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Sample records for neeruvhi ssteemne ravi

  1. Prevalence and chemotherapy of Balantidium coli in cattle in the River Ravi region, Lahore (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Bilal, C Q; Khan, M S; Avais, M; Ijaz, M; Khan, J A

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of Balantidium coli in cattle from the River Ravi region of Lahore was examined and the efficacy of three treatments measured. A total of 200 fecal samples were collected from cattle and examined microscopically; 50 (25%) were positive for B. coli cysts. The final efficacy of treatment with metronidazole, oxytetracycline, or secnidazole was 37.5%, 62.5%, and 87.5%, respectively, making secnidazole the most effective. PMID:19428186

  2. MARKER ASSISTED EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND GENETIC ATTRIBUTES OF SUB-POPULATIONS OF NILI-RAVI BUFFALO: A VULNERABLE DAIRY TYPE RIVERINE BREED OF INDIA.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, P; Dubey, P K; Goyal, S; Mishra, B P; Singh, G; Deb, S M; Sadana, D K; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we report the distribution of true to type and atypical Nili-Ravi buffalo, a vulnerable dairy type riverine breed of North India and its underlying genetic structure. Out of total investigated buffaloes 73.5% had bilateral wall eyes while 5.4% had unilateral wall eyes and 21.1% had no wall eyes. 41.15% of Nili-Ravi buffaloes maintained in the breeding farm were having typical true to the type characteristics (both eyes walled, white markings in forehead, muzzle/chin, all the four legs and tail) while only 28.5% of Nili-Ravi buffaloes were true to the type under field conditions. Genotypic data were generated in four groups of Nili-Ravi buffalo (FMTNR--Typical Nili-Ravi from farm; FMANR--Atypical Nili-Ravi from farm; FDTNR--Typical Nili-Ravi from field; FDANR--Atypical Nili-Ravi from field) at 16 microsatellite loci. Comparative genetic analysis of various groups of Nili-Ravi buffaloes with Murrah revealed significant between group differences with an estimated global F(ST) of 0.063. Pair-wise F(ST) values ranged from 0.003 (between FDTNR and FDANR) to 0.112 (between FMTNR and FDTNR). Phylogenetic analysis and multi-dimensional scaling revealed clustering of FDTNR and FDANR together while FMTNR and FMANR clustered separately with Murrah in between farm and field Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Based on the results, the paper also proposes three pronged strategy for conservation and sustainable genetic improvement of Nili-Ravi buffalo in India. PMID:26601493

  3. Introducing a rain-adjusted vegetation index (RAVI) for improvement of long-term trend analyses in vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessollek, Christine; Karrasch, Pierre; Osunmadewa, Babatunde

    2015-10-01

    It seems to be obvious that precipitation has a major impact on greening during the rainy season in semi-arid regions. First results1 imply a strong dependence of NDVI on rainfall. Therefore it will be necessary to consider specific rainfall events besides the known ordinary annual cycle. Based on this fundamental idea, the paper will introduce the development of a rain adjusted vegetation index (RAVI). The index is based on the enhancement of the well-known normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI2) by means of TAMSAT rainfall data and includes a 3-step procedure of determining RAVI. Within the first step both time series were analysed over a period of 29 years to find best cross correlation values between TAMSAT rainfall and NDVI signal itself. The results indicate the strongest correlation for a weighted mean rainfall for a period of three months before the corresponding NDVI value. Based on these results different mathematical models (linear, logarithmic, square root, etc.) are tested to find a functional relation between the NDVI value and the 3-months rainfall period before (0.8). Finally, the resulting NDVI-Rain-Model can be used to determine a spatially individual correction factor to transform every NDVI value into an appropriate rain adjusted vegetation index (RAVI).

  4. Glacier changes in the Ravi basin, North-Western Himalaya (India) during the last four decades (1971-2010/13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Pritam; Sharma, Milap Chand

    2015-12-01

    A glacier inventory of the Ravi basin, north-western Himalaya has been generated for the year 2002 using Landsat ETM + and ASTER Global DEM (GDEM V2) as the baseline data for the change analysis. The Ravi basin consists of 285 glaciers (> 0.02 km2) covering an area of 164.5 ± 7.5 km2, including 71 debris-covered glaciers with an area of 36.1 ± 2.1 km2 (22% of total glacierized area) in 2002. Change analysis based on Corona KH-4B (1971), Worldview (2010) and Landsat 8 OLI/TRIS (2013) images was restricted to a subset of 157 glaciers (covering an area of 121.4 ± 5.4 km2 in 2002) due to cloud cover. Glacier area decreased from 125.8 ± 1.9 km2 (1971) to 119.9 ± 4.8 km2 (2010/13), a loss of 4.7 ± 4.1% or 0.1 ± 0.1% a- 1. The glacier recession rate has decreased, to a minimum for the recent decades (2002-2010/13). The debris-covered glacier area increased by 19.2 ± 2.2% (0.5 ± 0.05% a- 1) in the Ravi basin. However, there were significant variation in its sub-basins i.e. in Budhil and Upper Ravi sub-basin, where the debris-covered area increased by 28.6 ± 3.1% (0.7 ± 0.1% a- 1) and 14 ± 1.6% (0.3 ± 0.04% a- 1), respectively, between 1971 and 2010/13. Field investigation of selected glaciers (2010-2014) supports glacier recession trend from remote sensing data. Glacier retreat rates in the Ravi basin were lower than previously reported for selected glaciers in the similar basin and other basins (e.g. Chenab, Beas, Parbati, Baspa and Tirungkhad) of the Himachal Himalaya.

  5. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair

    2014-01-01

    The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g−1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation. PMID:25003148

  6. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p < 0.05) supported the idea that larger herd size has more chances of mastitis, with the highest prevalence (40, 32, and 27 %) in the large, medium, and small herds, respectively. Stage of lactation was significantly (p < 0.01) involved in mastitis, and the highest incidence (43.3 %) was noted in early lactation. Milk production of lactating buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

  7. Comparative efficacy of G6G and Ovsynch protocols on synchronization and pregnancy rate in Nili-Ravi buffalo.

    PubMed

    Waqas, M; Mehmood, M U; Shahzad, Q; Kausar, R; Sattar, A; Naseer, Z

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of G6G and Ovsynch protocols on synchronization and pregnancy rate in Nili-Ravi buffalo. For this, a total of fifty buffalo were assigned into two treatment groups: (1) G6G (n=25) and (2) Ovsynch (n=25). The blood samples were collected from all the treated buffalo on day (D) 7 (PGF2α injection of Ovsynch) to measure the progesterone (P4). All the buffalo were fixed time inseminated (FTAI) following last GnRH of Ovsynch. Ultrasonography was performed for follicular, corpus luteum (CL) dynamics and pregnancy diagnosis. The results revealed that synchronization rate and response to final PGF2α were significantly (P<0.05) higher in G6G compared to Ovsynch. The ovulation to first GnRH of Ovsynch was higher (P<0.05) in G6G (84%) than Ovsynch (56%). The mean dominant follicle size following last GnRH of Ovsynch showed significantly larger diameter in G6G (11.7±0.2mm) compared to Ovsynch (10.9±0.2mm). Moreover, the higher (P<0.05) P4 concentration was observed in G6G than Ovsynch. The presence of double CL on D 7 was higher (P<0.05) in G6G (64%) than Ovsynch (24%) group. The pregnancy rate (P=0.08) tended to be greater in G6G compared to Ovsynch. In conclusion, G6G treatment showed better ovulatory and luteolytic response to first GnRH and PGF2α compared to Ovsynch treatment. Moreover, the addition of GnRH and PGF2α prior to Ovsynch is helpful to improve synchronization application of Ovsynch protocol in Nili-Ravi buffalo. PMID:26833275

  8. rAvis: An R-Package for Downloading Information Stored in Proyecto AVIS, a Citizen Science Bird Project

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Sara; González-Hernández, Javier; Casabella, Eduardo; Barrientos, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science projects store an enormous amount of information about species distribution, diversity and characteristics. Researchers are now beginning to make use of this rich collection of data. However, access to these databases is not always straightforward. Apart from the largest and international projects, citizen science repositories often lack specific Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to connect them to the scientific environments. Thus, it is necessary to develop simple routines to allow researchers to take advantage of the information collected by smaller citizen science projects, for instance, programming specific packages to connect them to popular scientific environments (like R). Here, we present rAvis, an R-package to connect R-users with Proyecto AVIS (http://proyectoavis.com), a Spanish citizen science project with more than 82,000 bird observation records. We develop several functions to explore the database, to plot the geographic distribution of the species occurrences, and to generate personal queries to the database about species occurrences (number of individuals, distribution, etc.) and birdwatcher observations (number of species recorded by each collaborator, UTMs visited, etc.). This new R-package will allow scientists to access this database and to exploit the information generated by Spanish birdwatchers over the last 40 years. PMID:24626233

  9. rAvis: an R-package for downloading information stored in Proyecto AVIS, a citizen science bird project.

    PubMed

    Varela, Sara; González-Hernández, Javier; Casabella, Eduardo; Barrientos, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science projects store an enormous amount of information about species distribution, diversity and characteristics. Researchers are now beginning to make use of this rich collection of data. However, access to these databases is not always straightforward. Apart from the largest and international projects, citizen science repositories often lack specific Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to connect them to the scientific environments. Thus, it is necessary to develop simple routines to allow researchers to take advantage of the information collected by smaller citizen science projects, for instance, programming specific packages to connect them to popular scientific environments (like R). Here, we present rAvis, an R-package to connect R-users with Proyecto AVIS (http://proyectoavis.com), a Spanish citizen science project with more than 82,000 bird observation records. We develop several functions to explore the database, to plot the geographic distribution of the species occurrences, and to generate personal queries to the database about species occurrences (number of individuals, distribution, etc.) and birdwatcher observations (number of species recorded by each collaborator, UTMs visited, etc.). This new R-package will allow scientists to access this database and to exploit the information generated by Spanish birdwatchers over the last 40 years. PMID:24626233

  10. 16S rDNA analysis of archaea indicates dominance of Methanobacterium and high abundance of Methanomassiliicoccaceae in rumen of Nili-Ravi buffalo.

    PubMed

    Paul, S S; Deb, S M; Dey, A; Somvanshi, S P S; Singh, D; Rathore, R; Stiverson, J

    2015-10-01

    The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens was investigated using 16S rDNA gene library prepared from the rumen contents of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Microbial genomic DNA was isolated from four adult male fistulated buffaloes and PCR conditions were set up using specific primers. Amplified product was cloned into a suitable vector, and the inserts of positive clones were sequenced. A total of 142 clones were examined, and the analysis revealed 46 species level (0.01 distance) operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty six OTUs comprising 89 clones (63% of the total clones) were taxonomically assigned to Methanobacterium genus and the majority of them had highest percent identity with Methanobacterium flexile among cultured methanogens. Five OTUs comprising 27 clones (19% of total clones) were taxonomically assigned to Methanomicrobium genus and these clones showed highest sequence identity with Methanomicrobium mobile. Only two OTUs comprising 6 clones (4% of total clones) were assigned to Methanobrevibacter genus. A total of 17 clones belonging to 10 species level OTUs showed highest percent identity (ranging from 85 to 95%) with Methanomassilicoccus luminyensis and were taxonomically classified as Methanomassiliicocaceae. Out of the 142 rDNA clones, 112 clones, which constitute 79% of the total clones representing 42 OTUs, had less than 98.5% sequence identity with any of the cultured strains of methanogens and represent novel species of methanogens. This study has revealed the largest assortment of hydrogenotrophic methanogen phylotypes ever identified from the rumen of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. The study indicates that Methanobacterium is the most dominant methanogen in the rumen of Nili-Ravi buffalo. This is also the first report on the presence of methanogens phylogenetically close to M. luminyensis, an H2 dependent methylotrophic methanogen, in the rumen of buffaloes at such a high level of abundance. PMID:26103451

  11. Impact of anthropogenic activities on physico-chemical parameters of water and mineral uptake in Catla catla from river Ravi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Abdullah; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2013-03-01

