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1

Physical and psychosocial correlates of head and neck cancer: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent literature on the physical and psychosocial correlates of head and neck cancer, with a focus on quality-of-life issues, rehabilitation outcomes, and changes in the literature from the previous decade. These studies have shown that head and neck cancer has an enormous impact on the quality of life of patients. The most important physical symptoms are speech

EUGENE N. MYERS; MAARTEN F. De BOER; LAURA K. McCORMICK; JEAN F. A. PRUYN; RICHARD M. RYCKMAN; BART W. van den BORNE

1999-01-01

2

Endovascular occlusion of intracranial aneurysms with electrically detachable coils: Correlation of aneurysm neck size and treatment results  

SciTech Connect

To devise a method to measure aneurysm neck size on angiographic films, and to correlate the sizes obtained with the extent of endovascular aneurysm occlusion, performed with electrically detachable coils. The angiograms of 79 intracranial aneurysms treated by endovascular occlusion using electrically detachable coils were retrospectively analyzed. A method using the average reported caliber of the major intracranial vessels was applied to determine the aneurysm neck sizes on the diagnostic angiograms. The cases were divided into two groups according to neck size, 4 mm being the discriminative value for small and wide necks. The posttreatment angiogram of each case was analyzed to evaluate the degree of occlusion achieved by the technique. Necks were successfully measured in 95% of the aneurysms. Complete aneurysm thrombosis was observed in 85% of the small-necked aneurysms and in 15% of the wide-necked aneurysms. Accurate angiographic measurements of neck diameter can be obtained in most aneurysms. The size of an aneurysm neck correlates well with the results of the endovascular treatment. Small-necked aneurysms can be satisfactorily occluded with this technique. In wide-necked aneurysms this technique should be reserved for lesions having a high surgical risk. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Zubillaga, A.F.; Guglielmi, G.; Vinuela, F.; Duckwiler, G.R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1994-05-01

3

Physical activity correlates and barriers in head and neck cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Our study purpose was to determine physical activity correlates and barriers among head and neck cancer patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Fifty-nine (response rate?=?91%) head and neck cancer patients from an academic oncology clinic enrolled in a cross-sectional\\u000a study utilizing chart review and self-administered questionnaire.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The majority were men (83%) and white (92%) with mean age of 58?±?12.8 years and mean months since

Laura Q. Rogers; Kerry S. Courneya; K. Thomas Robbins; James Malone; Alison Seiz; Lori Koch; Krishna Rao

2008-01-01

4

Lymphoma of the mediastinum and neck: Evaluation with Ga-67 imaging and CT correlation  

SciTech Connect

The role of gallium-67 in the differentiation between active disease and fibrotic changes in patients with childhood lymphoma involving the mediastinum and neck was evaluated prospectively. Ga-67 imaging and computed tomography (CT) were correlated with clinical findings at the time of initial presentation and follow-up in 19 patients. Both modalities enabled detection of active disease on all occasions, but CT results were false-positive for residual disease in 10 patients (53%), whereas Ga-67 imaging results were false-positive in only one patient (5%). Neither modality, however, proved accurate in patients with rebound thymic hyperplasia. Ga-67 imaging is a useful tool for assessing response to therapy in children with lymphoma of the mediastinum and neck.

Drossman, S.R.; Schiff, R.G.; Kronfeld, G.D.; McNamara, J.; Leonidas, J.C. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (USA))

1990-01-01

5

Elevated P53 expression correlates with a history of heavy smoking in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of the tumour suppressor gene p53 was examined in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck using two p53 antibodies, PAb 421 and PAb 1801. Elevated p53 expression was found in 67% of the 73 patients investigated. P53 expression was not found to correlate with whether the patient had been previously treated or not, nor any of the

JK Field; DA Spandidos; A Malliri; JR Gosney; M Yiagnisis; PM Stell

1991-01-01

6

Correlation between femoral neck version and strain on the femur after insertion of femoral prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress analysis on the femur after insertion of a femoral prosthesis with a modular interchangeable neck with adjustable\\u000a neck version was performed using in vitro experimental procedures and cemented strain gauges. Although strain on the anterior\\u000a and posterior aspects was less than on the medial and lateral aspects, it was more markedly affected by adjusting the interchangeable\\u000a neck from straight

Naoya Umeda; Masanobu Saito; Nobuhiko Sugano; Kenji Ohzono; Takashi Nishii; Takashi Sakai; Hideki Yoshikawa; Daisaku Ikeda; Atsushi Murakami

2003-01-01

7

Human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer: Molecular biology and clinicopathological correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomaviruses are known to cause cancers of the cervix and other anogenital tract sites. Epidemiologic and molecular pathology studies have also suggested that HPV infection may be associated with cancers of the head and neck. Modes of transmission of HPV infection in the head and neck region have not been fully resolved; however, perinatal transmission and an association between

Zoltán Szentirmay; Károly Pólus; László Tamás; Gabriella Szentkuti; Judit Kurcsics; Erzsébet Csernák; Erika Tóth; Miklós Kásler

2005-01-01

8

Correlation between egfr expression and accelerated proliferation during radiotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the correlation between the expression of Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFr) and the reduction of the effective doubling time (TD) during radiotherapy treatment and also to determine the dose per fraction to be taken into account when the overall treatment time (OTT) is reduced in accelerated radiotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods A survey of the published papers comparing 3-years of local regional control rate (LCR) for a total of 2162 patients treated with conventional and accelerated radiotherapy and with a pretreatment assessment of EGFr expression, was made. Different values of TD were obtained by a model incorporating the overall time corrected biologically effective dose (BED) and a 3-year clinical LCR for high and low EGFr groups of patients (HEGFr and LEGFr), respectively. By obtaining the TD from the above analysis and the sub-sites’ potential doubling time (Tpot) from flow cytometry and immunohistochemical methods, we were able to estimate the average TD for each sub-site included in the analysis. Moreover, the dose that would be required to offset the modified proliferation occurring in one day (Dprolif), was estimated. Results The averages of TD were 77 (27-90)95% days in LEGFr and 8.8 (7.3-11.0)95% days in HEGFr, if an onset of accelerated proliferation TK at day 21 was assumed. The correspondent HEGFr sub-sites’ TD were 5.9 (6.6), 5.9 (6.6), 4.6 (6.1), 14.3 (12.9) days, with respect to literature immunohistochemical (flow cytometry) data of Tpot for Oral-Cavity, Oro-pharynx, Hypo-pharynx, and Larynx respectively. The Dprolif for the HEGFr groups were 0.33 (0.29), 0.33 (0.29), 0.42 (0.31), 0.14 (0.15) Gy/day if ??=?0.3 Gy-1 and ?/??=?10 Gy were assumed. Conclusions A higher expression of the EGFr leads to enhanced proliferation. This study allowed to quantify the extent of the effect which EGFr expression has in terms of reduced TD and Dprolif for each head and neck sub-site.

2012-01-01

9

Low levels of ras p21 oncogene expression correlates with clinical outcome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that the Ha-ras and the Ki-ras oncogenes are overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In this study we have used the Y13-259 monoclonal antibody to p21 ras to determine if expression of the ras oncoprotein correlates with any of the clinico-pathological parameters or with survival in 69 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Forty-four specimens were from patients with previously untreated tumours and 25 from patients with previously treated disease. We have found a correlation between low levels of ras expression and the disease-free survival period in patients with previously untreated tumours. Three per cent of the patients with ras negative staining were alive 60 months after diagnosis, whereas 54 per cent of the patients with positive staining were still alive after the same time period (P less than 0.05). PMID:1582509

Field, J K; Yiagnisis, M; Spandidos, D A; Gosney, J R; Papadimitriou, K; Vaughan, E D; Stell, P M

1992-04-01

10

Physical and Psychosocial Correlates of Rehabilitation, Survival and Relapse in Head and Neck Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of new patients in the Netherlands each year diagnosed with\\u000ahead and neck cancer is about 21 00.1 This number will increase in the coming\\u000ayears because of progessive aging of the population and the particularly high\\u000abirthrate post second world war, producing a cohort of children who are now\\u000aat risk for developing head and neck cancer.

Boer de M. F

1998-01-01

11

Correlation of Positron Emission Tomography Standard Uptake Value and Pathologic Specimen Size in Cancer of the Head and Neck  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To correlate positron emission tomography (PET) standard uptake value (SUV) with pathologic specimen size in patients with head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with Stage II-IVB head-and-neck cancer with 27 tumors who underwent PET and computed tomography (CT) imaging of the head and neck followed by surgical resection were selected for this study. Various SUV thresholds were examined, including the software default (SUV{sub def}), narrowing the window by 1 standard deviation (SD) of the maximum (SUV-1SD), and SUV cutoff values of 2.5 or greater (SUV2.5) and 40% or greater maximum (SUV40). Volumetric pathologic data were available for 12 patients. Tumor volumes based on pathologic examination (gold standard), CT, SUV{sub def}, SUV-1SD, SUV2.5, and SUV40 were analyzed. Results: PET identified five tumors not seen on CT. The sensitivity of PET for identifying primary tumors was 94% (17 of 18). The Sensitivity of PET for staging the neck was 90% (9 of 10), whereas the specificity was 78% (7 of 9). The SUV2.5 method was most likely to overestimate tumor volume, whereas SUV{sub def} and SUV-1SD were most likely to underestimate tumor volume. Conclusions: The PET scan provides more accurate staging of primary tumors and nodal metastases for patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer than CT alone. Compared with the gold standard, significant variability exists in volumes obtained by using various SUV thresholds. A combination of clinical, CT, and PET data should continue to be used for optimal treatment planning. The SUV40 method appears to offer the best compromise between accuracy and reducing the risk of underestimating tumor extent.

Burri, Ryan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: ryan.burri@mountsinai.org; Rangaswamy, Balasubramanya; Kostakoglu, Lale [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Hoch, Benjamin [Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Genden, Eric M. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Som, Peter M. [Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Kao, Johnny [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

2008-07-01

12

Differential Biomarker Expression in Head and Neck Cancer Correlates with Anatomical Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the expression of known (p16ink4, Ki67, p53, EGFR) and a new immunohistochemical (collagen XVII\\/BP180) biomarker in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas\\u000a (SCC) of diverse anatomical localization. Tissue microarrays (TMA) of 124 SCC were created, immunostained, and analyzed following\\u000a whole slide digitalization using the Pannoramic Scan and the TMA Module software (3DHISTECH Kft, Budapest, Hungary). Statistical\\u000a analysis of

László Tamás; Gabriella Szentkúti; Mónika Er?s; Kornél Dános; Diána Brauswetter; Béla Szende; Ivett Zsákovics; Tibor Krenács

13

SPARC Expression Correlates with Tumor Response to Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel in Head and Neck Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

SPARC up-regulation is a poor prognostic factor in head and neck cancer. It was hypothesized that because of a SPARC-albumin interaction, tumoral SPARC facilitates the accumulation of albumin in the tumor and increases the effectiveness of albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel). This hypothesis was tested by correlating the response to nab-paclitaxel and SPARC tumor expression in a retrospective analysis of a 60-patient clinical study of nab-paclitaxel as monotherapy against head and neck cancer. Sixteen tumor specimens were available for analysis. There were 11 responders (CR/PR) and 5 nonresponders (SD/PD) among the 16 nab-paclitaxel-treated patients (12/16 SPARC-positive, 75%). Response to nab-paclitaxel was higher for SPARC-positive patients (10/12, 83%) than SPARC-negative patients (1/4, 25%). The SPARC-negative patients exhibited significantly lower response than the overall response rate among all 60 patients (1/4, 25% vs 45/60, 75%). Although preliminary, data are supportive of the hypothesis that SPARC overexpression may correlate with response to nab-paclitaxel. If confirmed in larger studies, treatment with nab-paclitaxel may convert a poor prognosis SPARC-positive patient population into a group with better clinical outcomes.

Desai, Neil; Trieu, Vuong; Damascelli, Bruno; Soon-Shiong, Patrick

2009-01-01

14

Pressure measurements in the spinal canal of post-mortem human subjects during rear-end impact and correlation of results to the neck injury criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to validate the pressure effect theory on human beings during a realistic rear-end impact and to correlate the neck injury criterion to pressure in the spinal canal. Sled experiments were performed using a test setup similar to real rear-end collisions. Test conditions were chosen based on accident statistics and recordings of real accidents. In

Arno Eichberger; Mario Darok; Hermann Steffan; Peter E. Leinzinger; Ola Boström; Mats Y. Svensson

2000-01-01

15

Correlations between Thymidylate Synthase Expression and Chemosensitivity to 5Fluorouracil, Cell Proliferation and Clinical Outcome in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used drug in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Thymidylate synthase (TS), which is the target enzyme of 5-FU, has been demonstrated to be a key regulatory enzyme. In this study, we examined whether TS expression is correlated with chemosensitivity to 5-FU, cell proliferation and clinical outcome in HNSCC. Methods: An antisense TS

Ryuji Yasumatsu; Torahiko Nakashima; Hideoki Uryu; Toranoshin Ayada; Takahiro Wakasaki; Ryunosuke Kogo; Muneyuki Masuda; Masakazu Fukushima; Shizuo Komune

2009-01-01

16

TRIM24 Overexpression Is Common in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Correlates with Aggressive Malignant Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24), a member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family, functions as a co-regulator that positively or negatively modulates the transcriptional activities of several nuclear receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate TRIM24 expression and its clinical significance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The expression levels of TRIM24 variants were examined in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) samples and cell lines by real-time PCR and WB. The expression levels of TRIM24 measured in 91 locally advanced HNSCC tumors were measured by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinical and pathological parameters. The functional role of TRIM24 in HNSCC was further investigated by silencing its expression in HNSCC cell lines. TRIM24 variants were up-regulated in 56 HNSCC samples (P<.001) and 9 HNSCC cell lines (P<.05). TRIM24 protein was overexpressed in 6 of 8 HNSCC cell lines and in 2 of 3 HNSCC samples. Furthermore, 54.95% (50/91) of HNSCC samples exhibited remarkably elevated expression of TRIM24 by immunohistochemistry. Univariate analysis revealed that high TRIM24 expression was associated with worse overall survival (P?=?.020). In multivariate analysis, TRIM24 expression was identified as an independent predictor of overall survival (P?=?.030), after adjusting for other clinicopathological parameters. Upon TRIM24 silencing, the proliferation of HNSCC cells was notably inhibited due to the induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that aberrant TRIM24 expression may play an important role in the development of HNSCC and is a promising prognostic indicator for patients with locally advanced HNSCC.

Li, Jiang; Song, Xiaomeng; Mao, Li; Chen, Wantao

2013-01-01

17

Heparanase Localization and Expression by Head and Neck Cancer: Correlation with Tumor Progression and Patient Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate (HS) side chains of HS pro- teoglycans,themajorproteoglycansintheextracellular matrix and cell surfaces. Traditionally, heparanase ac- tivity was implicated in cellular invasion associated with angiogenesis, inflammation, and cancer metas- tasis. More recently, heparanase upregulation was documented in anincreasing number of primary human tumors, correlating with reduced postoperative sur- vival rate and enhanced tumor

Ilana Doweck; Victoria Kaplan-Cohen; Inna Naroditsky; Edmond Sabo; Neta Ilan; Israel Vlodavsky

2006-01-01

18

Enhanced Expression of ANO1 in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Causes Cell Migration and Correlates with Poor Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has the potential for early metastasis and is associated with poor survival. Ano1 (Dog1) is an established and sensitive marker for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and has recently been identified as a Ca2+ activated Cl? channel. Although the ANO1 gene is located on the 11q13 locus, a region which is known to be amplified in different types of human carcinomas, a detailed analysis of Ano1 amplification and expression in HNSCC has not been performed. It is thus still unclear how Ano1 contributes to malignancy in HNSCC. We analyzed genomic amplification of the 11q13 locus and Ano1 together with Ano1-protein expression in a large collection of HNSCC samples. We detected a highly significant correlation between amplification and expression of Ano1 and showed that HNSCC patients with Ano1 protein expression have a poor overall survival. We further analyzed the expression of the Ano1 protein in more than 4?000 human samples from 80 different tumor types and 76 normal tissue types and detected that besides HNSCC and GISTs, Ano1 was rarely expressed in other tumor samples or healthy human tissues. In HNSCC cell lines, expression of Ano1 caused Ca2+ activated Cl? currents, which induced cell motility and cell migration in wound healing and in real time migration assays, respectively. In contrast, knockdown of Ano1 did not affect intracellular Ca2+ signaling and surprisingly did not reduce cell proliferation in BHY cells. Further, expression and activity of Ano1 strongly correlated with the ability of HNSCC cells to regulate their volume. Thus, poor survival in HNSCC patients is correlated with the presence of Ano1. Our results further suggest that Ano1 facilitates regulation of the cell volume and causes cell migration, which both can contribute to metastatic progression in HNSCC.

Rudin, Florian; Schneider, Sandra; Dietsche, Tanja; Fischer, Claude A.; Tornillo, Luigi; Terracciano, Luigi M.; Schreiber, Rainer; Bubendorf, Lukas; Kunzelmann, Karl

2012-01-01

19

The Activation Pattern of Blood Leukocytes in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is Correlated to Survival  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is known to cause substantial immunosuppression. The present study was designed to characterize blood leukocyte activation in HNSCC and to investigate if the individual activation pattern could be related to tumor progress and survival. The leukocyte activation profile of HNSCC patients and healthy controls was assessed with flow cytometry. HNSCC patients displayed increased numbers of monocytes, neutrophils and total leukocytes as well as an enhanced neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. In addition, patients had a higher percentage of CD69+, CD71+ and CD98+ T cell subsets and NK cells, and a reduced expression of L-selectin in CD14highCD16+ monocytes and neutrophils, when compared to controls. These changes could be correlated to both tumor burden and spread to lymph nodes. Among the cancer patients an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, a low neutrophil and CD14high CD16+ monocyte activation state and an elevated CD4/CD8 ratio were related to poor survival. In contrast, a high percentage of CD98+ Th cells appeared to be associated with a better outcome. Taken together, the present data indicate that HNSCC causes activation of blood leukocytes and that the individual activation pattern can be linked to prognosis.

Millrud, Camilla Rydberg; Mansson Kvarnhammar, Anne; Uddman, Rolf; Bjornsson, Sven; Riesbeck, Kristian; Cardell, Lars Olaf

2012-01-01

20

Computer-assisted three-dimensional correlation between the femoral neck-shaft angle and the optimal entry point for antegrade nailing.  

PubMed

Optimal entry point for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing (IMN) remains controversial in the current medical literature. The definition of an ideal entry point for femoral IMN would implicate a tenseless introduction of the implant into the canal with anatomical alignment of the bone fragments. This study was undertaken in order to investigate possible existing relationships between the true 3D geometric parameters of the femur and the location of the optimum entry point. A sample population of 22 cadaveric femurs was used (mean age=51.09+/-14.82 years). Computed-tomography sections every 0.5mm for the entire length of femurs were produced. These sections were subsequently reconstructed to generate solid computer models of the external anatomy and medullary canal of each femur. Solid models of all femurs were subjected to a series of geometrical manipulations and computations using standard computer-aided-design tools. In the sagittal plane, the optimum entry point always lied a few millimeters behind the femoral neck axis (mean=3.5+/-1.5mm). In the coronal plane the optimum entry point lied at a location dependent on the femoral neck-shaft angle. Linear regression on the data showed that the optimal entry point is clearly correlated to the true 3D femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.7310) and the projected femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.6289). Anatomical parameters of the proximal femur, such as the varus-valgus angulation, are key factors in the determination of optimal entry point for nailing. The clinical relevance of the results is that in varus hips (neck-shaft angle neck-shaft angle between 120 degrees and 130 degrees , the optimal entry point lies just medially to the trochanter tip (at the piriformis fossa) and the use of stiff implants is safe. In hips with neck-shaft angle over 130 degrees the anatomical axis of the canal is medially to the base of the neck, in a "restricted area". In these cases the entry point should be located at the insertion of the piriformis muscle and the application of more malleable implants that could easily follow the medullary canal should be considered. PMID:20176170

Anastopoulos, George; Chissas, Dionisios; Dourountakis, Joseph; Ntagiopoulos, Panagiotis G; Magnisalis, Evaggelos; Asimakopoulos, Antonios; Xenakis, Theodore A

2010-03-01

21

Correlation of a priori DCE-MRI and (1)H-MRS data with molecular markers in neck nodal metastases: Initial analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to correlate non-invasive, pretreatment biological imaging (dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI [DCE-MRI] and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy [(1)H-MRS]) findings with specific molecular marker data in neck nodal metastases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Pretreatment DCE-MRI and (1)H-MRS were performed on neck nodal metastases of 12 patients who underwent surgery. Surgical specimens were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays for: Ki-67 (reflecting cellular proliferation), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (the "endogenous marker" of tumor vessel growth), carbonic anhydrase (CAIX), hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF-1?), and human papillomavirus (HPV). Additionally, necrosis was estimated based on H&E staining. The Spearman correlation was used to compare DCE-MRI, (1)H-MRS, and molecular marker data. A significant correlation was observed between DCE-MRI parameter std(k(ep)) and VEGF IHC expression level (rho=0.81, p=0.0001). Furthermore, IHC expression levels of Ki-67 inversely correlated with std(K(trans)) and std(v(e)) (rho=-0.71; p=0.004, and rho=-0.73; p=0.003, respectively). Other DCE-MRI, (1)H-MRS and IHC values did not show significant correlation. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the level of heterogeneity of perfusion in metastatic HNSCC seems positively correlated with angiogenesis, and inversely correlated with proliferation. These results are preliminary in nature and are indicative, and not definitive, trends portrayed in HNSCC patients with nodal disease. Future studies with larger patient populations need to be carried out to validate and clarify our preliminary findings. PMID:22366441

Jansen, Jacobus F A; Carlson, Diane L; Lu, Yonggang; Stambuk, Hilda E; Moreira, Andre L; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Patel, Snehal G; Kraus, Dennis H; Wong, Richard J; Shaha, Ashok R; Shah, Jatin P; Shukla-Dave, Amita

2012-02-25

22

Demographic response of snake-necked turtles correlates with indigenous harvest and feral pig predation in tropical northern Australia.  

PubMed

Species that mature late, experience high levels of survival and have long generation times are more vulnerable to chronic increases in mortality than species with higher fecundity and more rapid turnover of generations. Many chelonians have low hatchling survival, slow growth, delayed sexual maturity and high subadult and adult survival. This constrains their ability to respond quickly to increases in adult mortality from harvesting or habitat alteration. In contrast, the northern snake-necked turtle Chelodina rugosa (Ogilby 1890) is fast-growing, early maturing and highly fecund relative to other turtles, and may be resilient to increased mortality. Here we provide correlative evidence spanning six study sites and three field seasons, indicating that C. rugosa is able to compensate demographically to conditions of relatively low subadult and adult survival, caused by pig Sus scrofa (Linnaeus 1758) predation and customary harvesting by humans. Recruitment and age specific fecundity tended to be greater in sites with low adult and subadult survival (and thus reduced densities of large turtles), owing to higher juvenile survival, a smaller size at onset of maturity and faster post-maturity growth. These patterns are consistent with compensatory density-dependent responses, and as such challenge the generality that high subadult and adult survival is crucial for achieving long-term population stability in long-lived vertebrates such as chelonians. We posit that long-lived species with 'fast' recruitment and a capacity for a compensatory demographic response, similar to C. rugosa, may be able to persist in the face of occasional or sustained adult harvest without inevitably threatening population viability. PMID:17922720

Fordham, Damien A; Georges, Arthur; Brook, Barry W

2007-11-01

23

Pretreatment anemia is correlated with the reduced effectiveness of radiation and concurrent chemotherapy in advanced head and neck cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Pretreatment anemia is an adverse prognostic variable in squamous cell head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone. Tumor hypoxia is an adverse parameter for treatment with RT alone or with RT and concurrent chemotherapy (CCT). Tumor hypoxia is more prevalent in patients who present with pretreatment hemoglobin (Hgb) concentrations less than 13 g/dL. RT/CCT improves survival over RT alone in advanced HNC, and its use is becoming more widespread. This study was performed to evaluate whether pretreatment Hgb less than 13 g/dL was correlated with treatment outcome in patients with advanced HNC treated with a uniform regimen of RT/CCT. Methods and materials: The study population consisted of patients with AJCC Stage III or IV, M0 HNC who were treated with 70 to 72.5 Gy accelerated hyperfractionated RT (1.25 Gy b.i.d.) and CCT consisting of 2 cycles of CDDP (12-20 mg/m{sup 2}/d x 5 days) and continuous infusion 5-FU (600 mg/m{sup 2}/d x 5 days) during Week 1 and Week 6. A planned break in RT occurred during Week 4. These patients were enrolled on the experimental arm of a prospective randomized trial that compared this regimen to hyperfractionated irradiation alone from 1990 to 1996. RT/CCT was delivered as standard therapy from 1996 to 2000. The primary endpoint was failure-free survival (FFS). Secondary endpoints included local-regional control and overall survival. Results: One hundred and fifty-nine patients were treated from 1990 to 2000. The median (25-75%) pretreatment Hgb was 13.6 (12.2-13.5) g/dL. Hgb was 13 g/dL or higher in 105 patients and less than 13 g/dL in 54 patients. Primary tumor sites included oropharynx (43%), hypopharynx/larynx (36%), oral cavity (9%), and nasopharynx (6%). Seventy-eight percent of the patients with Hgb 13 g/dL or higher and 92% of the patients with Hgb less than 13 g/dL had a primary tumor stage of T3 or T4 (p = 0.01). Node-positive disease was present in 74 of 105 (70%) of patients with Hgb 13 g/dL or higher patients and in 36/54 (67%) of patients with Hgb less than 13 g/dL patients. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 42 months (range, 4-128 months). Five-year FFS was 75% for patients with Hgb 13 g/dL or higher vs. 50% for patients with Hgb less than 13 g/dL had a (p < 0.01). A total of 49 failures occurred in both patient cohorts. The median (25-75%) decrease in Hgb during RT/CCT was 2.2 (1.3-3.1) g/dL, both in patients who failed and in those who remained disease-free. Conclusion: Pretreatment Hgb less than 13 g/dL is correlated with adverse outcomes in advanced HNC patients treated with RT/CCT. Whether anemia actually causes poor outcomes remains unknown. The therapeutic effect of anemia correction is being evaluated in prospective trials.

Prosnitz, Robert G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]. E-mail: robert.prosnitz@duke.edu; Yao, Bin M.S. [Amgen, Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Farrell, Catherine L. [Amgen, Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Clough, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Brizel, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2005-03-15

24

p53 oncoprotein overexpression correlates with mutagen-induced chromosome fragility in head and neck cancer patients with multiple malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analysed immunocytochemically p53 expression in first primary and second primary cancers from 25 head and neck cancer patients (HNCPs) with multiple malignancies in comparison with oncoprotein expression in tumour tissues from 25 historical HNCP controls with single cancer in a match-paired analysis. Moreover, we investigated bleomycin-induced chromosome fragility in both groups of HNCPs and in 21

O Gallo; S Bianchi; ML Giovannucci-Uzzielli; R Santoro; S Lenzi; C Salimbeni; M Abbruzzese; E Alajmo

1995-01-01

25

Correlation of NF-?B signal pathway with tumor metastasis of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signaling constitutes a key event in the multistep process of carcinogenesis, progression and treatment in many cancer types. However, the significance of NF-?B pathway for complex and tissue-specific aspects of head and neck cancer progression, such as invasion and metastasis, is less understood. Methods The expression of NF-?B p65 in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) clinical specimens by immunohistochemistry. The role of NF-?B activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was determined by western blot, reporter assay and EMSA analysis in vitro and metastasis assays in vivo in different metastatic potential tumor cells. Furthermore, the apoptosis rate and expression of metastasis-related protein such as MMP9 and VEGF were examined by Annexin V/PI staining and Western blot, respectively. Results A higher level of active nuclear-localized NF-?B was observed in the metastatic SCCHN specimens group (p < 0.01). The NF-?B activities of SCCHN cell lines with different metastatic potentials were then determined and in excellent agreement with results found in SCCHN specimens, highly metastatic SCCHN cell lines expressed high level of NF-?B activity. The treatment of highly metastatic SCCHN cells with NF-?B inhibitors reduced the in vitro cell invasion capacity of the cells without affecting the apoptotic rate. Additionally, the NF-?B inhibitors significantly inhibited the experimental lung metastasis of Tb cells and lymph node metastasis of TL cells in nude mice. Furthermore, the expression of metastasis-related proteins, such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor, was inhibited by pyrrolidine dithiocarbonate. Conclusions This study suggests that NF-?B activity significantly contributes to tumor hematologic and lymphatic metastases and may aid in the development of early detection methods or therapies targeting non-conventional molecular targets.

2010-01-01

26

Neck Influence on Fission Paths  

SciTech Connect

The neck region generates a microscopic potential, derived in correlation with the necking region within the fission-like shape on the potential theory basis. The whole microscopic potential is of the two-center type, yielding the evolution of proton and neutron level schemes from one parent to two completely separated fragment nuclei. The shell corrections are calculated using the neck in single-particle levels. The total deformation energy is obtained from the macroscopic-microscopic method. As an application, dynamic calculation is performed for the fission of {sup 236}Pu, using the multidimensional minimization within the total space of deformation of two spheroids joined by a smoothed necking region.

Gherghescu, Radu A.; Poenaru, D. N. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), P O Box MG-6, RO 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

2008-01-24

27

Neck Sprain  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor rule out or identify other sources of neck pain, such as spinal fractures, dislocations, arthritis, and other ... have to wear a soft collar around your neck to help support the head and relieve ... time to heal. Pain relievers such as aspirin or ibuprofen can help ...

28

Detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with diffusion weighted MRI after (chemo)radiotherapy: Correlation between radiologic and histopathologic findings  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the value of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in differentiating persistent or recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) from nontumoral postradiotherapeutic alterations. Methods and Materials: In 26 patients with suspicion of persistent or recurrent HNSCC, MRI of the head and neck was performed, including routine turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences and an additional echo-planar DW-MRI sequence, using a large range of b-values (0-1000 s/mm{sup 2}). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated. In the suspect areas at the primary site and in the suspect lymph nodes, signal intensity was measured on the native b0 and b1000 images and ADC values were calculated for these tissues. The same was done for surrounding irradiated normal tissue. Imaging results were correlated to histopathology. Results: Signal intensity on native b0 images was significantly lower for HNSCC than for nontumoral postradiotherapeutic tissue (p < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 66.2%, specificity of 60.8%, and accuracy of 62.4%. Signal intensity on native b1000 images was significantly higher for HNSCC than for nontumoral tissue (p < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 71.6%, specificity of 71.3%, and accuracy of 71.4%. ADC values were significantly lower for HNSCC than for nontumoral tissue (p < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 94.6%, specificity of 95.9%, and accuracy of 95.5%. When compared with computed tomography, TSE-MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, DW-MRI yielded fewer false-positive results in persistent primary site abnormalities and in persistent adenopathies, and aided in the detection of subcentimetric nodal metastases. Conclusions: Diffusion weighted-MRI accurately differentiates persistent or recurrent HNSCC from nontumoral tissue changes after (chemo)radiotherapy.

Vandecaveye, Vincent [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Keyzer, Frederik de [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Nuyts, Sandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Deraedt, Karen [Department of Pathology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Dirix, Piet [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Hamaekers, Pascal [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Vander Poorten, Vincent [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Delaere, Pierre [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Hermans, Robert [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)]. E-mail: Robert.Hermans@uzleuven.be

2007-03-15

29

Overexpression of MPS antigens by squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck: immunohistochemical and serological correlation with FDG positron emission tomography.  

PubMed

Survival from advanced primary or recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck (H&N) is poor. More accurate detection of primary tumors and recurrence may provide ways to improve survival. No standard serum tumor marker is routinely used for surveillance of SCC-H&N. In this paper, we evaluated the performance characteristics of the MPS-H tumor marker test for the quantitative measurement of "MPS-H" heat-generated immunoreactive proteins and assessed the clinical utility of this marker in the detection and monitoring of SCC-H&N. In approximately 92% of the subjects having no evidence of SCC-H&N, the MPS-H levels were lower than 15 ng/mL. In 76% of patients having SCC-H&N at various stages (T1-T4), the MPS-H level was > 15 ng/mL (range: 20-200 ng/mL). In addition, we found a statistically significant correlation between PET positive cases and high MPS-H serum levels in SCC-H&N patients with recurrent disease. These results suggest that MPS-H may provide an initial screening test that would allow for selective PET imaging in these patients. Furthermore, we found that there was greater expression of MPS-1 in tumors of higher histological grades. Thus, in tumors with more histological aggressiveness there is more MPS-1, indicating the potential usefulness of this marker in prognosis for SSC-H&N. Considering the immunohistochemical, serological, and FDG-PET data presented here, and the compelling need to expedite the early diagnosis of primary and recurrent epithelial malignancies of the head and neck, we are further evaluating the system of MPS antigens in a large patient population as a tool for the early serologic and histologic diagnosis of SCC-H&N. PMID:10697607

Stack, B C; Dalsaso, T A; Lee, C; Lowe, V J; Hamilton, P D; Fletcher, J W; Fernandez-Pol, J A

30

[Fiddler's neck].  

PubMed

The fiddler's neck is an uncommon variant of acne mechanica in violinists and violists. It is a single firm red-brown dermal nodule usually on the left side of neck. This special form of acne mechanica represents a therapeutic challenge since the triggering mechanical factors persist, unless they can be corrected by changes in positioning or modifications of the chin pad. A 72-year-old woman who had played the violin since childhood presented with a red-brown nodule on her neck for 18 months. Cushioning provided no relief. Excision of the affected area with primary closure represented one therapeutic option. Further supportive measures include improved posture to reduce the pressure between skin and instrument and interposing a neck cloth. PMID:23989244

Knierim, C; Goertz, W; Reifenberger, J; Homey, B; Meller, S

2013-10-01

31

Neck lump  

MedlinePLUS

... it. If the health care provider suspects a thyroid nodule , the following may help in diagnosis and treatment: CT scan of the head or neck Radioactive thyroid scan Thyroid biopsy If the lump is caused ...

32

In vitro radiosensitivity of tumour cells and fibroblasts derived from head and neck carcinomas: mutual relationship and correlation with clinical data  

PubMed Central

The aim was to characterize the variation in the cellular in vitro radiosensitivities in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, and to test for a possible correlation between different measures of radiosensitivity and the clinical and histopathological data. Cellular in vitro radiosensitivities were assessed in tumour biopsies from 71 patients using the modified Courtenay–Mills soft agar clonogenic assay combined with an immunocytochemical analysis. Radiosensitivity was quantified as the surviving fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy irrespective of cell type (overall SF2), or based on identification of cell type (tumour cell SF2, fibroblast SF2). Sixty-three biopsies were from primary tumours, and eight were from recurrences. Overall plating efficiency ranged from 0.005 to 1.60% with a median of 0.052%. The majority of the colonies obtained from the biopsies were fibroblast marker-positive; the proportion of tumour marker-positive colonies ranged from 1 to 88% with a median of 15%. The median overall SF2 was 0.47 (range 0.24–0.96), the median tumour cell SF2 was 0.50 (range 0.11–1.0) and the median fibroblast SF2 was 0.49 (range 0.24–1.0). Comparing data from independent experiments, the overall SF2 was significantly correlated with the SF2 of fibroblasts (2P = 0.006) but not with the tumour cell SF2. The tumour cell and fibroblast radiosensitivities measured in the same individuals were not correlated (r = 0.06, 95% CI [–0.19, 0.30]). This finding seems to preclude a strong correlation between the radiosensitivity of tumour cells and fibroblasts. Concerning the clinical characteristics, neither of the measures of tumour radiosensitivity was correlated with T- and N-category, stage, tumour size, sex and age. However, the tumour cell radiosensitivity decreased with increasing grade of histopathological differentiation (2P = 0.012). The same tendency was found in two independent analyses of the same patient material. This correlation was not significant in case of the overall SF2 or the fibroblast SF2. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

Stausb?l-Gr?n, B; Bentzen, S M; J?rgensen, K E; Nielsen, O S; Bundgaard, T; Overgaard, J

1999-01-01

33

Glioblastoma metastasis to parotid gland and neck lymph nodes: fine-needle aspiration cytology with histopathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most highly aggressive neoplasms of the central nervous system. Extra-cranial metastases in GBM are rare. Here we present the case of a 26-year-old man with extra-cranial metastasis of a frontal lobe GBM to the parotid gland, cervical lymph nodes, and bones, with initial diagnosis made by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the parotid gland. FNAC is a reliable technique in the study of primary and secondary parotid gland neoplasms, allowing a presumptive diagnosis in difficult cases. We correlate the cytologic, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings in this case and discuss previous literature reports. PMID:23637061

Romero-Rojas, Alfredo E; Diaz-Perez, Julio A; Amaro, Deirdre; Lozano-Castillo, Alfonso; Chinchilla-Olaya, Sandra I

2013-05-01

34

Low-level expression of miR-375 correlates with poor outcome and metastasis while altering the invasive properties of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.  

PubMed

Small, noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be abnormally expressed in every tumor type examined. We used comparisons of global miRNA expression profiles of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) samples and adjacent normal tissue to rank those miRNAs that were most significantly altered in our patient population. Rank Consistency Score analysis revealed miR-375 to have the most significantly lowered miRNA levels in tumors relative to matched adjacent nonmalignant tissue from the same patient among 736 miRNAs that were evaluated. This result has been previously observed by other groups; however, we extend this finding with the unique observation that low miR-375 expression levels correlate significantly with cancer survival and distant metastasis. In a study of 123 primary HNSCC patients using multivariable Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), both death from disease (HR: 12.8, 95% CI: 3 to 49) and incidence of distant metastasis (HR: 8.7, 95% CI: 2 to 31) correlated with lower expression levels of miR-375 regardless of the site or stage of the tumor. In addition, we found that oral cavity tumor cell lines (eg, UMSCC1 and UMSCC47) overexpressing miR-375 were significantly less invasive in vitro than their matched empty vector controls. We conclude that miR-375 represents a potential prognostic marker of poor outcome and metastasis in HNSCC and that it may function by suppressing the tumor's invasive properties. PMID:22234174

Harris, Thomas; Jimenez, Lizandra; Kawachi, Nicole; Fan, Jian-Bing; Chen, Jing; Belbin, Tom; Ramnauth, Andrew; Loudig, Olivier; Keller, Christian E; Smith, Richard; Prystowsky, Michael B; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Segall, Jeffrey E; Childs, Geoffrey

2012-01-09

35

Low-Level Expression of miR-375 Correlates with Poor Outcome and Metastasis While Altering the Invasive Properties of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Small, noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be abnormally expressed in every tumor type examined. We used comparisons of global miRNA expression profiles of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) samples and adjacent normal tissue to rank those miRNAs that were most significantly altered in our patient population. Rank Consistency Score analysis revealed miR-375 to have the most significantly lowered miRNA levels in tumors relative to matched adjacent nonmalignant tissue from the same patient among 736 miRNAs that were evaluated. This result has been previously observed by other groups; however, we extend this finding with the unique observation that low miR-375 expression levels correlate significantly with cancer survival and distant metastasis. In a study of 123 primary HNSCC patients using multivariable Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), both death from disease (HR: 12.8, 95% CI: 3 to 49) and incidence of distant metastasis (HR: 8.7, 95% CI: 2 to 31) correlated with lower expression levels of miR-375 regardless of the site or stage of the tumor. In addition, we found that oral cavity tumor cell lines (eg, UMSCC1 and UMSCC47) overexpressing miR-375 were significantly less invasive in vitro than their matched empty vector controls. We conclude that miR-375 represents a potential prognostic marker of poor outcome and metastasis in HNSCC and that it may function by suppressing the tumor's invasive properties.

Harris, Thomas; Jimenez, Lizandra; Kawachi, Nicole; Fan, Jian-Bing; Chen, Jing; Belbin, Tom; Ramnauth, Andrew; Loudig, Olivier; Keller, Christian E.; Smith, Richard; Prystowsky, Michael B.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Segall, Jeffrey E.; Childs, Geoffrey

2012-01-01

36

Detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with diffusion weighted MRI after (chemo)radiotherapy: Correlation between radiologic and histopathologic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the value of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in differentiating persistent or recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) from nontumoral postradiotherapeutic alterations. Methods and Materials: In 26 patients with suspicion of persistent or recurrent HNSCC, MRI of the head and neck was performed, including routine turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences and an additional echo-planar DW-MRI

Vincent Vandecaveye; Frederik De Keyzer; Sandra Nuyts; Karen Deraedt; Piet Dirix; Pascal Hamaekers; Vincent Vander Poorten; Pierre Delaere; Robert. Hermans

2007-01-01

37

Correlation of dynamic changes in ?-H2AX expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes from head and neck cancer patients with radiation-induced oral mucositis  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the role of ?-H2AX in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) as a predictive biomarker of the severity of oral mucositis (OM) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with receiving radiotherapy. Methods In vitro assays for evaluating DNA damage and repair kinetics were performed on blood samples withdrawn from 25 HNC patients undergoing radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy before radiotherapy. As for the in vivo study, blood samples were also withdrawn before radiotherapy, and 1 hour after radiotherapy on the fourth and last days. Flow cytometry was used to assess the expression of ?-H2AX in PBLs. OM was assessed using the World Health Organization (WHO) scores twice a week and correlated with the expression of ?-H2AX. Results The in vitro assay results showed that patients with severe OM had higher ?-H2AX-specific relative fluorescence at various irradiation doses in the damage kinetics assay, with significantly higher ?-H2AX expression at 8 Gy (p?=?0.039), and also at 24 hours after irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy in the repair kinetics assay, compared to the patients with mild OM (p?=?0.008). The optimal cutoff value for relative fluorescence of ?-H2AX was 0.960, 24 hours post-irradiation. However, there were no significant differences in ?-H2AX expression at different times between the two groups, as assessed with the in vivo assay. Conclusions These results suggest that the damage and repair kinetics of ?-H2AX from PBLs in the in vitro study may have predictive value for identifying the grades of OM among HNC patients prior to radiotherapy.

2013-01-01

38

Pretreatment Apparent Diffusion Coefficient of the Primary Lesion Correlates With Local Failure in Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Chemoradiotherapy or Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of a primary lesion correlates with local failure in primary head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 38 patients with primary HNSCC (12 oropharynx, 20 hypopharynx, 4 larynx, 2 oral cavity) treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy with radiation dose to gross tumor volume equal to or over 60 Gy and who underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion-weighted imaging. Ten patients developed local failure during follow-up periods of 2.0 to 9.3 months, and the remaining 28 showed local control during follow-up periods of 10.5 to 31.7 months. The variables that could affect local failure (age, tumor volume, ADC, T stage, N stage, dose, treatment method, tumor location, and overall treatment time) were analyzed using logistic regression analyses for all 38 patients and for 17 patients with Stage T3 or T4 disease. Results: In univariate logistic analysis for all 38 cases, tumor volume, ADC, T stage, and treatment method showed significant (p < 0.05) associations with local failure. In multivariate analysis, ADC and T stage revealed significance (p < 0.01). In univariate logistic analysis for the 17 patients with Stage T3 or T4 disease, ADC and dose showed significant (p < 0.01) associations with local failure. In multivariate analysis, ADC alone showed significance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that pretreatment ADC, along with T stage, is a potential indicator of local failure in HNSCC treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy.

Hatakenaka, Masamitsu, E-mail: mhatake@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Matsuo, Yoshio; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Sunami, Shunya; Kamitani, Takeshi; Setoguchi, Taro; Yoshiura, Takashi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan); Nakashima, Torahiko [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan); Nishikawa, Kei [Radiology Center, Kyushu University Hospital, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan)

2011-10-01

39

Hamartomas, teratomas and teratocarcinosarcomas of the head and neck: Report of 3 new cases with clinico-pathologic correlation, cytogenetic analysis, and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Germ-cell tumors (GCT) are a histologically and biologically diverse group of neoplasms which primarily occur in the gonads but also develop at different extragonadal sites in the midline of the body. The head and neck region including the upper respiratory tract is a very rare location for such tumors in both children and adults, which can cause diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. Methods We describe here two new cases of multilineage tumors including sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma [SNTCS], and congenital oronasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) and compare their features with those of a new case of a rare salivary gland anlage tumor [SGAT], an entity for which the pathogenesis is unclear (i.e. hamartoma versus neoplasm). We correlate their presenting clinico-pathological features and compare histologic and cytogenetic features in an attempt to elucidate their pathogenesis and biologic potentials. Results and discussion Cytogenetic analysis revealed chromosomal abnormalities only in the case of SNTCS that showed trisomy 12 and 1p deletion. Both cytogenetic abnormalities are characteristically present in malignant germ cell tumors providing for the first time evidence that this rare tumor type indeed might represent a variant of a germ cell neoplasm. The SGAT and epignathus carried no such cytogenetic abnormalities, in keeping with their limited and benign biologic potential. Conclusion The comparison of these three cases should serve to emphasize the diversity of multilineage tumors (hamartomas and GCT) of the upper respiratory tract in regards to their biology, age of presentation and clinical outcomes. Malignant tumors of germ cell origins are more likely to affect adults with insidious symptom development, while benign tumors can nevertheless cause dramatic clinical symptoms which, under certain circumstances, can be fatal.

Vranic, Semir; Caughron, Samuel K; Djuricic, Slavisa; Bilalovic, Nurija; Zaman, Sadiq; Suljevic, Ismet; Lydiatt, William M; Emanuel, Jane; Gatalica, Zoran

2008-01-01

40

Socio-demographic correlates of betel, areca and smokeless tobacco use as a high risk behavior for head and neck cancers in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancers are a major cancer burden in Pakistan. They share a common risk factor profile including regular consumption of products of betel, areca and tobacco. Use of paan, chaalia, gutka, niswar and tumbaku is acceptable in Pakistan and is considered a normal cultural practice. This cross-sectional study was carried out to understand the relation of socio-demographic

Samia Mazahir; Rabia Malik; Maria Maqsood; Kanwal AliRaza Merchant; Farida Malik; Atif Majeed; Zafar Fatmi; Muhammad Rizwanulhaq Khawaja; Shehzad Ghaffar

2006-01-01

41

Inverse Correlation between Cyclin A1 Hypermethylation and p53 Mutation in Head and Neck Cancer Identified by Reversal of Epigenetic Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is proposed to be a common feature of primary cancer cells. We recently developed a pharmacological unmasking microarray approach to screen unknown tumor suppressor gene candidates epigenetically silenced in human cancers. In this study, we applied this method to identify such genes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We identified 12

Yutaka Tokumaru; Keishi Yamashita; Motonobu Osada; Shuji Nomoto; Dong-Il Sun; Yan Xiao; Mohammad Obaidul Hoque; William H. Westra; Joseph A. Califano; David Sidransky

2004-01-01

42

Head and Neck Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the neck. ... increases your risk. In fact, 85 percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use, including smoking and ...

