferation, reduced apoptosis and increased genomic instability, and the compensatory increase in TGF? production

R A White; S P Malkoski; X-J Wang

2010-01-01

295

Recurrence patterns of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma after 3D conformal (chemo)-radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To establish recurrence patterns among locally advanced head and neck non-nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients\\u000a treated with radical (chemo-) radiotherapy and to correlate the sites of loco-regional recurrence with radiotherapy doses\\u000a and target volumes\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  151 locally advanced HNSCC patients were treated between 2004-2005 using radical three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy.\\u000a Patients with prior surgery to the primary tumour site were excluded.

Didem C Oksuz; Robin J Prestwich; Brendan Carey; Stuart Wilson; Mustafa S Senocak; Ananya Choudhury; Karen Dyker; Catherine Coyle; Mehmet Sen

2011-01-01

296

Noninvasive diffuse optical monitoring of head and neck tumor blood flow and oxygenation during radiation delivery  

PubMed Central

This study explored using a novel diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter to noninvasively monitor blood flow and oxygenation changes in head and neck tumors during radiation delivery. A fiber-optic probe connected to the DCS flow-oximeter was placed on the surface of the radiologically/clinically involved cervical lymph node. The DCS flow-oximeter in the treatment room was remotely operated by a computer in the control room. From the early measurements, abnormal signals were observed when the optical device was placed in close proximity to the radiation beams. Through phantom tests, the artifacts were shown to be caused by scattered x rays and consequentially avoided by moving the optical device away from the x-ray beams. Eleven patients with head and neck tumors were continually measured once a week over a treatment period of seven weeks, although there were some missing data due to the patient related events. Large inter-patient variations in tumor hemodynamic responses were observed during radiation delivery. A significant increase in tumor blood flow was observed at the first week of treatment, which may be a physiologic response to hypoxia created by radiation oxygen consumption. Only small and insignificant changes were found in tumor blood oxygenation, suggesting that oxygen utilizations in tumors during the short period of fractional radiation deliveries were either minimal or balanced by other effects such as blood flow regulation. Further investigations in a large patient population are needed to correlate the individual hemodynamic responses with the clinical outcomes for determining the prognostic value of optical measurements. PMID:22312579

Dong, Lixin; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Cheng, Ran; Shang, Yu; Johnson, Ellis L.; Stevens, Scott D.; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

2012-01-01

297

Neglected simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures secondary to narcotic drug abuse treated by bilateral one-staged hemiarthroplasty: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures are extremely rare and associated with various conditions. Up to now Most cases had correlations with major trauma, repetitive minor trauma, seizure, parathyroid or renal dysfunction, anti-epileptic medications, seizure, etc. A 28-year-old addict man referred to us with a 10-year history of narcotic drug abuse and history of 8 months bilateral groin pain. He admitted

Alireza Hootkani; Ali Moradi; Ehsan Vahedi

2010-01-01

298

Postradiation Metabolic Tumor Volume Predicts Outcome in Head-and-Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To explore the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume measured on postradiation {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients with head-and-neck cancer who received pretreatment and posttreatment PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging along with definitive chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. The PET/CT parameters evaluated include the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV{sub 2.0}-MTV{sub 4.0}; where MTV{sub 2.0} refers to the volume above a standardized uptake value threshold of 2.0), and integrated tumor volume. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to test for association between PET endpoints and disease-free survival and overall survival. Results: Multiple postradiation PET endpoints correlated significantly with outcome; however, the most robust predictor of disease progression and death was MTV{sub 2.0}. An increase in MTV{sub 2.0} of 21cm{sup 3} (difference between 75th and 25th percentiles) was associated with an increased risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR]= 2.5, p = 0.0001) and death (HR = 2.0, p = 0.003). In patients with nonnasopharyngeal carcinoma histology (n = 34), MTV{sub 2.0} <18 cm{sup 3} and MTV{sub 2.0} {>=}18 cm{sup 3} yielded 2-year disease-free survival rates of 100% and 63%, respectively (p = 0.006) and 2-year overall survival rates of 100% and 81%, respectively (p = 0.009). There was no correlation between MTV{sub 2.0} and disease-free survival or overall survival with nasopharyngeal carcinoma histology (n = 13). On multivariate analysis, only postradiation MTV{sub 2.0} was predictive of disease-free survival (HR = 2.47, p = 0.0001) and overall survival (HR = 1.98, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Postradiation metabolic tumor volume is an adverse prognostic factor in head-and-neck cancer. Biomarkers such as MTV are important for risk stratification and will be valuable in the future with risk-adapted therapies.

Murphy, James D.; La, Trang H.; Chu, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Quon, Andrew [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Fischbein, Nancy J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Maxim, Peter G.; Graves, Edward E.; Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu, E-mail: qle@stanford.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

2011-06-01

299

Inflammatory biomarkers in serum in subjects with and without work related neck/shoulder complaints  

PubMed Central

Background Although it has recently been recognised that inflammation is important in the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), the exact pathophysiological pathways are unknown. Methods We investigated serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in 35 female supermarket cashiers with repetitive work tasks and work related neck/shoulder complaints, compared with those from 25 women without MSDs (6 supermarket cashiers and 19 middle-school teachers or faculty staff). None of the subjects were pregnant or lactating, and showed no signs of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, cancer, diabetes, coronary artery disease or inadequately controlled hypertension. Serum levels of IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, MCP-1, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, TNF-?, GM-CSF, CTGF and CRP were analysed. Results The women with pain related to MSD had higher serum concentrations of MIP-1? (median, 25th-75th percentile: 90.0 pg/mL, 62.5-110 vs. 73.1 pg/mL, 54.6-88.3; p?=?0.018), IL-12 (0.26 pg/mL, 0.26-0.26 vs. 0.26 pg/mL, 0.26-0.26; p?=?0.047) and CRP (0.5 mg/L, 0.5-1.6 vs. 0.5 mg/L, 0.5-0.5; p?=?0.003), than control subjects. Levels of MIP-1?, MIP-1? and CRP were correlated with the reported intensity of neck/shoulder pain (r?=?0.29, p?=?0.03 for MIP-1?; r?=?0.29, p?=?0.02 for MIP-1? and r?=?0.43, p?=?0.001 for CRP). No statistically significant differences in serum levels were found for the remaining cytokines. Conclusions Otherwise healthy females with ongoing work-related neck/shoulder pain showed higher serum concentrations of MIP-1?, IL-12 and CRP than controls, and the levels of MIP-1?, MIP-1? and CRP were correlated to pain intensity. These results support previous findings that inflammatory processes play a part in work related MSDs. PMID:24669872

2014-01-01

300

Radial Neck Fractures in Children: Results When Open Reduction Is Indicated  

PubMed Central

Background: Radial neck fractures in children are rare, representing 5% of all elbow pediatric fractures. Most are minimally displaced or nondisplaced. Severely displaced or angulated radial neck fractures often have poor outcomes, even after open reduction, and case series reported in literature are limited. The aim of the study is to analyze the outcomes of patients with a completely displaced and angulated fracture who underwent open reduction when closed reduction failed. Methods: Between 2000 and 2009, 195 patients with radial neck fractures were treated in our institute. Twenty-four cases satisfied all the inclusion criteria and were evaluated clinically and radiologically at a mean follow-up of 7 years. At follow-up, the carrying angle in full elbow extension and the range of motion of the elbow and forearm were measured bilaterally. We recorded clinical results as good, fair, or poor according to the range of movement and the presence of pain. Radiographic evaluation documented the size of the radial head, the presence of avascular necrosis, premature physeal closure, and cubitus valgus. Results: Statistical analysis showed that fair and poor results are directly correlated with loss of pronation-supination (P=0.001), reduction of elbow flexion-extension (P=0.001), increase of elbow valgus angle (P=0.002), necrosis of the radial head (P=0.001), premature physeal closure (P=0.01), and associated lesions (olecranon fracture with or without dislocation of the elbow) (P=0.002). Discussion: In our cases, residual radial head deformity due to premature closure of the growth plate and avascular necrosis were correlated with a functional deficit. Associated elbow injury was coupled with a negative prognosis. In our series, about 25% of patients had fair and 20% had poor results. Outcomes were good in 55% and felt to represent a better outcome than if the fracture remained nonanatomically reduced with residual angulation and/or displacement of the radial head. This study reports the largest series of these fractures with a combination of significant angulation and displacement of the fracture requiring open reduction. We feel that open reduction is indicated when the head of the radius is completely displaced and without contact with the rim of the metaphysis. PMID:25171679

Giordano, Marco; Aulisa, Angelo G.; Di Lazzaro, Antonio; Guzzanti, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

301

Post-Radiation Metabolic Tumor Volume Predicts Outcome in Head-and-Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To explore the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume measured on post-radiation 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials Forty-seven head-and-neck cancer patients who received pre- and post-treatment PET/CT imaging along with definitive chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. PET/CT parameters evaluated include the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV2.0-MTV4.0; where MTV2.0 refers to the volume above an SUV threshold of 2.0), and integrated tumor volume. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to test for association between PET endpoints and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Multiple post-radiation PET endpoints correlated significantly with outcome, however the most robust predictor of disease progression and death was MTV2.0. An increase in MTV2.0 of 21cm3 (difference between 75th and 25th percentile) was associated with an increased risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR]=2.5, p=0.0001) and death (HR=2.0, p=0.003). In patients with non-nasopharyngeal carcinoma (non-NPC) histology (n=34), MTV2.0<18cm3 and MTV2.0?18cm3 yielded 2-year DFS rates of 100% and 63%, respectively (p=0.006) and 2-year OS rates of 100% and 81%, respectively (p=0.009). There was no correlation between MTV2.0 and DFS or OS with NPC histology (n=13). On multivariate analysis only post-radiation MTV2.0 was predictive of DFS (HR=2.47, p=0.0001) and OS (HR=1.98, p=0.003). Conclusions Post-radiation metabolic tumor volume is an adverse prognostic factor in head-and-neck cancer. Biomarkers such as MTV are important for risk stratification, and will be valuable in the future with risk-adapted therapies. PMID:20646870

Murphy, James D; La, Trang H.; Chu, Karen; Quon, Andrew; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Maxim, Peter G.; Graves, Edward E.; Loo, Billy W.; Le, Quynh-Thu

2010-01-01

302

Predictors of Pain among Head and Neck Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Pain is a strong contributor to cancer patients’ quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of pain 1 year after the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. Design Prospective, multi-site cohort study. Setting Three academically-affiliated medical centers. Patients Previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=374). Main Outcome Measures Participants were surveyed pre-treatment and 1 year thereafter. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine predictors of the SF-36 bodily pain score 1 year after diagnosis. Results The mean SF-36 bodily pain score at 1 year was 65, compared to 61 at diagnosis (p=.004), compared to 75 among population norms (lower scores indicate worse pain). Variables independently associated with pain included pre-treatment pain score (p<0.001), less education (p=0.02), neck dissection (p=0.001), feeding tube (p=0.05), xerostomia (p<0.001), depressive symptoms (p<0.001), taking more pain medication (p<0.001), less physical activity (p=.02), and poor sleep quality (p=0.006). Current smoking and problem drinking were marginally significant (p=0.07 and 0.08, respectively). Conclusions Aggressive pain management may be indicated for head and neck cancer patients who undergo neck dissections, complain of xerostomia, require feeding tubes, and have medical comorbidities. Treatment of modifiable risk factors such as depression, poor sleep quality, tobacco and alcohol abuse may also reduce pain and improve quality of life among head and neck cancer patients. PMID:23165353

Shuman, Andrew G.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Light, Emily; Wolf, Gregory T.; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas; Jiang, Yunyun; McLean, Scott; Ghanem, Tamer A.; Duffy, Sonia A.

2014-01-01

303

Functional bladder neck obstruction: a rare cause of renal failure.  

PubMed

We studied 7 men and 6 women (average age 33 years) who presented in renal failure with obstructive voiding symptoms or retention. Of these patients 11 had a dilated upper tract and 2 had shrunken kidneys. Mean serum creatinine at presentation was 7.0 mg./dl. No abnormality was noted on cysto-panendoscopy, retrograde urethrography and voiding cystourethrography. The patients were initially treated with clean intermittent self-catheterization following 7 to 10 days of indwelling catheterization. The majority of patients had low pressure and low flow rate at initial presentation but high end filling pressure (mean 35.3 cm. water), high voiding pressure (mean 118.9 cm. water), high opening pressure (mean 95.3 cm. water) and low peak flow (mean 5.7 ml. per second) on video pressure flow electromyography. The external sphincter was relaxed during voiding but the bladder neck opened intermittently or inadequately. No proper funneling of the bladder neck was seen. Thus, functional bladder neck obstruction was considered to be responsible for obstructive voiding in these patients. Of the patients 3 void to completion with the help of alpha blockers alone, 5 underwent bladder neck incision and are voiding well, and 5 were practicing clean intermittent self-catheterization at last followup. Serum creatinine returned to near normal in 10 patients. End stage renal failure persisted in 2 patients, 1 of whom underwent renal transplantation and is voiding well but the other died without having undergone renal replacement therapy. In the remaining patient serum creatinine was stable at 3.2 mg./dl. Mean serum creatinine at 6 months of followup was 2.33 mg.%. Bladder neck obstruction is a rare cause of renal failure which can be corrected if treated appropriately. PMID:7776419

Kumar, A; Banerjee, G K; Goel, M C; Mishra, V K; Kapoor, R; Bhandari, M

1995-07-01

304

'Early' thyroid 123I uptake: correction for extrathyroidal neck radioactivity.  

PubMed

Should one correct for extrathyroidal neck radioactivity ('neck background') when interpreting perchlorate discharge test results? A new background correction method was developed using a linear probe. 123I produces photon peaks at two energy levels: 159 keV (gamma-rays) and 28 keV (X-rays), with an attenuation of 15 and 35% per cm water, respectively. If one fixes the position of the subject's neck, radiation from thyroid 123I produces an X/gamma detection ratio (alpha) which is constant and, due to the anterior localization of the thyroid, higher than the ratio (beta) produced by extrathyroidal 123I. These two ratios can be determined in vivo and used to calculate background-corrected and depth-corrected thyroid uptake. In simulation experiments our method was effective so long as the 'gland' was situated close enough to the 'neck' surface for the difference (alpha-beta) to be less than 0.19. Perchlorate discharge tests were performed in five euthyroid subjects who were pretreated with methimazole. The difference (alpha-beta) ranged from 0.27 to 0.36. Uncorrected, the mean discharge was 57% (range 47-66); corrected, it was 92% (range 88-94). In 15 hyperthyroid Graves' patients, with goitres varying from 13 to 63 ml, alpha-beta ranged from 0.22 to 0.40 and was unrelated to goitre size. The contribution of neck background is quantitatively important, especially when thyroid uptake is low; our new method corrects for it, even with large goitres. PMID:1335140

Arntzenius, A B; van der Heide, D; Meinders, A E

1992-11-01

305

Correlation Correlogram  

E-print Network

Network Correlation Neural Oscillator Correlogram CrossHair cell Cochlear Filtering Signal neural oscillators representing a single perceptual stream are synchronised, and are desynchronised from oscillator synchronisation. Model Overview Oscillator Array · Segment formation: excitatory and inhibitory

Wrigley, Stuart

306

Diffusion-Weighted MRI for Nodal Staging of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Impact on Radiotherapy Planning  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for nodal staging and its impact on radiotherapy (RT) planning. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), as well as MRI (with routine and DW sequences) prior to neck dissection. After topographic correlation, lymph nodes were evaluated microscopically with prekeratin immunostaining. Pathology results were correlated with imaging findings and an RT planning study was performed for these surgically treated patients. One set of target volumes was based on conventional imaging only, and another set was based on the corresponding DW-MRI images. A third reference set was contoured based solely on pathology results. Results: A sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 97% per lymph node were found for DW-MRI. Nodal staging agreement between imaging and pathology was significantly stronger for DW-MRI (kappa = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.00) than for conventional imaging (kappa = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.16-0.96; p = 0.019, by McNemar's test). For both imaging modalities, the absolute differences between RT volumes and those obtained by pathology were calculated. Using an exact paired Wilcoxon test, the observed difference was significantly larger for conventional imaging than for DW-MRI for nodal gross tumor volume (p = 0.0013), as well as for nodal clinical target volume (p = 0.0415) delineation. Conclusions: These results suggest that DW-MRI is superior to conventional imaging for preradiotherapy nodal staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and provides a potential impact on organsparing and tumor control.

Dirix, Piet, E-mail: piet.dirix@uzleuven.b [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuvens Kankerinstituut (LKI), University Hospitals Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Vandecaveye, Vincent; De Keyzer, Frederik; Op de beeck, Katya [Department of Radiology, Leuvens Kankerinstituut (LKI), University Hospitals Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Poorten, Vincent Vander; Delaere, Pierre [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Leuvens Kankerinstituut (LKI), University Hospitals Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Verbeken, Eric [Department of Pathology, Leuvens Kankerinstituut (LKI), University Hospitals Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Hermans, Robert [Department of Radiology, Leuvens Kankerinstituut (LKI), University Hospitals Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Nuyts, Sandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuvens Kankerinstituut (LKI), University Hospitals Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

2010-03-01

307

Response Assessment in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Based on RECIST and Volume Measurements Using Cone Beam CT Images.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to find potential trends in RECIST measurements and volume regressions obtained from weekly cone-beam computed tomography images and to evaluate their relationship to clinical outcomes in locally advanced head and neck cancer. We examined thirty head and neck cancer patients who underwent a pre-treatment planning CT and weekly cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) during the 5-7 week treatment period. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and lymph nodes were manually contoured on the treatment planning CT. The regions of interest enclosed by delineated contours were converted to binary masks and warped to weekly CBCT images using the 3D deformation field obtained by deformable image registration. The RECIST diameters and volumes were measured from these warped masks. Different predictor variables based on these measurements were calculated and correlated with clinical outcomes, based on a clinical exam and a PET imaging study. We found that there was substantial regression of the gross tumor volume over the treatment course (average gross tumor volume regression of 25%). Among the gross tumor volume predicators, it was found that the early regression of gross tumor volume showed a marginal statistical significance (p = 0.045) with complete response and non-complete response treatment outcomes. RECIST diameter measurements during treatment varied very little and did not correlate with clinical outcomes. We concluded that regression of the gross tumor volume obtained from weekly CBCT images is a promising predictor of clinical outcomes for head and neck patients. A larger sample is needed to confirm its statistical significance. PMID:25403431

Hou, Jidong; Guerrero, Mariana; Suntharalingam, Mohan; D'Souza, Warren D

2014-11-16

308

[Analysis of mutations within the TP53 gene in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck].  