    The river Ravi, while passing through Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, gets highly polluted owning heavy loads of untreated municipal sewage and industrial effluents of diverse kinds. The fish, Catla catla sampled in two different seasons from three downstream polluted sites were compared with the samples of the same fish from an upstream, a less polluted site, for their physico-chemical parameters. The data were statistically analysed to study the effect of sites, seasons and their interaction on the physico-chemical parameters of waters and mineral uptake in fish muscles. Significant differences (P < 0.001) among the sampling sites and seasons were observed. The river appeared to be polluted as indicated by the high values of total suspended solids (909 mg/l) and sulphate (964 mg/l) in comparison to the respective values of 150 and 600 mg/l being suggested as the safer values of drinking water of the National Environmental Quality Standards. Most trace and macro elements in fish muscles were increased with the increasing pollution loads from the upstream to the downstream sites of this river. The remarkable increases in the levels of all the investigated minerals in fish muscles from the polluted sites raise concerns about the long-term health of the river Ravi ecosystem and consequently the fish and its consumer's health. The results contradict the opinion of the local population that the riverine fish are natural, more health-promoting and precious than the pond fish. Therefore, we strongly argue for the utilization of an effect-based monitoring approach to alleviate the detrimental effects of anthropogenic activities on fish and the fish consumers' health. PMID:22791113

  12. Improvement of liquid and frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) through supplementation of fat.

    PubMed

    Adeel, M; Ijaz, A; Aleem, M; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S; Jabbar, M A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat on quality of liquid and frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Adult bulls (n=21) were fed a balanced ration (Con; n=7) or the same ration either containing sunflower oil (SF-O; n=7) or whole sunflower seeds (SF-S; n=7) for 63 days. Body weight and body condition score of each bull was recorded on days 0, 30 and 60 of the experiment. Semen was collected on days 39, 46, 53 and 60, frozen by a fast method and stored at -196 degrees C for 24h. Sperm motility was assessed using a bright field microscope. Plasma membrane integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa was assessed using a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) assay. The concentration of spermatozoa and volume of semen was not different among groups on various days of collection. Sunflower-enriched diets did not affect the motility and number of HOS-positive spermatozoa in the fresh semen. Motility and HOS of post-thawed spermatozoa were higher (p<0.05) in bulls fed the sunflower-enriched diets. Similarly, diets did not affect the body condition score and body weight of bulls. In conclusion, feeding of sunflower oil or sunflower seed as fat sources can improve the quality of buffalo bull spermatozoa. PMID:19246083

  13. Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal (Arachniotus sp.) Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, F.; Abdullah, M.; Chaudhry, A. S.; Bhatti, J. A.; Jabbar, M. A.; Ahmed, F.; Mehmood, T.; Asim, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kamran, Z.; Irshad, I.; Tahir, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1), 33 (TMR2), 67 (TMR3), and 100% (TMR4) fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6) according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves. PMID:26950866

  14. Oxytocin induced oxidative stress in lactating Bubalis bubalis (Nili Ravi)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oxytocin has been reported for a wide range of adverse effects in different species of lactating animals. The present study was aimed to evaluate the adverse effects of oxytocin on biomarkers of oxidative stress in buffaloes. Lactating buffaloes (n = 40) were randomly selected from a commercial dairy farm located in the peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan and divided into two equal groups viz. treatment and control groups, each containing 20 buffaloes. Buffaloes in treatment group were injected with oxytocin before each milking (morning and evening) for milk let down; whereas, animals in control group were milked naturally without oxytocin injection. Both the groups were assessed for oxidative stress biomarkers. Results Results showed significantly higher levels (P ≤ 0.05) of TOS, tHcy and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity in lactating buffaloes injected with oxytocin as compared to those of control group. On the other hand, serum levels of TAS, PON1 and arylesterase were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) in the buffaloes of treatment group. Conclusions Oxytocin injection in lactating buffaloes resulted in elevated oxidative stress by increasing the total homocysteine and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity and decreasing enzymatic activities of antioxidant enzymes including paraoxonase-1 and arylesterase; that might render the animals to poor productive and reproductive potential. PMID:23981231

  15. Effect of melatonin on maturation capacity and fertilization of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagina, G; Asima, A; Nemat, U; Shamim, A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation of in vitro maturation media on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of buffalo oocytes. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were aspirated from follicles of 2-8 mm diameter. In experiment I, COCs were matured in IVM medium supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, and 1000 μM melatonin for 22-24 hours in CO2 incubator at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 and at 95% relative humidity. The maturation rate did not differ in media supplemented with melatonin at 250 μM, 500 μM, 1000 μM and control (0 μM). In experiment II, the matured oocytes were fertilized in 50 μl droplets of Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP) medium having 10 ug/ml heparin for sperm (2 million/ml) capacitation. The fertilization droplets were then kept for incubation at 5% CO2, 39°C and at 95% relative humidity for 18 hours. The fertilization rate was assessed by sperm penetration and pronuclear formation. Fertilization rate was improved when maturation medium was supplemented with 250 μM melatonin compared to control. In conclusion, melatonin supplementation to serum free maturation media at 250 μM improved the fertilization rate of buffalo oocytes. PMID:27540514

  16. Effect of melatonin on maturation capacity and fertilization of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nagina, G.; Asima, A.; Nemat, U.; Shamim, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation of in vitro maturation media on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of buffalo oocytes. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were aspirated from follicles of 2-8 mm diameter. In experiment I, COCs were matured in IVM medium supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, and 1000 μM melatonin for 22-24 hours in CO2 incubator at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 and at 95% relative humidity. The maturation rate did not differ in media supplemented with melatonin at 250 μM, 500 μM, 1000 μM and control (0 μM). In experiment II, the matured oocytes were fertilized in 50 μl droplets of Tyrode’s Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP) medium having 10 ug/ml heparin for sperm (2 million/ml) capacitation. The fertilization droplets were then kept for incubation at 5% CO2, 39°C and at 95% relative humidity for 18 hours. The fertilization rate was assessed by sperm penetration and pronuclear formation. Fertilization rate was improved when maturation medium was supplemented with 250 μM melatonin compared to control. In conclusion, melatonin supplementation to serum free maturation media at 250 μM improved the fertilization rate of buffalo oocytes. PMID:27540514

  17. Health risks associated with pesticide residues in water, sediments and the muscle tissues of Catla catla at Head Balloki on the River Ravi.

    PubMed

    Mahboob, Shahid; Niazi, Fakhra; AlGhanim, K; Sultana, Salma; Al-Misned, F; Ahmed, Z

    2015-03-01

    A study of the levels of six pesticide residues (endosulfan, carbofuran, cypermethrin, profenofos, triazophos, and deltamethrin) was conducted to determine possible environmental and health risks in surface waters, sediment, and fish Catla catla. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The total concentration of pesticides in water, sediment, and fish ranged from 0.005 to 3.17 μg/l, 0.61 to 23.06 ng/g dry weight, and 0.35 to 19.15 μg/g lipid-normalized units, respectively. According to the concentrations and detection frequencies, endosulfan and profenofos were the most dominant pesticides recorded in fish tissue and sediment samples. Profenofos and cypermethrin, meanwhile, were the most abundant pesticides recorded in water samples at these sites. Cypermethrin and triazophos were not detected in the sediment samples. The concentration of endosulfan, carbofuran, and deltamethrin were higher than the permissible limits for fish set by international agencies and pose a potential ecological risk to the aquatic ecosystem and a consequent hazard to human health. PMID:25655128

  18. Statins and Risk of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Association Cardiology Patient Page Statins and Risk of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus Ravi V. Shah and Allison ... most common adverse effects, and recent concerns about new-onset diabetes mellitus to help patients and providers ...

  19. 77 FR 24767 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; City of Albuquerque-Bernalillo County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... one-half to two-thirds of the visual range that would exist without anthropogenic air pollution. 64 FR... a portion of the SIP revision on November 8, 2010. 75 FR 68447. The AQCB Stated in its submittal...., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment'' (RAVI). 45 FR 80084 (December 2, 1980). These...

  20. 76 FR 34608 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of California; Interstate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... revisions on March 15, 2011 (76 FR 13944). DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective on July 14, 2011... would exist under estimated natural conditions. 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999). \\1\\ Visual range is the...., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment'' (RAVI) (45 FR 80084). These regulations represented the...

  1. 77 FR 46911 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... natural conditions. See 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999). \\1\\ Areas designated as mandatory Class I Federal... Interior, promulgated a list of 156 areas where visibility is identified as an important value. 44 FR 69122... visibility impairment'' (RAVI). 45 FR 80084. These regulations, codified at 40 CFR part 50, subpart...

  2. Economic Approaches to Language and Bilingualism. New Canadian Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Albert, Ed.

    Six essays on the links between official languages and the economy in Canada include: "An Economic Analysis of Language" (Albert Breton); "The Economics of Language in a Virtually Integrated Global Economy" (Richard G. Harris); "Speak and Ye Shall Receive: Language Knowledge as Human Capital" (Krishna Pendakur, Ravi Pendakur); "Bilingualism and…

  3. The Lectures Are Recorded, so Why Go to Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    When video recordings of Ravi Janardan's computer-science course at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities first went online, the students loved it. Instead of dragging themselves out of bed for the 8 a.m. lectures, many started skipping classes and watching the recordings instead. Recording lectures is becoming more and more common, and many…

  4. 76 FR 64185 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arkansas; Regional Haze State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... range that would exist without anthropogenic air pollution. 64 FR 35714, 35715 (July 1, 1999). In most... visibility impairment'' (RAVI). 45 FR 80084 (December 2, 1980). These regulations represented the first phase... where visibility is identified as an important value. See 44 FR 69122, November 30, 1979. The extent...

  5. 76 FR 13944 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of California; Regional Haze...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ...-fifth of the visual range that would exist under estimated natural conditions. 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999... source or small group of sources, i.e., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment'' (RAVI). 45 FR... identified as an important value. 44 FR 69122 (November 30, 1979). The extent of a mandatory Class I...

  6. 76 FR 58569 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... anthropogenic air pollution. 64 FR 35714, 35715 (July 1, 1999). In most of the eastern Class I areas of the... source or small group of sources, i.e., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment'' (RAVI). 45 FR... visibility is identified as an important value. See 44 FR 69122, November 30, 1979. The extent of a...

  7. 77 FR 17367 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Regional Haze

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... the visual range that would exist under estimated natural conditions. See 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999....e., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment'' (RAVI). See 45 FR 80084 (Dec. 2, 1980). These... important value (44 FR 69122, November 30, 1979). The extent of a mandatory Class I area includes...

  8. 77 FR 30932 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Massachusetts; Regional Haze

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... the visual range that would exist under estimated natural conditions. See 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999....e., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment'' (RAVI). See 45 FR 80084 (Dec. 2, 1980). These... important value (44 FR 69122, November 30, 1979). The extent of a mandatory Class I area includes...

  9. 76 FR 76646 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...-half to two- thirds of the visual range that would exist without anthropogenic air pollution. 64 FR...., ``RAVI.'' 45 FR 80084 (December 2, 1980). These regulations represented the first phase in addressing... where visibility is identified as an important value. See 44 FR 69122, November 30, 1979. The extent...

  10. 76 FR 16167 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oklahoma; Regional Haze State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... two-thirds of the visual range that would exist without anthropogenic air pollution. 64 FR 35714...., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment'' (RAVI). 45 FR 80084 (December 2, 1980). These regulations..., promulgated a list of 156 areas where visibility is identified as an important value. See 44 FR...

  11. 77 FR 3966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Regional Haze

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ...-fifth of the visual range that would exist under estimated natural conditions. 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999... is identified as an important value. 44 FR 69122 (November 30, 1979). The extent of a mandatory Class... impairment'' (RAVI). 45 FR 80084. These regulations represented the first phase in addressing...

  12. 77 FR 11928 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Regional Haze

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... would exist under estimated natural conditions. See 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999). \\1\\ Areas designated as... important value. 44 FR 69122 (November 30, 1979). The extent of a mandatory Class I area includes subsequent... ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment'' (RAVI). 45 FR 80084. These regulations represented the...