43

Neck Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... tendons, ligaments, or nerves - can cause neck problems. Neck pain is very common. Pain may also come from ... upper arms. Muscle strain or tension often causes neck pain. The problem is usually overuse, such as from ...

44

Immunohistochemical detection of osteopontin in advanced head-and-neck cancer: Prognostic role and correlation with oxygen electrode measurements, hypoxia-inducible-factor-1{alpha}-related markers, and hemoglobin levels  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The tumor-associated glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is discussed as a plasma marker of tumor hypoxia. However, the association of immunohistochemical OPN expression in tumor sections with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), the hypoxia-related markers hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), or hemoglobin and systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels has not been investigated. Methods and Materials: Tumor tissue sections of 34 patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy were assessed by immunochemistry for the expression of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX. Relationship of OPN expression with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), HIF-1{alpha} and CA IX expression, hemoglobin and serum VEGF level, and clinical parameters was studied. Results: Bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation of positive OPN staining with low hemoglobin level (p = 0.02), high HIF-1{alpha} expression (p = 0.02), and high serum vascular endothelial growth factor level (p = 0.02) for advanced head-and-neck cancer. Furthermore, considering the 31 Stage IV patients, the median pO{sub 2} correlated significantly with the OPN expression (p = 0.02). OPN expression alone had only a small impact on prognosis. However, in a univariate Cox proportional hazard regression model, the expression of either OPN or HIF-1{alpha} or CA IX was associated with a 4.1-fold increased risk of death (p = 0.02) compared with negativity of all three markers. Conclusion: Osteopontin expression detected immunohistochemically is associated with oxygenation parameters in advanced head-and-neck cancer. When the results of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX immunohistochemistry are combined into a hypoxic profile, a strong and statistically significant impact on overall survival is found.

Bache, Matthias [Department of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Reddemann, Rolf [Department of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Institute of Pathology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Said, Harun M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen [Institute of Pathology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Taubert, Helge [Institute of Pathology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Becker, Axel [Department of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, Municipal Hospital, Dessau (Germany); Kuhnt, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Haensgen, Gabriele [Department of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Vordermark, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)]. E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de

2006-12-01

45

Enhanced response of human head and neck cancer xenograft tumors to Cisplatin combined with 2-deoxy-D-glucose correlates with increased 18F-FDG uptake as determined by PET imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose Determine if the response of human head and neck cancer xenografts to cisplatin (CIS) could be enhanced with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) and determine if 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake correlated with responses to this drug combination. Determine if 2DG would enhance CIS-induced radiosensitization. Experimental Design Clonogenic survival responses to CIS + 2DG were determined in FaDu and Cal-27 cells and GSH/GSSG levels were monitored as parameters indicative of oxidative stress. The efficacy of CIS + 2DG was determined in FaDu and Cal-27 xenografts and FDG uptake was determined with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Results CIS + 2DG enhanced cell killing of FaDu and Cal-27 cells, compared to either drug alone, while increasing %GSSG in vitro. CIS + 2DG inhibited FaDu and Cal-27 tumor growth and increased disease free survival, compared to either drug alone. Cal-27 tumors demonstrated greater pretreatment FDG uptake and increased disease free survival when treated with 2DG + CIS, relative to FaDu tumors. 2DG treatment enhanced CIS-induced radiosensitization in FaDu tumor cells grown in vitro and in vivo and resulted in apparent cures in 50% of tumors. Conclusions These results demonstrate the enhanced therapeutic efficacy of CIS + 2DG in human head and neck cancer cells in vitro and in vivo when compared to either drug alone as well as demonstrating the potential for FDG uptake to predict tumor sensitivity to 2DG + CIS. These findings provide a strong rationale for evaluating 2DG + CIS in combined modality head and neck cancer therapy with radiation in a clinical setting.

Simons, Andrean L.; Fath, Melissa A.; Mattson, David M.; Smith, Brian J.; Walsh, Susan A.; Graham, Michael M.; Hichwa, Richard D.; Buatti, John M.; Dornfeld, Ken; Spitz, Douglas R.

2007-01-01

46

Enhanced Response of Human Head and Neck Cancer Xenograft Tumors to Cisplatin Combined With 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Correlates With Increased {sup 18}F-FDG Uptake as Determined by PET Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the response of human head and neck cancer xenografts to cisplatin (CIS) could be enhanced with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG); whether 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake correlated with responses to this drug combination; and whether 2DG would enhance CIS-induced radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival responses to CIS + 2DG were determined in FaDu and Cal-27 cells and reduced/oxidized glutathione levels were monitored as parameters indicative of oxidative stress. The efficacy of CIS + 2DG was determined in FaDu and Cal-27 xenografts, and FDG uptake was determined by using positron emission tomography. Results: Use of CIS + 2DG enhanced cell killing of FaDu and Cal-27 cells compared with either drug alone while increasing the percentage of oxidized glutathione in vitro. Use of CIS + 2DG inhibited FaDu and Cal-27 tumor growth and increased disease-free survival compared with either drug alone. The Cal-27 tumors showed greater pretreatment FDG uptake and increased disease-free survival when treated with 2DG + CIS relative to FaDu tumors. Treatment with 2DG enhanced CIS-induced radiosensitization in FaDu tumor cells grown in vitro and in vivo and resulted in apparent cures in 50% of tumors. Conclusions: These results show the enhanced therapeutic efficacy of CIS + 2DG in human head and neck cancer cells in vitro and in vivo compared with either drug alone, as well as the potential for FDG uptake to predict tumor sensitivity to 2DG + CIS. These findings provide a strong rationale for evaluating 2DG + CIS in combined-modality head and neck cancer therapy with radiation in a clinical setting.

Simons, Andrean L.; Fath, Melissa A.; Mattson, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Smith, Brian J. [Department of Biostatistics, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Walsh, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Graham, Michael M.; Hichwa, Richard D. [Department of Radiology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M.; Dornfeld, Ken [Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Spitz, Douglas R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)], E-mail: douglas-spitz@uiowa.edu

2007-11-15

47

Correlation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The applets, created by Virginia Tech's Department of Statistics, allow you to see how different bivariate data look under different correlation structures. The "Movie" applet either creates data for a particular correlation or animates a multitude data sets ranging correlations from -1 to 1. The "Creation" applet allows the user to create a data set by adding or deleting points from the screen.

Anderson-Cook, C.; Robinson, T.; Dorai-Raj, S.

2009-09-14

48

Socio-demographic correlates of betel, areca and smokeless tobacco use as a high risk behavior for head and neck cancers in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Head and neck cancers are a major cancer burden in Pakistan. They share a common risk factor profile including regular consumption of products of betel, areca and tobacco. Use of paan, chaalia, gutka, niswar and tumbaku is acceptable in Pakistan and is considered a normal cultural practice. This cross-sectional study was carried out to understand the relation of socio-demographic factors for the consumption of paan, chaalia, gutka, niswar and tumbaku in Pakistani population. Through systematic sampling, 425 subjects from a squatter settlement in Karachi were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. High risk behavior was defined as Daily use of any of the above products. Results Daily use of all the substances except chaalia was higher among males compared to females. Chaalia use was higher among adolescents than adults while non-married consumed both chaalia and gutka more than married. Mohajir ethnicity had higher prevalence of paan, gutka and tumbaku use while Pathans had higher prevalence of niswar use. Conclusion Prevalence of use of chewable products is high in Pakistan with particularly high use of certain substances related with socio-demographic profiles. Industrially prepared products, chaalia and gutka, are gaining popularity among youth. Policies and focused interventions can be developed taking into consideration the preferred use of products among different socio-demographic groups.

Mazahir, Samia; Malik, Rabia; Maqsood, Maria; Merchant, Kanwal AliRaza; Malik, Farida; Majeed, Atif; Fatmi, Zafar; Khawaja, Muhammad Rizwanulhaq; Ghaffar, Shehzad

2006-01-01

49

[Deep neck infections].  

PubMed

Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible. PMID:17152800

Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

2006-01-01

50

Correlational Analysis of neck/shoulder Pain and Low Back Pain with the Use of Digital Products, Physical Activity and Psychological Status among Adolescents in Shanghai  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigates the neck/shoulder pain (NSP) and low back pain (LBP) among current high school students in Shanghai and explores the relationship between these pains and their possible influences, including digital products, physical activity, and psychological status. Methods An anonymous self-assessment was administered to 3,600 students across 30 high schools in Shanghai. This questionnaire examined the prevalence of NSP and LBP and the level of physical activity as well as the use of mobile phones, personal computers (PC) and tablet computers (Tablet). The CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression) scale was also included in the survey. The survey data were analyzed using the chi-square test, univariate logistic analyses and a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Three thousand sixteen valid questionnaires were received including 1,460 (48.41%) from male respondents and 1,556 (51.59%) from female respondents. The high school students in this study showed NSP and LBP rates of 40.8% and 33.1%, respectively, and the prevalence of both influenced by the student’s grade, use of digital products, and mental status; these factors affected the rates of NSP and LBP to varying degrees. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that Gender, grade, soreness after exercise, PC using habits, tablet use, sitting time after school and academic stress entered the final model of NSP, while the final model of LBP consisted of gender, grade, soreness after exercise, PC using habits, mobile phone use, sitting time after school, academic stress and CES-D score. Conclusions High school students in Shanghai showed high prevalence of NSP and LBP that were closely related to multiple factors. Appropriate interventions should be implemented to reduce the occurrences of NSP and LBP.

Li, Jipeng; Li, Yangyang; Zhang, Yongxing; Zhao, Qinghua

2013-01-01

51

Correlation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three hypothetical rock sections along an East-West transect are provided. Students correlate the three sections using the biostratigraphy of planktic forams (as a proxy for age), benthic forams (as a proxy of depth), and lithology (as a proxy of environment). Students are asked to provide an interpretation of the history of this depositional basin. An ash bed of known age is added and students are asked to determine if this new information affects their interpretation. Finally, an interesting lithologic feature is added, and students are asked to provide a geological explanation.

Higgins, Pennilyn

52

18F-FDG PET/CT-based gross tumor volume definition for radiotherapy in head and neck Cancer: a correlation study between suitable uptake value threshold and tumor parameters  

PubMed Central

Background To define a suitable threshold setting for gross tumor volume (GTV) when using 18Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomogram (PET/CT) for radiotherapy planning in head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods Fifteen HNC patients prospectively received PET/CT simulation for their radiation treatment planning. Biological target volume (BTV) was derived from PET/CT-based GTV of the primary tumor. The BTVs were defined as the isodensity volumes when adjusting different percentage of the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), excluding any artifact from surrounding normal tissues. CT-based primary GTV (C-pGTV) that had been previously defined by radiation oncologists was compared with the BTV. Suitable threshold level (sTL) could be determined when BTV value and its morphology using a certain threshold level was observed to be the best fitness of the C-pGTV. Suitable standardized uptake value (sSUV) was calculated as the sTL multiplied by the SUVmax. Results Our result demonstrated no single sTL or sSUV method could achieve an optimized volumetric match with the C-pGTV. The sTL was 13% to 27% (mean, 19%), whereas the sSUV was 1.64 to 3.98 (mean, 2.46). The sTL was inversely correlated with the SUVmax [sTL = -0.1004 Ln (SUVmax) + 0.4464; R2 = 0.81]. The sSUV showed a linear correlation with the SUVmax (sSUV = 0.0842 SUVmax + 1.248; R2 = 0.89). The sTL was not associated with the value of C-pGTVs. Conclusion In PET/CT-based BTV for HNC, a suitable threshold or SUV level can be established by correlating with SUVmax rather than using a fixed threshold.

2010-01-01

53

Chainsaw penetrating neck injury.  

PubMed

A case of chainsaw injury to the neck is described. Previous reports in the English language are exceedingly rare. A brief discussion of safety features on chain saws is followed by a review of selective vs. mandatory surgical exploration in penetrating neck trauma, including the role of ancillary diagnostic tests. PMID:7582411

Brown, A F

1995-06-01

54

Chainsaw penetrating neck injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of chainsaw injury to the neck is described. Previous reports in the English language are exceedingly rare. A brief discussion of safety features on chain saws is followed by a review of selective vs. mandatory surgical exploration in penetrating neck trauma, including the role of ancillary diagnostic tests.

A F Brown

1995-01-01

55

American Head and Neck Society  

MedlinePLUS

... Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS History AHNS Leadership Past Presidents In Memory Professionalism & Ethics AHNS Job Board Humanitarian Efforts Meetings AHNS Meetings ...

56

Factors associated with fatigue, sleep, and cognitive function among patients with head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive impairment are prevalent and clinically important prob- lems among head and neck cancer patients. Our study aim was to determine the most important correlates of these problems among patients with head and neck cancer. Methods. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was completed by 58 (response rate 79%) patients with head and neck cancer in an

Laura Q. Rogers; Kerry S. Courneya; K. Thomas Robbins; Krishna Rao; James Malone; Alison Seiz; Sheryl Reminger; Stephen J. Markwell; Vishal Burra

2008-01-01

57

Neck dissections: radical to conservative  

PubMed Central

Background Neck dissection is an important surgical procedure for the management of metastatic nodal disease in the neck. The gold standard of neck nodal management has been the radical neck dissection. Any modification in the neck dissection is always compared with this standard. Over the last few decades, in order to alleviate the morbidity of radical neck dissection, several modifications and conservative procedures have been advocated. These procedures retain certain lymphatic or non-lymphatic structures and have been shown not to compromise oncological safety. Methods A literature search of the Medline was carried out for all articles on neck dissections. The articles were systematically reviewed to analyze and trace the evolution of neck dissection. These were then categorized to address the nomenclature, management of node positive and node negative neck including those who had received chemoradiation. Results The present article discusses the neck nodal nomenclature, the radical neck dissection, its modifications and migration to more conservative procedures and possible advances in the near future. Conclusion Radical neck dissection is now replaced with modified radical neck dissections in most situations. Attempts are being made to replace modified radical neck dissections with selective neck dissections for early node positivity. Sentinel node biopsy is being studied to address the issue of node negative neck. More conservative surgeries are likely to replace the 'radical' surgeries of bygone era. This process is facilitated by earlier detection of the disease and better understanding of cancer biology.

Harish, K

2005-01-01

58

Overview of Neck Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... people who sit at desks or work at computers. Treatment Options The rehabilitation of neck injuries occurs in three phases. During the first phase, called the acute phase, physiatrists treat pain ...

59

Head and Neck Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... and mouth. Most head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, meaning they begin in the flat, squamous cells ... the deeper tissue, then it is called invasive squamous cell carcinoma. If the cancer starts in the salivary glands, ...

60

Melanoma - neck (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This melanoma on the neck is variously colored with a very darkly pigmented area found centrally. It has irregular ... be larger than 0.5 cm. Prognosis in melanoma is best defined by its depth on resection.

61

Bladder Neck Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bladder neck closure (BNC) is a procedure that, although not performed frequently, can be very beneficial for an appropriately\\u000a selected patient. T he t raditional role of BNC w as in the female patient with a neurogenic bladder, destroyed bladder neck,\\u000a and patulous urethra from longterm indwelling catheter drainage (1–4). Other options for urethral reconstruction using vagina or bowel have

Aaron D. Berger; Christopher E. Kelly

62

Hemangiopericytoma of the neck  

PubMed Central

Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is an exceedingly rare tumor of uncertain malignant potential. Approximately 300 cases of HPC have been reported since Stout and Murray described HPCs as "vascular tumors arising from Zimmerman's pericytes" in 1942. After further characterization, the WHO reclassified HPC as a fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumor. Long term follow up is mandatory because the histologic criteria for prediction of biologic behavior are imprecise. There are reports of recurrence and metastasis many years after radical resection. The head and neck incidence is less than 20%, mostly in adults. We report herein a case of HPC resected from the neck of a 74-year-old woman, who presented in our department with a painless right-sided neck mass. The mass was well circumscribed, mobile and soft during the palpation. The skin over the tumor was intact and normal. Clinical diagnosis at this time was lipoma. A neck computer tomography scan showed a large submucosal mass in the neck, which extended in the muscular sites. The tumor was completely removed by wide surgical resection. During surgery we found a highly vascularised tumor. The histopathologic examination revealed a cellular, highly vascularized tumor. The diagnosis was that of solitary fibrous tumor, cellular variant, with haemangiopericytoma-like features. The patient had normal postoperative course of healing and 24 months later she remains asymptomatic, without signs of recurrence or metastases.

2010-01-01

63

Head and neck cancers manifested as deep neck infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of head and neck cancers in patients with an initial presentation of deep neck infection is unclear and may\\u000a be underestimated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the incidence of head and neck cancers initially manifested as\\u000a deep neck infection. Also, the possible risk factors and pathophysiology are discussed. This study was a retrospective medical

Yuan-Yung Lin; Chiang-Hung Hsu; Jih-Chin Lee; Hsing-Won Wang; Yaoh-Shiang Lin; Chih-Hung Wang; Chuan-Hsiang Kao; Wan-Fu Su; Yueng-Hsiang Chu

64

Are neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain? Results of a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting.METHODSA prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured exposure data (video recordings) of neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting posture. Neck pain was assessed

G. A. M. Ariens; P. M. Bongers; M. Douwes; M. C. Miedema; W. E. Hoogendoorn; G van der Wal; L. M. Bouter; W van Mechelen

2001-01-01

65

The relationship between neck pain and physical activity.  

PubMed

Neck pain is a significant societal burden due to its high prevalence and healthcare costs. While physical activity can help to manage other forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain, little data exists on the relationship between physical activity and neck pain. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity levels between individuals with neck pain and healthy controls, and then to relate disability, fear of movement, and pain sensitivity measures to physical activity levels in each of the two participant groups. 21 participants were recruited for each of the two participant groups (n = 42). Data collection included the use of the Neck Disability Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, electrocutaneous (Neurometer® CPT) and pressure stimulation (JTech algometer) for quantitative sensory testing, and 5 days of subjective (Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity) and objective (BioTrainer II) measurements of physical activity. Analysis of Variance and Pearson's Correlation were used to determine if differences and relationships exist between dependent variables both within and between groups. The results show that individuals with mild neck pain and healthy controls do not differ in subjectively and objectively measured physical activity. While participants with neck pain reported higher neck disability and fear of movement, these factors did not significantly relate to physical activity levels. Perceived activity level was related to pain threshold and tolerance at local neck muscles sites (C2 paraspinal muscle and upper trapezius muscle), whereas measured activity was related to generalized pain sensitivity, as measured at the tibialis anterior muscle site. PMID:24133553

Cheung, Janice; Kajaks, Tara; Macdermid, Joy C

2013-09-20

66

The Relationship Between Neck Pain and Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Neck pain is a significant societal burden due to its high prevalence and healthcare costs. While physical activity can help to manage other forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain, little data exists on the relationship between physical activity and neck pain. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity levels between individuals with neck pain and healthy controls, and then to relate disability, fear of movement, and pain sensitivity measures to physical activity levels in each of the two participant groups. 21 participants were recruited for each of the two participant groups (n = 42). Data collection included the use of the Neck Disability Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, electrocutaneous (Neurometer® CPT) and pressure stimulation (JTech algometer) for quantitative sensory testing, and 5 days of subjective (Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity) and objective (BioTrainer II) measurements of physical activity. Analysis of Variance and Pearson’s Correlation were used to determine if differences and relationships exist between dependent variables both within and between groups. The results show that individuals with mild neck pain and healthy controls do not differ in subjectively and objectively measured physical activity. While participants with neck pain reported higher neck disability and fear of movement, these factors did not significantly relate to physical activity levels. Perceived activity level was related to pain threshold and tolerance at local neck muscles sites (C2 paraspinal muscle and upper trapezius muscle), whereas measured activity was related to generalized pain sensitivity, as measured at the tibialis anterior muscle site.

Cheung, Janice; Kajaks, Tara; MacDermid, Joy C.

2013-01-01

67

Head and Neck Melanoma  

PubMed Central

The incidence of malignant melanoma appears to be increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world over the past 30–40 years and continues to increase in the United States, Canada, Australia, Asia, and Europe. The behavior of head and neck melanoma is aggressive, and it has an overall poorer prognosis than that of other skin sites. The authors review the published literature and text books, intending to give an overall picture of malignant melanomas of the head and neck and a special emphasis on treatment considerations with controversies in treatment including biopsy, radiation therapy, sentinel node biopsy, and nodal dissection.

Shashanka, R.; Smitha, B. R.

2012-01-01

68

Head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Cross sectional imaging fills a crucial role in the work up of squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. The radiologist can suggest important considerations in treatment planning and disease prognosis. Key areas of anatomy in radiologic staging are reviewed. PMID:23158052

Walden, Michael J; Aygun, Nafi

2013-01-01

69

Treatment of Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

Study Design Best evidence synthesis. Objective To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature from 1980 through 2006 on surgical interventions for neck pain alone or with radicular pain in the absence of serious pathologic disease. Summary of Background Data There have been no comprehensive systematic literature or evidence-based reviews published on this topic. Methods We systematically searched Medline for literature published from 1980 to 2006 on percutaneous and open surgical interventions for neck pain. Publications on the topic were also solicited from experts in the field. Consensus decisions were made about the scientific merit of each article; those judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our Best Evidence Synthesis. Results Of the 31,878 articles screened, 1203 studies were relevant to the Neck Pain Task Force mandate and of these, 31 regarding treatment by surgery or injections were accepted as scientifically admissible. Radiofrequency neurotomy, cervical facet injections, cervical fusion and cervical arthroplasty for neck pain without radiculopathy are not supported by current evidence. We found there is support for short-term symptomatic improvement of radicular symptoms with epidural corticosteroids. It is not clear from the evidence that long-term out comes are improved with the surgical treatment of cervical radiculopathy compared to non operative measures. However, relatively rapid and substantial symptomatic relief after surgical treatment seems to be reliably achieved. It is not evident that one open surgical technique is clearly superior to others for radiculopathy. Cervical foramenal or epidural injections are associated with relatively frequent minor adverse events (5%–20%); however, serious adverse events are very uncommon (<1%). After open surgical procedures on the cervical spine, potentially serious acute complications are seen in approximately 4% of patients. Conclusion Surgical treatment and limited injection procedures for cervical radicular symptoms may be reasonably considered in patients with severe impairments. Percutaneous and open surgical treatment for neck pain alone, without radicular symptoms or clear serious pathology, seems to lack scientific support.

Hurwitz, Eric L.; Cheng, Ivan; Carroll, Linda J.; Nordin, Margareta; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul; Holm, Lena W.; Cothe, Pierre; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Cassidy, J. David; Haldeman, Scott

2008-01-01

70

Understanding selection for long necks in different taxa.  

PubMed

There has been recent discussion about the evolutionary pressures underlying the long necks of extant giraffes and extinct sauropod dinosaurs. Here we summarise these debates and place them in a wider taxonomic context. We consider the evolution of long necks across a wide range of (both living and extinct) taxa and ask whether there has been a common selective factor or whether each case has a separate explanation. We conclude that in most cases long necks can be explained in terms of foraging requirements, and that alternative explanations in terms of sexual selection, thermoregulation and predation pressure are not as well supported. Specifically, in giraffe, tortoises, and perhaps sauropods there is likely to have been selection for high browsing. It the last case there may also have been selection for reaching otherwise inaccessible aquatic plants or for increasing the energetic efficiency of low browsing. For camels, wading birds and ratites, original selection was likely for increased leg length, with correlated selection for a longer neck to allow feeding and drinking at or near substrate level. For fish-eating long-necked birds and plesiosaurs a small head at the end of a long neck allows fast acceleration of the mouth to allow capture of elusive prey. A swan's long neck allows access to benthic vegetation, for vultures the long neck allows reaching deep into a carcass. Geese may be an unusual case where anti-predator vigilance is important, but so may be energetically efficient low browsing. The one group for which we feel unable to draw firm conclusions are the pterosaurs, this is in keeping with the current uncertainty about the biology of this group. Despite foraging emerging as a dominant theme in selection for long necks, for almost every taxonomic group we have identified useful empirical work that would increase understanding of the selective costs and benefits of a long neck. PMID:22171805

Wilkinson, David M; Ruxton, Graeme D

2011-12-16

71

Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) represents an attractive modality for treating head and neck cancers, an anatomic\\u000a site in which a multiplicity of issues arise regarding total treatment package time, retreatment, organ function preservation,\\u000a dosimetry of complex anatomic sites near critical structures, and integration with external-beam irradiation (EBRT) either\\u000a in the primary setting or in the previously irradiated patient. Pioneered in

Kenneth S. Hu; Sue Yom; Michael J. Kaplan; Rafael Martinez-Monge; Louis B. Harrison

72

Bone mineral content of the femoral neck and shaft: Relation between cortical and trabecular bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Bone mineral content (BMC) of the femoral neck and shaft was determined with dual photon absorptiometry, using153Gd. Comparison of BMC with the amount of hydroxyapatite (HA) ofin vitro specimen showed correlation coefficients of 0.992 and 0.996 for the femoral neck and shaft respectively. In the femoral neck\\u000a the amount of cortical bone in a bone section varies from 16% ash

H. Bohr; O. Schaadt

1985-01-01

73

Delayed hospitalization increases mortality in displaced femoral neck fracture patients  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Reports regarding the relationship between delayed surgery and mortality in femoral neck fracture patients are contradictory. We could not find any study in the literature investigating delayed arrival to hospital and delayed surgery as separate factors affecting mortality in femoral neck fracture patients, which was the purpose of our study. Patients and methods We analyzed 265 consecutive patients with displaced femoral neck fractures. We recorded the time period from trauma to admission, and to surgery, and correlated it to mortality during the first postoperative year. Results We found that arrival within 6 hours had 0.4 times (CI 0.2–0.8) reduction of the risk of death within 1 year compared to those who arrived later, whereas delayed surgery after admission did not have a statistically significant effect on mortality. Interpretation Femoral neck fracture patients who arrived at hospital 6 hours or later after the trauma had increased mortality.

2009-01-01

74

Pretreatment oxygenation predicts radiation response in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Hypoxic tumor cells are known to be relatively radioresistant. The aim of the study was to correlate oxygenation status and radiation response in advanced squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck.Methods and patients: Pretreatment oxygenation status was measured in 34 lymph nodes and one primary tumor neck using oxygen electrodes. The primary oxygenation endpoint was the fraction

Marianne Nordsmark; Marie Overgaard; Jens Overgaard

1996-01-01

75

Necking of Q&P steel during uniaxial tensile test with the aid of DIC technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lot of research has been focused on the necking process during the plastic deformation of sheet metals, but the localized necking is rarely distinguished form diffused necking by experiments, due to the limit of measurement equipment and method. Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) steel is a 3rd generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS). Its good combination of high strength and ductility ensures potential application in automobile industry. Uniaxial tensile tests of QP980 steel sheet at five strain rates are performed to investigate the necking process and the effect of strain rate on necking behavior of Q&P steel. Digital image correlation (DIC) method is applied during tensile tests, and evolutions of major strain, minor strain and normal strain distributions along gauge section of the tensile specimens are obtained. The diffused and localized necking strains are determined according to SWIFT necking theory and HILL necking theory respectively. The test results indicate that with the increasing of strain rate in the investigated range, the diffused necking strain decreases from 0.152 to 0.120 and localized necking strain decreases from 0.245 to 0.137. Meanwhile, the difference of the two strains decreases form 0.096 to 0.017. Thus it can be concluded that strain rate has an influence on both necking strains during the deformation of QP980 steel sheet. Diffused and localized necking strains are determined by uniaxial tensile tests with the aid of DIC technique and the effect of strain rate on necking strains is evaluated.

Ding, Lei; Lin, Jianping; Min, Junying; Pang, Zheng; Ye, You

2013-05-01

76

Head-Neck Biomechanics in Simulated Rear Impact  

PubMed Central

The first objective of this study is to present an overview of the human cadaver studies aimed to determine the biomechanics of the head-neck in a simulated rear crash. The need for kinematic studies to better understand the mechanisms of load transfer to the human head-neck complex is emphasized. Based on this need, a methodology is developed to delineate the dynamic kinematics of the human head-neck complex. Intact human cadaver head-neck complexes were subjected to postero-anterior impact using a mini-sled pendulum device. The integrity of the soft tissues including the musculature and skin were maintained. The kinematic data were recorded using high-speed photography coupled with retroreflective targets placed at various regions of the human head-neck complex. The overall and segmental kinematics of the entire head-neck complex, and the localized facet joint motions were determined. During the initial stages of loading, a transient decoupling of the head occurred with respect to the neck exhibiting a lag of the cranium. The upper cervical spine-head undergoes local flexion concomitant with a lag of the head while the lower cervical spinal column is in local extension. This establishes a reverse curvature to the cervical head-neck complex. With continued loading, head motion ensues and approximately at the end of the loading phase, the entire head-neck complex is under the extension mode with a single curvature. In contrast, the lower cervical spine facet joint kinematics show varying compression and sliding. While both the anterior and posterior-most regions of the facet joint slide, the posterior-most region (mean: 2.84 mm) of the joint compresses more than the anterior-most (mean: 2.02 mm) region. These varying kinematics at the ends of the facet joint result in a pinching mechanism. These biomechanical kinematic findings may be correlated to the presence of headaches and neck pain (Lord, Bogduk et al. 1992; Barnsley, Lord et al. 1995), based on the unique human head-neck anatomy at the upper cervical spine region and the associated facet joint characteristics, and clinical studies.

Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Cusick, Joseph F.; Kleinberger, Michael

1998-01-01

77

MRI of the cervical spine with neck extension: is it useful?  

PubMed Central

Objectives Standard MRI of the cervical spine is performed in a different anatomical position to that utilised for traditional contrast myelography. Those well practised in myelography are familiar with the considerable changes in configuration of the bony and soft tissues of the cervical spine that may occur with changes in the degree of neck flexion and extension. We set out to compare the findings in a select group of patients with myeloradiculopathy who had undergone myelography and MRI in both standard and neck-extended positions. These findings were correlated with the clinical status. Methods 29 patients underwent myelography with CT (CTM) and MRI in neutral and neck-extended positions. The imaging was assessed for the degree of cord compression and neural foraminal narrowing, quantified using a simple grading scheme suitable for routine clinical practice. The degree of neck extension was assessed using an angular measurement. Results For both CTM and MRI, scanning with the neck extended significantly increases the severity of cord compression compared with the standard supine position, to a degree similar to that shown during conventional prone myelography. The degree of perceived cord compression is related to the degree of neck extension achieved. Correlation of standard MRI findings and the clinical level of radiculopathy is poor. This correlation improves when the neck is extended. Conclusions The most appropriate position for routine MRI of the cervical spine in degenerative disease remains unknown, but in selected patients imaging with the neck extended may provide important additional information.

Bartlett, R J V; Hill, C A Rowland; Rigby, A S; Chandrasekaran, S; Narayanamurthy, H

2012-01-01

78

Analysis of Head Impacts Causing Neck Compression Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Human cadavers have been subjected to inverted drop, linear, and pendulum impacts to the top of the head, causing neck compression injury. The data are not comparable on the basis of impact velocity because of differing impact masses and test conditions. This study analyzed the published biomechanical data and used peak head velocity to merge the datasets. Correlations were

David C. Viano; Chantal S. Parenteau

2008-01-01

79

Penetrating wounds of the neck.  

PubMed

The management of penetrating wounds of the neck provides several decision-making steps that remain controversial. The two basic concepts of management include the idea that all wounds deep to the platysma should be explored and (the more conservative concept) that selective neck exploration should be based on a battery of tests to identify traumatic injuries. The areas of agreement within these two schools of thought include exploration of wounds with obvious injury, exploration of wounds in which patients cannot be stabilized satisfactorily for further testing, and the idea that all patients with wounds deep to the platysma should be admitted to the hospital. The remaining issues, including the need for angiography, barium swallow, or endoscopy, still are contested. Mandatory exploration of neck wounds became popular during World War II. The weapons used, the lack of accurate testing, and delays in treatment caused by transport problems played significant roles in the development of this policy. Proponents of mandatory exploration of neck wounds contend that delays in treatment result in increased mortality rates. Also delays caused by lengthy diagnostic testing have resulted in rapid exsanguination of patients who might otherwise have been surgically salvageable. These factors, along with the potential for undetected injuries and the associated complications (including false aneurysms and mediastinitis) favor mandatory exploration. Advocates of routine neck explorations also note the low morbidity rates associated with a neck exploration. Reported rates of negative exploration are high, however, approaching 45%, and mortality rates vary from 2% to 9%. Selective neck exploration has gained popularity in some centers because of the lower negative exploration rates associated with this treatment, while comparable mortality rates are achieved. May found a negative exploration rate of 12% in his series of selective neck explorations and a mortality rate of approximately 3%. Furthermore, Noyes found that the hospital stay for patients with selective observation management not requiring a neck exploration was 2.8 days, compared with 4.2 days for patients with mandatory but negative neck explorations. A summary of diagnostic techniques and their indications in selecting patients with penetrating neck wounds for surgery is presented in Table 5. It has become apparent that both selective and mandatory explorations of neck wounds play important roles in treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2027695

Miller, R H; Duplechain, J K

1991-02-01

80

Are neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain? Results of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting.?METHODS—A prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured exposure data (video recordings) of neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting posture. Neck pain was assessed by a questionnaire. Adjustments were made for various physical factors that were related or not related to work, psychosocial factors, and individual characteristics.?RESULTS—A significant positive relation was found between the percentage of the working time in a sitting position and neck pain, implying an increased risk of neck pain for workers who were sitting for more than 95% of the working time (crude relative risk (RR) 2.01, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04 to 3.88; adjusted RR 2.34, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.21). A trend for a positive relation between neck flexion and neck pain was found, suggesting an increased risk of neck pain for people working with the neck at a minimum of 20° of flexion for more than 70% of the working time (crude RR 2.01, 95% CI 0.98 to 4.11; adjusted RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.70 to 3.82). No clear relation was found between neck rotation and neck pain.?CONCLUSION—Sitting at work for more than 95% of the working time seems to be a risk factor for neck pain and there is a trend for a positive relation between neck flexion and neck pain. No clear relation was found between neck rotation and neck pain.???Keywords: neck pain; physical risk factors; longitudinal cohort study

Ariens, G; Bongers, P; Douwes, M; Miedema, M; Hoogendoorn, W; van der Wal, G; Bouter, L; van Mechelen, W

2001-01-01

81

Major neck surgeries under regional anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Major neck surgeries are conventionally performed under general anesthesia. To receive general anesthesia, patients must meet certain criteria that have attendant limitations. This report discusses the investigator's experiences with performing major neck surgeries under regional anesthesia.Materials and Methods: Fifty major neck surgeries were performed (30 thyroidectomies, 10 laryngectomies with or without neck dissection, 3 thyroglossal cyst, 2 branchial cyst,

Kishore C. Prasad; Vellavedu U. Shanmugam

1998-01-01

82

The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia and neck pain, disability and range of motion: a narrative review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) that was developed in 1990 is a 17 item scale originally developed to measure the fear of movement related to chronic lower back pain. Objective: To review the literature regarding TSK and neck pain, perceived disability and range of motion of the cervical spine. Methods: Medline, MANTIS, Index to Chiropractic Literature and CINAHL were searched. Results: A total of 16 related articles were found and divided into four categories: TSK and Neck Pain; TSK, Neck Pain and Disability; TSK, Neck Pain, Disability and Strength; and TSK, Neck Pain and Surface Electromyography. Conclusion: The fear avoidance model can be applied to neck pain sufferers and there is value from a psychometric perspective in using the TSK to assess kinesiophobia. Future research should investigate if, and to what extent, other measureable factors commonly associated with neck pain, such as decreased range of motion, correlate with kinesiophobia.

Hudes, Karen

2011-01-01

83

Head and Neck Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Head and neck cancer (HNC) represents a broad spectrum of diseases that involves the nasal and oropharyngeal cavities, the\\u000a paranasal sinuses, the major and minor salivary glands, the larynx and the lymphatic tissues of the neck. The world-wide yearly\\u000a incidence exceeds over half a million cases. Tobacco (smoking and smokeless) and alcohol use are the principal risk factors,\\u000a however, a

Fausto Chiesa; Angelo Ostuni; Roberto Grigolato; Luca Calabrese

84

Quantitative assessment of bladder neck compliance by using transvaginal real-time elastography of women.  

PubMed

To assess the feasibility of using ultrasound real-time elastography (RTE) to measure bladder neck compliance, we performed real-time elastography measurements by manually applying repetitive compression with the transducer on the scan position of the bladder neck. Instant elastography index (EI) and mean EI of anterior and posterior lips of the bladder neck were calculated. The EI values of anterior and posterior lips of the bladder neck were analyzed in relation to age, body surface area, body mass index, detrusor wall thickness and length, width and thickness of the bladder neck in healthy women. The intra-observer and inter-observer repeatability of measurements in different parts of the bladder neck were assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals and Bland-Altman analysis. There were no statistically significant differences between elastography measurements made by the same or two different observers in each area measured. There was no significant difference between anterior and posterior lip thickness of the bladder neck. The distribution of the elastography measurements indicated that the anterior lip of the bladder neck was slightly harder than the posterior lip. On the whole, from the results of the study, it was clear that EIs of the bladder neck were related to age in healthy women. Stepwise multiple regression analysis results revealed that age was the only independent factor modulating compliance of the bladder neck in healthy women. It is possible to provide a reproducible semi-quantification of real-time elastography in bladder neck compliance. PMID:23849386

Ying, Huang; Da, Liu; Luo, Jiang; Li-Xia, Liu; Yu, Xia; Li-Mei, Xie; Wei-Dong, Ren

2013-07-09

85

Phenylbutyrate interferes with the Fanconi anemia and BRCA pathway and sensitizes head and neck cancer cells to cisplatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin has been widely used to treat head and neck cancer. One of the clinical limitations with this treatment, however, is that tumors that are initially responsive to cisplatin later acquire resistance. We have recently shown that a subset of head and neck cancer cell lines has a defective Fanconi anemia DNA damage response pathway and this defect correlates

Kyunghee Burkitt; Mats Ljungman

2008-01-01

86

Long-Term Follow-Up of Neck Expansion after Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the rate, extent and clinical significance of neck dilatation after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Methods Patients who underwent elective EVAR using bifurcated Zenith (Cook, Bloomington, IN) stent-grafts and had at least 48-months of clinical and radiographic follow-up were included in the present study. Computed tomographic images were analyzed on a 3-dimensional workstation (TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA). Neck diameter was measured 10 mm below the most inferior renal artery, in planes orthogonal to the aorta. Nominal stent graft diameter was obtained from implantation records. Results 46 patients met the inclusion criteria. Median follow-up was 59 months (range 48-120 months). Neck dilation occurred in all 46 cases. The rate of neck dilation was greatest at early follow-up intervals. At 48-months, median neck dilation was 5.3 mm (range 2.3-9.8 mm). The extent of neck dilation at 48-months correlated with percentage of stent-graft oversizing (Spearman’s rho 0.61, p<0.001). There were no cases of type I endoleak or migration (> 5 mm). Conclusions Following EVAR with the Zenith stent-graft, the neck dilates until its diameter approximates the diameter of the stent-graft. Neck dilation was not associated with type I endoleak or migration of the stent-graft.

Monahan, Thomas S; Chuter, Timothy AM; Reilly, Linda M; Rapp, Joseph H; Hiramoto, Jade S

2010-01-01

87

Wallenberg's syndrome following neck manipulation.  

PubMed

We describe 4 patients ages 28 to 41 with lateral medullary infarction (Wallenberg's syndrome) following chiropractic neck manipulation. In 3 patients, angiography documented dissection of the extracranial 3rd segment of the vertebral artery near the atlantoaxial joint. The onset of neurologic symptoms following manipulation varied from immediate to 4 days. All had good recovery with minor residual deficits. Although the association between chiropractic neck manipulation and vertebral-basilar artery distribution infarction is well known, we emphasize its occurrence in young healthy individuals without commonly regarded predisposing factors. PMID:2181339

Frumkin, L R; Baloh, R W

1990-04-01

88

Chronic neck pain: how to approach treatment.  

PubMed

Chronic neck pain is a common patient complaint. Despite its frequency as a clinical problem, there are few evidence-based studies that document efficacy of therapies for neck pain. The treatment of this symptom is based primarily on clinical experience. Preventing the development of chronic neck pain can be achieved by modification of the work environment with chairs that encourage proper musculoskeletal movement. The use of neck supports for sleep and active neck exercises together can improve neck pain. Passive therapies, including massage, acupuncture, mechanical traction, and electrotherapy, have limited benefit when measured by clinical trial results. NSAIDs, muscle relaxants, and pure analgesics are the mainstays of therapy. Local injections of anesthetics with or without soluble corticosteroid preparations offer additional pain relief. The purpose of these agents is to diminish pain to facilitate normal neck movement. Surgical therapy with cervical spine fusion is indicated for the rare patient with intractable neck pain resistant to all nonsurgical therapies. PMID:18173978

Borenstein, David G

2007-12-01

89

New Modelling of Localized Necking in Sheet Metal Stretching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present work examines a new mathematical model to predict the onset of localized necking in the industrial processes of sheet metal forming such as biaxial stretching. Sheet metal formability is usually assessed experimentally by testing such as the Nakajima test to obtain the Forming Limit Curve, FLC, which is an essential material parameter necessary to numerical simulations by FEM. The Forming Limit Diagram or ``Forming Principal Strain Map'' shows the experimental FLC which is the plot of principal true strains in the sheet metal surface, ?1 and V2, occurring at critical points obtained in laboratory formability tests or in the fabrication process. Two types of undesirable rupture mechanisms can occur in sheet metal forming products: localized necking and shear induced fracture. Therefore, two kinds of limit strain curves can be plotted: the local necking limit curve FLC-N and the shear fracture limit curve FLC-S. Localized necking is theoretically anticipated to initiate at a thickness defect ƒin = hib/hia inside the grooved sheet thickness hia, but only at the instability point of maximum load. The inception of grooving on the sheet surface evolves from instability point to localized necking and final rupture, during further sheet metal straining. Work hardening law is defined for a strain and strain rate material by the effective stress ? = ?o(1+?V)n???VM. The average experimental hardening law curve for tensile tests at 0°, 45° and 90°, assuming isotropic plasticity, was used to analyze the plasticity behavior during the biaxial stretching of sheet metals. Theoretical predicted curves of local necking limits are plotted in the positive quadrant of FPSM for different defect values ƒin and plasticity parameters. Limit strains are obtained from a software developed by the author. Some experimental results of forming limit curve obtained from experiments for IF steel sheets are compared with the theoretical predicted curves: the correlation is good.

Bressan, José Divo

2011-01-01

90

Head and neck anthropometry, vertebral geometry and neck strength in height-matched men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women have an increased incidence of whiplash injury and neck pain compared to men. Physical and numerical models represent one avenue to explore and potentially explain these gender differences, but a valid model of the female neck does not yet exist. A fundamental question in the development of a female neck model is whether female necks are simply scaled versions

Anita N. Vasavada; Jonathan Danaraj; Gunter P. Siegmund

2008-01-01

91

Multiple venous aneurysms of neck  

PubMed Central

Venous aneurysm of neck is a rare anomaly, usually presenting as a painless mass which increases in size on valsalva maneuver. A child with multiple aneurysms of the right common facial and external jugular veins diagnosed on Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance venography is reported.

Swaika, Sweta; Basu, Sudipta; Bhadra, Ram C.; Maitra, Sujay

2013-01-01

92

Radiotherapy and head neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean number of lymphocytes, response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and response to concanavalin A (Con A) in whole-blood cultures for 106 patients with head and neck cancer were 83%, 73%, and 64%, respectively, of values for healthy control individuals. During radiotherapy, lymphocyte counts declined to 44% and PHA and Con A responses declined to about one third of control values.

V. K. Jenkins; C. M. Griffiths; P. Ray; R. R. Perry; M. H. Olson

1980-01-01

93

Monitoring of radiation therapy response of head and neck tumors by non-invasive optical blood flow measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim is to evaluate the usefulness of optical blood flow measurements for predicting early tumor response to radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors. The results suggest a correlation between tumor blood flow changes with clinical outcome.

Sunar, U.; Quon, H.; Zhang, J.; Du, J.; Durduran, T.; Zhou, C.; Yu, G.; Kilger, A.; Lustig, R.; Loevner, L.; Nioka, S.; Yodh, A. G.; Chance, B.

2005-08-01

94

Head and neck vascular anatomy.  

PubMed

Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography provide excellent vascular images; however, every radiologist interpreting routine cross-sectional imaging of the head and neck must recognize normal and abnormal vascular structures. Knowledge of the normal cross-sectional appearance of vessels can help to define spacial anatomy and provide for recognition of abnormal vessels. Intracranially, the major arterial branches of the Circle of Willis are routinely visualized on MR and CT, as are the dural venous sinuses and major tributaries to the deep and superficial venous system. Using a combination of CT and MR images, we demonstrate the normal cross-sectional vascular anatomy of the head and neck and the important anatomic relationships key to accurate imaging analysis. PMID:9449756

Johnson, M H

1998-02-01

95

Neck Dissection Through a Facelift Incision  

PubMed Central

Obectives/Hypothesis To determine the feasibility and safety of neck dissection through a facelift incision. Study Design Prospective case series. Methods Cadavers and live subjects underwent neck dissection using a facelift incision with and without endoscopic assistance. In the live facelift neck dissection (FLND), the preoperative surgical indications, staging, adjuvant therapy, intraoperative technical procedure, pathology reports on lymph nodes, and short-term outcomes were reviewed. Results FLND was successfully performed in four cadavers and four live subjects, including selective (less than five neck levels removed) and comprehensive (levels I–V removed) neck dissections. All levels were accessible through this approach, with additional retraction required for levels I and IV. Endoscopic assistance was required in one neck dissection for adequate visualization. Short-term complications and number of excised lymph nodes were comparable to those from traditional neck dissection approaches. Conclusions Open neck dissection through a facelift incision is feasible and offers an alternate approach to traditional incisions. This can be performed without requiring robotic assistance and with endoscopic assistance only in certain cases. Endoscopic assistance can offer enhanced visualization of the surgical field and complement open direct approaches in neck dissection. Although FLND offers improved cosmetic outcomes when compared to those of traditional neck incisions, further study is required to determine its efficacy and indications.

Melvin, Thuy-Anh N.; Eliades, Steven J.; Ha, Patrick K.; Fakhry, Carole; Saunders, John M.; Califano, Joseph A.; Blanco, Ray G. F.

2013-01-01

96

Prostate cancer with bladder neck involvement: Pathologic findings with application of a new practical method for tumor extent evaluation and recurrence-free survival after radical prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies have questioned the high risk for disease recurrence in cases of bladder neck involvement by prostate cancer (pT4 disease). Design: The study was based on 141 patients submitted to radical prostatectomy. PSA-recurrence was defined as 0.5 ng\\/ml or rising at three different examinations. Bladder neck invasion was correlated to Gleason score (Results: Bladder neck invasion was seen in

Athanase Billis; Leandro L. L. Freitas; Luis A. Magna; Adil B. Samara; Ubirajara Ferreira

2004-01-01

97

Predictors of femoral neck fracture following hip resurfacing: a cadaveric study.  