PubMed

Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer. Tobacco and alcohol consumption are implicated in 75% of all SCCHN and have a multiplicative combined effect. It is considered to be the main risk factor for the cancer development. The identification of a number of these genetic alterations, for example mutations in the p53 tumour suppressor gene, paved the way for their use as molecular markers. Mutations in the TP53 gene frequently occur in many cancers and are present in 50-60% of head and neck cancers, p53 plays a sentinel role in the pathways that prevent development of cancer by inducing apoptosis, DNA repair and cell cycle arrest in response to different types of cellular stress The aim of the study, was the assessment of the TP53 mutations prevalence in the head and neck cancer patients and it's relation with the clinical data and course of the disease. The material comprised of peripheral blood and tumour tissue obtained from 50 HNSCC patients with a primary tumour in the oral cavity, oropharynx or larynx, who were scheduled for surgical treatment. The mutations in TP53, were detected with use of PCR-SSCP technique. In total 8 patients (16%), showed TP53 mutation in primary tumour. The significant correlation between tobacco and alcohol consumption and the mutation incidence has been observed. The site of the tumour and histopathological grading were also related to the prevalence of mutations, however without reaching the level of statistical significance. There was no correlation between mutations and the T and N stage of the disease. PMID:21735667

Golusinski, Pawe?; Lamperska, Katarzyna; Pazdrowski, Jakub; Golusinski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

309

Non-invasive label-free investigation and typing of head and neck cancers by multimodal nonlinear microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection and typing of tumors is pressing matter in clinical research with important impacts for prognosis and successful treatment. Currently, staining is the golden standard in histopathology but requires surgical removal of tissue. In order to avoid resection of non-diseased tissue a non-invasive real-time imaging method is required which can be applied ideally intrasurgically. In this proceeding a combination of second harmonic generation (SHG), two photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman (CARS) imaging has been employed to investigate tissue sections of head and neck carcinomas focussing on laryngeal carcinoma. Primary laryngeal and other head and neck carcinomas consist to 99% of squamous cell carcinoma. By fusing the various imaging methods it is possible to measure the thickness of the epithelial cell layer as a marker for dysplastic or cancerous tissue degradation and to differentiate keratinizing and nonkeratininzing squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). As nonkeratinizing SCCs of the oropharynx correlate with a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as a subentity of head and neck cancer, and HPV related tumors are associated with a better clinical prognosis, the differentiation between keratinizing and non-keratinizing forms of SCCs is of high diagnostic value. TPEF is capable of displaying cell nuclei, therefore, morphologic information as cell density, cell to cytoplasm ratio, size and shape of cell nuclei can be obtained. SHG - on the other hand - selectively reveals the collagen matrix of the connective tissue, which is useful for determination of tumor-islets boundaries within epithelial tissue - a prerequisite for precise resection. Finally CARS in the CH-stretching region visualizes the lipid content of the tissue, which can be correlated with the dysplastic grade of the tissue.

Meyer, Tobias; Vogler, Nadine; Dietzek, Benjamin; Akimov, Denis; Inhestern, Johanna; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Popp, Jürgen

2012-06-01

310

Acetylated tubulin (AT) as a prognostic marker in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.  

PubMed

Acetylated tubulin (AT) expression has been proposed as a marker for sensitivity to taxane chemotherapy. We wanted to explore AT as a prognostic marker in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). We assessed AT expression in archival tissue from our institutional tissue bank of primary SCCHN specimens. We also examined AT expression on pre-therapy tissues of patients with SCCHN receiving induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5FU (TPF IC). AT expression was assessed on archival cases of SCCHN with (N = 63) and without (N = 82) locoregional lymph node metastases (LNM). The predominant tumor site was oral cavity (52 %). Immunohistochemistry staining was based on staining intensity and percentage of tumor cells stained to create a weighted index (WI). A total of nine patients who received TPF IC were evaluable for response by RECIST and also had pre-therapy tissues available. A significant independent correlation between AT and tumor grade (p = 0.001) and primary location (p = 0.008) was noted. There was a trend of higher AT in patients with presence of LNM (p = 0.052) and a trend in improved OS for patients with an AT WI below the median compared to those above the median for patients with no LNM (p = 0.054). For patients treated with induction TPF, we observed an inverse correlation between AT expression and response to TPF IC (p = 0.0071). AT expression is correlated with tumor grade and primary site. There was an observed trend correlating AT with presence nodal metastases. The observed inverse correlation with response to taxane based chemotherapy needs validation in a larger sample size. PMID:23881549

Saba, Nabil F; Magliocca, Kelly R; Kim, Sungjin; Muller, Susan; Chen, Zhengjia; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Sarlis, Nicholas J; Eggers, Carrie; Phelan, Vanessa; Grist, William J; Chen, Amy Y; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Chen, Zhuo G; Beitler, Jonathan J; Shin, Dong M; Khuri, Fadlo R; Marcus, Adam I

2014-03-01

311

Iridescence in the neck feathers of domestic pigeons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted structural characterizations, reflection measurements, and theoretical simulations on the iridescent green and purple neck feathers of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica). We found that both green and purple barbules are composed of an outer keratin cortex layer surrounding a medullary layer. The thickness of the keratin cortex layer shows a distinct difference between green and purple barbules. Green barbules vary colors from green to purple with the observing angle changed from normal to oblique, while purple barbules from purple to green in an opposite way. Both the experimental and theoretical results suggest that structural colors in green and purple neck feathers should originate from the interference in the top keratin cortex layer, while the structure beyond acts as a poor mirror.

Yin, Haiwei; Shi, Lei; Sha, Jing; Li, Yizhou; Qin, Youhua; Dong, Biqin; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhao, Li; Zi, Jian

2006-11-01

312

Migration of a swallowed blunt foreign body to the neck.  

PubMed

Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in the otolaryngology practice. Reports of extraluminal migration of the foreign bodies from the upper aerodigestive tract are rare. Penetration and extraluminal migration of ingested foreign bodies may cause severe vascular and suppurative complications, even death. We report a 4-year-old girl who presented with a mass and partial extrusion of a foreign body in the neck. She had a history of ingesting the plastic top piece of a knitting needle approximately 1 year ago. She had been asymptomatic until the present time. The examination revealed a red, blunt, rectangular plastic foreign body half embedded in the skin of the right neck. Esophagography with barium swallow, cervical X-rays, and computed tomography scans were obtained. The foreign body was easily removed under general anesthesia. Primary closure and direct laryngoscopy was also performed. The patient recovered very well without any complications. PMID:24592347

Ozturk, Kerem; Turhal, Goksel; Gode, Sercan; Yavuzer, Atilla

2014-01-01

313

Hearts, neck posture and metabolic intensity of sauropod dinosaurs.  

PubMed Central

Hypothesized upright neck postures in sauropod dinosaurs require systemic arterial blood pressures reaching 700 mmHg at the heart. Recent data on ventricular wall stress indicate that their left ventricles would have weighed 15 times those of similarly sized whales. Such dimensionally, energetically and mechanically disadvantageous ventricles were highly unlikely in an endothermic sauropod. Accessory hearts or a siphon mechanism, with sub-atmospheric blood pressures in the head, were also not feasible. If the blood flow requirements of sauropods were typical of ectotherms, the left-ventricular blood volume and mass would have been smaller; nevertheless, the heart would have suffered the serious mechanical disadvantage of thick walls. It is doubtful that any large sauropod could have raised its neck vertically and endured high arterial blood pressure, and it certainly could not if it had high metabolic rates characteristic of endotherms. PMID:11052540

Seymour, R S; Lillywhite, H B

2000-01-01

314

Moving Toward Bioadjuvant Approaches to Head and Neck Cancer Prevention  

SciTech Connect

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma affects >45,000 Americans annually. Patients who are successfully treated for their primary tumor are at high risk of developing a second primary tumor, making effective preventive strategies highly desirable for this disease. Although a landmark study in 1990 suggested some benefit of high-dose retinoids in head and neck cancer prevention, subsequent trials using more tolerable doses have shown limited clinical success. Newer preventive strategies have included bioadjuvant therapy combining retinoids with interferon and {alpha}-tocopherol, combinations of molecularly targeted agents, and oncolytic viruses. Furthermore, considerable evidence has supported a cancer protective role for several nutrients, including green tea and curcumin analogs. Natural compounds such as these with favorable long-term safety profiles might be particularly suited to the cancer prevention setting, in which patients will usually tolerate only moderate risk and toxicity.

Saba, Nabil F.; Hammond, Anthea; Shin, Dong M. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Khuri, Fadlo R. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)], E-mail: fkhuri@emory.edu

2007-10-01

315

Radionuclide localization of intraarterial infusions in head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

The therapeutic advantage of intraarterial infusion chemotherapy depends upon delivery of a high drug concentration to the entire tumor bulk with maximum sparing of critical normal tissues. It is clear that successful application of regional therapy must include methodology to assess quantitatively and qualitatively the infused area. 99mTc macroaggregated albumin (Tc-MAA) injected intraarterially is held on first pass in the arteriolar capillary bed, thus providing a map of blood flow distribution. Analog and digital planar images and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after Tc-MAA injections provide static and transaxial tomographic images of head and neck intraarterial infusions. SPECT can be viewed as an endless movie-type display, thus producing a "rotating cimematic display." These radionuclide localization techniques provide a three-dimensional delineation of the tissues infused, including subsurface details not appreciated with dye injection alone. These procedures should be considered an integral part of intraarterial therapy of head and neck cancer. PMID:6336207

Baker, S R; Wheeler, R H; Ziessman, H A; Medvec, B R; Thrall, J H; Keyes, J W

1984-01-01

316

Migration of a Swallowed Blunt Foreign Body to the Neck  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in the otolaryngology practice. Reports of extraluminal migration of the foreign bodies from the upper aerodigestive tract are rare. Penetration and extraluminal migration of ingested foreign bodies may cause severe vascular and suppurative complications, even death. We report a 4-year-old girl who presented with a mass and partial extrusion of a foreign body in the neck. She had a history of ingesting the plastic top piece of a knitting needle approximately 1 year ago. She had been asymptomatic until the present time. The examination revealed a red, blunt, rectangular plastic foreign body half embedded in the skin of the right neck. Esophagography with barium swallow, cervical X-rays, and computed tomography scans were obtained. The foreign body was easily removed under general anesthesia. Primary closure and direct laryngoscopy was also performed. The patient recovered very well without any complications. PMID:24592347

Ozturk, Kerem; Turhal, Goksel; Gode, Sercan; Yavuzer, Atilla

2014-01-01

317

Impact of portable duplex ultrasonography in head and neck reconstruction.  

PubMed

We have reviewed the use of portable duplex ultrasonography (PDU) in 12 patients who underwent soft tissue/bone head and neck reconstruction, aiming to determine its role in the design and management of such complex cases. According to our data, there were modifications either of the surgical plan or of patient's management, based on PDU findings, in 9 (75%) of 12 patients. The use of ultrasound directed to subtle modifications in 3 patients (25%) but to significant changes of the surgical plan in the other 3 patients (25%). Also, the use of duplex ultrasound impacted significantly the postoperative management in 4 patients (33.33%). Thus, significant impact of PDU in patient's treatment was recorded in 58.33% of cases. Portable ultrasound represents generally available method for preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative diagnosis and decision making in free tissue transfer, hence could replace in the future the unidirectional Doppler in the hands of head and neck surgeons. PMID:22337392

Gravvanis, Andreas; Tsoutsos, Dimosthenis; Delikonstantinou, Iraklis; Dimitriou, Vasilios; Katsikeris, Nick; Karakitsos, Dimitrios

2012-01-01

318

Fibromatosis Colli - A Rare Cytological Diagnosis In Infantile Neck Swellings  

PubMed Central

Fibromatosis colli or sternocleidomastoid tumour is a rare cause of benign neck mass in infants. It is a self limiting fibroblastic lesion usually presenting with torticollis and a history of birth trauma.It is one of the few causes in which Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is indicated in a neonate to confirm the diagnosis and to differentiate it from other congenital, inflammatory and neoplastic causes. FNAC provides a rapid, cost-effective, reliable, non invasive method of diagnosis resulting in conservative management of these lesions. We present two interesting cases of neck swelling in infants where FNAC performed as the first diagnostic procedure was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis of fibromatosis colli thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:25584233

Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba; Husain, Musharraf

2014-01-01

319

Tissue Engineering for Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.  

PubMed

Tissue regeneration in otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery is a diverse area filled with specialized tissues and functions. Head and neck structures govern many of the 5 senses, swallowing, breathing, communication, facial animation, and aesthetics. Loss of these functions can have a severe negative effect on patient quality of life. Regenerative medicine techniques have the potential to restore these functions while minimizing the risks associated with traditional reconstruction techniques. This article serves as a review and update on some of the regenerative medicine research in this field. A description of the predominant clinical problems is presented, followed by a discussion of some of the most promising research working toward a solution. There are many noteworthy findings appropriate for inclusion, but limitations preclude mention of them all. This article focuses on laryngeal surgery, craniofacial reconstruction and plastic surgery, and otology and hearing. PMID:25468518

Lott, David G; Janus, Jeffrey R

2014-12-01

320

Voluminous Extracardiac Adult Rhabdomyoma of the Neck: A Case Presentation  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Rhabdomyomas of the head and neck are exceptionally rare benign mesenchymal tumors. Rare cases have been reported to involve other sites of the body including the head and neck regions. Case Presentation. We report a case of voluminous extracardiac adult rhabdomyoma affecting adult patients and initially seen as slowly growing, indolent neoplasms. The patient is a seventy-year old male Italian patient. Conclusion. Adult extracardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare benign tumor that may present with symptoms that vary from aerodigestive tract obstruction to remaining asymptomatic for many years. Although histology is very characteristic, several differential diagnoses have to be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first case of voluminous adult-type symptomless rhabdomyoma. PMID:23259131

Maglio, Riccardo; Francesco, Scicchitano; Paolo, Magistri; Stefano, Valabrega; Francesco, D'Angelo; Giovanni, Ramacciato

2012-01-01

321

Vertebral artery dissection after a chiropractor neck manipulation.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis for ischemic central nervous system infarcts in young patients includes paradoxic emboli through cardiac shunts, vasculitis, and vascular trauma. We report a young woman who developed headache, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness, and ataxia following neck manipulation by her chiropractor. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed an infarct in the inferior half of the left cerebellar hemisphere and compression of the fourth ventricle causing moderate acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed severe narrowing and low flow in the intracranial segment of the left distal vertebral artery. The patient was treated with mannitol and a ventriculostomy and had an excellent functional recovery. This report illustrates the potential hazards associated with neck trauma, including chiropractic manipulation. The vertebral arteries are at risk for aneurysm formation and/or dissection, which can cause acute stroke. PMID:25552813

Jones, Jeremy; Jones, Catherine; Nugent, Kenneth

2015-01-01

322

Manual therapy in the treatment of neck pain.  