  13. 77 FR 12770 - Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Nebraska; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... animal life from lack of oxygen. Data from the existing visibility monitoring network, the ``Interagency... pollution. 64 FR 35714, 35715 (July 1, 1999). In most of the eastern Class I areas of the United States, the... visibility impairment'' (RAVI). 45 FR 80084 (December 2, 1980). These regulations represented the first...

  14. RETRACTED: Auricular prosthesis fabrication using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technologies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mayank

    2016-06-01

    At the request of the editorMayank Shah 'Auricular prosthesis fabrication using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technologies' Prosthetics and Orthotics International, published online before print on October 8, 2013 as doi:10.1177/0309364613504779has been retracted. This is because it contains unattributed overlap withK. Subburaj, C. Nair, S. Rajesh, S. M. Meshram, B. Ravi 'Rapid development of auricular prosthesis using CAD and rapid prototyping technologies' International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery 2007; 36: 938-943 doi:10.1016/j.ijom.2007.07.013. PMID:24104058

  15. Organochlorine residual concentrations in cattle egret from the Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Rauf, Sidra; Mohammad, Ashiq; Eqani, Syed-Ali-Musstjab-Akber Shah; Ahad, Karam

    2011-02-01

    In this study, residual concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediments, prey, and eggs of Bubulcus ibis were measured from three breeding heronries from the Punjab province of Pakistan. Pattern of contamination in eggs followed the order: DDTs>HCHs>heptachlor>aldrin. Overall, pesticide residual concentrations were greater in eggs of cattle egrets collected from heronry on the River Ravi. Among HCHs, γ-HCH was more prevalent in eggs, whereas DDTs followed the order: DDD>DDE>p,p'-DDT>o,p'-DDT. Eggshell thinning was detected which showed negative relationship with residual concentration of DDE. In prey samples, residual concentration of POPs followed the order: DDTs>HCHs>dicofol>heptachlor; however, contamination pattern in sediments followed a slightly different order: DDTs>heptachlor>dicofol>HCHs>dieldrin>aldrin. Concentration of β-HCH was more prevalent in sediments and comparatively greater concentrations of POPs were measured in sediments collected from the River Ravi. Dicofol was found for the very first time in the biological samples from Pakistan, and its concentration was measured as relatively high in eggs from heronry from the River Chenab. Residual concentrations measured in eggs were below the levels that could affect egret populations. Biomagnification of the total OCPs through the food chain was evident in three breeding heronries. The concentration of DDE measured in eggs of the cattle egret suggests the need for monitoring this contaminant in other bird species at different trophic levels. PMID:20213056

  16. Association analysis of polymorphism in thyroglobulin gene promoter with milk production traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, P.K.; Goyal, S.; Mishra, S.K.; Yadav, A.K.; Kathiravan, P.; Arora, R.; Malik, R.; Kataria, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism within the promoter region of bovine thyroglobulin has been reported to be associated with milk and meat quality. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within thyroglobulin promoter region of swamp and riverine buffaloes using PCR–SSCP technique and sequencing, and also analyzing association of polymorphism with the milk production traits. The study revealed four conformational patterns, A, B, C, and D among 323 buffaloes of two riverine breeds and different swamp populations. The frequency of SSCP variant ‘A’ was found to be invariably high among all buffalo populations. Variant ‘C’ was found to be absent in pure swamp population and present with higher frequency among riverine dairy breeds Mehsana and Nili Ravi. Frequency of D variant was observed to be highest in buffalo population, representing riverine and hybrid types. Sequencing of three representative PCR products of each of the SSCP variants, revealed three polymorphic sites responsible, 33C > T, 176G > T and 221C > T, in the buffalo TG promoter region. Further, association studies of SSCP variants with various milk production and milk quality traits indicated significant effect on fat percentage in buffaloes belonging to Mehsana and Nili Ravi dairy breeds. The preliminary results also showed the substantial variations in the distribution of SSCP variants' frequencies across swamp and riverine buffaloes, two distinct populations being reared for meat and milk production, respectively. PMID:26273563

  17. Toward Graphene-Based Microwave Photon Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Kin

    2013-03-01

    Graphene is a material with remarkable electronic properties. However, the thermal properties of this two-dimensional Dirac Fermions, that determine the characteristics of photo detectors, plasmonic devices, and bolometers, are less explored. Here, we present our measurement of specific heat capacity, Wiedemann-Franz (WF), and electron-phonon (e-ph) thermal conductance from 0.3 to 100 K using the novel single layer graphene bolometer. These measurements suggest that graphene-based devices can generate substantial advances in the areas of ultra-sensitive bolometry, calorimetry, microwave, and terahertz single photon detection for applications in areas such as observational astronomy, quantum information and measurement. The physics of the e-ph coupling and the possible violation of Wiedemann-Franz Law near the charge neutrality point in single layer graphene will be discussed. This work is a collaboration with Emma Wollman, Harish Ravi, and K. C. Schwab of Caltech.

  18. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor.

    PubMed

    Achary, Ravindranath C; Ravi, G R

    2016-01-01

    Dilaceration of the permanent tooth usually is a consequence of traumatic injuries to the primary teeth. Although it may appear anywhere in the long axis of the tooth, i.e., crown, cementoenamel junction, or root, most often the root is involved. However, crown dilaceration is a rare condition representing 3% of the total injuries. Maxillary incisors are more susceptible to such injury and affected tooth may either erupt buccally or lingually or remain impacted. Hitherto, the treatment options also differ as per the clinical scenario. This article proposes a novel technique of restoring esthetic function of the affected permanent maxillary lateral incisor with crown-root dilaceration while preserving the vitality of tooth. How to cite this article: Achary RC, Ravi GR. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):152-155. PMID:27365939

  19. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, GR

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dilaceration of the permanent tooth usually is a consequence of traumatic injuries to the primary teeth. Although it may appear anywhere in the long axis of the tooth, i.e., crown, cementoenamel junction, or root, most often the root is involved. However, crown dilaceration is a rare condition representing 3% of the total injuries. Maxillary incisors are more susceptible to such injury and affected tooth may either erupt buccally or lingually or remain impacted. Hitherto, the treatment options also differ as per the clinical scenario. This article proposes a novel technique of restoring esthetic function of the affected permanent maxillary lateral incisor with crown-root dilaceration while preserving the vitality of tooth. How to cite this article: Achary RC, Ravi GR. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):152-155. PMID:27365939

  20. Compact stars and accretion disks: Workshop summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    1998-07-01

    A workshop on `Compact Stars and Accretion Disks' was held on 11-12 August 1997 at the Australian National University. The workshop was opened by Professor Jeremy Mould, the Director of Mount Stromlo Observatory. The workshop was organised to coincide with visits to the ANU Astrophysical Theory Centre by Professor Ron Webbink from the University of Illinois, Professor Rainer Wehrse from the University of Heidelberg and Dr Chris Tout from the University of Cambridge. The workshop attracted over 25 participants nationwide. Participants included members of the Special Research Centre for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Sydney, led by Professor Don Melrose, Professor Dick Manchester from the ATNF, Professor Ravi Sood from ADFA, Dr John Greenhill from the University of Tasmania and Dr Rosemary Mardling from Monash University. Dr Helen Johnston from AAO and Dr Kurt Liffman from AFDL also attended the workshop. The abstracts of twelve of the workshop papers are presented in this summary.

  1. Separation and quantification of milk casein from different buffalo breeds.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Li, Ling; Zeng, Qingkun; Liu, Jianxin; Ren, Daxi

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the milk protein expression profile in different buffalo breeds plays an important role in improving hybrid selection and determining the effects on milk protein synthesis. The aim of this research is to compare the differences in milk protein content, composition and distribution between River buffalo and their crossbreeds for hybrid screening. Four groups of milk samples that included Nili-Ravi (N), Murrah (M), a Nili-Ravi-Murrah crossbreed (M-N), and a crossbreed of river buffalo with local swamp buffalo (C) were collected. The protein composition of the buffalo milk was determined by RP-HPLC. A gel-based proteomic approach consisting of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was utilised for the detailed protein characterisation of milk from different breeds. The results of this analysis showed that the river/swamp buffalo crossbreed (C) displayed the highest content of total protein (4·46%) and κ-casein (11·14%) but the lowest content of α-lactalbumin (6·79%). By selecting 23 different protein spots among the four types of milk that contained the most spots corresponding to κ-casein, β-casein and αs1-casein, correlations between the crossbreeds, protein polymorphism and phosphorylation could be made. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding a swamp buffalo with a river buffalo has a notable effect on the protein content and composition that may be exploited for producing high-quality raw milk in food technology applications and dairy food production. PMID:27600966

  2. Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment in Urban Population of Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA <3/60and <6/18 in the better eye, respectively. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for visual impairment. Results Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR= 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p<0.001). Illiterate participants were more likely to have VI [OR= 1.5 (95% C.I.: 1.1,2.1)] when compared to educated participants. Conclusions The first implementation of the RAVI methodology in a North Indian population revealed that the burden of visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region. PMID:25915659

  3. Thermal studies of Martian channels and valleys using Termoskan data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Termoskan instrument on board the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest spatial resolution thermal infrared emission data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images 2 km/pixel, midday observations of several major channel and valley systems including significant portions of Shalbatana, Ravi, Al-Qahira, and Ma'adim Valles, the channel connecting Valles Marineris with Hydraotes Chaos, and channel material in Eos Chasma. Termoskan also observed small portions of the southern beginnings of Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles and some channel material in Gangis Chasma. Simultaneous broadband visible reflectance data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that most of the channels and valleys have higher thermal inertias than their surroundings, consistent with previous thermal studies. We show for the first time that the thermal inertia boundaries closely match flat channel floor boundaries. Also, buttes within channels have inertias similiar to the plains surrounding the channels, suggesting the buttes are remnants of a contiguous plains surface. Lower bounds on typical channel thermal inertias range from 8.4 to 12.5 (10-3 cal cm-2 s-1/2/K) (352 to 523 in SI units of J m-2 s-1/2/K). Lower bounds on inertia differences with the surrounding heavily cratered plains range from 1.1 to 3.5 (46 to 147 SI). Atmospheric and geometric effects are not sufficient to cause the observed channel inertia enhancements. We favor nonaeolian explanations of the overall channel inertia enhancements based primarily upon the channel floors' thermal homogeneity and the strong correlation of thermal boundaries with floor boundaries. However, localized, dark regions within some channels are likely aeolian in nature as reported previously. Most channels with increased inertias have fretted morphologies such as flat floors with steep walls. Eastern Ravi and southern Ares Valles, the only major channel sections observed that have obvious catastrophic flood bedforms, do not

  4. Recent developments in the scientific ballooning in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R.; Sreenivasan, S.; Subbarao, J.; Kumar, P.

    RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SCIENTIFIC BALLOONING IN INDIA R. K. Manchanda1, S. Sreenivasan2, J. V. Subbarao2, P. R. Kumar2 1. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Colaba, Mumbai-400 005, India. 2. TIFR Balloon Facility, PO Box 5, ECIL Post Office, Hyderabad-500 762, India ravi@tifr.res.in/FAX: +91-22-2152110 National Balloon facility operated by TIFR in Hyderabad, India is the only one of its kind in the world, which combines both, the in-house balloon production and a complete flight support for scientific ballooning. In the past few years we executed a major programme of upgradation of different components of balloon production, telemetry and telecommand hardware and various support facilities. This paper focuses on our increased capability of balloon production of large sizes up to 780,000 m3 using Antrix film, development of high strength balloon load tapes with the breaking strength of 182 kg, and the recent introduction of S-band telemetry and a commandable timer cut-off unit in the flight hardware. A summary of the various flights conducted in recent years and the results of the test flight conducted to qualify new sub systems will be presented.