PubMed

We aimed to establish if radiological parameters, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative CT (qCT) could predict the risk of sustaining a femoral neck fracture following hip resurfacing. Twenty-one unilateral fresh frozen femurs were used. Each femur had a plain digital anteroposterior radiograph, DEXA scan and qCT scan. Femurs were then prepared for a Birmingham Hip Resurfacing femoral component and loaded to failure. Results demonstrated that gender and qCT measurements showed strong correlation with failure load. QCT could be used as an individual measure to predict risk of post-operative femoral neck fracture. However, when qCT is unavailable; gender, pre-operative DEXA scan and Neck Width measurements can be used together to assess risk of post-operative femoral neck fracture in patients due to undergo hip resurfacing. PMID:22770857

Davis, Edward T; Olsen, Michael; Zdero, Rad; Smith, Gemma M; Waddell, James P; Schemitsch, Emil H

2012-07-05

98

Superselective neck dissection: rationale, indications, and results.  

PubMed

It has been established that an appropriately indicated selective neck dissection can achieve the same oncologic results as more extensive dissections. An even more modified selective neck dissection, termed superselective neck dissection, involves the compartmental removal of the fibrofatty tissue contents within the defined boundaries of two or fewer contiguous neck levels. Evidence from retrospective studies suggests that superselective neck dissection (SSND) is oncologically sound for two indications: elective treatment of the clinically N0 neck and salvage treatment of persistent lymph node disease after chemoradiotherapy. While there is broader support for the former scenario, evidence that SSND may constitute optimal treatment in the latter is in conformity with the trend toward developing surgical techniques that provide better functional outcomes without compromising efficacy. PMID:23321797

Suárez, Carlos; Rodrigo, Juan P; Robbins, K Thomas; Paleri, Vinidh; Silver, Carl E; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Medina, Jesus E; Hamoir, Marc; Sanabria, Alvaro; Mondin, Vanni; Takes, Robert P; Ferlito, Alfio

2013-01-16

99

Chronic neck pain: How to approach treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic neck pain is a common patient complaint. Despite its frequency as a clinical problem, there are few evidence-based\\u000a studies that document efficacy of therapies for neck pain. The treatment of this symptom is based primarily on clinical experience.\\u000a Preventing the development of chronic neck pain can be achieved by modification of the work environment with chairs that encourage\\u000a proper

David G. Borenstein

2007-01-01

100

Immunology of Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The immune system plays a key role in the ­progression of head and neck cancer. A greater understanding of the important contribution\\u000a of the dysregulation and evasion of the immune system in the development and evolution of head and neck cancers should lead\\u000a to improved therapies and outcomes for patients. Head and neck cancer evades the host immune system through

Steve C. Lee; Robert L. Ferris

101

Infections of the deep neck spaces.  

PubMed

Deep neck infections (DNI) have a propensity to spread rapidly along the interconnected deep neck spaces and compromise the airway, cervical vessels and spinal canal. The value of imaging lies in delineating the anatomical extent of the disease process, identifying the source of infection and detecting complications. Its role in the identification and drainage of abscesses is well known. This paper pictorially illustrates infections of important deep neck spaces. The merits and drawbacks of imaging modalities used for assessment of DNI, the relevant anatomy and the possible sources of infection of each deep neck space are discussed. Certain imaging features that alter the management of DNI have been highlighted. PMID:22584969

Hedge, Amogh; Mohan, Suyash; Lim, Winston Eng Hoe

2012-05-01

102

A New Conceptual Model of Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

Study Design Iterative discussion and consensus by a multidisciplinary task force scientific secretariat reviewing scientific evidence on neck pain and its associated disorders. Objective To provide an integrated model for linking the epidemiology of neck pain with its management and consequences, and to help organize and interpret existing knowledge, and to highlight gaps in the current literature. Summary of Background Data The wide variability of scientific and clinical approaches to neck pain described in the literature requires a unified conceptual model for appropriate interpretation of the research evidence. Methods The 12-member Scientific Secretariat of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders critically reviewed and eventually accepted as scientifically admissible a total of 552 scientific papers. The group met face-to-face on 18 occasions and had frequent additional telephone conference meetings over a 6-year period to discuss and interpret this literature and to agree on a conceptual model, which would accommodate findings. Models and definitions published in the scientific literature were discussed and repeatedly modified until the model and case definitions presented here were finally approved by the group. Results Our new conceptual model is centered on the person with neck pain or who is at risk for neck pain. Neck pain is viewed as an episodic occurrence over a lifetime with variable recovery between episodes. The model outlines the options available to individuals who are dealing with neck pain, along with factors that determine options, choices, and consequences. The short- and long-term impacts of neck pain are also considered. Finally, the model includes a 5-axis classification of neck pain studies based on how subjects were recruited into each study. Conclusion The Scientific Secretariat found the conceptual model helpful in interpreting the available scientific evidence. We believe it can assist people with neck pain, researchers, clinicians, and policy makers in framing their questions and decisions.

Hurwitz, Eric L.; Carroll, Linda J.; Haldeman, Scott; Cote, Pierre; Carragee, Eugene J.; Peloso, Paul M.; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Holm, Lena W.; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Nordin, Margareta; Cassidy, J. David

2008-01-01

103

Influence of vestibular rehabilitation on neck pain and cervical range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder: A randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Objective: To describe how vestibular rehabilitation influences pain and range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness, and to describe whether pain or range of motion correlated with balance performance or self-perceived dizziness handicap. Subjects: A total of 29 patients, 20 women and 9 men, age range 22-76 years. Methods: Patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness were randomized to either intervention (vestibular rehabilitation) or control. Neck pain intensity, cervical range of motion (CROM), balance and self-perceived dizziness handicap were measured at baseline, 6 weeks and 3 months. Results: There were no differences in neck pain intensity or CROM between the 2 groups either at baseline, 6 weeks or 3 months (p?=?0.10-0.89). At baseline, neck pain intensity correlated with CROM (-0.406) and self-perceived dizziness handicap (0.492). CROM correlated with self-perceived dizziness handicap and with 1 balance measure (-0.432). Neck pain intensity did not correlate with balance performance (-0.188-0.049). Conclusion: Neck pain intensity and CROM was not influenced by vestibular rehabilitation. Importantly, the programme did not appear to increase pain or decrease neck motion, as initially thought. Neck pain intensity and CROM correlated with self-perceived dizziness handicap. CROM also correlated with 1 balance measure. PMID:23974698

Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Persson, Liselott; Malmström, Eva Maj

2013-09-01

104

Preventing head and neck injury.  

PubMed

A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport. PMID:15911597

McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P

2005-06-01

105

Gene Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortality associated with head and neck cancer has remained largely unchanged for the past several decades despite advancements in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Gene therapy is a novel treatment approach that may potentially advance the treatment of genetic diseases, which include malignancies such as head and neck cancer. Multiple vector systems have been developed that facilitate the introduction of

Waleed M. Abuzeid; Daqing Li; Bert W. O’Malley Jr

2011-01-01

106

Anthropomorphic dummy neck modeling and injury considerations.  

PubMed

This study investigates the modeling of the Hybrid III dummy head and neck system and its response under impulsive loading. Two neck models were proposed, one rigid, one flexible; both give satisfactory head kinematics upon comparing to minisled test results. The flexible neck model provides a more detailed understanding of the Hybrid III neck structure behavior. It indicates that the Hybrid III neck has a torque response similar to a human neck but has higher shear response. During flexion whiplash, the torque at the occipital condyle reverses its direction at about 25 ms after impact. Since concussion may be related to the head angular acceleration, which reaches its peak value in the first 25 ms, it might be necessary to extend the existing human torque-rotation corridor to include the neck response in this region. For flexion whiplash impact, simulation results indicated that the neck injury threshold is reached before exceeding the head injury threshold as the impact velocity is increased. PMID:2930623

Deng, Y C

1989-02-01

107

X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

What It Is A neck X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to make images of the soft tissues in the neck. During the examination, an X-ray machine sends a beam of radiation through the ...

108

Neck organ of Artemia salina nauplii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina L.) to exist in a wide range of salinities results from an active excretion of sodium ions from the body into the external environment. Localization of NaCl in the neck organ suggests that this is the site of salt secretion. Ultrastructural studies support this view, the structure of the neck organ being

F. P. Conte; S. R. Hootman; P. J. Harris

1972-01-01

109

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Most head and neck cancers begin in the moist, mucus membranes lining the inside of the mouth, nose and throat. These membranes are made up of squamous cells and the head and neck cancers that grow in these cells are called squamous cell carcinomas.

110

49 CFR 572.33 - Neck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...lbs-ft by the âYâ axis moment sensor of the six axis neck transducer and Fx is...measured in lbs by the âXâ axis force sensor (Channel Class 600) of the six axis...lbs-ft by the âYâ axis moment sensor of the six axis neck transducer and Fx...

2011-10-01

111

Managing platysma bands in the aging neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author demonstrates his method of achieving optimal contour in the aging neck. Primary features of the technique are horizontal cuts in the vertical bands of the platysma muscle combined with a corset Z-plasty medial suture and bilateral rein plication suture. This combined procedure, which effectively lifts the sagging neck, is useful in treating vertical platysma bands in primary cases,

José Guerrerosantos

2008-01-01

112

[Webbed neck associated with other developmental defects].  

PubMed

In patients with a combination of congenital webbed deformity of the neck with the Klippel-Weil syndrome, muscular hyperplasia of lateral masses of the neck and latent cerebrospinal hernias favorable cosmetic results could be obtained by an operative dissection of excessive soft tissues including the muscular and cyst ectopic cerebrospinal membrane tissues. PMID:3314087

Sokolovski?, A M; Koren', M N

1987-05-01

113

Aural cholesteatoma with upper neck extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 32-year-old Chinese woman who presented with a large cholesteatoma in her right upper neck after a history of ipsilateral chronic otitis media since childhood. Intraoperatively, a cholesteatoma was found in the mastoid cavity, and the mass in her neck was attached to the mastoid cortex by a stalk. Direct erosion of the mastoid tip

Lihua Li; Jihao Ren

114

Public knowledge of Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies show 60% of patients with newly diagnosed Head & Neck Squamous Cell Cancer in Ireland, present with advanced disease. A poor level of knowledge and awareness among the public of Head & Neck Cancer, is an important consideration in the often delayed presentation for medical attention in many of these cases. Our study surveyed 200 members of the public

V Papanikolaou; IJ Keogh

115

Health impact of head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidimensional Head and Neck Quality of Life (HNQOL) instrument and a general health status measure were administered to 397 patients with head and neck cancer. Scores for the 4 domains of the HNQOL (communication, eating, pain, and emotional well-being) were calculated. Patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical characteristics, treatment data, disability status, and a global “overall bother” score were assessed. When

JEFFREY E. TERRELL; KINJAL NANAVATI; RAMON M. ESCLAMADO; CAROL R. BRADFORD; GREGORY T. WOLF

1999-01-01

116

Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... 5/2013 Symptoms and Signs Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck Cancer Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention Symptoms and ... or click “Next” at the bottom. People with head and neck cancer often experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes, ...

117

Dysphagia following head and neck cancer surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical resection of head and neck cancer results in predictable patterns of dysphagia and aspiration due to disruption of the anatomic structures of swallowing. Common procedures undertaken in the treatment of head and neck cancer include tracheostomy, glossectomy, mandibulectomy, surgery on the palate, total and partial laryngectomy, reconstruction of the pharynx and cervical esophagus, and surgery of the skull base.

Michael B. Kronenberger; Arlen D. Meyers

1994-01-01

118

Sex differences in heritability of neck pain.  

PubMed

Experimental studies have suggested biological factors as a possible explanation for gender disparities in perception of pain. Recently, heritability of liability to neck pain (NP) has been found to be statistically significantly larger in women compared to men. However, no studies have been conducted to determine whether the sex differences in heritability of NP are due to sex-specific genetic factors. Data on lifetime prevalence of NP from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 33,794 Danish twins were collected and age-stratified univariate biometrical modeling using sex-limitation models was performed based on 10,605 dizygotic (DZ) twins of opposite sex to estimate the qualitative sex differences. In a full sex-limitation model the genetic component in females were higher than in males, but the genetic and the shared environmental correlations were equal to what is normally assumed between same-sex DZ twins. A 'no-sex-effects' model showed the overall best model fit which confirms absence of sex-related gene interaction. The age-stratified sex-limitation models showed similar results. Thus, there is no evidence for a sex-specific genetic influence in the liability of heritability of NP. PMID:16611488

Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

2006-04-01

119

ES2 neck injury assessment reference values for lateral loading in side facing seats.  

PubMed

Injury assessment reference values (IARV) predicting neck injuries are currently not available for side facing seated aircraft passengers in crash conditions. The aircraft impact scenario results in inertial loading of the head and neck, a condition known to be inherently different from common automotive side impact conditions as crash pulse and seating configurations are different. The objective of this study is to develop these IARV for the European Side Impact Dummy-2 (ES-2) previously selected by the US-FAA as the most suitable ATD for evaluating side facing aircraft seats. The development of the IARV is an extended analysis of previously published PMHS neck loads by identifying the most likely injury scenarios, comparing head-neck kinematics and neck loads of the ES2 versus PMHS, and development of injury risk curves for the ES2. The ES2 showed a similar kinematic response as the PMHS, particularly during the loading phase. The ES2 exhibited a stiffer response than the PMHS in the thoracic region, resulting in a faster rebound and smaller excursions in the vertical direction. Neck loads were consistent with results from previous authors and served as the basis for the ES2 neck injury risk curve developed here. Regression analysis of the previously published PMHS neck loads indicated that the tension force at the occipital condyles was the only neck load component with a significant correlation (Pearson r2 = 0.9158) to AIS3+ classified injuries. Tension force in the ES2 upper neck showed a weaker but still significant correlation with injury severity (r2 = 0.72) and is proposed to be used as an IARV with a tolerance of 2094 N for 50% AIS3+ risk. Although the prime focus of this study is on loading conditions typical in an aircraft crash environment, it is expected that the proposed IARV's can be used as an extension of typical automotive conditions, particularly for military vehicles and public transport applications where side facing upright seating configurations are more common. PMID:20058563

Philippens, M; Wismans, J; Forbes, P A; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Soltis, S J

2009-11-01

120

The evolving role of selective neck dissection for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Neck dissection is an important part of the surgical treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The historical concept of neck dissection implied the removal of all lymph node-bearing tissue in the neck, which began in the late nineteenth century. However, more conservative variations of neck dissection have been performed and promoted as well. Anatomic, pathologic, clinical investigations, and prospective studies have demonstrated that the lymphatic dissemination of HNSCC occurs in predictable patterns. Supported by these studies, selective neck dissection (SND), which consists of the removal of select levels of lymph nodes in the neck that have the highest risk of harboring undetected metastases, has become widely accepted in the treatment of the clinically uninvolved neck. More recently, evidence supports using SND in a therapeutic setting in selected cases of HNSCC with limited metastatic disease. Additionally, even more targeted dissections referred to as super-selective neck dissection have been explored for selected patients undergoing elective node dissection for supraglottic cancer and as an adjuvant therapy for salvage of residual lymphadenopathy confined to a single neck level following chemoradiation. In the future, the trend to tailor treatment to individual patients and to limit toxicity and morbidity may further increase the use of SND. The indications have to be guided by further research, in relation with non-surgical treatment options while optimizing oncological effectiveness. PMID:22903756

Robbins, K Thomas; Ferlito, Alfio; Shah, Jatin P; Hamoir, Marc; Takes, Robert P; Strojan, Primož; Khafif, Avi; Silver, Carl E; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Medina, Jesus E

2012-08-19

121

A pain in the neck  

PubMed Central

A 21-year-old man presented to the emergency department with pain and swelling to the right side of his neck and chest wall with associated shortness of breath. Two days earlier, while playing football, he had been involved in a minor collision with another player where he was struck on the right side of his head, but had managed to continue playing. On examination, the patient had extensive cervical surgical emphysema. There were no further positive findings on respiratory and general examination. A chest x-ray demonstrated no rib or clavicular fractures and no pneumothorax. Therefore, a CT was undertaken to ascertain the cause of the surgical emphysema. This demonstrated a pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium and extradural air in the spinal column in addition to the subcutaneous air. The CT identified no bony trauma and no other injuries. The symptoms resolved spontaneously and follow-up radiography, 9 days later, showed no residual air.

Minns, Tania; Raj, Ray; Clark, Kate

2011-01-01

122

[Head and neck adaptive radiotherapy].  

PubMed

Onboard volumetric imaging systems can provide accurate data of the patient's anatomy during a course of head and neck radiotherapy making it possible to assess the actual delivered dose and to evaluate the dosimetric impact of complex daily positioning variations and gradual anatomic changes such as geometric variations of tumors and normal tissues or shrinkage of external contours. Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as the correction of a patient's treatment planning to adapt for individual variations observed during treatment. Strategies are developed to selectively identify patients that require replanning because of an intolerable dosimetric drift. Automated tools are designed to limit time consumption. Deformable image registration algorithms are the cornerstones of these strategies, but a better understanding of their limits of validity is required before adaptive radiotherapy can be safely introduced to daily practice. Moreover, strict evaluation of the clinical benefits is yet to be proven. PMID:23972828

Graff, P; Huger, S; Kirby, N; Pouliot, J

2013-08-22

123

The relationship between lower neck shear force and facet joint kinematics during automotive rear impacts.  

PubMed

A primary goal of biomechanical safety research is the definition of localized injury thresholds in terms of quantities that are repeatable and easily measureable during experimentation. Recent biomechanical experimentation using human cadavers has highlighted the role of lower cervical facet joints in the injury mechanism resulting from low-speed automotive rear impacts. The present study was conducted to correlate lower neck forces and moments with facet joint motions during simulated rear impacts in an effort to define facet joint injury tolerance thresholds that can be used to assess automobile safety. Four male and four female intact head-neck complexes were obtained from cadaveric specimens and subjected to simulated automotive rear impacts using a pendulum-minisled device. Cervical spine segmental angulations and localized facet joint kinematics were correlated to shear and axial forces, and bending moments at the cervico-thoracic junction using linear regression. R(2) coefficients indicated that spinal kinematics correlated well with lower neck shear force and bending moment. Correlation slope was steeper in female specimens, indicating greater facet joint motions for a given loading magnitude. This study demonstrated that lower neck loads can be used to predict lower cervical facet joint kinematics during automotive rear impacts. Higher correlation slope in female specimens corresponds to higher injury susceptibility in that population. Although lower neck shear force and bending moment demonstrated adequate correlation with lower cervical facet joint motions, shear force is likely the better predictor due to similarity in the timing of peak magnitudes with regard to maximum facet joint motions. PMID:21433081

Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J

2011-04-01

124

Endovascular Embolization of Head and Neck Tumors  

PubMed Central

Endovascular tumor embolization as adjunctive therapy for head and neck cancers is evolving and has become an important part of the tools available for their treatment. Careful study of tumor vascular anatomy and adhering to general principles of intra-arterial therapy can prove this approach to be effective and safe. Various embolic materials are available and can be suited for a given tumor and its vascular supply. This article aims to summarize current methods and agents used in endovascular head and neck tumor embolization and discuss important angiographic and treatment characteristics of selected common head and neck tumors.

Lazzaro, Marc A.; Badruddin, Aamir; Zaidat, Osama O.; Darkhabani, Ziad; Pandya, Dhruvil J.; Lynch, John R.

2011-01-01

125

Neck and back pain: musculoskeletal disorders.  

PubMed

In this article, non-neurologic causes of neck and back pain are reviewed. Musculoskeletal pain generators include muscle, tendon, ligament, intervertebral disc, articular cartilage, and bone. Disorders that can produce neck and back pain include muscle strain, ligament sprain, myofascial pain, fibromyalgia, facet joint pain, internal disc disruption, somatic dysfunction, spinal fracture, vertebral osteomyelitis, and polymyalgia rheumatica. Atlantoaxial instability and atlanto-occipital joint pain are additional causes of neck pain. Back pain resulting from vertebral compression fracture, Scheuermann's disease, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis, pregnancy, Baastrup's disease, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, and sacral stress fracture is discussed. PMID:17445737

Meleger, Alec L; Krivickas, Lisa S

2007-05-01

126

Broadband ultrasound attenuation of the calcaneus predicts lumbar and femoral neck density in Caucasian women: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of ultrasound techniques to differentiate normal and osteoporotic women. To define the ability of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the calcaneus to predict axial bone mass, the ultrasound value was correlated with lumbar vertebral and femoral neck density in 22 Caucasian women. The three measures of bone mass inversely correlated with age: lumbar density

D. T. Baran; Clare Kearns McCarthy; D. Leahey; R. Lew

1991-01-01

127

Metastatic hypernephroma to the head and neck.  

PubMed

Eight cases of metastatic hypernephroma to the head and neck are presented with CT documentation. Hypernephroma is the third most common infraclavicular tumor to metastasize to the head and neck. Such metastases occur in about 15% of patients with this neoplasm, and nearly 8% of patients with this tumor present with disease in the head and neck region. These metastases are usually vascular and may either clinically precede the diagnosis of the renal primary tumor or may occur many years after apparently successful surgery of the primary tumor. These unusual patterns of behavior are reviewed. One of the cases presented here is the first reported incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis with hemorrhage to be documented by CT, thus adding this entity to the list of imaging differential diagnoses of cystic-appearing neck masses. PMID:3120536

Som, P M; Norton, K I; Shugar, J M; Reede, D L; Norton, L; Biller, H F; Som, M L

128

Occult primary head and neck carcinoma.  

PubMed

Unknown primary carcinoma presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis accounts for approximately 5% of all head and neck malignancies. The typical presentation involves a middle-aged man with a painless neck mass that has been present for several months. Over 90% of these malignancies represent squamous cell carcinoma originating within Waldeyer's ring (lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx, tonsil, and base of tongue). The remainder are comprised of adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and other rare histologic variants. The ability to identify the occult primary tumor is imperative because identification allows site-specific therapy and avoidance of wide-field radiation side effects. Following confirmation of metastatic cervical disease with fine-needle aspiration, all patients presenting with an unknown primary carcinoma require a thorough head and neck history and physical examination, radiographic imaging, panendoscopy with directed biopsies of Waldeyer's ring, and bilateral tonsillectomy. Positron emission tomography has proved helpful in identifying occult primary tumors of the head and neck region. PMID:17288881

Schmalbach, Cecelia E; Miller, Frank R

2007-03-01

129

Treatment for Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, researchers seek to determine if giving concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy to patients with inoperable, recurrent head and neck cancer who were treated initially with radiation therapy will improve survival rates for these patients.

130

Prevention of complications in neck dissection  

PubMed Central

Background The neck dissection has remained a pivotal aspect of head and neck cancer management for over a century. During this time its role has expanded from a purely therapeutic option into an elective setting, in part promoted by efforts to reduce its morbidity. Objectives This review will consider the potential complications of neck dissection and on the basis of the available evidence describe both their management and prevention. Conclusion Although the neck dissection continues to provide clinicians with a method of addressing cervical disease, its reliability and safety can only be assured if surgeons remain cognisant of the potential complications and aim to minimise such morbidity by appropriate management in the peri-operative period.

Kerawala, Cyrus J; Heliotos, Manolis

2009-01-01

131

Cobb Neck Master Plan, Charles County, Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Plan is to evaluate the development potentials and constraints affecting Cobb Neck, a peninsula in southern Charles County. This study evaluates the existing and proposed development patterns and their effect on environmental resources...

1988-01-01

132

Axial Neck Pain after Cervical Laminoplasty  

PubMed Central

Objective It has been demonstrated that cervical laminoplasty is an effective and safe method of treating multi-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. However, recent reports have suggested that axial neck pain is frequently encountered after cervical laminoplasty. The aim of the present study was to determine clinical significance of the C7 spinous process on axial neck pain after cervical laminoplasty. Methods A total of 31 consecutive patients that underwent cervical laminoplasty between March 2002 and December 2008 were reviewed. The authors evaluated and compared axial neck pain and lordotic angle in patients that underwent C7 spinous process preserving surgery (group 1, n = 16) and in patients in which the C7 spinous process was sacrificed (group 2, n = 15). Results Severe or moderate early axial pain occurred in 56.2% of patients in group 1 and in 86.6% in group 2. Severe or moderate late axial pain occurred in 12.5% in group 1 and in 73.3% in group 2. Eighty-Six percent of patients in group 2 and 43% in group 1 experienced aggravation of their axial neck pain during the early postoperative period. Aggravation of axial neck pain during early postoperative period was less common in group 1 but not statistically significant (p = 0.073). Sixty-six percent of patients in group 2 and 12% in group 1 had aggravated axial neck pain at late postoperative period and aggravation of late axial neck pain was significantly less common in group 1 (p = 0.002). Conclusion The present study demonstrates that C7 spinous process preserving laminoplasty decreases the incidence of aggravated axial neck pain after cervical laminoplasty.

Cho, Chul Bum; Oh, Jong Yang; Park, Hae Kwan; Lee, Kyung Jin; Rha, Hyoung Kyun

2010-01-01

133

Prevention of head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the vast majority of cases, head and neck cancer is a preventable disease. The relationship between tobacco and alcohol\\u000a and these cancers is well established. Despite efforts aimed at reduction of risk factor exposure and early detection methods,\\u000a head and neck cancer remains one of the more common cancers worldwide. Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided\\u000a a framework

Terry A. Day; Angela Chi; Brad Neville; James R. Hebert

2005-01-01

134

Immunotherapy for head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head and neck cancer represents a challenging disease. Despite recent treatment advances, which have improved functional outcomes,\\u000a the long-term survival of head and neck cancer patients has remained unchanged for the past 25 years. One of the goals of\\u000a adjuvant cancer therapy is to eradicate local regional microscopic and micrometastatic disease with minimal toxicity to surrounding\\u000a normal cells. In this respect,

Annie A. Wu; Kevin J. Niparko; Sara I. Pai

2008-01-01

135

Musculocutaneous flaps in head and neck reconstruction.  

PubMed Central

The introduction of musculocutaneous flaps to head and neck reconstructive surgery is described. The flaps available are listed, and the most important ones described and illustrated. Both the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major flaps are felt to have a role in head and neck reconstruction, though they have largely been superseded by microvascular free flaps such as the radial forearm flap. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 fig. 6 fig. 7 fig. 8

Leonard, A. G.

1989-01-01

136

Intrathecal bupivacaine for head and neck pain  

PubMed Central

Direct central nervous system (CNS) analgesic delivery is a useful option when more traditional means of dealing with chronic pain fail. Solutions containing local anesthetic have been effective in certain disease states, particularly in patients suffering from intractable head and neck pain. This review discusses historical aspects of CNS drug delivery and the role of intrathecal bupivacaine-containing solutions in refractory head and neck pain patients.

Belverud, Shawn A; Mogilner, Alon Y; Schulder, Michael

2010-01-01

137

Ipsilateral femoral neck and trochanter fracture  

PubMed Central

Ipsilateral fractures in the neck and trochanteric region of the femur are very rare and seen in elderly osteoporotic patients. We present a case of a young man who presented with ipsilateral fracture of the femoral neck and a reverse oblique fracture in the trochanteric region following a motor vehicle accident. A possible mechanism, diagnostic challenge, and awareness required for identifying this injury are discussed.

Neogi, Devdatta S; Ajay Kumar, K V; Trikha, Vivek; Yadav, Chandra Shekhar

2011-01-01

138

Neck-shortening effect on prosaccade reaction time formed through saccadic training accompanied by maintenance of neck flexion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of neck-shortening on prosaccade reaction time formed through saccadic training accompanied by\\u000a maintenance of neck flexion. The subjects were 30 university students who exhibited no significant shortening of prosaccade\\u000a reaction time during maintenance of neck flexion, assigned to three groups: prosaccade training subjects at rest neck position\\u000a (rest training group); prosaccade training subjects at 20° neck

Kenji Kunita; Katsuo Fujiwara

2009-01-01

139

The effect of balance training on cervical sensorimotor function and neck pain.  

PubMed

The authors' aim was to evaluate the effect of balance training on cervical joint position sense in people with subclinical neck pain. Thirty-four participants were randomly assigned to balance training or to stay active. Sensorimotor function was determined before and after 5 weeks of training by assessing the ability to reproduce the neutral head position and a predefined rotated head position. After balance training, the intervention group showed improved joint repositioning accuracy and decreased pain whereas no effects were observed in the control group. A weak correlation was identified between reduced neck pain intensity and improved joint repositioning. The present data demonstrate that balance training can effectively improve cervical sensorimotor function and decrease neck pain intensity. PMID:23663191

Beinert, Konstantin; Taube, Wolfgang

140

Lessons learned from next-generation sequencing in head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

Scientific innovation has enabled whole exome capture and massively parallel sequencing of cancer genomes. In head and neck cancer, next-generation sequencing has granted us further understanding of the mutational spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma. As a result of these new technologies, frequently occurring mutations were identified in NOTCH1, a gene that had not previously been implicated in head and neck cancer. The current review describes the most common mutations in head and neck cancer: TP53, NOTCH1, HRAS, PIK3CA, and CDKN2A. Emphasis is placed on the involved cellular pathways, clinical correlations, and potential therapeutic interventions. Additionally, the implications of human papillomavirus on mutation patterns are discussed.

Loyo, Myriam; Li, Ryan J.; Bettegowda, Chetan; Pickering, Curtis R.; Frederick, Mitchell J.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Agrawal, Nishant

2013-01-01

141

Lessons learned from next-generation sequencing in head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Scientific innovation has enabled whole exome capture and massively parallel sequencing of cancer genomes. In head and neck cancer, next-generation sequencing has granted us further understanding of the mutational spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma. As a result of these new technologies, frequently occurring mutations were identified in NOTCH1, a gene that had not previously been implicated in head and neck cancer. The current review describes the most common mutations in head and neck cancer: TP53, NOTCH1, HRAS, PIK3CA, and CDKN2A. Emphasis is placed on the involved cellular pathways, clinical correlations, and potential therapeutic interventions. Additionally, the implications of human papillomavirus on mutation patterns are discussed. PMID:22907887

Loyo, Myriam; Li, Ryan J; Bettegowda, Chetan; Pickering, Curtis R; Frederick, Mitchell J; Myers, Jeffrey N; Agrawal, Nishant

2012-08-21

142

/sup 125/I Vicryl suture implants as a surgical adjuvant in cancer of the head and neck  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-four intraoperative /sup 125/I seed implants using absorbable suture (Vicryl) carriers were performed in 53 patients with head and neck cancers at Stanford between 1975 and 1980. In previously untreated patients, local control in the implanted volume or in all head and neck sites was obtained in 79 and 71%, respectively. Of 34 patients with recurrent carcinomas, local control was obtained in the implant volume in 20 (59%), while 38% had no recurrence post-implantation in any head and neck site. The incidence of complications is correlated with /sup 125/I radiation doses, total millicuries inserted, seed strength used, and tissue volume implanted for both untreated patients and those with local recurrences. Guidelines for the optimal use of the above 4 parameters are also presented. The authors conclude that /sup 125/I seed Vicryl intraoperative suture implants are an effective surgical adjuvant in the treatment of advanced, previously untreated or recurrent head and neck cancers.

Goffinet, D.R.; Martinez, A.; Fee, W.E. Jr.

1985-02-01

143

Future Directions and Treatment Strategies for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Head and neck cancer is a devastating disease that afflicts many individuals worldwide. Conventional therapies are successful in only a limited subgroup and often leave the patient with disfigurement and long lasting adverse effects on normal physiological functions. The field is in dire need of new therapies. Oncolytic viral as well as targeted therapies have shown some success in other malignancies and are attractive for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Recently, it has been shown that a subset of head and neck cancers is human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and that this subset of cancers is biologically distinct and more sensitive to chemoradiation therapies although the underlying mechanism is unclear. However, chemoresistance remains a general problem. One candidate mediator of therapeutic response, which is of interest for the targeting of both HPV-positive and -negative tumors is the human DEK proto-oncogene. DEK is upregulated in numerous tumors including head and neck cancers regardless of their HPV status. Depletion of DEK in tumor cells in culture results in sensitivity to genotoxic agents, particularly in rapidly proliferating cells. This suggests that tumors with high DEK protein expression may be correlated with poor clinical response to clastogenic therapies. Targeting molecules such as DEK in combination with new and/or conventional therapies, holds promise for novel future therapeutics for head and neck cancer.

Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Draper, David J.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Wells, Susanne I.

2012-01-01

144

Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture.  

PubMed

This study assesses femoral neck shortening and its effect on gait pattern and muscle strength in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation. Seventy-six patients from a multicenter randomized controlled trial participated. Patient characteristics and Short Form 12 and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were collected. Femoral neck shortening, gait parameters, and maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured and differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Variables of patients with little or no shortening, moderate shortening, and severe shortening were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Median femoral neck shortening was 1.1 cm. Subtle changes in gait pattern, reduced gait velocity, and reduced abductor muscle strength were observed. Age, weight, and Pauwels classification were risk factors for femoral neck shortening. Femoral neck shortening decreased gait velocity and seemed to impair gait symmetry and physical functioning. In conclusion, internal fixation of femoral neck fractures results in permanent physical limitations. The relatively young and healthy patients in our study seem capable of compensating. Attention should be paid to femoral neck shortening and proper correction with a heel lift, as inadequate correction may cause physical complaints and influence outcome. PMID:23823040

Zielinski, Stephanie M; Keijsers, Noël L; Praet, Stephan F E; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

2013-07-01

145

Lymph node metastases in the lower neck.  

PubMed

Current knowledge suggests that lymph node metastases in the lower neck (supraclavicular fossa and posterior triangle) are associated with a poor survival. Very little systematic work has been published on this subject. This was a retrospective study carried out on a database where all patients were entered in a prospective manner over a 35-year period using a standard pro-forma. Data on 168 patients presenting with a lower neck node metastasis were retrieved. The main outcome measures were: association between variables and tumour-specific survival. Data were displayed in contingency tables and analysed by chi-square and categorical modelling. Recurrence and survival were plotted in a cause-specific manner using the Kaplan Meir method. Differences in curves were analysed using the log rank test. Multivariate analysis was carried out using Cox's proportional hazard model. The only association was between site and node level and histology. Head and neck tumours were associated with squamous histology (P = 0.0004) and supraclavicular nodes (P = 0.0047). Survival time was not significantly different when lower-neck lymph node metastasis from the head and neck was compared to non-head and neck metastasis: 5-year survival 30% and 10% respectively (P = 0.1363). Survival with posterior triangle metastases was significantly better than supraclavicular metastases (P = 0. 0059), confirmed on multivariate analysis. Laterality of metastasis had no effect on survival (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in survival between squamous and non-squamous metastases on Cox regression (P = not significant). There were 85 head and neck primaries including lymphomas, 53 infraclavicular primaries and 30 unknown primaries. There were 73 squamous cell carcinomas, 27 adenocarcinomas, 34 lymphomas, 28 undifferentiated tumours and six other tumours. Nearly half the primary tumours were below the clavicle. Survival was unaffected by laterality, primary site or histology, but was better for posterior triangle nodes. PMID:12755760

Giridharan, W; Hughes, J; Fenton, J E; Jones, A S

2003-06-01

146

Treatment of Neck Pain: Noninvasive Interventions  

PubMed Central

Study Design. Best evidence synthesis. Objective. To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature from 1980 through 2006 on noninvasive interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders. Summary of Background Data. No comprehensive systematic literature reviews have been published on interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders in the past decade. Methods. We systematically searched Medline and screened for relevance literature published from 1980 through 2006 on the use, effectiveness, and safety of noninvasive interventions for neck pain and associated disorders. Consensus decisions were made about the scientific merit of each article; those judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our best evidence synthesis. Results. Of the 359 invasive and noninvasive intervention articles deemed relevant, 170 (47%) were accepted as scientifically admissible, and 139 of these related to noninvasive interventions (including health care utilization, costs, and safety). For whiplash-associated disorders, there is evidence that educational videos, mobilization, and exercises appear more beneficial than usual care or physical modalities. For other neck pain, the evidence suggests that manual and supervised exercise interventions, low-level laser therapy, and perhaps acupuncture are more effective than no treatment, sham, or alternative interventions; however, none of the active treatments was clearly superior to any other in either the short-or long-term. For both whiplash-associated disorders and other neck pain without radicular symptoms, interventions that focused on regaining function as soon as possible are relatively more effective than interventions that do not have such a focus. Conclusion. Our best evidence synthesis suggests that therapies involving manual therapy and exercise are more effective than alternative strategies for patients with neck pain; this was also true of therapies which include educational interventions addressing self-efficacy. Future efforts should focus on the study of noninvasive interventions for patients with radicular symptoms and on the design and evaluation of neck pain prevention strategies.

Carragee, Eugene J.; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carroll, Linda J.; Nordin, Margareta; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul M.; Holm, Lena W.; Cote, Pierre; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Cassidy, J. David; Haldeman, Scott

2008-01-01

147

RhoC expression and head and neck cancer metastasis.  

PubMed

RhoC protein, a known marker of metastases in aggressive breast cancers and melanoma, has also been found to be overexpressed in certain head and neck cancers, thus we investigated the correlation between RhoC expression and the metastatic behavior of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Selective inhibition of RhoC expression was achieved using lentiviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA) transduced and tracked with green fluorescent protein to achieve 70% to 80% RhoC inhibition. Fluorescence microscopy of the RhoC knockdown stable clones showed strong green fluorescence in the majority of cells, signifying a high efficiency of transduction. Importantly, quantitative real-time PCR showed no significant decrease in the mRNA expression levels of other members of the Ras superfamily. Cell motility and invasion were markedly diminished in RhoC-depleted cell lines as compared with control transduced lines. H&E staining of lung tissue obtained from severe combined immunodeficiency mice, which had been implanted with RhoC knockdown cells, showed a marked decrease in lung metastasis and inflammation of the blood vessels. The cultured lung tissue showed a significant decrease in cell growth in mice implanted with RhoC-depleted cell lines as compared with shRNA-scrambled sequence control lines. Microscopic studies of CD31 expression revealed substantial quantitative and qualitative differences in the primary tumor microvessel density as compared with parental and shRNA-scrambled controls. This study is the first of its kind to establish the involvement of RhoC specifically in head and neck metastasis. These findings suggest that RhoC warrants further investigation to delineate its robustness as a novel potentially therapeutic target. PMID:19861405

Islam, Mozaffarul; Lin, Giant; Brenner, John C; Pan, Quintin; Merajver, Sofia D; Hou, Yanjun; Kumar, Pawan; Teknos, Theodoros N

2009-10-27

148

Neck-shoulder crossover: how often do neck and shoulder pathology masquerade as each other?  

PubMed

Cases of consecutive new patients seen at orthopedic spine and shoulder clinics were reviewed. Four percent of spine patients had significant shoulder pathology, and 3.6% of shoulder patients had significant spine pathology. Identification of the correct pain generator is a prerequisite for effective treatment in patients with neck and/or shoulder problems. However, distinguishing between the two can be difficult. Relative frequencies of how often one is mistaken for the other have not been well established. Six hundred ninety-four new patients were seen at the orthopedic shoulder clinic (n = 452) or spine clinic (n = 242) at an academic institution during a 2-year period. One hundred seven patients had previous shoulder surgery, and 39 had previous neck surgery. The 548 patients (shoulder clinic, 345; spine clinic, 203) who had no previous surgery were reviewed with respect to workup performed, final diagnosis, subsequent operative procedures, and incidence of referral from the shoulder clinic to the spine clinic and vice versa. Among the patients seen at the shoulder clinic, 325 (94.2%) had shoulder pathology, 6 (1.7%) had neck but no shoulder pathology, 6 (1.7%) had shoulder and neck pathology, and 8 (2.3%) had an unidentifiable cause of pain. Of the 12 patients with neck pathology, none underwent neck surgery. Among the patients seen at the spine clinic, 182 (89.7%) had neck pathology, 5 (2.5%) had shoulder but no neck pathology, 3 (1.5%) had neck and shoulder pathology, and 13 (6.4%) had an unidentifiable cause of pain. Of the 8 patients with shoulder pathology, 1 (12.5%) underwent shoulder surgery. Our analysis suggests that for patients who present to a shoulder surgeon's clinic for shoulder pain, 3.6% will turn out to have neck pathology. For patients who present to a spine surgeon's clinic for neck pain, 4% may turn out to have shoulder pathology. Thus, approximately 1 in 25 patients seen at a surgeon's clinic for a presumed shoulder or neck problem may exhibit neck-shoulder crossover, in which pathology in one may be mistaken for or coexist with the other. PMID:24078971

Sembrano, Jonathan N; Yson, Sharon C; Kanu, Okezika C; Braman, Jonathan P; Santos, Edward Rainier G; Harrison, Alicia K; Polly, David W

2013-09-01

149

Normal kinematics of the neck: The interplay between the cervical and thoracic spines.  

PubMed

The movement coordination between the cervical and thoracic spine was examined in 34 asymptomatic participants (24 female and 10 male). Three-dimensional electromagnetic motion sensors were attached to the skin overlying the head, T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes to measure the angular displacement of the cervical, upper thoracic, and lower thoracic spine during active neck movements. These displacement measurements were found to have excellent reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.899 to 0.993. The angular displacement-time curves of the cervical and upper thoracic spine were also highly repeatable, with coefficient of multiple determinations ranging from 0.900 to 0.967. Both the cervical and thoracic spines were found to contribute to active neck motion, the greatest contribution being from the cervical region in all movement directions. The inter-regional movement coordination between the cervical spine and upper thoracic spine in all three planes of movement was found to be high, as determined by cross-correlation analysis of the movements of the regions. The current results suggest that the motion of the thoracic spine, in particular the upper thoracic spine, contributes to neck mobility, and that the upper thoracic spine should be included during clinical examination of neck dysfunction. PMID:23632368

Tsang, Sharon M H; Szeto, Grace P Y; Lee, Raymond Y W

2013-04-28

150

Phenylbutyrate interferes with the Fanconi anemia and BRCA pathway and sensitizes head and neck cancer cells to cisplatin  

PubMed Central

Background Cisplatin has been widely used to treat head and neck cancer. One of the clinical limitations with this treatment, however, is that tumors that are initially responsive to cisplatin later acquire resistance. We have recently shown that a subset of head and neck cancer cell lines has a defective Fanconi anemia DNA damage response pathway and this defect correlates to cisplatin sensitivity. We have also shown that the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate sensitize human cells to cisplatin. In this study we explored whether phenylbutyrate may sensitize head and neck cancer cells by interfering with the Fanconi anemia pathway. Results We found that the phenylbutyrate sensitizes head and neck cancer cell lines to cisplatin. This sensitization by phenylbutyrate correlated to a significant decrease in the formation of cisplatin-induced FANCD2 nuclear foci, which is a functional read out of the Fanconi anemia and BRCA (FA/BRCA) pathway. This abrogation of the FA/BRCA pathway by phenylbutyrate was not due to loss of FANCD2 monoubiquitylation but rather correlated to a phenylbutyrate-mediated reduction in the expression of the BRCA1 protein. Furthermore, we found that cancer cells defective in the FA pathway were also sensitized to cisplatin by phenylbutyrate suggesting that phenylbutyrate targets additional pathways. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that phenylbutyrate may have therapeutic utility as a cisplatin sensitizer in head and neck cancer by inhibiting the FA/BRCA pathway through the down regulation of BRCA1 as well as by an FA/BRCA-independent mechanism.

Burkitt, Kyunghee; Ljungman, Mats

2008-01-01

151

Genomic expression analysis of rat chromosome 4 for skeletal traits at femoral neck.  

PubMed

Hip fracture is the most devastating osteoporotic fracture type with significant morbidity and mortality. Several studies in humans and animal models identified chromosomal regions linked to hip size and bone mass. Previously, we identified that the region of 4q21-q41 on rat chromosome (Chr) 4 harbors multiple femoral neck quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in inbred Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats. The purpose of this study is to identify the candidate genes for femoral neck structure and density by correlating gene expression in the proximal femur with the femoral neck phenotypes linked to the QTLs on Chr 4. RNA was extracted from proximal femora of 4-wk-old rats from F344 and LEW strains, and two other strains, Copenhagen 2331 and Dark Agouti, were used as a negative control. Microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0 arrays. A total of 99 genes in the 4q21-q41 region were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) among all strains of rats with a false discovery rate <10%. These 99 genes were then ranked based on the strength of correlation between femoral neck phenotypes measured in F2 animals, homozygous for a particular strain's allele at the Chr 4 QTL and the expression level of the gene in that strain. A total of 18 candidate genes were strongly correlated (r(2) > 0.50) with femoral neck width and prioritized for further analysis. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed 14 of 18 of the candidate genes. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed several direct or indirect relationships among the candidate genes related to angiogenesis (VEGF), bone growth (FGF2), bone formation (IGF2 and IGF2BP3), and resorption (TNF). This study provides a shortened list of genetic determinants of skeletal traits at the hip and may lead to novel approaches for prevention and treatment of hip fracture. PMID:18728226

Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Liu, Lixiang; Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Yunlong; Edenberg, Howard J; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

2008-08-26

152

Penetrating neck wounds. Mandatory versus selective exploration.  

PubMed Central

We reviewed the records of 257 patients (ages, 16-83 years) with penetrating neck wounds (119 gunshot and 138 stab) managed at Harlem Hospital Center. Among the first 148 patients, 134 were managed by mandatory neck exploration; 42 had injuries (31%), and 92 (69%) had no injury. There were four deaths (3%) and seven (5%) morbidities. Because of the high rate of unnecessary operations, the following 109 patients were managed selectively, 40 by exploration, and nine of the 40 (22%) had no injury; 69 were observed and did not require subsequent operative intervention. There were six deaths (5.5%) and six morbidities (5.5%) among the second group. Morbidity and mortality were unrelated to the method of management but related to the type and severity of injuries, associated injuries, preexisting illnesses, and age of the patients. The frequency of operations for penetrating neck wounds without structural injuries was minimized in the selective exploration group. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2.

Ayuyao, A M; Kaledzi, Y L; Parsa, M H; Freeman, H P

1985-01-01

153

Hyperparathyroidism following head and neck irradiation  

SciTech Connect

A history of head and neck irradiation in childhood or adolescence was found in 22 of 130 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism compared with only 12 of 400 control patients. Among 200 patients with a known history of childhood irradiation, biochemical or surgical evidence of hyperparathyroidism was found in ten, a prevalence of 5%. This is at least 30 times the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism in the general population. The data indicate that head and neck irradiation should be regarded as an important risk factor in the subsequent development of hyperparathyroidism.

Rao, S.D.; Frame, B.; Miller, M.J.; Kleerskoper, M.; Block, M.A.; Parfitt, A.M.