PubMed

In general, manual therapies have been demonstrated to be effective for mechanical neck pain in the short term when used in combination with other treatments. No one treatment protocol has been shown to be optimal as specific types of manual therapies have not been investigated in detail. Safety is a prime consideration when applying these treatments. The risk of increased symptoms resulting from manual therapy is low (in the range of 1%-2%), with the most common symptom aggravation being vertigo or dizziness. The risk of serious complication or death from neck manipulation is extremely low (in the range of 0.0001%). Optimal levels of education, training, and competency are integral to the safe performance of manual therapy. PMID:8844915

Gross, A R; Aker, P D; Quartly, C

1996-08-01

323

Vertebral artery dissection after a chiropractor neck manipulation  

PubMed Central

The differential diagnosis for ischemic central nervous system infarcts in young patients includes paradoxic emboli through cardiac shunts, vasculitis, and vascular trauma. We report a young woman who developed headache, vomiting, diplopia, dizziness, and ataxia following neck manipulation by her chiropractor. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed an infarct in the inferior half of the left cerebellar hemisphere and compression of the fourth ventricle causing moderate acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed severe narrowing and low flow in the intracranial segment of the left distal vertebral artery. The patient was treated with mannitol and a ventriculostomy and had an excellent functional recovery. This report illustrates the potential hazards associated with neck trauma, including chiropractic manipulation. The vertebral arteries are at risk for aneurysm formation and/or dissection, which can cause acute stroke. PMID:25552813

Jones, Jeremy; Nugent, Kenneth

2015-01-01

324

Diffusion-weighted imaging in head and neck cancers  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of treatment response in tumors arising in the head and neck region. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, determined from DWI, can help in cancer staging and detection of subcentimeter nodal metastasis. The ADC value also discriminates carcinomas from lymphomas, benign lesions from malignant tumors and tumor necrosis from abscesses. Low pretreatment ADC values typically predict a favorable response to chemoradiation therapy. These promising reports indicate the potential of DWI as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response in head and neck cancers. In view of the overlapping ADC values between different salivary gland tumors, care should be taken when interpreting these results and other imaging parameters should be considered for a better diagnosis. Susceptibility and motion-induced artifacts may sometimes degrade DWI image quality; however, novel techniques are being developed to overcome these drawbacks. PMID:19792966

Chawla, Sanjeev; Kim, Sungheon; Wang, Sumei; Poptani, Harish

2009-01-01

325

Pneumoperitoneum in a patient with pneumothorax and blunt neck trauma  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Blunt trauma as a cause of pneumoperitoneum is less frequent and its occurrence without a ruptured viscus is rarely seen. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of blunt neck trauma in which a motorcycle rider hit a fixed object causing severe laryngotracheal injury. The patient developed pneumothorax bilaterally and had pneumoperitoneum despite no injury to the internal viscus. Bilateral chest tube drainage and abdominal exploratory laparotomy was performed. CONCLUSION Free air in the abdomen after blunt traumatic neck injury is very rare. If pneumoperitoneum is suspected in the presence of pneumothorax, exploratory laparotomy should be performed to rule out intraabdominal injury. As, there is no consensus for this plan yet, further prospective studies are warrant. Conservative management for pneumoperitoneum in the absence of viscus perforation is still a safe option in carefully selected cases. PMID:25460486

Hakim, Suhail Yaqoob; Abdelrahman, Husham; Mudali, Insolvisagan Natesa; El-Menyar, Ayman; Peralta, Ruben; Al-Thani, Hassan

2014-01-01

326

Recurrences near base of skull after IMRT for head-and-neck cancer: implications for target delineation in high neck and for parotid gland sparing  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeLocoregional (LR) failures near the base of the skull, and their relationships to the targets in the high neck, were examined in a series of patients who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer.

Avraham Eisbruch; Lon H Marsh; Laura A Dawson; Carol R Bradford; Theodoros N Teknos; Douglas B Chepeha; Francis P Worden; Susan Urba; Alexander Lin; Matthew J Schipper; Gregory T Wolf

2004-01-01

327

Neck linker length determines the degree of processivity in kinesin-1 and kinesin-2 motors.  

PubMed

Defining the mechanical and biochemical determinates of kinesin processivity is important for understanding how diverse kinesins are tuned for specific cellular functions. Because transmission of mechanical forces through the 14-18 amino acid neck linker domain underlies coordinated stepping, we investigated the role of neck linker length, charge, and structure in kinesin-1 and kinesin-2 motor behavior. For optimum comparison with kinesin-1, the KIF3A head and neck linker of kinesin-2 were fused to the kinesin-1 neck coil and rod. Extending the 14-residue kinesin-1 neck linker reduced processivity, and shortening the 17-residue kinesin-2 neck linker enhanced processivity. When a proline in the kinesin-2 neck linker was replaced, kinesin-1 and kinesin-2 run lengths scaled identically with neck linker length, despite moving at different speeds. In low-ionic-strength buffer, charge had a dominant effect on motor processivity, which resolves ongoing controversy regarding the effect of neck linker length on kinesin processivity. From stochastic simulations, the results are best explained by neck linker extension slowing strain-dependent detachment of the rear head along with diminishing strain-dependent inhibition of ATP binding. These results help delineate how interhead strain maximizes stepping and suggest that less processive kinesins are tuned to coordinate with other motors differently than the maximally processive kinesin-1. PMID:20471270

Shastry, Shankar; Hancock, William O

2010-05-25

328

PET-CT of Head and Neck Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aggressiveness of head and neck cancer and the associated high rate of tumor recurrence and treatment-related morbidity\\u000a emphasize the importance of early and accurate clinical evaluation and patient monitoring strategies. As combined PET-CT imaging\\u000a has evolved to become a valuable tool in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of cancer patients, it is clear that among\\u000a its most useful roles

Barton F. Branstetter; Sanjay Paidisetty; Todd M. Blodgett; Carolyn Cidis Meltzer

329

Recent Advances in Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of locally advanced or recurrent head and neck cancers has improved from single modality interventions of surgery and radiation therapy alone to include combined modality therapy with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Combined therapy has led to improved local control and disease-free survival. New developments in radiation oncology such as altered fractionation, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery,

Madan Bangalore; Shirnett Matthews; Mohan Suntharalingam

2007-01-01

330

Aggressive fibromatosis of head and neck in a child.  

PubMed

Aggressive fibromatosis is a broad group of benign fibrous tissue proliferations of similar microscopic appearance that are intermediate in their biological behavior between benign fibrous tissues and fibrosarcomas. They are rare lesions accounting for less than 3 % of all soft tissue tumours. Usual site is extremity whereas head and neck fibromatosis is a rare occurrence. We present a case of aggressive fibromatosis of the infratemporal fossa in a child, which was treated by surgical excision with adjuvant hormonal therapy. PMID:25621275

Gupta, Atul; Nair, Satish; Nilakantan, Ajith; Sood, Amit

2015-03-01

331

Conservative treatment for neck pain: medications, physical therapy, and exercise.  

PubMed

This article offers conservative treatment strategies for patients suffering from musculoskeletal causes of neck pain. Basic pharmacology is reviewed, including that of opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adjuvants, and topical analgesics. Moreover, indications for therapeutic exercise, manual therapy, and modalities are reviewed, along with any supporting literature. Treatment considerations with each category of medication and physical therapy are discussed. This article is meant to serve as a resource for physicians to tailor conservative treatment options to their individual patients. PMID:21824590

Pangarkar, Sanjog; Lee, Paul C

2011-08-01

332

Fast neutron therapy for locally advanced head and neck tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between October 1972 and April 1979, 187 patients with locally advanced head and neck tumors were treated with 50 MeV\\/sub d ..-->.. Be\\/ neutrons or with conventional treatment in the M.D. Anderson Hospital-Texas A and M University variable energy cyclotron (MDAH-TAMVEC) program. Of these, 114 patients were treated in pilot studies and 73 in a randomized clinical trial. In the

Moshe H. Maor; David H. Hussey; Gilbert H. Fletcher; Richard H. Jesse

1981-01-01

333

Adjuvant Intraoperative Photodynamic Therapy in Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE There is an immediate need to develop local intraoperative adjuvant treatment strategies to improve outcomes in patients with cancer who undergo head and neck surgery. OBJECTIVES To determine the safety of photodynamic therapy with 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) in combination with surgery in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Nonrandomized, single-arm, single-site, phase 1 study at a comprehensive cancer center among 16 adult patients (median age, 65 years) with biopsy-proved primary or recurrent resectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. INTERVENTIONS Intravenous injection of HPPH (4.0 mg/m2), followed by activation with 665-nm laser light in the surgical bed immediately after tumor resection. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Adverse events and highest laser light dose. RESULTS Fifteen patients received the full course of treatment, and 1 patient received HPPH without intraoperative laser light because of an unrelated myocardial infarction. Disease sites included larynx (7 patients), oral cavity (6 patients), skin (1 patient), ear canal (1 patient), and oropharynx (1 patient, who received HPPH only). The most frequent adverse events related to photodynamic therapy were mild to moderate edema (9 patients) and pain (3 patients). One patient developed a grade 3 fistula after salvage laryngectomy, and another patient developed a grade 3 wound infection and mandibular fracture. Phototoxicity reactions included 1 moderate photophobia and 2 mild to moderate skin burns (2 due to operating room spotlights and 1 due to the pulse oximeter). The highest laser light dose was 75 J/cm2. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The adjuvant use of HPPH-photodynamic therapy and surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma seems safe and deserves further study. PMID:23868427

Rigual, Nestor R.; Shafirstein, Gal; Frustino, Jennifer; Seshadri, Mukund; Cooper, Michele; Wilding, Gregory; Sullivan, Maureen A.; Henderson, Barbara

2015-01-01

334

Nonunion of fractures of the femoral neck in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the prospective clinical outcome of nine pseudoarthroses resulting from surgical treatment carried out\\u000a in nine children, whose ages varied from 6 years and 2 months to 14 years and 2 months (mean 10 years and 2 months), who had\\u000a fractures of the femoral neck. Five were classified as type II, according to the Delbet classification modified by Colonna,\\u000a and four were type III.

Pedro F. Tucci Neto; Fernando Baldy dos Reis; José Laredo Filho; Helio J. A. Fernandes; Edison Noboru Fujiki; Henri Bensahel; Carlo Milani

2008-01-01

335

Promising new advances in head and neck radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to improve the efficacy of treatment for SCCHN have led to the use of multimodality approaches with combinations of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Conventional head and neck radiotherapy, a standard approach for locoregionally advanced disease, is associated with a variety of well-known acute and long-term toxicities. These chronic toxicities (i.e. xerostomia, dysphagia, fibrosis) can impact negatively on patient quality

P. M. Harari

2005-01-01

336

Determination of head\\/neck loads during manoeuvring acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neck injury risk can increase when aircrew wear head mounted equipment while exposed to +Gz-loads. The effects of added weight and change in centre-of-gravity were determined during a centrifuge study using an instrumented manikin at Brooks AFB, Texas. Data included centrifuge Gz, head acceleration (three axes), and head and C7-TI pitch moment, compressive and shear forces. Helicopter (0.5G\\/s at +1.75

B. S. Shender; G. Paskoff; G. K. Askew; R. Coughlan; W. Isdahl

2001-01-01

337

Randomized Trial of Therapeutic Massage for Chronic Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

Objectives Little is known about the effectiveness of therapeutic massage, one of the most popular complementary medical treatments for neck pain. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate whether therapeutic massage is more beneficial than a self-care book for patients with chronic neck pain. Methods Sixty-four such patients were randomized to receive up to 10 massages over 10 weeks or a self-care book. Follow-up telephone interviews after 4, 10, and 26 weeks assessed outcomes including dysfunction and symptoms. Log-binomial regression was used to assess whether there were differences in the percentages of participants with clinically meaningful improvements in dysfunction and symptoms (i.e., > 5 point improvement on the Neck Disability Index (NDI); > 30% improvement from baseline on the symptom bothersomeness scale) at each time point. Results At 10 weeks, more participants randomized to massage experienced clinically significant improvement on the NDI (39% vs. 14% of book group; RR= 2.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.99–7.5) and on the symptom bothersomeness scale (55% vs. 25% of book group; RR=2.2; 95% CI=1.04–4.2). After 26 weeks, massage group members tended to be more likely to report improved function (RR=1.8; 95% CI=0.97–3.5), but not symptom bothersomeness (RR=1.1; 95% CI=0.6–2.0). Mean differences between groups were strongest at 4 weeks and not evident by 26 weeks. No serious adverse experiences were reported. Conclusions This study suggests that massage is safe and may have clinical benefits for treating chronic neck pain at least in the short term. A larger trial is warranted to confirm these results. PMID:19333174

Sherman, Karen J.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Hawkes, Rene J.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Deyo, Richard A.

2008-01-01

338

[An enlarged neck fold: a sonographic marker of Down's syndrome].  

PubMed

We report about one case of twin pregnancy where one fetus is healthy and the other has Trisomie 21. The one large skin fold on the neck is observe in the ultrasound. This ultrasound finds is noticed in the Ullrich-Turner-Syndrome as well as in the Down Syndrome. The Trisomie 21 was ascertained after the birth. The clinical meaning of this sonographic criterium will be discussed in this paper. PMID:2975089

Weisner, D; Fiestas-Hummler, A; Grote, W

1988-01-01

339

Selective Nodal Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancer Using Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: Application of RTOG Consensus Guidelines in Routine Clinical Practice  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have been using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for selective neck irradiation. This article presents an analysis of patterns of failure and their dosimetric correlation. Methods and Materials: Between October 2003 and January 2008, 83 patients with head-and-neck cancer were treated with IMRT. Nodal levels were contoured as per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) consensus guidelines. Results: There were 32 relapses with 23 local relapses (21 local relapses alone and 2 local and regional relapses, simultaneously), 9 regional relapses (including 2 simultaneous local and regional relapses), and 5 distant relapses, of which 2 patients had local relapses. At 2 and 3 years, the locoregional relapse-free survival rates were was 68.3% and 60.8%, respectively, while the overall survival rates were 84.1% and 81.7%, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed significant differences in locoregional relapse-free survival rates for total treatment times of <53 days vs. >53 days, a volume of CTV1PTV (i.e., the volume prescribed 70 Gy) <177 cc vs. >177 cc, a V100 for CTV1PTV of <91% vs. >91%, and a minimum dose to CTV1PTV of <54 Gy vs. >54 Gy. There were no failures in the elective nodal volume, substantiating both the nodal selection criteria and the RTOG consensus guidelines for delineation of neck node levels. Conclusions: IMRT for head-neck cancer is feasible, using elective nodal selection criteria along with RTOG consensus guidelines for the radiological boundaries of levels of neck nodes.

Nangia, Sapna, E-mail: sapna_nangia@hotmail.co [Batra Hospital and Medical Research Centre, New Delhi (India); Chufal, Kundan S. [Batra Hospital and Medical Research Centre, New Delhi (India); Tyagi, Atul [Batra Hospital and Medical Research Centre, New Delhi (India); MMH College, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Bhatnagar, Anshul; Mishra, Manindra; Ghosh, D. [Batra Hospital and Medical Research Centre, New Delhi (India)

2010-01-15

340

Demons deformable registration for CBCT-guided procedures in the head and neck: Convergence and accuracy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The accuracy and convergence behavior of a variant of the Demons deformable registration algorithm were investigated for use in cone-beam CT (CBCT)-guided procedures of the head and neck. Online use of deformable registration for guidance of therapeutic procedures such as image-guided surgery or radiation therapy places trade-offs on accuracy and computational expense. This work describes a convergence criterion for Demons registration developed to balance these demands; the accuracy of a multiscale Demons implementation using this convergence criterion is quantified in CBCT images of the head and neck. Methods: Using an open-source ''symmetric'' Demons registration algorithm, a convergence criterion based on the change in the deformation field between iterations was developed to advance among multiple levels of a multiscale image pyramid in a manner that optimized accuracy and computation time. The convergence criterion was optimized in cadaver studies involving CBCT images acquired using a surgical C-arm prototype modified for 3D intraoperative imaging. CBCT-to-CBCT registration was performed and accuracy was quantified in terms of the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) and target registration error (TRE). The accuracy and robustness of the algorithm were then tested in clinical CBCT images of ten patients undergoing radiation therapy of the head and neck. Results: The cadaver model allowed optimization of the convergence factor and initial measurements of registration accuracy: Demons registration exhibited TRE=(0.8{+-}0.3) mm and NCC=0.99 in the cadaveric head compared to TRE=(2.6{+-}1.0) mm and NCC=0.93 with rigid registration. Similarly for the patient data, Demons registration gave mean TRE=(1.6{+-}0.9) mm compared to rigid registration TRE=(3.6{+-}1.9) mm, suggesting registration accuracy at or near the voxel size of the patient images (1x1x2 mm{sup 3}). The multiscale implementation based on optimal convergence criteria completed registration in 52 s for the cadaveric head and in an average time of 270 s for the larger FOV patient images. Conclusions: Appropriate selection of convergence and multiscale parameters in Demons registration was shown to reduce computational expense without sacrificing registration performance. For intraoperative CBCT imaging with deformable registration, the ability to perform accurate registration within the stringent time requirements of the operating environment could offer a useful clinical tool allowing integration of preoperative information while accurately reflecting changes in the patient anatomy. Similarly for CBCT-guided radiation therapy, fast accurate deformable registration could further augment high-precision treatment strategies.

Nithiananthan, S.; Brock, K. K.; Daly, M. J.; Chan, H.; Irish, J. C.; Siewerdsen, J. H. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2109 (United States); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Surgical Oncology Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2109 (United States)

2009-10-15

341

Methylation as a biomarker for head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancer is a collective term that describes malignant tumors of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx characterized by high incidence and mortality rates. Although most HNSCC originate from the mucosal surface of the upper aerodigestive tract, where they can be easily detected during a routine clinical examination. Often the definitive diagnosis is delayed because of the difficulty in differentiating from other similar lesions. Activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes are the major molecular alterations involved in carcinogenesis. In addition, epigenetic changes can alter the expression of critical genes important in the development of a variety of cancers. The detection of aberrant gene promoter methylation as a tool for the detection of tumors or its use as prognostic marker have been described for many different cancers including HNSCC. The search for biomarkers has as its main aim the evaluation and measurement of the status of normal and pathological biological processes as well as pharmacological responses to certain treatments. The tracking of these biomarkers is an important part for the identification of individuals in the early stages of head and neck cancer for its diagnostic and prognostic relevance reflecting in high survival rates, better quality of life and less cost to the healthcare system. Therefore, assuming that cancer results from genetic and epigenetic changes, analyzes based on gene methylation profile in combination with the pathological diagnosis would be useful in predicting the behavior of these head and neck tumors. PMID:24656975

Arantes, L M R B; de Carvalho, A C; Melendez, M E; Carvalho, A L; Goloni-Bertollo, E M

2014-06-01

342

Head and neck cancer: from research to therapy and cure.  