  5. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, GR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Radicular cysts are by far the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. However, those arising from primary teeth are comparatively rare, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3%. The aim of this paper is to present clinical, radiographic and histopathological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with a primary mandibular molar causing unusual displacement of the permanent successor. Extraction of primary tooth along with extirpation of cyst was done under local anesthesia. The displaced premolar was also extracted and then replanted in the socket after proper alignment. Healing was uneventful and the space of missing primary molar was maintained by band and loop space maintainer. The relationship between intracanal medicaments and rapid growth of cyst, as mentioned in literature was observed in our case too. Thus, pulpotomy treated primary teeth should receive periodic postoperative radiographic examination and absence of clinical symptoms does not mean that a pulpotomy treated tooth is healthy. How to cite this article: Lamba G, Ravi GR. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):70-74. PMID:26124586

  6. Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression studies of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Sadaf, S; Khan, M A; Wilson, D B; Akhtar, M W

    2007-02-01

    Cloning, high-level expression, and characterization of the somatotropin (ST) gene of an indigenous Nili-Ravi breed of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (BbST) are described. Coding, non-coding, and promoter regions of BbST were amplified and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed several silent and two interesting point mutations on comparison with STs of other vertebrate species. One interesting variation in the BbST sequence was the replacement of a conserved glutamine residue by arginine. A plasmid was also constructed for the production of BbST in Escherichia coli BL21 (RIPL) CodonPlus, under the control of IPTG-inducible T7-lac promoter. High-level expression could be obtained by synthesizing a codon-optimized ST gene and expressing it in the form of inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies represented over 20% of the E. coli cellular proteins. The biologically active conformation of purified BbST was confirmed by its efficient growth promoting activity in Nb2 cell proliferation assay. The expression system and purification strategy employed promise to be a useful approach to produce BbST for further use in structure-function studies and livestock industry. PMID:17367293

  8. X-ray Diffuse Scattering Study of the Pinning of Charge Density Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravy, Sylvain; Rouzière, Stéphan; Moret, Roger; Pouget, Jean-Paul

    1997-03-01

    We have used the X-ray "White Line" interference effect(S. Ravy and J.-P Pouget, J. Phys. (France), 3, 109 (1993)) to study the pinning of 2k_f-charge density wave (CDW) in the blue bronze K_0.3MoO3 and the transition metal trichalcogenide NbSe_3. When a CDW is pinned to impurities, the coherence between the position of the impurity and the phase of the periodic lattice distortion associated to the CDW gives rise to an asymmetry of the intensity of the pair of G+2kf and G-2kf satellite reflections. In organic systems like TTF-TCNQ, a huge asymmetry has been observed in the high temperature fluctuating phase(S. Brazovskii et al, accepted in Phys. Rev. B). This asymmetry is weaker in inorganic materials. It shows that in Vanadium-doped blue bronzes and Titanium-doped NbSe_3, the pinning is strong, while in Tungsten-doped blue bronzes, a more subtle situation occurs. Moreover, the sense of the asymmetry allows us to determine the phase of the CDW at the impurity site. This phase in found to be consistent with an electronic pinning of the CDW. In blue bronzes, synchrotron radiation study of the asymmetry of the satellite profiles gives evidence for a deformation of the CDW-phase around the impurity.

  9. Presence, deposition flux and mass burden of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from Mehmood Booti Drain sediments, Lahore.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Mahmood, Adeel; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of analyzing persistent organic pollutants i.e., PCBs, PBDEs, DPs and OCPs for sediment samples collected from Mehmood Booti Drain, Lahore, Pakistan that receives higher pollution loads from adjacent waste dumping site. Levels of ∑PCBs, ∑PBDEs, ∑DPs and ∑OCPs ranged between 5.9-62, 0.36-1.32, n.d.-0.02 and 0.96-18.07ngg(-1,) respectively. These levels were found to be comparable with other studies of local or global origin. Composition, spatial distribution and source profile indicated that Mehmood Booti waste dumping site was the major input source for sedimentary POPs pollution. The highest POPs deposition flux and mass inventory was attributed to PCBs and OCPs. Deposition flux indicated the input of 6E(-04), 5E(-05), 9E(-07) and 4E(-0)(4)t/yr of PCBs, PBDEs, DPs and OCPs into the Mehmood Booti Drain sediments which ultimately discharge into the River Ravi. Mass inventories suggested 1E(-02), 3E(-04), 7E(-06) and 3E(-03) metric tons PCBs, PBDEs, DPs and OCPs burden, respectively in the Mehmood Booti Drain sediments. PMID:26650420

  10. Flow cytometric and near-infrared Raman spectroscopic investigation of quality in stained, sorted, and frozen-thawed buffalo sperm.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Meng; Chen, Huan-Hua; Li, Qing-Yang; Yang, Huan; Xu, Hui-Yan; Lu, Yang-Qing; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Xiao-Gan; Lu, Sheng-Sheng; Lu, Ke-Huan

    2016-07-01

    Flow cytometry and Laser Tweezers Raman spectroscopy have been used to investigate Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm from different samples (fresh, stained, sorted and frozen-thawed) of the flow-sorting process to optimize sperm sex sorting procedures. During the sorting and freezing-thawing processes, the two detection methods both indicated there were differences in mitochondrial activity and membrane integrity. Moreover, a dispersive-type NIR (Near Infrared Reflection) use of the Raman system resulted in the ability to detect a variety of sperm components, including relative DNA, lipid, carbohydrates and protein contents. The use of the Raman system allowed for PCA (principal components analysis) and DFA (discriminant function analysis) of fresh, stained, sorted and frozen-thawed sperm. The methodology, therefore, allows for distinguishing sperm from different samples (fresh, stained, sorted and frozen-thawed), and demonstrated the great discriminative power of ANN (artificial neural network) classification models for the differentiating sperm from different phases of the flow-sorting process. In conclusion, the damage induced by sperm sorting and freezing-thawing procedures can be quantified, and in the present research it is demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is a valuable technology for assessing sperm quality. PMID:27095613

  11. Scientific overview: CSCI-CITAC Annual General Meeting and Young Investigators' Forum 2014.

    PubMed

    Keow, Jonathan; Zhao, Eric; Samuel, Nardin; Dey, Ayan; Schneider, Raphael; Chen, Michael; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Society of Clinician Investigators (CSCI) and Clinical Investigator Trainee Association of Canada/Association des cliniciens-chercheurs en formation du Canada (CITAC/ACCFC) annual general meeting (AGM) was held in Toronto during November 21-24, 2015 for the first time in conjunction with the University of Toronto Clinician-Investigator Program Research Day. The overall theme for this year's meeting was the role of mentorship in career development, with presentations from Dr. Chaim Bell (University of Toronto), Dr. Shurjeel Choudhri (Bayer Healthcare), Dr. Ken Croitoru (University of Toronto), Dr. Astrid Guttman (University of Toronto), Dr. Prabhat Jha (University of Toronto) and Dr. Sheila Singh (McMaster University). The keynote speakers of the 2014 AGM included Dr. Qutayba Hamid, who was presented with the Distinguished Scientist Award, Dr. Ravi Retnakaran, who was presented with the Joe Doupe Award, and Dr. Lorne Babiuk, who was the CSCI-RCPSC Henry Friesen Award winner. The highlight of the conference was, once again, the outstanding scientific presentations from the numerous clinician investigator (CI) trainees from across the country who presented at the Young Investigators' Forum. Their research topics spanned the diverse fields of science and medicine, ranging from basic science to cutting-edge translational research, and their work has been summarized in this review. Over 120 abstracts were presented at this year's meeting. This work was presented during two poster sessions, with the six most outstanding submitted abstracts presented in the form of oral presentations during the President's Forum. PMID:26278424

  12. Ecophysiological Responses of Invasive and Native Grass Communities with Simulated Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quade, B.; Ravi, S.; Huxman, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    William Quade1, Sujith Ravi2, Ashley Weide2, Greg Barron-Gafford2, Katerina Dontsova2 and Travis E Huxman2 1Carthage College, WI 2 B2 Earthscience & UA Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Tucson. Abstract Climate change, anthropogenic disturbances and lack of proper management practices have rendered many arid regions susceptible to invasions by exotic grasses with consequent ecohydrological, biogeochemical and socio economic implications. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes driving these large-scale vegetation shifts in drylands, in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Using the Biosphere 2 facility to maintain distinct temperature treatments of ambient and predicted warmer conditions (+ 4o C) inside, we compared the physiological (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, biomass) responses of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tanglehead) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffelgrass) growing in single and mixed communities. The results indicate that Buffelgrass can assimilate more CO2 per unit leaf area under current conditions, though warming seems to inhibit the performance when looking at biomass, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Under similar moisture regimes Buffelgrass performed better than Tangle head in mixed communities regardless of the temperature. Both grasses had decrease in stomatal conductance with warmer conditions, however the Buffel grass did not have the same decrease of conductance when planted in a mixed communities. Key words: Buffelgrass, Tanglehead, Biosphere 2, stomatal conductance, climate change

  13. Bringing Astronomy Directly to New Audiences (50,000 People) at Outdoor Concerts and Music Festivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2014-07-01

    My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers at the National Mall (co-sponsor OSTP); Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood music festivals; and classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts in parks assisted by astronomy clubs (55 events since 2009). Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS combines solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners (From the Earth to the Universe; Visions of the Universe); videos; hands-on activities (Night Sky Network; Harvard-Smithsonian CfA); imaging with a cell phone mount; and hand-outs (info on science museums, astronomy clubs, and citizen science) before and after the concerts or at intermission. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large enthusiastic crowds. Many young children participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. Outcomes: While < 50% of the participants took part in a science museum or activity in the past year (survey result), they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). Taking science directly to people is effective in promoting science education!

  14. Inhibitory activities of soluble and bound millet seed phenolics on free radicals and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-01-12

    Oxidative stress, caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), is responsible for modulating several pathological conditions and aging. Soluble and bound phenolic extracts of commonly consumed millets, namely, kodo, finger (Ravi), finger (local), foxtail, proso, little, and pearl, were investigated for their phenolic content and inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ROS, namely, hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). Inhibition of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals was detrmined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The peroxyl radical inhibitory activity was measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The scavenging of H(2)O(2), HOCl, and (1)O(2) was evaluated using colorimetric methods. The results were expressed as micromoles of ferulic acid equivalents (FAE) per gram of grain on a dry weight basis. In addition, major hydroxycinnamic acids were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS). All millet varieties displayed effective radical and ROS inhibition activities, which generally positively correlated with phenolic contents, except for hydroxyl radical. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of ferulic and p-coumaric acids as major hydroxycinnamic acids in phenolic extract and responsible for the observed effects. Bound extracts of millet contributed 38-99% to ROS scavenging, depending on the variety and the test system employed. Hence, bound phenolics must be included in the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of millets and other cereals. PMID:21133411

  15. The new WMO RA VI Regional Climate Centre on Climate Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, J.; Nitsche, H.