1980-02-01

154

Comfort effects of a new car headrest with neck support.  

PubMed

This paper describes the design of a neck-/headrest to increase car comfort. Two studies were undertaken to create a new comfortable headrest with neck support. In experiment one, neck- and headrest data were gathered using 35 test subjects. The pressure distribution, stiffness of the foam material and position of the head and neck support were determined. In experiment two a full adjustable final headrest with adjustable neck support was constructed and tested with 12 subjects using a new adjustable headrest under virtual reality driving conditions. Experiment two showed that the headrest with the new/adjustable neck support was favoured by the majority of the subjects. 83% were satisfied with the stiffness of the material. 92% were satisfied with the size of the neck- and headrest. All subjects mentioned that the neck support is a comfort benefit in calm traffic conditions or on the motorway. PMID:21944482

Franz, M; Durt, A; Zenk, R; Desmet, P M A

2011-09-25

155

Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Research & Funding News About NCI Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ®) Patient Version Health ... Last Modified: 09/25/2013 Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ®) General Information About ...

156

Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Treatment and Oral Health Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth Are You Being Treated ... Problems Too? Remember Are You Being Treated With Radiation for Cancer in Your Head or Neck? If ...

157

49 CFR 572.83 - Head-neck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.83 Head-neck. The head-neck assembly shown in drawing 1049/A consists of parts specified as items 1 through 16 and in item...

2011-10-01

158

Parameters influencing AIS 1 neck injury outcome in frontal impacts.  

PubMed

In order to gain more knowledge of the neck injury scenario in frontal impacts, a statistical study of parameters influencing incidences of AIS 1 neck injuries was performed. The data set consisted of 616 occupants in Volvo cars. Information regarding the crash, the safety systems, occupant characteristics (including prior neck problems), behavior and sitting posture at the time of impact, and neck symptoms (including duration) was collected and analyzed. Occupant characteristics (mainly gender, weight, and age), kinematics (head impacts) and behavior at the time of impact were identified as the most prominent parameter areas with regard to AIS 1 neck injury outcome. Specifically, women had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate as compared to men, occupants under the age of 50 had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate as compared to those above 50 and occupants weighing less than 65 kg have a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate than heavier occupants. Drivers stating that they impacted their head against a frontal interior structure had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate than those without head impact. Also, occupants who stated they had tensed their neck muscles at the time of impact, had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate as compared to occupants who did not. Occupant activities, such as tightly gripping the steering wheel or straightening their arms showed a significantly increased AIS 1 neck injury rate, indicating that occupant behavior at time of impact could be influential with respect to AIS 1 neck injury outcome. Also, occupants reporting prior neck problems had a higher rate of persistent symptoms (>1 year) but no difference with respect to passing symptoms (<3 months) as compared to those without prior neck problems. Additionally, there was no distinct pattern for the duration of neck symptoms. PMID:15203952

Jakobsson, Lotta; Norin, Hans; Svensson, Mats Y

2004-06-01

159

A rare differential diagnosis to occupational neck pain: bilateral stylohyoid syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic neck pain is widely prevalent and a common source of disability in the working-age population. Etiology of chronic neck pain includes neck sprain, mechanical or muscular neck pain, myofascial pain syndrome, postural neck pain as well as pain due to degenerative changes. We report the case of a 42 year old secretary, complaining about a longer history of neck

Gertrud Kirchhoff; Chlodwig Kirchhoff; Sonja Buhmann; Karl-Georg Kanz; Miriam Lenz; Tobias Vogel; Rainer Maria Kichhoff

2006-01-01

160

Neck Circumference as an Anthropometric Measure of Obesity in Diabetics  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters.

Aswathappa, Jagadamba; Garg, Sumit; Kutty, Karthiyanee; Shankar, Vinutha

2013-01-01

161

Biologic markers, cellular differentiation, and metastatic head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plateau in survival rates from head and neck cancer as well as the increasing incidence of disease among various populations demands the need for new perspectives in head and neck oncology. In pursuit of that goal, investigators have been developing improved biologic markers for metastatic risk of head and neck cancer. Such markers can be placed into categorical groupings,

S. P. Schantz

1993-01-01

162

Multidirectional neck strength and electromyographic activity for normal controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the multidirectional force and indwelling electromyographic activity during maximal effort isometric actions of the neck.Design. A descriptive study involving maximal effort isometric actions of the neck and bilateral electromyographic activity.Background. This study extends previous efforts to assess the isometric strength of the neck, but with greater precision with respect to the intermediate angles between the frontal and

D. A. Gabriel; J. Y. Matsumoto; D. H. Davis; B. L. Currier; Kai-Nan An

2004-01-01

163

Rehabilitation of the head and neck cancer patient: Psychosocial aspects  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 42 chapters divided among six sections. Some of the chapter titles are: The Challenge of Cancer; Communicaton Needs of Head and Neck Cancer Patients; Normal Tissue Effects of the Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer; Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer; and Thyroid Cancer.

Blitzer, A.; Baredes, S.; Kutscher, A.; Seeland, I.B.; Barrett, V.W.; Mossman, K.L.

1985-01-01

164

Neck injury tolerance under inertial loads in side impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neck injury remains a major issue in road safety. Current side impact dummies and side impact crashworthiness assessments do not assess the risk of neck injury. These assessments are limited by biofidelity and knowledge regarding neck injury criteria and tolerance levels in side impacts. Side impact tests with PMHS were performed at the Heidelberg University in the 1980s and 1990s

Andrew S McIntosh; Dimitrios Kallieris; Bertrand Frechede

2007-01-01

165

Neck injury tolerance under inertial loads in side impacts.  

PubMed

Neck injury remains a major issue in road safety. Current side impact dummies and side impact crashworthiness assessments do not assess the risk of neck injury. These assessments are limited by biofidelity and knowledge regarding neck injury criteria and tolerance levels in side impacts. Side impact tests with PMHS were performed at the Heidelberg University in the 1980s and 1990s to improve primarily the understanding of trunk dynamics, injury mechanisms and criteria. In order to contribute to the definition of human tolerances at neck level, this study presents an analysis of the head/neck biomechanical parameters that were measured in these tests and their relationship to neck injury severity. Data from 15 impact tests were analysed. Head accelerations, and neck forces and moments were calculated from 9-accelerometer array head data, X-rays and anthropometric data. Statistically significant relationships were observed between resultant head acceleration and neck force and neck injury severity. The average resultant head acceleration for AIS 2 neck injuries was 112 g, while resultant neck force was 4925 N and moment 241 Nm. The data compared well to other test data on cadavers and volunteers. It is hoped that the paper will assist in the understanding of neck injuries and the development of tolerance criteria. PMID:17049471

McIntosh, Andrew S; Kallieris, Dimitrios; Frechede, Bertrand

2006-10-17

166

49 CFR 572.163 - Neck assembly and test procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Neck assembly and test procedure. 572.163 Section...Weighted Child Test Dummy § 572.163 Neck assembly and test procedure. The neck assembly is assembled and tested as specified in...

2012-10-01

167

49 CFR 572.163 - Neck assembly and test procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Neck assembly and test procedure. 572.163 Section...Weighted Child Test Dummy § 572.163 Neck assembly and test procedure. The neck assembly is assembled and tested as specified in...

2011-10-01

168

Use of Fibrin Sealant in Neck Contouring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The “suture suspension” platysmaplasty technique has been shown to be an effective and reliable procedure over the last decade. Objective: We investigated the effectiveness of fibrin sealant in reducing the recovery time after suture suspension platysmaplasty. Methods: After contouring the neck with our standard suture sling, hemostasis was assured. The instruments and gloves were wet with saline to prevent

Vincent C. Giampapa; George J. Bitar

2002-01-01

169

Immunobiology of head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of head and neck cancer (HNC) is strongly influenced by the host immune system. Recent evidence for the presence of functional defects and for apoptosis of tumor-infiltrating as well as circulating T cells in patients with HNC emphasizes the fact that their antitumor responses are compromised. It appears that H&N tumors not only effectively escape from the host

Theresa L. Whiteside

2005-01-01

170

Deep Neck Infections: A Constant Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although the advent of antibiotics and improved dental care decreased the incidence and mortality, deep neck infections (DNIs) are not uncommon and present a challenging problem due to the complex anatomy and potentially lethal complications that may arise. Objectives: This study reviews our experience with DNIs and tries to identify the predisposing factors of life-threatening complications. Methods: A retrospective

Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo; Carlo Marchiori; Francesca Montolli; Alberto Vaglia; Maria Cristina Da Mosto

2006-01-01

171

Grease selection for sealed roll neck bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990`s, a revolution took place in the steel industry with respect to lubricant usage, maintenance costs and the environment. The 4-row taper roller bearings that are used in rolling mills on the work roll necks have been historically lubricated with grease from a centralized grease system, pre-packed with grease at each roll change, or fed with oil from

R. C. Schrama; R. T. Vickerman; C. P. Bender

1995-01-01

172

Bladder Neck Closure for Treating Pediatric Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims of Study: In order to evaluate the effects of bladder neck closure (BNC) for treatment of pediatric incontinence, on the quality of life of those children, we reviewed the files of 17 children who underwent this procedure during the last 5 years. Information on previous surgery before BNC, continence and complications after BNC and patient satisfaction are gathered.Material and

P. Hoebeke; P. De Kuyper; H. Goeminne; E. Van Laecke; K. Everaert

2000-01-01

173

Paragangliomas of the head and neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors derived from the extra-adrenal paraganglia of the autonomic nervous system. Within the head and neck, they are generally defined and named according to their site of origin, and may be found frequently neighboring vascular structures. Physiologic activity is rare in these neoplasms and they may exhibit patterns of inheritance which predispose their occurrence in families, often

Phillip K Pellitteri; Alessandra Rinaldo; David Myssiorek; C Gary Jackson; Patrick J Bradley; Kenneth O Devaney; Ashok R Shaha; James L Netterville; Johannes J Manni; Alfio Ferlito

2004-01-01

174

49 CFR 572.183 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...it to fall freely to achieve an impact velocity of 3.4±0.1 m/s measured at...with the decelerating mechanism. The velocity-time history of the pendulum falls...ES-2re Neck Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

2012-10-01

175

49 CFR 572.193 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...36 Nm and not lower than â44 Nm. The moment measured by the upper neck load cell (Mx) shall be adjusted by the following formula: Mx(oc) 1 = Mx+0.01778Fy; 1 Mx(oc) is the moment at occipital condyle...

2009-10-01

176

49 CFR 572.193 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...36 Nm and not lower than â44 Nm. The moment measured by the upper neck load cell (Mx) shall be adjusted by the following formula: Mx(oc) 1 = Mx+0.01778Fy; 1 Mx(oc) is the moment at occipital condyle...

2010-10-01

177

THE ROLE OF BLADDER NECK BIOPSY IN MEN UNDERGOING RADICAL RETROPUBIC PROSTATECTOMY WITH PRESERVATION OF THE BLADDER NECK  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeRadical retropubic prostatectomy is often performed with preservation of the bladder neck. We examine the incidence of benign and malignant prostatic tissue at the bladder neck margin in men undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy with preservation of the bladder neck for clinically localized prostate cancer.

HERBERT LEPOR; SAMUEL CHAN; JONATHAN MELAMED

1998-01-01

178

The chameleon in the neck: Nodular fasciitis mimicking malignant neck mass of unknown primary  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Difficulties with the correct diagnosis and treatment of nodular fasciitis in head and neck region has been reported in the literature. Nodular fasciitis was mistaken for sarcoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, pleomorphic adenoma, or as a vascular lesion. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a patient with a single node in the neck with accelerated growth, which clinically appeared as a malignant epithelial tumor with unknown primary. The en bloc removal of the tumor and selective neck dissection was performed with bilateral tonsillectomy and biopsy of the tongue base. The histopathology revealed the tumor to be nodular fasciitis. No malignant cells were detected. DISCUSSION Due to very rapid growth, its rich cellularity and high mitotic activity, nodular fasciitis can be mistaken as a malignant tumor. Trauma and/or infection is advocated to be a trigger for the formation of nodular fasciitis, although the exact aetiopathogenesis still remains unknown. Our patient admitted to regularly practicing martial arts with his opponent performing a specific combat maneuver applying pressure into the neck and submental region, which might have triggered the formation of the nodular fasciitis. CONCLUSION Nodular fasciitis is a benign and often overlooked diagnosis in the head and neck region, that can be misinterpreted as a malignant tumor both clinically and histologically. A comprehensive medical history may help to avoid unnecessary radical treatment. If a malignancy cannot be confidently ruled out, the en bloc resection of the tumor with selective neck dissection may offer a safe option with low morbidity.

Borumandi, Farzad; Cascarini, Luke; Mallawaarachchi, Ranjan; Sandison, Ann

2012-01-01

179

Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks  

PubMed Central

The necks of the sauropod dinosaurs reached 15 m in length: six times longer than that of the world record giraffe and five times longer than those of all other terrestrial animals. Several anatomical features enabled this extreme elongation, including: absolutely large body size and quadrupedal stance providing a stable platform for a long neck; a small, light head that did not orally process food; cervical vertebrae that were both numerous and individually elongate; an efficient air-sac-based respiratory system; and distinctive cervical architecture. Relevant features of sauropod cervical vertebrae include: pneumatic chambers that enabled the bone to be positioned in a mechanically efficient way within the envelope; and muscular attachments of varying importance to the neural spines, epipophyses and cervical ribs. Other long-necked tetrapods lacked important features of sauropods, preventing the evolution of longer necks: for example, giraffes have relatively small torsos and large, heavy heads, share the usual mammalian constraint of only seven cervical vertebrae, and lack an air-sac system and pneumatic bones. Among non-sauropods, their saurischian relatives the theropod dinosaurs seem to have been best placed to evolve long necks, and indeed their necks probably surpassed those of giraffes. But 150 million years of evolution did not suffice for them to exceed a relatively modest 2.5 m.

Wedel, Mathew J.

2013-01-01

180

Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion for Prediction of Multiplanar Cervical Spine Injury Due to Side Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion (IV-NIC) is based on the hypothesis that dynamic three-dimensional intervertebral motion beyond physiological limits may cause multiplanar injury of cervical spine soft tissues. Goals of this study, using a biofidelic whole human cervical spine model with muscle force replication and surrogate head in simulated side impacts, were to correlate IV-NIC with multiplanar injury and determine

Manohar M. Panjabi; Paul C. Ivancic; Yasuhiro Tominaga; Jaw-Lin Wang

2005-01-01

181

LOXL4 is a selectively expressed candidate diagnostic antigen in head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective up-regulation of the mRNA of LOXL4, a member of the LOX matrix amine oxidase family, significantly correlated with lymph node metastases and higher tumour stages in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of the protein we produced an antibody specific for LOXL4 and assessed the expression in 317 human HNSCC specimens.

Jan Bernd Weise; Pierre Rudolph; Axel Heiser; Marie-Luise Kruse; Jürgen Hedderich; Christian Cordes; Markus Hoffmann; Ommo Brant; Petra Ambrosch; Katalin Csiszar; Tibor Görögh

2008-01-01

182

Relation of a Hypoxia Metagene Derived from Head and Neck Cancer to Prognosis of Multiple Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affymetrix U133plus2 GeneChips were used to profile 59 head and neck squamous cell cancers. A hypoxia metagene was obtained by analysis of genes whose in vivo expression clustered with the expression of 10 well-known hypoxia- regulated genes (e.g., CA9, GLUT1, and VEGF). To minimize random aggregation, strongly correlated up-regulated genes appearingin >50% of clusters defined a sig nature comprising 99

Stuart C. Winter; Francesca M. Buffa; Priyamal Silva; Crispin Miller; Helen R. Valentine; Helen Turley; Ketan A. Shah; Graham J. Cox; Rogan J. Corbridge; Jarrod J. Homer; Brian Musgrove; Nick Slevin; Philip Sloan; Pat Price; Catharine M. L. West; Adrian L. Harris

2007-01-01

183

Interleukin6 directly influences proliferation and invasion potential of head and neck cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional regulator of immune response and hematopoiesis. Recently, it has been reported that\\u000a expression of IL-6 is correlated with prognosis in various cancer patients. In this study, we investigated whether the proliferation\\u000a and invasion potential of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) were influenced by IL-6. All HNSCC cell lines, HEp-2,\\u000a HSC-2, HSC-4, and SAS,

Takeharu Kanazawa; Hiroshi Nishino; Masahiro Hasegawa; Yasushi Ohta; Yukiko Iino; Keiichi Ichimura; Yutaka Noda

2007-01-01

184

Clinical and medicolegal characteristics of neck injuries.  

PubMed

The predominance in performing surgery of major spine injuries by neurosurgeons usually has the consequence of treating all types of spine injuries by neurosurgeons - neurotraumatologists. In the neurosurgical wards of Clinical Hospital Rijeka, we take care of the majority of these patients, following both the major, as well as minor--whiplash injuries of the neck. This article is an overview of the patients admitted in the one year period (October 1st 2009-October 1st 2010) where 1077 cases of neck injuries were analyzed. Vast majority of these injuries were due to traffic accidents (over 94%), and only a small proportion were serious injuries that needed a surgical approach--decompression and stabilization (c1%). We analyzed minor neck injuries thoroughly both because of the increasing number of whiplash neck injuries and because more complicated diagnostic and therapeutic protocols occupy too much time in the ambulatory practice of our neurotraumatologists each year thus representing a growing financial burden to the health organizations and to the society as a whole. Our results proved that the majority of the injured are male (over 60%), young and active (almost two thirds 21-40 years of age), had commonly sustained a Quebec Task Force (QTF) injury of grades 2 and 3 (almost 90%), and, if properly treated, recovered completely after a mean therapy period of ten weeks. Only a minority complained of prolonged residual symptoms, some of them connected with medico-legal issues (less than 20%). The results shown are in contrast with the general opinion that malingerers in search of financial compensation prevail in these cases, and leads to the conclusion that minor neck injuries (including whiplash) as well as Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) are real traumatological entities, that have to be seriously dealt with. PMID:22220432

Girotto, Dean; Ledi?, Darko; Strenja-Lini?, Ines; Peharec, Stanislav; Grubesi?, Aron

2011-09-01

185

Field survey and laboratory feeding study of Asian shore crabs, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, from Wood Neck Beach, Cape Cod, MA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed 2 days of field studies to investigate the distribution of the Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, in the rocky intertidal zone at Wood Neck Beach (near Woods Hole, MA). We found that the number of Hemigrapsus found under rocks was positively correlated with the surface area of the rocks. We also noted that a large proportion of sampled

Jennifer Benoit; Stacy DeRuiter; Joanna Gyory

186

The Soluble A Chain of Interleukin15 Receptor: A Proinflammatory Molecule Associated with Tumor Progression in Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin (IL)-15 is a proinflammatory cytokine, as it induces the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor A (TNFA), IL-17, etc.). A correlation between high intratumoral IL-15 concentrations and poor clinical outcome in lung and head and neck cancer patients has been recently reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the soluble A chain

Cecile Badoual; Gregory Bouchaud; Erwan Mortier; Stephane Hans; Alain Gey; Fahima Fernani; Severine Peyrard; Pierre Laurent-Puig; Patrick Bruneval; Xavier Sastre; Ariane Plet; Laure Garrigue-Antar; Francoise Quintin-Colonna; Wolf H. Fridman; Daniel Brasnu; Yannick Jacques; Eric Tartour; Georges Pompidou

2008-01-01

187

Potential autocrine function of vascular endothelial growth factor in head and neck cancer via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular endothelial growth factor is a peptide with well-defined actions on the vasculature and fundamental role in tumor angiogenesis. Its action in vascular endothelium is exerted in a paracrine manner. The immunohistochemical expression of this protein by cancer cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was correlated with increased tumor aggressiveness and poor survival in previous studies. In the

Panayiotis A Kyzas; Dimitrios Stefanou; Anna Batistatou; Niki J Agnantis

2005-01-01

188

Repetitive ramped neck suction: a quantitative test of human baroreceptor function.  

PubMed

Bolus intravenous injection of an alpha-agonist is a widely accepted method used for studying baroreceptor function. However, the method is invasive, multiple baroreceptor regions are stimulated, and there are diverse direct effects of these pharmacologic agents, e.g., direct effects on the carotid sinus region. A recently described noninvasive neck suction technique may be highly specific for assessing the carotid sinus to sinoatrial node baroreflex. We compared neck suction-derived baroslopes with those obtained from the standard, invasive phenylephrine infusion method. These techniques were applied to 15 adult volunteers while awake and during 1.34 and 2% isoflurane anesthesia. The correlation coefficients between the two methods were 0.74 (P = 0.002) in awake subjects and 0.75 (P = 0.001) overall. The neck suction method of repetitive, ramped carotid stimuli yielded results that were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of the standard phenylephrine method. The neck suction method is simple, noninvasive, and can be repeated at frequent intervals. This method may be highly specific for determining carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex physiology in humans. PMID:6507635

Ebert, T J; Hayes, J J; Ceschi, J; Kotrly, K J; van Brederode, J; Smith, J J

1984-12-01

189

[Sono-morphologic criteria of metastatic and reactive modes in the neck].  

PubMed

Real time high resolution ultrasonography (US) is thought to be the diagnostic tool of high sensitivity in detecting lymph nodes in patients diagnosed and follow-up for head and neck malignancies. Sensitivity and specificity of US are determined by quality of equipment, the kind of transducer and the experience of ultrasonographer. The diagnostic difficulties are met in small lymph nodes, less than 10 mm. Which sonographic picture is ambigious. It is very important in follow-up to avoid false-negative nodes and possibility of overtreatment of patient. The aim of the paper was to determine the sonomorphogic criteria which enable improving the specificity of neck ultrasonography especially in assessing the small, less then 10 mm lymph nodes. MATHERIAL AND METHOD: Ultrasonograph Aloka SSD 3500 and transducer 7.5 Mhz with 42 mm linear probe. The neck US was performed before the surgery. Maximal longitudinal diameter (L), maximal diameter (S), their ratio (S/L) which indicate the lymph node shape, echogenicity and internal echostructure were assessed. The features of the lymph node capsule, i.e. continuity, lost of echos were taken into consideration. The high echogenicity, the round shape of the node, lost of hilus central echo or it's marginal displacement correlate with malignant character of the node. Lost of echos in node capsule are not the indicator of the extracapsular spread. Using sonomorphologic criteria in assessment of small lymph nodes in the neck the authors stated the meaningful improving of US specificity. PMID:12162023

Wierzbicka, Ma?gorzata; Szyfter, Witold; Pazdrowski, Jakub; Kaczmarek, Janusz

2002-01-01

190

Multiple regions-of-interest analysis of setup uncertainties for head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze three-dimensional setup uncertainties for multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in head-and-neck region. Methods and Materials: In-room computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired using a CT-on-rails system for 14 patients. Three separate bony ROIs were defined: C2 and C6 vertebral bodies and the palatine process of the maxilla. Translational shifts of 3 ROIs were calculated relative to the marked isocenter on the immobilization mask. Results: The shifts for all 3 ROIs were highly correlated. However, noticeable differences on the order of 2-6 mm existed between any 2 ROIs, indicating the flexibility and/or rotational effect in the head-and-neck region. The palatine process of the maxilla had the smallest right-left shifts because of the tight lateral fit in the face mask, but the largest superior-inferior movement because of in-plane rotation and variations in jaw positions. The neck region (C6) had the largest right-left shifts. The positioning mouthpiece was found effective in reducing variations in the superior-inferior direction. There was no statistically significant improvement for using the S-board (8 out of 14 patients) vs. the short face mask. Conclusions: We found variability in setup corrections for different regions of head-and-neck anatomy. These relative positional variations should be considered when making setup corrections or designing treatment margins.

Zhang Lifei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lo, Justin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas-Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Ang, K. Kian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ahamad, Anesa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Morrison, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chambers, Mark S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: ldong@mdanderson.org

2006-04-01

191

Modified functional neck dissection: a useful technique for oral cancers.  

PubMed

Among 60 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, 30 were treated by the modified functional neck dissection (preserve 8 functional tissues), 30 were treated by functional neck dissection (preserve 3 functional tissues). The recurrent rate of cervical lymph node and the sense of skin were assessed. The recurrence rates in cervical nodes was 6.67% and 10%, respectively (p > 0.05) in patients who accepted modified functional neck dissection and functional neck dissection. The sensation in skin in patients who accepted modified functional neck dissection was better than those who accepted functional neck dissection (p < 0.01). Modified functional neck dissection is helpful to decrease postoperative complications, without increasing recurrent rates of cervical lymph node. PMID:16139562

Minghua, Ge; Zhiyuan, Gu; Zhun, Jin; Han, Chun

2005-08-31

192

Modified valgus osteotomy of the femoral neck for late presenting femoral neck stress fractures in military recruits  

PubMed Central

Neglected or late presenting femoral neck stress fractures are often associated with varus deformity, with potential risks of nonunion and osteonecrosis. We proposed a surgical technique whereby a wedge osteotomy was performed at the basal part of the neck, on the tensile surface, keeping the inferomedial femoral neck as a hinge. The femoral shaft was abducted to close the osteotomy site and it was fixed with three cannulated cancellous screws. Three military recruits who presented with neglected femoral neck stress fracture with varus deformity were operated on with the proposed modified femoral neck valgus osteotomy. All the fractures united without any complications and the patients resumed their professional activity.

Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Manoharan, Shakthivel RR; Chakrabarty, Somya

2013-01-01

193

[Overloading to neck extensor muscles is an aggravating factor to induce further neck drop in isolated neck extensor myopathy (Katz). A case report].  

PubMed

A 78-year-old woman was hospitalized because of progressive anterior neck drop over 4 months prior to admission. She was normal except for mild weakness of her neck, trapezius and biceps brachii muscles. EMG revealed mild myopathic changes in the neck extensors, trapezius, deltoid and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Bilateral splenius capitis muscles had high intensities on T2-weighted and STIR pulse-sequenced MRI. However, there were no inflammatory changes in the right splenius muscle biopsy. Accordingly, the abnormal MRI finding seems not to result from an inflammatory process but from an physiological increase of intracellular water content due to sustained muscle contraction. Because apparent neuromuscular diseases responsible for neck drop were excluded, her clinical features met the criteria of isolated neck extensor myopathy (INEM, Katz). After strict bed-rest for one month, her neck drop improved dramatically. When she returned to the previous life style after discharge, her symptoms of the neck drop reappeared. Although the cause of INEM remains unclear, the present case indicates that the condition is reversible at least in the early stage of the disease, and the overloading to the neck extensor muscles is an aggravating factor of the neck drop in INEM. PMID:11257793

Oishi, K; Shigeto, H; Maruyama, K; Oya, Y; Ogawa, M; Nonaka, I; Kawai, M

2000-09-01

194

Test Characteristics of Neck Fullness and Witnessed Neck Pulsations in the Diagnosis of Typical AV Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Claims in the medical literature suggest that neck fullness and witnessed neck pulsations are useful in the diagnosis of typical AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Hypothesis Neck fullness and witnessed neck pulsations have a high positive predictive value in the diagnosis of typical AVNRT. Methods We performed a cross sectional study of consecutive patients with palpitations presenting to a single electrophysiology (EP) laboratory over a 1 year period. Each patient underwent a standard questionnaire regarding neck fullness and/or witnessed neck pulsations during their palpitations. The reference standard for diagnosis was determined by electrocardiogram and invasive EP studies. Results Comparing typical AVNRT to atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) patients, the proportions with neck fullness and witnessed neck pulsations did not significantly differ: in the best case scenario (using the upper end of the 95% confidence interval [CI]), none of the positive or negative predictive values exceeded 79%. After restricting the population to those with supraventricular tachycardia other than AF or AFL (SVT), neck fullness again exhibited poor test characteristics; however, witnessed neck pulsations exhibited a specificity of 97% (95% CI 90–100%) and a positive predictive value of 83% (95% CI 52–98%). After adjustment for potential confounders, SVT patients with witnessed neck pulsations had a 7 fold greater odds of having typical AVNRT, p=0.029. Conclusions Although neither neck fullness nor witnessed neck pulsations are useful in distinguishing typical AVNRT from AF or AFL, witnessed neck pulsations are specific for the presence of typical AVNRT among those with SVT.

Sakhuja, Rahul; Smith, Lisa M; Tseng, Zian H; Badhwar, Nitish; Lee, Byron K; Lee, Randall J; Scheinman, Melvin M; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Marcus, Gregory M

2011-01-01

195

Combined tracheoesophageal transection after blunt neck trauma.  

PubMed

Survival following tracheoesophageal transection is uncommon. Establishing a secure airway has the highest priority in trauma management. Understanding the mechanism of the incident can be a useful adjunct in predicting the likelihood and severity of specific anatomical patterns of injuries. We discuss published literature on combined tracheoesophageal injuries after blunt neck trauma and their outcome. A search of MEDLINE for papers published regarding tracheoesophageal injury was made. The literature search identified 14 such articles referring to a total of 27 patients. Age ranged from 3-73 years. The mechanism of injury was secondary to a rope/wire in 33%, metal bar in 4% of cases and unspecified in 63%. All of the patients were managed surgically. A number of tissues were used to protect the anastomosis including pleural and sternocleidomastoid muscle flaps. There were no reported mortalities. Patients with combined tracheoesophageal injury after blunt neck trauma require acute management of airway along with concomitant occult injuries. PMID:23723621

Hamid, Umar Imran; Jones, James Mark

2013-04-01

196

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis from deep neck infection.  

PubMed

This study aims to identify predisposing characteristics of descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) arising from deep neck infection (DNI) and to determine appropriate therapeutic intervention strategies. We retrospectively reviewed 54 patients (male, n = 34; female, n = 20; mean age, 64.5 years) who had been treated at Mie University Hospital for DNI between April 2001 and October 2011. Eight of nine patients who developed DNM confirmed by computed tomography of the neck and chest, underwent mediastinal drainage (video-assisted thoracic surgical drainage, n = 6; mediastinoscopy-assisted drainage, n = 2). A patient developed uncontrolled acute respiratory distress syndrome after aggressive surgery, resulting in a mortality rate of 12 %. High blood CRP values, and the pharynx and tonsils as origins of infection were factors involved in the development of DNM arising from DNI. In conclusion, DNM remains a destructive and fatal disease that requires aggressive treatment including mediastinal exploration. PMID:22986415

Ishinaga, Hajime; Otsu, Kazuya; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Miyamura, Tomotaka; Nakamura, Satoshi; Kitano, Masako; Tenpaku, Hironori; Takao, Motoshi; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

2012-09-18

197

Multiple Cancers of the Head and Neck  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Multiple head and neck cancers are not rare entities and according to studies in the literature, their incidence is increasing. The emergence of multiple cancers is explained by the phenomenon of "field cancerization". Patients with cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract develop most often a second malignancy, usually in the upper aero-digestive tract and among them, those with larynx cancer ranks first among patients with multiple cancers. In the literature and in practice, we met rare combination of multiple cancers, associations that appear to be "random", cannot be explained by any of the hypotheses developed: exposure to carcinogens, genetic susceptibility, and immunodeficiency or cancer treatments after index tumor. Follow-up of patients who have had a head and neck cancer and periodic control are important for early detection of multiple cancers.

HEROIU (CATALOIU), Adriana-Daniela; DANCIU, Cezara Elisabeta; POPESCU, Cristian Radu

2013-01-01

198

Combined tracheoesophageal transection after blunt neck trauma  

PubMed Central

Survival following tracheoesophageal transection is uncommon. Establishing a secure airway has the highest priority in trauma management. Understanding the mechanism of the incident can be a useful adjunct in predicting the likelihood and severity of specific anatomical patterns of injuries. We discuss published literature on combined tracheoesophageal injuries after blunt neck trauma and their outcome. A search of MEDLINE for papers published regarding tracheoesophageal injury was made. The literature search identified 14 such articles referring to a total of 27 patients. Age ranged from 3-73 years. The mechanism of injury was secondary to a rope/wire in 33%, metal bar in 4% of cases and unspecified in 63%. All of the patients were managed surgically. A number of tissues were used to protect the anastomosis including pleural and sternocleidomastoid muscle flaps. There were no reported mortalities. Patients with combined tracheoesophageal injury after blunt neck trauma require acute management of airway along with concomitant occult injuries.

Hamid, Umar Imran; Jones, James Mark

2013-01-01

199

Biomarkers in Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biomarker research provides the opportunity to risk stratify patients based on identified prognostic and predictive markers.\\u000a The need for such biomarkers is ­evident to improve response and survival outcomes in head and neck cancer through more rational\\u000a patient selection for intensive curative regimens as well as palliative treatments. Increasing numbers of molecularly targeted\\u000a therapeutics are in preclinical and clinical evaluation

John Wrangle; Shanthi Marur; Arlene A. Forastiere

200

PUMA in head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic alterations of p53, which monitors DNA damage and operates cellular checkpoints, is a major factor in the development of many types of cancer in human. PUMA, a direct mediator of p53-associated apoptosis, was recently identified. The PUMA gene was mapped to chromosomal arm 19q, a region frequently deleted in head\\/neck and lung cancers. We analyzed 30 primary tumors (15

Mohammad Obaidul Hoque; Shahnaz Begum; Matthias Sommer; Taekyeol Lee; Barry Trink; Edward Ratovitski; David Sidransky

2003-01-01

201

Head and Neck Sarcomas and Lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcoma and lymphoma are tumors of mesenchymal origin that comprise a contrasting subset of uncommon head and neck (HN) neoplasms.\\u000a Lymphomas enjoy excellent response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) and almost never require surgery. In contrast, sarcomas\\u000a almost always require surgery to achieve local control, and rarely develop regional metastases other than for some uncommon\\u000a histo-logical subtypes so that elective

Brian O'Sullivan; Jonathan Irish; Richard Tsang

202

Angiocentric Lesions of the Head and Neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiocentric lesions of the head and neck encompass a variety of benign and malignant lesions. Not unexpectedly the sequelae\\u000a of an angiocentric process independent of its benign or malignant nature is one of tissue ischemia with a potential for either\\u000a breakdown or reparative fibrosis. Therefore, the clinical presentations can be very similar despite a varied pathogenesis.\\u000a Among the benign reactive

Cynthia M. Magro; Molly Dyrsen

2008-01-01

203

Deep neck infection in Northern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this retrospective study, conducted by the Department of Otolaryngology, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, is to\\u000a understand the clinical characteristics of patients with deep neck infection (DNI), especially in immunocompromised hosts,\\u000a as well as to analyze the factors that influence multiple spaces’ involvement and complications. The data collected (January\\u000a 2004–July 2009) from 177 patients with DNI, excluding peritonsillar

Pichit Sittitrai; Thienchai Pattarasakulchai; Rak Tananuvat

204

[Deep neck infections: a retrospective study].  

PubMed

A retrospective study was carried out on 79 patients with deep neck infections (DNI) admitted to our Department between 1990 and 2005 in order to review our experience with DNI and verify if diabetic and immunocompromised patients have more aggressive infections and poorer prognosis. Demographics, clinical presentation, etiology, site of infection, associated systemic diseases (26.6%-21/79), microbiology, treatment and complications were considered. PMID:17902568

Bagnati, Tania; Olina, Massimo; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Borello, Giovanni; Valletti, Paolo Aluffi; Pia, Francesco; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

2007-09-01

205

Bladder-Neck Resection in Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within seven years, 139 patients with multiple sclerosis or allied disorders were treated with transurethral resection for stenosis of the bladder neck. Six-month follow-ups were performed in 134 patients alive at that time. At the follow-up, one-quarter of the patients were practically symptom-free, and a total of three-quarters were improved. The results were best in the group without incontinence. However,

B. E. Jakobsen; E. Pedersen; V. Grynderup

1973-01-01

206

Clinical outcome after undisplaced femoral neck fractures  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Little attention has been paid to undisplaced femoral neck fractures. By using data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register, we investigated the risk of reoperation and the clinical outcome after treatment of these fractures in patients over 60 years of age. Methods Data on 4,468 patients with undisplaced femoral neck fractures who were operated with screw osteosynthesis were compared to those from 10,289 patients with displaced femoral neck fractures treated with screw osteosynthesis (n = 3,389) or bipolar hemiarthroplasty (n = 6,900). The evaluation was based on number of reoperations and patient assessment at 4 and 12 months of follow-up. Results The 1-year implant survival was 89% after screw fixation for undisplaced fractures, 79% after screw fixation for displaced fractures, and 97% after hemiarthroplasty for displaced fractures. Patients with displaced fractures who were operated with internal fixation had a higher risk of reoperation (RR = 1.9, CI: 1.7–2.2), reported more pain, were less satisfied, and had lower quality of life than patients with undisplaced fractures treated with internal fixation (p < 0.05). Patients with displaced fractures who were operated with hemiarthroplasty had a lower risk of reoperation than patients with undisplaced fractures who were operated with internal fixation (RR = 0.32, CI: 0.27–0.38). Furthermore, they had the lowest degree of pain, were most satisfied, and reported the highest quality of life. Interpretation Interpretation The differences in clinical outcome found were less than what is considered to be of clinical importance. The results support the use of screw osteosynthesis for undisplaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients, although even better results were obtained in the hemiarthroplasty group in patients with displaced fractures.

2011-01-01

207

Chronic neck pain and cervicogenic headaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Chronic axial neck pain and cervicogenic headache are common problems, and there have been significant advances in the understanding\\u000a of the etiology and treatment of each. The severity and duration of pain drives the process. For patients who have had slight\\u000a to moderate pain that has been present for less than 6 months and have no significant motor loss,

Frank L. Feng; Jerome Schofferman

2003-01-01

208

Chemoprevention of head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is the most common epithelial neoplasm of the upper aerodigestive tract and represents\\u000a a major health concern in the United States and worldwide. Invasive squamous cell carcinoma is the end result of a multiyear,\\u000a multistep process of accumulation of genetic and phenotypic damage. Chemoprevention is defined as the use of pharmacologic\\u000a or

Katrina Y. Glover; Vali A. Papadimitrakopoulou

2003-01-01

209

Course and Prognostic Factors for Neck Pain in Workers  

PubMed Central

Study Design Best-evidence synthesis. Objective To perform a best evidence synthesis on the course and prognostic factors for neck pain and its associated disorders in workers. Summary of Background Data Knowledge of the course of neck pain in workers guides expectations for recovery. Identifying prognostic factors assists in planning effective workplace policies, formulating interventions and promoting lifestyle changes to decrease the frequency and burden of neck pain in the workplace. Methods The Bone and Joint Decade 2000?2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and its Associated Disorders (Neck Pain Task Force) conducted a critical review of the literature published between 1980 and 2006 to assemble the best evidence on neck pain and its associated disorders. Studies meeting criteria for scientific validity were included in a best evidence synthesis. Results We found 226 articles related to course and prognostic factors in neck pain and its associated disorders. After a critical review, 70 (31%) were accepted on scientific merit; 14 of these studies related to course and prognostic factors in working populations. Between 60% and 80% of workers with neck pain reported neck pain1 year later. Few workplace or physical job demands were identified as being linked to recovery from neck pain. However, workers with little influence on their own work situation had a slightly poorer prognosis, and white-collar workers had a better prognosis than blue-collar workers. General exercise was associated with better prognosis; prior neck pain and prior sick leave were associated with poorer prognosis. Conclusion The Neck Pain Task Force presents a report of current best evidence on course and prognosis for neck pain. Few modifiable prognostic factors were identified; however, having some influence over one's own job and being physically active seem to hold promise as prognostic factors.

Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Cote, Pierre; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Holm, Lena W.; Carragee, Eugene J.; Hurwitz, Eric L.; Peloso, Paul M.; Cassidy, J. David; Guzman, Jaime; Nordin, Margareta; Haldeman, Scott

2008-01-01

210

Incorporation of lower neck shear forces to predict facet joint injury risk in low-speed automotive rear impacts.  

PubMed

Lower neck shear force remains a viable candidate for a low-velocity automotive rear-impact injury criterion. Data were previously reported to demonstrate high correlations between the magnitude of lower neck shear force and lower cervical spine facet joint motions. The present study determined the ability of lower neck shear force to predict soft-tissue injury risk in simulated automotive rear impacts. Rear-impact tests were conducted at two velocities and with two seatback orientations using a Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and stock automobile seats from 2007 model year vehicles. Higher velocities and more vertical seatback orientations were associated with higher injury risk based on computational modeling simulations performed in this study. Six cervical spine injury criteria including NIC, Nij, Nkm, LNL, and lower neck shear force and bending moment, increased with impact velocity. NIC, Nij, and shear force were most sensitive to changes in impact velocity. Four metrics, including Nkm, LNL, and lower neck shear force and bending moment, increased for tests with more vertical seatback orientations. Shear force was most sensitive to changes in seatback orientation. Peak values for shear force, NIC, and Nij occurred approximately at the time of head restraint contact for all four test conditions. Therefore, of the six investigated metrics, lower neck shear force was the only metric to demonstrate consistency with regard to injury risk and timing of peak magnitudes. These results demonstrate the ability of lower neck shear force to predict injury risk during low velocity automotive rear impacts and warrant continued investigation into the sensitivity and applicability of this metric for other rear-impact conditions. PMID:20544575

Stemper, Brian D; Storvik, Steven G

2010-06-01

211

Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery  

PubMed Central

The Scientific Board of the California Medical Association presents the following inventory of items of progress in otolaryngology/head and neck surgery. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and important clinical significance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, or scholars to stay abreast of these items of progress in otolaryngology/head and neck surgery that have recently achieved a substantial degree of authoritative acceptance, whether in their own field of special interest or another. The items of progress listed below were selected by the Advisory Panel to the Section on Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery of the California Medical Association, and the summaries were prepared under its direction.

Eichel, Berkeley S.

1991-01-01

212

Inverted drop testing and neck injury potential.  

PubMed

Inverted drop testing of vehicles is a methodology that has long been used by the automotive industry and researchers to test roof integrity and is currently being considered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as a roof strength test. In 1990 a study was reported which involved 8 dolly rollover tests and 5 inverted drop tests. These studies were conducted with restrained Hybrid III instrumented Anthropometric Test Devices (ATD) in production and rollcaged vehicles to investigate the relationship between roof strength and occupant injury potential. The 5 inverted drop tests included in the study provided a methodology producing "repeatable roof impacts" exposing the ATDs to the similar impact environment as those seen in the dolly rollover tests. Authors have conducted two inverted drop test sets as part of an investigation of two real world rollover accidents. Hybrid-III ATD's were used in each test with instrumented head and necks. Both test sets confirm that reduction of roof intrusion and increased headroom can significantly enhance occupant protection. In both test pairs, the neck force of the dummy in the vehicle with less crush and more survival space was significantly lower. Reduced roof crush and dynamic preservation of the occupant survival space resulted in only minor occupant contact and minimal occupant loading, establishing a clear causal relationship between roof crush and neck injuries. PMID:12724903

Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

2003-01-01

213

Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck.  

PubMed

Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1-3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. PMID:22697305

Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

2012-06-15

214

[Patient with relapsed hyperparathyroidism and neck swelling].  

PubMed

72-year-old woman with a history of primary hyperparathyroidism, for which she underwent surgery years previously, went to see her general practitioner because of a swelling in her neck that had been present for a few months and was growing in size. Other than this she had no symptoms. During the physical examination a solid elastic, non-fixed swelling with a diameter of about 3 cm was palpable on the right of the neck, medially to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The swelling did not move when she swallowed. Laboratory tests and an MRI scan were suggestive of parathyroid carcinoma. An examination of the neck showed a large, irregular, lobed soft tumour and several small deposits with a yellowish brown appearance. Histology showed no characteristics of malignancy, but showed a picture consistent with the diagnosis of 'parathyromatosis', a rare disorder characterized by hormonally active ectopic parathyroid tissue. Treatment is primarily surgical, aimed at radical resection. Medicinal therapy using a calcimimetic agent may have a role as an adjuvant treatment. PMID:19857304

Faneyte, Ian F; Sanson, Rieneke E; van Eeden, Susan; Fliers, Eric; Gouma, Dirk J; van Dijkum, Els J M Nieveen

2009-01-01

215

Retest Reliability of Force-Time Variables of Neck Muscles Under Isometric Conditions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Proper conditioning of the neck muscles may play a role in reducing the risk of neck injury and, possibly, concussions in contact sports. However, the ability to reliably measure the force-time–based variables that might be relevant for this purpose has not been addressed. Objective: To assess the between-days reliability of discrete force-time–based variables of neck muscles during maximal voluntary isometric contractions in 5 directions. Design: Cohort study. Setting: University research center. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-six highly physically active men (age ?=? 21.6 ± 2.1 years, height ?=? 1.85 ± 0.09 m, mass ?=? 81.6 ± 9.9 kg, head circumference ?=? 0.58 ± 0.01 m, neck circumference ?=? 0.39 ± 0.02 m). Intervention(s): We used a custom-built testing apparatus to measure maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the neck muscles in 5 directions (extension, flexion, protraction, left lateral bending, and right lateral bending) on 2 separate occasions separated by 7 to 8 days. Main Outcome Measure(s): Variables measured were peak force (PF), rate of force development (RFD), and time to 50% of PF (T50PF). Reliability indices calculated for each variable comprised the difference in scores between the testing sessions, with corresponding 95% confidence intervals, the coefficient of variation of the typical error of measurement (CVTE), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC [3,3]). Results: No evidence of systematic bias was detected for the dependent measures across any movement direction; retest differences in measurements were between 1.8% and 2.7%, with corresponding 95% confidence interval ranges of less than 10% and overlapping zero. The CVTE was lowest for PF (range, 2.4%–6.3%) across all testing directions, followed by RFD (range, 4.8%–9.0%) and T50PF (range, 7.1%–9.3%). The ICC score range for all dependent measures was 0.90 to 0.99. Conclusions: Discrete variables representative of the force-generating capacity of neck muscles under isometric conditions can be measured with an acceptable degree of reliability. This finding has possible applications for investigating the role of neck muscle strength-training programs in reducing the risk of injuries in sport settings.

Almosnino, Sivan; Pelland, Lucie; Stevenson, Joan M.

2010-01-01

216

Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Head and Neck Lesions of Paediatric Age Group  

PubMed Central

Context: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology [FNAC] of the head and neck region is well accepted as a diagnostic procedure. Various studies in the context of FNAC in the head and neck region are available for the adult population, but only few studies are available for the paediatric age group. Aims: To study the role of fine needle aspiration cytology and its utility in paediatric head and neck lesions. Settings and Design: This was a hospital based, prospective study. Method and Materials: Hundred cases of head and neck lesions of the paediatric age group [0-15 years] were studied for cytomorphology through fine needle aspiration cytology and the results were correlated with the histomorphology. Results: There was a male predominance in the case distribution among both the sexes in children [55%]. The head and neck lesions were most frequent in the age group of 10-15 years, followed by the age group of 5-10 years than the age group of 0-5 years. Lesions in the cervical lymph nodes constituted 81% of the head and neck lesions and 87% of the adequate smears, followed by those in the skin and subcutaneous tissues [3 cases (3.2%)], the thyroid [4 cases (4.3%)] and the salivary gland [1 case (1%)]. 88.17% cases of head and neck lesions in children were diagnosed as benign on their smears and 11.83% cases were diagnosed as malignant, of which 8 cases of malignant lesions were located in the cervical lymph nodes, 1 case was located in the thyroid and 2 cases of malignant lesions were located in the orbits. Conclusions: FNAC is an important and a non-invasive, investigational tool in children for identifying and planning the medical management of inflammatory and infectious conditions. It helped us in indicating the diagnosis of the lesions in congenital or aquired malformations, cystic lesions and benign neoplastic lesions, in which surgical management were needed and we got confirmations on histological examinations. For the malignant lesions, FNAC was a more important investigation tool than an accurate investigation tool, which suggested about the lesions and guided us to do more advanced specific investigations for obtaining the diagnosis.