PubMed

Cumulative findings from many research groups have identified new signaling mechanisms associated with head and neck cancers. We summarize these findings, including discussion of aberrant NOTCH, PI3K, STAT3, immune recognition, oxidative pathway, and regulation of cell cycle and cell death. The genomic landscape of head and neck cancers has been shown to differ depending on human papillomavirus (HPV) status. We discuss studies examining the integration of HPV into genomic regions, as well as the epigenetic alterations that occur in response to HPV infection, and how these may help reveal new biomarker and treatment predictors. The characterization of premalignant lesions is also highlighted, as is evidence indicating that the surgical removal of these lesions is associated with better clinical outcomes. Current surgical methods are also discussed, including several less aggressive approaches such as minimal invasive robotic surgery. While much remains to be done in the fight against head and neck cancer, continued integration of basic research with new treatment options will likely lead to more effective therapeutic strategies directed against this disease. PMID:25532687

Varelas, Xaralabos; Kukuruzinska, Maria A

2014-12-01

343

Pancreaticogastrostomy: A Salvage Procedure for Pancreatic Body and Neck Resection  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the technological viability, basic safety and consequence of central pancreatectomy (CP) with pancreaticogastrostomy in properly chosen sufferers with noncancerous central pancreatic pathology. This research is centered on the infirmary charts of West China hospital. We recruited 20 individuals from 2007 to 2009 diagnosed with benign cancerous growth of pancreatic body and neck. They underwent pancreatic body and neck resection adhering to pancreaticogastrostomy. We carried out central pancreatectomy following pancreaticogastrostomy in 20 patients: 8 with serous cyst adenomas, 11 with mucinous cystadenomas, and 1 with neuroendocrine tumor. The position of all tumors was restricted to body and neck of the pancreas, measuring a mean ± standard deviation of 2.6±1.3cm. The mean post-operative hospital stay was 7 days (ranging from 6 to 16 days).There was no intraoperative additional complications. From a technical perspective, CP is a safe and sound, pancreas-preserving pancreatectomy for non-enucleable non-cancerous pancreatic pathology restricted to the pancreatic body. PMID:23396710

Li, Ang; Prasoon, Pankaj; Hong, Wu; Lu, Hui Min; Zhang, Zhao Da; Zhaoda, Zhang

2012-01-01

344

Nonunion of fractures of the femoral neck in children  

PubMed Central

The authors present the prospective clinical outcome of nine pseudoarthroses resulting from surgical treatment carried out in nine children, whose ages varied from 6 years and 2 months to 14 years and 2 months (mean 10 years and 2 months), who had fractures of the femoral neck. Five were classified as type II, according to the Delbet classification modified by Colonna, and four were type III. The initial fractures were caused by high-energy traumas, such as trampling, bicycle falls, and car accidents. Treatment of choice was valgus osteotomy of the femoral neck associated or not with insertion of bony graft. The mean time of follow-up was 38 months, ranging from 23 to 71 months, and the mean time of pseudoarthrosis consolidation after osteotomy was 76.6 days, varying from 45 to 240 days. In this study, all the pseudoarthroses consolidated. For final analysis of clinical and radiographic results, the Ratliff’s classification was used. We obtained three cases as good results, five as fair and one as poor. The authors concluded that valgus osteotomy is a good option for treatment of pseudoarthrosis in the femoral neck fractures in children. PMID:19308588

Neto, Pedro F. Tucci; dos Reis, Fernando Baldy; Filho, José Laredo; Fernandes, Helio J. A.; Fujiki, Edison Noboru; Bensahel, Henri

2008-01-01

345

Design-related fretting wear in modular neck hip prosthesis.  

PubMed

An accelerated cyclic loading corrosion test was used to determine the corrosion behavior of a commercial (GSP) and a prototype titanium hip prosthesis each with a modular neck. Four GSP and four prototype stems were subjected to a 2-Hz cyclic load ranging between 200 and 2,100 N for 1,000,000 cycles. Three stems were tested in an environment of FeCl3 solution, three stems were tested in Ringer's solution, and two stems were tested in air. After cyclic loading, the specimens were carefully examined with optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). None of them showed macroscopic or microscopic signs of corrosion, regardless of the environment to which the specimens were subjected. However, macroscopic evidence of mechanical fretting was present at the neck-stem modular junction, primarily concentrated at the medial contact point between stem and neck, especially for the prototype stems. SEM analysis confirmed these observations. The appreciable differences observed between the two designs suggest that the problem can be minimized or eliminated with an accurately designed taper fitting. PMID:9019482

Viceconti, M; Ruggeri, O; Toni, A; Giunti, A

1996-02-01

346

Management of femoral neck fractures in young adults  

PubMed Central

Femoral neck fractures in young adults are uncommon and often the result of high-energy trauma. They are associated with higher incidences of femoral head osteonecrosis and nonunion. Multiple factors can play a significant role in preventing these devastating complications and contribute to a good outcome. While achieving an anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation are imperative, other treatment variables, such as time to surgery, the role of capsulotomy and the fixation methods remain debatable. Open reduction and internal fixation through a Watson-Jones exposure is the recommended approach. Definitive fixation can be accomplished with three cannulated or noncannulated cancellous screws. Capsulotomy in femoral neck fractures remains a controversial issue and the practice varies by trauma program, region and country. Until there is conclusive data (i.e. prospective and controlled) we recommend performing a capsulotomy. The data available is inconclusive on whether this fracture should be operated emergently, urgently or can wait until the next day. Until there is conclusive data available, we recommend that surgery should be done on an urgent basis. The key factors in treating femoral neck fractures should include early diagnosis, early surgery, anatomic reduction, capsular decompression and stable internal fixation. PMID:19823648

Ly, Thuan V; Swiontkowski, Marc F

2008-01-01

347

Genome-Wide Association Study for Femoral Neck Bone Geometry  

PubMed Central

Poor femoral neck bone geometry at the femur is an important risk factor for hip fracture. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of femoral neck bone geometry, examining approximately 379,000 eligible single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1000 Caucasians. A common genetic variant, rs7430431 in the receptor transporting protein 3 (RTP3) gene, was identified in strong association with the buckling ratio (BR, P = 1.6 × 10?7), an index of bone structural instability, and with femoral cortical thickness (CT, P = 1.9 × 10?6). The RTP3 gene is located in 3p21.31, a region that we found to be linked with CT (LOD = 2.19, P = 6.0 × 10?4) in 3998 individuals from 434 pedigrees. The replication analyses in 1488 independent Caucasians and 2118 Chinese confirmed the association of rs7430431 to BR and CT (combined P = 7.0 × 10?3 for BR and P = 1.4 × 10?2 for CT). In addition, 350 hip fracture patients and 350 healthy control individuals were genotyped to assess the association of the RTP3 gene with the risk of hip fracture. Significant association between a nearby common SNP, rs10514713 of the RTP3 gene, and hip fracture (P = 1.0 × 10?3) was found. Our observations suggest that RTP3 may be a novel candidate gene for femoral neck bone geometry. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research PMID:20175129

Zhao, Lan-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Liu, Yong-Jun; Papasian, Christopher J; Sha, Bao-Yong; Pan, Feng; Guo, Yan-Fang; Wang, Liang; Yan, Han; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Tang, Zi-Hui; Yang, Tie-Lin; Chen, Xiang-Ding; Guo, Yan; Li, Jian; Shen, Hui; Zhang, Feng; Lei, Shu-Feng; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

2010-01-01

348

Is open surgery for head and neck cancers truly declining?  

PubMed

In the past two decades, major modifications in the way we treat head and neck cancers, due to advances in technology and medical oncology, have led to a decline in the use of open surgery as first-line treatment of cancers arising from several primary tumor sites. The incidence of tobacco- and alcohol-related squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx and larynx has been steadily decreasing, with a rise in the incidence of human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal tumors and the use of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery and non-surgical treatment modalities has increased in the treatment of all of these tumors. However, open surgery remains the initial definitive treatment modality for other tumors, including tumors of the skin, oral cavity, sinonasal cavities and skull base, salivary glands, thyroid and sarcomas. Selected group of nasal, paranasal, base of the skull and thyroid tumors are also candidates for minimally invasive procedures. For some indications, the rate of open surgery has actually increased in the past decade, with an increase in the incidence of oral cavity, thyroid and skin cancer, an increase in the number of neck dissections performed, and an increase in salvage surgery and free flap reconstruction. The use of minimally invasive, technology-based surgery-with the use of lasers, operating microscopes, endoscopes, robots and image guidance-has increased. Technology, epidemiology and advances in other domains such as tissue engineering and allotransplantations may further change the domains of competencies for future head and neck surgeons. PMID:23283241

Hartl, Dana M; Brasnu, Daniel F; Shah, Jatin P; Hinni, Michael L; Takes, Robert P; Olsen, Kerry D; Kowalski, Luiz P; Rodrigo, Juan P; Strojan, Primož; Wolf, Gregory T; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Suárez, Carlos; Mendenhall, William M; Paleri, Vinidh; Forastiere, Arlene A; Werner, Jochen A; Ferlito, Alfio

2013-11-01

349

Experimental assessment of phased-array heating of neck tumours.  

PubMed

An investigation of phased-array microwave systems (PAMS) for non-invasively inducing hyperthermia, primarily in neck lesions, has been done with implications for applications at other sites such as lung and pelvis. Our general approach was to combine numerical and analytical approaches with parallel experimental studies. In this paper we will concentrate only on the experimental aspects. The object, such as a homogeneous cylindrical phantom or a neck phantom, was encircled with several standard applicators driven by a single source, but with relative phase and amplitude control over each applicator. The relative phases of the applicators were adjusted by using an implanted monopole antenna connected to an HP network analyser. Power was applied and the specific absorption rate (SAR) was determined by using split phantoms and thermography or by measuring temperature transients dT/dt, recorded by implanted thermometer probes. We found that at 915 MHz for our applicators (SMA Co.) the centre of an 11 cm diameter muscle-like phantom heated to about 33% of the value at the surface in front of the applicator. Similarly, we were able to show significant SAR at the centre of realistically sized neck phantoms using four phased apertures of 915 MHz. Furthermore, substantial improvement was observed if the frequency was lowered to about 400 MHz. PMID:2324581

Gross, E J; Cetas, T C; Stauffer, P R; Liu, R L; Lumori, M L

1990-01-01

350

Evaluation of Driver-vehicle Matching using Neck Muscle Activity and Vehicle Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective measurement of a car driver's feeling has been a subject of automobile researches. In the present study, we aimed at quantifying the matching between the physiological response of a driver and the vehicle motion. Assuming that the performance of a head stabilization mechanism, the vestibulo-collic reflex, affects driving feeling, we recorded the activity of neck muscles that help maintain the head position. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) using active electrodes and a compact amplifier. Vehicle acceleration and gas pedal movement were recorded with small accelerometers. Subjects were required to perform straight-line acceleration. Four road cars with different characteristics were used. EMG signals were filtered, full-wave rectified and averaged across trials. Main results are summarized as follows. First, the EMG response of a driver's neck muscle depended not only on vehicle acceleration but on its time derivative, jerk. A quantitative analysis showed that, for the data obtained with the four cars, the EMG profile can be reproduced by a linear sum of acceleration and jerk. The correlation coefficient, an index of goodness of matching, ranged from ~0.8 to ~0.95. Second, our analysis indicated that the relationship between the muscle response and the vehicle motion can be characterized by two parameters: the optimal weight for the jerk term and the optimal time lag. The current study proposes a method for characterizing a physiological response of a driver to dynamic vehicle motion. It remains to be investigated whether these parameters are related to the driving feeling.

Iwamoto, Yoshiki; Umetsu, Daisuke; Ozaki, Shigeru

351

Evaluation of Thyroid Disorders During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy by Using Functional Analysis and Ultrasonography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate thyroid function and vascular changes during radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various cancers in the head and neck region were prospectively evaluated. The serum samples (triiodothyronine [T3], thyroxine [T4], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free triiodothyronine [FT3], and free thyroxine [FT4]), the echo level of the thyroid gland, and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) parameters of the right inferior thyroid artery (RITA) of the patients were measured before and at regular intervals during radiotherapy. The thyroid gland dose-volume histograms of the patients were derived from their computed tomography-based treatment plans. Results: There was a significant fall in TSH level (p < 0.0001) but an increase in FT4 (p < 0.0001) and T4 (p < 0.022) levels during the radiotherapy course. The threshold dose required to produce significant changes was 12 Gy (Biologically Effective Dose in 2-Gy fractions, BED{sub 2}). There were significant rises in the patients' pulsatility index, resistive index, peak systolic velocity, blood volume flow levels, and RITA diameter (p < 0.0001), as detected by CDU during radiotherapy, compared to those parameters measured before the treatment. Hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns (p < 0.0001) were seen during radiotherapy compared to those before treatment. There was significant Pearson's correlation between the CDU parameters and T4, FT4, and TSH levels. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroiditis is regarded as primary damage to the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis can subsequently result in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Our results demonstrated that changes in thyroid vessels occur during radiotherapy delivered to patients. Vessel changes also can be attributed to the late effect of radiation on the thyroid gland. The hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns observed in patients may result from the increase in intrathyroidal flow.

Bakhshandeh, Mohsen [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, Seyed Rabie [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikoofar, Alireza [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Edraki, Hamid Reza [Department of Radiology, Panzdahe-Khordad Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-05-01

352

Recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of head and neck tumour anaemia.  

PubMed

At the time of first diagnosis, patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck are often in the advanced stage of their disease, therefore surgery is not a viable option for treatment. These patients also present frequently a high grade of anaemia as a result of either the malignant process itself or of the following therapy. The incidence of anaemia and the need for transfusion depends on several factors, such as the type and intensity of radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy. Multimode therapeutic concepts such as radio-chemotherapy are being applied with increasing frequency, resulting in an ever increasing need for transfusion with great effects on the patient's quality of life. Even more important to tumour patients is the role of the haemaglobin (Hb) value as a prognostic factor for survival and/or local tumour control. A large number of studies show that recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) is effective in the treatment of tumour-induced anaemia and prevention and correction of chemotherapy and radiotherapy-induced anaemia. The simultaneous application of r-HuEPO with chemotherapy can prevent patients with head and neck tumours from developing anaemia or can reduce the extent of the anaemia and the need for transfusion. Comparable effects were observed both in patients undergoing platinum-based and non-platinum-based chemotherapy. The direct correlation between anaemia, tumour hypoxia and poor response to radio and/or chemotherapy has been clinically proven. Recombinant human erythropoietin administration improves the therapeutic outcome and the patients' prognosis. PMID:11405451

Oettle, H; Riess, H; Raguse, J D; Bier, J; Gath, H J

2001-04-01

353

A Clinical Concept for Interfractional Adaptive Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present an approach to fast, interfractional adaptive RT in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of head and neck tumors in clinical routine. Ensuring adequate patient position throughout treatment proves challenging in high-precision RT despite elaborate immobilization. Because of weight loss, treatment plans must be adapted to account for requiring supportive therapy incl. feeding tube or parenteral nutrition without treatment breaks. Methods and Materials: In-room CT position checks are used to create adapted IMRT treatment plans by stereotactic correlation to the initial setup, and volumes are adapted to the new geometry. New IMRT treatment plans are prospectively created on the basis of position control scans using the initial optimization parameters in KonRad without requiring complete reoptimization and thus facilitating quick replanning in daily routine. Patients treated for squamous cell head and neck cancer (SCCHN) in 2006-2007 were evaluated as to necessity/number of replannings, weight loss, dose, and plan parameters. Results: Seventy-two patients with SCCHN received IMRT to the primary site and lymph nodes (median dose 70.4 Gy). All patients received concomitant chemotherapy requiring supportive therapy by feeding tube or parenteral nutrition. Median weight loss was 7.8 kg, median volume loss was approximately 7%. Fifteen of 72 patients required adaptation of their treatment plans at least once. Target coverage was improved by up to 10.7% (median dose). The increase of dose to spared parotid without replanning was 11.7%. Replanning including outlining and optimization was feasible within 2 hours for each patient, and treatment could be continued without any interruptions. Conclusion: To preserve high-quality dose application, treatment plans must be adapted to anatomical changes. Replanning based on position control scans therefore presents a practical approach in clinical routine. In the absence of clinically usable online correction methods, this approach allows significant improvement of target volume coverage and continuous parotid sparing without treatment delays.

Jensen, Alexandra D., E-mail: Alexandra.Jensen@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Nill, Simeon [Department of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [Clinical Co-Operation Unit Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Bendl, Rolf [Department of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen; Muenter, Marc W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

2012-02-01

354

Evaluation of neck discomfort, neck tenderness, and neurologic deficits as indicators for radiography in blunt trauma victims.  

PubMed

Seventeen of 480 adult blunt trauma victims who sustained cervical spine injuries (CSI) were studied prospectively. In reliable patients, complaints of neck discomfort and tenderness demonstrated sensitivities of 86% and 79%, respectively, for CSI. A positive physical examination, defined as neurologic deficits, or cervical region discomfort or tenderness was noted in 13 of 14 reliable individuals sustaining CSI (sensitivity 93%, specificity 16%, positive predictive value 3.3%, negative predictive value 98.7%). Lack of absolute sensitivity of these studied clinical parameters, either singly or in concert, for CSI suggests that eliminating cervical spine radiography on the basis of the absence of neck discomfort, tenderness, or neurological deficits in reliable blunt trauma victims could result in missed CSI. An enormous prospective data base will be required to definitively address the sensitivity of all clinical parameters currently employed to determine the need for cervical spine radiography in reliable blunt trauma victims. PMID:1401852

Roberge, R J; Wears, R C

1992-01-01

355

The relationship between the size of caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte of the canine femoral neck and the radiographic view.  