    2010-09-01

    Regional Climate Centres (RCCs) are institutions with the capacity and mandate by WMO to develop high quality regional-scale products using global products and incorporating regional information. Recently a pilot network of three RCC consortia was established for the WMO region RA VI (Europe and Middle East): • RCC node on climate data, • RCC node on climate monitoring, • RCC node on long-range forecasting. DWD/Germany has taken the responsibility of the RCC node on climate monitoring (RRC-CM). Further consortium members are Armstatehydromet/Armenia, Météo-France/France, KNMI/The Netherlands, RHMS/Serbia, and TSMS/Turkey. RCCs provide online access to their products and services to national meteorological and hydrological services and to other regional users. Vice versa, RCCs receive data, products, know-how and feedbacks from the meteorological services as a main source for regional information. By the same time, they provide regional data, products and feedbacks to Global Production Centres and Lead Centres for respective verification and product optimisation of the global-scale information. The RCC-CM will perform basic functions covering the domain of climate monitoring: • Annual and monthly climate diagnostic bulletins, • Monthly monitoring maps: global, RAVI, Eastern Mediterranean, South Caucasus, • Reference climatologies and trend maps, • RA VI climate monitoring WebPortal, • Climate watches, • Training; Research and Development (R&D). The poster shows the current stage of development of the RCC-CM by means of example products.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Ancient Mars Water and Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Titles in this section include: 1) Giant Lowland Polygons: Relics of an Ancient Martian Ocean? 2) Lake Shorelines: Earth Analogs for Hypothesized Martian Coastal Features; 3) Complex Evolution of Paleolacustrine Systems on Mars: An Example from the Holden Crater; 4) Geomorphology and Hydraulics of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars, During a Noachian/Hesperian Boundary Paleoflood; 5) Geologic Evolution of Dao Vallis, Mars; 6) Advances in Reconstructing the Geologic History of the Chryse Region Outflow Channels on Mars; 7) Ravi Vallis, Mars - Paleoflood Origin and Genesis of Secondary Chaos Zones; 8) Walla Walla Vallis and Wallula Crater: Two Recently Discovered Martian Features Record Aqueous History; 9) Tharsis Recharge: a Source of Groundwater for Martian Outflow Channels; 10) Factors Controlling Water Volumes and Release Rates in Martian Outflow Channels; 11) Significance of Confined Cavernous Systems for Outflow Channel Water Sources, Reactivation Mechanisms and Chaos Formation; 12) Systematic Differences in Topography of Martian and Terrestrial Drainage Basins; 13) Waves on Seas of Mars and Titan: Wind-Tunnel Experiments on Wind-Wave Generation in Extraterrestrial Atmospheres.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Hydrology, Drainage, and Valley Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Analysis of Orientation Dependence of Martian Gullies; 2) A Preliminary Relationship between the Depth of Martian Gullies and the Abundance of Hydrogen on Near-Surface Mars; 3) Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars; 4) The Distribution of Gullies and Tounge-shaped Ridges and Their Role in the Degradation of Martian Craters; 5) A Critical Evaluation of Crater Lake Systems in Memnonia Quadrangle, Mars; 6) Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at Gusev Crater: Implications for the Spirit Mission; 7) Characterization of the Distributary Fan in Holden NE Crater using Stereo Analysis; 8) Computational Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars: Appraising the Drainage Density; 9) Hypsometric Analyses of Martian Basins: A Comparison to Terrestrial, Lunar, and Venusian Hypsometry; 10) Morphologic Development of Harmakhis Vallis, Mars; 11) Mangala Valles, Mars: Investigations of the source of Flood Water and Early Stages of Flooding; 12) The Formation of Aromatum Chaos and the Water Discharge Rate at Ravi Vallis; 13) Inferring Hydraulics from Geomorphology for Athabasca Valles, Mars; 14) The Origin and Evolution of Dao Vallis: Formation and Modification of Martian Channels by Structural Collapse and Glaciation; 15) Snowmelt and the Formation of Valley Networks on Martian Volcanoes; 16) Extent of Floating Ice in an Ancient Echus Chasma/Kasei Valley System, Mars.

  18. Network analyses in systems pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Seth I.; Iyengar, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emerging area of pharmacology which utilizes network analysis of drug action as one of its approaches. By considering drug actions and side effects in the context of the regulatory networks within which the drug targets and disease gene products function, network analysis promises to greatly increase our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the multiple actions of drugs. Systems pharmacology can provide new approaches for drug discovery for complex diseases. The integrated approach used in systems pharmacology can allow for drug action to be considered in the context of the whole genome. Network-based studies are becoming an increasingly important tool in understanding the relationships between drug action and disease susceptibility genes. This review discusses how analysis of biological networks has contributed to the genesis of systems pharmacology and how these studies have improved global understanding of drug targets, suggested new targets and approaches for therapeutics, and provided a deeper understanding of the effects of drugs. Taken together, these types of analyses can lead to new therapeutic options while improving the safety and efficacy of existing medications. Contact: ravi.iyengar@mssm.edu PMID:19648136

  19. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Gagandeep; Ravi, G R

    2015-01-01

    Radicular cysts are by far the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. However, those arising from primary teeth are comparatively rare, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3%. The aim of this paper is to present clinical, radiographic and histopathological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with a primary mandibular molar causing unusual displacement of the permanent successor. Extraction of primary tooth along with extirpation of cyst was done under local anesthesia. The displaced premolar was also extracted and then replanted in the socket after proper alignment. Healing was uneventful and the space of missing primary molar was maintained by band and loop space maintainer. The relationship between intracanal medicaments and rapid growth of cyst, as mentioned in literature was observed in our case too. Thus, pulpotomy treated primary teeth should receive periodic postoperative radiographic examination and absence of clinical symptoms does not mean that a pulpotomy treated tooth is healthy. How to cite this article: Lamba G, Ravi GR. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):70-74. PMID:26124586

  20. Assessment of Skeletal Age in Children with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    PubMed Central

    Ravikala, S

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the skeletal maturity in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and to compare it with that of the noncleft children. Design and setting: It is an institution based study conducted on randomly selected subjects visiting the hospital for consultation and treatment. Participants: A total of 60 children with UCLP (25 boys and 35 girls) and 60 noncleft children (30 boys and 30 girls) with normal occlusion in the age group of 10 to 15 years participated in the study. They were classified as younger (10 to 13 years) and older (13 to 15 years) age group and the cervical vertebrae were assessed in lateral cephalograms using Hassel and Farman, modifications of Lamparski's criteria. Statistical analysis: Data was analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Younger age group children with UCLP showed significant delay in skeletal maturation when compared with the noncleft children, whereas older age group children with UCLP showed a faster rate of skeletal maturation when compared with that of noncleft children but the difference was statistically not significant. Conclusion: Children with UCLP exhibit delay in attaining skeletal maturation when compared to noncleft children. There is a delay in skeletal maturation at younger age but not in older age group of children with UCLP. How to cite this article: Ravi MS, Ravikala S. Assessment of Skeletal Age in Children with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):151-155. PMID:25206213

  1. Web-based Data Information and Sharing System Using Mars Remotely Sensed Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necsoiu, M.; Dinwiddie, C. L.; Colton, S.; Coleman, N. M.

    2004-05-01

    It is well known within the planetary science community that a considerable amount of time can be dedicated to Mars data preparation before one is able to actually conduct remote sensing analyses. A prototype system developed at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) reduces such time by optimizing the process of locating, preparing, and retrieving MOLA PEDR, MOLA MEGDR and Themis VIS/IR datasets. A graphical user interface allows for searching data spatially, temporally, or by keywords. Spatial searches are done either by drawing a box around a map location or by entering coordinate values in planetographic/planetocentric latitude and west/east longitude coordinate systems. Temporal searches may be conducted by searching for specific Themis IR and VIS release dates. Key word searches may be conducted by searching for a particular MOLA PEDR orbit number. The retrieved data is provided in either a native format (such as ASCII for MOLA PEDR datasets) or in a format selected by the user and based on the chosen value-added product. In the case of MOLA PEDR datasets, the user can choose between two interpolation methods (Delaunay-based or natural neighbor) and may receive data in a TIFF or raster grid format. Natural neighbor interpolation produces fewer artifacts, but it is computationally intensive. The time required (minutes or tens of minutes compared with fractions of seconds used by the first method) makes it necessary to provide the user with an email notification once the interpolated dataset becomes available. The interpolated data provide effective resolution that approaches ~150 m compared to the PEDR resolution of ~300 m. In the case of Themis IR and VIS, data may be provided as one B/W single band image or as three-band color composite image in several raster formats. This system was successfully used to analyze Walla Walla Vallis (approximately 305.3 to 305.6E, 9.4S to 9.9S) and Aromatum Chaos/Ravi Vallis (approximately 315E to 322E, 1N

  2. Role of Wetland Ecosystems In Hydrobioecological Dynamics In Indian Punjab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Ladhar, Satnam

    The State of Punjab in India, with a total geographical area of only 50,362 sq.kms, has a special significance for its contributions of foodgrains towards the central pool. The name Punjab, which included part of western Punjab, now in Pakistan, was derived from its five rivers namely Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jehlam. Now only Sutlej, Beas and Ravi rivers pass through the State and serves as its lifelines. Its rich soils and good irrigation system linked with hardworking farmers have made the country foodgrain surplus. Green revolution is the word linked to this state. Ancient agriculture had been mostly dependant on the rain water or surface waters available in rivers, streams, ponds, open wells, etc. Thus role of rivers, streams and manmade wetlands occupying just 23000 ha area cannot be ignored while appreciating the technological advancements in agricultural production. But recently tubewell systems have replaced the earlier systems of irrigation. This has also changed the view of farmers for surface water sources particularly seasonal rivulets and natural wetlands, which are thus being ruthlessly reclaimed creating serious imbalances in StateSs ground water table and sustainability of agro-economy. While the natural wetlands have suffered the most, the large man made riverine reservoirs made for water supplies, are also shrinking due to encroachments and upstream diversion. The overall water scenario in the State has undergone a tremendous change from earlier surplus to the scarcity and thus the bio-ecological dynamics has shown significant alterations over the time. Harike and Ropar Wetlands came into formation in 1952 with the construction of ma- jestic barrages over river Sutlej. Harike Wetland with original water storage capacity of 67,900 acre feet, receives 25 million acre feet of water through rivers Sutlej and Beas and diverts 29,984 cusecs (cubic feet per second) through three canals for ir- rigation and drinking water supplies in south western

  3. Status of heavy metal residues in fish species of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Majid; Muhammad, Said; Malik, Riffat N; Khan, Muhammad U; Farooq, Umar

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate and summarize the available data that addresses the levels of HM that exist in aquatic species, mainly fish, of Pakistan. Data on this topic were collected from the literature of the last two decades (1990-2012). Results revealed that the highest number (>50%) of studies addressing HM-contaminated fish have occurred in the Punjab province, followed by the Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces. Our review disclosed that the HM concentrations in Pakistani fish species varied considerably with location. Generally, the level of HM residues detected in fish species had the following descending order: Fe>Zn>Pb>Cd>Hg>Ni>Cu>Ag>Cr>Mn>As. Fish samples collected from the Kabul River near the Nowshera district, Stretch of Ravi River, Indus River near Mainwali district, and Arabian Sea at Karachi revealed extremely high HM concentrations (range: 0.34-8,381.30 jlg/g), compared to other fresh water bodies, such as the Llyold Barrage, Guddu Barrage, Jinnah Barrage, and Chashma Barrage (0.01-2.13 jlg/g). As a reference point, we also reviewed selected data on HM fish residues that exist in countries that neighbor Pakistan. With the exception of fish collected in India, the majority of fish analyzed for HM residues in neighboring countries displayed lower residues than did fish from Pakistan. We concluded from reviewing the available published data that the most probable sources for the HM contaminants found in Pakistani water and fish were release of domestic sewage, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents. We strongly recommend that action be taken to better control the discharges of unregulated waste that enters the Pakistani aquatic environment, with the intent to mitigate any continuing future damage to the aquatic ecosystem. We also recommend intensifying research programs that address the toxicity of HM to the aquatic environment, so that a better understanding of metal effects on fish can be achieved that will lead to a sustainable

  4. Assess arsenic distribution in groundwater applying GIS in capital of Punjab, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, M. M.; Zhonghua, T.; Sissou, Z.; Mohamadi, B.

    2015-03-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater resources threatens the health of millions of people worldwide, particularly in the densely populated river deltas of Southeast Asia. Arsenic causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in portable water. The major sources of arsenic pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of arsenic containing minerals and anthropogenic activities. Lahore is groundwater dependent city, arsenic contamination is a major issue of portable water and has recently been most environmental health management issue especially in the plain region, where population density is very high. GIS was used in this study for visualizing distribution of arsenic groundwater concentration through geostatistics analysis technique, and exposure risk zones for two years (2010 and 2012). Town's data was compared and concentration variation evaluated. ANOVA test was also applied to compare concentration between cities and years. Arsenic concentrations widely range 7.3-67.8 and 5.2-69.3 μg L-1 in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Over 71% area is represented arsenic concentration range from 20 to 30 μg L-1 in both analyzed years. However, in 2012 arsenic concentration over 40 μg L-1 has covered 7.6% area of Data Gunjbuksh and 8.1% of Ravi Town, while over 90% area of Allama Iqbal, Aziz Bhatti and Samanabad Town contain arsenic concentration between 20-30 μg L-1. ANOVA test depicts concentration probability less than 0.05, while differences were detected among towns. In light of current results, it needs urgent step to ensure groundwater protection and preservation for future.