Mittra, Purnima; Bharti, Rajni; Pandey, Manmohan Krishna

2013-01-01

217

Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: II. Analysis of Specific Subsets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forces generated in the cervical spine were evaluated for a substantial number of motor-vehicle occupants in an associated study.[1] Correlation between these forces and various occupant- and impact-related parameters was generally not high for the broad groupings of the population considered at that time. In this research, smaller subsets with more elements in common were extracted from the data to try to detect any underlying relationships that might exist for the neck force. Although correlation coefficients for these subsets were higher than those for the previous groupings in more than three-quarters of the matches undertaken, the values still did not indicate consistently good fits. This suggests that there is no simple relationship for the force within the cervical spine and this, in turn, means that the potential for neck injury has to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. 1. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: I. Overview of Large Population, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. in press (2000).

Shaibani, Saami J.

2000-03-01

218

Direction of hip arthroplasty dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures  

PubMed Central

In order to prevent hip arthroplasty dislocations, information regarding the direction of the dislocation is important for accurate implant positioning and for optimising the postoperative regimens in relation to the surgical approach used. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of the surgical approach on the direction of the dislocation in patients treated by a hemiarthroplasty (HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) after a femoral neck fracture. Fracture patients have a high risk for dislocations, and this issue has not been previously studied in a selected group of patients with a femoral neck fracture. We analysed the radiographs of the primary dislocation in 74 patients who had sustained a dislocation of their HA (n?=?42) or THA (n?=?32). In 42 patients an anterolateral (AL) surgical approach was used and in 32 a posterolateral (PL). The surgical approach significantly influenced the direction of dislocation in patients treated with HA (p?correlation was found after THA (p?=?0.388). For THA patients there was a correlation between the mean angle of anteversion of the acetabular component and the direction of dislocation when comparing patients with anterior and posterior dislocations (p?=?0.027). These results suggest that the surgical approach of a HA has an influence on the direction of dislocation, in contrast to THA where the position of the acetabular component seems to be of importance for the direction of dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures.

Lapidus, Gunilla; Tornkvist, Hans; Tidermark, Jan; Lapidus, Lasse J.

2010-01-01

219

Perineural invasion in T1 oral squamous cell carcinoma indicates the need for aggressive elective neck dissection.  

PubMed

Observation or elective neck dissection (END) for cN0 neck remains controversial for the treatment of T1-2 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Perineural invasion (PNI) has been recognized as a poor prognostic factor for OSCC. However, its significance in T1 OSCC remains unclear. A detailed histologic reevaluation of PNI was carried out in 307 patients with T1-2 OSCC who received surgical treatment between June 2001 and January 2009. We found that the presence of PNI correlated with cervical lymph node metastasis in both T1 and T2 OSCC, with a lower PNI-positive rate in T1 (17.1% vs. 36.6%; P<0.001). Importantly, observation for cN0 neck was used twice as often in T1 than in T2 patients (47.4% vs. 22.8%; P<0.001). Although patients with T1 OSCC achieved significantly better outcomes, PNI correlated with neck recurrence and poor disease-specific survival (DSS) only in T1 (P<0.001 and P<0.0001) but not in T2 patients (P=0.399 and 0.1478). Of the 146 patients with T1 OSCC, PNI independently predicted cervical lymph node metastasis, neck recurrence, and poor DSS. END significantly reduced neck recurrence of T1 OSCC in PNI-positive (P=0.001) but not in PNI-negative (P=0.114) patients. In addition, END improved the 5-year DSS of T1 OSCC more in PNI-positive than in PNI-negative patients (16.2% vs. 5.4%). Our results indicate that PNI independently predicts a poor prognosis in T1 OSCC patients who are potentially curable but tend to be treated conservatively. For its efficacy in improving treatment outcomes, aggressive END is indicated for T1 OSCC patients at the presence of PNI. PMID:23681077

Tai, Shyh-Kuan; Li, Wing-Yin; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Chu, Pen-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Fen

2013-08-01

220

Management of the neck in thick-skinned patients.  

PubMed

The neck has always been one of the most difficult areas to manage in rejuvenation surgery. Even patients with adequate results after a facelift may be dissatisfied because of the appearance of the neck. Moreover, not all neck problems are the same in all patients. Some cases only require fat removal to obtain good results, whereas others require complete neck- and facelift to achieve the desired results. This article offers a detailed step-by-step description of the approach to aesthetic pathologies of the neck, tailored to the needs of each individual patient. The article also includes a discussion of topics such as double chin liposuction, platysma plication, corset platysmaplasty, platysmal suspension to the mastoid, mentoplasty, and neck- and facelift. PMID:23761125

Espinosa, Jorge; Valencia, Diana Parra

2013-06-12

221

Establishing a head and neck unit in a developing country.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancers pose an especially serious problem in developing countries due to late presentation requiring complex surgical intervention. These countries are faced with many challenges, ranging from insufficient health care staff to problems with peri-operative requirements, diagnostic facilities, chemoradiation services and research funding.These challenges can be addressed through the training of head and neck surgeons and support personnel, the improvement of cancer awareness in local communities, and the establishment of dedicated head and neck institutes which focus on the special needs of head and neck cancer patients.All these changes can best be achieved through collaborative efforts with external partners. The Karl Storz Fellowship in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer, enabling training at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, has served as a springboard towards establishing head and neck services in developing sub-Saharan African countries. PMID:22643201

Aswani, J; Baidoo, K; Otiti, J

2012-06-01

222

Validity and reliability of a modified version of the neck disability index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Neck Disability Index was tested for validity and reli- ability. Fifty-nine Swedish patients (28 men, 31 women) were included. Twenty patients were in the acute phase after a neck sprain, 19 had chronic neck pain and 20 had no neck pain but had other musculoskeletal symptoms. On 5 occa- sions, the patients completed the Neck Disability Index, the Disability

Birgitta Helmerson Ackelman; Urban Lindgren

2002-01-01

223

Patterns of sexual, bilateral and interpopulational variation in human femoral neck-shaft angles  

PubMed Central

Data on femoral neck-shaft angles were collected for 30 modern, historic and prehistoric human population samples, and analysed with respect to sexual dimorphism, bilateral asymmetry, geographical patterning and general economic level. Although some samples had modest sexual dimorphism in this angle, and some individuals exhibited clear asymmetry, there were no consistent patterns of sexual or side differences across human populations. Similarly, there was no evidence for geographic differences, since broad regional groups lacked significant differences and mean angles were not correlated with latitude. However, there is a significant increase in mean neck-shaft angles across populations with an increasingly sedentary existence and with mechanisation. The last reflects the developmental plasticity of this feature with respect to habitual load levels during ontogeny of the hip region.

ANDERSON, JOHN Y.; TRINKAUS, ERIK

1998-01-01

224

Evidence-Based Head and Neck Oncology: Principles and Pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Evidence-based Head and Neck Oncology is the implementation of, or the move toward, Evidence-based medicine (EBM) in the care\\u000a of individual patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. While the general principles and pitfalls of EBM apply\\u000a in this subfield as well as in medicine in general, this chapter maintains a head and neck focus. A number of recent

Søren M. Bentzen

225

Assessment of Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders  

PubMed Central

Study Design Best evidence synthesis. Objective To critically appraise and synthesize the literature on assessment of neck pain. Summary of Background Data The published literature on assessment of neck pain is large and of variable quality. There have been no prior systematic reviews of this literature. Methods The Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders conducted a critical review of the literature (published 1980– 2006) on assessment tools and screening protocols for traumatic and nontraumatic neck pain. Results We found 359 articles on assessment of neck pain. After critical review, 95 (35%) were judged scientifically admissible. Screening protocols have high predictive values to detect cervical spine fracture in alert, low-risk patients seeking emergency care after blunt neck trauma. Computerized tomography (CT) scans had better validity (in adults and elderly) than radiographs in assessing high-risk and/or multi-injured blunt trauma neck patients. In the absence of serious pathology, clinical physical examinations are more predictive at excluding than confirming structural lesions causing neurologic compression. One exception is the manual provocation test for cervical radiculopathy, which has high positive predictive value. There was no evidence that specific MRI findings are associated with neck pain, cervicogenic headache, or whiplash exposure. No evidence supports using cervical provocative discography, anesthetic facet, or medial branch blocks in evaluating neck pain. Reliable and valid self-report questionnaires are useful in assessing pain, function, disability, and psychosocial status in individuals with neck pain. Conclusion The scientific evidence supports screening protocols in emergency care for low-risk patients; and CT-scans for high-risk patients with blunt trauma to the neck. In nonemergency neck pain without radiculopathy, the validity of most commonly used objective tests is lacking. There is support for subjective self-report assessment in monitoring patients’ course, response to treatment, and in clinical research.

Carragee, Eugene J.; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Weiner, Shira Schecter; Hurwitz, Eric L.; Peloso, Paul M.; Guzman, Jaime; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carroll, Linda J.; Holm, Lena W.; Cote, Pierre; Cassidy, J. David; Haldeman, Scott

2008-01-01

226

The Burden and Determinants of Neck Pain in Workers  

PubMed Central

Study Design Systematic review and best evidence synthesis. Objectives To describe the prevalence and incidence of neck pain and disability in workers; to identify risk factors for neck pain in workers; to propose an etiological diagram; and to make recommendations for future research. Summary of Background Data Previous reviews of the etiology of neck pain in workers relied on cross-sectional evidence. Recently published cohorts and randomized trials warrant a re-analysis of this body of research. Methods We systematically searched Medline for literature published from 1980–2006. Retrieved articles were reviewed for relevance. Relevant articles were critically appraised. Articles judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our best evidence synthesis. Results One hundred and nine papers on the burden and determinants of neck pain in workers were scientifically admissible. The annual prevalence of neck pain varied from 27.1% in Norway to 47.8% in Québec, Canada. Each year, between 11% and 14.1% of workers were limited in their activities because of neck pain. Risk factors associated with neck pain in workers include age, previous musculoskeletal pain, high quantitative job demands, low social support at work, job insecurity, low physical capacity, poor computer workstation design and work posture, sedentary work position, repetitive work and precision work. We found preliminary evidence that gender, occupation, headaches, emotional problems, smoking, poor job satisfaction, awkward work postures, poor physical work environment, and workers’ ethnicity may be associated with neck pain. There is evidence that interventions aimed at modifying workstations and worker posture are not effective in reducing the incidence of neck pain in workers. Conclusion Neck disorders are a significant source of pain and activity limitations in workers. Most neck pain results from complex relationships between individual and workplace risk factors. No prevention strategies have been shown to reduce the incidence of neck pain in workers.

van der Velde, Gabrielle; David Cassidy, J.; Carroll, Linda J.; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Holm, Lena W.; Carragee, Eugene J.; Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta; Hurwitz, Eric L.; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul M.

2008-01-01

227

Head and neck paragangliomas: clinical and molecular genetic classification  

PubMed Central

Head and neck paragangliomas are tumors arising from specialized neural crest cells. Prominent locations are the carotid body along with the vagal, jugular, and tympanic glomus. Head and neck paragangliomas are slowly growing tumors, with some carotid body tumors being reported to exist for many years as a painless lateral mass on the neck. Symptoms depend on the specific locations. In contrast to paraganglial tumors of the adrenals, abdomen and thorax, head and neck paragangliomas seldom release catecholamines and are hence rarely vasoactive. Petrous bone, jugular, and tympanic head and neck paragangliomas may cause hearing loss. The internationally accepted clinical classifications for carotid body tumors are based on the Shamblin Class I–III stages, which correspond to postoperative permanent side effects. For petrous-bone paragangliomas in the head and neck, the Fisch classification is used. Regarding the molecular genetics, head and neck paragangliomas have been associated with nine susceptibility genes: NF1, RET, VHL, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2 (SDH5), and TMEM127. Hereditary HNPs are mostly caused by mutations of the SDHD gene, but SDHB and SDHC mutations are not uncommon in such patients. Head and neck paragangliomas are rarely associated with mutations of VHL, RET, or NF1. The research on SDHA, SDHAF2 and TMEM127 is ongoing. Multiple head and neck paragangliomas are common in patients with SDHD mutations, while malignant head and neck paraganglioma is mostly seen in patients with SDHB mutations. The treatment of choice is surgical resection. Good postoperative results can be expected in carotid body tumors of Shamblin Class I and II, whereas operations on other carotid body tumors and other head and neck paragangliomas frequently result in deficits of the cranial nerves adjacent to the tumors. Slow growth and the tendency of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas to be multifocal may justify less aggressive treatment strategies.

Offergeld, Christian; Brase, Christoph; Yaremchuk, Svetlana; Mader, Irina; Rischke, Hans Christian; Glasker, Sven; Schmid, Kurt W; Wiech, Thorsten; Preuss, Simon F; Suarez, Carlos; Kopec, Tomasz; Patocs, Attila; Wohllk, Nelson; Malekpour, Mahdi; Boedeker, Carsten C; Neumann, Hartmut PH

2012-01-01

228

Biofidelity of Dummy and FEM Necks in the Frequency Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modal analysis technique is used in order to characterize the human head-neck system in vivo. The extracted modal characteristics consist of a first natural frequency at 1.3±0.1 Hz associated with head-neck extension\\u000a motion and a second mode at 8±0.7 Hz associated with head translation. By recording experimentally the apparent mass of dummies\\u000a head-neck system under the same experimental condition as

N. Bourdet; R. Fischer; F. Meyer; R. Willinger

229

Sentinel Node Biopsy for Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The presence of cervical lymph node metastases remains one of the most important prognostic factors for various solid tumors\\u000a of the head and neck, including melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). In patients with\\u000a clinically evident neck involvement, the regional lymphatics clearly require directed treatment, and this may involve therapeutic\\u000a neck dissection or radiotherapy. However, the

Lee Alkureishi; Gary L. Ross

230

Management of the clinically negative (N0) neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinically negative (N0) neck is defined by its absence of palpable or radiographically suspicious lymph nodes. Management\\u000a of patients staged N0 is controversial. Clinical studies have lacked sufficient power and follow-up time to show a survival\\u000a benefit for any particular option. Current options include observation, elective neck irradiation, and elective neck dissection.\\u000a Treatment plans are based on treatment of

Karen T. Pitman; Robert Dean

2002-01-01

231

Experimental neck muscle pain impairs standing balance in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired postural control has been reported in patients with chronic neck pain of both traumatic and non-traumatic etiologies,\\u000a but whether painful stimulation of neck muscle per se can affect balance control during quiet standing in humans remains unclear.\\u000a The purpose of the present experiment was thus to investigate the effect of experimental neck muscle pain on standing balance\\u000a in young

Nicolas Vuillerme; Nicolas Pinsault

2009-01-01

232

Hypertrophy of the sternoclavicular joint after functional neck dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sternoclavicular joint hypertrophy is anecdotally reported as a common sequela to radical neck dissection. It is postulated\\u000a that sternoclavicular joint hypertrophy is a result of a combination of spinal accessory nerve division and sternocleidomastoid\\u000a muscle resection during radical neck dissection. However, we noticed that sternoclavicular joint hypertrophy can occur following\\u000a functional neck dissection with preservation of the spinal accessory nerve,

Mohamed A. Ellabban; Greg O’Neill; Stephen Morley; David S. Soutar

2008-01-01

233

Symptoms in early head and neck cancer: An inadequate indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening programs show promise in increasing the rate of early detection of head and neck cancers in high-risk populations. Prout et al (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;116:201-8) examined the usefulness of a large-scale screening program for head and neck cancer in an inner city population by primary care physicians. Symptom assessment was based on the American Cancer Society’s “Seven Warning

ROBERT W. DOLAN; CHARLES W. VAUGHAN; NABIL FULEIHAN

1998-01-01

234

Managing a wooden foreign body in the neck.  

PubMed

An interesting case is presented of a wooden foreign body in the neck entering through the right lower vestibule of the mouth. The foreign body traveled subcutaneously in the neck and got stuck in the clavicle, without damaging any vital structures. In this case, the authors highlight the mode of entry of the foreign body, the peculiarity of the wooden foreign body, the management protocol and the outcomes of the penetrating neck injury by the wooden stick. PMID:20009310

Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Bhandary, Sangita; Karki, Prahlad

2009-09-01

235

Managing a wooden foreign body in the neck  

PubMed Central

An interesting case is presented of a wooden foreign body in the neck entering through the right lower vestibule of the mouth. The foreign body traveled subcutaneously in the neck and got stuck in the clavicle, without damaging any vital structures. In this case, the authors highlight the mode of entry of the foreign body, the peculiarity of the wooden foreign body, the management protocol and the outcomes of the penetrating neck injury by the wooden stick.

Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Bhandary, Sangita; Karki, Prahlad

2009-01-01

236

Isolated head drop triggered by neck surgery following concomitant chemoradiotherapy.  

PubMed

Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is characterized by severe weakness of neck extension that occurs in isolation or association with a generalized neuromuscular disorder. Multietiologies may be responsible for DHS, including radiotherapy, which may cause a delayed form of DHS. However, DHS acutely triggered by neck surgery after chemoradiotherapy is rare. The author reports a case of acute onset of isolated DHS following selective neck dissection surgery after concomitant chemoradiotherapy for laryngeal cancer. PMID:18344717

Luo, Jin Jun

2008-03-01

237

Post-traumatic myofascial pain of the head and neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-traumatic myofascial pain describes the majority of chronic head and neck pain seen in clinical practice. If conditions\\u000a such as vascular headaches, neuropathic pain, degenerative cervical joint disease, and dental pain are excluded, myofascial\\u000a tissues are directly or indirectly involved in all other forms of head and neck pain. The most common of these include temporomandibular\\u000a disorders, neck pain such

Brian Freund; Marvin Schwartz

2002-01-01

238

Wound botulism presenting as a deep neck space infection.  

PubMed

Otolaryngologists commonly evaluate patients with findings suspicious for deep space soft tissue infections of the neck. In this case, a woman with a history of injection drug use (IDU) presented with dysphagia, odynophagia, and neck pain. Multiple neck abscesses, too small to drain, were seen on imaging. Despite broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, she unexpectedly and rapidly developed respiratory failure requiring intubation. Further work-up diagnosed wound botulism (WB). To our knowledge, this is the first report of WB presenting as a deep neck space infection, and illustrates the importance of considering this deadly diagnosis in patients with IDU history and bulbar symptoms. PMID:22645053

Gouveia, Christopher; Mookherjee, Somnath; Russell, Matthew S

2012-05-29

239

Unusual head and neck injury in elevator: autopsy study.  

PubMed

Industrial injuries related to auto-load-carrying vehicles were not frequently reported in the literature. Presented case was, 31-year-old male furniture worker. Deceased was found in awkward position in furniture workshop. Victim was observed on his knees in front of the elevator, head and neck lodged within openings of the elevator, and head and neck structures compressed-guillotined by the lower platform of the elevator were detected. We presented rare case of head and neck compression by elevator. Key words: head - neck - accidents - elevator - autopsy. PMID:23121036

Eren, B; Türkmen, N; Dokgöz, H

2012-10-01

240

Injuries to neck structures in deaths due to constriction of neck, with a special reference to hanging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study aimed at examining various injuries to the neck structures in deaths due to constriction of neck. Neck dissection technique, as advocated by Prinsloo and Gordon was undertaken to study the injuries to the thyro-hyoid complex, strap muscles, carotid vessels, etc.Of the 1746 medico-legal autopsies, conducted during the study period, 5% were deaths due asphyxia of which 82%

B. R. Sharma; D. Harish; Anup Sharma; Swati Sharma; Harshabad Singh

2008-01-01

241

Endurance and fatigue characteristics of the neck flexor and extensor muscles during isometric tests in patients with postural neck pain.  

PubMed

Sustained postural loading of the cervical spine during work or recreational tasks may contribute to the development of neck pain. The aim of this study was to compare neck muscle endurance and fatigue characteristics during sub-maximal isometric endurance tests in patients with postural neck pain, with asymptomatic subjects. Thirteen female patients with postural neck pain and 12 asymptomatic female control subjects completed timed sub-maximal muscle endurance tests for the neck flexor and extensor muscles. Muscle fatigue, defined as the time-dependent decrease in median frequency electromyography (EMG), was examined using surface EMG analysis during the tests. The median extensor test holding time was lower but not significantly different in the neck pain group (165 s) that the control group (228 s) (p = 0.17). There was no difference between groups in the flexor test holding time (neck pain = 36 s, controls = 38 s) (p = 0.96). The neck pain group was characterised by greater variability in neck flexor (p = 0.03) and extensor (p = 0.006) muscle endurance. For both tests, the rate of decrease in median frequency EMG was highly variable within and between groups with no significant difference between groups for the flexor or extensor test (p = 0.05-0.82). Patients with postural neck pain did not have significant impairment of neck muscle endurance or accelerated fatigue compared to control subjects. However, the greater variability in these indices of muscle function may reflect patient-specific changes in muscle function associated with neck pain disorder. PMID:21256071

Edmondston, Stephen; Björnsdóttir, Guðný; Pálsson, Thorvaldur; Solgård, Hege; Ussing, Kasper; Allison, Garry

2011-01-20

242

Predictive factors for arm pain, neck pain, neck specific disability and health after anterior cervical decompression and fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Background. Predictive factors for a low arm and neck pain, and good health after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) with\\u000a a cervical carbon fibre intervertebral fusion cage (CIFC) are still lacking.\\u000a \\u000a Method. A prospective consecutive study to investigate which preoperative factors that could predict a good outcome with regard to\\u000a arm pain, neck pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI) and

A. Peolsson; L. Vavruch; B. Öberg

2006-01-01

243

Prognostic significance of radiologically determined neck node volume in head and neck cancer: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review addresses the prognostic significance of neck node volume in head and neck cancer. Primary tumor volume evolved as an independent significant factor for survival in head and neck cancer patients. Besides primary tumor volume, multiple prognostic features related to the regional lymph nodes were studied in literature. In literature, some authors showed the significance of total tumor volume/nodal volume for survival and loco-regional control. Articles reporting prognosis and survival in nodal tumor volumes were collected by systematically reviewing publications listed in the Pubmed and Embase databases. Publications were included when they at least reported on total tumor volume (TTV) or nodal volume and survival. In this systematic review we studied 21 articles. For measurement of nodal volume different formulas were used. Until now, there's no clear statistical evidence for the use of either TTV or nodal volume versus primary tumor volume to predict the individual loco-regional control or survival after treatment. There is wide variety of tumor measuring systems in the literature. The cut-off value for local tumor response also shows large variation. Firstly consensus should be accomplished on standardization of volume measurements, preferably automatic, and secondly large study groups are needed with identical treatment modalities to further unravel the role of neck node volume as separate staging tool. PMID:22112442

Lodder, W L; Pameijer, F A; Rasch, C R N; van den Brekel, M W M; Balm, A J M

2011-11-22

244

What a Pain in the Neck! Good Habits to Remember to Prevent Neck Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... on the arm of a couch. On the phone a lot? Use a speakerphone or headsets -- do not cradle the phone in your neck. Exercise. Treat your body to ... Bryn Mawr Ave., Ste 200 Rosemont, Illinois 60018 phone (847) 737-6000 fax (847) 737-6001 © 2013 ...

245

Pathology Case Study: Right Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman developed a right parotid gland tumor, and experienced regrowth after its removal. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Mnuskin, Anna; Dhir, Rajiv

2008-10-30

246

Blood transfusion requirements in femoral neck fractures.  

PubMed Central

Fractures of the femoral neck are common, and their incidence seems likely to increase. A prospective study in 1991 of 80 patients with such fractures suggested that not all need to be cross-matched preoperatively, a finding supported by the existing literature. At the same time, a survey of transfusion protocols in hospitals throughout the country suggested that much blood was being wasted daily in unnecessary cross-matching. This survey was repeated in 1995, and little appears to have changed. The implications of this are discussed.

Muir, L.

1995-01-01

247

Pathology Case Study: Left Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which six-year-old girl has neck mass five years after a liver transplant for biliary atresia. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Richert, Charles A.; Dickman, Paul S.; Cohen, Lance

2007-09-07

248

Pathology Case Study: Left Upper Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This surgical pathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a mass in the patientâÂÂs neck. Gross and microscopic descriptions of the surgically removed mass are included in the case study to aid in understanding the diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

Craig, Fiona; Nodit, Laurentia

2008-12-24

249

Fatigue During Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy: Prospective Study on 117 Consecutive Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Fatigue is an underevaluated cancer-related and treatment-related symptom. We analyzed fatigue in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 117 patients were enrolled (mean age, 58 years). Radiation therapy (median dose, 66 Gy) was given with either exclusive or postoperative intent in 52 and 65 patients, respectively. Chemotherapy (CT) was added before and/or during RT in 61 patients. The patients completed a 20-item questionnaire (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI-20]) before, during (weekly), and after RT. The impact of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors on fatigue was evaluated with unifactorial and multifactorial tests. Results: Fatigue level increased during RT reaching a maximum at Week 6 and then slowly decreased. In multivariate stepwise regression analysis age (inversely related, p < 0.05), psychologic disorders (p < 0.005), and previous head-and-neck surgery (inversely related, p < 0.005) were correlated with higher pre-RT fatigue level. Pre-RT fatigue score (p < 0.0001), induction and/or concomitant CT (p = 0.035), need of cortisone during RT (p = 0.005), and thyroid disorders (p = 0.032) were correlated with higher during-RT fatigue level. Pre-RT fatigue score (p < 0.0001), induction and/or concomitant CT (p < 0.001), and need of cortisone during RT (p < 0.005) were correlated with higher post-RT fatigue level. No impact of gender, performance status, comorbidities other than psychologic and thyroid, tumor stage/site, RT intent, dose, volume, duration, or toxicity was observed. Conclusion: Fatigue affects all patients undergoing RT for head-and-neck cancer, reaches maximum score at the 6th week of RT, and slowly decreases thereafter. Age, thyroid dysfunction, psychologic disorders, pre-RT fatigue score, CT, and cortisone use are correlated with RT-related fatigue levels.

Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy) and University of Milan, Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: barbara.fossa@ieo.it; Santoro, Luigi [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Alterio, Daniela [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Franchi, Benedetta [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Fiore, Maria Rosaria [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Fossati, Piero [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Kowalczyk, Anna [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk (Poland); Canino, Paola [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Ansarin, Mohssen [Division of Head and Neck Surgery, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Orecchia, Roberto [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy)

2007-06-01

250

Diagnosis and management of neck metastases from an unknown primary  

PubMed Central

Summary Neck lymph node metastases from occult primary constitute about 5%-10% of all patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site. Metastases in the upper and middle neck (levels I-II-III-V) are generally attributed to head and neck cancers, whereas the lower neck (level IV) involvement is often associated with primaries below the clavicles. Diagnostic procedures include a careful clinical evaluation and a fiberoptic endoscopic examination of the head and neck mucosa, biopsies from all suspicious sites or blindly from the sites of possible origin of the primary, computerized tomography scan, and magnetic resonance. The most frequent histological finding is Squamous Cell Carcinoma, particularly when the upper neck is involved. In these cases, a systematic tonsillectomy in the absence of suspicious lesions is discussed since up to 25% of primary tumours can be detected in this site. Thoracic, and abdominal primaries (especially from lung, oesophagus, stomach, ovary or pancreas) should be sought in the case of adenocarcinoma and involvement of the lower neck. Positron emission tomography with fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose allows detection of primary tumour in about 25% of cases, but this procedure is still considered investigational. Therapeutic approaches include surgery (neck dissection), with or without post-operative radiotherapy, radiotherapy alone and radiotherapy followed by surgery as reported by several guide-lines. In early stages (N1), neck dissection and radiotherapy seem to have similar efficacy, whereas more advanced cases (N2, N3) require combined approaches. The extent of radiotherapy (irradiation of bilateral neck and mucosa versus ipsilateral neck radiotherapy) remains debatable. A potential benefit from extensive radiotherapy should be weighed against its acute and late morbidity and difficulties in re-irradiation in the case of subsequent primary emergence. The role of other methods, such as chemotherapy and hyperthermia, remains to be determined.

Calabrese, L; Jereczek-Fossa, BA; Jassem, J; Rocca, A; Bruschini, R; Orecchia, R; Chiesa, F

2005-01-01

251

Incidence of shoulder and neck pain in a working population: effect modification between mechanical and psychosocial exposures at work? Results from a one year follow up of the Malm? shoulder and neck study cohort  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To assess the impact of mechanical exposure and work related psychosocial factors on shoulder and neck pain. Design: A prospective cohort study. Participants: 4919 randomly chosen, vocationally active men and women ages 45–65 residing in a Swedish city. Neck and shoulder pain were determined by the standardised Nordic questionnaire. Mechanical exposure was assessed by an index based on 11 items designed and evaluated for shoulder and neck disorders. Work related psychosocial factors were measured by the Karasek and Theorell demand-control instrument. Main results: High mechanical exposure was associated with heightened risk for shoulder and neck pain among men and women during follow up. Age adjusted odds ratios (OR) were 2.17 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.65, 2.85) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.22, 2.06), respectively. In women, job strain (high psychological job demands and low job decision latitude) correlated with heightened risk (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.31). These risk estimates remained statistically significant when controlled for high mechanical exposure regarding job strain (and vice versa), and for sociodemographic factors. Testing for effect modification between high mechanical exposure and job strain showed them acting synergistically only in women. Conclusion: Job related mechanical exposure in both sexes, and psychosocial factors in women, seem independently of each other to play a part for development of shoulder and neck pain in vocationally active people. The effect of psychosocial factors was more prominent in women, which could be the result of biological factors as well as gender issues. These results suggest that interventions aiming at reducing the occurrence of shoulder and neck pain should include both mechanical and psychosocial factors.

Ostergren, P.; Hanson, B.; Balogh, I.; Ektor-Andersen, J.; Isacsson, A.; Orbaek, P.; Winkel, J.; Isacsson, S.; t for

2005-01-01

252

Cancer of the head and neck.  

PubMed Central

Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, collectively known as head and neck cancers, arise from a multiplicity of sites. In the West, excess tobacco and alcohol consumption are the most important of the known predisposing factors; elsewhere in the world, notably in India and China, the aetiology, pattern of primary sites, and clinical behaviour are different. Clinically these tumours pose exceptional problems in management, and skilled multidisciplinary teams are necessary in order to achieve the highest level of service and research. Historically, surgery and radiotherapy have been the most important treatment modalities; chemotherapy is now increasingly employed but not yet fully established. Successful rehabilitation of patients with head and neck cancers requires access to high quality speech therapists and other support staff with training in functional pharyngeal disorders. Current research efforts are largely directed towards defining the proper role of chemotherapy and assessing the possible advantage of unconventional radiation approaches. In recent years the roles of primary, reconstructive, and salvage surgery have also become better defined. Many patients are suitable for randomisation into ongoing prospective clinical trials which have been specifically designed to address these issues. Images FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5

Tobias, J. S.

1994-01-01

253

Novel flaps for head and neck reconstruction.  

PubMed

The head and neck region is important both functionally and aesthetically and its reconstruction poses a formidable challenge for plastic surgeons. A perforator flap is a flap of skin or subcutaneous tissue supplied by a vessel that perforates the deep fascia to gain access to flap. With improvement in our knowledge of the anatomy of blood supply to the skin, the perforator flaps have opened a whole new horizon for the plastic surgeon to choose flaps with better function and cosmesis. The locally available perforators enable flaps to be designed with excellent match in tissue characteristics. Perforator flaps limit donor site morbidity and as they are islanded complete insetting is possible in a single stage. The principal perforator flaps such as facial artery perforator flap, platysma flap and its variant the submental flap and supra-clavicular artery flap used in the head and neck reconstruction are discussed. The more commonly used flaps are the free radial artery forearm flap and the anterolateral thigh flap while the novel ones are the thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, medial sural artery perforator flap and the toe-web flap for commissure reconstruction. The indications, reach and drawbacks of these flaps have been discussed in this review. PMID:22930626

Ahmad, Quazi Ghazwan; Shankhdhar, Vinay Kant

2010-11-21

254

Biomarker discovery for head and neck cancer, a proteomics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) has only moderately improved during the last decades. Major causes for this are the high number of patients that present with advanced stage of disease and the high frequency of second primary tumors. This emphasizes the need for early diagnosis of both primary and secondary tumors. Head and neck tumors

B. M. Schaaij-Visser

2010-01-01

255

Contouring the aging neck with submandibular gland suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submandibular gland suspension, a procedure designed to complement surgical rejuvenation of the aging neck, uses largely blunt dissection and suspension to the mandibular periosteum to elevate the gland, improving neck contour without excision of submandibular gland tissue. Although there is an increase in operative time, the risk of intraoperative and postoperative bleeding problems is very low, and the authors report

Patrick K. Sullivan; M. Brandon Freeman; Scott Schmidt

2006-01-01

256

Conversation about Necks--and Minds and Bodies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|States that by considering necks in a literal sense it may be possible to envision new metaphors for understanding minds, bodies, and ways of knowing. Discusses necks as important signs for such ideas as beauty or fragility. Focuses on views of epistemology, such as the disembodied way of knowing. (CMK)|

Jeffers, Carol S.

2000-01-01

257

Head and neck imaging: The role of CT and MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have become indispensable tools for the evaluation of conditions involving the head and neck. Complex anatomic structures and regions, such as the orbit, skull base, paranasal sinuses, deep spaces of the neck, larynx, and lymph nodes, require that the radiologist be familiar with the imaging modalities available and their appropriate applications.

Franz J. Wippold II

2007-01-01

258

Six primary squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronic irritation to mucosa of the head and neck area by carcinogen, commonly stemming from heavy usage of betel nuts, tobacco and alcohol, leads to dysplastic mucosal changes and eventually, multiple primary squamous cell carcinomas. With improvements in locoregional control, the problem of multiple primary malignancies of the head and neck is becoming apparent. We reported a unique case

Sheng-Po Hao

1998-01-01

259

A Modified Dissection Method to Preserve Neck Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The neck is not only one of the more challenging anatomical regions to dissect but also has important application to clinical conditions, diseases, and procedures. In this study, we describe two simple modifications for dissection of the neck that (1) aid in the identification and preservation of the cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus and…

Hankin, Mark H.; Stoller, Jeremy L.

2009-01-01

260

Functional morphology of the neck organ in Artemia salina nauplii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine structure of the ion transporting epithelium of the neck organ in the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplius is described. The neck organ is a dome-like gland situated atop the cephalothorax of the larva and is composed of 50 to 60 cuboidal epithelial cells. These cells possess many of the characteristics of salt-secretory cells from other tissues. They contain many

Seth R. Hootman; Frank P. Conte

1975-01-01

261

A Rare Presentation of Pellet Injury in the Neck  

PubMed Central

Penetrating neck injuries are dangerous and deserve emergency treatment by virtue of the vital structures present underneath. There is a potential risk of unrecognized vascular injury and retained foreign bodies with their associated complications in these wounds. Therefore, an early diagnostic workup to localize the site of injury and an immediate neck exploration are important.

Gupta, Bulbul; Gulati, Achal; Gupta, Divya

2011-01-01

262

Manual therapy for mechanical neck disorders: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Neck disorders are common, disabling and costly. Randomized trials were reviewed using a Cochrane format, to determine if manual therapy improves pain, function and patient satisfaction in adults suffering from neck disorders with and without radicular findings or headache. Sequenced computerized searches ended in December 1997. Two independent reviewers extracted data while three assessed trial quality. Standard mean difference

A. R Gross; T Kay; M Hondras; C Goldsmith; T Haines; P Peloso; C Kennedy; J Hoving

2002-01-01

263

Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion for Simulated Frontal Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion (IV-NIC) is based on the hypothesis that dynamic intervertebral motion beyond physiological limits may injure soft tissues. In contrast, the Neck Injury Criterion (NIC) hypothesizes that sudden change in spinal fluid pressure may cause neural injuries. The goals of this study, using the biofidelic whole human cervical spine model with muscle force replication, were

Paul C. Ivancic; Shigeki Ito; Manohar M. Panjabi; Adam M. Pearson; Yasuhiro Tominaga; Jaw-Lin Wang; S. Elena Gimenez

2005-01-01

264

Neck Forces and Moments and Head Accelerations in Side Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Although side-impact sled studies have investigated chest, abdomen, and pelvic injury mechanics, determination of head accelerations and the associated neck forces and moments is very limited. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the temporal forces and moments at the upper neck region and head angular accelerations and angular velocities using postmortem human subjects (PMHS).Methods: Anthropometric

Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar; Dennis J. Maiman; Mat Philippens; Jac Wismans

2009-01-01

265

Neck muscle fatigue affects postural control in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesised that, since anomalous neck proprioceptive input can produce perturbing effects on posture, neck muscle fatigue could alter body balance control through a mechanism connected to fatigue-induced afferent inflow. Eighteen normal subjects underwent fatiguing contractions of head extensor muscles. Sway during quiet stance was recorded by a dynamometric platform, both prior to and after fatigue and recovery, with eyes

M Schieppati; A Nardone; M Schmid

2003-01-01

266

Pain experience following radical treatment for head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an investigation into the quality of life of people in the year following radical treatment for head and neck cancer, it became apparent that pain was a significant problem. Therefore, the current study was conducted to gain an understanding of the incidence and nature of pain in people who had received radical treatment for head and neck cancer and

Zoe Whale; Patricia A. Lyne; Panos Papanikolaou

2001-01-01

267

A Modified Dissection Method to Preserve Neck Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neck is not only one of the more challenging anatomical regions to dissect but also has important application to clinical conditions, diseases, and procedures. In this study, we describe two simple modifications for dissection of the neck that (1) aid in the identification and preservation of the cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus and…

Hankin, Mark H.; Stoller, Jeremy L.

2009-01-01

268

The superior trapezius myocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstruction.  

PubMed

The superior trapezius myocutaneous flap, based on the paraspinous perforating branches of the intercostal vessels, is generally not a first-line choice for reconstruction of head and neck defects. However, after wound breakdown following radical neck dissection and radiation therapy, the superior trapezius flap is extremely reliable for coverage of exposed major neck vessels. The flap was used in 30 patients undergoing lateral neck reconstruction. All 30 patients had undergone prior neck dissection and all but two had undergone prior radiation therapy. There were no flap failures. The superior trapezius flap is unique among other regional myocutaneous flaps presently in use in that it has a superiorly based pedicle, which reduces the problem of gravitational pull on the suture lines of severely unfavorable recipient beds. Another advantage of using the denervated muscle of this flap is that it imposes no additional functional loss. The deficiencies of this flap are primarily related to its limited arc of rotation, thereby precluding its use when resurfacing defects that extend beyond the midline of the neck. The reliability of the superior trapezius flap after neck dissection can be explained by the angiosome concept. Based on that concept, previous ligation of the transverse cervical vessels during a neck dissection serves to simultaneously stage this flap, thereby improving its reliability and potential surface area available. PMID:1627289

Aviv, J E; Urken, M L; Lawson, W; Biller, H F

1992-07-01

269

Dysphagia following chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To assess the prevalence, severity and morbidity of dysphagia following concurrent chemo- radiation for head and neck cancer. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent chemotherapy and radiation for head and neck malignancies were evaluated for their ability to resume oral feeding following treatment. Modified barium swallow (MBS) studies were performed if the patients complained of dysphagia or if there

N. P. Nguyen; C. C. Moltz; C. Frank; P. Vos; H. J. Smith; U. Karlsson; S. Dutta; F. A. Midyett; J. Barloon; S. Sallah

2004-01-01

270

Neck and Back Pain in E-2C HAWKEYE Aircrew.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine select characteristics of neck and back symptoms among E-2C Hawkeye aircrew. One hundred eighty-five E-2C aircrew volunteered to complete a neck and back pain and symptoms survey. The mean (+- SD) age and flight ...

T. A. Loomis J. A. Hodgdon L. Hervig W. K. Prusacyzk

1999-01-01

271

Kinematics of a Head-Neck Model Simulating Whiplash  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A whiplash event is a relative motion between the head and torso that occurs in rear-end automobile collisions. In particular, the large inertia of the head results in a horizontal translation relative to the thorax. This paper describes a simulation of the motion of the head and neck during a rear-end (whiplash) collision. A head-neck model that…

Colicchia, Giuseppe; Zollman, Dean; Wiesner, Hartmut; Sen, Ahmet Ilhan

2008-01-01

272

Botulinum toxin A for the treatment of chronic neck pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical study tested the therapeutic efficacy of Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) when injected into symptomatic neck muscles after one injection session. Patients with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned to receive either a high dose of an active treatment or an injection of the same volume of normal saline. Patients were compared for 4 months using a comprehensive set

Anthony H. Wheeler; Paula Goolkasian; Stephanie S. Gretz

2001-01-01

273

Emerging insights into head and neck cancer metastasis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review was to provide biological concepts of head and neck cancer metastasis. To attain this goal, we analyzed peer-reviewed articles related to head and neck cancer metastasis obtained though PubMed and archived articles. Articles related to the biologic principles of head and neck cancer metastasis were reviewed and summarized. As locoregional control has improved for patients with head and neck cancer, rates of distant metastasis have not decreased. As patients live longer, many will die of complications related to the development of disease at sites below the clavicles. Emerging evidence now suggests a more complicated framework of metastatic behavior for head and neck cancer. Here, we review the role of regional lymph nodes in containing advanced head and neck cancer, evidence for active as opposed to passive tumor cell metastasis, and clinical implications these concepts have on both treatment of head and neck cancer and future research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 35: 1669-1678, 2013. PMID:23280716

Allen, Clint T; Law, Jonathan H; Dunn, Gavin P; Uppaluri, Ravindra

2012-12-22

274

Role of infectious agents in the carcinogenesis of brain and head and neck cancers  

PubMed Central

This review concentrates on tumours that are anatomically localised in head and neck regions. Brain cancers and head and neck cancers together account for more than 873,000 cases annually worldwide, with an increasing incidence each year. With poor survival rates at late stages, brain and head and neck cancers represent serious conditions. Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process and the role of infectious agents in this progression has not been fully identified. A major problem with such research is that the role of many infectious agents may be underestimated due to the lack of or inconsistency in experimental data obtained globally. In the case of brain cancer, no infection has been accepted as directly oncogenic, although a number of viruses and parasites are associated with the malignancy. Our analysis of the literature showed the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in distinct types of brain tumour, namely glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and medulloblastoma. In particular, there are reports of viral protein in up to 100% of GBM specimens. Several epidemiological studies reported associations of brain cancer and toxoplasmosis seropositivity. In head and neck cancers, there is a distinct correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Considering that almost every undifferentiated NPC is EBV-positive, virus titer levels can be measured to screen high-risk populations. In addition there is an apparent association between human papilloma virus (HPV) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); specifically, 26% of HNSCCs are positive for HPV. HPV type 16 was the most common type detected in HNSCCs (90%) and its dominance is even greater than that reported in cervical carcinoma. Although there are many studies showing an association of infectious agents with cancer, with various levels of involvement and either a direct or indirect causative effect, there is a scarcity of articles covering the role of infection in carcinogenesis of brain and head and neck cancers. We review recent studies on the infectious origin of these cancers and present our current understanding of carcinogenic mechanisms, thereby providing possible novel approaches to cancer treatment.

2013-01-01

275

A head-neck-eye system that learns fault-tolerant saccades to 3-D targets using a self-organizing neural model.  

PubMed

This paper describes a head-neck-eye camera system that is capable of learning to saccade to 3-D targets in a self-organized fashion. The self-organized learning process is based on action perception cycles where the camera system performs micro saccades about a given head-neck-eye camera position and learns to map these micro saccades to changes in position of a 3-D target currently in view of the stereo camera. This motor babbling phase provides self-generated movement commands that activate correlated visual, spatial and motor information that are used to learn an internal coordinate transformation between vision and motor systems. The learned transform is used by resulting head-neck-eye camera system to accurately saccade to 3-D targets using many different combinations of head, neck, and eye positions. The interesting aspect of the learned transform is that it is robust to a wide variety of disturbances including reduced degrees of freedom of movement for the head, neck, one eye, or any combination of two of the three, movement of head and neck as a function of eye movements, changes in the stereo camera separation distance and changes in focal lengths of the cameras. These disturbances were not encountered during motor babbling phase. This feature points to general nature of the learned transform in its ability to control autonomous systems with redundant degrees of freedom in a very robust and fault-tolerant fashion. PMID:18775642

Srinivasa, Narayan; Grossberg, Stephen

2008-08-13

276

Swing of the surgical pendulum: a return to surgery for treatment of head and neck cancer in the 21st century?  

PubMed

Treatment for head and neck cancer has evolved significantly during the past 100 years. Beginning with Bilroth's total laryngectomy on New Year's Day in 1873, "radical" surgery remained the only accepted treatment for head and neck cancer when optimal local and regional control was the goal. Bigger was still better when it came to managing the primary tumor and the neck. The "commando" procedure and radical neck dissection were the hallmarks of this first generation of treatments of head-and-neck cancer. With the advent of microvascular reconstructive techniques, larger and more comprehensive resections could be performed. Despite these large resections and their "mutilating" sequelae, overall survival did not improve. Even for intermediate-stage disease in head-and-neck cancer, the 5-year survival rate did not improve >50%. Many concluded that more than the scalpel was needed for optimal local and regional control, especially for intermediate- and advanced-stage disease. Most important, the multidisciplinary teams must identify and correlate biomarkers in the tumor and host that predict for a response to therapy and for optimal functional recovery. As the pendulum swings back, a scientific approach using tissue biomarkers for the response to treatment in the setting of multidisciplinary trials must emerge as the new paradigm. In the postgenomic era, treatment decisions should be made based on functional and oncologic parameters-not just to avoid perceived morbidity. PMID:17848281

Holsinger, F Christopher; Weber, Randal S

2007-01-01

277

Therapeutic Exercise for Athletes With Nonspecific Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

Context: Benign neck pain is common in athletes and is usually the result of minor sprains, strains, or contusions. Athletes with neck pain may have deficits in cervical and/or upper thoracic mobility, muscle recruitment, strength and endurance, repositioning acuity, postural stability, and oculomotor control. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search was performed via PubMed to locate articles of any publication date through December 2011 using the search terms cervical pain, neck pain, athlete, athletic, therapeutic exercise, and rehabilitation. Reference lists of retrieved articles were searched for additional relevant references. Results: Therapeutic exercise has promise as an intervention for individuals with neck pain, although reports on isolated athletic populations are lacking. To date, recommendations for specific therapeutic exercises have been derived largely from anecdotal or uncontrolled level IV or V evidence. Conclusion: Clinicians should consider deficits, functional limitations, irritability level, and the sport’s cervical spine stress profile when selecting exercises for athletes with neck pain.