PubMed

Caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte (CCO), an osteophyte at the site of joint capsule attachment on the caudal aspect of the femoral neck, has been advocated as a radiographic criterion for coxofemoral subluxation. The correlation between the presence of CCO on radiographs (radiographic-CCO), the size of the CCO (CCO index) on three-dimensional computed tomographic (CT) images, and hip evaluation using transverse CT images was assessed in 22 Border Collies. CCOs were detected on the radiographs and CT images of 32% and 100% femurs, respectively. The CCO index correlated significantly with radiographic-CCO, but a large CCO index did not necessarily imply that the CCO was visible on radiographs. Hence, radiographic-CCO findings should be used cautiously in hip evaluation of Border Collies. PMID:20195071

Kishimoto, Miori; Pae, Sa-Hun; Muroya, Naoyoshi; Watarai, Hirokazu; Anzai, Hiroshi; Lee, Ki-Ja; Shimizu, Junichiro; Sasaki, Motoki; Yamada, Kazutaka

2010-03-01

356

The Evolving Role of Neck Dissection in the Era of Organ Preservation Therapy for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy has evolved over the last several decades as an important modality in the\\u000a treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the effectiveness of chemoradiation therapy at controlling\\u000a disease at the primary site, ablative surgery is generally reserved for surgical salvage if chemoradiation fails to control\\u000a primary site disease. However, the role

Tung T. Trang; Pierre Lavertu

357

Cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral neck fractures in elderly  

PubMed Central

Background: Cemented hip arthroplasty is an established treatment for femoral neck fracture in the mobile elderly. Cement pressurization raises intramedullary pressure and may lead to fat embolization, resulting in fatal bone cement implantation syndrome, particularly in patients with multiple comorbidities. The cementless stem technique may reduce this mortality risk but it is technically demanding and needs precise planning and execution. We report the perioperative mortality and morbidity of cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty in a series of mobile elderly patients (age >70 years) with femoral neck fractures. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine elderly patients with mean age of 83 years (range:71-102 years) with femoral neck fractures (23 neck of femur and 6 intertrochanteric) were operated over a 2-year period (Nov 2005–Oct 2007). All were treated with cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty. Clinical and radiological follow-up was done at 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and then yearly. Results: The average follow-up was 36 months (range 26-49 months). The average duration of surgery and blood loss was 28 min from skin to skin (range, 20–50 min) and 260 ml (range, 95–535 ml), respectively. Average blood transfusion was 1.4 units (range, 0 to 4 units) Mean duration of hospital stay was 11.9 days (7–26 days). We had no perioperative mortality or serious morbidity. We lost two patients to follow-up after 12 months, while three others died due to medical conditions (10–16 months post surgery). Twenty-four patients were followed to final follow-up (average 36 months; range: 26–49 months). All were ambulatory and had painless hips; the mean Harris hip score was 85 (range: 69–96). Conclusion: Cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in the very elderly permits early return to premorbid life and is not associated with any untoward cardiac event in the perioperative period. It can be considered a treatment option in this select group. PMID:21559103

Marya, SKS; Thukral, R; Hasan, R; Tripathi, M

2011-01-01

358

Matched asymptotic analysis to solve the narrow escape problem in a domain with a long neck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we mainly consider the narrow escape problem (NEP) in a two-dimensional domain ? with a long neck, which is the two-dimensional analogue of a dendritic spine geometry. The NEP requires the computation of the mean escape time of a Brownian particle starting from the head until it exits from the end of the neck, where the particle is absorbed. We divide the domain into the neck part ?n and the head part ?h, with the common boundary {{? }\\varepsilon }. The escape time in ?h can be considered to be the time from the head to the end of the neck, while the escape time in ?n can be considered to be the time from the neck to the end of the neck. We compute the two exit times separately and match them by considering some boundary value problem with an impedance boundary condition on {{? }\\varepsilon }, which we refer to as the Neumann–Robin boundary model.

Li, Xiaofei

2014-12-01

359

Histology shows that elongated neck ribs in sauropod dinosaurs are ossified tendons  

PubMed Central

The histology of cervical ribs of Sauropoda reveals a primary bone tissue, which largely consists of longitudinally oriented mineralized collagen fibres, essentially the same tissue as found in ossified tendons. The absence of regular periosteal bone and the dominance of longitudinal fibres contradict the ventral bracing hypothesis (VBH) postulated for sauropod necks. The VBH predicts histologically primary periosteal bone with fibres oriented perpendicular to the rib long axis, indicative of connective tissue between overlapping hyperelongated cervical ribs. The transformation of the cervical ribs into ossified tendons makes the neck more flexible and implies that tension forces acted mainly along the length of the neck. This is contrary to the VBH, which requires compressive forces along the neck. Tension forces would allow important neck muscles to shift back to the trunk region, making the neck much lighter. PMID:23034173

Klein, Nicole; Christian, Andreas; Sander, P. Martin

2012-01-01

360

Correlative tomography.  

PubMed

Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques. PMID:24736640

Burnett, T L; McDonald, S A; Gholinia, A; Geurts, R; Janus, M; Slater, T; Haigh, S J; Ornek, C; Almuaili, F; Engelberg, D L; Thompson, G E; Withers, P J

2014-01-01

361

Correlative Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques.

Burnett, T. L.; McDonald, S. A.; Gholinia, A.; Geurts, R.; Janus, M.; Slater, T.; Haigh, S. J.; Ornek, C.; Almuaili, F.; Engelberg, D. L.; Thompson, G. E.; Withers, P. J.

2014-04-01

362

Radiation-Induced Changes in Serum Lipidome of Head and Neck Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Cancer radiotherapy (RT) induces response of the whole patient’s body that could be detected at the blood level. We aimed to identify changes induced in serum lipidome during RT and characterize their association with doses and volumes of irradiated tissue. Sixty-six patients treated with conformal RT because of head and neck cancer were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected before, during and about one month after the end of RT. Lipid extracts were analyzed using MALDI-oa-ToF mass spectrometry in positive ionization mode. The major changes were observed when pre-treatment and within-treatment samples were compared. Levels of several identified phosphatidylcholines, including (PC34), (PC36) and (PC38) variants, and lysophosphatidylcholines, including (LPC16) and (LPC18) variants, were first significantly decreased and then increased in post-treatment samples. Intensities of changes were correlated with doses of radiation received by patients. Of note, such correlations were more frequent when low-to-medium doses of radiation delivered during conformal RT to large volumes of normal tissues were analyzed. Additionally, some radiation-induced changes in serum lipidome were associated with toxicity of the treatment. Obtained results indicated the involvement of choline-related signaling and potential biological importance of exposure to clinically low/medium doses of radiation in patient’s body response to radiation. PMID:24747595

Jelonek, Karol; Pietrowska, Monika; Ros, Malgorzata; Zagdanski, Adam; Suchwalko, Agnieszka; Polanska, Joanna; Marczyk, Michal; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Clench, Malcolm R.; Widlak, Piotr

2014-01-01

363

Gender differences in neck/shoulder muscular patterns in response to repetitive motion induced fatigue.  

PubMed

Previous studies have associated amplitude and frequency characteristics of the electromyogram (EMG) to the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) with repetitive tasks. However, few studies have investigated whether EMG variability and between-muscle activity characteristics may be associated with MSD risk. Twenty-six healthy volunteers (13 men, 13 women) performed a repetitive pointing task at shoulder height until scoring 8 on a Borg CR-10 scale. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from six neck/shoulder muscle sites. EMG amplitude (RMS), variability and mutual information (MI) among muscle pairs were computed. Muscle fatigue was evidenced by increased EMG RMS of four muscles (Upper Trapezius (UT): +17%; supraspinatus (SUPRA): +28%; middle deltoid: +13%; biceps brachii: +38%) and increased SUPRA variability. Correlations between minute 1 patterns and endurance time indicated that in women, initially high variability in UTR (r=0.79) and SUPRA (r=0.71) predicted higher endurance, whereas in men, initially low MI in LT-UT (-0.69) and in LT-SUPRA (-0.77) pairs predicted high endurance. Significant correlations suggest that variability and between-muscle patterns may be associated with fatigue and injury mechanisms, in a gender-specific way. Differing fatigue mechanisms between genders could help explain gender differences in injury mechanisms. PMID:23837930

Fedorowich, Larissa; Emery, Kim; Gervasi, Bridget; Côté, Julie N

2013-10-01

364

Endovascular treatment of a wide-neck renal artery bifurcation aneurysm.  

PubMed

Wide-neck renal artery aneurysms are difficult or impossible to treat endovascularly with Guglielmi detachable coils. The authors report a case of embolization of a wide-neck aneurysm of the right renal artery bifurcation with the combination of a TrisPan coil (neck-bridge device developed by Boston Scientific Target) and Guglielmi detachable coils. Complete occlusion of the aneurysm with preservation of the renal artery and its branches was shown with angiography performed after the procedure. PMID:14605114

Dib, Mustapha; Sedat, Jacques; Raffaelli, Charles; Petit, Isabelle; Robertson, William G; Jaeger, Philippe

2003-11-01

365

Necked ZnO nanoparticle-based NO 2 sensors with high and fast response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NO2 gas sensing characteristics of semiconductor type gas sensors with channels composed of necked ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated in this study. The heat treatment of the NPs at 400°C led to their necking and coarsening. The response of the necked-NP-based sensors was as high as 100 when exposed to 0.2ppm of NO2 at 200°C. As the concentration of

Jin Hyung Jun; Junggwon Yun; Kyoungah Cho; In-Sung Hwang; Jong-Heun Lee; Sangsig Kim

2009-01-01

366

Head and neck cancers, version 2.2013. Featured updates to the NCCN guidelines.  

PubMed

These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on nutrition and supportive care for patients with head and neck cancers. This topic was a recent addition to the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Head and Neck Cancers. The NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on major updates to the NCCN Guidelines and discuss the new updates in greater detail. The complete version of the NCCN Guidelines for Head and Neck Cancers is available on the NCCN Web site (NCCN.org). PMID:23946171

Pfister, David G; Ang, Kie-Kian; Brizel, David M; Burtness, Barbara A; Busse, Paul M; Caudell, Jimmy J; Cmelak, Anthony J; Colevas, A Dimitrios; Dunphy, Frank; Eisele, David W; Gilbert, Jill; Gillison, Maura L; Haddad, Robert I; Haughey, Bruce H; Hicks, Wesley L; Hitchcock, Ying J; Kies, Merrill S; Lydiatt, William M; Maghami, Ellie; Martins, Renato; McCaffrey, Thomas; Mittal, Bharat B; Pinto, Harlan A; Ridge, John A; Samant, Sandeep; Schuller, David E; Shah, Jatin P; Spencer, Sharon; Weber, Randal S; Wolf, Gregory T; Worden, Frank; Yom, Sue S; McMillian, Nicole R; Hughes, Miranda

2013-08-01

367

Effect of gaze direction on neck muscle activity during cervical rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of the neck muscles is coordinated with the sensory organs of vision, hearing and balance. For instance, activity\\u000a of splenius capitis (SC) is modified with gaze shift. This interaction between eye movement and neck muscle activity is likely\\u000a to influence the control of neck movement. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eye position on

Catharina S. M. Bexander; Rebecca Mellor; Paul W. Hodges

2005-01-01

368

Outcomes of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Patients with Hostile Neck Anatomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The principal anatomic contraindication to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVR) is an unfavorable proximal aortic neck. With increasing experience, a greater proportion of patients with unfavorable neck anatomy are being offered EVR. This study aimed to evaluate outcomes in patients with challenging proximal aortic neck anatomy. Methods. Prospectively collected data from 147 consecutive patients who underwent EVR between December 1997 and April 2005 were supplemented with a retrospective review of medical records and radiological images. Unfavorable anatomic features were defined as neck diameter >28 mm, angulation >60 deg., circumferential thrombus >50%, and length <10 mm. Eighty-seven patients with 0 adverse features (good necks) were compared with 60 patients with one or more adverse features (hostile necks). Results. Comparing the good neck with the hostile neck group, there were no significant differences in the incidence of primary technical success (p = 0.15), intraoperative adjunctive procedures (p = 0.22), early proximal type I endoleak (<30 days) (p = 1.0), late proximal type I endoleak (>30 days) (p = 0.57), distal type I endoleak (p = 0.40), type III endoleak (p 0.51), secondary interventions (p = 1.0), aneurysm sac expansion (p = 0.44), or 30 day mortality (p = 0.70). The good neck group had a significantly increased incidence of type II endoleak (p = 0.023). By multivariate analysis, the incidence of intraoperative adjunctive procedures was significantly increased in the presence of severe angulation (p = 0.041, OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.05-9.04). Conclusion. Patients with severely hostile proximal aortic neck anatomy may be treated with EVR, although severely angulated necks require additional intraoperative procedures. Early outcomes are encouraging and suggest that indications for EVR may be expanded to include patients with hostile neck anatomy.

Choke, Edward; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria; Loftus, Ian; McFarland, Robert; Loosemore, Thomas; Thompson, Matthew M. [St. George's Hospital, Vascular Institute (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Matt.Thompson@stgeorges.nhs.uk

2006-12-15

369

Periostin Directly and Indirectly Promotes Tumor Lymphangiogenesis of Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Metastasis to regional lymph nodes via lymphatic vessels plays a key role in cancer progression. Tumor lymphangiogenesis is known to promote lymphatic metastasis, and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is a critical activator of tumor lymphangiogenesis during the process of metastasis. We previously identified periostin as an invasion- and angiogenesis-promoting factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In this study, we discovered a novel role for periostin in tumor lymphangiogenesis. Methods and Findings Periostin overexpression upregulated VEGF-C mRNA expression in HNSCC cells. By using conditioned media from periostin-overexpressing HNSCC cells, we examined tube formation of lymphatic endothelial cells. Conditioned media from periostin-overexpressing cells promoted tube formation. To know the correlation between periostin and VEGF-C, we compared Periostin expression with VEGF-C expression in 54 HNSCC cases by immunohistochemistry. Periostin expression was correlated well with VEGF-C expression in HNSCC cases. Moreover, correlation between periostin and VEGF-C secretion was observed in serum from HNSCC patients. Interestingly, periostin itself promoted tube formation of lymphatic endothelial cells independently of VEGF-C. Periostin-promoted lymphangiogenesis was mediated by Src and Akt activity. Indeed possible correlation between periostin and lymphatic status in periostin-overexpressing xenograft tumors and HNSCC cases was observed. Conclusions Our findings suggest that periostin itself as well as periostin-induced upregulation of VEGF-C may promote lymphangiogenesis. We suggest that periostin may be a marker for prediction of malignant behaviors in HNSCC and a potential target for future therapeutic intervention to obstruct tumoral lymphatic invasion and lymphangiogenesis in HNSCC patients. PMID:22952986

Kudo, Yasusei; Iizuka, Shinji; Yoshida, Maki; Nguyen, Phuong Thao; Siriwardena, Samadarani B. S. M.; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Ohbayashi, Mariko; Ando, Toshinori; Hatakeyama, Daijiro; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Keiichi; Maeda, Masahiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

2012-01-01

370

Review and updates of immunohistochemistry in selected salivary gland and head and neck tumors.  

PubMed

Context .- Immunohistochemistry is a useful tool for diagnosing salivary gland and head and neck tumors. Objective .- To review immunohistochemical markers, which can aid in the diagnosis of selected salivary gland and head and neck tumors. Data Sources .- Literature review and authors' personal practice experience. Conclusions .- Salivary gland and head and neck tumors include a large diverse group of tumors with complex and overlapping histologic features. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role in resolving the differential diagnosis of some salivary gland and head and neck tumors and can provide information for the prognosis of certain tumors. PMID:25549144

Zhu, Shaobo; Schuerch, Conrad; Hunt, Jennifer

2015-01-01

371

Review of ultrasonography of malignant neck nodes: greyscale, Doppler, contrast enhancement and elastography  

PubMed Central

Abstract Assessment of neck lymph nodes is essential in patients with head and neck cancers for predicting the patient’s prognosis and selecting the appropriate treatment. Ultrasonography is a useful imaging tool in the assessment of neck lymph nodes. Greyscale ultrasonography assesses the size, distribution, and internal architecture of lymph nodes. Doppler ultrasonography evaluates the intranodal vascular pattern and resistance of lymph nodes. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography provides information on lymph node parenchymal perfusion. Elastography allows qualitative and quantitative assessment of lymph node stiffness. This article reviews the value of greyscale, Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography as well as elastography in the assessment of malignant nodes in the neck. PMID:24434158

Ying, M.; Bhatia, K.S.S.; Lee, Y.P.; Yuen, H.Y.

2013-01-01

372

Effects of spiral taping applied to the neck and ankle on the body balance index  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the changes in the body balance index when spiral taping is applied to the neck and ankle. The findings are expected to serve as evidence of the usefulness of taping the neck instead of the ankle when ankle taping is not feasible in clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy male students at A university were enrolled in this study. Balance measurements were made under three conditions: no intervention, ankle intervention and neck intervention. Static balance was measured with subjects’ eyes open and closed, and dynamic balance was measured with subjects’ eyes closed. [Results] There were significant differences in dynamic balance assessed by the Overall Balance Index (OBI), and the Anteroposterior Balance Index (ABI) with subjects’ eyes open when ankle or neck taping was applied compared to no intervention. The static balance (OBI) of subjects with eyes open showed significant differences from the no intervention condition in both the ankle and neck intervention. The static balance (OBI) with subjects’ eyes closed also showed significant differences in both the ankle and neck interventions compared to the no intervention condition. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that neck taping stimulates the somatic senses around the neck and increase proprioception, resulting in balance improvement similar to that elicited by ankle taping. Further studies with larger sample sizes various experimental conditions should be performed to more systematically and objectively elucidate the effects of neck taping. PMID:25642043

Lee, Byung Hoon; Lee, Hye Rim; Kim, Kyeong Mi; Lee, Jeong Hun; Kim, Kyung Yoon

2015-01-01

373

Subtrochanteric femur fracture after removal of screws for femoral neck fracture in a child.  

PubMed

Displaced femoral neck fractures are rare in children and are associated with a high rate of complications. Subtrochanteric fractures after cannulated screw fixation of femoral neck fractures in adults are well recognized, and there are several reports on the topic. However, there are no reports on complications related to hardware or subtrochanteric fractures after removal of the screws in the treatment of femoral neck fractures in children. Here we report the case of a 10-year-old boy who sustained a subtrochanteric fracture after the screw removal and healing that followed a femoral neck fracture. PMID:25566556

Song, Kwang Soon; Lee, Si Wook

2015-01-01

374

PET/CT Is Complementary to Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology in Assessment of Irradiated Neck in Head and Neck Cancers  

PubMed Central

Background. Accurate assessment of irradiated neck in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is essential. Fine-needle aspiration cytology is often performed for suspicious lesions but it is limited by its low negative predictive value (NPV). We postulated that F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) can overcome this limitation by its high NPV value and allow for a more accurate assessment of irradiated neck in HNSCC. Methods. Fifty-four HNSCC patients were included for the study. They all received previous irradiation to the neck. Clinical characteristics, details of radiotherapy, PET/CT results, follow-up findings, and final histological diagnosis were analyzed. Results. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and NPV were 95.8%, 96.7%, 95.8%, and 96.7%, respectively. Age, sex, radiation dose, interval between PET/CT and radiotherapy completion, nature of radiotherapy, and use of second course of radiotherapy were not found to affect diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT. A new algorithm for investigation of masses in irradiated neck is proposed. Conclusions. PET/CT is an effective diagnostic tool and has a complementary role to FNAC in the management of irradiated neck in head and neck cancers, particularly in cases where suspicious lesions were identified but FNAC showed negative results. PMID:25374947

Chan, R. C. L.; Chan, Y. W.

2014-01-01

375

Amide proton transfer-weighted imaging of the head and neck at 3?T: a feasibility study on healthy human subjects and patients with head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and repeatability of amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) MRI for the head and neck on clinical MRI scanners. Six healthy volunteers and four patients with head and neck tumors underwent APTw MRI scanning at 3?T. The APTw signal was quantified by the asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) at 3.5?ppm. Z spectra of normal tissues in the head and neck (masseter muscle, parotid glands, submandibular glands and thyroid glands) were analyzed in healthy volunteers. Inter-scan repeatability of APTw MRI was evaluated in six healthy volunteers. Z spectra of patients with head and neck tumors were produced and APTw signals in these tumors were analyzed. APTw MRI scanning was successful for all 10 subjects. The parotid glands showed the highest APTw signal (~7.6% average), whereas the APTw signals in other tissues were relatively moderate. The repeatability of APTw signals from the masseter muscle, parotid gland, submandibular gland and thyroid gland of healthy volunteers was established. Four head and neck tumors showed positive mean APTw ranging from 1.2% to 3.2%, distinguishable from surrounding normal tissues. APTw MRI was feasible for use in the head and neck regions at 3?T. The preliminary results on patients with head and neck tumors indicated the potential of APTw MRI for clinical applications. PMID:25137521

Yuan, Jing; Chen, Shuzhong; King, Ann D; Zhou, Jinyuan; Bhatia, Kunwar S; Zhang, Qinwei; Yeung, David Ka Wei; Wei, Juan; Mok, Greta Seng Peng; Wang, Yi-Xiang

2014-10-01

376

Dosimetric Comparison of Split Field and Fixed Jaw Techniques for Large IMRT Target Volumes in the Head and Neck  

SciTech Connect

Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within {+-}1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 {+-} 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 {+-} 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

Srivastava, Shiv P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Reid Hospital and Health Care Services Richmond, IN (United States); Das, Indra J., E-mail: Idas@IUpui.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Kumar, Arvind [Department of Radiation Oncology, Reid Hospital and Health Care Services Richmond, IN (United States); Johnstone, Peter A.S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

2011-04-01

377

Further studies of shoulder and neck pain and exposures in customer service work with low biomechanical demands.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to establish insight into work exposures that cause shoulder and neck pain among occupational groups that have low biomechanical exposure and experience work stress from client/customer contact, among other exposures. Four occupational groups were studied, in health care (n = 20), retail (n = 22), banking (n = 26), and university secretaries (n = 26), a total of 94 volunteers. Thirty-nine were classified as pain-afflicted in the shoulder and neck, while 55 were pain-free. The subjects' perceptions of biomechanical and psychosocial exposures were established by use of quantitative questionnaires and by explorative interviews with open-ended questions, covering the same themes. Heart rate and trapezius EMG were recorded over a full workday and the following leisure period. Trapezius median and static activity during work were 3.3% and 0.3% EMG(max), only marginally higher than trapezius activity in the leisure period (2.7% and 0.2% EMG(max)). The quantitative questionnaire did not identify any variable that correlated with shoulder and neck pain except perceived general tension. The interviews established that the interaction with clients or customers was an important source of work stress. Such stress appeared to be a complex entity not easily characterized by established psychosocial questionnaires. The physiological variables were at most weakly elevated in periods with high stress as compared to periods with low stress. The authors caution against relying on standardized quantitative questionnaires and/or physiological recordings to characterize work stress in occupations with emotional stress through client/customer service work. PMID:12519522

Holte, Kari Anne; Westgaard, Rolf H

2002-10-20

378

Expression levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) 1 and 2 are known as potential mitogens for normal and neoplastic cells. IGF2 is a main fetal growth factor while IGF1 is activated through growth hormone action during postnatal growth and development. However, there is strong evidence that activation of IGF2 by its E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3) is present in different types of cancer. Also high levels of IGF1 strongly correlate with cancer development due to anti-apoptotic properties and enhancement of cancer cell differentiation, which can be attenuated by IGFBP3. Head and neck cancer is known as one of the six most common human cancers. The main risk factor for head and neck cancer is consumption of tobacco and alcohol as well as viral infection and bacterial infection by stimulation of chronic local inflammation. There is also a genetic basis for this form of cancer; however, the genetic markers are not yet established. In this study we investigated the levels of the expression of IGF2, IGF1, E2F3 and IGFBP3 in human cancers and healthy tissues surrounding the tumor obtained from each of 41 patients. Our study indicated that there is no alteration of the levels of expression of IGF2, E2F3 and IGF1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cases studied in selected experimental population, but there was evidence for upregulation of pro-apoptotic IGFBP3 in cancer when comparing to healthy tissue. These important findings indicate that insulin-growth factors are not directly associated with HNSCC showing some variability between patients and location of tumor. However, elevated level of IGFBP3 suggests possible regulatory role of IGF signal by its binding protein in this type of tumor. PMID:24802266

Zhi, Xu; Lamperska, Katarzyna; Golusinski, Pawe?; Schork, Nicholas J; Luczewski, Lukasz; Golusinski, Wojciech; Masternak, Michal M

2014-08-01

379

Acupuncture at Houxi (SI 3) acupoint for acute neck pain caused by stiff neck: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction The use of acupuncture has been suggested for the treatment of acute neck pain caused by stiff neck in China. However, current evidence is insufficient to draw any conclusions about its efficacy. Therefore this pilot study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of acupuncture at the Houxi (SI3) acupoint for treatment of acute neck pain. Methods/analysis This pilot study will be a two-parallel-group, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Thirty-six stiff neck participants with acute neck pain will be recruited and randomly divided into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the control group will receive massage on the local neck region (5?min each session, three times a day for 3?days). In addition to massage, patients in the treatment group will receive acupuncture (one session a day for 3?days). Measures will be taken at 0, 3 and 15?days. The primary outcome is the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ). The secondary outcome is the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Ethics/dissemination The protocol for this pilot randomised clinical trial has undergone ethics scrutiny and been approved by the ethics review boards of the First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Permission number: HZYLL201303502). The findings of this study will provide important clinical evidence on the feasibility and efficacy of acupuncture treatment for stiff neck patients with acute neck pain. In addition, it will explore the feasibility of further acupuncture research. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-13003911. PMID:25537784

Sun, Zhong-ren; Yue, Jin-huan; Tian, Hong-zhao; Zhang, Qin-hong

2014-01-01

380

Psychometric characteristics of the Spanish version of instruments to measure neck pain disability  

PubMed Central

Background The NDI, COM and NPQ are evaluation instruments for disability due to NP. There was no Spanish version of NDI or COM for which psychometric characteristics were known. The objectives of this study were to translate and culturally adapt the Spanish version of the Neck Disability Index Questionnaire (NDI), and the Core Outcome Measure (COM), to validate its use in Spanish speaking patients with non-specific neck pain (NP), and to compare their psychometric characteristics with those of the Spanish version of the Northwick Pain Questionnaire (NPQ). Methods Translation/re-translation of the English versions of the NDI and the COM was done blindly and independently by a multidisciplinary team. The study was done in 9 primary care Centers and 12 specialty services from 9 regions in Spain, with 221 acute, subacute and chronic patients who visited their physician for NP: 54 in the pilot phase and 167 in the validation phase. Neck pain (VAS), referred pain (VAS), disability (NDI, COM and NPQ), catastrophizing (CSQ) and quality of life (SF-12) were measured on their first visit and 14 days later. Patients' self-assessment was used as the external criterion for pain and disability. In the pilot phase, patients' understanding of each item in the NDI and COM was assessed, and on day 1 test-retest reliability was estimated by giving a second NDI and COM in which the name of the questionnaires and the order of the items had been changed. Results Comprehensibility of NDI and COM were good. Minutes needed to fill out the questionnaires [median, (P25, P75)]: NDI. 4 (2.2, 10.0), COM: 2.1 (1.0, 4.9). Reliability: [ICC, (95%CI)]: NDI: 0.88 (0.80, 0.93). COM: 0.85 (0.75,0.91). Sensitivity to change: Effect size for patients having worsened, not changed and improved between days 1 and 15, according to the external criterion for disability: NDI: -0.24, 0.15, 0.66; NPQ: -0.14, 0.06, 0.67; COM: 0.05, 0.19, 0.92. Validity: Results of NDI, NPQ and COM were consistent with the external criterion for disability, whereas only those from NDI were consistent with the one for pain. Correlations with VAS, CSQ and SF-12 were similar for NDI and NPQ (absolute values between 0.36 and 0.50 on day 1, between 0.38 and 0.70 on day 15), and slightly lower for COM (between 0.36 and 0.48 on day 1, and between 0.33 and 0.61 on day 15). Correlation between NDI and NPQ: r = 0.84 on day 1, r = 0.91 on day 15. Correlation between COM and NPQ: r = 0.63 on day 1, r = 0.71 on day 15. Conclusion Although most psychometric characteristics of NDI, NPQ and COM are similar, those from the latter one are worse and its use may lead to patients' evolution seeming more positive than it actually is. NDI seems to be the best instrument for measuring NP-related disability, since its results are the most consistent with patient's assessment of their own clinical status and evolution. It takes two more minutes to answer the NDI than to answer the COM, but it can be reliably filled out by the patient without assistance. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Register NCT00349544. PMID:18400084

Kovacs, Francisco M; Bagó, Joan; Royuela, Ana; Seco, Jesús; Giménez, Sergio; Muriel, Alfonso; Abraira, Víctor; Martín, José Luis; Peña, José Luis; Gestoso, Mario; Mufraggi, Nicole; Núñez, Montserrat; Corcoll, Josep; Gómez-Ochoa, Ignacio; Ramírez, Ma José; Calvo, Eva; Castillo, Ma Dolores; Martí, David; Fuster, Salvador; Fernández, Carmen; Gimeno, Nuria; Carballo, Alejandro; Milán, Álvaro; Vázquez, Dolores; Cañellas, Montserrat; Blanco, Ricardo; Brieva, Pilar; Rueda, Ma Trinidad; Álvarez, Luis; del Real, María Teresa Gil; Ayerbe, Joaquín; González, Luis; Ginel, Leovigildo; Ortega, Mariano; Bernal, Miryam; Bolado, Gonzalo; Vidal, Anna; Ausín, Ana; Ramón, Domingo; Mir, María Antonia; Tomás, Miquel; Zamora, Javier; Cano, Alejandra

2008-01-01

381

Effect of yoga on the Myofascial Pain Syndrome of neck.  

PubMed

Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) refers to pain attributed to muscle and its surrounding fascia, which is associated with "myofascial trigger points" (MTrPs). MTrPs in the trapezius has been proposed as the main cause of temporal and cervicogenic headache and neck pain. Literature shows that the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among physiotherapists is high. Yoga has traditionally been used to treat MSDs in various populations. But there is scarcity of literature which explains the effects of yoga on reducing MPS of the neck in terms of various physical parameters and subjective responses. Therefore, a pilot study was done among eight physiotherapists with minimum six months of experience. A structured yoga protocol was designed and implemented for five days in a week for four weeks. The outcome variables were Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands (DASH) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) for Trigger Points, Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) - active & passive, grip and pinch strengths. The variables were compared before and after the intervention. Finally, the result revealed that all the variables (DASH: P<0.00, NDI: P<0.00, VAS: P<0.00, PPT: Left: P<0.00, PPT: Right: P<0.00, Grip strength: left: P<0.00, Grip strength: right: P<0.01, Key pinch: left: P<0.01, Key pinch: right: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: left: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: right: P<0.00, Tip pinch: left: P<0.01, Tip pinch: Right: P<0.01) improved significantly after intervention. PMID:25035608

Sharan, D; Manjula, M; Urmi, D; Ajeesh, Ps

2014-01-01

382

Alternative Agents to Prevent Fogging in Head and Neck Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Background: The essential factor for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in head and neck endoscopy is the visibility of the image. An anti-fogging agent can reduce this problem by minimizing surface tension to prevent the condensation of water in the form of small droplets on a surface. There is no report on the use of hibiscrub® or baby shampoo to reduce fogging in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy between commercial anti-fogging agent, hibiscrub® and baby shampoo to reduce fogging for the use in head and neck endoscopy. Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University in August 2010. Commercial anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub® were applied on rigid endoscope lens before putting them into a mist generator. The images were taken at baseline, 15 seconds, 30 seconds and 1 minute. The images’ identifiers were removed before they were sent to two evaluators. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to rate the image quality from 0 to 10. Results: The difference in mean VAS score between anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub® versus no agent were 5.46, 4.45 and 2.1 respectively. The commercial anti-fogging agent and baby shampoo had most protective benefit and performed significantly better than no agent (P = 0.05). Conclusions: Baby shampoo is an effective agent to prevent fogging during head and neck endoscopy and compares favourably with commercial anti-fogging agent. PMID:24179399

Piromchai, Patorn; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak

2011-01-01

383

Robot-Assisted Free Flap in Head and Neck Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Robots have allowed head and neck surgeons to extirpate oropharyngeal tumors safely without the need for lip-split incision or mandibulotomy. Using robots in oropharyngeal reconstruction is new but essential for oropharyngeal defects that result from robotic tumor excision. We report our experience with robotic free-flap reconstruction of head and neck defects to exemplify the necessity for robotic reconstruction. Methods We investigated head and neck cancer patients who underwent ablation surgery and free-flap reconstruction by robot. Between July 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012, 5 cases were performed and patient demographics, location of tumor, pathologic stage, reconstruction methods, flap size, recipient vessel, necessary pedicle length, and operation time were investigated. Results Among five free-flap reconstructions, four were radial forearm free flaps and one was an anterolateral thigh free-flap. Four flaps used the superior thyroid artery and one flap used a facial artery as the recipient vessel. The average pedicle length was 8.8 cm. Flap insetting and microanastomosis were achieved using a specially manufactured robotic instrument. The total operation time was 1,041.0 minutes (range, 814 to 1,132 minutes), and complications including flap necrosis, hematoma, and wound dehiscence did not occur. Conclusions This study demonstrates the clinically applicable use of robots in oropharyngeal reconstruction, especially using a free flap. A robot can assist the operator in insetting the flap at a deep portion of the oropharynx without the need to perform a traditional mandibulotomy. Robot-assisted reconstruction may substitute for existing surgical methods and is accepted as the most up-to-date method. PMID:23898431

Song, Han Gyeol; Yun, In Sik; Lee, Won Jai; Rah, Dong Kyun

2013-01-01

384

Neck muscle afferents influence oromotor and cardiorespiratory brainstem neural circuits.  