  5. Cenh3: An Emerging Player in Haploid Induction Technology

    PubMed Central

    Britt, Anne B.; Kuppu, Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    True-breeding lines are required for the development and production of crop varieties. In a classical breeding approach these lines are obtained through inbreeding, and often 7–9 generations of inbreeding is performed to achieve the desired level of homozygosity, over a period of several years. In contrast, the chromosomes of haploids can be doubled to produce true-breeding lines in a single generation. Over the last century, scientists have developed a variety of techniques to induce haploids and doubled haploids, though these techniques apply only to particular crop varieties. Ravi and Chan (2010) discovered that haploids could be obtained in Arabidopsis through the manipulation of the centromere-specific histone 3 variant, CENH3. Their approach, which involved extensive modifications to a transgenic CENH3, held promise of being translated to crop species, and has been successfully employed in maize (see Kelliher et al., 2016). Refinements of this technology have since been developed which indicate that non-transgenic modifications to CENH3 will also induce haploids. The complementation of a cenh3 null by CENH3 from closely related plant species can result in plants that are fertile but haploid-inducing on crossing by CENH3 wt plants- suggesting that introgression of alien CENH3 may produce non-transgenic haploid inducers. Similarly, a remarkably wide variety of point mutations in CENH3, inducible by chemical agents, have recently been shown to result in haploid induction on crossing by wild-type CENH3 plants. These CENH3-variant plants grow normally, are fully fertile on self-pollination, and may be present in existing mutagenized collections. PMID:27148276

  6. In vitro evaluation of liquid-stored buffalo semen at 5°C diluted in soya lecithin based extender (Bioxcell®), tris-citric egg yolk, skim milk and egg yolk-citrate extenders.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Andrabi, S M H; Khalid, M

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to compare the quality of liquid-stored buffalo bull spermatozoa in soya lecithin based extender Bioxcell(®) (BIOX), milk (MILK), tris-citric egg yolk (TEY) and egg yolk-citrate (EYC) extender at 5°C. Semen was collected from five Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of 6-7 years of age with artificial vagina over a period of 3 weeks (two consecutive ejaculates once in a week). Semen ejaculates having more than 60% motility were pooled, split into four aliquots, diluted (37°C; 10 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa/ml), cooled from 37 to 5°C in 2 h (0.275°C/min) and stored for 5 days. Sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal acrosomal ridge were studied at first, third and fifth day of storage. Higher values of progressive sperm motility (%), sperm viability (%), sperm PMI (%) and normal apical ridge (%) were observed in BIOX, MILK and TEY extenders at first, third and fifth day of storage than EYC extender. Progressive sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm PMI in BIOX(®) extender were not different from MILK and TEY extenders at 1st and third day storage period. However, at fifth day of storage, the values for these parameters remained significantly higher (p<0.05) in BIOX(®) compared with MILK, TEY and EYC extenders. At fifth day of storage, the semen quality parameters for Bioxcell(®) were comparable to those with MILK and TEY extenders at third day of storage. In conclusion, motility, viability and PMI of buffalo bull spermatozoa remained similar in Bioxcell(®) , milk and TEY extender at first and third days of storage at 5°C. Yet, the values for the aforementioned parameters in Bioxcell(®) were higher compared with milk, TEY and EYC extender at fifth day of storage at 5°C. PMID:20070582

  7. Study the Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structural and Electrical Properties of Electron Beam Evaporated In{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Rahul E-mail: srvfzb@rediffmail.com; Vishwakarma, S. R. E-mail: srvfzb@rediffmail.com; Verma, Aneet Kumar E-mail: srvfzb@rediffmail.com; Tripathi, Ravishankar Nath E-mail: srvfzb@rediffmail.com

    2011-10-20

    Indium Antimonide (InSb) is a promising materials for mid and long wavelength infrared and high speed devices applications because of its small band gap. The Indium Antimonide (InSb) thin films have been deposited onto well cleaned glass substrate at different substrate temperatures (300 K, 323 K, 373 K) by electron beam evaporation technique in the high vacuum chamber at vacuum pressure ∼10{sup −5} torr using prepared non‐stoichiometric InSb powder using formula In{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}(0.2Ravi Shankar Nath Tripathi, and due to errors in the article, the paper is retracted from the scientific record.

  8. A field study on artificial insemination of swamp and crossbred buffaloes with sexed semen from river buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan

    2015-10-01

    Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P < 0.01), respectively. Also, significant variations were seen in pregnancy rates from inseminations performed in different seasons (P < 0.01) and by different technicians (P < 0.01). In contrast to Holsteins, no difference was seen in the pregnancy rate between heifers and parous buffalo cows, and buffalo cows with different genetic backgrounds (swamp type, crossbred F1 and F2) showed similar fertility after insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds. PMID:26149075

  9. Genetic and genomic dissection of Prolactin revealed potential association with milk production traits in riverine buffalo.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, A; Maryam, J

    2016-08-01

    Milk yield and quality has been a major selection criterion for genetic improvement in livestock species. Role of Prolactin gene in determining milk quality in terms of protein profile, lactose, lipids and other imperative macromolecules is very important. In this context, genetic profiling of Prolactin gene in riverine buffalo of Pakistan was performed and potential genetic markers were identified illustrating worth of this gene in marker-assisted selection of superior dairy buffaloes. Series of wet and dry lab experimentation was performed starting with genomic DNA isolation from true to breed representatives of indigenous river buffalo (Nili-Ravi). After amplification of coding regions of Prolactin gene, products were eluted and sequenced by Sanger's chain termination method and aligned to get variations in genomic region. A total of 15 novel variations were identified and analyzed statistically for their significance at population level, haplotypes were constructed, and association was estimated. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of evolution for Prolactin gene in various mammalian species. Lastly, biological networking for this molecule was predicted to get the bigger pictorial of its functional machinery. Pathway analysis was performed to find its physiological mode of action in milk synthesis. This is a first report toward complete genetic screening of Prolactin gene in Pakistani buffaloes. Results of this study not only provide an insight for potential role of Prolactin gene in milk-producing abilities of buffalo but also suggest new directions for exploration of more genes that may have promising role to enhance future milk production capabilities of river buffalo breeds of Asian region through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27240674

  10. Thermal studies of Martian channels and valleys using Termoskan data: New results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Termoskan instrument onboard the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest-spatial-resolution thermal data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images are 2 km/pixel midday observations of several major channel and valley systems, including significant portions of Shalbatana Vallis, Ravi Vallis, Al-Qahira Vallis, Ma'adim Vallis, the channel connecting Valles Marineris with Hydraotes Chaos, and channel material in Eos Chasma. Termoskan also observed small portions of the southern beginnings of Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles and some channel material in Gangis Chasma. Simultaneous broad band visible data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that most of the channels and valleys have higher inertias than their surroundings, consistent with Viking IRTM-based thermal studies of Martian channels. We see for the first time that thermal inertia boundaries closely match all flat channel floor boundaries. Combining Termoskan thermal data, relative observations from Termoskan visible channel data, Viking absolute bolometric albedos, and a thermal model of the Mars surface, we have derived lower bounds on channel thermal inertias. Lower bounds on typical channel thermal inertias range from 8.4 to 12.5 (10(exp -3) cal cm(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)K(exp -1)) (352 to 523 in SI units). Lower bounds on inertia differences with the surrounding heavily cratered plains range from 1.1 to 3.5 (46 to 147 in SI units). Atmospheric and geometric effects are not sufficient to cause the inertia enhancements. We agree with previous researchers that localized, dark, high inertia areas within channels are likely eolian in nature. However, the Temloskan data show that eolian deposits do not fill the channels, nor are they responsible for the overall thermal inertia enhancement. Thermal homogeneity and strong correlation of thermal boundaries with the channel floor boundaries lead us to favor noneolian overall explanations.

  11. Sperm-egg penetration assay assessment of the contraceptive effects of glycerol and egg yolk in rooster sperm diluents.

    PubMed

    Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-06-01

    Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively. PMID:25744821

  12. Performance of large electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Kaw, P. K.; Singh, R.

    2014-03-15

    This paper describes an in-house designed large Electron Energy Filter (EEF) utilized in the Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) [S. K. Mattoo, V. P. Anita, L. M. Awasthi, and G. Ravi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3864 (2001)] to secure objectives of (a) removing the presence of remnant primary ionizing energetic electrons and the non-thermal electrons, (b) introducing a radial gradient in plasma electron temperature without greatly affecting the radial profile of plasma density, and (c) providing a control on the scale length of gradient in electron temperature. A set of 19 independent coils of EEF make a variable aspect ratio, rectangular solenoid producing a magnetic field (B{sub x}) of 100 G along its axis and transverse to the ambient axial field (B{sub z} ∼ 6.2 G) of LVPD, when all its coils are used. Outside the EEF, magnetic field reduces rapidly to 1 G at a distance of 20 cm from the center of the solenoid on either side of target and source plasma. The EEF divides LVPD plasma into three distinct regions of source, EEF and target plasma. We report that the target plasma (n{sub e} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} and T{sub e} ∼ 2 eV) has no detectable energetic electrons and the radial gradients in its electron temperature can be established with scale length between 50 and 600 cm by controlling EEF magnetic field. Our observations reveal that the role of the EEF magnetic field is manifested by the energy dependence of transverse electron transport and enhanced transport caused by the plasma turbulence in the EEF plasma.

  13. Cenh3: An Emerging Player in Haploid Induction Technology.

    PubMed

    Britt, Anne B; Kuppu, Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    True-breeding lines are required for the development and production of crop varieties. In a classical breeding approach these lines are obtained through inbreeding, and often 7-9 generations of inbreeding is performed to achieve the desired level of homozygosity, over a period of several years. In contrast, the chromosomes of haploids can be doubled to produce true-breeding lines in a single generation. Over the last century, scientists have developed a variety of techniques to induce haploids and doubled haploids, though these techniques apply only to particular crop varieties. Ravi and Chan (2010) discovered that haploids could be obtained in Arabidopsis through the manipulation of the centromere-specific histone 3 variant, CENH3. Their approach, which involved extensive modifications to a transgenic CENH3, held promise of being translated to crop species, and has been successfully employed in maize (see Kelliher et al., 2016). Refinements of this technology have since been developed which indicate that non-transgenic modifications to CENH3 will also induce haploids. The complementation of a cenh3 null by CENH3 from closely related plant species can result in plants that are fertile but haploid-inducing on crossing by CENH3 wt plants- suggesting that introgression of alien CENH3 may produce non-transgenic haploid inducers. Similarly, a remarkably wide variety of point mutations in CENH3, inducible by chemical agents, have recently been shown to result in haploid induction on crossing by wild-type CENH3 plants. These CENH3-variant plants grow normally, are fully fertile on self-pollination, and may be present in existing mutagenized collections. PMID:27148276

  14. NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of

  15. NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of

  16. Muscarinic Receptor Activation Affects Pulmonary Artery Contractility in Sheep: The Impact of Maturation and Chronic Hypoxia on Endothelium-Dependent and Endothelium-Independent Function.