2012-01-01

278

Establishment and Characterization of Patient Tumor-Derived Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Xenografts  

PubMed Central

The overall purpose of this study was to establish human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenografts in mice by transplantation of surgical tumor tissue and to characterize the growth, histologic and vascular properties of these xenografts. Primary surgical specimens of HNSCC were xenografted into eight-to-twelve week old severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Histologic features of primary HNSCC specimens, initial and established xenografts were compared for tumors established from three different head and neck subsites, namely, oral cavity, larynx and base of tongue (one tumor per site). Growth rates of xenografts were compared along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of tumor vascularity and correlative CD31-immunostaining. Initial and established xenografts from all three sites demonstrated a squamous phenotype similar to the original patient tumor histology. Established xenografts of oral cavity and larynx exhibited increased keratinization (H&E) compared to initial xenografts and the primary tumor. No differences in tumor growth rates were observed between established xenografts from the different subsites. Xenografts established from SCC of the larynx exhibited increased microvessel density and lumen area (CD31 staining) along with enhanced permeability to the MR contrast agent compared to oral cavity and base of tongue tumors. Our results show that the combination of non-invasive imaging along with histologic evaluation of patient tumor xenografts offers a valuable platform for preclinical investigations in head and neck cancer. However, it is important to recognize the influence of tumor-host interactions on the histologic phenotype of transplanted tumors.

Seshadri, Mukund; Merzianu, Mihai; Tang, Haikuo; Rigual, Nestor R; Sullivan-Nasca, Maureen; Loree, Thom R; Popat, Saurin R; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Hylander, Bonnie L

2010-01-01

279

Dynamic tensile failure mechanics of the musculoskeletal neck using a cadaver model.  

PubMed

Although the catapult phase of pilot ejections has been well characterized in terms of human response to compressive forces, the effect of the forces on the human body during the ensuing ejection phases (including windblast and parachute opening shock) has not been thoroughly investigated. Both windblast and parachute opening shock have been shown to induce dynamic tensile forces in the human cervical spine. However, the human tolerance to such loading is not well known. Therefore, the main objective of this research project was to measure human tensile neck failure mechanics to provide data for computational modeling, anthropometric test device development, and improved tensile injury criteria. Twelve human cadaver specimens, including four females and eight males with a mean age of 50.1+/-9 years, were subjected to dynamic tensile loading through the musculoskeletal neck until failure occurred. Failure load, failure strain, and tensile stiffness were measured and correlated with injury type and location. The mean failure load for the 12 specimens was 3100+/-645 N, mean failure strain was 16.7+/-5.4%, and mean tensile stiffness was 172+/-54.5 N/mm. The majority of injuries (8) occurred in the upper cervical spine (Oc-C3), and none took place in the midcervical region (C3-C5). The results of this study assist in filling the existing void in dynamic tensile injury data and will aid in developing improved neck injury prevention strategies. PMID:19388771

Yliniemi, Eno M; Pellettiere, Joseph A; Doczy, Erica J; Nuckley, David J; Perry, Chris E; Ching, Randal P

2009-05-01

280

Fixation of the fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem implanted due to femoral neck fracture  

PubMed Central

Background Today, dislocated femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a cemented hip arthroplasty. However, cementing of the femoral component may lead to adverse effects and even death. Uncemented stems may lower these risks and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating may enhance integration, but prosthetic stability and clinical outcome in patients with osteoporotic bone have not been fully explored. We therefore studied fixation and clinical outcome in patients who had had a femoral neck fracture and who had received a fully HA-coated stem prosthesis. Patients and methods 50 patients with a dislocated femoral neck fracture were operated with the fully HA-coated Corail total or hemiarthroplasty. 38 patients, mean age 81 (70–96) years, were followed for 24 months with conventional radiographs, RSA, DEXA, and for clinical outcome. Results 31 of the 38 implants moved statistically significantly up to 3 months, mainly distally, mean 2.7 mm (max. 20 mm (SD 4.3)), and rotated into retroversion mean 3.3º (–1.8 to 17) (SD 4.3) and then appeared to stabilize. Distal stem migration was more pronounced if the stem was deemed to be too small. There was no correlation between BMD and stem migration. The migration did not result in any clinically adverse effects. Interpretation The fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem migrates during the first 3 months, but clinical outcome appears to be good, without any adverse events.

2012-01-01

281

Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J. B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

2000-01-01

282

A comparison of the hemodynamic effects of flow diverters on wide-necked and narrow-necked cerebral aneurysms.  

PubMed

Flow diverters (FD), a new generation of intracranial stents with a low porosity mesh, have been applied as an alternative treatment for intracranial aneurysms. However, their efficacy varies among aneurysms of different morphology. In this study, computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed to examine the influence of an FD on the hemodynamics of wide-necked and narrow-necked cerebral aneurysms. An FD with 70% porosity mesh was deployed across the neck of an ideal narrow-necked and wide-neck aneurysm model. The hemodynamics at the aneurysmal sac were changed markedly in both models. At the inflow portion of the aneurysm neck of the narrow-necked aneurysm, the peak velocity and wall shear stress were reduced by 84% and 91%, respectively. By comparison, in the wide-necked aneurysm model, the results were 47% and 21%, respectively. This study demonstrates that the FD markedly altered the hemodynamic conditions inside intracranial aneurysms, depending on aneurysm morphology. Therefore, hemodynamic modifications should be individually designed for aneurysms with different morphology. PMID:22704947

Wu, Yong-Fa; Yang, Peng-Fei; Shen, Jie; Huang, Qing-Hai; Zhang, Xing; Qian, Yi; Liu, Jian-Min

2012-06-16

283

Modelling of Local Necking and Fracture in Aluminium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-linear Finite Element simulations are extensively used in forming and crashworthiness studies of automotive components and structures in which fracture need to be controlled. For thin-walled ductile materials, the fracture-related phenomena that must be properly represented are thinning instability, ductile fracture and through-thickness shear instability. Proper representation of the fracture process relies on the accuracy of constitutive and fracture models and their parameters that need to be calibrated through well defined experiments. The present study focuses on local necking and fracture which is of high industrial importance, and uses a phenomenological criterion for modelling fracture in aluminium alloys. As an accurate description of plastic anisotropy is important, advanced phenomenological constitutive equations based on the yield criterion YLD2000/YLD2003 are used. Uniaxial tensile tests and disc compression tests are performed for identification of the constitutive model parameters. Ductile fracture is described by the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion and an in-plane shear tests is performed to identify the fracture parameter. The reason is that in a well designed in-plane shear test no thinning instability should occur and it thus gives more direct information about the phenomenon of ductile fracture. Numerical simulations have been performed using a user-defined material model implemented in the general-purpose non-linear FE code LS-DYNA. The applicability of the model is demonstrated by correlating the predicted and experimental response in the in-plane shear tests and additional plane strain tension tests.

Achani, D.; Eriksson, M.; Hopperstad, O. S.; Lademo, O.-G.

2007-05-01

284

Modelling of Local Necking and Fracture in Aluminium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Non-linear Finite Element simulations are extensively used in forming and crashworthiness studies of automotive components and structures in which fracture need to be controlled. For thin-walled ductile materials, the fracture-related phenomena that must be properly represented are thinning instability, ductile fracture and through-thickness shear instability. Proper representation of the fracture process relies on the accuracy of constitutive and fracture models and their parameters that need to be calibrated through well defined experiments. The present study focuses on local necking and fracture which is of high industrial importance, and uses a phenomenological criterion for modelling fracture in aluminium alloys. As an accurate description of plastic anisotropy is important, advanced phenomenological constitutive equations based on the yield criterion YLD2000/YLD2003 are used. Uniaxial tensile tests and disc compression tests are performed for identification of the constitutive model parameters. Ductile fracture is described by the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion and an in-plane shear tests is performed to identify the fracture parameter. The reason is that in a well designed in-plane shear test no thinning instability should occur and it thus gives more direct information about the phenomenon of ductile fracture. Numerical simulations have been performed using a user-defined material model implemented in the general-purpose non-linear FE code LS-DYNA. The applicability of the model is demonstrated by correlating the predicted and experimental response in the in-plane shear tests and additional plane strain tension tests.

Achani, D. [Structural Design, Offshore Construction Engineering, SUBSEA7, NO-4056 Tananger (Norway); Eriksson, M. [SINTEF Materials and chemistry, Applied mechanics and corrosion, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Hopperstad, O. S. [SIMLab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lademo, O.-G. [SINTEF Materials and chemistry, Applied mechanics and corrosion, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); SIMLab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

2007-05-17

285

Ultraviolet 2D fluorescence mapping system for the imaging of head and neck tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence images of ex vivo head and neck tissues were acquired at multiple combinations of emission and excitation wavelengths. The wavelength combinations were selected to map different tissue molecules and structures whose fluorescence signatures have bene used to detect cancer. Fluorescence maps were generated by ratioing fluorescence image intensities. These ratio maps enhanced the ability to recognize regions of tumor and other features in tissues. Histopathological analysis was performed on the tissue samples. Location and shape of features observed in the fluorescence images were correlated with structures observed in histopathology.

Katz, Alvin; Savage, Howard E.; Zeng, Fan-An; Rome, Jayson; Schantz, Stimson P.; McCormick, Steven A.; Cocker, Rubina S.; Alfano, Robert R.

2000-04-01

286

Interfractional Displacement Analysis of the Spinal Cord for 21 Head & Neck Cases in Radiation Therapy Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monomodal slice-based displacement analysis of the spinal cord for three-dimensional computer tomography imaging in radiation therapy planning is presented. In total, 21 head and neck cases with tumor indications close to the spinal cord are studied and evaluated. Two-dimensional cross-correlation is applied to propagate manually segmented contours of the spinal cord from a high-resolution planning CT to subsequently acquired control CTs. The method and the fully automatic implementation turned out to be reliable and robust. A very few manual corrections on the resulting contours remained necessary in single transversal slices.

Stoll, Armin; Giske, Kristina; Stoiber, Eva; Bendl, Rolf

287

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin cytoskeletal component Bsp1p has an auxiliary role in actomyosin ring function and in the maintenance of bud-neck structure.  

PubMed

Iqg1p is a component of the actomyosin contractile ring that is required for actin recruitment and septum deposition. Cells lacking Iqg1p function have an altered bud-neck structure and fail to form a functional actomyosin contractile ring resulting in a block to cytokinesis and septation. Here it is demonstrated that increased expression of the actin cytoskeleton associated protein Bsp1p bypasses the requirement for contractile ring function. This also correlates with reduced bud-neck width and remedial septum formation. Increased expression of this protein in a temperature-sensitive iqg1-1 background causes remedial septum formation at the bud neck that is reliant upon chitin synthase III activity and restores cell separation. The observed suppression correlates with a restoration of normal bud-neck structure. While Bsp1p is a component of the contractile ring, its recruitment to the bud neck is not required for the observed suppression. Loss of Bsp1p causes a brief delay in the redistribution of the actin cytoskeleton normally observed at the end of actin ring contraction. Compromise of Iqg1p function, in the absence of Bsp1p function, leads to a profound change in the distribution of actin and the pattern of cell growth accompanied by a failure to complete cytokinesis and cell separation. PMID:18430924

Wright, Daniel J; Munro, Ewen; Corbett, Mark; Bentley, Adam J; Fullwood, Nigel J; Murray, Stephen; Price, Clive

2008-04-01

288

Pathology Case Study: Neck and Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 28-year-old female who, after a car accident, complained of a sharp pain of the anterior and posterior base of the neck on expiration and with exertion. Visitors are given patient history, radiology results, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

Zagzag, David; Benjamin, Vallo; Hummel-Levine, Pascale

2009-03-16

289

Postirradiation sarcomas of the head and neck  

SciTech Connect

We discuss four cases of postirradiation sarcomas of the head and neck. Two cases were metachronous sarcomas that appeared after operation and irradiation for primary sarcomas, 1 case was a mandibular malignant fibrous histiocytoma that developed on the opposite side of the jaw from a malignant histiocytic neoplasm that was irradiated 8 years previously, and 1 case was a laryngeal tumor that appeared 5 years after combined operative and radiation therapy for a laryngeal squamous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical studies more precisely defined and classified these tumors, and assisted in determining a therapeutic protocol. The therapy for postirradiation sarcomas includes extirpative operation when possible, but the role of chemotherapy is uncertain. The aggressive behavior of these neoplasms was attested to by the death of three patients within 18 months of their operations.

Maisel, R.H.; Manivel, J.C.; Porto, D.P.; Stanley, M.

1989-09-01

290

Singh index screening for femoral neck osteoporosis.  

PubMed

The present study included 130 elderly women living in Khon Kaen, Thailand, and all but one underwent both DEXA-BMD and AP radiographs of the left hip joint. The mean (SD) of age, weight, height and BMI of the 129 participants was 72.5 (5.3) years, 49.8 (10.3) kg, 1.49 (0.06) m, and 22.21 (4.13) kg/m2, respectively. The authors found both poor sensitivity and a positive predictive value for a Singh grade of < or = 4 or < or = 3 (viz. 58 and 29 or 19 and 43 percent, respectively). The ROC curve showed the poor diagnostic value of the Singh index since the area under the curve was approximately 40% the Singh index is therefore a poor screening tool for femoral neck osteoporosis. PMID:16869101

Soontrapa, Suppasin; Soontrapa, Sukree; Srinakarin, Jiraporn; Chowchuen, Prathana

2005-10-01

291

Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck  

SciTech Connect

The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head.

Dorne, H.L.; Lander, P.H.

1985-02-01

292

Noninvasive assessment of tumor microenvironment using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and 18F- fluoromisonidazole PET imaging in neck nodal metastases  

PubMed Central

Purpose Pretreatment multimodality imaging can provide useful anatomical and functional data about tumors, including perfusion and possibly hypoxia status. The purpose of our study was to assess non-invasively the tumor microenvironment of neck nodal metastases in patients with head and neck (HN) cancer by investigating the relationship between tumor perfusion measured using Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and hypoxia measured by 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F-FMISO) PET. Methods and Materials Thirteen newly diagnosed HN cancer patients with metastatic neck nodes underwent DCE-MRI and 18F-FMISO PET imaging prior to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The matched regions of interests from both modalities were analyzed. To examine the correlations between DCE-MRI parameters and standard uptake value (SUV) measurements from 18F-FMISO PET, the non-parametric Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated. Furthermore, DCE-MRI parameters were compared between nodes with 18F-FMISO uptake and nodes with no 18F-FMISO uptake using Mann-Whitney U tests. Results For the 13 patients, a total of 18 nodes were analyzed. The nodal size strongly correlated with the 18F-FMISO SUV (?=0.74, p<0.001). There was a strong negative correlation between the median kep (?=?0.58, p=0.042) and the 18F-FMISO SUV. Hypoxic nodes (moderate to severe 18F-FMISO uptake) had significantly lower median Ktrans (p=0.049) and median kep (p=0.027) values than did non-hypoxic nodes (no 18F-FMISO uptake). Conclusion This initial evaluation of the preliminary results support the hypothesis that in metastatic neck lymph nodes, hypoxic nodes are poorly perfused (i.e., have significantly lower kep and Ktrans values) compared to non-hypoxic nodes.

Jansen, Jacobus F. A.; Schoder, Heiko; Lee, Nancy Y.; Wang, Ya; Pfister, David. G.; Fury, Matthew G.; Stambuk, Hilda. E.; Humm, John L.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Shukla-Dave, Amita

2009-01-01

293

Impact of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression on Survival and Pattern of Relapse in Patients with Advanced Head and Neck Carcinoma1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlative study was performed to address the impact of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression on survival and pattern of failure in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) enrolled in a Phase III trial and randomized to receive con- ventional radiotherapy. The study population comprised 155 of 268 (58%) randomized patients with sufficient pretreatment biopsy

K. Kian Ang; Brian A. Berkey; Xiaoyu Tu; Hua-Zhong Zhang; Ruth Katz; Elizabeth H. Hammond; Karen K. Fu; Luka Milas

2002-01-01

294

The heterogeneity in femoral neck structure and strength.  

PubMed

Most measures of femoral neck strength derived using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or computed tomography (CT) assume the femoral neck is a cylinder with a single cortical thickness. We hypothesized that these simplifications introduce errors in estimating strength and that detailed analyses will identify new parameters that more accurately predict femoral neck strength. High-resolution CT data were used to evaluate 457 cross-sectional slices along the femoral neck of 12 postmortem specimens. Cortical morphology was measured in each cross-section. The distribution of cortical thicknesses was evaluated to determine whether the mean or median better estimated central tendency. Finite-element models were used to calculate the stresses in each cross-section resulting from the peak hip joint forces created during a sideways fall. The relationship between cortical morphology and peak bone stress along the femoral neck was analyzed using multivariate regression analysis. In all cross-sections, cortical thicknesses were non-normally distributed and skewed toward smaller thicknesses (p < 0.0001). The central tendency of cortical thickness was best estimated by the median, not the mean. Stress increased as the median cortical thickness decreased along the femoral neck. The median, not mean, cortical thickness combined with anterior-posterior diameter best predicted peak bone stress generated during a sideways fall (R(2) = 0.66, p < 0.001). Heterogeneity in the structure of the femoral neck determines the diversity of its strength. The median cortical thickness best predicted peak femoral neck stress and is likely to be a relevant predictor of femoral neck fragility. PMID:23197364

Kersh, Mariana E; Pandy, Marcus G; Bui, Quang M; Jones, Anthony C; Arns, Christoph H; Knackstedt, Mark A; Seeman, Ego; Zebaze, Roger Md

2013-05-01

295

Neck masses: diagnostic analysis of 630 cases in Turkish population.  

PubMed

Neck masses can be classified into three main categories: congenital, inflammatory and neoplastic. Our aim was to determine the distribution of diagnosis in patients who were followed-up for a neck mass and had undergone surgery for diagnostic indications. Six hundred and thirty cases referred to the Otorhinolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery Department of Haseki Research and Training Hospital between January 2005 and February 2012 with a neck mass who underwent excisional or incisional biopsy to establish a histopathologic diagnosis were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with a diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract malignancy were excluded from the study. As well as the patients with thyroid masses were excluded. Only unknown primary neck masses were included in the study. The neck masses were categorized as inflammatory (33.49 %), congenital (18.9 %) or neoplastic (47.6 %). Neoplastic masses were either benign (51 %) or malignant (49 %) tumors. The most common causes were tuberculous lymphadenitis (40.28 %) among inflammatory masses, thyroglossal duct cysts (32.77 %) among congenital masses, pleomorphic adenoma (22.33 %) among benign neoplastic masses, and lymphoma (20 %) among malignant neoplastic masses. The most common types of mass were congenital in the 0-20 year age group, benign neoplastic in 21-40-year-old and malignant neoplastic in the >40-year group. Any neck mass, especially in an elderly patient, should be managed with caution as a considerable proportion may be malignant. In children and adolescents, a neck mass requiring surgery is most likely to be congenital. Tuberculosis should be considered as a cause of a neck mass due to a long-term inflammatory process in a developing country. PMID:23525652

Balikci, H H; Gurdal, M M; Ozkul, M H; Karakas, M; Uvacin, O; Kara, N; Alp, A; Ozbay, I

2013-03-24

296

Dynamics of the human head-neck system in the horizontal plane: joint properties with respect to a static torque.  

PubMed

The vestibular system has often been studied by perturbing the position of the head. This study was conducted to identify the dynamic properties of the head-neck system in response to horizontal plane perturbations. A quasilinear approach was used to quantify the dynamics of the head-neck system at different levels of static torque. An operating point was established by applying a static torque to the head with a helmet-based perturber. The head-neck dynamics were then probed with a rich spectrum, stochastic, torque perturbation. Impulse response functions (IRFs) were estimated from correlation measures, and parametric models were fit to the IRFs. The results indicated that when the mean torque was held constant, the head-neck system behaved like a second-order, underdamped, passive system between 0.5 and 10.0 Hz. The system was not strictly linear, however. The properties of the system were sensitive to the static component of the torque. As the mean torque increased, the effective stiffness and damping progressively increased, and did so such that the system's damping ratio remained essentially constant. The findings of the study will assist in designing stimuli that are well tolerated by subjects and can induce head motions that span the performance capabilities of the vestibular system. PMID:12757204

Tangorra, James L; Jones, Lynette A; Hunter, Ian W

2003-05-01

297

Femoral neck fractures after arthroscopic femoral neck osteochondroplasty for femoroacetabular impingement.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate, associated risk factors and outcome of insufficiency femoral neck fractures following arthroscopic femoral neck osteochondroplasty for femoroacetabular impingement. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2009, a consecutive series of 376 arthroscopic femoral osteochondroplasties for femoroacetabular impingement were performed and analysed. Seven postoperative fractures were found and comprise the fracture group. The amount of femoral head-neck bone resected as assessed on follow-up cross table lateral views, as well as age, gender, height, weight and BMI, was compared between the fracture group and the entire collective. Subjective outcome was recorded using the WOMAC score. RESULTS: Seven fractures (1.9 %) were identified. All occurred in males at an average of 4.4 weeks postoperatively and were considered insufficiency fractures. The fracture group had a significantly higher mean age (p = 0.01) and height (p = 0.013). Within the fracture group, alpha angles were lower (p = 0.009) and resection depth ratios were higher (p < 0.001). The femoral offset was significantly higher (p = 0.016) in the fracture group and in male patients (p < 0.001). The cut-off value for resection depth ratio on cross table lateral radiograph was 18 % of the femoral head radius. After a mean follow-up of 20 months, an inferior WOMAC (p = 0.030) was recorded in the fracture group. CONCLUSION: Femoral neck insufficiency fractures were identified in 1.9 % of our arthroscopic femoral osteochondroplasty cases. Significant new pain following a period of satisfactory recovery after arthroscopic femoral neck osteochondroplasty should alert the surgeon to the possibility of this complication. If a resection depth ratio of more than 18 % is recognized on the postoperative cross table lateral view, particularly in male patients with a high femoral head-shaft offset, the risk of postoperative insufficiency fracture is increased. This study not only defines the complication rate, but also identifies associated risk factors and determines the influence on the postoperative subjective short-term result. Important information for both the patient and orthopaedic surgeon is provided and may have a direct consequence on the postoperative protocol. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV. PMID:23263229

Zingg, Patrick O; Buehler, Tobias C; Poutawera, Vaughan R; Alireza, Amin; Dora, Claudio

2012-12-22

298

Unusual presentation of a radial neck fracture in a child  

PubMed Central

Fracture of the radial neck are uncommon injuries. In children, they may present as radial neck fractures, a components of forearm fracture dislocations, or as isolated fracture dislocations. Here, we present an unusual and previously undescribed variant of radial neck fracture with dislocation of the radial head to the medial side and ulnar nerve injury. The fracture dislocation was openly reduced and fixed with a small fragment plate. The fracture healed with some loss of rotational movements. At short followup of 6 months patient had useful elbow function but ulnar nerve did not recover.

Poduval, Murali; Kanagasabai, R; Abraham, Vineeth Thomas; Marimuthu, Chandrasekharan

2013-01-01

299

Complex reconstructions in head and neck cancer surgery: decision making  

PubMed Central

Defects in head and neck after tumor resection often provide significant functional and cosmetic deformity. The challenge for reconstruction is not only the aesthetic result, but the functional repair. Cancer may involve composite elements and the in sano resection may lead to an extensive tissue defect. No prospective randomized controlled studies for comparison of different free flaps are available. There are many options to cover defects and restore function in the head and neck area, however we conclude from experience that nearly all defects in head and neck can be closed by 5 different free flaps: radial forearm flap, free fibula flap, anterior lateral thigh flap, lateral arm flap and parascapular flap.

2011-01-01

300

Chronic Expanding Hematoma of Thorax Extended to the Neck.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of chronic expanding hematoma of thorax extended to the neck. An 83-year-old man with a history of Lucite ball plombage and thoracoplasty of bilateral thorax was admitted with numbness of left upper extremity. In 6 months, left supraclavicular fossa was gradually bulged like tumor. The lesion was diagnosed as chronic expanding hematoma. Surgically, Lucite balls were removed with surrounding hematoma debris and fl uid, and neck hematoma, which was slightly communicated to the thorax, was extirpated. We discussed the genesis of this hematoma and its extension to the neck. PMID:23411837

Ueda, Hitoshi; Baba, Hiromitsu; Ondo, Kaoru

2013-02-15

301

Dystonias of the head and neck: An overview.  

PubMed

Dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by muscle contractions that can produce twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. Dystonias of the head and neck region, except for spasmodic dysphonia, are rarely described in the otolaryngology literature. Ironically, it is the otolaryngologic surgeon's knowledge of anatomy and physiology of the head and neck that can be of greatest benefit for patients suffering from these disorders. Medical and surgical treatment options are available in treating this disorder. This article is intended to serve as an introduction and overview of dystonias for the otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon. PMID:21328221

Charous, Steven J; Comella, Cynthia

2011-02-01

302

Cross-cultural adaptation of the Neck Disability Index and Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale for patients with neck pain due to degenerative and discopathic disorders. Psychometric properties of the Polish versions  

PubMed Central

Background Even though there are several region-specific functional outcome questionnaires measuring neck disorders that have been developed in English-speaking countries, no Polish version has ever been validated. The purpose of our study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CDS) for Polish-speaking patients with neck pain. Methods The translation was carried out according to the International Quality of Life Association (IQOLA) Project. Sixty patients were treated due to degenerative and discopathic disorders in the cervical spine filled out the NDI-PL and the CDS-PL. The pain level was evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale. The mean age of the assessed group was 47.1 years (SD 8.9). We used Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency. We assessed the test-retest reliability using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rS) was used to determine dependency between quantitative characteristics. The Mann-Whitney test was applied to determine dependency between quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Results The Cronbach's alpha values were excellent for the NDI-PL in the test and in the retest (0.84, 0.85, respectively), and for the CDS-PL (0.90 in the test and in the retest). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients were excellent for the CDS-PL and NDI-PL and equalled 0.93 (95% CI from 0.89 to 0.95) and 0.87 (95% CI from 0.80 to 0.92), respectively The concurrent validity was good in the test and in the retest (rs = 0.42 p < 0.001; rs = 0.40 p = 0.002, respectively) for NDI-PL and for CDS-PL (rs = 0.42 p < 0.001; rs = 0.40 p = 0.001, respectively). The adapted questionnaires showed a strong inter-correlation both in the test (0.87 p < 0.001) and in the retest (0.79 p < 0.001). Conclusions The present versions of the NDI-PL and CDS-PL, the first to be published in Polish, have proven to be reliable and valid for patients with degenerative changes in the cervical spine. The NDI-PL and CDS-PL have excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and good concurrent validity. The adapted questionnaires showed a strong inter-correlation both in the test and in the retest. No ceiling or floor effects were detected in the NDI-PL and CDS-PL. The NDI-PL and CDS-PL are comparable with other versions and can be recommended and used in international comparative studies.

2011-01-01

303

Metastases to the Head and Neck: An Overview  

PubMed Central

This paper provides a review of the more common tumors to metastasize to 12 anatomic subsites of the head and neck, exclusive of cervical lymph nodes. Emphasis is placed on clinical rather than subclinical metastases discovered at autopsy.

2009-01-01

304

Unusual Cause of Orocutaneous Fistula in the Neck  

PubMed Central

A case of orocutaneous fistula secondary to submandibular sialolithiasis, which was masquerading clinically as branchial fistula is presented. This case highlights the importance of conducting fistulogram in the evaluation of discharging lesions in the neck.

Saha, Sudipta; Jha, Ashesh; Kaur, Navneet

2012-01-01

305

Management of metastases to the lymph glands of the neck.  

PubMed Central

The survival rate of matched pairs of patients, one patient in each pair being submitted to prophylactic neck dissection, the other to a policy of "wait and see" has been measured: there was no significant difference in the survival rates of the two groups. Surgery for most patients with a gland in the neck gives better results than radiotherapy, and can produce satisfactory results with such procedures as supraglottic laryngectomy to epiglottic tumours and replacement with the deltopectoral flap for tonsillar tumours. On the other hand, surgery is probably contraindicated for patients with antral carcinoma and a gland in the neck, whom it rarely cures. Surgery does not increase the survival of patients with bilateral glands in the neck (except those with supraglottic tumours) and its contraindicated. Surgery can prolong the survival of patients with nodes fixed to the skin, the mandible or the external carotid artery, and may occassionally cure such patients.

Stell, P. M.; Green, J. R.

1976-01-01

306

34. Detail of neck and shoulder connection showing toga clasp ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Detail of neck and shoulder connection showing toga clasp and shoulder lights that improved nighttime illumination of head. May 1984. - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY

307

Advances in otolaryngology-Head and neck surgery. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This book consists of 14 sections. The section titles are: The impact of AIDS on otolaryngology--head and neck surgery; The management of sleep apneas and snoring; Antimicrobial agents for infections in the ear, nose, and throat--head and neck; Nasal allergy: Medical and surgical treatment; Uses of computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in temporal bone imaging; Surgical management of otitis media with effusion; middle ear reconstruction: Current status; Cochlear implants: an overview; Diagnosis and management of acute facial paralysis; The use of the laser in head and neck surgery; The management and prevention of subglottic stenosis in infants and children; Management of the mass in the thyroid; Suction-assisted lipectomy of the head and neck area; and Ambulatory surgery.

Myers, E.N. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (US)); Bluestone, C.D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

1987-01-01

308

Head and Neck Rules: Breeze Training Transcript: Dec 8 2006  

Cancer.gov

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM BREEZE SESSION January 12, 2007 Head and Neck Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules Slide 1 Hello, everyone. This is a Breeze

309

Cosmetic face, neck, and brow lifts with local anesthesia.  

PubMed

The sections on the face, neck, and brow include descriptions of facelift, neck lift, and open brow lift techniques, anesthesia, treatment goals, procedural approaches, complications, management, preoperative and postoperative care, rehabilitation, recovery, and outcomes. The approach to facial rejuvenation the midface and periorbital area is detailed. These operations are often and easily performed entirely with the use of local anesthesia and mild oral sedation. There are very high satisfaction rates. PMID:24093659

Huq, Nasim S; Nakhooda, Tariq I

2013-10-01

310

An electromyographic comparison of neck conditioning exercises in healthy controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare surface electromyography (EMG) activation levels of selected neck muscles for two common neck-training modalities (Thera-Band and Cybex). Seventeen asymptomatic subjects (eight men and nine women) with a mean age 23.4 years were recruited. EMG activation normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured with subjects performing exercises with green, blue, and

Angus Burnett; Jemma Coleman; Kevin Netto

2008-01-01

311

Consequences of neck manipulation performed by a non-professional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: Case report.Objective: Documentation of complication of neck manipulation by an untrained person.Setting: Tertiary care referral teaching hospital at Lucknow, India.Methods: Clinical evaluation, plain radiography of cervical spine, spinal MRI.Results: A 30-year-old man who fainted after neck manipulation by a barber and developed spinal cord and brainstem dysfunction. His MRI revealed an extramedullary, intradural dumbbell shaped mass on the

UK Misra; J Kalita; D Khandelwal

2001-01-01

312

Human papillomavirus in cervical and head-and-neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide and is initiated by infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs). High-risk HPVs, especially HPV-16, are associated with other anogenital cancers and a subgroup of head-and-neck cancers. Indeed, HPV infection could account for the development of head-and-neck cancer in certain individuals that lack the classical risk factors for this

Daniel DiMaio; Amanda Psyrri

2008-01-01

313

Micronucleated lymphocyte rates from head-and-neck cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether head-and-neck cancers are associated with an increased micronucleated cell rates (MN cell rates) and whether risk factors for these cancers are associated with alterations in micronucleated lymphocytes. MN cell rates were assessed in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes of 57 head-and-neck cancer patients (CP) before any anticancer treatment and of 198 male and female healthy subjects (HS). In the HS

F Duffaud; T Orsière; L Digue; P Villani; F Volot; R Favre; A Botta

1999-01-01

314

Management of sarcomas of the head and neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft tissue and bone sarcomas in the head and neck are rare tumors. The 1000 to 1500 yearly cases in the United States are\\u000a distributed among at least 10 main histologies and multiple head and neck subsites. Although this makes structured studies\\u000a difficult to perform and high-level evidence-based treatment algorithms difficult to find, basic treatment recommendations\\u000a can be made from

Bruce Brockstein

2004-01-01

315

Deep-neck space infections - a diagnostic dilemma!  

PubMed

Deep Neck Space Infections (DNI) are a potentially life threatening condition. This paper highlights the importance of their early diagnosis and early intervention. The deep-neck space infections may be odontogenic in origin. The severe airway compromise caused by them may make diagnosis difficult. Suspicion of simultaneous occurrence of tetanus and retropharyngeal space infection in a child can further increase the dilemma. PMID:23120579

Jain, Shraddha; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Nishant; Puttewar, M P; Nagpure, P S

2008-11-07

316

Effects of neck extensor muscles fatigue on balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Measure the effects of cervical extensor muscle isometric contraction on cervical surface electromyographic spectral shift and balance in healthy subjects.Design. Experimental within-subject design.Background. Postural instability can be induced by mechanically stimulating cervical muscle spindles. Postural changes are also observed in individuals who suffer from chronic neck pain or whiplash injury. Furthermore these subjects appear to experience neck musculature fatigue

Guy Gosselin; Hamid Rassoulian; Ian Brown

2004-01-01

317

Recent advances in reconstructive surgery: head and neck reconstruction.  

PubMed

Although advances in radiotherapy and chemotherapy for cancers of the head and neck have been remarkable, surgical resection followed by reconstructive surgery is still the mainstay of treatment. Of the reconstructive procedures, microsurgical tissue transfer has been considered the standard method for restoring postoperative functions and morphology. In this review article, we discuss the history of reconstructive surgery for treating cancers of the head and neck, current problems, and future challenges. PMID:23269557

Sakuraba, Minoru; Miyamoto, Shimpei; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Harii, Kiyonori; Ebihara, Satoshi; Hayashi, Ryuichi

2012-12-27

318

Spectrum of Head-Neck cancers at Allahabad  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study of Head-Neck malignancy was conducted at Allahabad over a period of twenty two years from 1975 to 1996.\\u000a During this period, 5,386 new Head-Neck Cancer cases were reported. Peak presentation of males was in sixth decade and in\\u000a females it was in fifth decade of life. The sex ratio in this series was 3?6?1 while reverse sex

Hemant Ahluwalia; S. C. Gupta; Mangal Singh; Vatsla Mishra; P. A. Singh; D. K. Walia

2001-01-01

319

[Swelling of the neck following tonsillectomy : Lateral cervical fistula.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old patient presented with recurrent cervical swelling to the right side of the neck on coughing and sneezing. Although present since childhood, the symptoms had progressed over the preceding year. Immediately prior to this period a bilateral tonsillectomy had been performed for recurrent tonsillitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a complete lateral cervical fistula extending between the thyroid and submandibular glands on the right side of the neck. Successful surgical resection accomplished complete removal of the fistula. PMID:23515593

Klotz, L V; Reichel, O

2013-03-22

320

A leaking aortic aneurysm presenting as a recurrent neck swelling.  

PubMed

We present a case of an 82-year-old lady with recurrent neck swelling and a history of intermittent stridor who subsequently developed a contusion over her lower neck and upper chest. The patient collapsed on her way to have a CT scan and died 24 hours later of a leaking aortic aneurysm. At initial presentation the complete resolution of poorly localizing symptoms and signs almost allowed her discharge from hospital. PMID:7706929

el-Naggar, M; Flood, L

1995-02-01

321

Thermoregulation in naked neck chickens subjected to different ambient temperatures.  

PubMed

1. Heterozygous (Na/na) naked neck chickens and their normally feathered (na/na) sibs, were exposed to constant ambient temperatures (Ta) ranging between 15 and 35 degrees C and 12h: 12h diurnal high:low temperatures of 15 degrees C:35 degrees C. 2. No significant effect of genotype was obtained in weight gain and food intake. However, the naked neck birds tended to gain somewhat more weight at high Ta and consume more food at low Ta. 3. At 35 degrees C Na birds showed better regulation of body temperature (Tb) and demonstrated considerably higher radiation from the neck. 4. The greater food intake of the naked neck chickens at 15 degrees C was associated with significantly higher packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, heart and liver size. These appear to involve both higher heat production and haemodynamic changes to accommodate the higher oxygen demands of the naked neck chickens at low Ta. 5. The results indicate the ability of the naked neck chickens, on the one hand to thermoregulate at low Tas and, on the other their slightly better capacity to maintain Tb at high Tas. However, no genotype advantage was obtained under diurnal cyclic temperature conditions. PMID:9568311

Yahav, S; Luger, D; Cahaner, A; Dotan, M; Rusal, M; Hurwitz, S

1998-03-01

322

[Cultural adaptation and argentine validation of the northwick park neck pain questionnaire in the hospitals of the autonomous city of Buenos Aires].  

PubMed

Objetive: To make cultural adaptation and validation of the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) in Argentina, determining its psychometric properties in patients with neck pain of mechanical origin referred to the physiotherapy Service at D. F. Santojanni Hospital. Materials and Methods: autorization of original author of the NPQ was requested. Then we make the linguistic adaptation and pilot study. Psychometric analyses included test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient), validity (Pearson correlation coefficient NPQ-Visual Analog Scale, VAS), internal consistency (Cronbach Coefficient Alpha) and sensibility to change (paired t test). Sixty patients were inclueed from September 2007 to February 2009 with mechanical neck pain. The variables percentage of disability (NPQ) and pain (VAS) were measured on the day of admission, 24 hours later and when the patient was discharged. Results: Twenty six patients completed the study, 4 were eliminated and 30 did not complete the 3rd measurement. We get a good test-retest reliability (CCI 0,8979) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach Coefficient Alpha 0,86). Validity obtained a good correlation (r=0,678). Sensitivity to change was good (r=0,661). Conclusion: The NPQ is a valid, reliable and sensitive instrument to assess disability associated with neck pain of mechanical origin in patients treated at the hospitals of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. PMID:24067591

Aguirre, Mariana V; Rodriguez, Matias G; Clarett, Nartin; Iribarne, Juan I; Martinez, Marianela; Battistotti, Romina; Lopez de Arcaute, Ana S; Adarves, Romina; Orsini, Esteban

2013-01-01

323

Association between femoral neck bone mineral density and lower limb fat-free mass in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Aging is associated with several physiological changes that lead to increased disability and mortality. Examples of these changes are deteriorations in bone and muscle tissues, referred, respectively, as osteopenia and sarcopenia. Both have been linked to multiple morbid outcomes in older adults. The main purpose of this study was to determine the association between femoral neck and trochanter bone mineral density (BMD) and lower limb non-bone fat-free mass (MM) in postmenopausal women. One hundred eighty nine postmenopausal women volunteered to participate in the study (mean age 66.92+/-5.23 yr). Subjects were divided into different groups according to lower limb MM, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD measurements using the 2-step cluster analysis. Pearson chi-square was used to analyze the correlation between the BMD and MM distributions. The 2-step cluster analysis leads to the formation of 3 groups according to the levels of lower limb MM (LMM--low values of MM, IMM--intermediate values of MM, and HMM--high values of MM), 2 groups according to the values of femoral neck BMD (LFN--low values and HFN--high values), and 3 groups for trochanter BMD (LTR--low values, ITR--intermediate values, and HTR--high values). The results of Pearson chi-square revealed a significant association between femoral neck BMD and lower limb MM, and trochanter BMD and lower limb MM, suggesting that individuals with reduced lower limb MM are prone to have decreased femoral neck and trochanter BMD. The present study supports the hypothesis of a relation between the incidence of low BMD and MM. It is recommended that dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry screening should be used to identify both BMD and MM in postmenopausal women to assess more accurately the risk of fractures and disability. PMID:17485035

Gentil, Paulo; Lima, Ricardo Moreno; Jacó de Oliveira, Ricardo; Pereira, Rinaldo Wellerson; Reis, Victor Machado

2007-03-07

324

Neglected simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures secondary to narcotic drug abuse treated by bilateral one-staged hemiarthroplasty: a case report  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures are extremely rare and associated with various conditions. Up to now Most cases had correlations with major trauma, repetitive minor trauma, seizure, parathyroid or renal dysfunction, anti-epileptic medications, seizure, etc. A 28-year-old addict man referred to us with a 10-year history of narcotic drug abuse and history of 8 months bilateral groin pain. He admitted with displaced bilateral femoral neck fracture. Because of long duration of this condition and osteonecrosis revealed on bone scan, one-staged bilateral hip hemiarthroplasty was done. A good function was noted after surgery to 4-month follow up. Up to now, have not be founded in the literature that a case of bilateral femoral neck fracture associated with narcotic drug abuse. Because of negative effects of opium or smoking on bone tissues, a simple bone pain should aware us about the risk of stress or fatigue fracture.

2010-01-01

325

Fractures of the radial head and neck.  

PubMed

The majority of simple fractures of the radial head are stable, even when displaced 2 mm. Articular fragmentation and comminution can be seen in stable fracture patterns and are not absolute indications for operative treatment. Preservation and/or restoration of radiocapitellar contact is critical to coronal plane and longitudinal stability of the elbow and forearm. Partial and complete articular fractures of the radial head should be differentiated. Important fracture characteristics impacting treatment include fragment number, fragment size (percentage of articular disc), fragment comminution, fragment stability, displacement and corresponding block to motion, osteopenia, articular impaction, radiocapitellar malalignment, and radial neck and metaphyseal comminution and/or bone loss. Open reduction and internal fixation of displaced radial head fractures should only be attempted when anatomic reduction, restoration of articular congruity, and initiation of early motion can be achieved. If these goals are not obtainable, open reduction and internal fixation may lead to early fixation failure, nonunion, and loss of elbow and forearm motion and stability. Radial head replacement is preferred for displaced radial head fractures with more than three fragments, unstable partial articular fractures in which stable fixation cannot be achieved, and fractures occurring in association with complex elbow injury patterns if stable fixation cannot be ensured. PMID:23467871

Ruchelsman, David E; Christoforou, Dimitrios; Jupiter, Jesse B

2013-03-01

326

[Lymphoid lesions of the head and neck].  

PubMed

Lymphoid lesions of the head and neck mainly affect four regions: Waldeyer's ring, nasal and paranasal sinus, oral cavity and salivary glands. Each site is affected by lymphoid proliferation that reflected the biology of local lymphocytes. Waldeyer's ring, functionally similar to the mucosal associated lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract is most commonly affected by large B-cell lymphomas. The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are the typical site of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, a proliferation of cytotoxic, EBV infected cells. This lesion is sometimes difficult to distinguish from inflammatory processes as Wegener disease. Plasmablastic lymphoma have been first described in oral cavity in HIV patients. Endemic Burkitt lymphoma, considered as a polymicrobial disease associated with the t(14;18) translocation presented in the great majority of cases as a jaw tumor with oral extension. Salivary glands, not normally containing lymphoid tissue are the site of lymphoepithelial sialadenitis associated to Sjögren syndrome. It represents a pre lymphomatous state of marginal zone lymphoma. These different lymphoproliferations serve as a model for mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. PMID:19900637

Costes, Valérie

2009-09-22

327

[Clinical study on deep neck infection].  

PubMed

Deep neck infection (DNI) remains an emergent and life-threatening otolaryngologic disease. We examined 69 patients, 52 men and 17 women, with DNI, who were treated in our hospital between January 1995 and December 2004. The mean age of the patients with DNI was 50.0 years and the peak incidence was in the sixth decade. Twenty patients suffered from diabetes mellitus (DM). The primary DNI lesion was found in the tonsils in 34 cases, the oral cavity in 16 cases, and the pharynx in 12 cases, respectivelys. Among the 69 patients with DNI, the infection remained in the suprahyoid region in 31 cases, but it extended to the infrahyoid region in 33 cases and to the mediastinum in 5 cases. The titer of C-reacting protein (CRP) and the duration of admission were considered as parameters of the severity of DNI. CRP was significantly higher in elderly patients, in patients with DM, and in patients whose infection extended to the infrahyoid region and to the mediastinum, however, significant difference was not found between men and women, or among the types of primary DNI lesions. Moreover, the duration of admission was significantly longer in elderly patients, in patients with DM, and in patients with infrahyoid and mediastinal DNI, whereas no significant differences were found between men and women or among the types of primary lesions. Therefore, age, DM, and the extension of DNI are considered to be important factors which determining the severity of DNI. PMID:16910579

Ohata, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yoshinami, Hiroyoshi; Takegoshi, Hideki; Aoki, Daisuke; Shigeta, Keiichi; Ohno, Toshiya; Tani, Yasuhiro

2006-07-01

328

Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

In recent years there has been much interest in the use of optical diagnostics in cancer detection. Early diagnosis of cancer affords early intervention and greatest chance of cure. Raman spectroscopy is based on the interaction of photons with the target material producing a highly detailed biochemical 'fingerprint' of the sample. It can be appreciated that such a sensitive biochemical detection system could confer diagnostic benefit in a clinical setting. Raman has been used successfully in key health areas such as cardiovascular diseases, and dental care but there is a paucity of literature on Raman spectroscopy in Head and Neck cancer. Following the introduction of health care targets for cancer, and with an ever-aging population the need for rapid cancer detection has never been greater. Raman spectroscopy could confer great patient benefit with early, rapid and accurate diagnosis. This technique is almost labour free without the need for sample preparation. It could reduce the need for whole pathological specimen examination, in theatre it could help to determine margin status, and finally peripheral blood diagnosis may be an achievable target.

2010-01-01

329

Spinal Cord Injury Incurred by Neck Massage  

PubMed Central

Massage is generally accepted as a safe and a widely used modality for various conditions, such as pain, lymphedema, and facial palsy. However, several complications, some with devastating results, have been reported. We introduce a case of a 43-year-old man who suffered from tetraplegia after a neck massage. Imaging studies revealed compressive myelopathy at the C6 level, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), and a herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) at the C5-6 level. After 3 years of rehabilitation, his motor power improved, and he is able to walk and drive with adaptation. OPLL is a well-known predisposing factor for myelopathy in minor trauma, and it increases the risk of HNP, when it is associated with the degenerative disc. Our case emphasizes the need for additional caution in applying manipulation, including massage, in patients with OPLL; patients who are relatively young (i.e., in the fifth decade of life) are not immune to minor trauma.