PubMed

Sensory information arising from the upper neck is important in the reflex control of posture and eye position. It has also been linked to the autonomic control of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and cervical dystonia, which involve disturbance to the neck region, can often present with abnormalities to the oromotor, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We investigated the potential neural pathways underlying such symptoms. Simulating neck afferent activity by electrical stimulation of the second cervical nerve in a working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP) altered the pattern of central respiratory drive and increased perfusion pressure. Tracing central targets of these sensory afferents revealed projections to the intermedius nucleus of the medulla (InM). These anterogradely labelled afferents co-localised with parvalbumin and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 indicating that they are proprioceptive. Anterograde tracing from the InM identified projections to brain regions involved in respiratory, cardiovascular, postural and oro-facial behaviours-the neighbouring hypoglossal nucleus, facial and motor trigeminal nuclei, parabrachial nuclei, rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla and nucleus ambiguus. In brain slices, electrical stimulation of afferent fibre tracts lateral to the cuneate nucleus monosynaptically excited InM neurones. Direct stimulation of the InM in the WHBP mimicked the response of second cervical nerve stimulation. These results provide evidence of pathways linking upper cervical sensory afferents with CNS areas involved in autonomic and oromotor control, via the InM. Disruption of these neuronal pathways could, therefore, explain the dysphagic and cardiorespiratory abnormalities which may accompany cervical dystonia and WAD. PMID:24595534

Edwards, I J; Lall, V K; Paton, J F; Yanagawa, Y; Szabo, G; Deuchars, S A; Deuchars, J

2014-03-01

385

Myositis Ossificans Traumatica of the Neck – a Pediatric Case  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Myositis ossificans circumscripta (MOC) is an extra-osseous non- neoplastic growth of a new bone. It occurs most commonly in the second and the third decade of life, while it is rare in children. The etiology of MOC is unknown and the quadriceps and brachials are the most affected. The occurrence of traumatic MOC in tissues of the neck is uncommon. We are presenting below a rare case of traumatic myositis ossificans occurring in sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles in a 17-year-old girl. PMID:22205895

MAN, Sorin Claudiu; SCHNELL, Cristina Nicoleta; FUFEZAN, Otilia; MIHUT, Gheorghe

2011-01-01

386

Pediatric Femoral Neck Fractures: Our 10 Years of Experience  

PubMed Central

Background Femoral neck fractures are rare injuries in children, but the high incidence of long term complications make it an important clinical entity. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical outcomes of pediatric femur neck fractures that we managed over a 10 year period. Methods The study included 36 children (20 boys and 16 girls) who sustained femoral neck fractures and completed a minimum follow-up of one year. The children were treated either conservatively, or by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), or closed reduction and internal fixation (CRIF). The outcomes were analyzed using Ratliff criteria and a detailed record of complications was kept for all patients. Results The mean age of included patients was 10 years (range, 3 to 16 years) and the average follow-up was 3.2 years (range, 1.1 to 8.5 years). Based on Delbet's classification system, there were 0 type I (transepiphyseal), 16 type II, 11 type III, and 9 type IV fractures. There were 8 undisplaced fractures, 4 of which later displaced after being managed initially in a hip spica. A satisfactory outcome was obtained in 27 (75%) children. Avascular necrosis (AVN) was the most common complication. It was seen in 7 of our patients, all of whom had an unsatisfactory outcome. Other complications included three cases each of coxa vara, non-union, and arthritic changes; and one case each of infection, primary screw perforation of head, and premature epiphyseal closure. Complications were lowest in the group treated by ORIF. Only 2 patients managed exclusively by conservative treatment ultimately achieved a satisfactory outcome. Conclusions We believe that internal fixation of pediatric femoral neck fractures is preferred whenever feasible because conservative treatment carries a high risk of failure of reduction. Aggressive operative treatments aimed at anatomical reduction should be the goal and there should be no hesitation in choosing ORIF over CRIF. Outcome of patients is influenced primarily by development of AVN which occurs as an independent entity without much relation to the mode of treatment carried out. PMID:22162793

Sudesh, Pebam; Patel, Sandeep; Kumar, Vishal; Saini, Uttam; Dhillon, M. S.

2011-01-01

387

Imaging of vascular lesions of the head and neck.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of vascular lesions of the head and neck should be directed by classifying the lesions as tumors or malformations and by determining their flow characteristics. Location of the lesion is key when differentiating between vascular neoplasms. Ultrasonography is an appropriate screening tool; MRI is often used to confirm the diagnosis. Computed tomography can be used for further characterization of the lesion, particularly when there is bony involvement. In many cases, vascular lesions grow to be extensive. In these cases, percutaneous sclerotherapy or embolization therapy can be employed to aid in surgical resection. PMID:25476181

Griauzde, Julius; Srinivasan, Ashok

2015-01-01

388

Chemotherapy advances in locally advanced head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

The management of locally advanced unresectable head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) continues to improve. One of the major advances in the treatment of HNSCC was the addition of chemotherapy to radiation in the treatment of non-surgical patients. The majority of the data regarding chemotherapy in HNSCC involve cisplatin chemotherapy with concurrent radiation. However, several new approaches have included targeted therapy against epidermal growth factor receptor and several recent studies have explored the role of induction chemotherapy in the treatment of HNSCC. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced HNSCC. PMID:25493232

Georges, Peter; Rajagopalan, Kumar; Leon, Chady; Singh, Priya; Ahmad, Nadir; Nader, Kamyar; Kubicek, Gregory J

2014-12-10

389

Cavernous haemangioma of the head and neck in the adult.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews a personal experience of 51 cases seen over a 30 year period. Patients were treated in either a combined Head and Neck clinic or a Combined Ophthalmology clinic and a balanced view is thus represented. A method of grading the severity of the disease is described as well as a method of assessing response. This approach has not been proposed hitherto. It is generally concluded that the preferred treatment for small lesions is excisional surgery and for larger lesions carefully planned and highly localized radiation. PMID:2716015

Sealy, R; Barry, L; Buret, E; Stannard, C; Binnewald, B; Price, B; Hill, J

1989-01-01

390

Chemoprevention of Head and Neck Cancer with Green Tea Polyphenols  

PubMed Central

Recently, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) chemoprevention research has made major advances with novel clinical trial designs suited for the purpose, use of biomarkers to identify high-risk patients, and the emergence of numerous molecularly targeted agents and natural dietary compounds. Among many natural compounds, green tea polyphenols (GTPs), particularly (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), possess remarkable potential as chemopreventive agents. EGCG modulates several key molecular signaling pathways at multiple levels and has synergistic or additive effects when combined with many other natural or synthetic compounds. This review will provide an update of the potential of GTPs, particularly EGCG, for chemoprevention of SCCHN. PMID:20663981

Kim, Joseph W.; Amin, A.R.M. Ruhul; Shin, Dong M.

2010-01-01

391

[Endoprosthetic hip replacement in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures].  

PubMed

96 primary endoprosthetic hip replacements were performed in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. The average age of the patients was 82,7 years. In cases of senile osteoporosis cement prosthesis was applied, when there were no signs of osteoporosis defined, non-cement construction was used. 53 (55,2%) patients were postoperatively followed-up during 1 to 7 years. Excellent result was achieved in 17 (32,1%) patients (>90 points on Harrison's scale), good result was registered in 21 (39,6%) patients (80-89 points), considered to be satisfactory (70-79 points) - in 15 (28,3%) patients. PMID:19668139

Gorodnichenko, A I; Uskov, O N; Gorbatov, V I; Minaev, A N; Korneev, A N

2009-01-01

392

Resistance Training and Head-Neck Segment Dynamic Stabilization in Male and Female Collegiate Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

Context: Cervical resistance training has been purported to aid in reducing the severity of brain injuries in athletes. Objective: To determine the effect of an 8-week resistance-training program on head-neck segment dynamic stabilization in male and female collegiate soccer players. Design: Pretest and posttest control group design. Setting: University research laboratory and fitness center. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-six National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (17 men, 19 women). Intervention(s): The resistance training group underwent an 8-week cervical resistance training program that consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions of neck flexion and extension at 55% to 70% of their 10-repetition maximum 2 times a week. Participants in the control group performed no cervical resistance exercises. Main Outcome Measure(s): Head-neck segment kinematics and stiffness, electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles during force application to the head, and neck flexor and extensor isometric strength. Results: No kinematic, electromyographic, or stiffness training effects were seen. The posttest resistance training group isometric neck flexor strength was 15% greater than the pretest measurement. Isometric neck extensor strength in the female resistance training group was 22.5% greater at the posttest than at the pretest. Women's neck girth increased 3.4% over time regardless of training group level. Women exhibited 7% less head-neck segment length and 26% less head-neck segment mass than men. Conclusions: Despite increases in isometric strength and girth, the 8-week isotonic cervical resistance training did not enhance head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during force application in collegiate soccer players. Future researchers should examine the effect of head-neck segment training protocols that include traditional and neuromuscular activities (eg, plyometrics) with the focus of reducing head acceleration on force application. PMID:16404453

Mansell, Jamie; Tierney, Ryan T; Sitler, Michael R; Swanik, Kathleen A; Stearne, David

2005-01-01

393

Overexpression of EMMPRIN Isoform 2 Is Associated with Head and Neck Cancer Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a plasma membrane protein of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, has been reported to promote cancer cell invasion and metastasis in several human malignancies. However, the roles of the different EMMPRIN isoforms and their associated mechanisms in head and neck cancer progression remain unknown. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we found that EMMPRIN isoform 2 (EMMPRIN-2) was the only isoform that was overexpressed in both head and neck cancer tissues and cell lines and that it was associated with head and neck cancer metastasis. To determine the effects of EMMPRIN-2 on head and neck cancer progression, we transfected head and neck cancer cells with an EMMPRIN-2 expression vector and EMMPRIN-2 siRNA to exogenously modulate EMMPRIN-2 expression and examined the functional importance of EMMPRIN-2 in head and neck cancer invasion and metastasis. We found that EMMPRIN-2 promoted head and neck cancer cell invasion, migration, and adhesion in vitro and increased lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that EMMPRIN-2 overexpression promoted the secretion of extracellular signaling molecules, including matrix metalloproteinases-2(MMP-2), urokinase-type plasminogen activator(uPA) and Cathepsin B, in head and neck cancer cells. While MMP-2 and uPA have been demonstrated to be important mediators of EMMPRIN signaling, the role of Cathepsin B in EMMPRIN-mediated molecular cascades and tumorigenesis has not been established. We found that EMMPRIN-2 overexpression and Cathepsin B down-regulation significantly inhibited the invasion, migration and adhesion of Tca8133 cells, suggesting that Cathepsin B is required for EMMPRIN-2 enhanced cell migration and invasion in head and neck cancer. The results of our study demonstrate the important role of EMMPRIN-2 in head and neck cancer progression for the first time and reveal that increased extracellular secretion of Cathepsin B may be a novel mechanism underlying EMMPRIN-2 enhanced tumor progression in head and neck cancer. PMID:24705283

Guo, Weijie; Wang, Lili; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaojia; Xu, Qin; Li, Jinsong; Guo, Zhongmin

2014-01-01

394

The Relationship Between Human Papillomavirus Status and Other Molecular Prognostic Markers in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) status and known prognostic makers for head and neck cancers including tumor hypoxia, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and intratumoral T-cell levels and to determine the prognostic impact of these markers by HPV status. Methods and Materials: HPV status in 82 evaluable head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients was determined by pyrosequencing and related to p16{sup INK4a} staining and treatment outcomes. It was correlated with tumor hypoxia (tumor pO{sub 2} and carbonic anhydrase [CAIX] staining), EGFR status, and intratumoral lymphocyte expression (CD3 staining). Results: Forty-four percent of evaluable tumors had strong HPV signal by pyrosequencing. There was a significant relationship between strong HPV signal and p16{sup INK4a} staining as well as oropharynx location. The strong HPV signal group fared significantly better than others, both in time to progression (TTP, p = 0.008) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.004) for all patients and for the oropharyngeal subset. Positive p16{sup INK4a} staining was associated with better TTP (p = 0.014) and OS (p = 0.00002). There was no relationship between HPV status and tumor pO{sub 2} or CAIX staining. However, HPV status correlated inversely with EGFR reactivity (p = 0.0006) and directly with CD3(+) T-lymphocyte level (p = 0.03). Whereas CAIX and EGFR overexpression were negative prognostic factors regardless of HPV status, CD3(+) T-cell levels was prognostic only in HPV(-) tumors. Conclusion: HPV status was a prognostic factor for progression and survival. It correlated inversely with EGFR expression and directly with T-cell infiltration. The prognostic effect of CAIX and EGFR expression was not influenced by HPV status, whereas intratumoral T-cell levels was significant only for HPV(-) tumors.

Kong, Christina S. [Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Narasimhan, Balasubramanian [Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Cao Hongbin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Kwok, Shirley [Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Erickson, Julianna P. [Biochemistry-Genome Center, Stanford University, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Koong, Albert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Pourmand, Nader [Biochemistry-Genome Center, Stanford University, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)], E-mail: qle@stanford.edu

2009-06-01

395

Correlation spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Flemming, Jeb H. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Gary D. (Tijeras, NM); Tigges, Chris P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-04-13

396

Radiation effects on uptake of 99Tcm-hexamethylpropylen amine oxime (HMPAO) in head and neck tumours.  

PubMed Central

Twenty patients with malignant head and neck tumours were imaged with 99Tcm-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO), a radiopharmaceutical generally used for blood flow studies. Before radiotherapy (RT), 93% of the tumours could be detected with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 45% with planar imaging. Whole tumour-to-background 99TcmHMPAO uptake ratios ranged from 3.6 to 1.0 (mean 1.7 +/- 0.6) in untreated tumours. There was a good correlation between tumour volume and uptake (r = 0.69, P = 0.002). Sixteen patients were reimaged during or shortly after radical RT. 99TcmHMPAO uptake was significantly lower after treatment (mean uptake ratio 1.2 +/- 0.3, P less than 0.001). However, RT associated changes in 99TcmHMPAO uptake were in agreement with the clinical response in only 63% of the studies. This study indicates that 99TcmHMPAO SPECT imaging can be used for pretherapeutic localisation of head and neck tumours. Although most tumours show a decrease in uptake after irradiation the poor association with tumour regression does not allow for reliable assessment of treatment response. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:1911222

Minn, H.; Ahonen, A.; Paul, R.

1991-01-01

397

FOOD FLIGHTS OF RED-NECKED GREBES DURING THE BREEDING SEASON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-necked Grebes (Podiceps grisegena) nested behind a dyke at Creston, British Columbia, and flew up to 2.5 km to an adjacent lake to forage for their young. Other Red- necked Grebes nested on the same lake and swam to foraging areas accompanied by their young. There were significant differences in size of prey chosen for chicks by \\

BWL A. OHANJANIAN

398

The role of the neck and trunk in facilitating head stability during walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparent goal of the human postural system is to maintain head stability during walking. Although much is known about sensory-motor stabilising mechanisms associated with the head and neck, less is known about how the postural system attenuates motion between the trunk and neck segments in order to regulate head motion. Therefore the purpose of this study was to determine

Justin Kavanagh; Rod Barrett; Steven Morrison

2006-01-01

399

Fusion hindrance of heavy ions: role of the neck David Boilley  

E-print Network

Fusion hindrance of heavy ions: role of the neck David Boilley and Hongliang L¨u GANIL, CEA'Etudes-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191, France Fusion of heavy ions is largely hindered because of the appearance. In this paper we stress the importance of the neck of the composite system on the hindrance of the fusion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

A tissue velocity ultrasound imaging investigation of the dorsal neck muscles during resisted isometric extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons with neck pain exhibit altered patterns of muscle patterning, but limited investigations have been carried out on these alterations or muscle patterning in healthy volunteers. This study investigated the tissue motion of the dorsal neck muscles at the C4 segmental level in 15 healthy subjects during manually resisted head extension. Doppler-based tissue velocity ultrasound imaging (TVI) was used to

Anneli Peolsson; Lars-Åke Brodin; Michael Peolsson

2010-01-01

401

Kinesin's Neck-Linker Determines its Ability to Navigate Obstacles on the Microtubule Surface  

E-print Network

-linker, is more processive than kinesin-2. Although small differences in processivity are likely obscured in vivo neck-linker, kinesin-2 can more easily navigate obstacles (e.g., MAPs) on the microtubule surface than from different kinesin-1 and kinesin-2 neck-linker chimeras stepping along microtubules in the absence

Hancock, William O.

402

Risk factors for postoperative delirium in patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine risk factors for delirium after major head and neck cancer surgery. The postoperative experience of 38 patients who underwent major head and neck cancer surgery and were managed in the high care unit was retrospectively examined by reviewing their medical records. Delirium was defined as confusion and abnormal behavior that interfered with postoperative

K. Yamagata; K. Onizawa; H. Yusa; T. Wakatsuki; T. Yanagawa; H. Yoshida

2005-01-01

403

Head and neck injuries in college football: An eight-year analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study documented head and neck injuries in a study group of 342 college football players at a single institution for a period of 8 years. All freshmen players were screened for evidence of: (1) past history of head and neck injuries, and (2) abnormalities of the cervical spine on physical examination and x-ray film. By recording all head

John P. Albright; Edward Mcauley; Robert K. Martin; Edward T. Crowley; Danny T. Foster

1985-01-01

404

Management of Pathological Fracture Neck of the Femur Following Recent Osteomyelitis in a Child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture neck of the femur is rare in children and occurs following severe trauma (1-5) . Several recommendations have been made for the treatment of displaced transcervical fracture type II (Delbet classification) (1,2,5-8) . However there are no recommendations when such a fracture occurs after recent acute osteomyelits of the neck of the femur. The management of a case is

A S Devnani

405

A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for neck pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To establish whether there is evidence for or against the eYcacy of acupuncture in the treatment of neck pain. Methods. A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies that compared needle or laser acupuncture with a control procedure for the treatment of neck pain. Two reviewers independently extracted data concerning study methods, quality and outcome. Results. Overall, the outcomes

A. R. White; E. Ernst

1999-01-01

406

Vertigo as Manifestation of Vertebral Artery Dissection after Chiropractic Neck Manipulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently observed a case of vertebral artery (VA) dissection following chiropractic neck manipulations. The first manifestation was unusual; in the form of vertigo. Therefore, the patient was referred to the otoneurologist. A VA dissection should be suspected in a case of vertigo following chiropractic neck manipulations, and vestibular tests should be done carefully, avoiding Rose’s positions. In our case,

Dominique Vibert; Josette Rohr-Le Floch; Gèrard Gauthier

1993-01-01

407

Electromyographic Control of a Hands-Free Electrolarynx Using Neck Strap Muscles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three individuals with total laryngectomy were studied for their ability to control a hands-free electrolarynx (EL) using neck surface electromyography (EMG) for on/off and pitch modulation. The laryngectomy surgery of participants was modified to preserve neck strap musculature for EMG-based EL control (EMG-EL), with muscles on one side…

Kubert, Heather L.; Stepp, Cara E.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Gooey, John E.; Walsh, Michael J.; Prakash, S. R.; Hillman, Robert E.; Heaton, James T.