    PubMed

    Giang, Michael; Papamatheakis, Demosthenes G; Nguyen, Dan; Paez, Ricardo; Blum Johnston, Carla; Kim, Joon; Brunnell, Alexander; Blood, Quintin; Goyal, Ravi; Longo, Lawrence D; Wilson, Sean M

    2016-06-01

    Giang, Michael, Demosthenes G. Papamatheakis, Dan Nguyen, Ricardo Paez, Carla Blum Johnston, Joon Kim, Alexander Brunnell, Quintin Blood, Ravi Goyal, Lawrence D. Longo, and Sean M. Wilson. Muscarinic receptor activation affects pulmonary artery contractility in sheep: the impact of maturation and chronic hypoxia on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function. High Alt Med Biol. 17:122-132, 2015.-Muscarinic receptor activation in the pulmonary vasculature can cause endothelium-dependent vasodilation and smooth muscle-dependent vasoconstriction. Chronic hypoxia (CH) can modify both of these responses. This study aimed to assess the combined influence of CH and maturation on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent muscarinic-induced vasoreactivity. This was accomplished by performing wire myography on endothelium-intact or endothelium-disrupted pulmonary arterial rings isolated from normoxic or CH fetal and adult sheep. In endothelium-intact arteries, vasodilation was evaluated using cumulative bradykinin doses in phenylephrine and carbachol precontracted pulmonary arterial segments; and vasoconstriction was examined using cumulative doses of carbachol following bradykinin predilation. Effects of nonselective (atropine) and selective M1 (pirenzepine), M2 (AFDX116), and M3 (4-DAMP and Dau5884) muscarinic receptor antagonists were assessed in disrupted arteries. In normoxic arteries, bradykinin relaxation was twofold greater in the adult compared to fetus, while carbachol contraction was fourfold greater. In adult arteries, CH increased bradykinin relaxation and carbachol contraction. In vessels with intact endothelium, maturation and CH augmented maximal response and efficacy for carbachol constriction and bradykinin relaxation. Approximately 50%-80% of adult normoxic and CH endothelium-disrupted arteries contracted to acetylcholine, while ∼50% of fetal normoxic and ∼10% of CH arteries responded. Atropine reduced carbachol

  17. Cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen in Bioxcell extender.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Iqbal, S; Ullah, N

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to compare commercially available extender Bioxcell with tris-citric egg yolk extender for post thaw quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. For comparison of post thaw semen quality: semen was collected from five adult Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of similar age group with artificial vagina (at 42 degrees C) for three weeks (replicates). Qualifying ejaculates having motility >60% from each buffalo bull were divided in two aliquots and diluted (at 37 degrees C having 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml) in tris-citric egg yolk or Bioxcell extender. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 degrees C in 2 hours, equilibrated for 4 hours and filled in 0.5 ml straws. Semen straws were kept over liquid nitrogen vapors (5 cm) for 10 minutes. Straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). After 24 hours of storage, semen straws were thawed at 37 degrees C for 30 seconds to assess sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, normal apical ridge, and abnormalities (head, mid piece, and tail). For comparison of in vivo fertility: semen from two buffalo bulls of known fertility was cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell as described earlier, and used for inseminations under field conditions. Post-thaw percentage of sperm motility (45.3 +/- 1.1, 45.0 +/- 1.4), viability (66.2 +/- 1.1, 64.4 +/- 1.3) plasma membrane integrity (60.4 +/- 1.2, 59.2 +/- 1.4) and normal apical ridge (82.9 +/- 0.5, 80.7 +/- 0.5) did not differ (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. Similarly, sperm abnormalities of head (1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.20 +/- 0.1), mid piece (0.67 +/- 0.1, 0.87 +/- 0.1) and tail (11.7 +/- 0.2, 11.6 +/- 0.3) remained similar (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. In vivo fertility rates of buffalo semen cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell also remained similar (44% vs. 47%). It is concluded that commercially available Bioxcell may be

  18. Spectral variability in hard X-rays and discovery of a 13,5 years period in bright quasar 3C273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R.

    SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN HARD X-RAYS AND DISCOVERY OF A 13.5 YEARS PERIOD IN BRIGHT QUASAR 3C273. R. K. Manchanda Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005, India. ravi@tifr.res.in/Fax:+91-22-2152110 Among the large variety of active galactic nuclei, 3C 273 is the nearest quasi stellar object. The source has been studied in details in various energy bands and shows a large variety of morphological features. In the X-ray energy range 2-20 keV, the spectrum follows a power law with a spectral index of -1.5, however, the observed value of the spectral index in the 20-120 keV band shows a large variation. In the case of old archival data, the derived spectral index has a value between 1.5 and 2.2 while, the recent data from OSSE experiment showed a flat spectrum with index 0.8. Thus, to fit the GeV fluxes from the source, a break in the spectrum around 1 MeV has been proposed. In this paper we report the balloon-borne hard X-ray observations of 3C273 made with LASE instrument on Nov. 20, 1998 as a part of our continuing programme of balloon borne hard X-ray observations in the 20-200 keV band using high sensitivity Large Area Scintillation counter Experiment. Our data clearly show a steep spectrum in the 20-200 keV with spectral index a = -2.26+ 0.07 and its extrapolation can fit the GeV data. The presence of steep power law index is in complete contrast to earlier observation from OSSE. From a comparison with the available archival data of the source we have discovered that 50 keV flux from the source, shows very strong modulation with a period of about 13.5 years and which is also present at 100 keV and in the spectral index to a lesser degree. We discuss the periodicity in terms of precessing source geometry.

  19. Sediment provenance, reworking and transport processes in the Indus River by U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, Anwar; Carter, Andrew; Clift, Peter D.; VanLaningham, Sam; Williams, Jeremy C.; Kumar, Ravindra

    2011-03-01

    We present new major and trace element data, together with U-Pb ages for zircon sand grains from the major tributaries of the Indus River, as well as the adjacent Ghaggar and Yamuna Rivers and from bedrocks within the Sutlej Valley, in order to constrain the origin of the sediment reaching the Arabian Sea. Zircon grains from the upper Indus are generally younger than 200 Ma and contrast with those from the eastern tributaries eroded from Himalayan sources. Grains younger than 15 Ma, which typify the Nanga Parbat Massif, comprise no more than 1-2% of the total, even in the upper Indus, showing that this terrain is not a major sediment producer, in contrast with the Namche Barwe Massif in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers in particular are very rich in Lesser Himalayan-derived 1500-2300 Ma zircons, while the Chenab is dominated by 750-1250 Ma zircons, mostly eroded from the Greater Himalaya. The upper Indus, Chenab and Ravi yield zircon populations broadly consistent with the outcrop areas, but the Jhelum and the Sutlej contain many more 1500-2300 Ma zircons than would be predicted from the area of Lesser Himalayan rock within their drainages. A significant population of grains younger than 200 Ma in the sands of the Thar Desert indicates preferential eolian, monsoon-related transport from the Indus lower reaches, rather than reworking from the local rivers. Modelling of observed zircon ages close to the delta contrasts with modern water discharge. The delta is rich in zircons dating 1500-2300 Ma, while discharge from modern rivers carrying such grains is low. The modest size of the Sutlej, the richest source of these materials in the modern system, raises the possibility that the compositionally similar Yamuna used to flow westwards in the recent past. Our data indicate a non-steady state river with zircon transport times of 5-10 k.y. inferred from earlier zircon dating of delta sands. The modern delta zircons image an earlier, likely

  20. WE-G-17A-05: Real-Time Catheter Localization Using An Active MR Tracker for Interstitial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W; Damato, A; Viswanathan, A; Cormack, R; Penzkofer, T; Schmidt, E; Pan, L; Gilson, W; Seethamraju, R

    2014-06-15

    radiation, with the potential to enable dosimetric guidance of catheter placement. We gratefully acknowledge support from the American Heart Association SDG 10SDG2610139, NIH 1R21CA158987-01A1, U41-RR019703, and R21 CA 167800, as well as a BWH Department of Radiation Oncology post-doctoral fellowship support. Li Pan and Wesley Gilson are employees of Siemens Corporation, Corporate Technology. Ravi Seethamraju is an employee of Siemens Healthcare.

  1. Astronomy Outreach for Large, Unique, and Unusual Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they

  2. Bringing Astronomy Directly to People Who Do Not Come to Star Parties, Science Museums, or Science Festivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    My successful programs have included telescope observations, hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations for: outdoor concerts or music festivals; the National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY), the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center (Mineola, NY); the Fresh Air Fund summer camps; a Halloween star party with costumed kids looking through telescopes; a Super Bowl Star Party; the World Science Festival (NYC); the Princeton University Science and Engineering Expo; the USA Science and Engineering Festival; and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. These outreach activities have reached thousands of people including many young girls. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage learning after these events. In 2010 I created Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, Chandra X-Ray Center, STScI, NASA, NOAO, NSF and the National Air and Space Museum. Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers who attended the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Tanglewood, or Ravinia music festivals or classical, folk, rock, pop, opera, or county-western concerts in local parks assisted by astronomy clubs. MAUS is an evening, nighttime, and cloudy weather traveling astronomy program combining solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; and hands-on activities before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma and the Chicago Symphony or Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet with Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith

  3. Music and Astronomy Under The Stars after 4 years and 50,000 People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers at the National Mall (co-sponsor OSTP); Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood music festivals; and classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts in parks assisted by astronomy clubs (55 events; 28parks). MAUS combines solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; live image projection; large posters/banners (From the Earth to the Universe and Visions of the Universe); videos; and hands-on activities (Night Sky Network; Harvard-Smithsonian CfA); imaging with a cell phone mount; and hand-outs(with info on science museums, astronomy clubs, and citizen science before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith, Tony Orlando, and Ronan Tynan performed at these concerts. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large enthusiastic crowds. Many young children participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. Lessons learned: plan early; create partnerships with parks and astronomy clubs; test equipment; have backup equipment; create professional displays; select the best location to obtain a largest number of participants; use media/www sites to promote the events; use many telescopes for multipletargets; project a live image or video; select equipment that is easy to use, store, set-up, and take down; use hands-on astronomy activities; position the displays for maximum visibility (they became teachable moments); and have educator hand-outs. While < 50% of the participants attended a science museum or took part in astronomy programs in the previous year (based on our survey), they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn

  4. How Create an Astronomy Outreach Program to Bring Astronomy to Thousands of People at Outdoor Concerts Astronomy Festivals, or Tourist Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    I describe how to create an astronomy program for thousands of people at outdoor concerts based on my $308,000 NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013), and the Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (AFNM, 10,000 people/yr).MAUS reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and at the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. AFNM was started in 2010 with co-sponsorship by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. MAUS and AFMN combine solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners; hands-on activities, imaging with a cell phone mount; citizen science activities; hand-outs; and teacher info packet. Representatives from scientific institutions participated. Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel made guest appearances.MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). MAUS is effective in promoting science education!Lessons learned: plan early; create partnerships with parks, concert organizers, and astronomy clubs; test equipment; have backup equipment; create professional displays; select the best location to obtain a largest number of participants; use social media/www sites to promote the events; use many telescopes for multiple targets; project a live image or video; select equipment that is easy to

  5. Microbial response to the effect of quantity and quality soil organic matter alteration after laboratory heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárcenas-Moreno, G.; Escalante, E.; Pérez-Bejarano, A.; Zavala, L. M.; Jordán, A.

    2012-04-01

    Fire-induced soil changes influence indirectly on soil microbial response, mainly due to pH increases and organic matter alterations. Partial carbon combustion can originate both, an increase in microbial activity due to dissolved organic carbon increases (Bárcenas-Moreno and Bååth, 2099, Bárcenas-Moreno et al., 2011), as well as limitation of microbial growth, either due to diminution of some fractions of organic matter (Fernández et al., 1997) or due to the formation of toxic compounds (Widden and Parkinson, 1975; Diaz-Raviña et al., 1996). The magnitude or direction of these changes is conditioned mainly by fire intensity and plant species, so forest with different vegetation could promote different quantity and quality alterations of soil organic matter after fire which leads to different soil microbial response. The objective of this work was to differentiate between the effect of reduction of carbon content and the presence of substances with inhibitory effect on soil microorganisms, inoculating microorganisms from an unaltered forest area on heated soil extract-based culture media. Soil collected from two different vegetation forest, pine (P) and oak (O) forests, with similar soil characteristics was sieved and heated at 450 °C in a muffle furnace. Heated and unheated soil was used to prepare culture media resulting in different treatments: pine unheated (PUH), pine heated at 450 °C (P450), Oak unheated (OUH) and oak heated at 450 °C (O450). To isolate inhibition of microbial proliferation and nutrient limitation, different nutritive supplements were added to the media, obtaining two levels of nutrient status for each media described above: no nutrients added (-) and nutrients added (+). Colony forming units (CFU) were enumerated as estimation of viable and cultivable microbial abundance and soil parameters characterization was also realized. Significant differences were found between CFU isolated using heated and unheated soil extract-based media