Cheong, Hyun Suk; Ko, Yeong-A; Lim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Joon Sung

2012-01-01

330

Grease selection for sealed roll neck bearings  

SciTech Connect

During the 1990`s, a revolution took place in the steel industry with respect to lubricant usage, maintenance costs and the environment. The 4-row taper roller bearings that are used in rolling mills on the work roll necks have been historically lubricated with grease from a centralized grease system, pre-packed with grease at each roll change, or fed with oil from mist or air-oil system. Steel mills are being forced to reduce lubricant consumption to reduce maintenance costs, decrease the costs for the disposal of sludges created from the spent greases and reduce the amount of sludge that was created. The sealed bearing became an avenue for accomplishing these objectives. The open 4-row taper roller bearing was redesigned to accommodate seals. The bearing was pre-packed with grease and put into service without any grease replenishment for up to 22 months operation time. The selection of the grease to provide optimum operating characteristics for the lubricant and the bearing is one of the critical elements to the success of the bearing design. This paper reviews the critical properties that are necessary in the grease for the lubricant to provide the correct tribological functions in the bearing. This includes wear of the rollers and raceways, seal lip and surface wear, heat generation during rotation and under load, corrosion resistance, resistance to shearing during the working life of the grease and resistance to water contamination.

Schrama, R.C. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Vickerman, R.T. [Brooks Technology Co., Cleveland, OH (United States); Bender, C.P. [Torrington Co., CT (United States)

1995-09-01

331

Spinal cord injury incurred by neck massage.  

PubMed

Massage is generally accepted as a safe and a widely used modality for various conditions, such as pain, lymphedema, and facial palsy. However, several complications, some with devastating results, have been reported. We introduce a case of a 43-year-old man who suffered from tetraplegia after a neck massage. Imaging studies revealed compressive myelopathy at the C6 level, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), and a herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) at the C5-6 level. After 3 years of rehabilitation, his motor power improved, and he is able to walk and drive with adaptation. OPLL is a well-known predisposing factor for myelopathy in minor trauma, and it increases the risk of HNP, when it is associated with the degenerative disc. Our case emphasizes the need for additional caution in applying manipulation, including massage, in patients with OPLL; patients who are relatively young (i.e., in the fifth decade of life) are not immune to minor trauma. PMID:23185737

Cheong, Hyun Suk; Hong, Bo Young; Ko, Yeong-A; Lim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Joon Sung

2012-10-31

332

Molecular Mechanisms of Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background With a global incidence rank of eight and a significant portion of head and neck malignancies (~90%), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) poses a major health risk and is one of the leading cause of mortality in developing nations [1]. Distribution of the incidence of OSCC varies across the world with south-central Asia and Africa leading, followed by eastern and central Europe, and to a lesser extent Australia, Japan, and the United States. Over the past few years there has been a drastic increase in the incidence of oral cancer in most parts of the world [2]. In the United States alone, with about 17 new cases/100,000, oral cancer is the fifth most common and sixth leading cause of cancer-related mortality per year [3].While men tend to have a higher incidence of OSCC (6.6/100,000) compared to women (2.9/100,000), there is an equal mortality rate between the sexes (50%).

Deshpande, Amit M; Wong, David T

2009-01-01

333

Meningitis following gunshot wound of the neck.  

PubMed

It is generally assumed that a missile fired from a gun is subjected to sufficient heat to render it sterilized. For this reason, retained bullets are not usually considered a source of infection. The infectious complications associated with gunshot wounds are typically attributed to perforation of a hollow viscus with leakage of gastrointestinal contents causing peritonitis or intra-abdominal abscess. There are several reports of bacterial meningitis involving the spinal cord in gunshot wounds that perforate the intestine prior to involving the thoracic or lumbar vertebral column; however, there are no published reports of cerebral meningitis resulting from a retained projectile in the spinal canal in which there was no injury to the gastrointestinal tract. This manuscript describes a woman who died as a result of unsuspected acute bacterial meningitis which developed secondary to a gunshot wound of the neck. The projectile fractured the first thoracic vertebra, lacerated the dura and contused the spinal cord at the C7-T1 junction. Meningitis developed at the C7-T1 level and ascended along the cervical spinal cord to the brain. The infection caused acute neurologic deterioration and death four days following the initial injury. PMID:14640287

Spitz, Daniel J; Ouban, Abderrahman

2003-11-01

334

Melanoma Metastases to the Neck Nodes: Role of Adjuvant Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To review experiences in the treatment of regionally advanced melanoma to the neck and/or parotid with emphasis on the role of adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Clinical and histopathologic data, treatment details, and outcomes in patients treated during the period 2000-2006 at the Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana, Slovenia, were reviewed. Results: A total of 40 patients with 42 dissections underwent surgery, and 43 patients with 45 dissections received irradiation postoperatively to a median equivalent dose (eqTD{sub 2}: 2 Gy/fraction, 1 fraction/day, 5 fractions/week) of 60 Gy (range, 47.8-78.8). Regional control 2 years after surgery was 56% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40-72%) and after postoperative radiotherapy 78% (CI 63-92%) (p = 0.015). On multivariate analysis, postoperative radiotherapy (yes vs. no: hazard ratio [HR] 6.3, CI 2.0-20.6) and sum of the risk factors present (i.e., risk factor score; HR 1.7 per score point, CI 1.2-2.6) were predictive for regional control. On logistic regression testing, the number of involved nodes was associated with the probability of distant metastases (p = 0.021). The incidence of late toxicity did not correlate with the mode of therapy, eqTD{sub 2}, or fractionation pattern. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy has the potential to compensate effectively for the negative impact of adverse histopatologic features to disease control in a dissected nodal basin. More conventionally fractionated radiotherapy regimens using fraction doses of 2-2.5 Gy, with cumulative eqTD{sub 2{>=}}60 Gy, are recommended. The number of involved lymph nodes is proposed as an additional criterion for limiting the implementation of adjuvant irradiation.

Strojan, Primoz, E-mail: pstrojan@onko-i.s [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jancar, Boris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cemazar, Maja [Department of Tumor Biology, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Perme, Maja Pohar [Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hocevar, Marko [Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2010-07-15

335

Validity of the neck disability index, Northwick Park neck pain questionnaire, and problem elicitation technique for measuring disability associated with whiplash-associated disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) were developed to measure self-perceived disability from neck pain, including that which may arise from whiplash injury. However, there is little data specifically concerning their validity for whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the NDI and NPQ as measures of

Jan Lucas Hoving; Elizabeth F O'Leary; Ken R Niere; Sally Green; Rachelle Buchbinder

2003-01-01

336

Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory for Head and Neck Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To translate the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) which is a self-administered questionnaire that assesses effect of dysphagia on the quality of life for patients with head and neck cancer, into Korean and to verify the validity and reliability of the Korean version of MDADI. Methods We performed 6 steps for the cross-cultural adaptation which consisted of translation, synthesis, back translation, review by an expert committee, cognitive debriefing, and final proof reading. A total of 34 dysphagia patients with head and neck cancers from Seoul National University Hospital answered the translated version of the questionnaire for the pre-testing. The patients answered the same questionnaire 2 weeks later to verify the test-retest reliability. Results One patient was excluded at second survey because he changed his feeding strategy. Overall, 33 patients completed the study. Linguistic validations were achieved by each step of cross-cultural adaptation. We gathered statistically strong construct validity (Spearman rho for subdomain scores to total score correlation range from 0.852 to 0.927), internal consistency for subdomains (Cronbach's alpha coefficients range from 0.785 to 0.889) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient range from 0.820 to 0.955) Conclusion The Korean version of the MDADI achieved linguistic validations and demonstrated good construct validity and reliability. It can be a useful tool for screening and treatment planning for the dysphagia of patients with head and neck cancers.

Kwon, Chan-Hyuk; Kim, Yeo Hyung; Park, Jae Hyeon; Han, Tai Ryoon

2013-01-01

337

Does Choice of Head Size and Neck Geometry Affect Stem Migration in Modular Large-Diameter Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Preliminary Analysis  

PubMed Central

Due to their theoretical advantages, hip systems combining modular necks and large diameter femoral heads have gradually gained popularity. However, among others, concerns regarding changes in the load transfer patterns were raised. Recent stress analyses have indeed shown that the use of modular necks and big femoral heads causes significant changes in the strain distribution along the femur. Our original hypothesis was that these changes may affect early distal migration of a modular stem. We examined the effect of head diameter and neck geometry on migration at two years of follow-up in a case series of 116 patients (125 hips), who have undergone primary Metal-on-Metal total hip arthroplasty with the modular grit-blasted Profemur®E stem combined with large-diameter heads (>36 mm). We found that choice of neck geometry and head diameter has no effect on stem migration. A multivariate regression analysis including the potential confounding variables of the body mass index, bone quality, canal fill and stem positioning revealed only a negative correlation between subsidence and canal fill in midstem area. Statistical analysis, despite its limitations, did not confirm our hypothesis that choice of neck geometry and/or head diameter affects early distal migration of a modular stem. However, the importance of correct stem sizing was revealed.

Georgiou, CS; Evangelou, KG; Theodorou, EG; Provatidis, CG; Megas, PD

2012-01-01

338

Volume analysis of treatment response of head and neck lesions using 3D level set segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computerized system for segmenting lesions in head and neck CT scans was developed to assist radiologists in estimation of the response to treatment of malignant lesions. The system performs 3D segmentations based on a level set model and uses as input an approximate bounding box for the lesion of interest. In this preliminary study, CT scans from a pre-treatment exam and a post one-cycle chemotherapy exam of 13 patients containing head and neck neoplasms were used. A radiologist marked 35 temporal pairs of lesions. 13 pairs were primary site cancers and 22 pairs were metastatic lymph nodes. For all lesions, a radiologist outlined a contour on the best slice on both the pre- and post treatment scans. For the 13 primary lesion pairs, full 3D contours were also extracted by a radiologist. The average pre- and post-treatment areas on the best slices for all lesions were 4.5 and 2.1 cm2, respectively. For the 13 primary site pairs the average pre- and post-treatment primary lesions volumes were 15.4 and 6.7 cm3 respectively. The correlation between the automatic and manual estimates for the pre-to-post-treatment change in area for all 35 pairs was r=0.97, while the correlation for the percent change in area was r=0.80. The correlation for the change in volume for the 13 primary site pairs was r=0.89, while the correlation for the percent change in volume was r=0.79. The average signed percent error between the automatic and manual areas for all 70 lesions was 11.0+/-20.6%. The average signed percent error between the automatic and manual volumes for all 26 primary lesions was 37.8+/-42.1%. The preliminary results indicate that the automated segmentation system can reliably estimate tumor size change in response to treatment relative to radiologist's hand segmentation.

Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Street, Ethan; Sahiner, Berkman; Gujar, Sachin; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Chan, Heang-Ping; Mukherji, Suresh K.

2008-04-01

339

Microscopic bladder neck involvement by prostate carcinoma in radical prostatectomy specimens is not a significant independent prognostic factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The independent prognostic importance of microscopic bladder neck involvement by prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy is questionable. We studied a cohort of 1845 patients to determine the significance of microscopic bladder neck involvement. Bladder neck involvement was defined as prostate cancer present within the coned bladder neck. We further categorized the cases as ‘true bladder neck involvement’ and ‘false bladder

Ming Zhou; Alwyn M Reuther; Howard S Levin; Sara M Falzarano; Emmanuel Kodjoe; Jonathan Myles; Eric Klein; Cristina Magi-Galluzzi

2009-01-01

340

Characteristics of a new episode of neck pain.  

PubMed

We report on the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients seeking manual therapy care for a new episode of non-specific neck pain and report on characteristics associated with higher levels of pain and disability in these patients. Demographic and clinical data were collected from patients who enrolled in a clinical trial of manipulation for neck pain. A profile of these patients was formulated using descriptive statistics. Multivariate linear regression models were used to describe the relationship between patient characteristics and severity of pain and disability. Patients with a new episode of non-specific neck pain reported pain intensity of 6.1 ± 2.0 (mean ± SD) on a 0-10 numerical scale and disability scores of 15.7 ± 7.4 (Neck Disability Index/50). Sixty-three percent had a prior history of neck pain. Concomitant symptoms were highly prevalent including upper limb pain (80%), headache (65%), upper back pain (64%), lower back pain (39%), dizziness (31%) and nausea (23%). There was a strong association between pain intensity and disability (p < 0.01). More severe pain was also associated with not having concomitant back pain (p = 0.01) More severe disability was also associated with poor general health (p < 0.01), nausea (p < 0.01), smoking, (p = 0.02) low SF-12 mental health score (p = 0.02), and shorter duration of symptoms (p = 0.03). Patients with a new episode of neck pain, and deemed suitable for treatment with neck manipulation reported moderately high intensity pain and disability with widespread and frequent concomitant symptoms. PMID:22703902

Leaver, Andrew M; Maher, Christopher G; McAuley, James H; Jull, Gwendolen A; Refshauge, Kathryn M

2012-06-15

341

Deep neck infection in Northern Thailand.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study, conducted by the Department of Otolaryngology, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, is to understand the clinical characteristics of patients with deep neck infection (DNI), especially in immunocompromised hosts, as well as to analyze the factors that influence multiple spaces' involvement and complications. The data collected (January 2004-July 2009) from 177 patients with DNI, excluding peritonsillar abscess, were reviewed, including demography, clinical presentation, etiology, involved fascial spaces, bacteriology, treatment, and complications. SPSS (15.0) was used to analyze the data. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among 177 DNI patients, there were 30 diabetic and 4 HIV infected patients, who were considered immunocompromised. Furthermore, two characteristics (complications and the Hb level) were statistically significant (p value <0.05) in the immunocompromised and immunocompetent groups. The 87 patients who presented with multiple space involvement were predicted by the level of white blood cell count (<5,000 or >12,000/?l) (OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.38-4.96) in univariate analysis. Complications were affected by both host immunity and abnormal Hb level (<10 or >15 g/dl), in univariate analysis, but Hb level was the only risk factor (OR 4.46; 95% CI 1.81-10.99) in multivariate analysis. Comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and HIV infection required certain clinical assessment because of potential complications. In addition, blood tests (WBC and Hb levels) are the most important investigations necessary in patients suspected of having multiple space involvement and complications. PMID:21431951

Srivanitchapoom, Chonticha; Sittitrai, Pichit; Pattarasakulchai, Thienchai; Tananuvat, Rak

2011-03-24

342

Postoperative IMRT in head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Aim of this work was to assess loco-regional disease control in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (pIMRT). For comparative purposes, risk features of our series have been analysed with respect to histopathologic adverse factors. Results were compared with an own historic conventional radiation (3DCRT) series, and with 3DCRT and pIMRT data from other centres. Between January 2002 and August 2006, 71 patients were consecutively treated with pIMRT for a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx (32), oral cavity (22), hypopharynx (7), larynx (6), paranasal sinus (3), and an unknown primary, respectively. Mean and median follow up was 19 months (2–48), and 17.6 months. 83% were treated with IMRT-chemotherapy. Mean prescribed dose was 66.3 Gy (60–70), delivered with doses per fraction of 2–2.3 Gy, respectively. Results 2-year local, nodal, and distant control rates were 95%, 91%, and 96%, disease free and overall survival 90% and 83%, respectively. The corresponding survival rates for the subgroup of patients with a follow up time >12 months (n = 43) were 98%, 95%, 98%, 93%, and 88%, respectively. Distribution according to histopathologic risk features revealed 15% and 85% patients with intermediate and high risk, respectively. All loco-regional events occurred in the high risk subgroup. Conclusion Surgery followed by postoperative IMRT in patients with substantial risk for recurrence resulted in high loco-regional tumor control rates compared with large prospective 3DCRT trials.

Studer, Gabriela; Furrer, Katrin; Davis, Bernard J; Stoeckli, Sandro S; Zwahlen, Roger A; Luetolf, Urs M; Glanzmann, Christoph

2006-01-01

343

Advances in head and neck reconstruction.  

PubMed

There are numerous advances that have taken place over the last several years in head and neck reconstruction. In this article, the author has outlined three exciting developments. The first is in the area of palatomaxillary reconstruction using free tissue transfer. In select cases, depending on the nature of the defect, soft tissue flaps have been highly successful. However, in more extensive defects, the author chooses to transfer vascularized bone composite flaps to achieve successful dental restoration as well as closure of the palatal defect. Sensory restoration through the use of sensate flaps has been a topic of considerable controversy. The author presents his experience with three patients who underwent a unique reconstruction of the laryngopharynx that has demonstrated conclusively that targeted sensory restoration can be achieved through neural anastomoses. By anastomosing the sensory nerve to the superior laryngeal nerve, there are implicit physiologic implications with respect to the feedback that is achieved and its role in achieving glottic closure during deglutition. Extensive laryngeal reconstruction with subglottic involvement can be a very challenging problem. The author describes a new technique using vascularized tracheal autografts with the thyroid gland as a carrier. This provides the necessary ingredients for transferring a cartilaginous infrastructure within a thin layer of vascularized mucosa to restore the framework and the lining to the laryngotracheal region. Three patients have been restored who had extensive glottic and subglottic stenoses that have since been decannulated and are successfully eating as well as speaking. In addition, the author feels that this is a very promising technique for the management of chondrosarcomas, in which a significant portion of the cricoid arch requires reconstruction. PMID:12972917

Urken, Mark L

2003-09-01

344

Targeted therapy in head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of multi-factorial etiopathogenesis is rising worldwide. Treatment-associated toxicity problems and treatment failure in advanced disease stages with conventional therapies have necessitated a focus on alternative strategies. Molecular targeted therapy, with the potential for increased selectivity and fewer adverse effects, hold promise in the treatment of HNSCC. In an attempt to improve outcomes in HNSCC, targeted therapeutic strategies have been developed. These strategies are focusing on the molecular biology of HNSCC in an attempt to target selected pathways involved in carcinogenesis. Inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis by focusing on specific protein or signal transduction pathways or by targeting the tumor microenvironment or vasculature are some of the new approaches. Targeted agents for HNSCC expected to improve the effectiveness of current therapy include EGFR inhibitors (Cetuximab, Panitumumab, Zalutumumab), EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (Gefitinib, Erloitinib), VEGFR inhibitors (Bevacizumab, Vandetanib), and various inhibitors of, e.g., Src-family kinase, PARP, proteasome, mTOR, COX, and heat shock protein. Moreover, targeted molecular therapy can also act as a complement to other existing cancer therapies. Several studies have demonstrated that the combination of targeting techniques with conventional current treatment protocols may improve the treatment outcome and disease control, without exacerbating the treatment related toxicities. Some of the targeted approaches have been proved as promising therapeutic potentials and are already in use, whereas remainder exhibits mixed result and necessitates further studies. Identification of predictive biomarkers of resistance or sensitivity to these therapies remains a fundamental challenge in the optimal selection of patients most likely to benefit from targeted treatment. PMID:22373581

Kundu, S K; Nestor, M

2012-02-29

345

Implementing the National Institute of Clinical Excellence improving outcome guidelines for head and neck cancer: developing a business plan with reorganisation of head and neck cancer services.  

PubMed

The implementation of the National Institute of Clinical Excellence improving outcome guidelines (NICE-IOG) manual for head and neck cancer may have a huge potential cost implication. Head and neck cancer is a rare disease which utilises large quantities of resources which can only be provided in a tertiary centre. Head and neck cancer services should be centralised into a single site for each cancer network. A new higher tariff rate for complex head and neck cancer cases is needed which recognises the true cost of this work. Each network should set its own tariff to make head and neck cancer care financially viable. PMID:18429872

Jeannon, J-P; Abbs, I; Calman, F; Gleeson, M; Lyons, A; Hussain, K; McGurk, M; O'Connell, M; Probert, D; Ng, R; Simo, R

2008-04-01

346

Correlational analysis.  

PubMed

A common question of interest in nursing research is the relationships between variables. Correlational analysis is a statistical technique employed to investigate the magnitude and significance of such relationships. This paper presents commonly used techniques to examine bivariate relationships of interval/ratio, ordinal and nominal variables. PMID:22464607

Prematunga, Roshani K

2012-03-30

347

Myeloid sarcoma of the head and neck region.  

PubMed

Context.-Myeloid sarcoma of the head and neck region can pose diagnostic challenges because of the low frequency of myeloid sarcoma and the potential for tumors of almost any lineage to occur in the head and neck. Objective.-To study the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of myeloid sarcoma in the head and neck region and to review the differential diagnosis. Design.-We searched for cases of myeloid sarcoma involving the head and neck region for a 24-year period at our institution. The medical records and pathology slides were reviewed. Additional immunohistochemical stains were performed. Results.-We identified 17 patients, age 17 to 85 years. Most tumors involved the oral cavity. Myeloid sarcoma was the initial diagnosis in 9 patients (53%); the remaining 8 patients (47%) had a history of bone marrow disease. Immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies specific for lysozyme, CD43, and CD68 were highly sensitive for diagnosis but were not specific. By contrast, assessment for myeloperoxidase in this study was less sensitive but more specific. We also used antibodies specific for CD11c and CD33 in a subset of cases, and these reagents seem helpful as well. Conclusions.-The clinical presentation of myeloid sarcoma involving the head and neck, particularly the mouth, is often nonspecific, and a high degree of suspicion for the possibility of myeloid sarcoma is needed. Immunohistochemistry is very helpful for establishing the diagnosis. PMID:23530613

Zhou, Jane; Bell, Diana; Medeiros, L Jeffrey

2013-03-26

348

The prolonged presence of a fish bone in the neck.  

PubMed

Fish bones are one of the most frequently observed ingested foreign bodies in the pharynx-esophagus. Fish bones have a tendency to stick and penetrate the mucosa, which can occasionally lead to severe or lethal complications. The extraluminal migration of fish bones in the upper digestive tract is a rare event, and it is even more unlikely that the foreign body will remain in the neck for a prolonged period. We report the unique case of a 69-year-old woman who remained asymptomatic, while a fish bone was lodged in her neck for 9 months. Finally, after her anterior neck had become swollen, she underwent neck exploration, which revealed that the fish bone was embedded in the scar tissue running from within the thyroid gland to outside of the thyroid. Treatment proceeded without complications, and the foreign body was removed successfully. The length of the fish bone was 34 mm. Intraoperative ultrasonography was able to identify the fish bone in situ using real-time imaging; therefore, we recommend this technique for locating migrated foreign bodies in the neck. PMID:22571955

Watanabe, Kenichi; Amano, Masanori; Nakanome, Ayako; Saito, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Sho

2012-01-01

349

A Review of Direct Neck Measurement in Occupational Settings  

PubMed Central

No guidelines are available to orient researchers on the availability and applications of equipment and sensors for recording precise neck movements in occupational settings. In this study reports on direct measurements of neck movements in the workplace were reviewed. Using relevant keywords two independent reviewers searched for eligible studies in the following databases: Cinahal, Cochrane, Embase, Lilacs, PubMed, MEDLINE, PEDro, Scopus and Web of Science. After applying the inclusion criteria, 13 articles on direct neck measurements in occupational settings were retrieved from among 33,666 initial titles. These studies were then methodologically evaluated according to their design characteristics, exposure and outcome assessment, and statistical analysis. The results showed that in most of the studies the three axes of neck movement (flexion-extension, lateral flexion and rotation) were not simultaneously recorded. Deficiencies in available equipment explain this flaw, demonstrating that sensors and systems need to be improved so that a true understanding of real occupational exposure can be achieved. Further studies are also needed to assess neck movement in those who perform heavy-duty work, such as nurses and electricians, since no report about such jobs was identified.

Carnaz, Leticia; Batistao, Mariana V.; Gil Coury, Helenice J. C.

2010-01-01

350

Femoral Neck Shaft Angle in Men with Fragility Fractures  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Femoral neck shaft angle (NSA) has been reported to be an independent predictor of hip fracture risk in men. We aimed to assess the role of NSA in UK men. Methods. The NSA was measured manually from the DXA scan printout in men with hip (62, 31 femoral neck and 31 trochanteric), symptomatic vertebral (91), and distal forearm (67) fractures and 389 age-matched control subjects. Age, height, weight, and BMD (g/cm2: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur) measurements were performed. Results. There was no significant difference in mean NSA between men with femoral neck and trochanteric hip fractures, so all further analyses of hip fractures utilised the combined data. There was no difference in NSA between those with hip fractures and those without (either using the combined data or analysing trochanteric and femoral neck shaft fractures separately), nor between fracture subjects as a whole and controls. Mean NSA was smaller in those with vertebral fractures (129.2° versus 131°: P = 0.001), but larger in those with distal forearm fractures (129.8° versus 128.5°: P = 0.01). Conclusions. The conflicting results suggest that femoral NSA is not an important determinant of hip fracture risk in UK men.

Tuck, S. P.; Rawlings, D. J.; Scane, A. C.; Pande, I.; Summers, G. D.; Woolf, A. D.; Francis, R. M.

2011-01-01

351

Head and neck loading in everyday and vigorous activities.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to document head and neck loading in a group of ordinary people engaged in non-injurious everyday and more vigorous physical activities. Twenty (20) volunteers that were representative of the general population were subjected to seven test scenarios: a soccer ball impact to the forehead, a self-imposed hand strike to the forehead, vigorous head shaking, plopping down in a chair, jumping off a step, a seated drop onto the buttocks, and a vertical drop while seated supine in a chair. Some scenarios involved prescribed and well-controlled stimuli, while others allowed the volunteers to perform common activities at a self-selected level of intensity. Head accelerations up to 31 g and 2888 rad/s(2) and neck loads up to 268 N in posterior shear, 526 N in compression, and 36 Nm in extension were recorded. Most head and neck injury criteria predicted a low risk of injury in all activities. However, rotational head accelerations and Neck Injury Criterion (NIC) values were much higher than some proposed tolerance limits in a large number of tests, all of which were non-injurious. The data from this study help us to establish an envelope of head and neck loading that is commonly encountered and presents a minimal risk of injury. PMID:20960061

Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Guzman, Herb; Bonugli, Enrique; Manoogian, Sarah J

2010-10-20

352

Role of COX-2 in tumor progression and survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways may have significant implications for the prevention and treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). COX-2 is overexpressed in both premalignant lesions and invasive HNSCC. We examined COX-2 expression by immunohistochemistry in normal tissues, different stages of premalignant lesions, and carcinoma in-situ (CIS). We also evaluated the correlation between COX-2 expression and clinical characteristics of HNSCC patients. Tissue specimens were obtained from: premalignant lesions from 25 subjects enrolled in a biochemoprevention trial; tumor samples collected at diagnosis from 38 HNSCC patients enrolled in an induction chemotherapy trial; and normal control tissues from 10 non-cancer, non-smoking subjects. COX-2 was expressed in early and intermediate stages of premalignant lesions, increasing first in the basal and parabasal layers, then lower spinous, and upper spinous layers. This correlation was noted in normal epithelium (p<0.0001), histologically normal in-field samples (p<0.0001), low-grade dysplasia (p=0.024), and moderate-grade dysplasia (p=0.009), but was lost in the majority of high-grade dysplasia/CIS (p=0.896). COX-2 expression was also noted to increase progressively through the early stages of premalignancy, and to decrease in severe/CIS stage and invasive carcinoma. COX-2 expression in tumors from patients treated with induction chemotherapy was correlated with overall survival after controlling for clinical variables. These findings elucidate the differential expression pattern of COX-2 in stages of head and neck premalignant lesions and invasive carcinoma, supporting the rationale for COX-2 inhibition as an important strategy for cancer chemoprevention. Further validation of COX-2 expression is needed in prospective ongoing chemoprevention trials.

Saba, Nabil F.; Choi, Misun; Muller, Susan; Shin, Hyung Ju C.; Tighiouart, Mourad; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A; El-Naggar, Adel K; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Chen, Zhuo (Georgia); Shin, Dong M.

2010-01-01

353

Validation of the Korean Version of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale  

PubMed Central

Study Design A prospective study. Purpose To evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Korean version of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS). Overview of Literature The validity of Korean version of NPDS has not been completely demonstrated yet. Methods Translation/retranslation of the English version of NPDS was conducted, and all steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were performed. The Korean version of the visual analog scale (VAS) measure of pain, NPDS and the previously validated Short Form-36 (SF-36) were mailed to 91 patients, who had been surgically treated for degenerative cervical disease. Eighty-one patients responded to the first mailing of questionnaires and 69 of the first time responder returned their second survey. Factor analysis and reliability assessment by kappa statistics of agreement for each item, the intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's ? were conducted. Concurrent and construct validity were also evaluated by comparing the responses of NPDS with the results of VAS and responses of SF-36. Results Factor analysis extracted 3 factors. All items had a kappa statistics of agreement greater than 0.6. The NPDS showed excellent test/re-test reliability. Internal consistency of Cronbach's ? was found to be very good. The NPDS was correlated with the VAS. The Korean version of NPDS showed good significant correlation with SF-36 total score and with single SF-36 domains scores. Conclusions The adapted Korean version of the NPDS was successfully translated and is considered suitable for outcome assessments in the Korean-speaking patients with neck pain.

Suh, Kuen Tak; Kim, Jeung Il; Lee, Hong Seok; Goh, Tae Sik

2013-01-01

354

Cognitive Functioning After Radiotherapy or Chemoradiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform a comprehensive cognitive function (CF) assessment in patients who were relapse free after curative intent radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Patients underwent neuropsychological tests to assess their objective CF; completed questionnaires to assess subjective CF, quality of life, and affect; and underwent blood tests to assess hematologic, biochemical, endocrine, and cytokine status. Retrospectively, the dosimetry of incidental radiation to the brain was determined for all patients, and the dose intensity of cisplatin was determined in those who had undergone chemoradiotherapy. Results: A total of 10 patients were enrolled (5 treated with radiotherapy only and 5 with radiotherapy and cisplatin). The mean time from the end of treatment was 20 months (range, 9-41). All patients were able to complete the assessment protocol. Of the 10 patients, 9 had impaired objective CF, with memory the most severely affected. The severity of memory impairment correlated significantly with the radiation dose to the temporal lobes, and impaired dexterity correlated significantly with the radiation dose to the cerebellum, suggesting that these deficits might be treatment related. Patients receiving cisplatin appeared to have poorer objective CF than patients receiving only RT, although this difference did not achieve statistical significance, likely owing to the small sample size. Consistent with the published data, objective CF did not correlate with subjective CF or quality of life. No association was found between objective CF and patients' affect, hematologic, biochemical, endocrine, and cytokine status. Conclusion: Neuropsychological testing is feasible in squamous cell carcinoma of the head-and-neck survivors. The findings were suggestive of treatment-related cognitive dysfunction. These results warrant additional investigation.

Gan, Hui K. [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bernstein, Lori J. [Department of Psychosocial Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Brown, Jennifer [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ringash, Jolie; Vakilha, Mehrdad [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wang, Lisa [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Goldstein, David [Department of Otolaryngology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kim, John; Hope, Andrew; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Abdul Razak, Albiruni R.; Chen, Eric X. [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Siu, Lillian L., E-mail: lillian.siu@uhn.on.ca [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2011-09-01

355

[Traditional transcutaneous approaches in head & neck surgery].  

PubMed

The treatment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal malignancies remains a challenging task for the head and neck surgeon as the chosen treatment modality often has to bridge the gap between oncologically sound radicality and preservation of function. Due to the increase in transoral laser surgery in early tumor stages and chemoradiation in advanced stages, the usage of traditional transcutaneous approaches has decreased over the recent past. In addition, the need for a function-sparing surgical approach as well as highest possible quality of life has become evident. In view of these facts, rationale and importance of traditional transcutaneous approaches to the treatment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal malignancies are discussed in a contemporary background. The transcutaneous open partial laryngectomies remain a valuable tool in the surgeon's armamentarium for the treatment of early and advanced laryngeal carcinomas, especially in cases of impossible laryngeal overview using the rigid laryngoscope. Open partial laryngetomies offer superior overview and oncologic safety at the anterior commissure, especially in recurrencies. In select advanced cases and salvage settings, the supracricoid laryngectomy offers a valuable tool for function-preserving but oncologically safe surgical therapy at the cost of high postoperative morbidity and a very demanding rehabilitation of swallowing. In hypopharyngeal malignancies, the increasing use of transoral laser surgery has led to a decline in transcutaneous resections via partial pharyngectomy with partial laryngectomy in early tumor stages. In advanced stages of tumors of the piriform sinus and the postcricoid area with involvement of the larynx, total laryngectomy with partial pharyngectomy is an oncologically safe approach. The radical surgical approach using circumferent laryngopharyngectomy with/without esophagectomy is indicated in salvage cases with advanced recurrences or as a primary surgical approach in patients where chemoradiation does not offer sufficient oncologic control or preservation of function. In cases with impending reconstruction, fasciocutaneous free flaps (anterolateral thigh flap, radial forearm flap) seem to offer superior results to enteric flaps in cases where the cervical esophagus is not involved leading to better voice rehabilitation with fewer complications and postoperative morbidity. In salvage situations, the Gastroomental Free Flap has proven to be a valuable tool. In conclusion, the choice of a surgical treatment modality is influenced by the patient's anatomy, tumor size and location as well as the surgeon's personal expertise. PMID:22456920

Gößler, U R

2012-03-28

356

Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an epidemic that reaches all parts of the world. Making the diagnosis relies on the acumen of the clinician and pathologist. Various pathologic subtypes exist and differ in histology and prognosis. High-risk tumors need aggressive treatment and vigilant surveillance to monitor for recurrence. Large tumors, deep tissue invasion, perineural involvement, recurrence, location in high-risk areas, and immunosuppression are implicated in worsening prognosis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy as needed for aggressive tumors; however, other modalities are potentially useful for low-risk lesions. The use of Mohs surgery has become increasingly useful and has shown high success rates. Involvement of parotid and neck lymph nodes significantly affects outcomes and the physician should be comfortable with management of this complex disease. This paper examines the diagnosis, pathology, clinical course, and treatment options for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

Gurudutt, Vivek V.; Genden, Eric M.

2011-01-01

357

Protracted Lhermitte's sign following head and neck irradiation.  

PubMed

Lhermitte's sign is a rare complication of head and neck irradiation involving the delivery of dose to the cervical spinal cord. Although uncommon, symptoms of lightning-like electric sensations spreading into both arms, down the dorsal spine, and into both legs on neck flexion following head and neck irradiation, causes great concern in both the patient and the physician. This spontaneously reversible phenomenon is important for the otolaryngologist and radiation oncologist to recognize and discuss. A particularly severe and protracted case of Lhermitte's sign involving a patient recently completing a radical course of radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is described in detail, including a review of the literature surrounding the cause and management of this condition. PMID:1747238

Thornton, A F; Zimberg, S H; Greenberg, H S; Sullivan, M J

1991-11-01

358

Life-threatening soft-tissue infections of the neck.  

PubMed

Four adult patients had life-threatening soft-tissue infections of the neck. One had Hemophilus influenzae infection, one had Streptococcus pyogenes infection, and two had polymicrobial mixed aerobic and anaerobic infections. Three of the four patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy and surgical intervention. These cases demonstrate the spectrum of serious soft-tissue infections of the neck in both the compromised and the uncompromised host. Soft-tissue infections of the neck may be necrotizing or nonnecrotizing. Cellulitis secondary to H. influenzae and beta-hemolytic streptococci is usually non-necrotizing, whereas necrotizing infections are caused most commonly by synergistic organisms. Potential complications include septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, adult respiratory distress syndrome, mediastinitis, and pericarditis. Early recognition with aggressive medical and surgical therapy is essential to reduce the mortality. PMID:6366410

Beck, H J; Salassa, J R; McCaffrey, T V; Hermans, P E

1984-03-01

359

Role of platysma muscle flap in depressed scars of neck  

PubMed Central

Background: Depressed scars in the neck pose a cosmetic problem. There is a need to fill the lost tissue volume defect between the surface and deeper tissues. It is preferable that the filling is done by autologous tissue which is available in substantial amount in the adjoining area. There should be no donor site morbidity. Platysma muscle flap meets these criteria. Materials and Methods: Platysma muscle flap was advanced into the defect after excision of depressed scar. The procedure was done under local anesthetic in two patients. Result: The result was a ‘good scar’ with scar lying in the transversely oriented neck lines. Conclusions: Platysma muscle flap has a definitive role in revision surgery of depressed scars in neck as it provides an ideal tissue for lost tissue volume.

Sandhir, Rakesh K.; Jindal, Bharat R.; Sandhir, Shivanjali

2011-01-01

360

Raising the sauropod neck: it costs more to get less  

PubMed Central

The long necks of gigantic sauropod dinosaurs are commonly assumed to have been used for high browsing to obtain enough food. However, this analysis questions whether such a posture was reasonable from the standpoint of energetics. The energy cost of circulating the blood can be estimated accurately from two physiological axioms that relate metabolic rate, blood flow rate and arterial blood pressure: (i) metabolic rate is proportional to blood flow rate and (ii) cardiac work rate is proportional to the product of blood flow rate and blood pressure. The analysis shows that it would have required the animal to expend approximately half of its energy intake just to circulate the blood, primarily because a vertical neck would have required a high systemic arterial blood pressure. It is therefore energetically more feasible to have used a more or less horizontal neck to enable wide browsing while keeping blood pressure low.

Seymour, Roger S.

2009-01-01

361

Enlarging neck masses in the elderly - Histological and surgical considerations  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare but aggressive malignancy which can present with a rapidly enlarging neck mass or compressive sequelae of cough, dyspnoea, dysphagia and hoarseness. Treatment of such tumours is commonly palliative however they occasionally represent surgical challenges due to their rapid growth, diagnostic difficulty and locoregional spread. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 75 year-old retired veterinary surgeon was referred with a 2 month history of a painless, enlarging neck mass. The patient denied any secondary compressive symptoms or general symptoms of malignancy. On examination a large right-sided neck mass measuring 7 cm × 5 cm was appreciated which was fixed, hard and irregular with associated adenopathy. DISCUSSION We discuss the diagnostic challenges posed by anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid and the difficulties in selecting the appropriate intervention in this aggressive disease process. CONCLUSION Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid is encountered infrequently in clinical practice and can generate diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

O'Sullivan, M.D.; McAnena, K.S.; Egan, C.; Waters, P.S.; McCann, P.J.; Kerin, M.J.

2013-01-01

362

Decreased isometric neck strength in women with chronic neck pain and the repeatability of neck strength measurements 1 1 No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit upon the author(s) or upon any organization with which the author(s) is\\/are associated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ylinen J, Salo P, Nykänen M, Kautiainen H, Häkkinen A. Decreased isometric neck strength in women with chronic neck pain and the repeatibility of neck strength measurements. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:1303–8.

Jari Ylinen; Petri Salo; Matti Nykänen; Hannu Kautiainen; Arja Häkkinen

2004-01-01

363

Relation of a hypoxia metagene derived from head and neck cancer to prognosis of multiple cancers.  

PubMed

Affymetrix U133plus2 GeneChips were used to profile 59 head and neck squamous cell cancers. A hypoxia metagene was obtained by analysis of genes whose in vivo expression clustered with the expression of 10 well-known hypoxia-regulated genes (e.g., CA9, GLUT1, and VEGF). To minimize random aggregation, strongly correlated up-regulated genes appearing in >50% of clusters defined a signature comprising 99 genes, of which 27% were previously known to be hypoxia associated. The median RNA expression of the 99 genes in the signature was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival in a publicly available head and neck cancer data set, outdoing the original intrinsic classifier. In a published breast cancer series, the hypoxia signature was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival independent of clinicopathologic risk factors and a trained profile. The work highlights the validity and potential of using data from analysis of in vitro stress pathways for deriving a biological metagene/gene signature in vivo. PMID:17409455

Winter, Stuart C; Buffa, Francesca M; Silva, Priyamal; Miller, Crispin; Valentine, Helen R; Turley, Helen; Shah, Ketan A; Cox, Graham J; Corbridge, Rogan J; Homer, Jarrod J; Musgrove, Brian; Slevin, Nick; Sloan, Philip; Price, Pat; West, Catharine M L; Harris, Adrian L

2007-04-01

364

Amplification and expression of EMS-1 (cortactin) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Amplification of chromosome 11q13 DNA sequences is detected in approximately 30% of primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). The amplified region includes genes for cyclin D1, hst-1, int-2, and more recently, ems-1. Ems-1 encodes an 80/85kd cytoskeletal associated protein termed cortactin, which has been shown to bind F-actin and is a pp60src substrate. We investigated 16 HNSCC cell lines for ems-1 DNA amplification and gene expression by western blotting and immunofluorescence using mAb 4F11. Amplification of ems-1 DNA was detected in 8/16 (50%) cell lines and was related directly to over-expression of cortactin by western blotting and immunofluorescence. Western blotting detected both forms of cortactin, p80 and p85, at equal intensity. Immunofluorescent staining revealed low levels of cortactin localized to the cytoplasm and surface membrane in normal bronchial epithelial cells and tumor cell cultures with single copy ems-1 DNA. In contrast, tumor cell cultures with ems-1 DNA amplification demonstrated intense, homogeneous cortactin cytoplasmic staining. These results suggest that overexpression of p80/85 may be a useful marker to identify 11q13 amplification, a molecular alteration correlated with the presence of lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer. PMID:8552396

Patel, A M; Incognito, L S; Schechter, G L; Wasilenko, W J; Somers, K D

1996-01-01

365

Epidemiology of Oropharyngeal Candida Colonization and Infection in Patients Receiving Radiation for Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral mucosal colonization and infection with Candida are common in patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Infection is marked by oral pain and/or burning and can lead to significant patient morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify Candida strain diversity in this population by using a chromogenic medium, subculturing, molecular typing, and antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates. These results were then correlated with clinical outcome in patients treated with fluconazole for infection. Specimens from 30 patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer were cultured weekly for Candida. Patients exhibiting clinical infection were treated with oral fluconazole. All isolates were plated on CHROMagar Candida and RPMI medium, subcultured, and submitted for antifungal susceptibility testing and molecular typing. Infections occurred in 27% of the patients and were predominantly due to Candida albicans (78%). Candida carriage occurred in 73% of patients and at 51% of patient visits. Yeasts other than C. albicans predominated in carriage, as they were isolated from 59% of patients and at 52% of patient visits. All infections responded clinically, and all isolates were susceptible to fluconazole. Molecular typing showed that most patients had similar strains throughout their radiation treatment. One patient, however, did show the acquisition of a new strain. With this high rate of infection (27%), prophylaxis to prevent infection should be evaluated for these patients.

Redding, Spencer W.; Zellars, Richard C.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; McAtee, Robert K.; Caceres, Marta A.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L.; Bailey, Cliff W.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Patterson, Thomas F.

1999-01-01

366

Increased salivary gland density on contrast-enhanced CT after head and neck radiation  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to determine whether radiation therapy leads to an increased density of salivary glands on subsequent contrast-enhanced CT, 109 CT scans from 78 patients with head and neck tumors were reviewed. The density of parotid and submandibular glands was subjectively evaluated (compared with adjacent muscle) and correlated with treatment including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Density of the parotid and/or submandibular glands was found to be significantly associated with previous irradiation on contrast-enhanced scans (p less than .05). One or both glands were denser than normal in seven (44%) of 16 patients who received only radiation therapy and in eight (38%) of 21 who received chemotherapy and radiation therapy, compared with only two (10%) of 20 patients who received chemotherapy alone and two (4%) of 52 patients who received neither. The type or amount of irradiation, type of chemotherapy, or timing of the CT scan after the initiation of treatment was not found to be significant. We conclude that the density of the parotid and/or submandibular glands on contrast-enhanced CT is frequently increased after radiation therapy for tumors of the head and neck.

Bronstein, A.D.; Nyberg, D.A.; Schwartz, A.N.; Shuman, W.P.; Griffin, B.R.

1987-12-01

367

LOXL4 is a selectively expressed candidate diagnostic antigen in head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Selective up-regulation of the mRNA of LOXL4, a member of the LOX matrix amine oxidase family, significantly correlated with lymph node metastases and higher tumour stages in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of the protein we produced an antibody specific for LOXL4 and assessed the expression in 317 human HNSCC specimens. The LOXL4 protein was detected in 92.7% of primary tumours, in 97.8% of lymph node metastases and in affected oral mucosa with high-grade dysplasia, but was absent in various non-neoplastic tissues of the head and neck. TNM categories and overall survival did not link to grades of immunoreactivity. Studies in cultured primary hypopharyngeal HTB-43 carcinoma cells detected perinuclear and cell surface expression of LOXL4, but no nuclear localisation. Therefore, its interactive SRCR-domains and catalytic activity combined with tumour cell specific expression and cell surface associated location indicate multiple functions in tumour cell adhesion and interactions with the extracellular matrix. Our data suggest that LOXL4 is useful both as tumour marker and target in the treatment of HNSCC. PMID:18499440

Weise, Jan Bernd; Rudolph, Pierre; Heiser, Axel; Kruse, Marie-Luise; Hedderich, Jürgen; Cordes, Christian; Hoffmann, Markus; Brant, Ommo; Ambrosch, Petra; Csiszar, Katalin; Görögh, Tibor

2008-05-20

368

Exploring the Dynamic Core Microbiome of Plaque Microbiota during Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy Using Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

Radiotherapy is the primary treatment modality used for patients with head-and-neck cancers, but inevitably causes microorganism-related oral complications. This study aims to explore the dynamic core microbiome of oral microbiota in supragingival plaque during the course of head-and-neck radiotherapy. Eight subjects aged 26 to 70 were recruited. Dental plaque samples were collected (over seven sampling time points for each patient) before and during radiotherapy. The V1–V3 hypervariable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified, and the high-throughput pyrosequencing was performed. A total of 140 genera belonging to 13 phyla were found. Four phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria) and 11 genera (Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Capnocytophaga, Derxia, Neisseria, Rothia, Prevotella, Granulicatella, Luteococcus, and Gemella) were found in all subjects, supporting the concept of a core microbiome. Temporal variation of these major cores in relative abundance were observed, as well as a negative correlation between the number of OTUs and radiation dose. Moreover, an optimized conceptual framework was proposed for defining a dynamic core microbiome in extreme conditions such as radiotherapy. This study presents a theoretical foundation for exploring a core microbiome of communities from time series data, and may help predict community responses to perturbation as caused by exposure to ionizing radiation.

Wang, Qian; Jiang, Yun-tao; Ma, Rui; Tang, Zi-sheng; Liu, Zheng; Liang, Jing-ping; Huang, Zheng-wei

2013-01-01

369

Unilateral Versus Bilateral Neck Exploration for Primary Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare unilateral and bilateral neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism in a prospective randomized controlled trial. Summary Background Data Based on the assumption that unilateral neck exploration for a solitary parathyroid adenoma should reduce operating time and morbidity, a variety of minimally invasive procedures have challenged the idea that bilateral neck exploration is the gold standard for the surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. However, to date, no open prospective randomized trial has been published comparing unilateral and bilateral neck exploration. Methods Ninety-one patients with the preoperative diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism were randomized to unilateral or bilateral neck exploration. Preoperative scintigraphy and intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurement guided the unilateral exploration. Gross morphology and frozen section determined the extent of parathyroid tissue resection in the bilateral group. The primary end-point was the use of postoperative medication for hypocalcemic symptoms. Results Eighty-eight patients (97%) were cured. Histology and cure rate did not differ between the two groups. Patients in the bilateral group consumed more oral calcium, had lower serum calcium values on postoperative days 1 to 4, and had a higher incidence of early severe symptomatic hypocalcemia compared with patients in the unilateral group. In addition, for patients undergoing surgery for a solitary parathyroid adenoma, unilateral exploration was associated with a shorter operative time. The cost for the two procedures did not differ. Conclusions Patients undergoing a unilateral procedure had a lower incidence of biochemical and severe symptomatic hypocalcemia in the early postoperative period compared with patients undergoing bilateral exploration. Unilateral neck exploration with intraoperative parathyroid hormone assessment is a valid surgical strategy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism with distinct advantages, especially for patients with solitary parathyroid adenoma.

Bergenfelz, Anders; Lindblom, Pia; Tibblin, Sten; Westerdahl, Johan

2002-01-01

370

Head and neck cancer: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancer consists of a diverse group of cancers that ranges from cutaneous, lip, salivary glands, sinuses, oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. Each group dictates different management. In this review, the primary focus is on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) arising from the mucosal lining of the oral cavity and pharynx, excluding nasopharyngeal cancer. Presently, HNSCC is the sixth most prevalent neoplasm in the world, with approximately 900,000 cases diagnosed worldwide. Prognosis has improved little in the past 30 years. In those who have survived, pain, disfigurement and physical disability from treatment have had an enormous psychosocial impact on their lives. Management of these patients remains a challenge, especially in developing countries where this disease is most common. Of all human cancers, HNSCC is the most distressing since the head and neck is the site of the most complex functional anatomy in the human body. Its areas of responsibility include breathing, the CNS, vision, hearing, balance, olfaction, taste, swallowing, voice, endocrine and cosmesis. Cancers that occur in this area impact on these important human functions. Consequently, in treating cancers of the head and neck, the effects of the treatment on the functional outcome of the patient need the most serious consideration. In assessing the success of HNSCC treatment, consideration of both the survival and functional deficits that the patient may suffer as a consequence of their treatment are of paramount importance. For this reason, the modern-day management of head and neck patients should be carried out in a multidisciplinary head and neck clinic. PMID:16831082

Chin, David; Boyle, Glen M; Porceddu, Sandro; Theile, David R; Parsons, Peter G; Coman, William B

2006-07-01

371

Integrated media presentation in multidisciplinary head and neck oncology meetings.  

PubMed

Multidisciplinary meetings (MDMs) are an essential part of the management of head and neck cancer. Practice care guidance set up by the British Association of Head and Neck Oncologists has recommended that MDMs should have appropriate projection equipment for computer-generated images so that all members of group have access to the same information. The aim of this paper is to review our experience with the integrated visual presentation of head and neck oncology patients and to demonstrate its advantages over conventional approaches. Digital photographs are taken of patients and of their index tumour at presentation or at the time of diagnostic endoscopy. All relevant pre-treatment digitised images from tumour sites and radiological images and histological slides are incorporated into a single presentation using Microsoft PowerPoint software. During the past 2 years, on-line radiological scans have also become accessible for the meeting to aid treatment planning. Subsequently, all peri-operative pictures and post-surgical macroscopic and microscopic histopathological images are added to each patient's presentation, which is then hyperlinked into the agenda. The Guy's and St Thomas' Head and Neck Cancer Centre treats over 400 patients a year, and since 2002, all new cancer diagnoses have been discussed in the weekly MDM as described above. A total of 1,638 presentations have been incorporated in a centralized database that is updated in the event of recurrence, further primary tumours or other clinical developments. Satisfactory documentation and staging of head and neck tumours must include a verbal description, accurate measurement, diagrammatic representation, photographic recording and appropriate radiological imaging. Integrated presentation at MDM collates all relevant findings for clinical management decisions on patients with head and neck cancer. This approach is also an extremely valuable adjunct to long-term clinical monitoring. PMID:19057923

Simo, Ricard; Morgan, Peter; Jeannon, Jean-Pierre; Odell, Edward; Harrison, John; Almeida, Bernice; McGurk, Mark; Lyons, Andrew; Hussain, Karim; Gleeson, Michael; O'Connell, Mary; Calman, Frances; Ng, Roy; Roblin, Paul; Connor, Steve; Fenlon, Michael; Burke, Mary; Chandra, Ashish; Herbert, Amanda; Patt, Sarah; Steward-Bagley, Lizzie; Donnelly, Rachael; Freeman, Lesley; Twinn, Claire; Mason, Carolyn

2008-12-05

372

Clindamycin-induced neutropenia following major head and neck surgery.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man undergoing major head and neck surgery received clindamycin for perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis. On the third postoperative day, he became acutely neutropenic. The neutropenia resolved 3 days later, after the administration of filgrastim. After ruling out other causes of acute neutropenia, we determined that the neutropenia was secondary to clindamycin toxicity. While clindamycin-induced neutropenia has been reported elsewhere, to our knowledge this is the first report of its occurrence following head and neck surgery. Otolaryngologists should be aware of this potentially serious reaction. PMID:22996716

Schmidt, Robert S; Reiter, Evan R

2012-09-01

373

Carotid sheath-like foreign body in the neck.  

PubMed

In otolaryngology practice, we see young children who have inserted a foreign body (FB), which is usually found at home, into their ears or nose. Uncommon complications of an ingested FB are penetration and migration into the neck. Interestingly, among such FBs, sharp fish bones are the most commonly observed in Turkey. In our patient, the FB caused deep neck infection because of FB reaction. In our patient, we could not find any clue of a FB during examination. We were able to see the FB by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Interestingly, the FB looked like a carotid sheath on the MR image. PMID:20647842

Karaman, Emin; Hacizade, Yusuf; Isildak, Huseyin; Agayev, Ayaz; Mercan, Hasan; Alimoglu, Yalcin; Korkut, Nazim

2010-07-01

374

Rehabilitation of Dysphagia Following Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Patients with cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx or larynx may be treated with surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Each treatment type may have a negative impact on posttreatment swallowing function; these effects are presented in this chapter. The clinician has a number of rehabilitative procedures available to reduce or eliminate swallowing disorders in patients treated for cancer of the head and neck. The various procedures--including postures, maneuvers, modifications to bolus volume and viscosity, range of motion exercises, and strengthening exercises--and their efficacy in treated head and neck cancer patients are discussed.

Pauloski, Barbara R.

2008-01-01

375

Management of head and neck trauma in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate cases of trauma in head and neck region; to elucidate the characteristic problems in a developing country.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and setting  Prospective study; 324 patients with trauma related to head and neck analysed in a tertiary care center from August 1999 to\\u000a August 2005\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  33.6% of patients fell in 21–30 year age group. Road traffic accidents (41.4%) were the most

Kishore Chandra Prasad; Sampath Chandra Prasad; S. Vijendra Shenoy; Abhijith Kumar

2009-01-01

376

A technique for radical dissection of the neck.  

PubMed

Modifications in the technique for the performance of standard radical neck dissection have been used for the past 12 years at this institute. The use of transverse skin incisions, removal of the platysma muscle and proceedings from a posterior to anterior direction are stressed in this procedure. Primary healing, reconstruction and cosmesis have been quite good, and local recurrences have been minimal. The five year survival rates for each type of cancer of the head and neck are comparable with those obtained at other cancer referral centers. PMID:841461

Bakamjian, V Y; Miller, S H; Poole, A G

1977-03-01

377

Genetic diversity predicts outcomes in head and neck cancer  

Cancer.gov

A new measure of the heterogeneity – the variety of genetic mutations – of cells within a tumor appears to predict treatment outcomes of patients with the most common type of head and neck cancer. In the May 20 issue of the journal Cancer, investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital (a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary describe how their measure was a better predictor of survival than most traditional risk factors in a small group of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

378

Anaesthetic challenges in a patient presenting with huge neck teratoma  

PubMed Central

Paediatric airway management is a great challenge even for an experienced anaesthesiologist. Difficult airway in huge cervical teratoma further exaggerates the complexity. This case report is intended at describing the intubation difficulties that were confronted during the airway management of a three year old girl presenting with huge neck teratoma and respiratory distress. This patient was successfully intubated with uncuffed endotracheal tubes in second attempt under inhalational anaesthesia with halothane and spontaneous ventilation. This case exemplifies the importance of careful preoperative workup of an anticipated difficult airway in paediatric patients with neck swelling to minimize any perioperative complications.

Jain, Gaurav; Varshney, Rohit

2013-01-01

379

Career development resource for otolaryngology-head and neck surgery.  

PubMed

Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, more commonly known as ear, nose, and throat surgery, is more than ear tubes and children's tonsils. It is an exciting and diverse surgical subspecialty that focuses on every kind of disorder of the head and neck. Otolaryngologists treat patients from infancy to geriatrics, delivering both medical and surgical care. There are also multiple opportunities to subspecialize after residency training. The information in this career development resource provides an understanding of otolaryngology and its subspecialty areas and training requirements. PMID:24011569

Donnellan, Kimberly A; Pitman, Karen T

2013-09-04

380

WorldSID Dummy Head-Neck Biofidelity Response.  

PubMed

Accident studies indicate that serious neck injuries are generally infrequent in side crashes. However, given the rapid changes in side impact protection technology, such as side airbags and curtain systems, the nature of head-neck interactions is likely to change. Consequently, the newest generation of anthropomorphic test devices for side impact should provide realistic prediction of the head-neck kinematics and include meaningful measurements related to risk of head and neck injury. The WorldSID dummy has been assessed against a set of five test conditions that have been used to define biofidelity impact response targets. Three of the five test conditions are recommended by ISO TR9790 (ISO 1997), the NBDL 7.2 G, 6.9 m/s lateral sled impact reported by Ewing et al. (1977) and Wismans et al. (1986) , the Patrick and Chou lateral, 6.7 G 5.8 m/s (1976) and Tarriere lateral 12.2 g, 6,1 m/s sled impact (ISO 1997). Due to its expected loading environment, the dummy neck performance has also been evaluated for neck bending in frontal flexion and extension (Mertz and Patrick, 1971). The 5th test condition is the NBDL 45 degrees frontal-oblique sled test (Wismans 1986, Philippens 2004). The latter and two of the ISO TR9790 test conditions form the basis of the draft IHRA requirements for evaluating side impact dummy biomechanical responses. The paper reports on the findings of the assessment of the WorldSID pre-production dummy. The Mertz and Patrick OC moment-head angle corridor is used as supplemental requirement for frontal flexion-extension. The biofidelity requirements contain both kinematic and dynamic response targets. The neck has a good performance for NBDL lateral and Tarriere requirements, and the Mertz OC moment-flexion angle. The performance for the Patrick and Chou, the NBDL oblique test conditions and the Mertz OC moment extension angle are fair to marginal. The repeatability performance of the dummy was found to be good for all lateral and most oblique test parameters. The neck design does not allow much more further optimization without fundamental changes. PMID:17230277

Been, Bernard; Philippens, Mat; de Lange, Ronald; van Ratingen, Michiel

2004-11-01

381

Alternative PET tracers in head and neck cancer. A review.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a standard in staging Head and Neck cancer. While (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is the most frequently used radiopharmaceutical, glycolysis is not the only metabolic process that can be visualized. Different PET tracers can also be used to visualize other metabolic processes and in this manner, the disadvantages of FDG PET can be avoided. In this review, we describe a comprehensive overview of alternatives to FDG that can be used in identifying head and neck cancer. The potential advantages and disadvantages of these radiopharmaceuticals are discussed. PMID:23269395

Wedman, Jan; Pruim, Jan; Roodenburg, Jan L N; Halmos, Gyorgy B; Langedijk, Johannes A; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; van der Laan, Bernard F A M

2012-12-27

382

Necrotizing fasciitis of the neck associated with Lemierre syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck is a rare, life-threatening, soft tissue infection rapidly involving superficial fat and fascia with necrosis of the overlying skin. If septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein complicates a parapharyngeal abscess, the clinical condition is referred to as Lemierre syndrome, also known as post-anginal sepsis. A lethal case of necrotizing fasciitis of the neck is herewith reported that developed following tooth extraction and was complicated by thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and superior vena cava in an elderly diabetic patient.

Deganello, A; Gallo, O; Gitti, G; De Campora, E

2009-01-01

383

Vertebral artery dissections afterchiropractic neck manipulationin Germany over three years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection\\u000a (VAD) has been observed\\u000a in association with chirotherapy of\\u000a the neck. However, most publications\\u000a describe only single case reports\\u000a or a small number of cases.\\u000a We analyzed data from neurological\\u000a departments at university hospitals\\u000a in Germany over a three year\\u000a period of time of subjects with vertebral\\u000a artery dissections associated\\u000a with chiropractic neck manipulation.\\u000a We conducted a

U. Reuter; M. Hämling; I. Kavuk; K. M. Einhäupl; E. Schielke

2006-01-01

384

Necrotizing fasciitis of the neck associated with Lemierre syndrome.  

PubMed

Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck is a rare, life-threatening, soft tissue infection rapidly involving superficial fat and fascia with necrosis of the overlying skin. If septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein complicates a parapharyngeal abscess, the clinical condition is referred to as Lemierre syndrome, also known as post-anginal sepsis. A lethal case of necrotizing fasciitis of the neck is herewith reported that developed following tooth extraction and was complicated by thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and superior vena cava in an elderly diabetic patient. PMID:20140163

Deganello, A; Gallo, O; Gitti, G; De Campora, E

2009-06-01

385

Neck emergency due to parathyroid adenoma bleeding: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The spontaneous rupture of a parathyroid adenoma accompanied by extracapsular hemorrhage is a rare, potentially fatal, condition and is a cervicomediastinal surgical emergency. Case presentation This report describes an atypical two-step spontaneous rupture of an asymptomatic parathyroid adenoma in a 56-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with a painful mass in the right side of her neck. Conclusion Based on this case report and similar cases reported in the medical literature, a diagnosis of extracapsular parathyroid hemorrhage should be considered when a non-traumatic sudden neck swelling coexists with hypercalcemia and regional ecchymosis.

2009-01-01

386

Lymph Node Metastases from Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A retrospective and a prospective study are described concerning the results of treatment for neck node metastases. The metastases came from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. The possibility of cure by radiotherapy is considered in det...

H. Bartelink

1980-01-01

387

Neck muscle fatigue and postural control in patients with whiplash injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine if patients with whiplash injury show identifiable increases in neck muscle fatigability and associated increase in postural body sway after contractions of dorsal neck muscles, and if physiotherapy treatment reduces these effects.

Paul J. Stapley; Maria Vittoria Beretta; Elena Dalla Toffola; Marco Schieppati

2006-01-01

388

Vertebral artery dissection in a patient practicing self-manipulation of the neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who regularly practiced self-manipulation of her neck who presented with shoulder and neck pain and was undergoing a vertebral artery dissection.

John S. Mosby; Stephen M. Duray

389

Conservative Management of Uncomplicated Mechanical Neck Pain in a Military Aviator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Non-radicular neck pain arising from local musculoskeletal structures, known as mechanical neck pain or somatic dysfunction, is highly prevalent in the fighter jet aviator population. The management of this problem includes both therapeutic and aeromedica...

A. S. Dunn B. N. Green C. D. Johnson S. M. Pearce

2010-01-01

390

Healthcare consultation and sick leave before and after neck injury: a cohort study with matched population-based references  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recent studies based on self-assessed data on exposure and outcome suggest a negative association between poor health before neck injury and recovery. Our aim was to study actual healthcare consultation and work disability before and after neck injury (whiplash). Design Cohort study with matched references studied prospectively and retrospectively via regional and national held registers. Setting Population-based study in Region Skåne, Sweden (population=1.21 million) including all levels of healthcare. Participants 1443 participants aged ?18 (54% women) with acute neck injury, Whiplash, (International Classification of Diseases-10-SE code S13.4*) in 2007 or 2008 and no such diagnosis since 1998. Each patient with a neck injury was assigned four randomly selected population references matched for age, sex and area of residence (97% of the patients and 94% of the references were followed during the whole study period). Primary and secondary outcome measures We studied changes in healthcare consultations 3?years before to 3?years after diagnosis as well as sick leave episodes. Analyses were also stratified by preinjury frequency of consultation. Results Before the injury, the mean number of total consultations over 36?months among the neck injured (n=1443) and references (n=5772) was 9.3 vs 7.2 (p<0.0001) and postneck injury 12.7 vs 7.8 (p<0.0001). In the group of high-frequent consulters, there were more women compared with frequent and low-frequent consulters (70.6% vs 32.8%; p<0.0001). Among low-frequent and frequent consulters preinjury (n=967, 67% of the cohort), 16% became high-frequent consulters attributable to the injury. The number of days of sick leave preinjury was correlated with the number of preinjury and postinjury consultations (r=0.47 (99% CI 0.38 to 0.49), r=0.32 (99% CI 0.25 to 0.37)). Conclusions People with a neck injury constitute a heterogeneous group. The preinjury level of healthcare consultation is associated with the postinjury level of consultation.

Joud, Anna; Stjerna, Johanna; Malmstrom, Eva-Maj; Westergren, Hans; Petersson, Ingemar F; Englund, Martin

2013-01-01

391

Functional CYP1A1 genetic variants, alone and in combination with smoking, contribute to development of head and neck cancers.  

PubMed

CYP1A1 plays an essential role in pathogenesis of head and neck cancers. Functional CYP1A1 Ile462Val and MspI single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are considered to have significant effects on risk of head and neck cancers. Several case-control studies have examined how these genetic polymorphisms are involved in development of this group of malignancies, but the conclusions are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to systematically examine the associations between these functional genetic variants and head and neck cancer risk. A total of 28 studies are eligible for CYP1A1 Ile462Val SNP (4639 patients and 4701 controls), and 22 studies for MspI SNP (4168 patients and 4638 controls). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were appropriately calculated using either fixed-effect model or random-effect model. There was no association between Ile462Val polymorphism and head and neck cancer risk (OR=1.23, 95% CI=0.99-1.53, P=0.062). However, in a stratified analysis, a statistically significant correlation between this SNP and pharyngeal cancer risk was observed (OR=1.76, 95% CI=1.32-2.33, P<0.001). For MspI SNP, our data indicated that carriers of TC and CC genotypes had a 34% increased risk to develop head and neck cancers compared to TT carriers (95% CI=1.15-1.57, P<0.001). This effect was even more pronounced in smokers (OR=2.98, 95% CI=1.69-5.26, P<0.001), demonstrating that gene-smoking interaction intensifying carcinogenesis may exist. These findings reveal that the functional CYP1A1 MspI genetic variant, alone and in combination with smoking, plays a more important role in pathogenesis of head and neck cancers. PMID:23462525

Liu, Li; Wu, Gang; Xue, Fang; Li, Yunfeng; Shi, Juan; Han, Jianjun; Zhang, Xiaojiao; Na, Yan; Zhang, Huaijin; Tang, Xiaohu; Pu, Honglei; Yuan, Qipeng; Zhang, Li; Yang, Ming

2013-02-22

392

Using the cervical range of motion (CROM) device to assess head repositioning accuracy in individuals with cervical radiculopathy in comparison to neck- healthy individuals.  

PubMed

This study had two purposes: to compare head repositioning accuracy (HRA) using the cervical range of motion (CROM) device between individuals with cervical radiculopathy caused by disc disease (CDD; n = 71) and neck- healthy individuals (n = 173); and to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the CROM device in individuals with CDD, and criterion validity between the CROM device and a laser in neck-healthy individuals, with quantification of measurement errors. Parameters of reliability and validity were expressed with intra- class- correlation coefficients (ICCs), and measurement errors with standard error of measurement (SEM) and Bland Altman limits of agreement. HRA (Mdn, IQR) differed significantly between individuals with CDD and neck- healthy individuals after rotation right 2.7° (6.0), 1.7° (2.7); and rotation left 2.7° (3.3), 1.3° (2.7) (p < = 0.021); 31% of individuals with CDD were classified as having impairment in HRA. The test-retest reliability of the CROM device in individuals with CDD showed ICCs of 0.79- 0.85, and SEMs of 1.4°- 2°. The criterion validity between the CROM device and the laser in neck-healthy individuals showed ICCs of 0.43- 0.91 and SEMs of 0.8°- 1.3°. The results support the use of the CROM device for quantifying HRA impairment in individuals with CDD in clinical practice; however, criterion validity between the CROM device and a laser in neck-healthy individuals was questionable. HRA impairment in individuals with CDD may be important to consider during rehabilitation and evaluated with the criterion established with the CROM device in neck-healthy individuals. PMID:23473752

Wibault, Johanna; Vaillant, Jacques; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Dedering, Åsa; Peolsson, Anneli

2013-03-07

393

Correlation spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Flemming, Jeb H. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Gary D. (Tijeras, NM); Tigges, Chris P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-04-13

394

Influence of neck-rail placement on free-stall preference, use, and cleanliness.  

PubMed

Three experiments examined how the presence of a neck rail at different heights and locations influenced dairy cattle behavior and stall cleanliness. Experiment 1 compared 4 levels of neck-rail height (102, 114, and 127 cm and no neck rail; presented at 160 or 180 cm from the curb) in a preference test. Cows (n = 10) showed no consistent preference based on neck-rail height, regardless of the horizontal position of the neck rail. When cows were restricted to each treatment in turn, however, time spent standing fully (with all 4 hooves) in the stall was least in the stall with the lowest neck rail (mean, 22 min/24 h) and was greatest in the stall with no neck rail (mean, 83 min/24 h). A second experiment examined the effect of a neck rail placed at 3 distances from the curb (140, 175, and 233 cm) when height was held constant (131 cm; n = 12). Time spent standing fully in the stall was least when the neck rail was close to the curb (140 cm; mean, 11 min/24 h) and was greatest when the neck rail was furthest from the curb (233 cm; mean, 86 min/24 h). When the neck rail was far from the curb, the cows were more likely to soil the stall by defecating while standing fully in the stall. Experiment 3 compared soiling of the stall by 14 cows with and without a neck rail at a height of 124.5 cm. When the neck rail was removed, cows were more than twice as likely to soil the stall by defecating while standing fully in the stall compared with when the neck rail was present (1.3 vs. 0.5 defecations/24 h). Thus, restrictive neck-rail placement prevents cows from standing in stall, but helps keep stalls clean. Access to more comfortable flooring surfaces outside the stall may help mitigate the negative effects of restrictive neck rails. PMID:16027186

Tucker, C B; Weary, D M; Fraser, D

2005-08-01

395

Between-day reliability of electromechanical delay of selected neck muscles during performance of maximal isometric efforts  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the between-day reliability of the electromechanical delay (EMD) of selected neck muscles during the performance of maximal isometric contractions in five different directions. Methods Twenty-one physically active males participated in two testing sessions separated by seven to eight days. Using a custom-made fixed frame dynamometer, cervical force and surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded bilaterally from the splenius capitis, upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles during the performance of efforts in extension, flexion, left and right lateral bending, and protraction. The EMD was extracted using the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator. Reliability indices calculated for each muscle in each testing direction were: the difference in scores between the two testing sessions and corresponding 95% confidence intervals, the standard error of measurement (SEM) and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Results EMD values showed no evidence of systematic difference between the two testing sessions across all muscles and testing directions. The SEM for extension, flexion and lateral bending efforts ranged between 2.5 ms to 4.8 ms, indicating a good level of measurement precision. For protraction, SEM values were higher and considered to be imprecise for research and clinical purposes. ICC values for all muscles across all testing directions ranged from 0.23 to 0.79. Conclusion EMD of selected neck muscles can be measured with sufficient precision for the assessment of neck muscle function in an athletic population in the majority of directions tested.

Almosnino, Sivan; Pelland, Lucie; Pedlow, Samuel V; Stevenson, Joan M

2009-01-01

396

Predictive discomfort of non-neutral head-neck postures in fore-aft whole-body vibration.  

PubMed

It seems obvious that human head-neck posture in whole-body vibration (WBV) contributes to discomfort and injury risk. While current mechanical measures such as transmissibility have shown good correlation with the subjective-reported discomfort, they showed difficulties in predicting discomfort for non-neutral postures. A new biomechanically based methodology is introduced in this work to predict discomfort due to non-neutral head-neck postures. Altogether, 10 seated subjects with four head-neck postures--neutral, head-up, head-down and head-to-side--were subjected to WBV in the fore-aft direction using discrete sinusoidal frequencies of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 Hz and their subjective responses were recorded using the Borg CR-10 scale. All vibrations were run at constant acceleration of 0.8 m/s² and 1.15 m/s². The results have shown that the subjective-reported discomfort increases with head-down and decreases with head-up and head-to-side postures. The proposed predictive discomfort has closely followed the reported discomfort measures for all postures and rides under investigation. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Many occupational studies have shown strong relevance between non-neutral postures, discomfort and injury risk in WBV. With advances in computer human modelling, the proposed predictive discomfort may provide efficient ways for developing reliable biodynamic models. It may also be used to assess discomfort and modify designs inside moving vehicles. PMID:21390956

Rahmatalla, Salam; Deshaw, Jonathan

2011-03-01

397

Cancer stem cells in head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also called "cells that start the tumor," represent in themselves one of the most topical and controversial issues in the field of cancer research. Tumor stem cells are able to self-propagate in vitro (self-renewal), giving rise both to other tumor stem cells and most advanced cells in the line of differentiation (asymmetric division). A final characteristic is tumorigenicity, a fundamental property, which outlines the tumor stem cell as the only cell able to initiate the formation of a tumor when implanted in immune-deficient mice. The hypothesis of a hierarchical organization of tumor cells dates back more than 40 years, but only in 1997, thanks to the work of John Dick and Dominique Bonnet, was there the formal proof of such an organization in acute myeloid leukemia. Following this, many other research groups were able to isolate CSCs, by appropriate selection markers, in various malignancies, such as breast, brain, colon, pancreas, and liver cancers and in melanoma. To date, however, it is not possible to isolate stem cells from all types of neoplasia, particularly in solid tumors. From a therapeutic point of view, the concept of tumor stem cells implies a complete revision of conventional antineoplastic treatment. Conventional cytotoxic agents are designed to target actively proliferating cells. In the majority of cases, this is not sufficient to eliminate the CSCs, which thanks to their reduced proliferative activity and/or the presence of proteins capable of extruding chemotherapeutics from the cell are not targeted. Therefore, the theory of cancer stem cells can pose new paradigms in terms of cancer treatment. Potential approaches, even in the very early experimental stages, relate to the selective inhibition of pathways connected with self-renewal, or more specifically based on the presence of specific surface markers for selective cytotoxic agent vehicles. Finally, some research groups are trying to induce these cells to differentiate, thus making them easier to remove. For all these reasons, we have collected existing literature on head and neck cancer stem cells that correlate the biological characteristics of this subpopulation of cancer cells with the clinical behavior of tumors. PMID:23189032

Allegra, Eugenia; Trapasso, Serena

2012-11-21

398

Neutron beam therapy in the treatment of advanced head and neck malignancy  

SciTech Connect

Patients with advanced head and neck cancer continue to present a difficult management problem for the otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon. This paper discusses the principles of radiation therapy with emphasis on neutron beam therapy as an effective treatment option for advanced malignancy of the head and neck other than squamous cell carcinoma. 6 references.

Jones, J.; Hendrix, R.A.

1989-01-01

399

Deep neck infections in children: A case study and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study of a 2-year-old patient that presents to an emergency department with a 1-day history of neck swelling is used to emphasize the importance of early identification and management of deep neck infections in children. Although rare, deep neck infections can lead to fatal complications if not identified and treated early. This article presents the case followed by

Natalie Cheffer; Jennifer Sluder

2006-01-01

400

Chromosomal radiosensitivity in head and neck cancer patients: evidence for genetic predisposition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between chromosomal radiosensitivity and genetic predisposition to head and neck cancer was investigated in this study. In all, 101 head and neck cancer patients and 75 healthy control individuals were included in the study. The G2 assay was used to measure chromosomal radiosensitivity. The results demonstrated that head and neck cancer patients had a statistically higher number of

K De Ruyck; V de Gelder; M Van Eijkeren; T Boterberg; W De Neve; A Vral; H Thierens

2008-01-01

401

Nerve Growth Factor and ATP Excite Different Neck Muscle Nociceptors in Anaesthetized Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neck muscle nociception probably plays a major role in the pathophysiology of tension-type headache. Recent studies have demonstrated sustained facilitation of brainstem nociception due to noxious neck muscle input evoked by nerve growth factor (NGF) or ?,?-methylene ATP (ATP) in mice. Hypothesized different afferent pathways in NGF and ATP models were addressed by local application of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in neck

J Ellrich; A Makowska

2007-01-01

402

Modal analysis of the human neck in vivo as a criterion for crash test dummy evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low speed rear impact remains an acute automative safety problem because of a lack of knowledge of the mechanical behaviour of the human neck early after impact. Poorly validated mathematical models of the human neck or crash test dummy necks make it difficult to optimize automotive seats and head rests. In this study we have constructed an experimental and theoretical

R. Willinger; N. Bourdet; R. Fischer; F. Le Gall

2005-01-01

403

Genodermatosis with Reticulate, Patchy and Mottled Pigmentation of the Neck – A Clue to Rare Dermatologic Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reticulate pigmentation of the neck is a common finding in numerous genodermatoses and acquired diseases. As the neck is readily accessible to medical inspection, it may serve as a diagnostic window for various dermatoses. Several entities out of the spectrum of ectodermal dysplasia present with reticulate or mottled pigmentation on the upper trunk and neck. The most impressive genodermatoses with

P. H. Itin; S. Lautenschlager

1998-01-01

404

The effect of ergonomic intervention on discomfort in computer users with tension neck syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the long-term effects of ergonomic intervention on neck and shoulder discomfort among computer users who have symptoms of tension neck syndrome, using simple materials and protocols, 80 Thai volunteers with symptoms of tension neck syndrome were identified through administration of a questionnaire to 470 computer users. Two pre-tests were conducted to determine subjects’ level of discomfort before the

K. Mekhora; C. B. Liston; S. Nanthavanij; J. H. Cole

2000-01-01

405

IS THERE AN OPTION FOR A PNEUMATIC STABILIZATION OF SAUROPOD NECKS? - AN EXPERIMENTAL AND ANATOMICAL APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reconstructed distribution of the major pneumatic diverticula systems in the sauropod neck might hint towards pneumatic stabilization or operation of the long neck, which was investigated considering anatomical and mechanical aspects of soft- tissue reconstructions in the neck of sauropods as well as experimental data. The mechanical role of pneumatic bodies in a generalized segmented beam of Styrodur™ blocks,

Daniela Schwarz-Wings; Eberhard Frey

2008-01-01

406

The clinical course and prognostic factors of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neck pain occurs frequently in western societies. In the majority of cases, no specific cause can be identified. In order to gain insight into the clinical course and prognostic factors of non-specific neck pain, a systematic review was conducted. A computerized literature search was carried out to identify observational studies on non-specific neck pain and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on

Jeroen A. J Borghouts; Bart W Koes; Lex M Bouter

1998-01-01

407

The Neck Region of the Myosin Motor Domain Acts as a Lever Arm to Generate Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myosin head consists of a globular catalytic domain that binds actin and hydrolyzes ATP and a neck domain that consists of essential and regulatory light chains bound to a long alpha -helical portion of the heavy chain. The swinging neck-lever model assumes that a swinging motion of the neck relative to the catalytic domain is the origin of movement.

Taro Q. P. Uyeda; Paul D. Abramson; James A. Spudich

1996-01-01

408

Development of a low motion-noise humanoid neck: Statics analysis and experimental validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents our recently developed humanoid neck system that can effectively mimic motion of human neck with very low motion noises. The feature of low motion noises allows our system to work like a real human head\\/neck. Thus the level of acoustic noises from wearable equipments, such as donning respirators or chemical-resistant jackets, induced by human head motion can

Bingtuan Gao; Ning Xi; Yantao Shen; Jianguo Zhao; Ruiguo Yang

2010-01-01

409

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 amplification is a common event in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.  

PubMed

Recently, we characterized fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 amplification as a target for a rational therapy in lung squamous cell carcinoma. Patients harboring this genetic event are currently eligible for treatment with antifibroblast growth factor receptor small-molecule inhibitors in phase I clinical trials. This has the potential to significantly improve standard therapy for lung squamous cell carcinoma patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 amplification is also a common genetic event in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. For this purpose, we assembled a cohort of 555 patients, including 264 with metastatic disease and 147 with recurrent disease. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material of primary tumors, metastases and recurrences were assessed for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 copy number status using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Human papilloma virus status was detected by p16 immunohistochemistry staining and PCR-ELISA. Molecular parameters were correlated with each other and with clinicopathological data. We found 15% of primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to display a fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 amplification. In nearly all cases, metastatic and recurrent tumor samples shared the same amplification status as the corresponding primary tumor. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 amplification was associated with nicotine and alcohol consumption, but was mutually exclusive with human papilloma virus infection. Amplification of the gene was associated with parameters of worse outcome. Our data identify fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 amplification as a frequent event in primary and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and represents a potential biomarker for more aggressive disease. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1-amplified tumors could potentially comprise a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma against which targeted small-molecule inhibitors hold therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23619603

Göke, Friederike; Bode, Maike; Franzen, Alina; Kirsten, Robert; Goltz, Diane; Göke, Antonia; Sharma, Rakesh; Boehm, Diana; Vogel, Wenzel; Wagner, Patrick; Lengerke, Claudia; Kristiansen, Glen; Kirfel, Jutta; Van Bremen, Tobias; Bootz, Friedrich; Heasley, Lynn E; Schröck, Andreas; Perner, Sven

2013-04-26

410

Role of metalloproteins in the clinical management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Metalloproteins are a group of catalytic proteins, which play significant roles in cell cycle and death. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases that are capable of digesting extracellular matrix components. They have been implicated in carcinogenesis and recent developments have been made to use MMPs clinically to predict outcomes. In the future, selective inhibition of these proteins and their regulatory pathways may prove useful in anticancer therapeutics. We present a review article on the clinical applications of metalloproteins in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Metalopanstimulin is highlighted as a putative metalloprotein of interest for those treating HNSCC. Expression of particular metalloproteins has correlation with lymph node metastasis, tumor invasiveness, and overall prognosis in HNSCC. PMID:17657798

Scurry, W Cooper; Stack, Brendan C

2007-12-01

411

C-erbB-2 expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.  

PubMed

Seventy-five squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck were analysed for c-erbB-2 expression using immunohistochemical techniques with four different c-erbB-2 antibodies. No membrane staining was seen in any of the squamous cell carcinomas studied with any of the antibodies; however, c-erbB-2 cytoplasmic staining was seen in 60 per cent of the tumours. The significance of cytoplasmic staining is discussed and that it may possibly represent elevated c-erbB-2 expression in squamous cell carcinomas. C-erbB-2 cytoplasmic staining was also observed in 10 of 23 normal specimens obtained from the resection margin of the tumours. No correlations were found between positive c-erbB-2 cytoplasmic staining and any of the clinicopathological parameters or survival. PMID:1377893

Field, J K; Spandidos, D A; Yiagnisis, M; Gosney, J R; Papadimitriou, K; Stell, P M

412

Fascitis necrotizante de cuello Necrotic fascitis of the neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two cases of necrotic fascitis of the neck are presented. Both cases correspond to healthy youths without immunosupression factors or recent trauma, who develop a clinical condition as from an amygdalinic focus. The first case evolves into a descending necrotic mediastinitis and multiple organic deficiency secondary to sepsis, causing death. The second case shows a satisfactory development, being released

Cristián Daszenies S; Maritza Rahal E; Rodrigo Arregui V

413

Molecular genetic study of head and neck cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We analyzed 15 cases of head and neck cancer (13 out of 15 were squamous cell cancer.) by Southern blotting to identify the possible tumor suppressor gene. Firstly we searched the chromosome 17p with pYNZ22, pMCT35.1 and p144D6. 5 out of 7 informative cas...

Y. S. Lee Y. S. Shim J. H. Lee

1993-01-01

414

Hypofolatemia as a Risk Factor for Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head and neck cancer (HNSCC) includes squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. Approximately 38,500 cases of HNSCC are estimated to occur in the USA in 2004, with 11,000 deaths. HNSCCs represent about 3% of all malignant tumors in the USA. However, in other parts of the world, as India, Southeast Asia or Brazil, the disease is

G. Paludetti; G. Almadori; F. Bussu; J. Galli; G. Cadoni; M. Maurizi

2005-01-01

415

Minimal Residual Disease in Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is a complex disease. Patients with more advanced stages are treated with curative intent by a combination of surgery and radiotherapy, but still about 50% develop a relapse: locally, regionally and at distant sites. This clinical outcome strongly indicates that small histologically undetectable tumor deposits remain at these sites: ‘minimal residual

Hans J. Gath; Ruud H. Brakenhoff

1999-01-01

416

FEMORAL NECK STRESS FRACTURES IN MILITARY PERSONNEL - A CASE SERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSF) are uncommon, representing 5% of all stress fractures. In military personnel, FNSF represents one of the more severe complications of training, which can result in medical discharge. Clinical examination findings are often non-specific and plain radiography may be inconclusive - leading to missed or late diagnosis of FNSF. This paper highlights the significance of FNSFs

JC Talbot; G Cox; M Townend; M Langham; PJ Parker

417

Teratomas of the neck and mediastinum in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study reviews a series of teratomas of the neck and mediastinum aiming at defining the features of these particular locations. We recorded prenatal diagnosis, perinatal management, clinical and radiologic features, pathology, surgical strategies and results in cervical and mediastinal teratomas treated over the last 10 years. During this period we treated 66 children with teratoma of which 11 (6

Francesca Martino; Luis F. Avila; Jose L. Encinas; Ana L. Luis; Pedro Olivares; Luis Lassaletta; Manuel Nistal; Juan A. Tovar

2006-01-01

418

Deep neck infections: risk factors for mediastinal extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the study was to find out the risk factors for the development of mediastinitis in patients with deep neck infections (DNI) and describe the differences in symptoms and clinical image between uncomplicated DNI and infections with mediastinal spread. Our study represents the retrospective analysis of 634 patients with DNI. The file was divided into two groups. There

P. a Celakovsky; D.a Kalfert; L. b Tucek; J. c Mejzlik; M. c Kotulek; A. d Vrbacky; P. e Matousek; L. e Stanikova; T. f Hoskova; A. f Pasz

2013-01-01

419

Pictorial essay: Vascular interventions in extra cranial head and neck  

PubMed Central

Medicine is an ever changing field and interventional radiology (IR) procedures are becoming increasingly popular because of high efficacy and its minimally invasive nature of the procedure. Management of disease processes in the extra cranial head and neck (ECHN) has always been a challenge due to the complex anatomy of the region. Cross sectional imaging of the ECHN has grown and evolved tremendously and occupies a pivotal and integral position in the clinical management of variety of head and neck pathologies. Advances in angiographic technologies including flat panel detector systems, biplane, and 3-dimensional rotational angiography have consolidated and expanded the role of IR in the management of various ECHN pathologies. The ECHN is at cross roads between the origins of great vessels and the cerebral vasculature. Thorough knowledge of functional and technical aspects of neuroangiography is essential before embarking on head and neck vascular interventions. The vessels of the head and neck can be involved by infectious and inflammatory conditions, get irradiated during radiotherapy and injured due to trauma or iatrogenic cause. The ECHN is also a common site for various hypervascular neoplasms and vascular malformations, which can be treated with endovascular and percutaneous embolization. This pictorial essay provides a review of variety of ECHN pathologies which were managed by various IR procedures using different approaches.

Kulkarni, Suyash S; Shetty, Nitin S; Dharia, Tejas P; Polnaya, Ashwin M

2012-01-01

420

THE NEED FOR NECK STRENGTH IN FEMALE SOCCER PLAYERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was three-fold: First, to track the average number of times a soccer ball comes into contact with the head by female team members during the course of a Division I NCAA soccer game. Second, to survey twelve regional college strength coaches to ascertain if they incorporate neck strength exercises into their female soccer strength programs.

Mark Maneval; Jennifer Beck; Dennis Phillips; Jerry Phillips

421

Trigeminal excitation of dorsal neck motoneurones in the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitation of dorsal neck motoneurones evoked by electrical stimulation of primary trigeminal afferents in the Gasserian ganglion has been investigated with intracellular recording from a-motoneurones in the cat. Single stimulation in the Gasserian ganglion ipsi-and contralateral to the recording side evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurones innervating the lateral head flexor muscle splenius (SPL) and the head elevator muscles

B. Alstermark; M. J. Pinter; S. Sasaki; B. Tantisira

1992-01-01

422

The septin cortex at the yeast mother–bud neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specialized cortical domain is organized by the septins at the necks of budding yeast cells. Recent findings suggest that this domain serves as a diffusion barrier and also as a local cell-shape sensor. We review these findings along with what is known about the organization of the septin cortex and its regulation during the cell cycle.

Amy S Gladfelter; John R Pringle; Daniel J Lew

2001-01-01

423

Schedule Control in the White-Necked Raven, 'Corvus cryptoleucus'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five White-Necked ravens were run to behavioral stability on each of three moderate schedules of positive reinforcement: FR 50, FI 4 min, and RI 2.5 min. The sequence of schedule exposure for any one raven was different from that for any other raven. Temp...

J. A. Bedford R. Berryman R. R. Haney

1970-01-01

424

Immunotherapy of HPV-associated head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

Various arguments support the development of a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) for the treatment of HPV-associated head and neck cancer. However, the mucosal localization of this tumor, the HPV-driven downregulation of MHC Class I molecules and various other immunosuppressive mechanisms must be carefully considered to improve the clinical efficacy of such an immunotherapeutic strategy.

Nizard, Mevyn; Sandoval, Federico; Badoual, Cecile; Pere, Helene; Terme, Magali; Hans, Stephane; Benhamouda, Nadine; Granier, Clemence; Brasnu, Daniel; Tartour, Eric

2013-01-01

425

Imaging and management of head and neck paragangliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paragangliomas of the head and neck are highly vascular lesions originating from paraganglionic tissue located at the carotid bifurcation (carotid body tumors), along the vagus nerve (vagal paragangliomas), and in the jugular fossa and tympanic cavity (jugulotympanic paragangliomas). Diagnostic imaging can be considered in two clinical situations: (1) patients who present with clinical symptoms suggestive of a paraganglioma, and (2)

René van den Berg

2005-01-01

426

Preventing Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, patients undergoing combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy (chemoradiotherapy) for advanced head and neck cancer will receive intravenous palifermin or placebo before and during cancer treatment to prevent mucositis, a common but serious side effect of chemoradiotherapy for this type of cancer.

427

Kinesin's cover-neck bundle folds forward to generate force  

PubMed Central

Each step of the kinesin motor involves a force-generating molecular rearrangement. Although significant progress has been made in elucidating the broad features of the kinesin mechanochemical cycle, molecular details of the force generation mechanism remain a mystery. Recent molecular dynamics simulations have suggested a mechanism in which the forward drive is produced when the N-terminal cover strand forms a ?-sheet with the neck linker to yield the cover-neck bundle. We tested this proposal by comparing optical trapping motility measurements of cover strand mutants with the wild-type. Motility data, as well as kinetic analyses, revealed impairment of the force-generating capacity accompanied by a greater load dependence in the mechanochemical cycle. In particular, a mutant with the cover strand deleted functioned only marginally, despite the fact that the cover strand, the N-terminal “dangling end,” unlike the neck linker and nucleotide-binding pocket, is not involved with any previously considered energy transduction pathway. Furthermore, a constant assisting load, likely in lieu of a power stroke, was shown to rescue forward motility in the cover strand deletion mutant. Our results support a stepping mechanism driven by dynamic cover-neck bundle formation. They also suggest a strategy to generate motors with altered mechanical characteristics by targeting the force-generating element.

Khalil, Ahmad S.; Appleyard, David C.; Labno, Anna K.; Georges, Adrien; Karplus, Martin; Belcher, Angela M.; Hwang, Wonmuk; Lang, Matthew J.

2008-01-01

428

Cancers by Body Location/System: Head and Neck  

Cancer.gov

In English En español In English En español To find a cancer: select a body location or system — AIDS-RelatedBreastDigestive/GastrointestinalEndocrine and NeuroendocrineEye GenitourinaryGerm CellGynecologicHead and NeckHematologic/Blood MusculoskeletalNeurologicRespiratory/ThoracicSkinUnknown

429

Reconstruction nailing for ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures.  

PubMed

The surgical management of ipsilateral fractures of the femoral neck and shaft presents a difficult and challenging problem for the orthopaedic surgeon. The purpose of the present study was to report the mid-term results and complications in a series of patients who sustained ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures and treated in our trauma department with a single reconstruction nail for both fractures. Eleven patients were included in the study with an average age of 46.4 years. The mean follow-up was 47 months (range, 15-75 months). There were no cases of a missed diagnosis at initial presentation. The mean time to union was 4.5 months for the neck fracture and 8.2 months for the shaft. There were no cases of avascular necrosis of the femoral head or non-union of the neck fracture. The mean Harris Hip Score was (85 ± 4.3). Complications included two cases of shaft fracture non-union and one case of peroneal nerve palsy. Heterotopic ossification at the tip of the greater trochanter was evident in two cases without causing any functional deficit. The current study suggests that reconstruction nailing produces satisfactory clinical and functional results in the mid-term. The complications involved only the femoral shaft fracture and were successfully treated with a single operative procedure. PMID:21779894

Tsarouhas, Alexandros; Hantes, Michael E; Karachalios, Theohilos; Bargiotas, Konstantinos; Malizos, Konstantinos N

2011-07-21

430

Cytoprotection in Head and Neck Cancer: Issues in Oral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to enhance the therapeutic index in the treatment of head and neck cancer by improving efficacy and limiting toxicity involve both physical and cytoprotective approaches. Although intensity-mod- ulated radiation therapy is moderately effective for reducing damage to the parotid glands and protecting the part of salivary activity produced by those glands, it has not proven effective for protecting the

Michael A. Samuels

431

Pathoanatomic Response of Human Head and Neck during Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was designed to understand the mechanism of injury to the human facial skeleton and the head-neck complex secondary to motor vehicle collisions. In particular, studies were developed to advance criteria for the design of safety steering wheels t...

A. Sances

1993-01-01

432

Preliminary Development -- Head-Neck Simulator. Volume 2: Mathematical Simulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the initial work of an ongoing research program of which the objective is to develop a head-neck simulator with omni-directional biofidelity. VOLUME II documents the validation of the proposed analog systems and compares the behavior ...

T. G. M. Hoen J. S. H. M. Wismans

1986-01-01

433

TGF? signaling in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) is a key regulator of epithelial cell proliferation, immune function and angiogenesis. Because TGF? signaling maintains epithelial homeostasis, dysregulated TGF? signaling is common in many malignancies, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Defective TGF? signaling in epithelial cells causes hyperproliferation, reduced apoptosis and increased genomic instability, and the compensatory increase in TGF? production

R A White; S P Malkoski; X-J Wang

2010-01-01

434