2009-01-01

408

Neck circumference and other clinical features in the diagnosis of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neck circumference has been suggested to be more predictive of obstructive sleep apnoea than general obesity, but the statistical validity of this conclusion has been questioned. Combining neck circumference with other signs and symptoms may allow the clinical diagnosis or exclusion of sleep apnoea to be made with reasonable confidence. This study examines these issues. METHODS: One hundred and

R J Davies; N J Ali; J R Stradling

1992-01-01

409

A Predictive Logistic Regression Equation for Neck Pain in Helicopter Aircrew  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: While many studies have investigated neck strain in helicopter aircrew, no one study has used a comprehensive approach involving multivariate analysis of questionnaire data in combination with physiological results related to the musculature of the cervical spine. Methods: There were 40 aircrew members who provided questionnaire results detailing lifetime prevalence of neck pain, flight history, physical fitness results, and

M. F. Harrison; J. P. Neary; W. J. Albert; J. C. Croll

2012-01-01

410

Specificity of predator-induced neck spine and alteration in life history traits in Daphnia pulex  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that the predator-induced defensive neck spine in Daphnia pulex has a demographic cost. Our results show that this cost is not merely an allocation cost related to the formation and maintenance of the neck spine. In a life table experiment, we tested whether spine induction and life history traits in D. pulex are affected by different

Sari Repka; Matti Ketola; Mari Walls

1994-01-01

411

Alternating Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer: An Alternative?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly alternating chemotherapy and radiotherapy (ACR) is a minor variation of concurrent chemoradia- tion (CCR). This scheduling has been tested in advanced head and neck cancer and has shown superiority over standard radiation in some randomized trials with only marginally greater toxicity. This paper reviews ACR in advanced head and neck cancer. The hypothesis that this approach could have a

Marco Merlano

412

Endovascular Therapy for Management of Oral Hemorrhage in Malignant Head and Neck Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy in oral hemorrhage from malignant head and neck tumors. Methods. Ten patients (mean age 56 years) with oral hemorrhage caused by malignant head and neck tumors underwent a total of 13 emergency embolization procedures using gelatin sponge particles, steel and\\/or platinum coils, or a combination of these embolic materials. Angiographic

Hideaki Kakizawa; Naoyuki Toyota; Akira Naito; Katsuhide Ito

2005-01-01

413

Endovascular Therapy for Management of Oral Hemorrhage in Malignant Head and Neck Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy in oral hemorrhage from malignant head and neck tumors. Methods: Ten patients (mean age 56 years) with oral hemorrhage caused by malignant head and neck tumors underwent a total of 13 emergency embolization procedures using gelatin sponge particles, steel and\\/or platinum coils, or a combination of these embolic materials. Angiographic

Hideaki Kakizawa; Naoyuki Toyota; Akira Naito; Katsuhide Ito

2005-01-01

414

33 CFR 80.120 - Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA. 80.120 Section 80.120 Navigation and Navigable...DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.120 Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA. (a) Except...

2010-07-01

415

33 CFR 80.125 - Marblehead Neck, MA to Nahant, MA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marblehead Neck, MA to Nahant, MA. 80.125 Section 80.125 Navigation and Navigable...LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.125 Marblehead Neck, MA to Nahant, MA. The 72 COLREGS apply on the...

2010-07-01

416

Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sauropod dinosaurs are one of the most conspicuous groups of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates. They show general trends towards an overall increase in size and elongation of the neck, by means of considerable elongation of the length of individual vertebrae and a cervical vertebra count that, in some cases, increases to 19 (ref. 1). The long neck is a particular hallmark

Oliver W. M. Rauhut; Kristian Remes; Regina Fechner; Gerardo Cladera; Pablo Puerta

2005-01-01

417

Influence of Naked Neck Gene on Laying Performance and Some Hematological Parameters of Dwarfing Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Dwarfing gene is of interest among scientist, because of its numerous pleiotropic effects in physiology, nutrition and pathology. Also, the naked neck (Na) gene has received great attention for poultry production, because of their association with heat tolerance. From this view, An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of sex-linked dwarf (dw), autosomal naked neck (Na) and

A. Galal; A. M. H. Ahmed; U. M. Ali; H. H. Younis

2007-01-01

418

Clonal analysis reveals a common origin between nonsomite-derived neck muscles and heart myocardium.  

PubMed

Neck muscles constitute a transition zone between somite-derived skeletal muscles of the trunk and limbs, and muscles of the head, which derive from cranial mesoderm. The trapezius and sternocleidomastoid neck muscles are formed from progenitor cells that have expressed markers of cranial pharyngeal mesoderm, whereas other muscles in the neck arise from Pax3-expressing cells in the somites. Mef2c-AHF-Cre genetic tracing experiments and Tbx1 mutant analysis show that nonsomitic neck muscles share a gene regulatory network with cardiac progenitor cells in pharyngeal mesoderm of the second heart field (SHF) and branchial arch-derived head muscles. Retrospective clonal analysis shows that this group of neck muscles includes laryngeal muscles and a component of the splenius muscle, of mixed somitic and nonsomitic origin. We demonstrate that the trapezius muscle group is clonally related to myocardium at the venous pole of the heart, which derives from the posterior SHF. The left clonal sublineage includes myocardium of the pulmonary trunk at the arterial pole of the heart. Although muscles derived from the first and second branchial arches also share a clonal relationship with different SHF-derived parts of the heart, neck muscles are clonally distinct from these muscles and define a third clonal population of common skeletal and cardiac muscle progenitor cells within cardiopharyngeal mesoderm. By linking neck muscle and heart development, our findings highlight the importance of cardiopharyngeal mesoderm in the evolution of the vertebrate heart and neck and in the pathophysiology of human congenital disease. PMID:25605943

Lescroart, Fabienne; Hamou, Wissam; Francou, Alexandre; Théveniau-Ruissy, Magali; Kelly, Robert G; Buckingham, Margaret

2015-02-01

419

Cetuximab therapy for patients with advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the results of the phase III EXTREME (Erbitux in First-Line Treatment of Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer) trial. In this study, 442 untreated patients with advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) were randomly assigned to receive platinum and 5-fluorouracil with or without cetuximab. Median overall survival the primary end point of the

William N William; Edward S Kim; Roy S Herbst

2009-01-01

420

Current evidence on the burden of head and neck cancers in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancers (HNC) constitute 5–8% of total body cancers in Europe and America. It is difficult to appreciate the problem of cancers in Nigeria because most studies available are hospital-based studies. The aim of this study is to highlight current evidence on the burden of head and neck cancers in Nigeria based on literature review and to

Opubo B da Lilly-Tariah; Abayomi O Somefun; Wasiu L Adeyemo

2009-01-01

421

Modulation of Neck Intermuscular Beta Coherence during Voice and Speech Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to better understand neck intermuscular beta coherence (15-35 Hz; NIBcoh) in healthy individuals, with respect to modulation by behavioral tasks. Method: Mean NIBcoh was measured using surface electromyography at 2 anterior neck locations in 10 individuals during normal speech, static nonspeech maneuvers,…

Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.; Heaton, James T.

2011-01-01

422

Guidelines for the treatment of head and neck venous malformations  

PubMed Central

Venous malformation is one of the most common benign vascular lesions, with approximately 40% of cases appearing in the head and neck. They can affect a patient’s appearance and functionality and even cause life-threatening bleeding or respiratory tract obstruction. The current methods of treatment include surgery, laser therapy, sclerotherapy, or a combined. The treatment of small and superficial venous malformations is relatively simple and effective; however, the treatment of deep and extensive lesions involving multiple anatomical sites remains a challenge for the physicians. For complex cases, the outcomes achieved with one single treatment approach are poor; therefore, individualized treatment modalities must be formulated based on the patient’s condition and the techniques available. Comprehensive multidisciplinary treatments have been adapted to achieve the most effective results. In this paper, based on the national and international literature, we formulated the treatment guidelines for head and neck venous malformations to standardize clinical practice. The guideline will be renewed and updated in a timely manner to reflect cutting-edge knowledge and to provide the best treatment modalities for patients. PMID:23724158

Zheng, Jia Wei; Mai, Hua Ming; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yan An; Fan, Xin Dong; Su, Li Xin; Qin, Zhong Ping; Yang, Yao Wu; Jiang, Yin Hua; Zhao, Yi Fang; Suen, James Y

2013-01-01

423

Retrospective and prospective study of head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

A prospective clinico pathological study of Head and Neck Cancer cases presenting in E.N.T. OPD was done and its observations were compared with retrospective studies done earlier by Gupta et al (1986), It was seen that carcinoma laryngopharynx was the commonest (38.18%) malignancy seen in the present study followed by carcinoma of Larynx (16.36%) and Oesophagus (14.54%). Carcinoma of the nasopharynx was seen in 12.72% cases followed by carcinoma oropharynx (10.91%), Histopathologically; 98.18% cases were of squamous cell carcinomas and out of these only 31.48% were well differentiated carcinoma. There was only 1 case (1.81%) of occult primary. In the retrospective study, the incidence of cancer of Laryngopharynx was 33.33% followed by oropharynx 16.66% and Larynx and Lymphoma (11.11%) each. Occult primary was observed in 3 cases (5.33%) and carcinoma naspoharynx in 4 cases (4.44%). Poor socioeconomic status, bad orodental hygiene, Plummer-vinson syndrome in females were the commonest predisposing factors in addition to smoking, Pan Masala, Zarda and Gutka chewing in the causation of Head and Neck cancer both in prospective and retrospective studies. PMID:23119927

Tuli, B S; Gupta, K K; Dugg, Mohinder S

2003-03-01

424

[THP-adriamycin in head and neck tumor].  

PubMed

Primary effects and side-effects of a new anthracycline antineoplastic agent, THP-adriamycin (THP-ADM), were examined in 20 patients with malignant head and neck tumors. According to a classification by tumor sites, there were 6 cases of oropharynx, 6 of nose and sinuses, 3 of tongue, 2 of floor of mouth, 2 of neck and 1 of external auditory meatus. According to the tissue classification, there were 11 cases of squamous cell ca., 6 cases of malignant lymphoma, each one case of anaplastic ca., carcino sarcoma and adeno cystic ca. There were 16 previously untreated cases and 4 pretreated cases. Twelve cases received THP-ADM by intraarterial injection and 8 cases by the same dose. 10 to 20 mg/body 3 times a week, in a total of 40 to 100 mg. 2 CR, 5 PR, 3 MR and 4 NC in 14 cases with carcinoma, and 2 CR, 3 PR and 1 MR in 6 cases with malignant lymphoma were obtained. Among 12 cases receiving intraarterial injection, 3 CR and 5 PR were obtained. The decrease of WBC counts below 3000/mm3 after THP-ADM administration was observed in 9 cases. Side effect of THP-ADM appeared to be less severe than that of Adriamycin. PMID:6651307

Honda, T; Ohyama, W; Sonoda, T; Uchida, K; Hirokawa, T; Takada, K; Takeda, C

1983-12-01

425

Simulation of haemodynamic flow in head and neck cancer chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, intra arterial chemotherapy has become an important component in head and neck cancer treatment. However, therapy success can vary significantly and consistent treatment guidelines are missing. The purpose of this study was to create a computer simulation of the chemical agent injection in the head and neck arteries to investigate the distribution and concentration of the chemical. Methods Realistic three dimensional patient specific geometry was created from image scan data. Pulsatile blood flow, turbulence, the chemical agent injection via a catheter, and the mixture between blood and the chemical were then simulated through the arterial network by computational fluid dynamics software. Results The results show a consistent chemical distribution throughout all the arteries and this is ineffective. In addition, due to high wall shear stress and turbulence at the inner bifurcation wall, serious complications during the treatment could occur, for instance haemolysis or thrombosis. Conclusions The modelled catheter position is insufficient to provide a high chemical agent concentration in the desired tumour feeding artery, which is vital for therapy success. PMID:22136408

2011-01-01

426

Body composition analysis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Direct bioimpedance measures [resistance, reactance, phase angle] determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) detect changes in tissue electrical properties. Bioelectrical impedance analysis vector (BIVA) technique is a promising tool, using the pure data obtained by BIA evaluation for the screening and monitoring of nutrition and hydration status. BIVA has the potential to be used as a routine method in the clinical setting for the assessment and management of body fluids. The study was conducted to evaluate soft tissue hydration and mass through pattern analysis of vector plots as height, normalized resistance, and reactance measurements by bioelectric impedance vector analysis in patients with head and neck cancer. Whole body measurements were made with ImpediMed bioimpedance analysis in 134 adult, white, male subjects 22-87 years old: 67 patients with head and neck cancer (H&NC) and 67 healthy volunteers matched by sex, age and BMI as a control group. All patients were previously untreated and without active nutritional interventions. Mean vectors of H&NC group versus the control group were characterized by an increased normalized resistance component with a reduced reactance component (separate 95% confidence limits, P < 0.05). BIVA may offer objective measures to improve clinical decision-making and predict outcomes. In patients with H&NC to reduce post-operational complications monitoring bioimpedance vector trajectory may support therapy planning of individual patients before surgery. PMID:24264763

Malecka-Massalska, Teresa; Smolen, Agata; Morshed, Kamal

2014-10-01

427

[Differential diagnosis of children's enlarged necks--cervical thymic cysts].  

PubMed

We present a cervical thymic cyst in an otherwise healthy 11 year old boy. Ultrasonography revealed a smooth, medium echogenic cystic mass of 62 x 28 x 12 mm with weak acoustic enhancement lying between the carotid artery and the internal jugular vein. The mass extended from the hyoid bone to the inferior pole of the thyroid gland. CT scans also revealed the displacement of the carotid artery and the internal jugular vein by an atypically dense cystic mass. At operation the vagus nerve had to be dissected from the posterior wall of the cyst. A solid band of fibrous tissue extended to the inferior pole of the thyroid gland; there was no connection to the pharyngeal wall. On histological examination Hassal's bodies, cholesterol crystals and a mild round-cell infiltration were observed. The postoperative course was normal. There were no immune defects or signs of lymphogranulomatous disease. Cervical thymic cysts may be recognised before operation and differentiated from second arch cysts by their atypically low infrahyoid position, their intimate relation to the vessels of the neck and their extension into the upper mediastinum. Surgery can be difficult due to the intimate relation to the vessels of the neck and the vagus nerve, and to extension into the upper mediastinum. PMID:1568889

Riechelmann, H; Wolfensberger, M; Coerdt, W

1992-02-01

428

Chemopreventive potential of natural compounds in head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most fatal cancers world-wide. Despite advances in the management of HNSCC, the overall survival for patients has not improved significantly due to advanced stages at diagnosis, high recurrence rate after surgical removal, and second primary tumor development, which together underscore the importance of novel strategies for cancer prevention. Cancer chemoprevention, the use of natural or synthetic compounds to prevent, arrest, or reverse the process of carcinogenesis at its earliest stages, aims to reverse premalignancies and prevent second primary tumors. Genomics and proteomics information including initial mutation, cancer promotion, progression and susceptibility has brought molecularly targeted therapies for drug development. The development of preventive approaches using specific natural or synthetic compounds, or both, requires a depth of understanding of the cross-talk between cancer signaling pathways and networks to retain or enhance chemopreventive activity while reducing known toxic effects. Many natural dietary compounds have been identified as multiple molecular targets, effective in the prevention and treatment of cancer. This review describes recent advances in the understanding of the complex signaling networks driving cancer progression using head and neck cancer as a prototype, and of molecularly targeted natural compounds under preclinical and clinical investigation. PMID:20924973

Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Amin, A.R.M. Ruhul; Shin, Dong M.

2013-01-01

429

Vascular Priming Enhances Chemotherapeutic Efficacy against Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The need to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy against head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) is well recognized. In this study, we investigated the potential of targeting the established tumor vasculature in combination with chemotherapy in head and neck cancer. Methods Experimental studies were carried out in multiple human HNSCC xenograft models to examine the activity of the vascular disrupting agent (VDA) 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) in combination with chemotherapy. Multimodality imaging (magnetic resonance imaging, bioluminescence) in conjunction with drug delivery assessment (fluorescence microscopy), histopathology and microarray analysis was performed to characterize tumor response to therapy. Long-term treatment outcome was assessed using clinically-relevant end points of efficacy. Results Pretreatment of tumors with VDA prior to administration of chemotherapy increased intratumoral drug delivery and treatment efficacy. Enhancement of therapeutic efficacy was dependent on the dose and duration of VDA treatment but was independent of the chemotherapeutic agent evaluated. Combination treatment resulted in increased tumor cell kill and improvement in progression-free survival and overall survival in both ectopic and orthotopic HNSCC models. Conclusion Our results show that preconditioning of the tumor microenvironment with an antivascular agent primes the tumor vasculature and results in enhancement of chemotherapeutic delivery and efficacy in vivo. Further investigation into the activity of antivascular agents in combination with chemotherapy against HNSCC is warranted. PMID:23890930

Folaron, Margaret; Kalmuk, James; Lockwood, Jaimee; Frangou, Costakis; Vokes, Jordan; Turowski, Steven G.; Merzianu, Mihai; Rigual, Nestor R.; Sullivan-Nasca, Maureen; Kuriakose, Moni A.; Hicks, Wesley L.; Singh, Anurag K.; Seshadri, Mukund

2013-01-01