  6. Spanish Network on Effects of Wildfires on Soils. The view after 5 years of networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, Antonio; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    , 2010 and Tenerife, 2012 (the next meeting will be held in Barcelona in 2014). In addition, several contributions, courses and workshops have been celebrated in Spanish or international forums as the EGU General Assembly, the International Meeting of Fire Effects on Soil Properties (FESP2011 and forthcoming FESP2013) and the International Conference on Geomorphology have been also sponsored. Other activities include the publication of book series (two volumes have been published: Cerdá and Jordán, 2010; Cerdà and Mataix-Solera, 2009. The third one is currently in preparation), books of abstracts (Díaz-Raviña et al., 2010; Jordán et al., 2009), a series of technical reports (in preparation) and special issues in international journals (in, for example, Catena, Geoderma, Environmental Research or the International Journal of Wildland Fire). A four-monthly journal (FLAMMA; http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/flamma) is published regularly since 2010 with an increasing audience and issues scheduled until 2014. Also, the network has promoted voluntary environmental actions and educational activities. 4. MAIN CHALLENGES The next challenges are to continue promoting the interaction between scientists, decision makers, forest management staff and end-users and to establish new connections with European institutions and research groups. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Spanish Thematic Network "Effects of Wildfires on Soils" was supported between 2007 and 2009 by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (projects CGL2007-28764-E 2007-2008 and CGL2008-01632-E 2009). REFERENCES Cerdà, A. Jordán, A. (Eds.). 2010. Actualización de Métodos y Técnicas para el Estudio de los Suelos Afectados por Incendios Forestales [Updated methods and techniques for the study of soils affected by wildfires; in Spanish]. Cátedra de Divulgació de la Ciència, Universitat de València, FUEGORED 2010. Valencia. 521 pp. ISBN: 978-84-370-7887-8. Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (Eds). 2009. Efectos de los

  7. Relationships between petrophysical, sedimentological and microstructural properties of the Oolithes Blanche formation, a saline aquifer in the Paris Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casteleyn, Lisa; Robion, Philippe; Collin, Pierry-Yves; Menéndez, Beatriz; David, Christian; Fernandes, Nathalie; Desaubliaux, Guy; Dreux, Rémi; Rigollet, Christophe; Badinier, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    The Paris Basin appears to be appropriate in terms of CO2 capture and storage when considering both the amount of CO2 produced and the availability of depleted fields and deep saline aquifers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the petrophysical properties in relation with the sedimento-diagenetic environment of the "Oolithe Blanche" formation (Dogger), a deep saline aquifer considered as a potential candidate for CO2 storage. Regarding the scarcity of the core data in the Paris Basin, our investigation was firstly based on the study of field analogs in the south-east of the Paris Basin. The Oolithe Blanche Formation is composed of very shallow marine oolitic and bioclastic limestones, mainly grainstones. Three main sedimentological fabrics were defined: tide-dominated, wave-dominated (oolitic shoal) and prograding oolitic shoal fabrics. These three fabrics show subtle variations in composition (ooliths vs bioclasts) and in the distribution of the carbonate textures. The Oolithe Blanche Formation (Bathonian) is 70-80 meters thick and water salinity ranges from 1 to 4 g NaCl/l. 18 oriented blocks were collected on outcrops selected for the different sedimentological facies recognised in the formation: 9 blocks in the Bierry Lès Belles Fontaines quarry (Yonne), 5 blocks in the Ravières quarries (Côte d'Or) and 4 blocks in the Massangis quarry (Yonne). On each block, several petrophysical properties were measured on three perpendicular plugs: porosity, pore size distribution derived from mercury injection tests, permeability, capillary imbibition parameters, electrical conductivity and acoustic velocities. The sedimento-diagenetic fabric and microstructural analysis was defined by using optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with image analysis on thin sections. The porosity measured using the water saturation triple weight method ranges from 6% to 34%. The permeability values are low, between 0.1 mD and 9 mD. The data from the

  8. Hydrologic evaluation of salinity control and reclamation projects in the Indus Plain, Pakistan--A summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundorff, Maurice John; Carrigan, P.H., Jr.; Steele, T.D.; Randall, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    comparing shallow (0-200 feet) with deep (200-400 feet} tubewell development, it is concluded that long-term response of the water table is the same, whether many shallow wells of small capacity or fewer deeper wells of large capacity pump the same total volume of water in the same area. Moreover, it is concluded that there is no definite advantage for either type of pumping regime with respect to water quality. Utilization of the Punjab aquifer could be greatly enhanced by recharge of high-quality water diverted from the Chenab and Jhelum Rivers to the Ravi and Sutlej Rivers by way of the link and irrigation canals during periods of surplus flow. Recharge to the aquifer could also be improved by diversion of high-quality water from the Chenab and the Jhelum to natural nalas and other surface drainageways during periods of surplus flow. Such recharge would be of much better quality than water leaching downward from irrigated fields. Continued monitoring of the hydrologic system and research on problems engendered by reclamation are essential to the viability of the SCARP program and related water-resources development in the Indus River Basin.

  9. Channel geometry and discharge estimates for Dao and Niger Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand [1]. Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As [2] pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to [2] who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent [3]. Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer [4]. Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario [5]. Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow [5]. The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures

  10. Cold Atmosphere Plasma in Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2012-10-01

    velocity can have important implications in cancer treatment by localizing the affected area of the tissue and by decreasing metastasic development. In addition, cold plasma treatment has affected the cell cycle of cancer cells. In particular, cold plasma induces a 2-fold increase in cells at the G2/M-checkpoint in both papilloma and carcinoma cells at about 24 hours after treatment, while normal epithelial cells (WTK) did not show significant differences. It was shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with cold plasma treatment as a potential mechanism for the tumor ablation observed. [4pt] [1] Shashurin A., Shneider M.N., Dogariu A., Miles R.B. and Keidar M. Appl. Phys. Lett. (2010) 96, 171502.[0pt] [2] Shashurin A., Shneider M.N., Keidar M. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21 (2012) 034006.[0pt] [3]. M. Keidar, R. Walk, A. Shashurin, P. Srinivasan, A. Sandler, S. Dasgupta , R. Ravi, R. Guerrero-Preston, B. Trink, British Journal of Cancer, 105, 1295-1301, 2011

  11. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    the role of ash in fire affected areas. Acknowledgments The 'Litfire' Project (MIP-048/2011; 181 Pereira) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-firemanagement scenarios (POSTFIRE), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care (RECARE) funded by the European Commission (FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE) and European Research Project LEDDRA (243857) and COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Balfour, V.N., Determining wildfire ash saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity with laboratory and field methods. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.01.009 Barreiro, A., Fontúrbel, M.T., Lombao, A., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Carballas, T., Díaz-Raviña, M., Using phospholipid fatty acid and community level physiological profiling techniques to characterize soil microbial communities following an experimental fire and different stabilization treatments. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.011 Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. Burjachs, F., Expósito, I., Charcoal and pollen analysis: examples of Holocene fire dynamics in Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.006 Burns, K., Gabet, E., The effective viscosity of slurries laden with vegetative ash. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.008 Cerdà, A. Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256

  12. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    the role of ash in fire affected areas. Acknowledgments The 'Litfire' Project (MIP-048/2011; 181 Pereira) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-firemanagement scenarios (POSTFIRE), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care (RECARE) funded by the European Commission (FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE) and European Research Project LEDDRA (243857) and COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Balfour, V.N., Determining wildfire ash saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity with laboratory and field methods. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.01.009 Barreiro, A., Fontúrbel, M.T., Lombao, A., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Carballas, T., Díaz-Raviña, M., Using phospholipid fatty acid and community level physiological profiling techniques to characterize soil microbial communities following an experimental fire and different stabilization treatments. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.011 Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. Burjachs, F., Expósito, I., Charcoal and pollen analysis: examples of Holocene fire dynamics in Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.006 Burns, K., Gabet, E., The effective viscosity of slurries laden with vegetative ash. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.008 Cerdà, A. Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256

  13. Editorial: Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian; Gruebel, Gerhard; Mochrie, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Williams, H M Quiney, A G Peele and K A Nugent Imaging of complex density in silver nanocubes by coherent x-ray diffraction R Harder, M Liang, Y Sun, Y Xia and I K Robinson Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction N Vaxelaire, H Proudhon, S Labat, C Kirchlechner, J Keckes, V Jacques, S Ravy, S Forest and O Thomas Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens Martin Dierolf, Pierre Thibault, Andreas Menzel, Cameron M Kewish, Konstantins Jefimovs, Ilme Schlichting, Konstanze von König, Oliver Bunk and Franz Pfeiffer Dose requirements for resolving a given feature in an object by coherent x-ray diffraction imaging Andreas Schropp and Christian G Schroer FLASH: new opportunities for (time-resolved) coherent imaging of nanostructures R Treusch and J Feldhaus Structure of a single particle from scattering by many particles randomly oriented about an axis: toward structure solution without crystallization? D K Saldin, V L Shneerson, M R Howells, S Marchesini, H N Chapman, M Bogan, D Shapiro, R A Kirian, U Weierstall, K E Schmidt and J C H Spence Analysis of strain and stacking faults in single nanowires using Bragg coherent diffraction imaging V Favre-Nicolin, F Mastropietro, J Eymery, D Camacho, Y M Niquet, B M Borg, M E Messing, L-E Wernersson, R E Algra, E P A M Bakkers, T H Metzger, R Harder and I K Robinson Coherent science at the SwissFEL x-ray laser B D Patterson, R Abela, H-H Braun, U Flechsig, R Ganter, Y Kim, E Kirk, A Oppelt, M Pedrozzi, S Reiche, L Rivkin, Th Schmidt, B Schmitt, V N Strocov, S Tsujino and A F Wrulich Energy recovery linac (ERL) coherent hard x-ray sources Donald H Bilderback, Joel D Brock, Darren S Dale, Kenneth D Finkelstein, Mark A Pfeifer and Sol M Gruner Statistical and coherence properties of radiation from x-ray free-electron lasers E L Saldin, E A Schneidmiller and M V Yurkov Microscopic return point memory in Co

  14. Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    Carilli, this year's winners of the prestigious Max Planck Research Award of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the Max Planck Society in Germany. Menten and Carilli have collaborated on research in this area for years, and Kanekar has pioneered the OH molecular technique. Kanekar, Carilli and Menten worked with Glen Langston of NRAO, Graca Rocha of the Cavendish Laboratory in the UK, Francoise Combes of the Paris Observatory, Ravi Subrahmanyan of the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), John Stocke of the University of Colorado, Frank Briggs of the ATNF and the Australian National University, and Tommy Wiklind of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Sweden. The scientists reported their findings in the December 31 edition of the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

  15. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    . Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.01.006 Bodí, M.B., Muñoz-Santa, I., Armero, C., Doerr, S.H., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A. 2013. Spatial and temporal variations of water repellency and probability of its occurrence in calcareous Mediterranean rangeland soils affected by fires. Catena, 108, 14-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2012.04.002 Bodí, Merche B., Martin, Deborah A., Balfour, Victoria N., Santín, Cristina, Doerr, Stefan H., Pereira, Paulo, Cerdà, Artemi, Mataix-Solera, Jorge, Wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects, Earth Science Reviews (2014), doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.12.007 Cerdà, A. 1998. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A. y Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256- 263. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(02)00027-9 Dlapa, P., Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., &, Doerr, S.H. 2013. FT-IR spectroscopy reveals that ash water repellency is highly dependent on ash chemical composition. Catena, 108, 35-43. Doi:10.1016/j.catena.2012.02.011 Fernández, C., Vega, J. A., Jiménez, E., Vieira, D. C. S., Merino, A., Ferreiro, A., Fonturbel, T. 2012. Seeding and mulching + seeding effects on post-fire runoff, soil erosion and species diversity in Galicia (NW Spain). Land Degradation & Development, 23: 150- 156. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1064 Guénon, R., Vennetier, M., Dupuy, N., Roussos, S., Pailler, A., Gros, R. 2013. Trends in recovery of Mediterranean soil chemical properties and microbial activities after infrequent and frequent wildfires. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 115- 128. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1109 Martín, A., Díaz-Raviña, M., Carballas, T. 2012. Short- and medium-term evolution of soil

  16. Channel geometry and discharge estimates for Dao and Niger Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand [1]. Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As [2] pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to [2] who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent [3]. Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer [4]. Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario [5]. Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow [5]. The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures