Science.gov

Sample records for negative ion tpc

  1. Heavy ion reaction measurements with the EOS TPC (looking for central collisions with missing energy)

    SciTech Connect

    Wieman, H.H.; EOS Collaboration

    1994-05-01

    The EOS TPC was constructed for complete event measurement of heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac. We report here on the TPC design and some preliminary measurements of conserved event quantities such as total invariant mass, total momentum, total A and Z.

  2. Large solid angle tracking of Monte Carlo events of heavy ion collisions in TPC magnetic spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.P.V.

    1986-01-01

    The collision of 15 GeV/nucleon sulfur and carbon or oxygen ions with various fixed targets such as carbon, sulfur, and gold is to be observed in the MPS magnetic spectrometer with a time projection chamber (TPC) module. This TPC will be placed just downstream of the target and be able to track approximately 50% of all charged particles. The design and construction of the TPC is proceeding, and prototypes of the TPC readout system have been tested and production devices are to be delivered. A TPC track reconstruction program has been developed. Monte Carlo events have been generated and tracked. The track reconstruction program consists of three parts: a local pattern recognition which associates contiguous readouts on adjacent readout wires to form a single hit; a subroutine which positions the hits into slices in the vertical plane; and the track reconstruction section. (LEW)

  3. Negative-ion states

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

  4. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  5. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  6. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  7. Atomic negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  8. Atomic negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brage, T.

    1991-12-31

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  9. Polarized negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  10. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  11. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  12. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  13. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  14. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  15. Negative-ion source applications.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, J

    2008-02-01

    In this paper heavy negative-ion sources which we developed and their applications for materials science are reviewed. Heavy negative ions can be effectively produced by the ejection of a sputtered atom through the optimally cesiated surface of target with a low work function. Then, enough continuous negative-ion currents for materials-science applications can be obtained. We developed several kinds of sputter-type heavy negative-ion sources such as neutral- and ionized-alkaline metal bombardment-type heavy negative-ion source and rf-plasma sputter type. In the case where a negative ion is irradiated on a material surface, surface charging seldom takes place because incoming negative charge of the negative ion is well balanced with outgoing negative charge of the released secondary electron. In the negative-ion implantation into an insulator or insulated conductive material, high precision implantation processing with charge-up free properties can be achieved. Negative-ion implantation technique, therefore, can be applied to the following novel material processing systems: the surface modification of micrometer-sized powders, the nanoparticle formation in an insulator for the quantum devices, and the nerve cell growth manipulation by precise control of the biocompatibility of polymer surface. When a negative ion with low kinetic energy approaches the solid surface, the kinetic energy causes the interatomic bonding (kinetic bonding), and formation of a metastable material is promoted. Carbon films with high constituent of sp(3) bonding, therefore, can be formed by carbon negative-ion beam deposition. PMID:18315249

  16. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Christophorou, L G

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules area discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to "hot" molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules ("electron affinity"), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies. PMID:7428744

  17. A TPC detector for the study of high multiplicity heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, G.; Arthur, A.; Beiser, F.; Harnden, C.W.; Jones, R.; Kleinfelder, S.; Lee, K.; Matis, H.S.; Nakamura, M.; McParland, C.; Nesbitt, D.; Odyniec, G.; Olson, D.; Pugh, H.G.; Ritter, H.G.; Symons, T.J.M.; Weiman, H.; Wright, R. ); Rudge, A. )

    1990-04-01

    The design of the time projection chamber (TPC) detector with complete pad coverage is presented. The TPC will allow the measurements of high multiplicity ({approx}200 tracks) relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions initiated with the heaviest, most energetic projectiles available at the LBL BEVALAC accelerator facility. The front end electronics, composed of over 15,000 time sampling channels, will be located on the chamber. The highly integrated, custom designed, electronics and the VME based data acquisition system are described.

  18. A TPC (Time Projection Chamber) detector for the study of high multiplicity heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, G.; Arthur, A.; Bieser, F.; Harnden, C.W.; Jones, R.; Klienfelder, S.; Lee, K.; Matis, H.S.; Nakamura, M.; McParland, C.; Nesbitt, D.; Odyniec, G.; Olson, D.; Pugh, H.G.; Ritter, H.G.; Symons, T.J.M.; Wieman, H.; Wright, M.; Wright, R. ); Rudge, A. )

    1990-01-01

    The design of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector with complete pad coverage is presented. The TPC will allow the measurements of high multiplicity ({approx} 200 tracks) relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions initiated with the heaviest, most energetic projectiles available at the LBL BEVALAC accelerator facility. The front end electronics, composed of over 15,000 time sampling channels, will be located on the chamber. The highly integrated, custom designed, electronics and the VME based data acquisition system are described. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Hiskes, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  20. Instrumentation for negative ion detection.

    PubMed

    McKeown, M

    1980-06-01

    The instrumentation and practical circuitry required for the detection of negative ions exiting the mass analysis section of a mass spectrometer is examined. The potentials needed to bias the electron multiplier when detecting negative ions from a low ion-energy mass spectrometer, e.g., a quadrupole, are contrasted with the biasing requirements of a mass spectrometer having high ion-energies, e.g., a magnetic sector. Methods of decoupling the biasing high voltage on the signal lead of the multiplier in pulse counting measurements are discussed in detail so that normal, ground referenced input, pulse preamplifiers may be used. Easily understood, practical rules for determining the values of circuit components are given together with a simplified theory of transferring pulse signals from multiplier collector to pulse preamplifier. The changes in circuitry needed when attempting to detect ions by current measurement methods from an electron multiplier area detailed. The effects of leakage currents into athe input of the current preamplifier and their avoidance bay using triaxial shielding on vacuum feed-throughs are explained. The article suggests possible methods of decoupling the high voltage referenced input and the ground referenced output of a current measuring preamplifier. PMID:7428750

  1. Pad TPC

    SciTech Connect

    Hilke, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A new kind of TPC is described, in which no sense wires exist but gas amplification is obtained from a single parallel gap. A mesh separates the drift volume from the amplifying gap. The anode is segmented into circular rows of narrow pads for rphi measurement by centroid finding and into wide circular pads for dE/dx sampling. The expected advantages of this technique are: better, track angle independent rphi resolution (no need for wire pulse height corrections); better two-track separation if more electronic channels can be afforded; less dead space from frame structures; reduced positive feedback and slower chamber deterioration by deposit formation on the anode. Very tight construction tolerances are the principle drawback. The properties of the Pad TPC are discussed in view of large scale construction and first test results are presented.

  2. Development and tests of an anode readout TPC with high track separability for large solid angle relativistic ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Foley, K.J.; Eiseman, S.E.; Etkin, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Chan, C.; Kramer, M.A.; Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Kruk, J.W.; Miettinen, H.E.; Mutchler, G.S.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Phillips, G.C.; Roberts, J.B.

    1988-07-18

    We have developed, constructed and tested an anode readout TPC with high track separability which is suitable for large solid angle relativistic ion experiments. The readout via rows of short anode wires parallel to the beam has been found in tests to allow two-track separability of approx.2-3 mm. The efficiency of track reconstruction for events from a target, detected inside the MPS 5 KG magnet, is estimated to be >90% for events made by incident protons and pions. 15 GeV/c x A Si ion beams at a rate of approx.25 K per AGS pulse were permitted to course through the chamber and did not lead to any problems. When the gain was reduced to simulate the total output of a minimum ionizing particle, many Si ion tracks were also detected simultaneously with high efficiency. The resolution along the drift direction (parallel to the MPS magnetic field and perpendicular to the beam direction) was <1 mm and the resolution along the other direction /perpendicular/ to the beam direction was <1 mm also. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

    2004-06-16

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  4. Electric Potential Near The Extraction Region In Negative Ion Sources With Surface Produced Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fukano, A.; Hatayama, A.

    2011-09-26

    The potential distribution near the extraction region in negative ion sources for the plasma with the surface produced negative ions is studied analytically. The potential is derived analytically by using a plasma-sheath equation, where negative ions produced on the Plasma Grid (PG) surface are considered in addition to positive ions and electrons. A negative potential peak is formed in the sheath region near the PG surface for the case of strong surface production of negative ions or for low energy negative ions. Negative ions are reflected by the negative potential peak near the PG and returned to the PG surface. This reflection mechanism by the negative potential peak possibly becomes a factor in negative ion extraction. It is also indicated that the potential difference between the plasma region and the wall decreases by the surface produced negative ions. This also has the possibility to contribute to the negative ion extraction.

  5. Simulation Based on Ion Propulsion Rocket System with Using Negative ion - Negative Ion Pair Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyavel, C.

    2016-07-01

    Ion propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of ion-ion pair techniques because of their stimulated of low propellant, Design of Thrust range is 1N with low electric power and high efficiency. A Negative ion-Negative ion pair of ion propulsion rocket system is proposed in this work .Negative Ion Based Rocket system consists of three parts 1.ionization chamber 2. Repulsion force and ion accelerator 3. Exhaust of Nozzle. The Negative ions from electro negatively gas are produced by attachment of the gas ,such as chlorine with electron emitted from a Electron gun ionization chamber. The formulate of large stable negative ion is achievable in chlorine gas with respect to electron affinity (∆E). The electron affinity is a measure of the energy change when an electron is added to a neutral atom to form a negative ion. When a neutral chlorine atom in the gaseous form picks up an electron to form a Cl- ion, it releases energy of 349 kJ/mol or 3.6 ev/atom. It is said to have an electron affinity of -349 kJ/mol ,the negative sign indicating that energy is released during this process .The mechanisms of attachment involve the formation of intermediate states. In that reason for , the highly repulsive force created between the same negative ions. The distance between same negative ions is important for the evaluate of the rocket thrust and is also determined by the exhaust velocity of the propellant. The mass flow rate of propellant is achieved by the ratio of total mass of the propellant (Kg) needed for operation to time period(s). Accelerate the Negative ions to a high velocity in the thrust vector direction with a significantly intense Magnetic field and the exhaust of negative ions through Nozzle. The simulation of the ion propulsion system has been carried out by MATLAB. By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results, we have found that the proposed method is achieved of thrust value with estimated

  6. Ionization phenomena and sources of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion source technology has rapidly advanced during the past several years as a direct consequence of the discovery of Krohn that negative ion yields can be greatly enhanced by sputtering in the presence of Group IA elements. Today, most negative ion sources use this discovery directly or the principles implied to effect negative ion formation through surface ionization. As a consequence, the more traditional direct extraction plasma and charge exchange sources are being used less frequently. However, the charge exchange generation mechanism appears to be as universal, is very competitive in terms of efficiency and has the advantage in terms of metastable ion formation. In this review, an attempt has been made to briefly describe the principal processes involved in negative ion formation and sources which are representative of a particular principle. The reader is referred to the literature for specific details concerning the operational characteristics, emittances, brightnesses, species and intensity capabilities of particular sources. 100 references.

  7. Negative Ion Beam Extraction and Emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Andrew J. T.

    2007-08-10

    The use of magnetic fields to both aid the production of negative ions and suppress the co-extracted electrons causes the emittance and hence the divergence of the negative ion beam to increase significantly due to the plasma non-uniformity from jxB drift. This drift distorts the beam-plasma meniscus and experimental results of the beam emittance are presented, which show that non-uniformity causes the square of the emittance to be proportional to the 2/3 power of the extracted current density. This can cause the divergence of the negative ion beam to be significantly larger than its positive ion counterpart. By comparing results from positive and negative ion beam emittances from the same source, it is also possible to draw conclusions about their vulnerability to magnetic effects. Finally emittances of caesiated and un-caesiated negative ion beams are compared to show how the surface and volume modes of production interact.

  8. Negative ion spectrometry for detecting nitrated explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettger, H. G.; Yinon, J.

    1975-01-01

    Ionization procedure is modified to produce mainly negative ions by electron capture. Peaks of negative ions are monitored conventionally. Nitrated organic materials could be identified directly from sample sniff inlet stream by suitably modified mass spectrometer because of unique electronegativity which nitro group imparts to organic material.

  9. Effects of high beam rates on TPC's

    SciTech Connect

    Etkin, A.; Eiseman, S.E.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C. ); Lindenbaum, S.J. City Coll., New York, NY ); Hallman, T.J. ); Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Zhao, K.H.; Zhu, Y. (C

    1992-02-06

    The TPC's (Time Projection Chamber) used in E-810 at the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchroton) were exposed to silicon ion fluxes equivalent to more than 10{sup 7} minimum ionizing particles per second to measure the distortion of the electric field caused by positive ions in the drift region. Results of these tests are presented and the consequences for the TPC based experiment at RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) are discussed.

  10. Negative Halogen Ions for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Leung, K.N.; Westenskow, G.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, advances in hydrogen negative ion sources have extended the usable range of hydrogen isotope neutral beams to energies suitable for large magnetically confined fusion devices. Recently, drawing upon this experience, negative halogen ions have been proposed as an alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers in inertial confinement fusion, because electron accumulation would be prevented in negative ion beams, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. This paper reports the results of an experiment comparing the current density and beam emittance of Cl+ and Cl- extracted from substantially ion-ion plasmas with that of Ar+ extracted from an ordinary electron-ion plasma, all using the same source, extractor, and emittance scanner. At similar discharge conditions, the Cl- current was typically 85 – 90% of the positive chlorine current, with an e-/ Cl- ratio as low as seven without grid magnets. The Cl- was as much as 76% of the Ar+ current from a discharge with the same RF drive. The minimum normalized beam emittance and inferred ion temperatures of Cl+, Cl-, and Ar+ were all similar, so the current density and optical quality of Cl- appear as suitable for heavy ion fusion driver applications as a positive noble gas ion of similar mass. Since F, I, and Br should all behave similarly in an ion source, they should also be suitable as driver beams.

  11. Negative and positive cesium ion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, D. G.; Sutliff, D. E.; Chanin, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analyses have been performed on the positive and negative species from discharges in Cs, He-Cs, and He-H2-Cs mixtures. Sampling was conducted through the electrodes of normal glow discharges and from close-spaced heated-cathode conditions, which approximate a cesium thermionic converter. No negative Cs ions were observed for Cs pressures less than .01 torr. Identified species included Cs(+), Cs2(+), Cs(-), and what appeared to be multiply charged ions. Low-mass negative and positive ions attributed to H2 were observed when an He-H2 mixture was also present in the discharge region.

  12. An advanced negative hydrogen ion source.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, Alexey A; Dobrovolsky, Andrey N; Goretskii, Victor P

    2016-02-01

    The results of investigation of emission productivity of negative particles source with cesiated combined discharge are presented. A cylindrical beam of negative hydrogen ions with density about 2 A/cm(2) in low noise mode on source emission aperture is obtained. The total beam current values are up to 200 mA for negative hydrogen ions and up to 1.5 A for all negative particles with high divergence after source. The source has simple design and can produce stable discharge with low level of oscillation. PMID:26931996

  13. ALICE TPC commissioning results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. T.; Alice Tpc Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    ALICE is a dedicated heavy-ion experiment at CERN LHC aiming to study the properties of the quark-gluon plasma. A lead-lead collision might produce several 10 00 new particles. Detailed study of the event requires precise measurements of the particle tracks. A 90 m3 Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with more than 500 000 read-out pads was built as the main central barrel tracker. Collisions can be recorded at a rate of up to about 1 kHz. The front-end electronics, designed from FPGAs and custom ASICs, performs shaping, amplification, digitisation and digital filtering of the signals. The data are forwarded to DAQ via 216 1.25 Gb/s fibre-optical links. Configuration, control and monitoring is done by an embedded Linux system on the front-end electronics. Before production runs with beam, extensive commissioning using tracks from cosmics and from the laser system as well as clusters from radioactive krypton gas is needed. Extensive results have been obtained with respect to the performance of the TPC including its sub-systems.

  14. Transfer of small negative atmospheric ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Toshiro; Katayama, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    The transfer of small negative atmospheric ions in air and from air to water has been studied. The mean lifetime of ions was experimentally obtained from the concentration distribution of ions in a round free jet. It was about 30 s in relative humidity of 63%-75%, indicating that ions generated at one source in a room could not be homogeneously spread throughout the room by conventional convective flow of air. Rapid dissipation of the ions occurs during diffusion in stationary air. However, most of the ions that enter the mouth of a human body reach the lungs, because of the high convective velocity of breathing. The irradiation of ions onto water decreased the electric conductivity of the water. This finding suggests that the transfer of ions into water in a human body breaks the network of H2O molecules and enhances the formation of hydrogen bonds between a biopolymer and water.

  15. Hydrogen Plasmas for Negative Ion Production

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, D.; Gorse, C.; Capitelli, M.

    2005-05-16

    We have improved a zero-dimensional model, built to simulate the operating conditions in the excitation ('driver') region of a multicusp ion source optimized for negative ion production of great interest in thermonuclear applications. The new approach to couple heavy particle and electron kinetics is discussed.

  16. Negative Ions for Emerging Interdisciplinary Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Guharay, Samar K.

    2011-09-26

    In many applications related to ion beam-materials interactions negative ions are particularly desirable due to its merit to yield a very low surface charge-up voltage, {approx} a few volts, for both electrically isolated surfaces and insulators. Some important applications pertaining to ion beam-material interactions include surface analysis by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), voltage-contrast microscopy for semiconductor device inspection, materials processing, and ion beam lithography. These applications primarily require vacuum environments. On the other hand, a distinct area of activities constitutes formation of ions and ion transport in ambient environmental conditions, i.e., at atmospheric pressures. In this context, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an important analytical device that uses negative ions and operates at ambient conditions. IMS is widely used in both physical and biological sciences including monitoring environmental conditions, security screening and disease detection. This article highlights several critical issues related to the ionization sources and ion transport in IMS. Additionally, the critical issues related to ion sources, transport and focusing are discussed in the context of SIMS with sub-micrometer spatial resolution.

  17. Experimental evaluation of a negative ion source for a heavy ionfusion negative ion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leung, K.N.

    2005-01-18

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photodetached to neutrals [1,2,3]. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that is used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  18. Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T.

    2012-06-01

    The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code - ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)] - is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  19. Negative hydrogen ion yields at plasma grid surface in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2015-04-08

    Negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion yield from the plasma grid due to incident hydrogen ions and neutrals has been evaluated with the surface collision cascade model, ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) coupled to a negative surface ionization models. Dependence of negative ion fractions upon the velocity component normal to the surface largely affect the calculation results of the final energy and angular distributions of the H{sup −} ions. The influence is particularly large for H{sup −} ions desorbed from the surface due to less than several eV hydrogen particle implact. The present calculation predicts that H{sup −} ion yield can be maximized by setting the incident angle of hydrogen ions and neutrals to be 65 degree. The Cs thickness on the plasma grid should also affect the yields and mean energies of surface produced H{sup −} ions by back scattering and ion induced desorption processes.

  20. Generation of intense negative ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor); Aladzhadzhyan, Samuel H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An electron gun is used with a mirror electrostatic field to produce zero or near zero velocity electrons by forming a turning point in their trajectories. A gas capable of attaching zero or near zero velocity is introduced at this turning point, and negative ions are produced by the attachment or dissociative attachment process. Operation may be continuous or pulsed. Ions thus formed are extracted by a simple lens system and suitable biasing of grids.

  1. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-10-01

    Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

  2. The production and destruction of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Single photon absorption-single electron detachment from few-electron atomic negative ions was studied. A crossed beam apparatus is being used to perform energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopic measurements following photodetachment. Forward-directed electrons were collected and energy analyzed. The kinetic energies and yields of the photoelectrons were obtained by fitting the spectral peaks to Gaussian functions. Electron affinities, asymmetry parameters and cross sections are determined from these measurements. A ratio method in which the cross section for the ion of interest is measured relative to that of a reference ion was used. The study of the photodetachment of Li[sup [minus

  3. Absence of intracellular ion channels TPC1 and TPC2 leads to mature-onset obesity in male mice, due to impaired lipid availability for thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lear, Pamela V; González-Touceda, David; Porteiro Couto, Begoña; Viaño, Patricia; Guymer, Vanessa; Remzova, Elena; Tunn, Ruth; Chalasani, Annapurna; García-Caballero, Tomás; Hargreaves, Iain P; Tynan, Patricia W; Christian, Helen C; Nogueiras, Rubén; Parrington, John; Diéguez, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Intracellular calcium-permeable channels have been implicated in thermogenic function of murine brown and brite/beige adipocytes, respectively transient receptor potential melastin-8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid-4. Because the endo-lysosomal two-pore channels (TPCs) have also been ascribed with metabolic functionality, we studied the effect of simultaneously knocking out TPC1 and TPC2 on body composition and energy balance in male mice fed a chow diet. Compared with wild-type mice, TPC1 and TPC2 double knockout (Tpcn1/2(-/-)) animals had a higher respiratory quotient and became obese between 6 and 9 months of age. Although food intake was unaltered, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) maximal temperature and lean-mass adjusted oxygen consumption were lower in Tpcn1/2(-/-) than in wild type mice. Phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase expression, lipid density and expression of β-adrenergic receptors were also lower in Tpcn1/2(-/-) BAT, whereas mitochondrial respiratory chain function and uncoupling protein-1 expression remained intact. We conclude that Tpcn1/2(-/-) mice show mature-onset obesity due to reduced lipid availability and use, and a defect in β-adrenergic receptor signaling, leading to impaired thermogenic activity, in BAT. PMID:25545384

  4. Negative ion states of sulfur hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, E.C.M.; Shuie, L.; Desai D'sa, E.; Batten, C.F.; Wentworth, W.E.

    1988-04-15

    The reaction of SF/sub 6/ with thermal electrons has been studied in a Ni-63 atmospheric pressure ionization source for a quadrupole mass spectrometer (API/MS). The major ions that are observed are the parent negative ion (SF/sup -//sub 6/) and the parent minus a fluorine atom (SF/sup -//sub 5/). The ratio of (SF/sup -//sub 5/)/(SF/sup -//sub 6/) is highly temperature dependent above 500 K. The dissociation energy of the ground state negative ion into SF/sup -//sub 5/ and F has been determined to be 1.35 +- 0.1 eV. This gives values of 3.8 +- 0.15 eV for the electron affinity of SF/sub 5/ and 1.15 +- 0.15 eV for the electron affinity of SF/sub 6/. The negative ion states of sulfur hexafluoride have been described by ''pseudo-two-dimensional'' Morse potentials calculated using experimental data.

  5. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Minarello, A.; Sattin, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Laterza, B.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.; and others

    2015-04-08

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at −60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  6. New types of negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Borisko, V.N.; Lapshin, V.I.

    1995-12-31

    The plasma sources of negative ions which were elaborated in Kharkov State University are considered in this paper. These sources use the mechanism of dissociative stick of electrons with low energies to molecules of a working gas. The effective work of such sources needs a special system of low energy electrons formation. The effect of secondary electron emission used in negative ion sources is considered. The electrode material with a great coefficient of secondary electron emission allows one to obtain a few slow electrons per one bombarding electron. A plasma of Penning discharge is an emitter of initial elections. The electron electromagnetic trap in the secondary electron emission region allows one to enlarge volume of interaction of low energy electrons with the working gas molecules. The lifetime of slow electrons grows in this trap.

  7. Ground state of the hydrogen negative ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreshkov, Boyan

    2009-03-01

    Based on recently developed variational many-body Schr"odinger equation for electrons with Coulomb interactions [1], we provide first numerical results for the ground state electron structure of the hydrogen negative ion. It is shown that Fermi-Teller promotion effect together with non-adiabatic screening effects due to the Pauli's exclusion principle are responsible for the weak binding of the anion. The calculated ionization potential J=-1/2 - 2 λ+ <1/r12> of the hydrogen negative ion is compared with the experiment, where λ is the mean binding energy per one electron in the ground state.[0pt] [1] B. D. Obreshkov , Phys. Rev. A 78, 032503 (2008).

  8. EDITORIAL: Negative ion based neutral beam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsworth, R. S.

    2006-06-01

    It is widely recognized that neutral beam injection (NBI), i.e. the injection of high energy, high power, beams of H or D atoms, is a flexible and reliable system that has been the main heating system on a large variety of fusion devices, and NBI has been chosen as one of the three heating schemes of the International Tokomak Reactor (ITER). To date, all the NBI systems but two have been based on the neutralization (in a simple gas target) of positive hydrogen or deuterium ions accelerated to <100 keV/nucleon. Above that energy the neutralization of positive ions falls to unacceptably low values, and higher energy neutral beams have to be created by the neutralization of accelerated negative ions (in a simple gas target), as this remains high (approx60%) up to >1 MeV/nucleon. Unfortunately H- and D- are difficult to create, and the very characteristic that makes them attractive, the ease with which the electron is detached from the ion, means that it is difficult to create high concentrations or fluxes of them, and it is difficult to avoid substantial, collisional, losses in the extraction and acceleration processes. However, there has been impressive progress in negative ion sources and accelerators over the past decade, as demonstrated by the two pioneering, operational, multi-megawatt, negative ion based, NBI systems at LHD (180 keV, H0) and JT-60U (500 keV, D0), both in Japan. Nevertheless, the system proposed for ITER represents a substantial technological challenge as an increase is required in beam energy, to 1 MeV, D0, accelerated ion (D-) current, to 40 A, accelerated current density, 200 A m-2 of D-, and pulse length, to 1 h. At the Fourth IAEA Technical Meeting on Negative Ion Based Neutral Beam Injectors, hosted by the Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy, 9-11 May 2005, the status of the R&D aimed at the realization of the injectors for ITER was presented. Because of the importance of this development to the success of the ITER project, participants at that

  9. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  10. TPC magnet cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Burns, W.A.; Taylor, J.D.; Van Slyke, H.W.

    1980-03-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) magnet at LBL and its compensation solenoids are adiabatically stable superconducting solenoid magnets. The cryogenic system developed for the TPC magnet is discussed. This system uses forced two-phase tubular cooling with the two cryogens in the system. The liquid helium and liquid nitrogen are delivered through the cooled load by forced tubular flow. The only reservoirs of liquid cryogen exist in the control dewar (for liquid helium) and the conditioner dewar (for liquid nitrogen). The operation o these systems during virtually all phases of system operation are described. Photographs and diagrams of various system components are shown, and cryogenic system data are presented in the following sections: (1) heat leaks into the TPC coil package and the compensation solenoids; (2) heat leaks to various components of the TPC magnet cryogenics system besides the magnets and control dewar; (3) the control dewar and its relationship to the rest of the system; (4) the conditioner system and its role in cooling down the TPC magnet; (5) gas-cooled electrical leads and charging losses; and (6) a summation of the liquid helium and liquid nitrogen requirements for the TPC superconducting magnet system.

  11. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Stirling, William L.

    1986-01-01

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  12. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.

    1985-03-04

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  13. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectra of Halomethyl Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelhuber, Kristen M.; Wren, Scott W.; McCoy, Anne B.; Ervin, Kent M.; Lineberger, W. Carl

    2009-06-01

    Halomethyl anions undergo a significant geometry change upon electron photodetachment, resulting in multiple extended vibrational progressions in the photoelectron spectra. The normal mode analysis that successfully models photoelectron spectra when geometry changes are modest is unable to reproduce the experimental data using physically reasonable parameters. A three-dimensional anharmonic coupled-mode analysis was employed to accurately reproduce the observed vibrational structure. We present the 364 nm negative ion photoelectron spectra of the halomethyl anions CHX_2^- and CDX_2^- (X = Cl, Br, I) and report electron affinities, vibrational frequencies, and geometries.

  14. Cesium injection system for negative ion duoplasmatrons

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Maasaki; Prelec, Krsto; Sluyters, Theodorus J

    1978-01-01

    Longitudinally extending, foraminous cartridge means having a cylindrical side wall forming one flat, circular, tip end surface and an opposite end; an open-ended cavity, and uniformly spaced orifices for venting the cavity through the side wall in the annulus of a plasma ring for uniformly ejecting cesium for coating the flat, circular, surface. To this end, the cavity is filled with a cesium containing substance and attached to a heater in a hollow-discharge duoplasmatron. By coating the flat circular surface with a uniform monolayer of cesium and locating it in an electrical potential well at the end of a hollow-discharge, ion duoplasmatron source of an annular hydrogen plasma ring, the negative hydrogen production from the duoplasmatron is increased. The negative hydrogen is produced on the flat surface of the cartridge and extracted by the electrical potential well along a trajectory coaxial with the axis of the plasma ring.

  15. Negative ion extraction from hydrogen plasma bulk

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P.

    2013-10-15

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model has been developed and used to study low electronegative magnetized hydrogen plasma. A configuration characterized by four electrodes is used: the left electrode is biased at V{sub l} = −100 V, the right electrode is grounded, while the upper and lower transversal electrodes are biased at an intermediate voltage V{sub ud} between 0 and −100 V. A constant and homogeneous magnetic field is applied parallel to the lateral (left/right) electrodes. It is shown that in the magnetized case, the bulk plasma potential is close to the transversal electrodes bias inducing then a reversed sheath in front of the right electrode. The potential drop within the reversed sheath is controlled by the transversal electrodes bias allowing extraction of negative ions with a significant reduction of co-extracted electron current. Furthermore, introducing plasma electrodes, between the transversal electrodes and the right electrode, biased with a voltage just above the plasma bulk potential, increases the negative ion extracted current and decreases significantly the co-extracted electron current. The physical mechanism on basis of this phenomenon has been discussed.

  16. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  17. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1993-04-20

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system is described having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  18. Electron-less negative ion extraction from ion-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane

    2015-03-09

    This paper presents experimental results showing that continuous negative ion extraction, without co-extracted electrons, is possible from highly electronegative SF{sub 6} ion-ion plasma at low gas pressure (1 mTorr). The ratio between the negative ion and electron densities is more than 3000 in the vicinity of the two-grid extraction and acceleration system. The measurements are conducted by both magnetized and non-magnetized energy analyzers attached to the external grid. With these two analyzers, we show that the extracted negative ion flux is almost electron-free and has the same magnitude as the positive ion flux extracted and accelerated when the grids are biased oppositely. The results presented here can be used for validation of numerical and analytical models of ion extraction from ion-ion plasma.

  19. Front end electronics for the STAR TPC

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, S.R.; Barale, P.; Beuville, E.

    1995-10-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) is a large acceptance detector now being built to study high energy heavy ion collisions. It detects charged particles with a large time projection chamber. The 136,600 TPC pads are instrumented with waveform digitizers, implemented in custom low noise preamplifier/shaper and switched capacitor array/ADCs ICs. The system is highly integrated with all analog functions mounted on small cards that plug into the TPC. Detector mounted readout boards multiplex data from 1,152 channels onto a 1.5 Gbit/sec fiber optic link to the data acquisition system.

  20. Models for Cometary Comae Containing Negative Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions O(-), OH(-), C(-), CH(-) and CN(-) have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu [I]. Organic molecular anions such as C4H(-) and C6H(-) are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been fully explored. We present details of our new models for the chemistry of cometary comae that include atomic and molecular anions. We calculate the impact of these anions on the charge balance and examine their importance for cometary coma chemistry.

  1. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Prelec, Krsto

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  2. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  3. Production of negative hydrogen ions on metal grids

    SciTech Connect

    Oohara, W.; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, H.; Kawata, K.

    2015-03-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced on a nickel grid with positive-ion irradiation. In order to investigate the production mechanism, a copper grid without the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms and positive helium ions without negative ionization are used for comparison. Positive hydrogen ions reflected on the metal surface obtain two electrons from the surface and become negatively ionized. It is found that the production yield of negative ions by desorption ionization of chemisorbed hydrogen atoms seems to be small, and the production is a minor mechanism.

  4. Ion beam driven ion-acoustic waves in a plasma cylinder with negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Gahlot, Ajay

    2008-07-15

    An ion beam propagating through a magnetized plasma cylinder containing K{sup +} positive ions, electrons, and SF{sub 6}{sup -} negative ions drives electrostatic ion-acoustic (IA) waves to instability via Cerenkov interaction. Two electrostatic IA wave modes in presence of K{sup +} and SF{sub 6}{sup -} ions are studied. The phase velocity of the sound wave in presence of positive and negative ions increase with the relative density of negative ions. The unstable wave frequencies and the growth rate of both the modes in presence of positive and negative ions increase with the relative density of negative ions. The growth rate of both the unstable modes in presence of SF{sub 6}{sup -} and K{sup +} ions scales as the one-third power of the beam density. Numerical calculations of the phase velocity, growth rate, and mode frequencies have been carried out for the parameters of the experiment of Song et al. [Phys. Fluids B 3, 284 (1991)].

  5. Negative ions at Titan and Enceladus: recent results.

    PubMed

    Coates, Andrew J; Wellbrock, Anne; Lewis, Gethyn R; Jones, Geraint H; Young, David T; Crary, Frank J; Waite, J Hunter; Johnson, Robert E; Hille, Thomas W; Sittler, Edward C

    2010-01-01

    The detection of heavy negative ions (up to 13 800 amu) in Titan's ionosphere is one of the tantalizing new results from the Cassini mission. These heavy ions indicate for the first time the existence of heavy hydrocarbon and nitrile molecules in this primitive Earth-like atmosphere. These ions were suggested to be precursors of aerosols in Titan's atmosphere and may precipitate to the surface as tholins. We present the evidence for and the analysis of these heavy negative ions at Titan. In addition we examine the variation of the maximum mass of the Titan negative ions with altitude and latitude for the relevant encounters so far, and we discuss the implications for the negative ion formation process. We present data from a recent set of encounters where the latitude was varied between encounters, with other parameters fixed. Models are beginning to explain the low mass negative ions, but the formation process for the higher mass ions is still not understood. It is possible that the structures may be chains, rings or even fullerenes. Negative ions, mainly water clusters in this case, were seen during Cassini's recent close flybys of Enceladus. We present mass spectra from the Enceladus plume, showing water clusters and additional species. As at Titan, the negative ions indicate chemical complexities which were unknown before the Cassini encounters, and are indicative of a complex balance between neutrals and positively and negatively charged ions. PMID:21302552

  6. Cavity Ring-Down System for Density Measurement of Negative Hydrogen Ion on Negative Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Haruhisa; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Shibuya, Masayuki; Kisaki, Masashi; Ikeda, Katsunori; Osakabe, Masaki; Kaneko, Osamu; Asano, Eiji; Kondo, Tomoki; Sato, Mamoru; Komada, Seiji; Sekiguchi, Haruo; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Fantz, Ursel

    2011-09-26

    A Cavity Ring-Down (CRD) system was applied to measure the density of negative hydrogen ion (H{sup -}) in vicinity of extraction surface in the H{sup -} source for the development of neutral beam injector on Large Helical Device (LHD). The density measurement with sampling time of 50 ms was carried out. The measured density with the CRD system is relatively good agreement with the density evaluated from extracted beam-current with applying a similar relation of positive ion sources. In cesium seeded into ion-source plasma, the linearity between an arc power of the discharge and the measured density with the CRD system was observed. Additionally, the measured density was proportional to the extracted beam current. These characteristics indicate the CRD system worked well for H{sup -} density measurement in the region of H{sup -} and extraction.

  7. Threshold photodetachment spectroscopy of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kitsopoulos, T.N.

    1991-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development and application of high resolution threshold photodetachment spectroscopy of negative ions. Chapter I deals with the principles of our photodetachment technique, and in chapter II a detailed description of the apparatus is presented. The threshold photodetachment spectra of I{sup {minus}}, and SH{sup {minus}}, presented in the last sections of chapter II, indicated that a resolution of 3 cm{sup {minus}1} can be achieved using our technique. In chapter III the threshold photodetachment spectroscopy study of the transition state region of I + HI and I + Di reactions is discussed. Our technique probes the transition state region directly, and the results of our study are the first unambiguous observations of reactive resonances in a chemical reaction. Chapters IV, V and VI are concerned with the spectroscopy of small silicon and carbon clusters. From our spectra we were able to assign electronic state energies and vibrational frequencies for the low lying electronics states of Si{sub n} (n=2,3,4), C{sub 5} and their corresponding anions.

  8. Effect of fast positive ions incident on caesiated plasma grid of negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.

    2012-02-15

    This paper describes the effect on negative ion formation on a caesiated surface of the backscattering of positive ions approaching it with energy of a few tens of eV. For a positive ion energy of 45 eV, the surface produced negative ion current density due to these fast positive ions is 12 times larger than that due to thermal atoms, thus dominating the negative ion surface production instead of the thermal atoms, as considered until now.

  9. Negative-ion source applications (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper heavy negative-ion sources which we developed and their applications for materials science are reviewed. Heavy negative ions can be effectively produced by the ejection of a sputtered atom through the optimally cesiated surface of target with a low work function. Then, enough continuous negative-ion currents for materials-science applications can be obtained. We developed several kinds of sputter-type heavy negative-ion sources such as neutral- and ionized-alkaline metal bombardment-type heavy negative-ion source and rf-plasma sputter type. In the case where a negative ion is irradiated on a material surface, surface charging seldom takes place because incoming negative charge of the negative ion is well balanced with outgoing negative charge of the released secondary electron. In the negative-ion implantation into an insulator or insulated conductive material, high precision implantation processing with charge-up free properties can be achieved. Negative-ion implantation technique, therefore, can be applied to the following novel material processing systems: the surface modification of micrometer-sized powders, the nanoparticle formation in an insulator for the quantum devices, and the nerve cell growth manipulation by precise control of the biocompatibility of polymer surface. When a negative ion with low kinetic energy approaches the solid surface, the kinetic energy causes the interatomic bonding (kinetic bonding), and formation of a metastable material is promoted. Carbon films with high constituent of sp3 bonding, therefore, can be formed by carbon negative-ion beam deposition.

  10. Anisotropic negative-ion emission from cluster nanoplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, R.; Dalui, Malay; Trivikram, T. Madhu; Rishad, K. P. M.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2015-06-01

    Recent experiments have shown that the enhanced charge transfer by Rydberg excited clusters (ECTREC) reduces the highly charged ions very efficiently to neutral atoms and negative ions with little loss of momentum. Neutral-atom emission is anisotropic with respect to the laser polarization and the anisotropy is larger than that of the ion emission from Coulomb explosion of isolated single clusters. In such a scenario, it is expected that the negative-ion emission (like neutrals) should be anisotropic and have larger propensity along the laser polarization than in the perpendicular direction. Further, it may be anticipated that negative-ion emission is more anisotropic than neutral-atom emission if ECTREC is taken in to account. We demonstrate that the negative-ion emission is anisotropic. Contrary to expectations, the negative-ion emission anisotropy is not more than that of the neutral-atom emission. We show that this can be rationalized if low-energy (about 10 eV) electron collisional detachment of the negative ions is taken into account. Electron collisional detachment depletes the negative-ion yield preferentially along the laser polarization direction and reduces the negative-ion emission anisotropy.

  11. Atomic wall recombination and volume negative ion production

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Damiano; Gorse, Claudine; Capitelli, Mario

    2006-03-15

    The development of a numerical code for the modeling of negative ion sources requires the knowledge of a lot of processes occurring both in the gas phase and at the surface. The present work concerns the effect of surface processes (in particular atomic wall recombination) on the kinetics of production/destruction of negative ions. Especially in the pressure regimes useful to produce negative hydrogen ions for thermonuclear applications, wall processes can strongly affect the negative ion production acting on the vibrational distribution of molecular hydrogen.

  12. Electrode activation in cesium-free negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P.

    2010-02-15

    Features of emission electrode activation leading to enhancement of negative ion emission in cesium-free discharges are discussed. In some ion sources with cesium-free discharges, the emission of negative ions has been increased significantly by emission electrode activation using strong heating of the negative biased electrode by discharge plasma. A simple explanation of this enhancement is that it is due to an accumulation on the emission surface of the plasma electrode of impurities with low ionization potential that decreases in surface work function and increases the secondary emission of negative ions similar to ''Cesiation.'' The negative biasing of emission surface is important for accumulation and trapping the impurities on the emission surface. To effectively control the activation process it is important to directly detect the evolution of the work function and the impurity concentration during electrode activation with enhancement of negative ion emission.

  13. Investigations of negative and positive cesium ion species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanin, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    A direct test is provided of the hypothesis of negative ion creation at the anode or collector of a diode operating under conditions simulating a cesium thermionic converter. The experimental technique involves using direct ion sampling through the collector electrode with mass analysis using a quadrupole mass analyzer. Similar measurements are undertaken on positive ions extracted through the emitter electrode. Measurements were made on a variety of gases including pure cesium, helium-cesium mixtures and cesium-hydrogen as well as cesium-xenon mixtures. The gas additive was used primarily to aid in understanding the negative ion formation processes. Measurements were conducted using emitter (cathode) temperatures up to about 1000 F. The major negative ion identified through the collector was Cs(-) with minor negative ion peaks tentatively identified as H(-), H2(-), H3(-), He(-) and a mass 66. Positive ions detected were believed to be Cs(+), Cs2(+) and Cs3(+).

  14. Cesium in hydrogen negative-ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Belchenko, Yu.I.; Davydenko, V.I.

    2006-03-15

    Experimental data on the dynamics of cesium particles in the pulsed magnetron and Penning surface-plasma ion sources are presented. Cesium escape from the source emission apertures and the cesium ion current to discharge electrodes was measured. The low value of cesium flux from the source was detected. An intense cesium ion current to the cathode (up to 0.8 A/cm{sup 2}) was measured. The high value of cesium ion current to surface-plasma source cathode confirms the cesium circulation near the cathode.

  15. Observation of the negative ions: Ra[sup [minus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.; Nadeau, M.; Garwan, M.A.; Kilius, L.R.; Litherland, A.E. )

    1993-11-01

    The negative ions of the isotopes [sup 226]Ra, [sup 231]Pa, and [sup 244]Pu have been observed by means of accelerator mass spectrometry and their properties compared with the negative ions of Th and U. The electron affinities of all these elements have been estimated to be similar and greater than 50 meV.

  16. Spectroscopy of transient neutral species via negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, A.

    1991-12-01

    Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to study two types of transient neutral species: bound free radicals (NO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3}) and unstable neutral species ((IHI) and (FH{sub 2})). The negative ion time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer used for these experiments is described in detail.

  17. Spectroscopy of transient neutral species via negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, A.

    1991-12-01

    Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to study two types of transient neutral species: bound free radicals (NO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3}) and unstable neutral species ([IHI] and [FH{sub 2}]). The negative ion time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer used for these experiments is described in detail.

  18. Negative ions of nitroethane and its clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, S. T.; Bowen, K. H.; Sommerfeld, T.; Ard, S.; Mirsaleh-Kohan, N.; Steill, J. D.; Compton, R. N.

    2008-08-01

    Valence and dipole-bound negative ions of the nitroethane (NE) molecule and its clusters are studied using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), Rydberg electron transfer (RET) techniques, and ab initio methods. Valence adiabatic electron affinities (EAas) of NE, C2H5NO2, and its clusters, (C2H5NO2)n, n=2-5, are estimated using vibrationally unresolved PES to be 0.3+/-0.2 eV (n=1), 0.9+/-0.2 eV (n=2), 1.5+/-0.2 eV (n=3), 1.9+/-0.2 eV (n=4), and 2.1+/-0.2 eV (n=5). These energies were then used to determine stepwise anion-neutral solvation energies and compared with previous literature values. Vertical detachment energies for (C2H5NO2)n- were also measured to be 0.92+/-0.10 eV (n=1), 1.63+/-0.10 eV (n=2), 2.04+/-0.10 eV (n=3), and 2.3+/-0.1 eV (n=4). RET experiments show that Rydberg electrons can be attached to NE both as dipole-bound and valence bound anion states. The results are similar to those found for nitromethane (NM), where it was argued that the diffuse dipole state act as a ``doorway state'' to the more tightly bound valence anion. Using previous models for relating the maximum in the RET dependence of the Rydberg effective principle number nmax*, the dipole-bound electron affinity is predicted to be ~25 meV. However, a close examination of the RET cross section data for NE and a re-examination of such data for NM finds a much broader dependence on n* than is seen for RET in conventional dipole bound states and, more importantly, a pronounced l dependence is found in nmax* (nmax* increases with l). Ab initio calculations agree well with the experimental results apart from the vertical electron affinity value associated with the dipole bound state which is predicted to be 8 meV. Moreover, the calculations help to visualize the dramatic difference in the distributions of the excess electron for dipole-bound and valence states, and suggest that NE clusters form only anions where the excess electron localizes on a single monomer.

  19. Negative ion based neutral beam injector for JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Araki, M.; Hanada, M.; Inoue, T.; Kunieda, S.; Kuriyama, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Mizuno, M.; Ohara, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Watanabe, K.

    1992-10-01

    A 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beam injector is to be constructed in JT-60 Upgrade for the experiments of current drive and heating of heat density core plasmas. This is the first neutral beam injector in the world using negative ions as the primary ions. In the design, D- ion beams of 44 A, 500 keV are produced by two ion sources (22 A/each ion source) and neutralized in a long gas neutralizer. The total system efficiency is about 40%. The ion source is a cesium-seeded multicusp volume source having a three stage electrostatic accelerator. To reduce the stripping loss of D- ions in the accelerator, the ion source should be operated at a low pressure of 0.3 Pa with a current density of 13 mA/cm2. The first test of the full-size negative ion source is scheduled from middle of 1993.

  20. Negative ion source development for fusion application (invited).

    PubMed

    Takeiri, Yasuhiko

    2010-02-01

    Giant negative ion sources, producing high-current of several tens amps with high energy of several hundreds keV to 1 MeV, are required for a neutral beam injector (NBI) in a fusion device. The giant negative ion sources are cesium-seeded plasma sources, in which the negative ions are produced on the cesium-covered surface. Their characteristic features are discussed with the views of large-volume plasma production, large-area beam acceleration, and high-voltage dc holding. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor NBI employs a 1 MeV-40 A of deuterium negative ion source, and intensive development programs for the rf-driven source plasma production and the multistage electrostatic acceleration are in progress, including the long pulse operation for 3600 s. Present status of the development, as well as the achievements of the giant negative ion sources in the working injectors, is also summarized. PMID:20192420

  1. Application of anomalous diffusion in production of negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimbo, Kouichi

    1984-11-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion sources. When anomalous diffusion in the positive column was found by Hoh and Lehnert [Phys. Fluids 3, 600 (1960)], it was pointed out that the large particle loss produced by anomalous diffusion is compensated for by the larger particle production inside the plasma. In the present experiments anomalous diffusion was artificially encouraged by changing the radial electric field inside the reflex discharge. Apparent encouragement of negative ion current by the increase of the density fluctuation amplitude is observed. Twice as much negative ion current was obtained with the artificial encouragement as without. On the other hand, the larger extracted negative ion current was observed with a lower electron temperature, which is calculated from the anomalous diffusion coefficient derived from a simple nonlinear theory. This result is consistent with Wadehra's calculated results [Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 917 (1979)].

  2. Negative ion source development for fusion application (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Takeiri, Yasuhiko

    2010-02-15

    Giant negative ion sources, producing high-current of several tens amps with high energy of several hundreds keV to 1 MeV, are required for a neutral beam injector (NBI) in a fusion device. The giant negative ion sources are cesium-seeded plasma sources, in which the negative ions are produced on the cesium-covered surface. Their characteristic features are discussed with the views of large-volume plasma production, large-area beam acceleration, and high-voltage dc holding. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor NBI employs a 1 MeV-40 A of deuterium negative ion source, and intensive development programs for the rf-driven source plasma production and the multistage electrostatic acceleration are in progress, including the long pulse operation for 3600 s. Present status of the development, as well as the achievements of the giant negative ion sources in the working injectors, is also summarized.

  3. Application of anomalous diffusion in production of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1984-11-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion sources. When anomalous diffusion in the positive column was found by Hoh and Lehnert (Phys. Fluids 3, 600 (1960)), it was pointed out that the large particle loss produced by anomalous diffusion is compensated for by the larger particle production inside the plasma. In the present experiments anomalous diffusion was artificially encouraged by changing the radial electric field inside the reflex discharge. Apparent encouragement of negative ion current by the increase of the density fluctuation amplitude is observed. Twice as much negative ion current was obtained with the artificial encouragement as without. On the other hand, the larger extracted negative ion current was observed with a lower electron temperature, which is calculated from the anomalous diffusion coefficient derived from a simple nonlinear theory. This result is consistent with Wadehra's calculated results (Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 917 (1979)).

  4. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  5. Behavior of TPC's in a high particle flux environment

    SciTech Connect

    Etkin, A.; Eisemann, S.E.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C. ); Lindenbaum, S.J. City Coll., New York, NY ); Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Zhao, K.H.; Zhu, Y. ); Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L

    1991-12-13

    TPC's (Time Projection Chamber) used in E-810 at the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) were exposed to fluxes equivalent to more than 10{sup 7} minimum ionizing particles per second to find if such high fluxes cause gain changes or distortions of the electric field. Initial results of these and other tests are presented and the consequences for the RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) TPC-based experiments are discussed.

  6. Negative hydrogen ion source for TOKAMAK neutral beam injector (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Fujiwara, Y.; Kashiwagi, M.; Kitagawa, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Morishita, T.; Hanada, M.; Takayanagi, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2000-02-01

    Intense negative ion source producing multimegawatt hydrogen/deuterium negative ion beams has been developed for the neutral beam injector (NBI) in TOKAMAK thermonuclear fusion machines. Negative ions are produced in a cesium seeded multi-cusp plasma generator via volume and surface processes, and accelerated with a multistage electrostatic accelerator. The negative ion source for JT-60U has produced 18.5 A/360 keV (6.7 MW) H- and 14.3 A/380 keV (5.4 MW) D- ion beams at average current densities of 11 mA/cm2 (H-) and 8.5 mA/cm2 (D-). A high energy negative ion source has been developed for the next generation TOKAMAK such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The source has demonstrated to accelerate negative ions up to 1 MeV, the energy required for ITER. Higher negative ion current density of more than 20 mA/cm2 was obtained in the ITER concept sources. It was confirmed that the consumption rate of cesium is small enough to operate the source for a half year in ITER-NBI without maintenance.

  7. Study of the negative ion extraction mechanism from a double-ion plasma in negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, I.; Miyamoto, K.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a 2D3V-PIC model of the extraction region, aiming to clarify the basic extraction mechanism of H- ions from the double-ion plasma in H- negative ion sources. The result shows the same tendency of the H- ion density nH- as that observed in the experiments, i.e.,nH- in the upstream region away from the plasma meniscus (H- emitting surface) has been reduced by applying the extraction voltage. At the same time, relatively slow temporal oscillation of the electric potential compared with the electron plasma frequency has been observed in the extraction region. Results of the systematic study using a 1D3V-PIC model with the uniform magnetic field confirm the result that the electrostatic oscillation is identified to be lower hybrid wave. The effect of this oscillation on the H- transport will be studied in the future.

  8. Experiments on Negative Ion Plasmas in a Q-Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Tao

    Three experiments on negative ion plasmas in the University of Iowa Q-machine IQ-2 are described in this thesis. In the Lower-Hybrid wave experiment, the low-frequency (ion-ion mode) waves are excited, waves propagate at a right angle to the magnetic field. The wave frequencies increase as the negative ion concentration increases, in agreement with the dispersion relation obtained from fluid theory. In the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability experiment, the negative ions have a generally destabilizing effect on the instability driven by a relative drift between ions in adjacent layers. However, for large negative ion concentrations, enhanced radial diffusion associated with the Kelvin-Helmholtz oscillations tends to have a stabilizing effect due to a "mixing" of ion flows in adjacent layer. In the diffusion experiment, the K^ {+} ions experience a displacement across the magnetic filed on the order of their gyroradius upon collision with a negative ion, leading to an enhancement in the rate of cross-field diffusion over that expected in the ordinary K^{+}/electron plasma.

  9. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A. L.; Peng, S. X.; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H+ beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H- beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H- ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  10. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A L; Peng, S X; Ren, H T; Zhang, T; Zhang, J F; Xu, Y; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H(+) beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H(-) beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H(-) ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results. PMID:26932087

  11. Time evolution of negative ion profile in a large cesiated negative ion source applicable to fusion reactors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Hanada, M; Kojima, A; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Hiratsuka, J; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; R Grisham, L; Tsumori, K; Kisaki, M

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physics of the cesium (Cs) recycling in the large Cs-seeded negative ion sources relevant to ITER and JT-60SA with ion extraction area of 45-60 cm × 110-120 cm, the time evolution of the negative ion profile was precisely measured in JT-60SA where the ion extraction area is longitudinally segmented into 5. The Cs was seeded from the oven at 180 °C to the ion source. After 1 g of Cs input, surface production of the negative ions appeared only in the central segment where a Cs nozzle was located. Up to 2 g of Cs, the negative ion profile was longitudinally expanded over full ion extraction area. The measured time evolution of the negative ion profile has the similar tendency of distribution of the Cs atoms that is calculated. From the results, it is suggested that Cs atom distribution is correlated with the formation of the negative ion profile. PMID:26932026

  12. Time evolution of negative ion profile in a large cesiated negative ion source applicable to fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; R. Grisham, L.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physics of the cesium (Cs) recycling in the large Cs-seeded negative ion sources relevant to ITER and JT-60SA with ion extraction area of 45-60 cm × 110-120 cm, the time evolution of the negative ion profile was precisely measured in JT-60SA where the ion extraction area is longitudinally segmented into 5. The Cs was seeded from the oven at 180 °C to the ion source. After 1 g of Cs input, surface production of the negative ions appeared only in the central segment where a Cs nozzle was located. Up to 2 g of Cs, the negative ion profile was longitudinally expanded over full ion extraction area. The measured time evolution of the negative ion profile has the similar tendency of distribution of the Cs atoms that is calculated. From the results, it is suggested that Cs atom distribution is correlated with the formation of the negative ion profile.

  13. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative ions

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1984-02-13

    A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ ions that are

  14. Development of negative ion source at the IPP Nagoya University

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, T; Okamura, H; Kaneko, O; Oka, Y

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary experiments have been made to develop a high current H/sup -/ ion surface for a neutral beam injector. Initially, an H/sup -/ ion source of the magnetron type has been investigated in order to determine its physical and technical problems. A second plasma source for negative ion production is under construction, which is based on controlled plasma production. This paper describes preliminary experimental results of the magnetron ion source and some features in the new type of plasma source.

  15. Negative Ions Enhance Survival of Membrane Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liko, Idlir; Hopper, Jonathan T. S.; Allison, Timothy M.; Benesch, Justin L. P.; Robinson, Carol V.

    2016-06-01

    Membrane protein complexes are commonly introduced to the mass spectrometer solubilized in detergent micelles. The collisional activation used to remove the detergent, however, often causes protein unfolding and dissociation. As in the case for soluble proteins, electrospray in the positive ion mode is most commonly used for the study of membrane proteins. Here we show several distinct advantages of employing the negative ion mode. Negative polarity can yield lower average charge states for membrane proteins solubilized in saccharide detergents, with enhanced peak resolution and reduced adduct formation. Most importantly, we demonstrate that negative ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI) minimizes subunit dissociation in the gas phase, allowing access to biologically relevant oligomeric states. Together, these properties mean that intact membrane protein ions can be generated in a greater range of solubilizing detergents. The formation of negative ions, therefore, greatly expands the possibilities of using mass spectrometry on this intractable class of protein.

  16. Negative ion-driven associated particle neutron generator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K. N.; Morse, D. H.; Donovan, D. C.; Chames, J. M.; Whaley, J. A.; Buchenauer, D. A.; Chen, A. X.; Hausladen, P. A.; Liang, F.

    2015-10-09

    We describe an associated particle neutron generator that employs a negative ion source to produce high neutron flux from a small source size. Furthermore, negative ions produced in an rf-driven plasma source are extracted through a small aperture to form a beam which bombards a positively biased, high voltage target electrode. Electrons co-extracted with the negative ions are removed by a permanent magnet electron filter. The use of negative ions enables high neutron output (100% atomic ion beam), high quality imaging (small neutron source size), and reliable operation (no high voltage breakdowns). Finally, the neutron generator can operate in eithermore » pulsed or continuous-wave (cw) mode and has been demonstrated to produce 106 D-D n/s (equivalent to similar to 108 D-T n/s) from a 1 mm-diameter neutron source size to facilitate high fidelity associated particle imaging.« less

  17. Negative ion-driven associated particle neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K. N.; Morse, D. H.; Donovan, D. C.; Chames, J. M.; Whaley, J. A.; Buchenauer, D. A.; Chen, A. X.; Hausladen, P. A.; Liang, F.

    2015-10-09

    We describe an associated particle neutron generator that employs a negative ion source to produce high neutron flux from a small source size. Furthermore, negative ions produced in an rf-driven plasma source are extracted through a small aperture to form a beam which bombards a positively biased, high voltage target electrode. Electrons co-extracted with the negative ions are removed by a permanent magnet electron filter. The use of negative ions enables high neutron output (100% atomic ion beam), high quality imaging (small neutron source size), and reliable operation (no high voltage breakdowns). Finally, the neutron generator can operate in either pulsed or continuous-wave (cw) mode and has been demonstrated to produce 106 D-D n/s (equivalent to similar to 108 D-T n/s) from a 1 mm-diameter neutron source size to facilitate high fidelity associated particle imaging.

  18. Negative Ions Enhance Survival of Membrane Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Liko, Idlir; Hopper, Jonathan T S; Allison, Timothy M; Benesch, Justin L P; Robinson, Carol V

    2016-06-01

    Membrane protein complexes are commonly introduced to the mass spectrometer solubilized in detergent micelles. The collisional activation used to remove the detergent, however, often causes protein unfolding and dissociation. As in the case for soluble proteins, electrospray in the positive ion mode is most commonly used for the study of membrane proteins. Here we show several distinct advantages of employing the negative ion mode. Negative polarity can yield lower average charge states for membrane proteins solubilized in saccharide detergents, with enhanced peak resolution and reduced adduct formation. Most importantly, we demonstrate that negative ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI) minimizes subunit dissociation in the gas phase, allowing access to biologically relevant oligomeric states. Together, these properties mean that intact membrane protein ions can be generated in a greater range of solubilizing detergents. The formation of negative ions, therefore, greatly expands the possibilities of using mass spectrometry on this intractable class of protein. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27106602

  19. Negative ion-driven associated particle neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K. N.; Morse, D. H.; Donovan, D. C.; Chames, J. M.; Whaley, J. A.; Buchenauer, D. A.; Chen, A. X.; Hausladen, P. A.; Liang, F.

    2016-01-01

    An associated particle neutron generator is described that employs a negative ion source to produce high neutron flux from a small source size. Negative ions produced in an rf-driven plasma source are extracted through a small aperture to form a beam which bombards a positively biased, high voltage target electrode. Electrons co-extracted with the negative ions are removed by a permanent magnet electron filter. The use of negative ions enables high neutron output (100% atomic ion beam), high quality imaging (small neutron source size), and reliable operation (no high voltage breakdowns). The neutron generator can operate in either pulsed or continuous-wave (cw) mode and has been demonstrated to produce 106 D-D n/s (equivalent to ~108 D-T n/s) from a 1 mm-diameter neutron source size to facilitate high fidelity associated particle imaging.

  20. Negative Ions Enhance Survival of Membrane Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liko, Idlir; Hopper, Jonathan T. S.; Allison, Timothy M.; Benesch, Justin L. P.; Robinson, Carol V.

    2016-04-01

    Membrane protein complexes are commonly introduced to the mass spectrometer solubilized in detergent micelles. The collisional activation used to remove the detergent, however, often causes protein unfolding and dissociation. As in the case for soluble proteins, electrospray in the positive ion mode is most commonly used for the study of membrane proteins. Here we show several distinct advantages of employing the negative ion mode. Negative polarity can yield lower average charge states for membrane proteins solubilized in saccharide detergents, with enhanced peak resolution and reduced adduct formation. Most importantly, we demonstrate that negative ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI) minimizes subunit dissociation in the gas phase, allowing access to biologically relevant oligomeric states. Together, these properties mean that intact membrane protein ions can be generated in a greater range of solubilizing detergents. The formation of negative ions, therefore, greatly expands the possibilities of using mass spectrometry on this intractable class of protein.

  1. A negative ion source test facility.

    PubMed

    Melanson, S; Dehnel, M; Potkins, D; Theroux, J; Hollinger, C; Martin, J; Philpott, C; Stewart, T; Jackle, P; Williams, P; Brown, S; Jones, T; Coad, B; Withington, S

    2016-02-01

    Progress is being made in the development of an Ion Source Test Facility (ISTF) by D-Pace Inc. in collaboration with Buckley Systems Ltd. in Auckland, NZ. The first phase of the ISTF is to be commissioned in October 2015 with the second phase being commissioned in March 2016. The facility will primarily be used for the development and the commercialization of ion sources. It will also be used to characterize and further develop various D-Pace Inc. beam diagnostic devices. PMID:26931991

  2. Evolution of an expanding dusty plasma with negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kechouri, B.; Djebli, M.

    2006-11-15

    The dusty plasma radial expansion is studied in the case of a spherical as well as cylindrical configuration. The effect of negative ions is introduced through the dust charge fluctuation equation. Electrons, positive, and negative ions are modelled by the Boltzmann distribution function and the dust grains by fluid equations. Using the self-similar theory, the nonlinear set of differential equations is solved numerically. It is found that the dust charge presents a critical value which depends on the negative ion species type. It is also found that the dust expansion ends earlier and the lighter particle densities profiles depend on the dust initial charge.

  3. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-06-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA(42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less than 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed.

  4. Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Moehs, D.P.; Peters, J.; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

    2005-08-01

    A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

  5. Recent negative ion source activity at JYFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laitinen, M.; Sajavaara, T.; Koivisto, H.; Jokinen, A.; Dehnel, M. P.

    2013-02-01

    A filament-powered multicusp ion source for production of H- has been developed for the Jyväskylä Pelletron accelerator for use in ion beam lithography and particle induced X-ray emission applications. The source can be considered conventional with the exception of the filter field being created with an electric magnet for continuous adjustability. A permanent magnet dipoleantidipole electron dump is integrated in the puller electrode. The source provides 50 μA H- beam at 10 keV energy with 0.019 mm mrad 95 % normalized rms emittance through a 2 mm aperture. Lower emittance is achievable by changing the plasma electrode insert to a smaller aperture one if application requires. A new commercial MCC30/15 cyclotron has been installed at the Jyväskylä accelerator laboratory providing 30MeV H+ and 15Mev D+ for use in nuclear physics experiments and applications. The ion source delivered with the cyclotron is a a filament-powered multicusp source capable of about 130 h continuous operation at 1 mA H- output between filament changes. The ion source is located in the cyclotron vault and therefore a significant waiting time for the vault cooldown is required before filament change is possible. This kind of operation is not acceptable as 350 h and longer experiments are expected. Therefore a project for developing a CW 13.56 MHz RF ion source has been initiated. A planar RF antenna replacing the filament back plate of the existing TRIUMF-type ion source has been used in the first tests with 240 μA of H- and 21 mA of electrons measured at 1.5 kW of RF power. Tests with higher RF power levels were prevented by electron beam induced sparking. A new plasma chamber has been built and a new extraction is being designed for the RF ion source. The extraction code IBSimu has recently gone through a major update on how smooth electrode surfaces are implemented in the Poisson solvers. This has made it possible to implement a fast multigrid solver with low memory consumption. Also

  6. Negative ions in the coma of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaizy, P.; Reme, H.; Sauvaud, J. A.; D'Uston, C.; Lin, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    The detection of negatively charged cometary ions in the inner coma of Comet Halley is reported. These ions are observed in three broad mass peaks at 7-19, 22-65, and 85-110 AMU, with densities reaching greater than about 1/cu cm, about 0.05/cu cm, and about 0.04/cu cm, respectively, at a distance of about 2300 km from the nucleus. The ion species thought to be present include O(-), OH(-), C(-), CH(-), CN(-) and heavier complex CHO molecular ions. As negative ions are easily destroyed by solar radiation at about 1 AU, an efficient production mechanism, so far unidentified, is required to account for the observed densities. The detection of negative ions in the coma near 1 AU implies that negative ions should also be present in similar neutral gas and dust environment farther away from the sun. If the negative-ion densities are large enough, they could play an important part in physical processes such as radiative transfer or charge exchange.

  7. Negative impurity ions in liquid H4e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancilotto, F.; Barranco, M.; Pi, M.

    2009-11-01

    We present theoretical results, based on zero-temperature density-functional theory, for the formation and properties of a negative impurity ion in bulk liquid H4e . We first consider Ca which, due to its very low electron affinity, does not easily form a negative ion in vacuum. We show that a neutral Ca atom in bulk liquid H4e can easily capture a nearby electron bubble leading to the exothermic formation of a Ca- ion trapped inside a spherical cavity of ˜15Å radius. The Ca negative ion in bulk H4e turns out to be a metastable state, the lowest-energy configuration being represented instead by a weakly bound Ca- ion floating over the nearly unperturbed free surface of liquid H4e . We have computed the threshold negative pressure at which the trapped Ca- ion bubble explodes and we discuss our results in light of recent experimental measurements. We have also considered the possible ion formation in the case of a Ne atom, i.e., an atomic impurity that does not form a negative ion in vacuum. Despite the long-range attraction between the electron bubble and the Ne atom due to polarization forces, in the minimum-energy configuration the electron bubble and the Ne atom rather than merge together remain spatially separated in bulk liquid H4e , forming a weakly bound state that has no analog in vacuum.

  8. Excitation of lower hybrid waves by a gyrating ion beam in a negative ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Jyotsna; Jain, V. K.; Sharma, Suresh C.; Gahlot, Ajay

    2013-03-15

    A gyrating ion beam propagating through a magnetized plasma cylinder containing K{sup +} positive ions, electrons, and SF{sub 6}{sup -} negative ions drives electrostatic lower hybrid waves to instability via Cyclotron interaction. Numerical calculations of the unstable mode frequencies and growth rates of both the unstable positive ion and negative ion modes have been carried out for the existing negative ion plasma parameters. It is found that the unstable mode frequencies of both the modes increase, with the relative density of negative ions. In addition, the growth rates of both the unstable modes also increases with relative density of negative ions. Moreover, the growth rates of both the unstable modes scale as the one-third power of the beam density. The frequencies of both the unstable modes also increase with the magnetic fields. The real part of the unstable wave frequency increases as almost the square root of the beam energy.

  9. Cesium vapor thermionic converter anomalies arising from negative ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasor, Ned S.

    2016-08-01

    Compelling experimental evidence is given that a longstanding limit encountered on cesium vapor thermionic energy converter performance improvement and other anomalies arise from thermionic emission of cesium negative ions. It is shown that the energy that characterizes thermionic emission of cesium negative ions is 1.38 eV and, understandably, is not the electron affinity 0.47 eV determined for the photodetachment threshold of the cesium negative ion. The experimental evidence includes measurements of collector work functions and volt-ampere characteristics in quasi-vacuum cesium vapor thermionic diodes, along with reinterpretation of the classic Taylor-Langmuir S-curve data on electron emission in cesium vapor. The quantitative effects of negative ion emission on performance in the ignited, unignited, and quasi-vacuum modes of cesium vapor thermionic converter operation are estimated.

  10. New versions of sources for nuclear polarized negative ion production

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.G.; Shabalin, A.L. ); Wojtsekhowski, B.B. ); Belov, A.S.; Kuzik, V.E.; Plohinsky, Y.V.; Yakushev, V.P. )

    1992-10-05

    Several variants of sources for nuclear polarized negative ion production have been proposed and tested. The simple adaptation of a high intensity polarized proton source for nuclear polarized H[sup [minus

  11. Neutralization of a fast negative-ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.; Mowat, J.R.; Stearns, J.W.; Gohil, P.; Pyle, R.V.

    1986-01-01

    Neutralization of a fast negative-ion beam, primarily H/sup -/, is discussed in terms of competing one- and two-electron detachment processes in a variety of media: gas (vapor), plasma, liquid sheet, solid foil.

  12. Measurements of the negative ion density in reactive gas plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Masako; Ueda, Yoko; Kawai, Yoshinobu; Ishii, Nobuo

    1999-11-01

    The reactive gas plasmas, such as C_4F_8, SiH4 and SF6 gas plasmas, have been widely used in plasma etching or CVD. The radicals and ions species in these plasmas have been reported in a lot of study. However, the negative ion density has not been measured quantitatively, since the conventional Langmuir probe cannot be used due to film depositions on its surface. In this study, the negative ion density in the reactive gas plasmas was measured with a heated Langmuir probe and an 8-mm microwave interferometer as a function of gas flow rate and radial position. Furthermore, the following equation was suggested to estimate the negative ion density only from the probe measurements: fracI_+(X )I_+(Ar) = [ fracI_-(X)I_-(Ar) + fracN_-(X )N_+(Ar)√fracT_e(X)T_e(Ar) ] √fracM_+(Ar)M_+(X), where N- denotes negative ion density and the other characteristics represent the conventional ones. The positive ion mass M+ should be assumed properly. It was confirmed that this equation provides the negative ion density both in the magnetized plasmas, such as ECR plasmas, and non-magnetized plasmas.

  13. Field-Reversal Source for Negative Halogen Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Orient, O. J.; Aladzhadzhyan, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    Large zero-energy electron-attachment cross sections result in intense ion beams. Concept for producing negative halogen ions takes advantage of large cross sections at zero kinetic energy for dissociative attachment of electrons to such halogen-containing gases as SF6, CFCI3, and CCI4.

  14. The simplest three body system: Positronium negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, Yasuyuki; Michishio, Koji; Terabe, Hiroki

    2014-03-05

    The positron, an anti-particle of the electron, can bind with an electron to form positronium. Another electron can also bind to the positronium weakly to form a positronium negative ion. In this paper, recent progresses in the experimental studies on this ion are reviewed.

  15. Negative thermal ion mass spectrometry of osmium, rhenium, and iridium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creaser, R. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for obtaining, in a conventional surface ionization mass spectrometer, intense ion beams of negatively charged oxides of Os, Re, and Ir by thermal ionization. It is shown that the principal ion species of these ions are OsO3(-), ReO4(-), and IrO2(-), respectively. For Re-187/Os-187 studies, this technique offers the advantage of isotopic analyses without prior chemical separation of Re from Os.

  16. Future prospects of the TPC idea

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, D.R.

    1980-07-01

    General aspects affecting TPC size, readout plane characteristics and operation in the LEP environment are presented, with the general conclusion that modest improvements relative to PEP-4 can be realized in several areas. The problem of positive ion reduction is discussed according to two qualitatively new operating modes, asynchronous and synchronous gating. Either gating mode appears to offer a means to eliminate almost completely the ion return flux. Some speculative ideas involving 3-component gas mixtures, low-mass components and parallel plane geometry are presented as future possibilities.

  17. The Gap-Tpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, B.; Anastasio, A.; Boiano, A.; Catalanotti, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Di Meo, P.; Longo, G.; Vanzanella, A.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Fiorillo, G.

    2016-02-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency.

  18. Negative Dielectric Constant Material Based on Ion Conducting Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterials or artificial negative index materials (NIMs) have generated great attention due to their unique and exotic electromagnetic properties. One exemplary negative dielectric constant material, which is an essential key for creating the NIMs, was developed by doping ions into a polymer, a protonated poly(benzimidazole) (PBI). The doped PBI showed a negative dielectric constant at megahertz (MHz) frequencies due to its reduced plasma frequency and an induction effect. The magnitude of the negative dielectric constant and the resonance frequency were tunable by doping concentration. The highly doped PBI showed larger absolute magnitude of negative dielectric constant at just above its resonance frequency than the less doped PBI.

  19. PULSED POSITIVE ION NEGATIVE ION CHEMICAL IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRIC APPLICATONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The simultaneous acquisition of both positive ion and negative ion data under chemical ionization mass spectrometric conditions can aid in the confirmation of assignments made by electron impact gas chromatography mass spectrometry or electron capture gas chromatography. Pulsed p...

  20. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of negative ions

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    1987-01-01

    A process for selectively neutralizing H.sup.- ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H.sup.- ions that are intersected by a beam of laser light. Photodetachment is effected in a uniform magnetic field that is provided around the beam of H.sup.- ions to spin polarize the H.sup.- ions and produce first and second populations or groups of ions, having their respective proton spin aligned either with the magnetic field or opposite to it. The intersecting beam of laser light is directed to selectively neutralize a majority of the ions in only one population, or given spin polarized group of H.sup.- ions, without neutralizing the ions in the other group thereby forming a population of H.sup.- ions each of which has its proton spin down, and a second group or population of H.sup.o atoms having proton spin up. Finally, the two groups of ions are separated from each other by magnetically bending the group of H.sup.- ions away from the group of neutralized ions, thereby to form an intense H.sup.- ion beam that is directed toward a predetermined objective.

  1. Formation of negative ions in grazing scattering from insulator surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Auth, C.; Mertens, A.; Winter, H.; Borisov, A.G.; Sidis, V.

    1998-01-01

    Substantial fractions of fast atoms or ions are converted to negative ions during grazing scattering from a clean and flat monocrystalline surface of alkali-metal halides. We interpret the experimental data by a model of local electron capture from the halogen sites of the crystal in binary-type collision events. Due to the band gap of the insulator, the probability for subsequent electron loss is low, resulting in large fractions of negative ions that survive from the collisional formation. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Theoretical Study of Negative Molecular Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Jack

    2011-05-01

    Although this review provides references to tabulations of molecular electron affinities, primarily it focuses on explaining why theory plays an important role in understanding the behavior of anions, explaining the challenges that anions pose to theory, making connections between the theories used to compute electron affinities and the potentials (e.g., charge-dipole, charge-quadrupole, valence attraction and exchange repulsion, dispersion, and polarization) that govern the electron-molecule interaction, and discussing how species with negative electron affinities may possess metastable anion states and how such states should be treated. In addition to references to published literature, many links are given to websites of practicing theoretical chemists who study molecular anions; these links (which appear in boldface) offer the reader a broad avenue to access much more information about molecular anions than can be covered in a review or even through conventional literature sources.

  3. Study of the negative ion extraction mechanism from a double-ion plasma in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, I.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.

    2015-04-08

    We have developed a 2D3V-PIC model of the extraction region, aiming to clarify the basic extraction mechanism of H{sup −} ions from the double-ion plasma in H{sup −} negative ion sources. The result shows the same tendency of the H{sup −} ion density n{sub H{sup −}} as that observed in the experiments, i.e.,n{sub H{sup −}} in the upstream region away from the plasma meniscus (H{sup −} emitting surface) has been reduced by applying the extraction voltage. At the same time, relatively slow temporal oscillation of the electric potential compared with the electron plasma frequency has been observed in the extraction region. Results of the systematic study using a 1D3V-PIC model with the uniform magnetic field confirm the result that the electrostatic oscillation is identified to be lower hybrid wave. The effect of this oscillation on the H{sup −} transport will be studied in the future.

  4. Evaluation of negative ion distribution changes by image processing diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, K. Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Distributions of hydrogen Balmer-α (H{sub α}) intensity and its reduction behavior close to a plasma grid (PG) surface have been observed by a spectrally selective imaging system in an arc discharge type negative hydrogen ion source in National Institute for Fusion Science. H{sub α} reduction indicates a reduction of negative hydrogen ions because the mutual neutralization process between H{sup +} and H{sup −} ions causes the dominant excitation process for H{sub α} emission in the rich H{sup −} condition such as in ionic plasma. We observed a significant change in H{sub α} reduction distribution due to change in the bias voltage, which is used to suppress the electron influx. Small H{sub α} reduction in higher bias is likely because the production of negative ions is suppressed by the potential difference between the plasma and PG surface.

  5. A future, intense source of negative hydrogen ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siefken, Hugh; Stein, Charles

    1994-01-01

    By directly heating lithium hydride in a vacuum, up to 18 micro-A/sq cm of negative hydrogen has been obtained from the crystal lattice. The amount of ion current extracted and analyzed is closely related to the temperature of the sample and to the rate at which the temperature is changed. The ion current appears to be emission limited and saturates with extraction voltage. For a fixed extraction voltage, the ion current could be maximized by placing a grid between the sample surface and the extraction electrode. Electrons accompanying the negative ions were removed by a magnetic trap. A Wein velocity filter was designed and built to provide definitive mass analysis of the extracted ion species. This technique when applied to other alkali hydrides may produce even higher intensity beams possessing low values of emittance.

  6. Signal Propagation in Collisional Plasma with Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect

    I. Kaganovich; S.V. Berezhnoi; C.B. Shin

    2000-12-18

    The transport of charged species in collisional currentless plasmas is traditionally thought of as a diffusion-like process. In this paper, it is demonstrated that, in contrast to two-component plasma, containing electrons and positive ions, the transport of additional ions in multi-species plasmas is not governed by diffusion, rather described by nonlinear convection. As a particular example, plasmas with the presence of negative ions have been studied. The velocity of a small perturbation of negative ions was found analytically and validated by numerical simulation. As a result of nonlinear convection, initially smooth ion density profiles break and form strongly inhomogeneous shock-like fronts. These fronts are different from collisionless shocks and shocks in fully ionized plasma. The structure of the fronts has been found analytically and numerically.

  7. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-01-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA (42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less then 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed. When anomalous diffusion in the positive column was found by Lehnert and Hoh (1960), it was pointed out that the large particle loss produced by anomalous diffusion is compensated by the large particle production inside the plasma, i.e., the plasma tries to maintain itself. The self-sustaining property of the plasma is applied to the reflex-type negative ion source. Anomalous diffusion was artificially encouraged by changing the radial electric field inside the reflex discharge. The apparent encouragement of negative ion diffusion by the increase of density fluctuation amplitude is observed. Twice as much negative ion current was obtained with the artificial encouragement as without. It is found from the quasilinear theory that the inwardly directed radial electric field destabilizes the plasma in the reflex-type ion source. The nonlinear theory based on Yoshikawa method (1962) is extended, and the anomalous diffusion coefficient in a weakly ionized plasma is obtained. The electrostatic sheath trap, which increases the confinement of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source, is also discussed.

  8. Gating of the two-pore cation channel AtTPC1 in the plant vacuole is based on a single voltage-sensing domain.

    PubMed

    Jaślan, D; Mueller, T D; Becker, D; Schultz, J; Cuin, T A; Marten, I; Dreyer, I; Schönknecht, G; Hedrich, R

    2016-09-01

    The two-pore cation channel TPC1 operates as a dimeric channel in animal and plant endomembranes. Each subunit consists of two homologous Shaker-like halves, with 12 transmembrane domains in total (S1-S6, S7-S12). In plants, TPC1 channels reside in the vacuolar membrane, and upon voltage stimulation, give rise to the well-known slow-activating SV currents. Here, we combined bioinformatics, structure modelling, site-directed mutagenesis, and in planta patch clamp studies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of voltage-dependent channel gating in TPC1 in its native plant background. Structure-function analysis of the Arabidopsis TPC1 channel in planta confirmed that helix S10 operates as the major voltage-sensing site, with Glu450 and Glu478 identified as possible ion-pair partners for voltage-sensing Arg537. The contribution of helix S4 to voltage sensing was found to be negligible. Several conserved negative residues on the luminal site contribute to calcium binding, stabilizing the closed channel. During evolution of plant TPC1s from two separate Shaker-like domains, the voltage-sensing function in the N-terminal Shaker-unit (S1-S4) vanished. PMID:27270880

  9. Issues in the understanding of negative ion extraction for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeuf, J. P.; Fubiani, G.; Garrigues, L.

    2016-08-01

    A number of recent papers have been devoted to the modeling of negative ion extraction using particle simulations but the published results are not entirely satisfactory and not fully consistent with experiments. Issues raised by the simulations concern the saturation of the negative ion current emitted from the caesiated plasma grid surface, its distribution along the surface, the shape of the meniscus formed around each grid aperture, the distribution and depth of the potential in the virtual cathode, and the profile of the extracted beamlet. These are important issues since they have direct impact on the properties of the extracted negative ion beam (intensity, brightness, aberration). In this paper we first summarize recently published model results that are unexpected and counter-intuitive since they predict that negative ions are extracted from regions of the grid that are directly exposed to the large extraction voltage (i.e. as in vacuum and without the need for a neutralizing background plasma). We then illustrate, with results from two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision simulations, some regimes of negative ion extraction that are more consistent with the expected physics.

  10. Maximizing Ion Current by Space Charge Neutralization using Negative Ions and Dust Particles

    SciTech Connect

    A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2005-01-25

    Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space charge neutralization are introduced. Space charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster.

  11. Maximizing ion current by space-charge neutralization using negative ions and dust particles

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, A.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-05-15

    Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space-charge neutralization are introduced. Space-charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space-charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster.

  12. Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.

    2012-02-15

    Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H{sup -}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, O{sub 2}{sup -}, C{sup -}, C{sub 60}{sup -} negative ions and H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +} positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several {mu}A and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained.

  13. Maximizing ion current by space-charge neutralization using negative ions and dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2005-05-01

    Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space-charge neutralization are introduced. Space-charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space-charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster.

  14. Effect of Coulomb collision on the negative ion extraction mechanism in negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, I.; Miyamoto, K.; Nishioka, S.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.; Abe, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2016-02-01

    To improve the H- ion beam optics, it is necessary to understand the energy relaxation process of surface produced H- ions in the extraction region of Cs seeded H- ion sources. Coulomb collisions of charged particles have been introduced to the 2D3V-PIC (two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle-in-cell) model for the H- extraction by using the binary collision model. Due to Coulomb collision, the lower energy part of the ion energy distribution function of H- ions has been greatly increased. The mean kinetic energy of the surface produced H- ions has been reduced to 0.65 eV from 1.5 eV. It has been suggested that the beam optics of the extracted H- ion beam is strongly affected by the energy relaxation process due to Coulomb collision.

  15. Effect of Coulomb collision on the negative ion extraction mechanism in negative ion sources.

    PubMed

    Goto, I; Miyamoto, K; Nishioka, S; Mattei, S; Lettry, J; Abe, S; Hatayama, A

    2016-02-01

    To improve the H(-) ion beam optics, it is necessary to understand the energy relaxation process of surface produced H(-) ions in the extraction region of Cs seeded H(-) ion sources. Coulomb collisions of charged particles have been introduced to the 2D3V-PIC (two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle-in-cell) model for the H(-) extraction by using the binary collision model. Due to Coulomb collision, the lower energy part of the ion energy distribution function of H(-) ions has been greatly increased. The mean kinetic energy of the surface produced H(-) ions has been reduced to 0.65 eV from 1.5 eV. It has been suggested that the beam optics of the extracted H(-) ion beam is strongly affected by the energy relaxation process due to Coulomb collision. PMID:26932090

  16. Characteristics of ion acoustic solitary waves in a negative ion plasma with superthermal electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Rouhani, M. R.; Ebne Abbasi, Z.

    2012-11-15

    The behavior of ion acoustic solitons in a plasma including positive and negative ions and kappa distributed electrons is studied, using both small amplitude and arbitrary amplitude approaches. The existence regions of compressive and rarefactive solitons will depend on negative to positive ion density ratio ({nu}) and kappa parameter as well as positive to negative ion mass ratio (Q). The numerical analysis of Sagdeev potential shows that for a chosen plasma with fixed Q, the existence regime of compressive solitons is decreased (increased) by increasing density ratio (kappa parameter), while for rarefactive solitons these conditions are quite opposite. Additionally, the possibility of propagation of both compressive and rarefactive subsonic solitons is investigated. It is found that by increasing negative ions, the existence domains of subsonic solitons are decreased, so that in excess of negative ions subsonic solitons will not propagate even at the presence of superthermal electrons. Indeed, there is a critical negative ion density ratio for all values of kappa, above that only supersonic solitons are observed. Furthermore, in addition to the previous results based on Cairns-distributed electrons [R. A. Cairns et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2709 (1995)], which predicted that both compressive and rarefactive solitons can coexist simultaneously, we have also found the regions of {nu} and {kappa} in which either positive or negative potentials are permitted (i.e., not together). This research will be helpful in understanding the properties of space and laboratory plasmas containing negative ions with energetic electrons.

  17. Design of a versatile multiaperture negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Cavenago, M; Kulevoy, T; Petrenko, S; Antoni, V; Bigi, M; Gazza, E; Recchia, M; Serianni, G; Veltri, P

    2010-02-01

    Negative ion sources are a key component of the neutral beam injector to be installed in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. At present research and development activities address several important issues related to beam extraction, optics, and optimization. Together with the design of real size devices and the accumulation of atomic cross section databases, a relatively small negative ion source [130 mA of H(-) at 60 kV, named Negative Ion Optimization phase 1 (NIO1)] is under construction at Consorzio RFX to contribute to benchmark numerical simulation tools and to test components, such as emittance scanners, beam dumps, and cesium ovens. NIO1 design, magnet configuration, and rf coupling simulations are described. PMID:20192383

  18. Efficient cesiation in RF driven surface plasma negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O.

    2016-02-01

    Experiments on hydrogen negative ions production in the large radio-frequency negative ion source with cesium seed are described. The system of directed cesium deposition to the plasma grid periphery was used. The small cesium seed (˜0.5 G) provides an enhanced H- production during a 2 month long experimental cycle. The gradual increase of negative ion yield during the long-term source runs was observed after cesium addition to the source. The degraded H- production was recorded after air filling to the source or after the cesium washing away from the driver and plasma chamber walls. The following source conditioning by beam shots produces the gradual recovery of H- yield to the high value. The effect of H- yield recovery after cesium coverage passivation by air fill was studied. The concept of cesium coverage replenishment and of H- yield recovery due to sputtering of cesium from the deteriorated layers is discussed.

  19. Efficient cesiation in RF driven surface plasma negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Belchenko, Yu; Ivanov, A; Konstantinov, S; Sanin, A; Sotnikov, O

    2016-02-01

    Experiments on hydrogen negative ions production in the large radio-frequency negative ion source with cesium seed are described. The system of directed cesium deposition to the plasma grid periphery was used. The small cesium seed (∼0.5 G) provides an enhanced H(-) production during a 2 month long experimental cycle. The gradual increase of negative ion yield during the long-term source runs was observed after cesium addition to the source. The degraded H(-) production was recorded after air filling to the source or after the cesium washing away from the driver and plasma chamber walls. The following source conditioning by beam shots produces the gradual recovery of H(-) yield to the high value. The effect of H(-) yield recovery after cesium coverage passivation by air fill was studied. The concept of cesium coverage replenishment and of H(-) yield recovery due to sputtering of cesium from the deteriorated layers is discussed. PMID:26932015

  20. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  1. Mutual electron detachment in collisions between negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, R.; Melchert, F.; Krüdener, S.; Meuser, S.; Petri, S.; Benner, M.; Salzborn, E.

    1992-10-01

    Employing the crossed-beams technique, we have measured absolute cross sections for mutual electron detachment in collisions between two negative ions H-+X-→H0+X0+2e-(X-:B-, H-,Cu-,O-,Au-,F-) in the CM-energy range between a few keV and about 100 keV. The results obtained appear not to obey a simple scaling with negative ion binding energies. For H-+H--collisions also the single detachment reaction H-+H-→H0+... has been investigated.

  2. Bimolecular reaction dynamics from photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bradforth, S.E.

    1992-11-01

    The transition state region of a neutral bimolecular reaction may be experimentally investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy of an appropriate negative ion. The photoelectron spectrum provides information on the spectroscopy and dynamics of the short lived transition state and may be used to develop model potential energy surfaces that are semi-quantitative in this important region. The principles of bound [yields] bound negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy are illustrated by way of an example: a full analysis of the photoelectron bands of CN[sup [minus

  3. Solitons in a relativistic plasma with negative ions--

    SciTech Connect

    Das, G.C. ); Karmakar, B. ); Ibohanbi Singh, KH. )

    1990-02-01

    The interaction of the nonlinearity and the dispersiveness causing the solitary waves are studied in a relativistic plasma with negative ions through the derivation of a nonlinear partial differential equation known as the Korteweg-Devries (K-DV) equation. The negative ions play a salient feature on the existence and behavior of the solitons and could be of interest in laboratory plasmas. First, the observations are made in a nonisothermal plasma, and later the reduction to the nonisothermality of the plasma shows entirely different characteristics as compared to the solitons in the isothermal plasmas. A comparison with the various solutions has been emphasized.

  4. Imploding and exploding shocks in negative ion degenerate plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N.

    2011-08-15

    Imploding and exploding shocks are studied in nonplanar geometries for negative ion degenerate plasma. Deformed Korteweg de Vries Burgers (DKdVB) equation is derived by using reductive perturbation method. Two level finite difference scheme is used for numerical analysis of DKdVB. It is observed that compressive and rarefactive shocks are observed depending on the value of quantum parameter. The effects of temperature, kinematic viscosity, mass ratio of negative to positive ions and quantum parameter on diverging and converging shocks are presented.

  5. Negative hydrogen ion beam extraction from an AC heated cathode driven Bernas-type ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-01

    A plasma grid structure was installed to a Bernas-type ion source used for ion implantation equipment. A negative hydrogen (H-) ion beam was extracted by an AC driven ion source by adjusting the bias to the plasma grid. The extracted electron current was reduced by positively biasing the plasma grid, while an optimum plasma grid bias voltage for negative ion beam extraction was found to be positive 3 V with respect to the arc chamber. Source operations with AC cathode heating show extraction characteristics almost identical to that with DC cathode heating, except a minute increase in H- current at higher frequency of cathode heating current.

  6. Modified calutron negative ion source operation and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Kelley, G.G.; Kim, J.; Tsai, C.C.; Whealton, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Negative ion generation has advanced rapidly by employing the concept of surface ionization. The modified calutron has proven to be a successful tool to explore these concepts and provide solutions to the many problems which must be evaluated. Many features of the SITEX (Surface Ionization with Transverse Extraction) ion source are ideally suited to this exploration. Some of these features are; a ribbon-like plasma, electron control by transverse magnetic fields and the ability to separate the Cs oven parameters from those which control the positive ion generation.

  7. High-sensitivity detection of negative ions in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrumb, J. L.; Arnold, F.

    1981-11-01

    High-sensitivity, in situ measurements of the negative ion composition of the stratosphere are presented which have led to the detection of previously unobserved ion species. The balloon-borne measurements were made by an instrument consisting of a cryogenically pumped quadrupole mass filter with single ion detection by a channel electron multiplier operating in a pulse-saturated ion counting mode, with an ion detection limit of about 1 ion/cu cm. Mass spectra taken during a daytime flight over southwestern France at a float altitude of 34 km reveal the presence of ions in the families NO3(-)(HNO3)(a) and HSO4(-)(H2SO4)(b)(HNO3)(c) at fractional ion count rates between 0.9 and 6.5%. Minor ions detected at count rates between 0.05 and 0.4% include those containing NO3(-) and HSO4(-) cores, as well as CN(-) and CO3 and CO3(-).H2O. Ligands identified for these molecules include HNO3 and H2SO4 and, tentatively, H2O, HCl, HNO2 and HOCl. An atmospheric nitric acid concentration of 7 x 10 to the 7th/cu cm is estimated on the basis of the NO3(-) and HNO3 species data.

  8. Significant enhancement of negative secondary ion yields by cluster ion bombardment combined with cesium flooding.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Patrick; Angerer, Tina B; Sämfors, Sanna; Blenkinsopp, Paul; Fletcher, John S; Wirtz, Tom

    2015-10-01

    In secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the beneficial effect of cesium implantation or flooding on the enhancement of negative secondary ion yields has been investigated in detail for various semiconductor and metal samples. All results have been obtained for monatomic ion bombardment. Recent progress in SIMS is based to a large extent on the development and use of cluster primary ions. In this work we show that the enhancement of negative secondary ions induced by the combination of ion bombardment with simultaneous cesium flooding is valid not only for monatomic ion bombardment but also for cluster primary ions. Experiments carried out using C60+ and Ar4000+ bombardment on silicon show that yields of negative secondary silicon ions can be optimized in the same way as by Ga+ and Cs+ bombardment. Both for monatomic and cluster ion bombardment, the optimization does not depend on the primary ion species. Hence, it can be assumed that the silicon results are also valid for other cluster primary ions and that results obtained for monatomic ion bombardment on other semiconductor and metal samples are also valid for cluster ion bombardment. In SIMS, cluster primary ions are also largely used for the analysis of organic matter. For polycarbonate, our results show that Ar4000+ bombardment combined with cesium flooding enhances secondary ion signals by a factor of 6. This can be attributed to the removal of charging effects and/or reduced fragmentation, but no major influence on ionization processes can be observed. The use of cesium flooding for the imaging of cells was also investigated and a significant enhancement of secondary ion yields was observed. Hence, cesium flooding has also a vast potential for SIMS analyses with cluster ion bombardment. PMID:26378890

  9. Density scaling of an optically pumped lithium negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    McGeoch, M.W.; Schlier, R.E.

    1987-07-30

    An experiment is described in which a high density of lithium negative ions (1 x 10/sup 10/ cm/sup -3/) is generated by dissociative attachment of electrons to optically pumped lithium molecules. During a three microsecond period up to 7% of electrons are attached. The possibilities for increased Li/sup -/ density are explored.

  10. Single- and multiphoton infrared laser spectroscopy of atomic negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Michael

    A pulsed, tunable infrared laser source (0.6-5.2 μm) has been developed on the basis of a commercial dye laser and non-linear optical conversion techniques. This laser source was combined with a keV negative ion beam apparatus in a crossed-beam geometry, with the aim to systematically study several atomic negative ions through a variety of single- and multiphoton detachment experiments. Photodetachment threshold spectra of 21 ionic species (B- , C-, O-, Al- , Si-, Cr-, Co- , Ni-, Cu-, Ge- , Mo-, Rh-, Pd- , Ag-, Sn-, Sb- , Te-, Cs-, Ir- , Pt-, and Bi-) have been recorded, in most cases resulting in very accurate determinations of ionic binding energies, marking substantial improvements over previous experimental values. In fact, several ionic states investigated here had not been observed previously. Different schemes for resonant multiphoton detachment of atomic negative ions were demonstrated for the first time. These studies were conducted with several anions (Si-, Sri- , Sb-, Te-, Ir- , and Pt-) providing highly accurate ionic energy level splittings and clearly demonstrating that multiphoton probes are generally applicable to negative ion structure.

  11. Negative ion density in inductively coupled chlorine plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hebner, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The negative ion density in radio-frequency (rf) inductively-coupled chlorine discharges has been inferred using laser photodetachment spectroscopy. A Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) rf Reference Cell with an inductively coupled plasma source was used to produce the plasma. For this experiment, the chlorine pressure was between 20 and 50 mTorr and the rf power into the plasma was 150 to 250 Watts at 13.56 MHz. Light from a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) was used to photodetach electrons from Cl{sup {minus}}. The time dependent excess electron density was then detected by a microwave interferometer operating at 80 GHz. Based upon the cross section for photodetachment and the measurement geometry, negative ion densities can be calculated. The inferred negative ion densities are at least an order of magnitude higher than the steady state electron density over the parameter space investigated. The dependence of the negative ion density on rf power, gas pressure, flow rate and rf phase will be discussed.

  12. National negative-ion-based neutral-beam development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.S.; Pyle, R.V.

    1983-08-01

    The plan covers facilities required, program milestones, and decision points. It includes identification of applications, experiments, theoretical research areas, development of specific technologies and reactor development and demonstration facilities required to bring about the successful application of negative-ion-based neutral beams. Particular emphasis is placed on those activities leading to use on existing plasma confinement experiments or their upgrades.

  13. Cesium Delivery System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Singh, M. J.

    2011-09-26

    The technique of surface production of negative ions using cesium, Cs, has been efficiently exploited over the years for producing negative ion beams with increased current densities from negative ion sources used on neutral beam lines. Deposition of Cs on the source walls and the plasma grid lowers the work function and therefore enables a higher yield of H{sup -}, when hydrogen particles (H and/or H{sub x}{sup +}) strike these surfaces.A single driver RF based (100 kW, 1 MHz) negative ion source test bed, ROBIN, is being set up at IPR under a technical collaboration between IPR and IPP, Germany. The optimization of the Cs oven design to be used on this facility as well as multidriver sources is underway. The characterization experiments of such a Cs delivery system with a 1 g Cs inventory have been carried out using surface ionization technique. The experiments have been carried by delivering Cs into a vacuum chamber without plasma. The linear motion of the surface ionization detector, SID, attached with a linear motion feedthrough allows measuring the angular distribution of the Cs coming out of the oven. Based on the experimental results, a Cs oven for ROBIN has been proposed. The Cs oven design and experimental results of the prototype Cs oven are reported and discussed in the paper.

  14. Propagation of ion acoustic shock waves in negative ion plasmas with nonextensive electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N.; Mahmood, S.

    2013-09-15

    Nonlinear ion acoustic shocks (monotonic as well as oscillatory) waves in negative ion plasmas are investigated. The inertialess electron species are assumed to be nonthermal and follow Tsallis distribution. The dissipation in the plasma is considered via kinematic viscosities of both positive and negative ion species. The Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) equation is derived using small amplitude reductive perturbation technique and its analytical solution is presented. The effects of variation of density and temperature of negative ions and nonthermal parameter q of electrons on the strength of the shock structures are plotted for illustration. The numerical solutions of KdVB equation using Runge Kutta method are obtained, and transition from oscillatory to monotonic shock structures is also discussed in detail for negative ions nonthermal plasmas.

  15. Recent advancements in sputter-type heavy negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    Significant advancement have been made in sputter-type negative ion sources which utilize direct surface ionization, or a plasma to form the positive ion beam used to effect sputtering of samples containing the material of interest. Typically, such sources can be used to generate usable beam intensities of a few ..mu..A to several mA from all chemically active elements, depending on the particular source and the electron affinity of the element in question. The presentation will include an introduction to the fundamental processes underlying negative ion formation by sputtering from a low work function surface and several sources will be described which reflect the progress made in this technology. 21 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Space Charge Neutralization in the ITER Negative Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Surrey, Elizabeth

    2007-08-10

    A model of the space charge neutralization of negative ion beams, developed from the model due to Holmes, is applied to the ITER heating and diagnostic beams. The Holmes model assumed that the plasma electron temperature was derived from the stripped electrons. This is shown to be incorrect for the ITER beams and the plasma electron temperature is obtained from the average creation energy upon ionization. The model shows that both ITER beams will be fully space charge compensated in the drift distance between the accelerator and the neutralizer. Inside the neutralizer, the plasma over compensates the space charge to the extent that a significant focusing force is predicted. At a certain position in the neutraliser this force balances the defocusing force due to the ions' transverse energy. Under these conditions the beam distribution function can change from Gaussian to Bennett and evidence of such a distribution observed in a multi-aperture, neutralized negative ion beam is presented.

  17. Negative hydrogen ion production in a helicon plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Santoso, J. Corr, C. S.; Manoharan, R.; O'Byrne, S.

    2015-09-15

    In order to develop very high energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for applications, such as plasma heating in fusion devices, it is necessary first to develop high throughput negative ion sources. For the ITER reference source, this will be realised using caesiated inductively coupled plasma devices, containing either hydrogen or deuterium discharges, operated with high rf input powers (up to 90 kW per driver). It has been suggested that due to their high power coupling efficiency, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially obviate the need for caesiation due to the high plasma densities achievable. Here, we present measurements of negative ion densities in a hydrogen discharge produced by a helicon device, with externally applied DC magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 8.5 mT at 5 and 10 mTorr fill pressures. These measurements were taken in the magnetised plasma interaction experiment at the Australian National University and were performed using the probe-based laser photodetachment technique, modified for the use in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. A peak in the electron density is observed at ∼3 mT and is correlated with changes in the rf power transfer efficiency. With increasing magnetic field, an increase in the negative ion fraction from 0.04 to 0.10 and negative ion densities from 8 × 10{sup 14 }m{sup −3} to 7 × 10{sup 15 }m{sup −3} is observed. It is also shown that the negative ion densities can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of an external DC magnetic field.

  18. Negative ion beam generation in laser plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jequier, Sophie; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir; Ter-Avetisyan, Sargis

    2013-10-01

    Detection of a large number of energetic negative ions and neutral atoms have been reported in recent intense laser plasma interaction experiments. These particles were produced from fast positive ions (proton, carbon, oxygen) accelerated from a laser produced plasma when they were passing through a cold spray of water or ethanol. The negative ions formation is strongly related to the fast positive ions, and it is explained by a process of a single electron capture - loss. Double charge exchange, elastic scattering and energy loss phenomena have been neglected since their cross sections are much smaller. Assuming independent atoms approximation, we study populations evolution through the interaction zone analytically and numerically by solving the rate equations using cross sections drawn from literature. Taking into account the energy distribution of the incident ions, the calculations give the final energy distribution for the different species that can be compared to experimental spectra. First results obtained for hydrogen in the water case indicate that this model can explain the main observed features. The results concerning the carbon and oxygen ions will be also presented as well as refinement of the cross sections since some cross sections are missing for these energies.

  19. Sources of polarized negative ions: progress and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of recent progress in the art of producing beams of polarized ions is given. In all sources of polarized ions, one first produces (or selects) neutral atoms which are polarized in electron spin. Those types of sources which use a beam of thermal polarized hydrogen atoms are discussed. Progress made in the preparation of the atomic beam and the methods used to convert the neutral atoms to polarized ions is summarized. The second type of source discussed is based on fast (keV) polarized hydrogen atoms. Conversion to negative ions is very simple because one only needs to pass the fast atoms through a suitable charge exchange medium (gas or vapor). However, the production of the polarized atoms is more difficult in this case. The proposal to employ polarized alkali vapor to form a beam of polarized fast H atoms, where the polarized alkali atoms are produced either by an atomic beam apparatus or by optical pumping is discussed. (WHK)

  20. Development of negative ion extractor in the high-power and long-pulse negative ion source for fusion application.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Tobari, H; Kojima, A; Yoshida, M; Taniguchi, M; Dairaku, M; Maejima, T; Yamanaka, H; Watanabe, K; Inoue, T; Hanada, M

    2014-02-01

    High power and long-pulse negative ion extractor, which is composed of the plasma grid (PG) and the extraction grid (EXG), is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector for heating and current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced and DEMO reactor. The PG is designed to enhance surface production of negative ions efficiently by applying the chamfered aperture. The efficiency of the negative ion production for the discharge power increased by a factor of 1.3 against that of the conventional PG. The EXG is also designed with the thermal analysis to upgrade the cooling capability for the long pulse operation of >1000 s required in ITER. Though the magnetic field for electron suppression is reduced to 0.75 of that in the conventional EXG due to this upgrade, it was experimentally confirmed that the extracted electron current can be suppressed to the allowable level for the long pulse operation. These results show that newly developed extractor has the high potential for the long pulse extraction of the negative ions. PMID:24593597

  1. Development of negative ion extractor in the high-power and long-pulse negative ion source for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, M. Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Kojima, A.; Yoshida, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Dairaku, M.; Maejima, T.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.

    2014-02-15

    High power and long-pulse negative ion extractor, which is composed of the plasma grid (PG) and the extraction grid (EXG), is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector for heating and current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced and DEMO reactor. The PG is designed to enhance surface production of negative ions efficiently by applying the chamfered aperture. The efficiency of the negative ion production for the discharge power increased by a factor of 1.3 against that of the conventional PG. The EXG is also designed with the thermal analysis to upgrade the cooling capability for the long pulse operation of >1000 s required in ITER. Though the magnetic field for electron suppression is reduced to 0.75 of that in the conventional EXG due to this upgrade, it was experimentally confirmed that the extracted electron current can be suppressed to the allowable level for the long pulse operation. These results show that newly developed extractor has the high potential for the long pulse extraction of the negative ions.

  2. Volume Production of Negative Ions in the Reflex Type Ion Source.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimbo, Kouichi

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm('2)) for H('-) and of 4.1 mA (42 mA/cm('2)) for D('-) are obtained continuously. The impurity is less then 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed. When anomalous diffusion in the positive column was found by Lehnert and Hoh (1960), it was pointed out that the large particle loss produced by anomalous diffusion is compensated by the large particle production inside the plasma; i.e. the plasma tries to maintain itself. "The self-sustaining property of the plasma" is applied to the reflex-type negative ion source. Anomalous diffusion was artificially encouraged by changing the radial electric field inside the reflex discharge. The apparent encouragement of negative ion diffusion by the increase of density fluctuation amplitude is observed. Twice as much negative ion current was obtained with the artificial encouragement as without. It is found from the quasilinear theory that the inwardly directed radial electric field destabilizes the plasma in the reflex-type ion source. The nonlinear theory based on Yoshikawa method (1962) is extended, and the anomalous diffusion coefficient in a weakly ionized plasma is obtained. "The electrostatic sheath trap", which increases the confinement of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source, is also discussed. It has been suggested that the dissociative attachment of electrons to excited molecules might be responsible for the high negative ion production in a hydrogen plasma: Bacal and Hamilton (1979). A recent calculation by Wadehra (1979) showed a significant enhancement of the dissociative attachment rate by the vibrational excitation of the initial molecules. The largest attachment rate was given at an electron temperature of about 1.5 eV. In our experiment, the maximum extracted negative ion current. was obtained at an electron temperature of about

  3. Challenges in plasma and extraction modelling of negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvas, Taneli

    2013-09-01

    The physical processes taking place in negative ion source plasmas are modelled by state-of-the-art 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) codes. These codes are used to gain understanding and to find optimal solutions for negative ion beam production. The PIC codes can be made to match to the reality if all relevant processes were included. This is unfortunately limited by the availability of data about the processes and the huge amount of computational resources needed for the simulations. The optimization of the extraction system and beam transport ion optics is often made using computationally less intensive methods utilized in so-called gun codes. These codes use simplified plasma models to provide a starting point for the extracted beams being simulated. The relatively fast computation allows systematic studies, which are not practical with PIC codes. The gun codes often match well to reality, but they do have difficulties reproducing some effects, especially in negative ion extraction, due to the approximations made in the plasma model. Could the future solutions for beam production modelling couple the two types of simulations?

  4. Strong Turbulence in Alkali Halide Negative Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Daniel

    1999-11-01

    Negative ion plasmas (NIPs) are charge-neutral plasmas in which the negative charge is dominated by negative ions rather than electrons. They are found in laser discharges, combustion products, semiconductor manufacturing processes, stellar atmospheres, pulsar magnetospheres, and the Earth's ionosphere, both naturally and man-made. They often display signatures of strong turbulence^1. Development of a novel, compact, unmagnetized alkali halide (MX) NIP source will be discussed, it incorporating a ohmically-heated incandescent (2500K) tantulum solenoid (3cm dia, 15 cm long) with heat shields. The solenoid ionizes the MX vapor and confines contaminant electrons, allowing a very dry (electron-free) source. Plasma densities of 10^10 cm-3 and positive to negative ion mass ratios of 1 <= fracm_+m- <= 20 are achievable. The source will allow tests of strong turbulence theory^2. 1 Sheehan, D.P., et al., Phys. Fluids B5, 1593 (1993). 2 Tsytovich, V. and Wharton, C.W., Comm. Plasma Phys. Cont. Fusion 4, 91 (1978).

  5. Travelling-wave ion mobility and negative ion fragmentation of high-mannose N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Harvey, David J; Scarff, Charlotte A; Edgeworth, Matthew; Struwe, Weston B; Pagel, Kevin; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Crispin, Max; Scrivens, Jim

    2016-03-01

    The isomeric structure of high-mannose N-glycans can significantly impact biological recognition events. Here, the utility of travelling-wave ion mobility mass spectrometry for isomer separation of high-mannose N-glycans is investigated. Negative ion fragmentation using collision-induced dissociation gave more informative spectra than positive ion spectra with mass-different fragment ions characterizing many of the isomers. Isomer separation by ion mobility in both ionization modes was generally limited, with the arrival time distributions (ATD) often showing little sign of isomers. However, isomers could be partially resolved by plotting extracted fragment ATDs of the diagnostic fragment ions from the negative ion spectra, and the fragmentation spectra of the isomers could be extracted by using ions from limited areas of the ATD peak. In some cases, asymmetric ATDs were observed, but no isomers could be detected by fragmentation. In these cases, it was assumed that conformers or anomers were being separated. Collision cross sections of the isomers in positive and negative fragmentation mode were estimated from travelling-wave ion mobility mass spectrometry data using dextran glycans as calibrant. More complete collision cross section data were achieved in negative ion mode by utilizing the diagnostic fragment ions. Examples of isomer separations are shown for N-glycans released from the well-characterized glycoproteins chicken ovalbumin, porcine thyroglobulin and gp120 from the human immunodeficiency virus. In addition to the cross-sectional data, details of the negative ion collision-induced dissociation spectra of all resolved isomers are discussed. PMID:26956389

  6. Effects of discharge chamber length on the negative ion generation in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Bong-Ki; An, YoungHwa; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    In a volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source, control of electron temperature is essential due to its close correlation with the generation of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in the heating region as well as the generation of negative hydrogen ions by dissociative attachment in the extraction region. In this study, geometric effects of the cylindrical discharge chamber on negative ion generation via electron temperature changes are investigated in two discharge chambers with different lengths of 7.5 cm and 11 cm. Measurements with a radio-frequency-compensated Langmuir probe show that the electron temperature in the heating region is significantly increased by reducing the length of the discharge chamber due to the reduced effective plasma size. A particle balance model which is modified to consider the effects of discharge chamber configuration on the plasma parameters explains the variation of the electron temperature with the chamber geometry and gas pressure quite well. Accordingly, H{sup −} ion density measurement with laser photo-detachment in the short chamber shows a few times increase compared to the longer one at the same heating power depending on gas pressure. However, the increase drops significantly as operating gas pressure decreases, indicating increased electron temperatures in the extraction region degrade dissociative attachment significantly especially in the low pressure regime. It is concluded that the increase of electron temperature by adjusting the discharge chamber geometry is efficient to increase H{sup −} ion production as long as low electron temperatures are maintained in the extraction region in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion sources.

  7. Effects of discharge chamber length on the negative ion generation in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Bong-Ki; An, YoungHwa; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Hwang, Y S

    2014-02-01

    In a volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source, control of electron temperature is essential due to its close correlation with the generation of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in the heating region as well as the generation of negative hydrogen ions by dissociative attachment in the extraction region. In this study, geometric effects of the cylindrical discharge chamber on negative ion generation via electron temperature changes are investigated in two discharge chambers with different lengths of 7.5 cm and 11 cm. Measurements with a radio-frequency-compensated Langmuir probe show that the electron temperature in the heating region is significantly increased by reducing the length of the discharge chamber due to the reduced effective plasma size. A particle balance model which is modified to consider the effects of discharge chamber configuration on the plasma parameters explains the variation of the electron temperature with the chamber geometry and gas pressure quite well. Accordingly, H(-) ion density measurement with laser photo-detachment in the short chamber shows a few times increase compared to the longer one at the same heating power depending on gas pressure. However, the increase drops significantly as operating gas pressure decreases, indicating increased electron temperatures in the extraction region degrade dissociative attachment significantly especially in the low pressure regime. It is concluded that the increase of electron temperature by adjusting the discharge chamber geometry is efficient to increase H(-) ion production as long as low electron temperatures are maintained in the extraction region in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion sources. PMID:24593559

  8. Inner-Shell Photodetachment of Nickel Negative Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitriu, Ileana; Bilodeau, Rene; Gibson, Daniel; Walter, Wes; Gorczyca, Thomas; Aguilar, Alex; Rolles, Daniel; Pesic, Zoran; Berrah, Nora

    2015-05-01

    Transition metals are of interest for their catalytic properties and participation of d-orbital electrons in the bonding properties. Theoretical studies of transition metal negative ions are challenging due to strong electron correlation effects and existence of low-lying electronic states as a result of open d-shell configurations. Experimental studies of transition metal negative ions are limited compared with the ions belonging to the main groups of periodic table and these studies have mostly investigated the valence-shell electrons using laser spectroscopy. Our experiment focuses on inner-shell photodetachment studies of Ni- transition metal ions using the Ion-Photon Beamline on the ALS beamline 10.0.1. Inner-shell photodetachment spectrum was recorded over a range of 30 to 90 eV which includes the 3 p threshold for Ni-. The higher-charge state formation was also observed, indicating multi-electron ejection processes. The absolute cross-section for the production of Ni+ will also be presented.

  9. Theory and observation of a dynamically evolviong negative ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendillo, M.; Forbes, J.

    1982-10-01

    As part of the Project Firefly ionospheric modification campaigns conducted during the early 1960's, sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) was used to study the creation and consequences of artificially-induced electron depletion regions via the attachment process (SF/sub 6/+e..-->..SF/sub 6/). Since those early experiments, a great many advances have occurred in theoretical, laboratory, and diagnostic techniques related to negative ion plasmas. This study examines the full range of negative ion chemistry in the upper ionosphere by using current reaction rate data to investigate the many chemical paths SF/sub 6/ type injections might take in an F region environment. Particular attention is given to the conditions required to create heavy negative ions that persist long enough to affect the dynamical properties of the F region. The ambipolar diffusion characteristics of a three component plasma (O/sup +/, e/sup -/, SF/sub 6//sup -/) are described, and estimates of the incoherent scatter spectra obtained from such a plasma are presented. Model calculations using a first order chemical code are defined and tested to investigate the actual types of negative ion plasmas capable of being created under nighttime conditions. A versatile model for diffusion in an exponential atmosphere ws used to simulate the evolution of 10/sup 26/SF/sub 6/ molecules released at 222 km during a 1962 Firefly experiment. When examined in conjunction with the chemical model calculatins, the results suggest that the ionospheric perturbations recorded at the time probably resulted more from molecular and atomic ion neutralizations involving SF/sub 6//sup -/, SF/sub 5//sup +/, O/sup -/, O/sup +/, and epsilon/sup -/, rather than simple electron attachments, as had been expected. A similar use of SF/sub 6/ diffusion scenarios for high-altitude releases (h = 350-500 km) indicates that large-scale, long-lived negative ion plasmas could be produced by modest rocket or Shuttle-borne payloads to study

  10. Modeling negative ion defect migration through the gramicidin A channel.

    PubMed

    Nemukhin, Alexander V; Kaliman, Ilya A; Moskovsky, Alexander A

    2009-08-01

    The results of potential of mean force (PMF) calculations for the distinct stages of proton conduction through the gramicidin A channel, including proton migration, reorientation of the water file and negative ion defect migration, are presented. The negative ion defect migration mechanism was hypothesized in experimental studies but was not considered previously in molecular dynamics simulations. The model system consisted of the peptide chains constructed on the base of the structure PDBID:1JNO, the inner file of nine water molecules and external clusters of water molecules placed at both ends of the channel. Potential energy functions were computed with the CHARMM/PM6/TIP3P parameters. The results obtained for proton migration and water file reorientation are basically consistent with those reported previously by Pómès and Roux (Biophys J 82:2304, 2002) within the similar approach. For the newly considered mechanism of negative ion defect migration from the channel center to the end of the water file we obtain the energy 3.8 kcal mol(-1) which is not considerably different from the activation energy of water reorientation, 5.4 kcal mol(-1). Therefore this mechanism may principally compete for the rate-limiting step in proton conduction in gramicidin. PMID:19198898

  11. Observation of a shape resonance of the positronium negative ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michishio, Koji; Kanai, Tsuneto; Kuma, Susumu; Azuma, Toshiyuki; Wada, Ken; Mochizuki, Izumi; Hyodo, Toshio; Yagishita, Akira; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    When an electron binds to its anti-matter counterpart, the positron, it forms the exotic atom positronium (Ps). Ps can further bind to another electron to form the positronium negative ion, Ps- (e-e+e-). Since its constituents are solely point-like particles with the same mass, this system provides an excellent testing ground for the three-body problem in quantum mechanics. While theoretical works on its energy level and dynamics have been performed extensively, experimental investigations of its characteristics have been hampered by the weak ion yield and short annihilation lifetime. Here we report on the laser spectroscopy study of Ps-, using a source of efficiently produced ions, generated from the bombardment of slow positrons onto a Na-coated W surface. A strong shape resonance of 1Po symmetry has been observed near the Ps (n=2) formation threshold. The resonance energy and width measured are in good agreement with the result of three-body calculations.

  12. Negative ion-uranium hexafluoride charge transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, Gerald E.; Newton, T. W.

    1980-10-01

    The flowing afterglow technique has been used to study the process of charge transfer from selected negative ions (F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, SF6-) to UF6. The sole ionic product in all cases was observed to be UF6-. Data analysis was complicated by an unexpected coupling of chemical and diffusive ion loss processes when UF6- product ions were present. The rate coefficients for the charge transfer processes are (k in 10-9 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) F-, 1.3; Cl-, 1.1; Br-, 0.93; I-, 0.77; and SF6-, 0.69. The rate constants agree quite well with the classical Langevin predictions.

  13. Gabor lens focusing of a negative ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Palkovic, J.A.; Mills, F.E.; Schmidt, C.; Young, D.E.

    1989-05-01

    Gabor or plasma lenses have previously been used to focus intense beams of positive ions at energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV. It is the large electrostatic field of the non-neutral plasma in the Gabor lens which is responsible for the focusing. Focusing an ion beam with a given sign of charge in a Gabor lens requires a non-neutral plasma with the opposite sign of charge as the beam. A Gabor lens constructed at Fermilab has been used to focus a 30 keV proton beam with good optical quality. We discuss studies of the action of a Gabor lens on a beam of negative ions. A Gabor lens has been considered for matching an H/sup /minus// beam into an RFQ in the redesign of the low energy section of the Fermilab linac. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Ion beam driven ion-acoustic waves in a plasma cylinder with negatively charged dust grains

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Walia, Ritu; Sharma, Kavita

    2012-07-15

    An ion beam propagating through a magnetized potassium plasma cylinder having negatively charged dust grains drives electrostatic ion-acoustic waves to instability via Cerenkov interaction. The phase velocity of sound wave increases with the relative density of negatively charged dust grains. The unstable wave frequencies and the growth rate increase, with the relative density of negatively charged dust grains. The growth rate of the unstable mode scales as one-third power of the beam density. The real part of frequency of the unstable mode increases with the beam energy and scales as almost the one-half power of the beam energy.

  15. Time-fractional Gardner equation for ion-acoustic waves in negative-ion-beam plasma with negative ions and nonthermal nonextensive electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shimin Mei, Liquan; Zhang, Zhengqiang

    2015-05-15

    Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a one-dimensional, unmagnetized plasma consisting of positive ions, negative ions, and nonthermal electrons featuring Tsallis distribution that is penetrated by a negative-ion-beam. The classical Gardner equation is derived to describe nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves in the considered plasma system via reductive perturbation technique. We convert the classical Gardner equation into the time-fractional Gardner equation by Agrawal's method, where the time-fractional term is under the sense of Riesz fractional derivative. Employing variational iteration method, we construct solitary wave solutions of the time-fractional Gardner equation with initial condition which depends on the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients. The effect of the plasma parameters on the compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitary waves is also discussed in detail.

  16. Time-fractional Gardner equation for ion-acoustic waves in negative-ion-beam plasma with negative ions and nonthermal nonextensive electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shimin; Mei, Liquan; Zhang, Zhengqiang

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a one-dimensional, unmagnetized plasma consisting of positive ions, negative ions, and nonthermal electrons featuring Tsallis distribution that is penetrated by a negative-ion-beam. The classical Gardner equation is derived to describe nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves in the considered plasma system via reductive perturbation technique. We convert the classical Gardner equation into the time-fractional Gardner equation by Agrawal's method, where the time-fractional term is under the sense of Riesz fractional derivative. Employing variational iteration method, we construct solitary wave solutions of the time-fractional Gardner equation with initial condition which depends on the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients. The effect of the plasma parameters on the compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitary waves is also discussed in detail.

  17. Dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with positive and negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sayed, F.; Haider, M. M.; Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.; Adhikary, N.

    2008-06-15

    Properties of small but finite amplitude dust ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves in a dusty plasma composed of inertialess electrons, positive and negative inertial ions, and immobile negative/positive charged dust grains are investigated. By using the multifluid dusty plasma model, the Kortweg-de Vries equation and energy integral for small and large amplitude solitary pulses, are derived. It is found that the presence of the negative ions modifies the properties of the solitary DIA waves, and provides the possibility of positive and negative solitary potential structures to coexist. The present results may be useful for understanding the salient features of localized DIA excitations that may appear in data from forthcoming laboratory experiments and space observations.

  18. Evaluation of Negative-Ion-Beam Driver Concepts for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Larry R. Grisham

    2002-01-14

    We evaluate the feasibility of producing and using atomically neutral heavy ion beams produced from negative ions as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor. Bromine and iodine appear to be the most attractive elements for the driver beams. Fluorine and chlorine appear to be the most appropriate feedstocks for initial tests of extractable negative ion current densities. With regards to ion sources, photodetachment neutralizers, and vacuum requirements for accelerators and beam transport, this approach appears feasible within existing technology, and the vacuum requirements are essentially identical to those for positive ion drivers except in the target chamber. The principal constraint is that this approach requires harder vacuums in the target chamber than do space-charge-neutralized positive ion drivers. With realistic (but perhaps pessimistic) estimates of the total ionization cross section, limiting the ionization of a neutral beam to less than 5% while traversing a four -meter path would require a chamber pressure of no more than 5 x 10{sup -5} torr. Alternatively, even at chamber pressures that are too high to allow propagation of atomically neutral beams, the negative ion approach may still have appeal, since it precludes the possibly serious problem of electron contamination of a positive ion beam during acceleration, drift compression, and focusing.

  19. Negative hydrogen ion beam extraction from an AC heated cathode driven Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A plasma grid structure was installed to a Bernas-type ion source used for ion implantation equipment. A negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion beam was extracted by an AC driven ion source by adjusting the bias to the plasma grid. The extracted electron current was reduced by positively biasing the plasma grid, while an optimum plasma grid bias voltage for negative ion beam extraction was found to be positive 3 V with respect to the arc chamber. Source operations with AC cathode heating show extraction characteristics almost identical to that with DC cathode heating, except a minute increase in H{sup −} current at higher frequency of cathode heating current.

  20. First experiments with the negative ion source NIO1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavenago, M.; Serianni, G.; De Muri, M.; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Baltador, C.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Bigi, M.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Fagotti, E.; Kulevoy, T.; Ippolito, N.; Laterza, B.; Minarello, A.; Maniero, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Petrenko, S.; Poggi, M.; Ravarotto, D.; Recchia, M.; Sartori, E.; Sattin, M.; Sonato, P.; Taccogna, F.; Variale, V.; Veltri, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zucchetti, S.

    2016-02-01

    Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs), which need to be strongly optimized in the perspective of DEMO reactor, request a thorough understanding of the negative ion source used and of the multi-beamlet optics. A relatively compact radio frequency (rf) ion source, named NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1), with 9 beam apertures for a total H- current of 130 mA, 60 kV acceleration voltage, was installed at Consorzio RFX, including a high voltage deck and an X-ray shield, to provide a test bench for source optimizations for activities in support to the ITER NBI test facility. NIO1 status and plasma experiments both with air and with hydrogen as filling gas are described. Transition from a weak plasma to an inductively coupled plasma is clearly evident for the former gas and may be triggered by rising the rf power (over 0.5 kW) at low pressure (equal or below 2 Pa). Transition in hydrogen plasma requires more rf power (over 1.5 kW).

  1. Wigner time delay in photodetachment of negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Jose, J.; Kkeifets, A. S.; Manson, S. T.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in studies on Wigner time delay in atomic photoionization using various experimental techniques and theoretical methodologies. In the present work, we report time delay in the photodetachment of negative ions using the relativistic-random-phase approximation (RRPA), which includes relativistic and important correlation effects. Time delay is obtained as energy derivative of phase of the photodetachment complex transition amplitude. We investigate the time delay in the dipole n p --> ɛd channels in the photodetachment of F- and Cl-, and in n f --> ɛg channels in the photodetachment of Tm-. In photodetachment of the negative ions, the photoelectron escapes in the field of the neutral atom and thus does not experience the nuclear Coulomb field; hence the phase is devoid of the Coulomb component. The systems chosen are well suited to examine the sensitivity of the photodetachment time delay to the centrifugal potential. The ions chosen have closed shells, and thus amenable to the RPA. Work supported by DOE, Office of Chemical Sciences, DST (India), and the Australian Research Council.

  2. First experiments with the negative ion source NIO1.

    PubMed

    Cavenago, M; Serianni, G; De Muri, M; Agostinetti, P; Antoni, V; Baltador, C; Barbisan, M; Baseggio, L; Bigi, M; Cervaro, V; Degli Agostini, F; Fagotti, E; Kulevoy, T; Ippolito, N; Laterza, B; Minarello, A; Maniero, M; Pasqualotto, R; Petrenko, S; Poggi, M; Ravarotto, D; Recchia, M; Sartori, E; Sattin, M; Sonato, P; Taccogna, F; Variale, V; Veltri, P; Zaniol, B; Zanotto, L; Zucchetti, S

    2016-02-01

    Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs), which need to be strongly optimized in the perspective of DEMO reactor, request a thorough understanding of the negative ion source used and of the multi-beamlet optics. A relatively compact radio frequency (rf) ion source, named NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1), with 9 beam apertures for a total H(-) current of 130 mA, 60 kV acceleration voltage, was installed at Consorzio RFX, including a high voltage deck and an X-ray shield, to provide a test bench for source optimizations for activities in support to the ITER NBI test facility. NIO1 status and plasma experiments both with air and with hydrogen as filling gas are described. Transition from a weak plasma to an inductively coupled plasma is clearly evident for the former gas and may be triggered by rising the rf power (over 0.5 kW) at low pressure (equal or below 2 Pa). Transition in hydrogen plasma requires more rf power (over 1.5 kW). PMID:26932048

  3. Detection of negative pickup ions at Saturn's moon Dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordheim, T.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Hand, K. P.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Negative ions may be formed in both tenuous and dense planetary atmospheres and have been observed in-situ at Earth, Titan [Coates et al., 2007, 2009; Wellbrock et al., 2013] and Enceladus [Coates et al., 2010] as well as at comet Halley [Chaizy et al., 1991]. In the case of Titan, heavy hydrocarbon and nitrile based ions with masses reaching almost 14,000 amu/q have been observed using the CAPS Electron Spectrometer (ELS) onboard Cassini. These are believed to form even more massive organic aerosols termed tholins which fall to lower altitudes where they make up the distinct haze layers, and eventually rain down onto Titan's surface perhaps forming the organic-rich dunes. Very tenuous atmospheres were predicted at the smaller icy moons of Saturn [Sittler et al., 2004; Saur and Strobel, 2005], and subsequently detected [Teolis et al., 2010; Tokar et al., 2012]. These are produced when charged particles from Saturn's magnetosphere interact with moon surfaces, ejecting neutral species. Some portion of these atmospheric neutrals will in turn become ionized and 'picked up' by Saturn's corotating magnetosphere. These pickup ions will then move in cycloidal trajectories that we may intercept using the Cassini spacecraft, even at considerable distance from the moon itself. In this fashion, negative and positive pickup ions have been used to infer a tenuous CO2-O2 atmosphere at Saturn's moon Rhea [Teolis et al., 2010], and positive pickup ions at Dione [Tokar et al., 2012]. Here we report on the detection of negative pickup ions during a close flyby of Dione by the Cassini CAPS ELS instrument, and the implications that these observations may have for the Dionian atmosphere. Chaizy, P., et al. (1991), Nature, 349(6308), 393-396 Coates, A. J., et al. (2007), Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(22), 6-11 Coates, A. J., et al. (2009), Planet. Space Sci., 57(14-15), 1866-1871 Coates, A. J., et al. (2010), Icarus, 206(2), 618-622 Saur, J., and D. F. Strobel (2005), Astrophys. J. Lett., 620

  4. Transition of ion-acoustic perturbations in multicomponent plasma with negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sumita Kumari; Devi, Kavita; Adhikary, Nirab Chandra; Bailung, Heremba

    2008-08-15

    Evolution of ion-acoustic compressive (positive) and rarefactive (negative) perturbations in a multicomponent plasma with negative ions has been investigated in a double plasma device. Transition of compressive solitons in electron-positive ion plasma, into a dispersing train of oscillations in a multicomponent plasma, when the negative ion concentration r exceeds a critical value r{sub c}, has been observed. On the other hand, an initial rarefactive perturbation initially evolves into a dispersing train of oscillations in electron-positive ion plasma and transforms into rarefactive solitons in a multicomponent plasma when the negative ion concentration is higher than the critical value. The Mach velocity and width of the compressive and rarefactive solitons are measured. The compressive solitons in the range 0r{sub c} have different characteristics than the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons at r=0 and modified KdV solitons at r=r{sub c}. A nonlinear differential equation having two terms to account for the lower and higher order nonlinearity has been used to explain the observed results.

  5. Positive and negative ion beam merging system for neutral beam production

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2005-12-13

    The positive and negative ion beam merging system extracts positive and negative ions of the same species and of the same energy from two separate ion sources. The positive and negative ions from both sources pass through a bending magnetic field region between the pole faces of an electromagnet. Since the positive and negative ions come from mirror image positions on opposite sides of a beam axis, and the positive and negative ions are identical, the trajectories will be symmetrical and the positive and negative ion beams will merge into a single neutral beam as they leave the pole face of the electromagnet. The ion sources are preferably multicusp plasma ion sources. The ion sources may include a multi-aperture extraction system for increasing ion current from the sources.

  6. Metal negative ion beam extraction from a radio frequency ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kanda, S.; Yamada, N.; Kasuya, T.; Romero, C. F. P.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A metal ion source of magnetron magnetic field geometry has been designed and operated with a Cu hollow target. Radio frequency power at 13.56 MHz is directly supplied to the hollow target to maintain plasma discharge and induce self-bias to the target for sputtering. The extraction of positive and negative Cu ion beams have been tested. The ion beam current ratio of Cu{sup +} to Ar{sup +} has reached up to 140% when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. Cu{sup −} ion beam was observed at 50 W RF discharge power and at a higher Ar gas pressure in the ion source. Improvement of poor RF power matching and suppression of electron current is indispensable for a stable Cu{sup −} ion beam production from the source.

  7. The negative hydrogen Penning ion gauge ion source for KIRAMS-13 cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    An, D. H.; Jung, I. S.; Kang, J.; Chang, H. S.; Hong, B. H.; Hong, S.; Lee, M. Y.; Kim, Y.; Yang, T. K.; Chai, J. S.

    2008-02-15

    The cold-cathode-type Penning ion gauge (PIG) ion source for the internal ion source of KIRAMS-13 cyclotron has been used for generation of negative hydrogen ions. The dc H-beam current of 650 {mu}A from the PIG ion source with the Dee voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.0 A is extrapolated from the measured dc extraction beam currents at the low extraction dc voltages. The output optimization of PIG ion source in the cyclotron has been carried out by using various chimneys with different sizes of the expansion gap between the plasma boundary and the chimney wall. This paper presents the results of the dc H-extraction measurement and the expansion gap experiment.

  8. Negative hydrogen ion beam extracted from a Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, N.; Wada, M.

    2011-09-26

    Negative hydrogen (H{sup -}) ion beam was produced without cesium seeding by a Bernas-type ion source with a coaxial hot cathode. The amount of H{sup -} ion beam current extracted from an original Bernas-type ion source using a hairpin shape filament as a hot cathode was 1 {mu}A with the 0.4 A arc current, while that 300 eV beam energy. In the other hand, H{sup -} ion beam current using the Bernas-type ion source with a coaxial hot cathode reached 4 {mu}A under the same condition. Production efficiency was enhanced by the focused plasma produced by a coaxial hot cathode.

  9. Studies of transition states and radicals by negative ion photodetachment

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, R.B.

    1991-12-01

    Negative ion photodetachment is a versatile tool for the production and study of transient neutral species such as reaction intermediates and free radicals. Photodetachment of the stable XHY{sup {minus}} anion provides a direct spectroscopic probe of the transition state region of the potential energy surface for the neutral hydrogen transfer reaction X + HY {yields} XH + Y, where X and Y are halogen atoms. The technique is especially sensitive to resonances, which occur at a specific energy, but the spectra also show features due to direct scattering. We have used collinear adiabatic simulations of the photoelectron spectra to evaluate trail potential energy surfaces for the biomolecular reactions and have extended the adiabatic approach to three dimensions and used it to evaluate empirical potential energy surfaces for the I + Hl and Br + HI reactions. In addition, we have derived an empirical, collinear potential energy surface for the Br + HBr reaction that reproduces our experimental results and have extended this surface to three dimensions. Photodetachment of a negative ion can be also used to study neutral free radicals. We have studied the vibrational and electronic spectroscopy of CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2} by photoelectron spectroscopy of CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, determining the electron affinity of CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2}, gaining insight on the bonding of the {sup 2}B{sub 1} ground state and observing the {sup 2}A{sub 2} excited state for the first time. Negative ion photodetachment also provides a novel and versatile source of mass-selected, jet-cooled free radicals. We have studied the photodissociation of CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2} at 270, 235, and 208 nm, obtaining information on the dissociation products by measuring the kinetic energy release in the photodissociation.

  10. Cavity Ringdown Technique for negative-hydrogen-ion measurement in ion source for neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Shibuya, M.; Geng, S.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2016-03-01

    The Cavity Ringdown Technique (CRD) is applied for negative hydrogen ion (H-) density measurement in H- source for the neutral beam injector. The CRD is one of the laser absorption techniques. Nd:YAG pulse laser was utilized for negative-hydrogen-ion photodetachment. The H- density related to extracted H- beam was successfully observed by a fixed position CRD. A two-dimensional movable CRD has been developed to measure the H- density profile. Measured profiles were consistent with expected profiles from the H- production area in pure hydrogen and cesium seeded plasmas. By applying absorption saturation in the optical cavity, negative hydrogen ion temperature was evaluated and was confirmed as being a similar value measured with other diagnostics.

  11. Electron Rescattering in Above-Threshold Photodetachment of Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A.; Milosevic, D. B.; Becker, W.; Bergues, B.; Hultgren, H.; Kiyan, I. Yu.

    2010-03-12

    We present experimental and theoretical results on photodetachment of Br{sup -} and F{sup -} in a strong infrared laser field. The observed photoelectron spectra of Br{sup -} exhibit a high-energy plateau along the laser polarization direction, which is identified as being due to the rescattering effect. The shape and the extension of the plateau is found to be influenced by the depletion of negative ions during the interaction with the laser pulse. Our findings represent the first observation of electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of an atomic system with a short-range potential.

  12. Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy of bare transition metal dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Beau J.

    This thesis contains gas phase negative ion photoelectron spectra of Mo2, MoV, CrCu, MoCu and Cu2. Spectra were taken with 488 nm and 514 nm light at a resolution of 4-5 meV. Information such as electron affinities, vibrational frequencies, anharmonicities and bond dissociation energies are reported for the ground and excited electronic states of both the anion and neutral species. Theoretical calculations at the density functional level are also reported for these species. Experiment and theory are used to analyze the bonding in these bare transition metal dimers.

  13. Calibrating the DARHT Electron Spectrometer with Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect

    R. Trainham , A. P. Tipton , and R. R. Bartech

    2005-11-01

    Negative ions of hydrogen and oxygen have been used to calibrate the DARHT electron spectrometer over the momentum range of 2 to 20 MeV/c. The calibration was performed on September 1, 3, and 8, 2004, and it is good to 0.5% absolute, provided that instrument alignment is carefully controlled. The momentum in MeV/c as a function of magnetic field (B in Gauss) and position in the detector plane (X in mm) is: P = (B-6.28)/(108.404-0.1935*X)

  14. Cesium control and diagnostics in surface plasma negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Chapovsky, Pavel; Dudnikov, Andrei

    2010-02-15

    For efficient and reliable negative ion generation it is very important to improve a cesium control and diagnostics. Laser beam attenuation and resonance fluorescence can be used for measurement of cesium distribution and cesium control. Resonant laser excitation and two-photon excitation can be used for improved cesium ionization and cesium trapping in the discharge chamber. Simple and inexpensive diode lasers can be used for cesium diagnostics and control. Cesium migration along the surface is an important mechanism of cesium escaping. It is important to develop a suppression of cesium migration and cesium accumulation on the extraction system.

  15. Interferences in photodetachment of a triatomic negative ion

    SciTech Connect

    Afaq, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Rashid, A.; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Tahir, B. A.; Hussain, Muhammad Tahir

    2009-01-26

    The photodetachment of a triatomic negative ion is studied and the detached-electron wave function is obtained as a superposition of coherent waves originating from each atom of the system. The photodetached electron flux is evaluated on a screen placed at a large distance from the system, which displays strong interferences. A simple analytical formula is also obtained for the total photodetachment cross section. The formula approaches one time the cross sections for the one-center and two-center systems in the high photon energy limits. Also it approaches three times the cross section for one-center system in the low photon energy limits.

  16. A Sheath Model for Negative Ion Sources Including the Formation of a Virtual Cathode

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R.; King, D. B.; Surrey, E.

    2011-09-26

    A one dimensional model of the sheath between the plasma and the wall in a negative ion source has been developed. The plasma consists of positive ions, electrons and negative ions. The model takes into account the emission of negative ions from the wall into the sheath and thus represents the conditions in a caesiated ion source with surface production of negative ions. At high current densities of the emitted negative ions, the sheath is unable to support the transport of all the negative ions to the plasma and a virtual cathode is formed. This model takes this into account and allows the calculation of the transported negative ions across the sheath with the virtual cathode. The model has been extended to allow the linkage between plasma conditions at the sheath edge and the plasma to be made. Comparisons are made between the results of the model and experimental measurements.

  17. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variale, V.; Cavenago, M.; Agostinetti, P.; Sonato, P.; Zanotto, L.

    2016-02-01

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D- beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D- and D+), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H- each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed.

  18. Ion distribution measurements to probe target and plasma processes in electronegative magnetron discharges. I. Negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Welzel, Th.; Ellmer, K.; Naumov, S.

    2011-04-01

    Mass and energy spectra of negative ions in magnetron sputtering discharges have been investigated with an energy-dispersive mass spectrometer. The dc magnetrons have been operated in the same reactive Ar/O{sub 2} atmosphere but with three different target materials: Cu, In, and W. Besides negative ions of the working gas, a variety of target metal containing negative molecular ions were found in the discharge. Their occurrence is strongly dependent on the target material. It has been correlated to the electron affinity and the bond strength of the molecules which has been calculated by density functional theory. Energy spectra of the negative ions exhibit three contributions that are clearly distinguishable. Their different origin is discussed as electron attachment in the gas phase and at the target surface, and molecule fragmentation during transport from target to substrate. The latter two contributions again significantly deviate for different target material. The high-energy part of the spectra has been analyzed with respect to the energy the particles gain upon release from the surface. It suggests that bigger molecules formed on the surface are released by ion-assisted desorption.

  19. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1.

    PubMed

    Variale, V; Cavenago, M; Agostinetti, P; Sonato, P; Zanotto, L

    2016-02-01

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D(-) beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D(-) and D(+)), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H(-) each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed. PMID:26932033

  20. Bimolecular reaction dynamics from photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bradforth, S.E.

    1992-11-01

    The transition state region of a neutral bimolecular reaction may be experimentally investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy of an appropriate negative ion. The photoelectron spectrum provides information on the spectroscopy and dynamics of the short lived transition state and may be used to develop model potential energy surfaces that are semi-quantitative in this important region. The principles of bound {yields} bound negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy are illustrated by way of an example: a full analysis of the photoelectron bands of CN{sup {minus}}, NCO{sup {minus}} and NCS{sup {minus}}. Transition state photoelectron spectra are presented for the following systems Br + HI, Cl + HI, F + HI, F + CH{sub 3}0H,F + C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH,F + OH and F + H{sub 2}. A time dependent framework for the simulation and interpretation of the bound {yields} free transition state photoelectron spectra is subsequently developed and applied to the hydrogen transfer reactions Br + HI, F + OH {yields} O({sup 3}P, {sup 1}D) + HF and F + H{sub 2}. The theoretical approach for the simulations is a fully quantum-mechanical wave packet propagation on a collinear model reaction potential surface. The connection between the wavepacket time evolution and the photoelectron spectrum is given by the time autocorrelation function. For the benchmark F + H{sub 2} system, comparisons with three-dimensional quantum calculations are made.

  1. Single and Multiphoton Infrared Laser Sectroscopy of Atomic Negative Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilodeau, René C.; Scheer, Michael; Brodie, Cicely A.; Haugen, Harold K.

    1998-05-01

    We have investigated several atomic negative ion species with the aid of a pulsed, tunable infrared laser source (M. Scheer, H.K. Haugen, and D.R. Beck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79), 4104 (1997); M. Scheer et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 684 (1998).. In a comprehensive study of the carbon group negative ions (C^-, Si^-, Ge^-, Sn^-, Pb^-) a combination of single and multiphoton techniques was utilized to determine the bound terms and fine structure levels of the p^3 (ground state) configuration. The results comprise accurate electron affinities and the first experimental data on the fine structure of the ^2DJ terms in Si^-, Ge^-, and Sn^-. In addition, photodetachment threshold spectroscopy provided significantly impoved electron affinities for B, Cr, Mo, Ru, Rh, W, and Bi. The detachment cross section of B^-(^3P_J) appeared as a sequence of closely spaced thresholds which enabled the first experimental determination of the ionic fine structure. The detachment cross section of W^- indicates the presence of unexpected and previously unobserved resonances just below the W(5d^56s ^7S_3) threshold.

  2. Ion-acoustic solitons in negative ion plasma with two-electron temperature distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, M. K.; Tiwari, R. S.; Chawla, J. K.

    2012-06-15

    Ion-acoustic solitons in a warm positive and negative ion species with different masses, concentrations, and charge states with two electron temperature distributions are studied. Using reductive perturbation method, Korteweg de-Vries (KdV) and modified-KdV (m-KdV) equations are derived for the system. The soliton solution of the KdV and m-KdV equations is discussed in detail. It is found that if the ions have finite temperatures, then there exist two types of modes, namely slow and fast ion-acoustic modes. It is also investigated that the parameter determining the nature of soliton (i.e., whether the system will support compressive or rarefactive solitons) is different for slow and fast modes. For the slow mode, the parameter is the relative temperature of the two ion species; whereas for the fast mode, it is the relative concentration of the two ion species. At a critical concentration of negative ions, both compressive and rarefactive solitons coexist. The amplitude and width of the solitons are discussed in detail at critical concentration for m-KdV solitons. The effect of the relative temperature of the two-electron and cold-electron concentration on the characteristics of the solitons are also discussed.

  3. Electrical shielding box measurement of the negative hydrogen beam from Penning ion gauge ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Yang, Z.; Dong, P.; long, J. D.; He, X. Z.; Wang, X.; Zhang, K. Z.; Zhang, L. W.

    2012-06-01

    The cold-cathode Penning ion gauge (PIG) type ion source has been used for generation of negative hydrogen (H-) ions as the internal ion source of a compact cyclotron. A novel method called electrical shielding box dc beam measurement is described in this paper, and the beam intensity was measured under dc extraction inside an electrical shielding box. The results of the trajectory simulation and dc H- beam extraction measurement were presented. The effect of gas flow rate, magnetic field strength, arc current, and extraction voltage were also discussed. In conclusion, the dc H- beam current of about 4 mA from the PIG ion source with the puller voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.31 A was extrapolated from the measurement at low extraction dc voltages.

  4. Electrical shielding box measurement of the negative hydrogen beam from Penning ion gauge ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Yang, Z.; Dong, P.; Long, J. D.; He, X. Z.; Zhang, K. Z.; Zhang, L. W.; Wang, X.

    2012-06-15

    The cold-cathode Penning ion gauge (PIG) type ion source has been used for generation of negative hydrogen (H{sup -}) ions as the internal ion source of a compact cyclotron. A novel method called electrical shielding box dc beam measurement is described in this paper, and the beam intensity was measured under dc extraction inside an electrical shielding box. The results of the trajectory simulation and dc H{sup -} beam extraction measurement were presented. The effect of gas flow rate, magnetic field strength, arc current, and extraction voltage were also discussed. In conclusion, the dc H{sup -} beam current of about 4 mA from the PIG ion source with the puller voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.31 A was extrapolated from the measurement at low extraction dc voltages.

  5. Negative ion gas-phase chemistry of arenes.

    PubMed

    Danikiewicz, Witold; Zimnicka, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Reactions of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds involving anions are of great importance in organic synthesis. Some of these reactions have been studied in the gas phase and are occasionally mentioned in reviews devoted to gas-phase negative ion chemistry, but no reviews exist that collect all existing information about these reactions. This work is intended to fill this gap. In the first part of this review, methods for generating arene anions in the gas phase and studying their physicochemical properties and fragmentation reactions are presented. The main topics in this part are as follows: processes in which gas-phase arene anions are formed, measurements and calculations of the proton affinities of arene anions, proton exchange reactions, and fragmentation processes of substituted arene anions, especially phenide ions. The second part is devoted to gas-phase reactions of arene anions. The most important of these are reactions with electrophiles such as carbonyl compounds and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl and related compounds (Michael acceptors). Other reactions including oxidation of arene anions and halogenophilic reactions are also presented. In the last part of the review, reactions of electrophilic arenes with nucleophiles are discussed. The best known of these is the aromatic nucleophilic substitution (SN Ar) reaction; however, other processes that lead to the substitution of a hydrogen atom in the aromatic ring are also very important. Aromatic substrates in these reactions are usually but not always nitroarenes bearing other substituents in the ring. The first step in these reactions is the formation of an anionic σ-adduct, which, depending on the substituents in the aromatic ring and the structure of the attacking nucleophile, is either an intermediate or a transition state in the reaction path. In the present review, we attempted to collect the results of both experimental and computational studies of the aforementioned reactions conducted since the

  6. Observation of a shape resonance of the positronium negative ion

    PubMed Central

    Michishio, Koji; Kanai, Tsuneto; Kuma, Susumu; Azuma, Toshiyuki; Wada, Ken; Mochizuki, Izumi; Hyodo, Toshio; Yagishita, Akira; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    When an electron binds to its anti-matter counterpart, the positron, it forms the exotic atom positronium (Ps). Ps can further bind to another electron to form the positronium negative ion, Ps− (e−e+e−). Since its constituents are solely point-like particles with the same mass, this system provides an excellent testing ground for the three-body problem in quantum mechanics. While theoretical works on its energy level and dynamics have been performed extensively, experimental investigations of its characteristics have been hampered by the weak ion yield and short annihilation lifetime. Here we report on the laser spectroscopy study of Ps−, using a source of efficiently produced ions, generated from the bombardment of slow positrons onto a Na-coated W surface. A strong shape resonance of 1Po symmetry has been observed near the Ps (n=2) formation threshold. The resonance energy and width measured are in good agreement with the result of three-body calculations. PMID:26983496

  7. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Geng, S.; Wada, M.; Sasaki, K.; Nishiyama, S.; Goto, M.; Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Veltri, P.; Wimmer, C.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2016-02-01

    Recent research results on negative-ion-rich plasmas in a large negative ion source have been reviewed. Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (H-) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a photodetachment (PD) signal of a Langmuir probe. The PD signal is converted to local H- density from signal calibration to a scanning cavity ring down PD measurement. Introduction of Cs changes the slope of plasma potential local distribution depending upon the plasma grid bias. A higher electron density H2 plasma locally shields the bias potential and behaves like a metallic free electron gas. On the other hand, the bias and extraction electric fields penetrate in a Cs-seeded electronegative plasma even when the electron density is similar. Electrons are transported by the penetrated electric fields from the driver region along and across the filter and electron deflection magnetic fields. Plasma ions exhibited a completely different response against the penetration of electric fields.

  8. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited).

    PubMed

    Tsumori, K; Ikeda, K; Nakano, H; Kisaki, M; Geng, S; Wada, M; Sasaki, K; Nishiyama, S; Goto, M; Serianni, G; Agostinetti, P; Sartori, E; Brombin, M; Veltri, P; Wimmer, C; Nagaoka, K; Osakabe, M; Takeiri, Y; Kaneko, O

    2016-02-01

    Recent research results on negative-ion-rich plasmas in a large negative ion source have been reviewed. Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (H(-)) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a photodetachment (PD) signal of a Langmuir probe. The PD signal is converted to local H(-) density from signal calibration to a scanning cavity ring down PD measurement. Introduction of Cs changes the slope of plasma potential local distribution depending upon the plasma grid bias. A higher electron density H2 plasma locally shields the bias potential and behaves like a metallic free electron gas. On the other hand, the bias and extraction electric fields penetrate in a Cs-seeded electronegative plasma even when the electron density is similar. Electrons are transported by the penetrated electric fields from the driver region along and across the filter and electron deflection magnetic fields. Plasma ions exhibited a completely different response against the penetration of electric fields. PMID:26932108

  9. Behavior of TPC`s in a high particle flux environment

    SciTech Connect

    Etkin, A.; Eisemann, S.E.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Lindenbaum, S.J. |; Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Zhao, K.H.; Zhu, Y.; Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L.; Ahmad, S.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chiou, C.N.; Clement, J.M.; Mutchler, G.S.; Roberts, J.B.

    1991-12-13

    TPC`s (Time Projection Chamber) used in E-810 at the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) were exposed to fluxes equivalent to more than 10{sup 7} minimum ionizing particles per second to find if such high fluxes cause gain changes or distortions of the electric field. Initial results of these and other tests are presented and the consequences for the RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) TPC-based experiments are discussed.

  10. Behavior of TPC`s in a high particle flux environment

    SciTech Connect

    Etkin, A.; Eiseman, S.E.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Zhao, K.H.; Zhu, Y.; Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L.; Ahmad, S.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chiou, C.N.; Clement, J.M.; Mutchler, G.S.; Roberts, J.B.

    1991-12-31

    TPC`s (Time Projection Chamber) used in E-810 at the TAGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) were exposed to fluxes equivalent to more than 10 minimum ionizing particles per second to find if such high fluxes cause gain changes or distortions of the electric field. Initial results of these and other tests are presented and the consequences for the RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) TPC-based experiments are discussed.

  11. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  12. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1]could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  13. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    L. Grisham and J.W. Kwan

    2008-08-12

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1] could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  14. Method and apparatus for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams

    DOEpatents

    Beene, James R.; Liu, Yuan; Havener, Charles C.

    2008-02-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams. A method of purifying an ion beam includes: inputting the ion beam into a gas-filled multipole ion guide, the ion beam including a plurality of ions; increasing a laser-ion interaction time by collisional cooling the plurality of ions using the gas-filled multipole ion guide, the plurality of ions including at least one contaminant; and suppressing the at least one contaminant by selectively removing the at least one contaminant from the ion beam by electron photodetaching at least a portion of the at least one contaminant using a laser beam.

  15. High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy on the Negative Osmium Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Warring, U.; Amoretti, M.; Canali, C.; Fischer, A.; Heyne, R.; Meier, J. O.; Morhard, Ch.; Kellerbauer, A.

    2009-01-30

    We have applied a combination of laser excitation and electric-field detachment to negative atomic ions for the first time, resulting in an enhancement of the excited-state detection efficiency for spectroscopy by at least 2 orders of magnitude. Applying the new method, a measurement of the bound-bound electric-dipole transition frequency in {sup 192}Os{sup -} was performed using collinear spectroscopy with a narrow-bandwidth cw laser. The transition frequency was found to be 257.831 190(35) THz [wavelength 1162.747 06(16) nm, wave number 8600.3227(12) cm{sup -1}], in agreement with the only prior measurement, but with more than 100-fold higher precision.

  16. Experimental studies of the Negative Ion of Hydrogen. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Howard C.

    1999-06-30

    This document presents an overview of the results of the DOE'S support of experimental research into the structure and interactions of the negative ion of hydrogen conducted by the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the University of New Mexico at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The work involves many collaborations with scientists from both institutions, as well as others. Although official DOE support for this work began in 1977, the experiment that led to it was done in 1971, near the time the 800 MeV linear accelerator at Los Alamos (LAMPF) first came on line. Until the mid nineties, the work was performed using the relativistic beam at LAMFF. The most recent results were obtained using the 35 keV injector beam for the Ground Test Accelerator at Los Alamos. A list of all published results from this work is presented.

  17. Fragmentation of negative ions in a strong laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Ben; Jochim, Bethany; Severt, T.; Feizollah, Peyman; Rajput, Jyoti; Hayes, D.; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2016-05-01

    The fragmentation of negative ions in a strong laser field can provide a testing ground for a variety of unique phenomena. For example, anions with a loosely bound electron allow for the study of rescattering phenomena at lower laser intensities than for neutral targets. We study the behavior of keV anion beams in an ultrafast, intense laser field. The use of a fast-beam target facilitates the measurement of neutral fragments. This capability allows us to explore laser-induced dynamics in both ionic and neutral charge states. Using a coincidence 3D momentum imaging technique, we obtain the full 3D momentum of all nuclear fragments. In this preliminary work, we study atomic (H-) and molecular (H2-,F2-)systems with the goal of identifying and controlling their fragmentation pathways. This work was supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A.

    2012-02-15

    Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

  19. A continuous read-out TPC for the ALICE upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    The largest gaseous Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the world, the ALICE TPC, will be upgraded based on Micro Pattern Gas Detector technology during the second long shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2018/19. The upgraded detector will operate continuously without the use of a triggered gating grid. It will thus be able to read all minimum bias Pb-Pb events that the LHC will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1 TByte/s. A fractional ion feedback of below 1% is required to keep distortions due to space charge in the TPC drift volume at a tolerable level. The new read-out chambers will consist of quadruple stacks of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM), combining GEM foils with a different hole pitch. Other key requirements such as energy resolution and operational stability have to be met as well. A careful optimisation of the performance in terms of all these parameters was achieved during an extensive R&D program. A working point well within the design specifications was identified with an ion backflow of 0.63%, a local energy resolution of 11.3% (sigma) and a discharge probability comparable to that of standard triple GEM detectors.

  20. A FORWARD TPC FOR STAR.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHUTTAUF,A. AND THE STAR COLLABORATION

    1999-05-10

    Two Forward Time Projection Chambers (FTPC) provide charge and momentum information in the pseudorapidity range between 2.5 < |{eta}| < 4.0. A radial TPC scheme is used, where ionization electrons drift in an electric field perpendicular to the axial solenoidal magnetic field. Curved proportional wire chambers with pad readout record the track information via 19200 electronic channels. We report on measurements with various gas mixtures in a prototype chamber with and without magnetic field. The design and construction of a curved readout chamber is described. Based on the prototype measurements and the final layout of the detector the expected performance in measuring accuracy and two-track-separation is given.

  1. Improvement of uniformity of the negative ion beams by tent-shaped magnetic field in the JT-60 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Masafumi Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Shuji; Ohzeki, Masahiro; Seki, Norikazu; Sasaki, Shunichi; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Terunuma, Yuto; Grisham, Larry R.

    2014-02-15

    Non-uniformity of the negative ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source with the world-largest ion extraction area was improved by modifying the magnetic filter in the source from the plasma grid (PG) filter to a tent-shaped filter. The magnetic design via electron trajectory calculation showed that the tent-shaped filter was expected to suppress the localization of the primary electrons emitted from the filaments and created uniform plasma with positive ions and atoms of the parent particles for the negative ions. By modifying the magnetic filter to the tent-shaped filter, the uniformity defined as the deviation from the averaged beam intensity was reduced from 14% of the PG filter to ∼10% without a reduction of the negative ion production.

  2. Independent-particle models for light negative atomic ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganas, P. S.; Talman, J. D.; Green, A. E. S.

    1980-01-01

    For the purposes of astrophysical, aeronomical, and laboratory application, a precise independent-particle model for electrons in negative atomic ions of the second and third period is discussed. The optimum-potential model (OPM) of Talman et al. (1979) is first used to generate numerical potentials for eight of these ions. Results for total energies and electron affinities are found to be very close to Hartree-Fock solutions. However, the OPM and HF electron affinities both depart significantly from experimental affinities. For this reason, two analytic potentials are developed whose inner energy levels are very close to the OPM and HF levels but whose last electron eigenvalues are adjusted precisely with the magnitudes of experimental affinities. These models are: (1) a four-parameter analytic characterization of the OPM potential and (2) a two-parameter potential model of the Green, Sellin, Zachor type. The system O(-) or e-O, which is important in upper atmospheric physics is examined in some detail.

  3. Negative thermal ion mass spectrometry of oxygen in phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmden, C.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1997-06-01

    A novel technique for the precise measurement of oxygen isotopes by negative thermal ion mass spectrometry (NTIMS) is presented. The technique is ideally suited to the analysis of oxygen isotopes in phosphates which form intense P03 ion beams. Since P is monoisotopic, the mass spectrum for P0 3- at 79, 80, and 81 corresponds to 1660, 170, and 180. Natural and synthetic phosphates are converted and loaded on the mass spectrometer filament as Ag 3PO 4 precipitated directly from ammoniacal solution. To lower the work function of the filament, BaCl, is added in a 1:1 molar ratio of PO 4:Ba. Using these procedures, Br - mass interference (at 79 and 81 amu) is eliminated for typical analyses. Experiments with 180-enriched water show less than 1 % O-exchange between sample PO 4 and adsorbed water, and there is no O-exchange with trace OZ present in the mass spectrometer source chamber. The ionization efficiency of PO 4, as P0 3- is >10% compared to 0.01% for both conventional dual inlet Gas Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GIRMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Therefore, NTIMS offers exceptional sensitivity enabling routine and precise oxygen isotope analysis of sub-microgram samples of PO 4, (<21 nmoles equivalent CO 2 gas) without need for lengthy chemical pre-treatment reproducibility of the sample. Overall external precision is ±1%c (2σ) for 18O/16 O and 170/15O with of instrumental isotope fractionation (calculated from 18O/16O of ±0.5%c amu -1. Small phosphate samples including single mineral grains from meteorites, or apatite microfossils, can be analyzed by this technique.

  4. Simulation Based on Negative ion pair Techniques of Electric propulsion In Satellite Mission Using Chlorine Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkiyaraj, R.

    R.Bakkiyaraj,Assistant professor,Government college of Engineering ,Bargur,Tamilnadu. *C.Sathiyavel, PG Student and Department of Aeronautical Engineering/Branch of Avionics, PSN college of Engineering and Technology,Tirunelveli,India. Abstract: Ion propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of ion-ion pair techniques because of their stimulated of low propellant, Design of repulsive between negative ions with low electric power and high efficiency. A Negative ion pair of ion propulsion rocket system is proposed in this work .Negative Ion Based Rocket system consists of three parts 1.ionization chamber 2. Repulsion force and ion accelerator 3. Exhaust of Nozzle. The Negative ions from electro negatively gas are produced by attachment of the gas ,such as chlorine with electron emitted from a Electron gun ionization chamber. The formulate of large stable negative ion is achievable in chlorine gas with respect to electron affinity (∆E). When a neutral chlorine atom in the gaseous form picks up an electron to form a cl- ion, it releases energy of 349 kJ/mol or 3.6 eV/atom. It is said to have an electron affinity of -349 kJ/mol ,the negative sign indicating that energy is released during this process .The distance between negative ions pair is important for the evaluation of the rocket thrust and is also determined by the exhaust velocity of the propellant. The mass flow rate of ions is related to the ion beam current. Accelerate the Negative ions to a high velocity in the thrust vector direction with a significantly intense grids and the exhaust of negative ions through Nozzle. The simulation of the ion propulsion system has been carried out by MATLAB. By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results, we have found that the proposed method is achieved of thrust value with low electric power for simulating the ion propulsion rocket system

  5. Auger Stimulated Ion Desorption of Negative Ions via K -Capture Radioactive Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Verkhoturov, S. V.; Schweikert, E. A.; Chechik, Victor; Sabapathy, Rajaram C.; Crooks, Richard M.; Parilis, E. S.

    2001-07-16

    We report on Auger stimulated ion desorption via Coulomb explosion from surface self-assembled alkylthiol and fluorocarbon molecular layers, triggered by K -capture decay of an imbedded radioactive {sup 55}Fe atom. The charge state of the ejecta is determined by charge exchange in binary atomic collisions in bulk and electron tunneling outside the solid, as well as by fragmentation of electronically excited molecules or molecular fragments. We describe the first nonbeam experiments documenting positive and abundant negative ion desorption due solely to core electron excitation after radioactive decay.

  6. Improving Negative Ion Beam Quality and Purity with a RF Quadrupole Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.

    2011-09-26

    Recent progress in the development of a gas-filled RF quadrupole ion cooler for cooling negative ions is reported. Experiments demonstrate that negative ion beams can be cooled to 2 eV FWHM energy spread with more than 50% transmission through the cooler. The RFQ cooler can potentially improve the purity of radioactive ion beams by magnetic mass separation. New developments on purifying negative ion beams by photodetachment in the RFQ cooler are presented. With a laser of proper photon energy, nearly 100% suppression of the unwanted negative ions in the RFQ cooler has been observed, while the desired ions remain mostly intact. A recent experimental study demonstrates that pure ground state negative ion beams can be obtained by state-selective photodetachment in the RFQ cooler.

  7. Improving Negative Ion Beam Quality And Purity With A RF Quadrupole Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of a gas-filled RF quadrupole ion cooler for cooling negative ions is reported. Experiments demonstrate that negative ion beams can be cooled to 2 eV FWHM energy spread with more than 50% transmission through the cooler. The RFQ cooler can potentially improve the purity of radioactive ion beams by magnetic mass separation. New developments on purifying negative ion beams by photodetachment in the RFQ cooler are presented. With a laser of proper photon energy, nearly 100% suppression of the unwanted negative ions in the RFQ cooler has been observed, while the desired ions remain mostly intact. A recent experimental study demonstrates that pure ground state negation ion beams can be obtained by state-selective photodetachment in the RFQ cooler.

  8. Observation of second order ion acoustic Peregrine breather in multicomponent plasma with negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Pallabi; Sharma, S. K.; Nakamura, Y.; Bailung, H.

    2016-02-01

    The experimental observation of second order ion acoustic Peregrine breathers in multicomponent plasma with negative ions is reported. A long wavelength initial perturbation on a continuous carrier frequency ˜0.5 ωpi (where ωpi is the ion plasma frequency) of finite amplitude is found to undergo self-modulation due to the interplay between nonlinear dispersive effect and group velocity dispersion because of modulational instability. Wave energy focusses to a smaller localized and isolated group of waves within the packet with amplitude amplification up to 5 times of the background carrier wave. The experimental results are compared with second order breather solution of nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The wavelet analysis and fast Fourier transform analysis of the experimental time series data indicate strong nonlinear evolution (wave energy focusing and spectral broadening) conforming to the formation of second order Peregrine solitons.

  9. Exact solitary solution of Schamel equation in plasmas with negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kalaawy, O. H.

    2011-11-01

    A theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of the solitary solution in plasmas with negative ions. Schamel equation for a plasma consisting of electron, positive ions and negative ions has been derived by using the reductive perturbation method. The effects of negative ions and the density on the properties of the solitary solution is discussed. We make use of the extended mapping method and auxiliary equation to obtain the solution of Schamel equation. This solution includes the Jacobi elliptic function solutions, hyperbolic function solutions, rational solutions, and periodic wave solutions. Furthermore, we show that the incorporate negative ion effects in the nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic waves that are controlled by trapped electrons and the results of the solitary solution in plasmas with negative ions model are discussed.

  10. Measurements of the negative ion density in SF6/Ar plasma using a plane electrostatic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Masako; Uchino, Satoshi; Ichiki, Ryuta; Yoshimura, Shinji; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    2001-05-01

    A new method to estimate the negative ion density in reactive gas plasmas with a Langmuir probe is proposed. This method has the advantage that the negative ion density is evaluated only by taking the ratio of the ion saturation-electron saturation current ratio obtained from the I-V curve of the Langmuir probe measured in an electronegative-gas mixture plasma to that measured in a reference noble gas plasma. The negative ion density in a SF6/Ar double plasma is estimated utilizing this method. Furthermore, the negative ion density measured with this method is confirmed to agree with that calculated from the measured phase velocity of the ion acoustic wave (fast mode) in the SF6/Ar double plasma, where positive and negative ion masses are obtained from the spectrum analysis with a quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  11. High-energy above-threshold detachment from negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A.; Milosevic, D.B.; Becker, W.

    2004-11-01

    Above-threshold detachment of electrons from negative ions by an elliptically polarized laser field is analyzed within the strong-field approximation. The low-energy part of the spectrum, that is, its structure and its apparent cutoff, strongly depends on the orbital quantum number l of the initial ground state. The high-energy part is characterized by the usual extended plateau caused by rescattering, which is essentially independent of the ground state. The potential that the returning electron experiences during rescattering is modeled by the sum of a polarization potential and a static potential. This rescattering potential does not have much effect on the shape of the plateau, but it does on its height. For H{sup -} (l=0), the yield of rescattered electrons is five orders of magnitude below the direct electrons, while for I{sup -} (l=1) the yields only differ by a factor of 40. We also analyze the dependence of the angle-resolved energy spectrum on the ellipticity of the laser field and confirm general symmetry properties. An angle-integrated elliptic dichroism parameter is introduced and analyzed.

  12. High current DC negative ion source for cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etoh, H.; Onai, M.; Aoki, Y.; Mitsubori, H.; Arakawa, Y.; Sakuraba, J.; Kato, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Hiasa, T.; Yajima, S.; Shibata, T.; Hatayama, A.; Okumura, Y.

    2016-02-01

    A filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In Cs-free operation, continuous H- beam of 10 mA and D- beam of 3.3 mA were obtained stably at an arc-discharge power of 3 kW and 2.4 kW, respectively. In Cs-seeded operation, H- beam current reached 22 mA at a lower arc power of 2.6 kW with less co-extracted electron current. The optimum gas flow rate, which gives the highest H- current, was 15 sccm in the Cs-free operation, while it decreased to 4 sccm in the Cs-seeded operation. The relationship between H- production and the design/operating parameters has been also investigated by a numerical study with KEIO-MARC code, which gives a reasonable explanation to the experimental results of the H- current dependence on the arc power.

  13. High current DC negative ion source for cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Etoh, H; Onai, M; Aoki, Y; Mitsubori, H; Arakawa, Y; Sakuraba, J; Kato, T; Mitsumoto, T; Hiasa, T; Yajima, S; Shibata, T; Hatayama, A; Okumura, Y

    2016-02-01

    A filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In Cs-free operation, continuous H(-) beam of 10 mA and D(-) beam of 3.3 mA were obtained stably at an arc-discharge power of 3 kW and 2.4 kW, respectively. In Cs-seeded operation, H(-) beam current reached 22 mA at a lower arc power of 2.6 kW with less co-extracted electron current. The optimum gas flow rate, which gives the highest H(-) current, was 15 sccm in the Cs-free operation, while it decreased to 4 sccm in the Cs-seeded operation. The relationship between H(-) production and the design/operating parameters has been also investigated by a numerical study with KEIO-MARC code, which gives a reasonable explanation to the experimental results of the H(-) current dependence on the arc power. PMID:26932017

  14. Negative-ion surface production in hydrogen plasmas: Determination of the negative-ion energy and angle distribution function using mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, J. P. J.; Achkasov, K.; Kogut, D.; Ahmad, A.; Layet, J. M.; Simonin, A.; Cartry, G.

    2016-05-01

    This work focuses on the understanding of the production mechanism of negative-ions on surface in low pressure plasmas of H2/D2. The negative ions are produced on a Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite sample negatively biased with respect to plasma potential. The negative ions created under the positive ion bombardment are accelerated towards the plasma, self-extracted, and detected according to their energy and mass by a mass spectrometer placed in front of the sample. The shape of the measured Negative-Ion Energy Distribution Function (NIEDF) strongly differs from the NIEDF of the ions emitted by the sample because of the limited acceptance angle of the mass spectrometer. To get information on the production mechanisms, we propose a method to obtain the distribution functions in energy and angle (NIEADFs) of the negative-ions emitted by the sample. It is based on an a priori determination of the NIEADF and on an a posteriori validation of the choice by comparison of the modelled and experimental NIEDFs.

  15. Protonated water clusters in TPC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Yunus; Kalkan, Yalçın; Veenhof, Rob

    2016-07-01

    Water vapour is added to the ALICE TPC gas to enhance its stability. These polar molecules create large protonated water clusters around a H+ core. In this context, the reactions H3O+(H2O)n-1 +H2 O →H3O+(H2O)n (n=1-9) were studied in the gas phase. Structures for these clusters are suggested and the most stable structures for each cluster size are shown. The thermodynamic parameters Δ Hn-1,n0,Δ Gn-1,n0,Δ Sn-1,n0 and equilibrium constants Kn-1,n for the reaction were calculated to determine the size of the water clusters. The results are close to experimental data found in the literature. Protonated water clusters at stp have a size of 6-9 which corresponds to a mass of 127.1 - 181.2 g / mole.

  16. The EOS TPC analysis shell

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.L.

    1991-03-01

    Key features of the general purpose event-based-data analysis shell (TAS) for the EOS TPC at LBL are described including the code development/code management procedures used. The architecture is designed with a view towards a distributed and multi-processing environment. TAS is interfaced seamlessly with the CERN PAW program and provides a consistent environment for both on-line and off-line analysis. The data model used is relational tables and the data structure definitions are maintained in a commercial database (INFORMIX). The interface for analysis modules is specified and enhances group participation in the development process. The use of commercial database as a data dictionary for both the table definitions and parameters used in the TAS kernel is extremely useful and productive. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Effect of nickel grid parameters on production of negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Oohara, W.; Yokoyama, H.; Takeda, Toshiaki; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Kawata, K.

    2014-06-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a nickel grid. When positive ions passing through the grid are decelerated by an electric field, the extraction current density of passing positive ions is sharply reduced by neutralization and negative ionization of the ions. This phenomenon is found to depend on the specific surface area of the grid and the current density.

  18. Hydrogen negative-ion surface production on diamond materials in low-pressure H2 plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartry, Gilles; Achkasov, Kostiantyn; Pardanaud, Cédric; Layet, Jean-Marc; Simonin, Alain; Gicquel, Alix; PIIM Collaboration; IRFM Collaboration; LSPM Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    Negative-ion sources producing H-current density of ~200 A/m2 are required for the heating of the fusion plasma of the international project ITER. The only up-to-date solution to reach such a high H-negative-ion current is the use of cesium (Cs). Deposition of Cs on the negative-ion source walls lowers the material work function and allows for high electron-capture efficiency by incident particles and thus, high negative ion yields. However, severe drawbacks to the use of Cs have been identified and its elimination from the fusion negative-ion sources would be highly valuable. Volume production is not efficient enough at low-pressure to reach the high current required. Therefore, we are working on alternative solutions to produce high yield of H-negative-ions on surfaces in Cs-free H2 plasmas. In this communication, we will detail the methodology employed to study negative-ion surface production. In particular we will describe how the negative-ions are extracted from the plasma, and how we can obtain information on surface production mechanisms from the measurement of the H-energy distribution functions. We will present some results obtained on diamond surfaces and show that diamond is a promising candidate as a negative-ion enhancer material in low-pressure H2 plasmas. EFDA, FR-FCM, ANR, PACA are acknowledged for their support.

  19. Charged particle flows in the beam extraction region of a negative ion source for NBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, S.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Shibuya, M.; Kaneko, O.

    2016-02-01

    Experiments by a four-pin probe and photodetachment technique were carried out to investigate the charged particle flows in the beam extraction region of a negative hydrogen ion source for neutral beam injector. Electron and positive ion flows were obtained from the polar distribution of the probe saturation current. Negative hydrogen ion flow velocity and temperature were obtained by comparing the recovery times of the photodetachment signals at opposite probe tips. Electron and positive ions flows are dominated by crossed field drift and ambipolar diffusion. Negative hydrogen ion temperature is evaluated to be 0.12 eV.

  20. Charged particle flows in the beam extraction region of a negative ion source for NBI.

    PubMed

    Geng, S; Tsumori, K; Nakano, H; Kisaki, M; Ikeda, K; Osakabe, M; Nagaoka, K; Takeiri, Y; Shibuya, M; Kaneko, O

    2016-02-01

    Experiments by a four-pin probe and photodetachment technique were carried out to investigate the charged particle flows in the beam extraction region of a negative hydrogen ion source for neutral beam injector. Electron and positive ion flows were obtained from the polar distribution of the probe saturation current. Negative hydrogen ion flow velocity and temperature were obtained by comparing the recovery times of the photodetachment signals at opposite probe tips. Electron and positive ions flows are dominated by crossed field drift and ambipolar diffusion. Negative hydrogen ion temperature is evaluated to be 0.12 eV. PMID:26931985

  1. Kadomtsev—Petviashvili (KP) Burgers Equation in Dusty Negative Ion Plasmas: Evolution of Dust-Ion Acoustic Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. N., Dev; Sarma, J.; M. K., Deka; A. P., Misra; N. C., Adhikary

    2014-12-01

    We study the nonlinear propagation of dust-ion acoustic (DIA) shock waves in an un-magnetized dusty plasma which consists of electrons, both positive and negative ions and negatively charged immobile dust grains. Starting from a set of hydrodynamic equations with the ion thermal pressures and ion kinematic viscosities included, and using a standard reductive perturbation method, the Kadomtsev—Petviashivili—Burgers (K-P-Burgers) equation is derived, which governs the evolution of DIA shocks. A stationary solution of the K-P-Burgers equation is obtained and its properties are analysed with different plasma number densities, ion temperatures and masses. It is shown that a transition from shocks with negative potential to positive one occurs depending on the negative ion concentration in the plasma and the obliqueness of propagation of DIA waves.

  2. Improving efficiency of negative ion production in ion source with saddle antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V. Johnson, R. P.; Murrey, S.; Pinnisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Johnson, C.; Turvey, M.

    2014-02-15

    Extraction of negative ions from a saddle antenna radio-frequency surface plasma source is considered. Several versions of new plasma generators with different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the smal Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source Test Stand. The efficiency of positive ion generation in plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm{sup 2} kW from 2.5 mA/cm{sup 2} kW. A small oven was developed for cesiation by cesium compounds and alloy decomposition. After cesiation, a current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with 1.5 kW RF power in the plasma and longitudinal magnetic field B{sub l} ∼ 250 G. The specific efficiency of H{sup −} production was increased to 20 mA/cm{sup 2} kW from 2.5 mA/cm{sup 2} kW.

  3. Long-pulse production of high current negative ion beam by using actively temperature controlled plasma grid for JT-60SA negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-04-08

    The temperature control system of the large-size plasma grid has been developed to realize the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA. By using this prototype system for the JT-60SA ion source, 15 A negative ions has been sustained for 100 s for the first time, which is three times longer than that obtained in JT-60U. In this system, a high-temperature fluorinated fluid with a high boiling point of 270 degree Celsius is circulated in the cooling channels of the plasma grids (PG) where a cesium (Cs) coverage is formed to enhance the negative ion production. Because the PG temperature control had been applied to only 10% of the extraction area previously, the prototype PG with the full extraction area (110 cm × 45 cm) was developed to increase the negative ion current in this time. In the preliminary results of long pulse productions of high-current negative ions at a Cs conditioning phase, the negative ion production was gradually degraded in the last half of 100 s pulse where the temperature of an arc chamber wall was not saturated. From the spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Cs flux released from the wall might affect to the negative ion production, which implied the wall temperature should be kept low to control the Cs flux to the PG for the long-pulse high-current production. The obtained results of long-pulse production and the PG temperature control method contributes the design of the ITER ion source.

  4. Long-pulse production of high current negative ion beam by using actively temperature controlled plasma grid for JT-60SA negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-04-01

    The temperature control system of the large-size plasma grid has been developed to realize the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA. By using this prototype system for the JT-60SA ion source, 15 A negative ions has been sustained for 100 s for the first time, which is three times longer than that obtained in JT-60U. In this system, a high-temperature fluorinated fluid with a high boiling point of 270 degree Celsius is circulated in the cooling channels of the plasma grids (PG) where a cesium (Cs) coverage is formed to enhance the negative ion production. Because the PG temperature control had been applied to only 10% of the extraction area previously, the prototype PG with the full extraction area (110 cm × 45 cm) was developed to increase the negative ion current in this time. In the preliminary results of long pulse productions of high-current negative ions at a Cs conditioning phase, the negative ion production was gradually degraded in the last half of 100 s pulse where the temperature of an arc chamber wall was not saturated. From the spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Cs flux released from the wall might affect to the negative ion production, which implied the wall temperature should be kept low to control the Cs flux to the PG for the long-pulse high-current production. The obtained results of long-pulse production and the PG temperature control method contributes the design of the ITER ion source.

  5. Dust-ion acoustic shock waves in a dusty multi-ion plasma with negatively dust-charge fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Kaibiao

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of dust-ion acoustic shock waves in a collisionless, unmagnetized multi-ion dusty plasma contains Botlzemann-distributed electrons, negative and positive ions with extremely massive and stationary negative charge dust grains with dust charge fluctuations is investigated. By employing the reductive perturbation method, we obtain a Burgers equation that describes the two-ion fluid dynamics. The dust charge variation is found to play an important role in the formation of such dust-ion acoustic shock structures. The viscosity only affects the thickness of the shock waves. The dependences of the shock wave's velocity, height and thickness on the system parameters are investigated.

  6. A negative ion beam application to artificial formation of neuron network in culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroko; Baba, Takahiro; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2000-02-01

    A negative ion beam modification of the biocompatibility of polystyrene surface was investigated for the artificial formation of neuron network in culture with respect to negative ion species. Negative ions of silver, copper or carbon were implanted in nontreated polystyrene (NTPS) dishes at conditions of 20 keV and 3×1015ions/cm2 through a mask with many slits of 60 μm in width. For the surface wettability, the contact angle of ion-implanted NTPS was about 75° for silver-negative ions, which was lower than 86° of the original NTPS. For carbon implantation, on the contrary, the contact angles did not change from the original value. In culture experiment using neuron cells of PC-12h (rat adrenal pheochromocytoma), the cells cultured with serum medium in two days showed the cell attachment and growth in number only at the ion-implanted region on NTPS for all ion species. In another two days in culture with nonserum medium including a nerve growth factor, the outgrowth of neural protrusions was also observed only at the ion-implanted region for all ion species. There was a difference in number of attached cells for ion species. The silver-negative ion-implanted NTPS had a large effect for cell attachment compared with other two ion species. This reason is considered to be due to the lowest contract angles among them.

  7. Size scaling of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source (H-, D-) for the international fusion experiment ITER has a width of 0.9 m and a height of 1.9 m and is based on a ⅛ scale prototype source being in operation at the IPP test facilities BATMAN and MANITU for many years. Among the challenges to meet the required parameters in a caesiated source at a source pressure of 0.3 Pa or less is the challenge in size scaling of a factor of eight. As an intermediate step a ½ scale ITER source went into operation at the IPP test facility ELISE with the first plasma in February 2013. The experience and results gained so far at ELISE allowed a size scaling study from the prototype source towards the ITER relevant size at ELISE, in which operational issues, physical aspects and the source performance is addressed, highlighting differences as well as similarities. The most ITER relevant results are: low pressure operation down to 0.2 Pa is possible without problems; the magnetic filter field created by a current in the plasma grid is sufficient to reduce the electron temperature below the target value of 1 eV and to reduce together with the bias applied between the differently shaped bias plate and the plasma grid the amount of co-extracted electrons. An asymmetry of the co-extracted electron currents in the two grid segments is measured, varying strongly with filter field and bias. Contrary to the prototype source, a dedicated plasma drift in vertical direction is not observed. As in the prototype source, the performance in deuterium is limited by the amount of co-extracted electrons in short as well as in long pulse operation. Caesium conditioning is much harder in deuterium than in hydrogen for which fast and reproducible conditioning is achieved. First estimates reveal a caesium consumption comparable to the one in the prototype source despite the large size.

  8. Future upgrade and physics perspectives of the ALICE TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunji, Taku

    2014-11-01

    The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) proposes major detector upgrades to fully exploit the increase of the luminosity of the LHC in RUN 3 and to extend the physics reach for rare probes at low transverse momentum. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is one of the main tracking and PID devices in the central barrel of ALICE. The maximum trigger rate of the TPC is currently limited to about 3.5 kHz by the operation of a gating grid system. In order to make full use of the luminosity in RUN 3, the TPC is foreseen to be operated in an ungated mode with continuous readout. The existing MWPC readout will be replaced by a Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) based readout, which provides intrinsic ion capture capability without gating. Extensive detector R&D employing Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and Micro-Mesh Gaseous detector (Micromegas) technologies, and simulation studies to advance the techniques for the corrections of space-charge distortions have been performed since 2012. In this paper, the expected detector performance and the status of the R&D program to achieve this ambitious goal are described.

  9. A new grid-type electron filter for volume-production negative-ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, D. V.; Dudin, S. V.

    2012-03-01

    A new system providing continuous generation of broad negative-ion beam is described and characterized. The key element of the system is the grid-type electron filter allowing the formation without magnetic field of a stationary highly electronegative plasma which can be biased negatively with respect to a relatively high-area electrode that allows to extract the negative ions. Measurements of negative-ion energy distribution functions conducted using a magnetically filtered energy analyzer show broad (250 mm) negative-ion beam formation with controllable energy starting from several eV. A conclusion is made about the possibility of practical application of the grid-type electron filter in negative ion sources for electric propulsion and etching technologies.

  10. Development of a volume production type hydrogen negative ion source by using sheet plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoki; Iijima, Takaaki; Tonegawa, Akira; Sato, Kohnosuke; Kawamura, Kazutaka

    2014-10-01

    Stationary production of negative ions are important to play an essential role in Neutral beam injection (NBI). Cesium seeded Surface-production of negative ion sources are used for NBI. However, Cesium seeded surface- production of negative ion sources are not desirable from the point of view of operating steady state ion sources. We carried out the development of negative ion sources by volume-production in hydrogen sheet plasma. Production of hydrogen negative ions through volume processes needs both high energy electron region and low energy electron region. The sheet plasma is suitable for the production of negative ions, because the electron temperature in the central region of the plasma as high as 10-15 eV, whereas in the periphery of the plasma, a low temperature of a few eV of obtained. The hydrogen negative ions density were detected using an omegatron mass analyzer, while the electron density and temperature were measured using a Langmuir probe. Negative ions current extracted from the grid are measured by Faraday-cup.

  11. Extraction of negative hydrogen ions from a compact 14 GHz microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Kasuya, T.; Nishida, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Maeno, S.; Nishiura, M.; Shinto, K.; Yamaoka, H.

    2012-02-15

    A pair of permanent magnets has formed enough intensity to realize electron cyclotron resonance condition for a 14 GHz microwave in a 2 cm diameter 9 cm long alumina discharge chamber. A three-electrode extraction system assembled in a magnetic shielding has formed a stable beam of negative hydrogen ions (H{sup -}) in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. The measured H{sup -} current density was about 1 mA/cm{sup 2} with only 50 W of discharge power, but the beam intensity had shown saturation against further increase in microwave power. The beam current decreased monotonically against increasing pressure.

  12. The structure of the stable negative ion of calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, D.J.; Thompson, J.S.; Compton, R.N.; Alton, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of the Ca/sup /minus// ion has been determined using a crossed laser-ion beams apparatus. The photoelectron detachment spectrum shows that, contrary to earlier expectations, the Ca/sup /minus// ion is stably bound in the (4s/sup 2/4p)/sup 2/p state. The electron affinity of Ca was measured to be 0.043 /sup + -/ 0.007 eV.

  13. Progress on producing polarized negative hydrogen ions by the ETHZ polarized ion source using the atomic beam method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelzbach, P. A.; Grüebler, W.

    1983-03-01

    The progress on the ETHZ polarized negative hydrogen ion source, based on the atomic beam method, is described. Particular improvements have been made in the double charge exchange from positive to negative hydrogen ions. At present the source produces over 100 μA H+ ions, which yields 5-6 μA polarized negative hydrogen ions. These ions have been accelerated, in a EN tandem accelerator. A record current of 2-3 μA of polarized deuterons with 89% polarization could be focused through a 3 mm diameter collimator on a target. Further improvements incorporating presently available techniques are discussed. It is shown that 50-100 μA of polarized H- and D- ions can be produced with this type of source.

  14. Cryogenic testing of the TPC superconducting solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. A.; Smits, R. G.; Taylor, J. D.; Vanslyke, V.; Barrera, F.; Petersen, H.; Rago, C. E.; Rinta, R. I.; Talaska, D.; Watt, R. D.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes the results of a series of tests on the TPC superconducting magnet cryogenic system which occurred during the winter and spring of 1983. The tests occurred at interaction region 2 of the PEP colliding beam facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The TPC Magnet Cryogenic System which was tested includes the following major components: a remote helium compressor with a full flow liquid nitrogen purification station, 400 meters of high pressure supply and low pressure return lines; and locally a CTi Model 2800 refrigerator with two Sulzer gas bearing turbines, the TPC magnet control dewar, 70 meters of transfer lines, and the TPC thin superconducting solenoid magnet. In addition, there is a conditioner (liquid nitrogen heat exchangers and gas heaters) system for cooldown and warmup of the magnet. This report describes the local cryogenic system and describes the various steps in the cooldown and operation of the TPC magnet. The tests were successful in that they showed that the TPC magnet could be cooled down in 24 hours and the magnet could be operated on the refrigerator or a helium pump with adequate cooling margin.

  15. Dust grains potential variation in a Vasyliunas Cairns-distributed plasmas with negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abid, A. A.; Khan, M. Z.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dust grains' potential variation is presented by using a non-equilibrium complex (dusty) plasma following the Vasyliunas Cairns (VC)-distribution, in which the components such as the electrons, ions [positive and negative], and dust grains have negative charge. For this reason, mathematical statement of currents is solved for dust grains having negatively charge to accomplish the equilibrium state value (viz., qd = constant) in the presence of VC-distributed plasmas. Indeed, the current balance equations are modified due to the streaming/nonequilibrium distributed negative ions. Numerically, it is assessed that the important plasma variable, for example, spectral index α, spectral index κ , negative ions streaming velocity (U0), and negative ions number density ( ρ ) , significantly influences the dust grain surface potential ( | ψ d | ) by: (i) increasing the value of spectral index kappa ( κ ) and negative ions density ( ρ ) , the magnitude of dust surface potential ( | ψ d | ) decreases and (ii) increasing the values of spectral index α and negative ions streaming velocity (U0), dust grains surface potential ( | ψ d | ) increases. The relevance to low-temperature research center in a non-equilibrium dusty (complex) plasma is precisely discussed by associating oxygen ions (negative and positive) species.

  16. Size scaling of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fantz, U. Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-08

    The RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source (H{sup −}, D{sup −}) for the international fusion experiment ITER has a width of 0.9 m and a height of 1.9 m and is based on a ⅛ scale prototype source being in operation at the IPP test facilities BATMAN and MANITU for many years. Among the challenges to meet the required parameters in a caesiated source at a source pressure of 0.3 Pa or less is the challenge in size scaling of a factor of eight. As an intermediate step a ½ scale ITER source went into operation at the IPP test facility ELISE with the first plasma in February 2013. The experience and results gained so far at ELISE allowed a size scaling study from the prototype source towards the ITER relevant size at ELISE, in which operational issues, physical aspects and the source performance is addressed, highlighting differences as well as similarities. The most ITER relevant results are: low pressure operation down to 0.2 Pa is possible without problems; the magnetic filter field created by a current in the plasma grid is sufficient to reduce the electron temperature below the target value of 1 eV and to reduce together with the bias applied between the differently shaped bias plate and the plasma grid the amount of co-extracted electrons. An asymmetry of the co-extracted electron currents in the two grid segments is measured, varying strongly with filter field and bias. Contrary to the prototype source, a dedicated plasma drift in vertical direction is not observed. As in the prototype source, the performance in deuterium is limited by the amount of co-extracted electrons in short as well as in long pulse operation. Caesium conditioning is much harder in deuterium than in hydrogen for which fast and reproducible conditioning is achieved. First estimates reveal a caesium consumption comparable to the one in the prototype source despite the large size.

  17. Production of intense beams of polarized negative hydrogen ions by double charge exchange in alkali vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruëbler, W.; Schmelzbach, P. A.

    1983-07-01

    The intensity of the polarized negative hydrogen ion beam of the ETHZ atomic beam polarized ion source has been substantially improved by a new double charge exchange device. Increasing the diameter of the charge exchange canal to 1.4 cm results in a beam output of the source of 6 μA of polarized negative hydrogen ions. Further improvements of the charge exchanger are proposed and discussed. With an updated design of the atomic beam apparatus, beams of 0.5 mA polarized negative hydrogen ions may be obtained from such a source.

  18. Installation of spectrally selective imaging system in RF negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, K.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Heinemann, B.; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Nakano, H.; Osakabe, M.; Tsumori, K.; Geng, S.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.

    2016-02-01

    A spectrally selective imaging system has been installed in the RF negative ion source in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-relevant negative ion beam test facility ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) to investigate distribution of hydrogen Balmer-α emission (Hα) close to the production surface of hydrogen negative ion. We selected a GigE vision camera coupled with an optical band-path filter, which can be controlled remotely using high speed network connection. A distribution of Hα emission near the bias plate has been clearly observed. The same time trend on Hα intensities measured by the imaging diagnostic and the optical emission spectroscopy is confirmed.

  19. NEGATIVE-ION MASS SPECTROMETRY OF SULFONYLUREA HERBICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfonylurea herbicides have been studied using neg-ion desorption chem.-ionization (DCI) mass spectrometry (MS) and DCI-MS/MS techniques. Both {M-H]- and M.- ions were obsd. in the DCI mass spectra. The collisonally activated dissocn. (CAD) spectra were characteristic of the str...

  20. Study on transport of negative ion plasma using dc laser photodetachment method

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, S.; Kasuya, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Wada, M.; Matsumoto, Y.

    2010-02-15

    Transport of negative ion containing plasma was studied in a hydrogen plasma by injecting a semiconductor laser to make an electron density perturbation by photodetachment of negative ions. Change due to laser irradiation on electron saturation current to a Langmuir probe and that on electron current extracted through an orifice biased at the anode potential were measured phase sensitively by a lock-in-amplifier. The measured transport velocity of the negative ion containing plasma was about 1.4x10{sup 5} cm/s for both cases. The photodetachment signal measured through the orifice had given a larger ratio of negative ion density to electron density. Change in transport of negative ion containing plasma around the Langmuir probe has been also investigated by detecting photodetachment signal onto electron current extracted through an orifice.

  1. The effects of CO2 on the negative reactant ions of IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Glenn E.

    1995-01-01

    In the presence of CO2, the negative reactant ions of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) are ion clusters of CO4(-) and CO3(-). Methyl salicylate is ionized by the CO4(-)(H2O(n))(N2(m)) reactant ions, but not by the CO3(-)(H2O(n))(N2(m)) reactant ions. While the CO4(-) ions are formed by direct association, the CO3(-) ions require additional energy to be formed. The additional energy is provided by either excited neutral gas molecules in a metastable state or UV (ultraviolet) radiation.

  2. Evidence for the existence of negative ions in the D and lower E regions at twilight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Evidence for negative ions in the lower ionosphere is based on the difference between simultaneously measured profiles of electron and positive ion density. The electron density profiles reported were obtained from ground-to-rocket radio wave absorption measurements while Gerdien ion traps were used to measure the positive ion profiles. Results from a series of three rockets launched from Thumba, India near sunset on 27 March, 1970 indicate that a significant number of negative ions are formed at altitudes as high as 95 km at twilight.

  3. Soliton propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma at critical density of negative ions: Effects of gyratory and thermal motions of ions

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, Hitendra K.; Kawata, Shigeo

    2007-10-15

    The effects of gyratory and thermal motions of ions on soliton propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma that contains positive ions, negative ions, and electrons are studied at a critical density of negative ions. Since at this critical negative ion density the nonlinear term of the relevant Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation vanishes, a higher order of nonlinearity is considered by retaining higher-order perturbation terms in the expansion of dependent quantities together with the appropriate set of stretched coordinates. Under this situation, time-dependent perturbation leads to the evolution of modified KdV solitons, which are governed by a modified form of the KdV equation that has an additional term due to the density gradient present in the plasma. On the basis of the solution of this equation and obliquely applied magnetic field, the effects of gyratory and thermal motions of ions are analyzed on the soliton propagation for three cases, n{sub n0}n{sub e0}, together with n{sub n0} (n{sub e0}) as the density of negative ions (electrons). The role of the negative ions in the evolution of the modes and the solitons is also discussed. Under the limiting cases, our calculations reduce to the ones obtained by other investigators in the past. This substantiates the generality of the present analysis.

  4. Mobilities of negative halogen ions in various gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Meisels, G. G.

    1981-11-01

    The mobilities of SF6(-) in He and of F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-) in Ar, Xe, H2, N2, CO, and CH4, have been investigated over the field-strength (E/P) range of 5 to 25 V/cm Torr using time-resolved high pressure mass spectrometry and an ion source with coaxial electron entrance and ion drift fields. The reduced mobilities obtained by this method are in good agreement with those obtained in drift tubes when comparison is possible. Results are compared with Langevin polarization limits and with the drift properties of isoelectronic positive alkali ions measured previously.

  5. A tandem time-of-flight spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence measurements with soft x-ray excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strâhlman, Christian; Sankari, Rami; Kivimäki, Antti; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Nyholm, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly constructed spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence spectroscopy of gaseous samples. The instrument consists of two time-of-flight ion spectrometers and a magnetic momentum filter for deflection of electrons. The instrument can measure double and triple coincidences between mass-resolved negative and positive ions with high detection efficiency. First results include identification of several negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence channels following inner-shell photoexcitation of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).

  6. A tandem time-of-flight spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence measurements with soft x-ray excitation.

    PubMed

    Stråhlman, Christian; Sankari, Rami; Kivimäki, Antti; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Nyholm, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly constructed spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence spectroscopy of gaseous samples. The instrument consists of two time-of-flight ion spectrometers and a magnetic momentum filter for deflection of electrons. The instrument can measure double and triple coincidences between mass-resolved negative and positive ions with high detection efficiency. First results include identification of several negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence channels following inner-shell photoexcitation of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). PMID:26827311

  7. Trial of a negative ion generator device in remediating problems related to indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, W.; Camp, J.; Horstman, S. )

    1991-06-01

    It has been suggested that supplementation of indoor air with negative ions can improve air quality. This study examined the effects of a negative ion-generator device on air contaminants and symptom reporting in two office buildings. Separate sets of functional and nonfunctional negative ion generators were monitored using a double blind, crossover design involving two 5-week exposure periods. There were no detectable direct or residual effects of negative ion generator use on air ion levels, airborn particulates, carbon dioxide levels, or symptom reporting. Symptom reporting declined at both sites initially and appeared to be consistent with placebo effect. Job dissatisfaction was an apparent contributor to symptom reporting, with a magnitude comparable to presumed effects of air quality. Further testing of such devices is needed before they should be considered for office air quality problems.

  8. Negative-continuum dielectronic recombination for heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Artemyev, A.N.; Yerokhin, V.A.; Beier, T.; Kozhuharov, C.; Eichler, J.; Klasnikov, A.E.; Shabaev, V.M.; Stoehlker, T.

    2003-05-01

    The process of recombination of an electron with a bare heavy nucleus via the creation of a free-positron-bound-electron pair is considered. This process is denoted as 'negative-continuum dielectronic recombination' because it results in the capture of an incident electron into a bound state accompanied by a transition of a negative-continuum electron into a bound state. The calculations are performed for a wide range of incident electron energies for Z=82 and 92.

  9. Extraction and neutralization of positive and negative ions from a pulsed electronegative inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, D.; el Otell, Z.; Bowden, M. D.; Braithwaite, N. St. J.

    2015-12-01

    Almost electron-free (ion-ion) plasmas can be transiently formed during the afterglow phase of pulsed plasmas in electronegative gases. In ion-ion plasmas, both positive and negative ions can be extracted which makes them advantageous for a number of applications. In this paper, we investigate the extraction and acceleration of positive and negative ion beams from a pulsed inductively coupled plasma in SF6. The plasma is bounded by two electrodes biased synchronously with the discharge modulation. It is shown that when a DC bias voltage is applied during the afterglow phase, positive/negative ions are accelerated in a positive/negative space charge sheath formed in front of one of the electrodes. The energy of extracted ions closely follows the amplitude of the applied bias voltage (25-150 V) and the peak beam current density reaches 2 A m-2. With a view to using the described system as a source of energetic neutral beams for low damage material processing, simultaneous extraction and surface neutralization of positive and negative ions using an extraction electrode with high aspect ratio apertures is investigated.

  10. On the formation and destruction of chlorine negative ions in the D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    We have investigated the possible reactions of chlorine atoms, chlorine monoxide, and hydrogen chloride with D region negative ions. The mesospheric concentrations of the neutral chlorine gases have been predicted with a diurnally varying one-dimensional model of the upper atmosphere. Despite the low abundances of chlorine compounds in air their high reactivity leads to the formation of substantial quantities of clorine negative ions at high altitudes. The concentration of chlorine ions is limited in daylight by rapid reactions with oxygen and hydrogen atoms and at night by the competitive production of other stable ions. The presence of chlorine negative ions in the upper atmosphere is consistent with in situ mass spectrometer observations of charged species. The abundance of chlorinated ions in the D region may be correlated with mesospheric nitric oxide and water vapor concentrations.

  11. Optimum plasma grid bias for a negative hydrogen ion source operation with Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, Marthe; Sasao, Mamiko; Wada, Motoi; McAdams, Roy

    2016-02-01

    The functions of a biased plasma grid of a negative hydrogen (H-) ion source for both pure volume and Cs seeded operations are reexamined. Proper control of the plasma grid bias in pure volume sources yields: enhancement of the extracted negative ion current, reduction of the co-extracted electron current, flattening of the spatial distribution of plasma potential across the filter magnetic field, change in recycling from hydrogen atomic/molecular ions to atomic/molecular neutrals, and enhanced concentration of H- ions near the plasma grid. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with Cs with additional direct emission of negative ions under positive ion and neutral hydrogen bombardment onto the plasma electrode.

  12. Determination of N-linked glycosylation in viral glycoproteins by negative ion mass spectrometry and ion mobility

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, David; Harvey, David J.; Halldorsson, Steinar; Doores, Katie J.; Pritchard, Laura K.; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Bowden, Thomas A.; Crispin, Max

    2016-01-01

    Summary Glycan analysis of virion-derived glycoproteins is challenging due to the difficulties in glycoprotein isolation and low sample abundance. Here, we describe how ion mobility mass spectrometry can be used to obtain spectra from virion samples. We also describe how negative ion fragmentation of glycans can be used to probe structural features of virion glycans. PMID:26169737

  13. Magnetized retarding field energy analyzer measuring the particle flux and ion energy distribution of both positive and negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane; Dudin, Stanislav

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the development of a magnetized retarding field energy analyzer (MRFEA) used for positive and negative ion analysis. The two-stage analyzer combines a magnetic electron barrier and an electrostatic ion energy barrier allowing both positive and negative ions to be analyzed without the influence of electrons (co-extracted or created downstream). An optimal design of the MRFEA for ion-ion beams has been achieved by a comparative study of three different MRFEA configurations, and from this, scaling laws of an optimal magnetic field strength and topology have been deduced. The optimal design consists of a uniform magnetic field barrier created in a rectangular channel and an electrostatic barrier consisting of a single grid and a collector placed behind the magnetic field. The magnetic barrier alone provides an electron suppression ratio inside the analyzer of up to 6000, while keeping the ion energy resolution below 5 eV. The effective ion transparency combining the magnetic and electrostatic sections of the MRFEA is measured as a function of the ion energy. It is found that the ion transparency of the magnetic barrier increases almost linearly with increasing ion energy in the low-energy range (below 200 eV) and saturates at high ion energies. The ion transparency of the electrostatic section is almost constant and close to the optical transparency of the entrance grid. We show here that the MRFEA can provide both accurate ion flux and ion energy distribution measurements in various experimental setups with ion beams or plasmas run at low pressure and with ion energies above 10 eV.

  14. Study of Direct Current Negative Ion Source for Medicine Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, I.; Piunov, I.

    2005-04-06

    Status of dc H- ion source development for tandem accelerator of boron capture neutron therapy is described. Upgrade and study of the Penning surface-plasma source with hollow cathodes was continued. Results of source optimization, of ion optic computer simulation, and of emittance measurement are presented. The upgraded source delivers dc H- beam with energy 25 kV, current 8 mA, 1rms emittance JukcyX {approx} 0.2 {pi} mm{center_dot}mrad, JukcyY {approx} 0.3 {pi} mm{center_dot}mrad at discharge power {<=} 0.5 kW.

  15. MeV negative ion source from ultra-intense laser-matter interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Ramakrishna, B.; Doria, D.; Prasad, R.; Borghesi, M.; Andreev, A. A.; Steinke, S.; Schnuerer, M.; Nickles, P. V.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2012-02-15

    Experimental demonstration of negative ion acceleration to MeV energies from sub-micron size droplets of water spray irradiated by ultra-intense laser pulses is presented. Thanks to the specific target configuration and laser parameters, more than 10{sup 9} negative ions per steradian solid angle in 5% energy bandwidth are accelerated in a stable and reliable manner. To our knowledge, by virtue of the ultra-short duration of the emission, this is by far the brightest negative ion source reported. The data also indicate the existence of beams of neutrals with at least similar numbers and energies.

  16. Negative ion beam injection apparatus with magnetic shield and electron removal means

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.; Chan, Chun F.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1994-01-01

    A negative ion source is constructed to produce H.sup.- ions without using Cesium. A high percentage of secondary electrons that typically accompany the extracted H.sup.- are trapped and eliminated from the beam by permanent magnets in the initial stage of acceleration. Penetration of the magnetic field from the permanent magnets into the ion source is minimized. This reduces the destructive effect the magnetic field could have on negative ion production and extraction from the source. A beam expansion section in the extractor results in a strongly converged final beam.

  17. Modeling of surface-dominated plasmas: From electric thruster to negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Taccogna, F.; Schneider, R.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2008-02-15

    This contribution shows two important applications of the particle-in-cell/monte Carlo technique on ion sources: modeling of the Hall thruster SPT-100 for space propulsion and of the rf negative ion source for ITER neutral beam injection. In the first case translational degrees of freedom are involved, while in the second case inner degrees of freedom (vibrational levels) are excited. Computational results show how in both cases, plasma-wall and gas-wall interactions play a dominant role. These are secondary electron emission from the lateral ceramic wall of SPT-100 and electron capture from caesiated surfaces by positive ions and atoms in the rf negative ion source.

  18. Electron density measurement of cesium seeded negative ion source by surface wave probe

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaki, M.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Ikeda, K.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Shibuya, M.; Sato, M.; Sekiguchi, H.; Komada, S.; Kondo, T.; Hayashi, H.; Asano, E.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2012-02-15

    Electron density measurements of a large-scaled negative ion source were carried out with a surface wave probe. By comparison of the electron densities determined with the surface wave probe and a Langmuir probe, it was confirmed that the surface wave probe is highly available for diagnostic of the electron density in H{sup -} ion sources. In addition, it was found that the ratio of the electron density to the H{sup -} ion density dramatically decreases with increase of a bias voltage and the H{sup -} ions become dominant negative particles at the bias voltage of more than 6 V.

  19. Kinetic modeling of particle dynamics in H{sup −} negative ion sources (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Hatayama, A. Shibata, T.; Nishioka, S.; Ohta, M.; Yasumoto, M.; Nishida, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Fukano, A.; Mizuno, T.

    2014-02-15

    Progress in the kinetic modeling of particle dynamics in H{sup −} negative ion source plasmas and their comparisons with experiments are reviewed, and discussed with some new results. Main focus is placed on the following two topics, which are important for the research and development of large negative ion sources and high power H{sup −} ion beams: (i) Effects of non-equilibrium features of EEDF (electron energy distribution function) on H{sup −} production, and (ii) extraction physics of H{sup −} ions and beam optics.

  20. High-ion temperature experiments with negative-ion-based neutral beam injection heating in Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Goto, M.; Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Ashikawa, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Murakami, S.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Inagaki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Peterson, B. J.; Ida, K.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; LHD Experimental Group

    2005-07-01

    High-Z plasmas have been produced with Ar and/or Ne gas fuelling to increase the ion temperature in Large Helical Device (LHD) plasmas heated with high-energy negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (NBI). Although the electron heating is dominant in the high-energy NBI heating, the direct ion heating power is significantly enhanced in low-density plasmas due to both an increase in the beam absorption (ionization) power and a reduction of the ion density in the high-Z plasmas. Intensive neon- and/or argon-glow discharge cleaning works well to suppress dilution of the high-Z plasmas with wall-absorbed hydrogen. As a result, the ion temperature increases with an increase in the ion heating power normalized by the ion density and reaches 10 keV. An increase in the ion temperature is also observed with the addition of centrally focused electron cyclotron resonance heating to a low-density and high-Z NBI plasma, suggesting improvement of the ion transport. The results obtained in the high-Z plasma experiments with high-energy NBI heating suggest that an increase in the direct ion heating power and improvement of the ion transport are essential to ion temperature rise, and that a high-ion temperature could be obtained as well in hydrogen plasmas with low-energy positive-NBI heating which is planned in the near future in the LHD.

  1. Research progress on ionic plasmas generated in an intense hydrogen negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Takeiri, Y. Tsumori, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.; Sekiguchi, H.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Characteristics of ionic plasmas, observed in a high-density hydrogen negative ion source, are investigated with a multi-diagnostics system. The ionic plasma, which consists of hydrogen positive- and negative-ions with a significantly low-density of electrons, is generated in the ion extraction region, from which the negative ions are extracted through the plasma grid. The negative ion density, i.e., the ionic plasma density, as high as the order of 1×10{sup 17}m{sup −3}, is measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy, while the electron density is lower than 1×10{sup 16}m{sup −3}, which is confirmed with millimeter-wave interferometer. Reduction of the negative ion density is observed at the negative ion extraction, and at that time the electron flow into the ionic plasma region is observed to conserve the charge neutrality. Distribution of the plasma potential is measured in the extraction region in the direction normal to the plasma grid surface with a Langmuir probe, and the results suggest that the sheath is formed at the plasma boundary to the plasma grid to which the bias voltage is applied. The beam extraction should drive the negative ion transport in the ionic plasma across the sheath formed on the extraction surface. Larger reduction of the negative ions at the beam extraction is observed in a region above the extraction aperture on the plasma grid, which is confirmed with 2D image measurement of the Hα emission and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The electron distribution is also measured near the plasma grid surface. These various properties observed in the ionic plasma are discussed.

  2. Test Beam Results for ALICE TPC Upgrade Prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, James; Alice Tpc-Upgrade Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The ALICE detector is one of four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and its main purpose is to study the quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector within ALICE, and currently has an intrinsic rate limitation of 3 kHz. The LHC will be upgraded during Long Shutdown 2 in 2018 to have Pb-Pb collision rates up to 50 kHz, and so the TPC readout must be accordingly upgraded. This will be done by replacing the current Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber assembly, which uses a gating grid to prevent ion backflow, with Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors such as Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) and Micro-Mesh Gaseous Structures (MMGs), which allow for continuous rather than gated readout. A substantial R&D effort is underway for a 4-GEM design, as well as an alternate 2-GEM/MMG design. Prototypes of each design were tested in November-December 2014 at the PS and SPS beams at CERN; the results for the 2-GEM/MMG chambers will be presented.

  3. Study of negative hydrogen ion beam optics using the 3D3V PIC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanism of negative ion extraction under real conditions with the complex magnetic field is studied by using the 3D PIC simulation code. The extraction region of the negative ion source for the negative ion based neutral beam injection system in fusion reactors is modelled. It is shown that the E x B drift of electrons is caused by the magnetic filter and the electron suppression magnetic field, and the resultant asymmetry of the plasma meniscus. Furthermore, it is indicated that that the asymmetry of the plasma meniscus results in the asymmetry of negative ion beam profile including the beam halo. It could be demonstrated theoretically that the E x B drift is not significantly weakened by the elastic collisions of the electrons with neutral particles.

  4. Detection of artificially created negative ion clouds with incoherent scatter radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sultan, Peter J.; Mendillo, Michael; Oliver, William L.; Holt, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The physical mechanisms by which negative ions change the shape of the incoherent scatter spectrum, and the way in which shape changes may be used to detect the presence of heavy positive and negative ions in an ambient ionosphere are investigated. In order to detect heavy negative ions, the temperature structure of the ionosphere is fixed to a prevent average measurement, and any changes in spectral shape during the experiment are interpreted as being caused by changes in composition, and not by changes in the temperature ratio Te/Ti. The spatial and temporal development of heavy negative ion plasma clouds created during four active chemical release experiments was observed. Concentrations of 10-40-percent SF6(-) were detected in SPINEX 1, SPINEX 2, and IMS data sets. An average uncertainty of +/-10-percent SF6(-) is present in all three experiments. Concentrations of 30-percent Br(-) were detected in the NICARE 1 release, with uncertainties of +/-4 percent.

  5. Study of negative hydrogen ion beam optics using the 3D3V PIC model

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, K.; Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.

    2015-04-08

    The mechanism of negative ion extraction under real conditions with the complex magnetic field is studied by using the 3D PIC simulation code. The extraction region of the negative ion source for the negative ion based neutral beam injection system in fusion reactors is modelled. It is shown that the E x B drift of electrons is caused by the magnetic filter and the electron suppression magnetic field, and the resultant asymmetry of the plasma meniscus. Furthermore, it is indicated that that the asymmetry of the plasma meniscus results in the asymmetry of negative ion beam profile including the beam halo. It could be demonstrated theoretically that the E x B drift is not significantly weakened by the elastic collisions of the electrons with neutral particles.

  6. Dysregulation of lysosomal morphology by pathogenic LRRK2 is corrected by TPC2 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Hockey, Leanne N.; Kilpatrick, Bethan S.; Eden, Emily R.; Lin-Moshier, Yaping; Brailoiu, G. Cristina; Brailoiu, Eugen; Futter, Clare E.; Schapira, Anthony H.; Marchant, Jonathan S.; Patel, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two-pore channels (TPCs) are endolysosomal ion channels implicated in Ca2+ signalling from acidic organelles. The relevance of these ubiquitous proteins for human disease, however, is unclear. Here, we report that lysosomes are enlarged and aggregated in fibroblasts from Parkinson disease patients with the common G2019S mutation in LRRK2. Defects were corrected by molecular silencing of TPC2, pharmacological inhibition of TPC regulators [Rab7, NAADP and PtdIns(3,5)P2] and buffering local Ca2+ increases. NAADP-evoked Ca2+ signals were exaggerated in diseased cells. TPC2 is thus a potential drug target within a pathogenic LRRK2 cascade that disrupts Ca2+-dependent trafficking in Parkinson disease. PMID:25416817

  7. Results from a double Vlasov model for negative ion extraction from volume sources

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Raridon, R.J.; Whealton, J.H.

    1998-07-01

    A new negative ion source-extraction model has been formulated and implemented which explicitly considers the motion of positive ions and the volume generation of negative ions. It is found that: (1) for high-beam currents, the beam current is limited by a transverse space-charge limit, not an emission limit; (2) there is a saddle point with a concomitant potential barrier preventing most volume produced negative ions from being extracted (the combination of 1 and 2 indicates that in some interesting cases there is the opportunity to increase extraction currents above values presently observed); (3) introduction of cesium may cause an actual increase in the transverse space-charge limit by accumulation of positive ions of cesium in the presheath.

  8. Studies of negative ions by collision-induced decomposition and hydrogen-deuterium exchange techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, D F; Sethi, S K; Shabanowitz, J

    1980-01-01

    Development of two new techniques for studying the gas phase chemistry of negative ions is reported. Collision induced dissociation (CID) of (M-1)- ions has been accomplished in a newly constructed triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. This instrument was assembled by adding two additional Finnigan quadrupole mass filters to a Finnigan Model 3200 CI mass spectrometer. Generation of (M-1)- ions is accomplished by allowing OH- and sample to react under CI conditions in the ion source. The first quadrupole mass filter, Q1, is then employed to selectively pass the (M-1)- ion into a second quadrupole filter containing argon or neon at 10(-3) torr. On collision with the inert gas the (M-1)- ions dissociate into fragments which are then mass analyzed in the third quadrupole filter, CID spectra of (M-1)- ions from twelve carbonyl compounds are presented in this paper. Ion molecule isotope exchange reactions in the CI ion source can be used to count the number of hydrogen atoms in many different chemical environments. Collisions between sample (M-1)- ions and deuterium-labeled reagent gases (ND3, D2O, EtOD) facilitate incorporation of deuterium into the negative ion if the basicities of the sample and reagent anions are similar. Thus it is possible to selectively incorporate deuterium into many organic samples by controlling the exothermicity of the acid base, ion-molecule chemistry. PMID:7428745

  9. A negative ion beam application for improving biocompatibility of polystyrene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroko; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Gotoh, Yasuhito

    2001-07-01

    Improving biocompatibility of polystyrene surface by negative-ion implantation was investigated in respect to two kinds of cells: human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) and neurons (rat adrenal phechromocytoma: PC-12h). Negative ions of silver were implanted to non-treated polystyrene dishes (NTPS) at conditions of 20 keV and 3×1015ions/cm2 with or without a pattering mask with narrow slits array of 60 μm in width. Negative ions were used to avoid charge-up problem. The contact angle of pure water on ion-implanted NTPS surface was about 75°, which was lower than 86° for the original surface of NTPS. It was found from XPS surface analysis that this change to hydrophilic surface was caused by introduced functional groups of C-O, C=O, and O-C=O, during and after the ion implantation. After cell culture experiment, HUVEC cells attached only on the ion-implanted region of NTPS. On the ion-implanted narrow region with a width of 60 μm, attached HUVEC cells aligned with a longitudinal direction. As for PC-12h, the neuron cells also showed the same selective attachment property on the patterned NTPS surface by ion implantation. Besides, neurites of neural protrusion extended from cell body were also attached only on the ion-implanted region.

  10. A Benign, Low Z Electron Capture Agent for Negative Ion TPCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martoff, C. J.; Dion, M. P.; Hosack, M.; Barton, D.; Black, J. K.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified nitromethane (CH3NO2) as an effective electron capture agent for negative ion TPCs (NITPCs). We present drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion measurements for negative ion gas mixtures using nitromethane as the capture agent. Not only is nitromethane substantially more benign than the only other identified capture agent, CS2, but its low atomic number will enable the use of the NITPC as a photoelectric X-ray polarimeter in the 1-10 keV band.

  11. Peripheral nerve regeneration through a silicone chamber implanted with negative carbon ions: Possibility to clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated whether a tube with its inner surface implanted with negative-charged carbon ions (C- ions) would enable axons to extend over a distance greater than 10 mm. The tube was found to support nerves regenerating across a 15-mm-long inter-stump gap. We also investigated whether a C- ion-implanted tube pretreated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes peripheral nerve regeneration. The C- ion implanted tube accelerated nerve regeneration, and this effect was enhanced by bFGF. Silicone treated with C- ions showed increased hydrophilic properties and cellular affinity, and axon regeneration was promoted with this increased biocompatibility.

  12. Development of cesium-free negative hydrogen ion source by using sheet plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Takuya; Iijima, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yuta; Takimoto, Tosikio; Tonegawa, Akira; Sato, Kohnosuke; Kawamura, Kazutaka

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrated the production of hydrogen negative ions in cesium-free discharge by using the magnetized sheet plasma. Plasma crossed with a vertical gas flow system and extracting H- beams from the sheet plasma. Under a secondary hydrogen gas entering the hydrogen plasma, the peak position of the hydrogen plasma is localized in the periphery of the sheet plasma. The maximum negative ion beam is successfully extracted using grids located in the periphery of the sheet plasma. The extraction current density is about 8 mA/cm2 at extraction voltage is 2 kV and discharge current of 30 A. The extraction negative ion current density is saturated at the extraction voltage is 2 kV for the limit of the negative ion density in the periphery region of the sheet plasma. On the other hand, the extraction current is saturated (3 mA/cm2) with increasing extraction voltage and the negative ions are not detected without the secondary gas flow (0 sccm). This curve depends on the electrons present. Therefore, it is considered that the negative ion current against the extraction current is around 60% from the ratio of the extraction current and the extraction electron current.

  13. Negative Ion Metal Etching by Employing Magnetic Filter in Halogen Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiike, Y.

    1998-10-01

    To neutralize the positively charged-up bottom surfaces of high aspect ratio holes or gaps, generation of negative ions in halogen downstream plasmas and their alternate irradiation by the transformer coupling of the RF field with the electrode have been studied. In the previous work, the Si etching employing negative ions revealed the high etching reactivity which resulted from the fact that dominant negative species were formed by ions of atoms like F^- in SF6 and Cl^- in Cl2 plasmas. It is expected that the negative ion etching is more effective for metals because the metal bonding is weakened by supply of negative charge. Indeed, the Al-Si-Cu etch rate of 130 nm/sec was achieved. However, the negative ions are difficult to be introduced to an electrode covered by insulators such as an electrostatic chucking due to generation of the self biasing. To overcome this problem, the trapping of electrons was examined in the downstream choline plasma by employing a magnetic filter, which consisted of a pair of water-cooled high current coils set in the etching chamber. The ratio of positively biasing to negatively biasing saturation currents was reduced as low as several. However, at present still remained electrons generate a little self biasing, thus lowering Al etch rates.

  14. Negative ion production by backscattering from alkali-metal surfaces bombarded by ions of hydrogen and deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, P.J.

    1980-03-01

    Measurements have been made of the total backscattered D/sup -/ and H/sup -/ yields from thick, clean targets of Cs, Rb, K, Na, and Li, bombarded with H/sub 2//sup +/, H/sub 3//sup +/, D/sub 2//sup +/, and D/sub 3//sup +/ with incident energies from 0.15 to 4.0 keV/nucleus. All of the measurements were made at background pressures less than 10/sup -9/ Torr and the alkali-metal targets were evaporated onto a cold substrate (T = 77K) in situ to assure thick, uncontaminated targets. Measurements of the H/sup -/ yield from various transition metal targets with thin coverages of alkali-metals have also been made as a function of the surface work function. The negative ion yields are discussed in terms of the probabilities of reflection of the incident particles, of formation of the negative ion at the surface and of the survival of the negative ion leaving the surface. For each thick alkali-metal target, the negative ion yield measurements have been used in a least squares fit to determine two parameters in a theoretically derived expression for the negative ion yield. The parameters obtained from a thick Na target have been used to calculate the yield from a Cu target with thin coverage of Na (such that the surface work function is equal to thick Na).

  15. Plasma instability in the presence of negative ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. A., III; Ramaiah, Raghu

    1987-01-01

    Ion density fluctuations are studied in a diffusion-controlled argon plasma containing, as a dilutant, two electron-attaching species, carbon dioxide and sulfur hexafluoride. It is found that the system becomes increasingly unstable as the concentration of the electron-attaching species is increased. Nonlinear mode-mode couplings have been identified and the coupling coefficients for these interactions have been computed. Turbulent fluctuations are observed to have pronounced three-dimensionality with distinct axial and azimuthal behaviors. The power spectra of these fluctuations are composed of many discrete modes. The importance of changes in the total discharge pressure is dependent on the electron-attachment cross section of the dilutant species. From these results it is shown that the ionization instability is probably responsible for the observed phenomenon.

  16. Aperture Size Effect on Extracted Negative Ion Current Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Esch, H. P. L.; Svensson, L.; Riz, D.

    2009-03-01

    This paper discusses experimental results obtained at the 1 MV testbed at CEA Cadarache that appear to show a higher extracted D- current density from small apertures. Plasma grids with different shapes have been installed and tested. All grids had one single aperture. The tests were done in volume operation and in caesium operation. We tested four grids, two with O/14 mm, one with O/11 mm and one with O/8 mm apertures. No aperture size effect was observed in volume operation. In caesiated operation the extracted current density for the O/8 mm aperture appears to be significantly higher (˜50%) than for the O/14 mm aperture. Simulations with a 3D Monte Carlo Trajectory Following Code have shown an aperture size effect of about 20%. Finally, as byproducts of the experiments, data on backstreaming positive ions and the temperature of the plasma grid have been obtained.

  17. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Scrivens, R. Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T.

    2014-02-15

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H{sup −} linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H{sup −} beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  18. Twenty Five Years of Vibrational Kinetics and Negative Ion Production in H2 Plasmas: Modelling Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Capitelli, M.; De Pascale, O.; Diomede, P.; Gorse, C.; Longo, S.; Pagano, D.; Gicquel, A.; Hassouni, K.

    2005-04-06

    Different approaches to study vibrational kinetics coupled to electron one for modeling different kinds of negative ion sources are presented. In particular two types of sources are investigated. The first one is a classical negative ion source in which the plasma is generated by thermoemitted electrons; in the second one, electrons already present in the mixture are accelerated by an RF field to sufficiently high energy to ionize the gas molecules. For the first kind of ion source a new computational scheme is presented to couple heavy particle and electron kinetics. Moreover models developed for an RF inductive discharge and for a parallel plate discharge are described.

  19. MeV negative ion generation from ultra-intense laser interaction with a water spray

    SciTech Connect

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Ramakrishna, B.; Borghesi, M.; Doria, D.; Zepf, M.; Sarri, G.; Ehrentraut, L.; Steinke, S.; Sandner, W.; Schnuerer, M.; Andreev, A.; Nickles, P. V.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2011-08-01

    MeV negative oxygen ions are obtained from a water spray target irradiated by high intensity (5 x 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) and ultrashort (50 fs) laser pulses. Generation of negative ions is ascribed to electron-capture processes that the laser-accelerated high-energy positive ion experiences when it interacts with atoms in the spray. This mechanism implies the existence of a large number of MeV neutral oxygen atoms, which is consistent with indirect experimental evidence.

  20. High voltage holding in the negative ion sources with cesium deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Abdrashitov, G.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O.

    2016-02-01

    High voltage holding of the large surface-plasma negative ion source with cesium deposition was studied. It was found that heating of ion-optical system electrodes to temperature >100 °C facilitates the source conditioning by high voltage pulses in vacuum and by beam shots. The procedure of electrode conditioning and the data on high-voltage holding in the negative ion source with small cesium seed are described. The mechanism of high voltage holding improvement by depletion of cesium coverage is discussed.

  1. High voltage holding in the negative ion sources with cesium deposition.

    PubMed

    Belchenko, Yu; Abdrashitov, G; Ivanov, A; Sanin, A; Sotnikov, O

    2016-02-01

    High voltage holding of the large surface-plasma negative ion source with cesium deposition was studied. It was found that heating of ion-optical system electrodes to temperature >100 °C facilitates the source conditioning by high voltage pulses in vacuum and by beam shots. The procedure of electrode conditioning and the data on high-voltage holding in the negative ion source with small cesium seed are described. The mechanism of high voltage holding improvement by depletion of cesium coverage is discussed. PMID:26932002

  2. Data links for the EOS TPC

    SciTech Connect

    Bieser, F.; Jones, R.; McParland, C.

    1990-10-01

    We report on the design and performance of high speed data links and slower configuration control links used between the EOS TPC detector and the data processing electronics. Data rates of 5MBytes/s/link are maintained over 30m with optical isolation. Pedestal subtraction, hit detection, and data reordering are performed online. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Performance simulation studies for the ALICE TPC GEM upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljunggren, M.

    2016-07-01

    To be able to exploit the anticipated interaction rate of 50 kHz in Pb-Pb collisions during run 3 of the LHC (beyond 2019), the ALICE TPC will be upgraded to allow continuous readout. As this is not possible with the current Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) based amplification, the readout will be replaced with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) readout chambers that can suppress ~ 99% of the ion back flow. The space charge of the remaining 1% ion back flow, however, will cause significant distortions to the measured tracks of order cm. Simulation studies to characterize the distortions and test correction strategies have been performed, which show that the intrinsic momentum resolution, without these distortions, can be recovered.

  4. Role of positive ions on the surface production of negative ions in a fusion plasma reactor type negative ion source--Insights from a three dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fubiani, G.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2013-11-01

    Results from a 3D self-consistent Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC MCC) model of a high power fusion-type negative ion source are presented for the first time. The model is used to calculate the plasma characteristics of the ITER prototype BATMAN ion source developed in Garching. Special emphasis is put on the production of negative ions on the plasma grid surface. The question of the relative roles of the impact of neutral hydrogen atoms and positive ions on the cesiated grid surface has attracted much attention recently and the 3D PIC MCC model is used to address this question. The results show that the production of negative ions by positive ion impact on the plasma grid is small with respect to the production by atomic hydrogen or deuterium bombardment (less than 10%).

  5. Role of positive ions on the surface production of negative ions in a fusion plasma reactor type negative ion source—Insights from a three dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model

    SciTech Connect

    Fubiani, G.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2013-11-15

    Results from a 3D self-consistent Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC MCC) model of a high power fusion-type negative ion source are presented for the first time. The model is used to calculate the plasma characteristics of the ITER prototype BATMAN ion source developed in Garching. Special emphasis is put on the production of negative ions on the plasma grid surface. The question of the relative roles of the impact of neutral hydrogen atoms and positive ions on the cesiated grid surface has attracted much attention recently and the 3D PIC MCC model is used to address this question. The results show that the production of negative ions by positive ion impact on the plasma grid is small with respect to the production by atomic hydrogen or deuterium bombardment (less than 10%)

  6. Parallel-velocity-shear-modified drift wave in negative ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiki, R.; Kaneko, T.; Hayashi, K.; Tamura, S.; Hatakeyama, R.

    2009-03-01

    A systematic investigation of the effects of a parallel velocity shear and negative ions on the collisionless drift wave instability has for the first time been realized by simultaneously using a segmented tungsten hot plate of a Q-machine and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas in a magnetized potassium plasma. The parallel velocity shear of the positive ion flow tends to decrease the fluctuation level of the drift wave. The introduction of negative ions first increases the fluctuation level and then starts to decrease it at the negative ion exchange fraction of around 10%, while keeping the above-mentioned shear effect qualitatively. In addition, a simple dispersion relation based on the local model has been calculated to show that it can predict wave characteristics similar to the experimental results. Our findings provide a potential for gaining a more profound insight into the physics of space/circumterrestrial plasmas.

  7. Roles of a plasma grid in a negative hydrogen ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.; McAdams, R.

    2015-04-01

    The plasma grid is electrically biased with respect to other parts of source chamber wall in both volume sources and sources seeded with alkali metals. The roles of the plasma grid in these two kinds of sources will be described. The main functions of the plasma grid in volume sources are: optimizing the extracted negative ion current, reducing the co-extracted electron current, controlling the axial plasma potential profile, recycling the hydrogen atoms to molecules, concentrating the negative ions near its surface and, when biased positive, depleting the electron population near its surface. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with alkali metals. However an additional function appears in the Cs seeded sources, namely direct emission of negative ions under positive ion and neutral hydrogen bombardment.

  8. Vacuum insulation of the high energy negative ion source for fusion application.

    PubMed

    Kojima, A; Hanada, M; Hilmi, A; Inoue, T; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, M; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Tobari, H; Kobayashi, S; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2012-02-01

    Vacuum insulation on a large size negative ion accelerator with multiple extraction apertures and acceleration grids for fusion application was experimentally examined and designed. In the experiment, vacuum insulation characteristics were investigated in the JT-60 negative ion source with >1000 apertures on the grid with the surface area of ∼2 m(2). The sustainable voltages varied with a square root of the gap lengths between the grids, and decreased with number of the apertures and with the surface area of the grids. Based on the obtained results, the JT-60SA (super advanced) negative ion source is designed to produce 22 A, 500 keV D(-) ion beams for 100 s. PMID:22380274

  9. In situ analyses on negative ions in the indium-gallium-zinc oxide sputtering process

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2013-07-01

    The origin of negative ions in the dc magnetron sputtering process using a ceramic indium-gallium-zinc oxide target has been investigated by in situ analyses. The observed negative ions are mainly O{sup -} with energies corresponding to the target voltage, which originates from the target and barely from the reactive gas (O{sub 2}). Dissociation of ZnO{sup -}, GaO{sup -}, ZnO{sub 2}{sup -}, and GaO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals also contributes to the total negative ion flux. Furthermore, we find that some sputtering parameters, such as the type of sputtering gas (Ar or Kr), sputtering power, total gas pressure, and magnetic field strength at the target surface, can be used to control the energy distribution of the O{sup -} ion flux.

  10. Candidate for Laser Cooling of a Negative Ion: Observations of Bound-Bound Transitions in La-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, C. W.; Gibson, N. D.; Matyas, D. J.; Crocker, C.; Dungan, K. A.; Matola, B. R.; Rohlén, J.

    2014-08-01

    Despite the tremendous advances in laser cooling of neutral atoms and positive ions, no negatively charged ion has been directly laser cooled. The negative ion of lanthanum, La-, has been proposed as the best candidate for laser cooling of any atomic anion [S. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 81, 032503 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.032503]. Tunable infrared laser photodetachment spectroscopy is used to measure the bound-state structure of La-, revealing a spectrum of unprecedented richness with multiple bound-bound electric dipole transitions. The potential laser-cooling transition (F2e3→D1o3) is identified and its excitation energy is measured. The results confirm that La- is a very promising negative ion for laser-cooling applications.

  11. Nonadiabatic dynamics in energetic negative fluorine ions scattering from a Si(100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Qiu, Shunli; Xiong, Feifei; Lu, Jianjie; Liu, Pinyang; Ding, Bin; Li, Yuan; Cui, Ying; Guo, Yanling; Chen, Ximeng

    2015-09-01

    The dependence of the negative-ion fractions on incident energy and angle is reported for 8.5-22.5 keV F- ions scattered from a Si(100) surface at a fixed scattering angle of 38°. The negative-ion fraction increases monotonically with incident velocity for specular scattering. In particular, the variation of the fraction with incident angle is bell shaped for a given incident energy. We interpret this variation using the incident-velocity effect at short distances where the yield of negative ions depends on the number of initial neutrals. It strongly indicates that at short distances, a dynamical equilibrium population is never achieved. This nonadiabatic feature is supported by simple calculations using modified rate equations.

  12. Modeling of a negative ion source. III. Two-dimensional structure of the extraction region

    SciTech Connect

    Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P.

    2010-06-15

    The self-consistent production and transport of H{sup -} in the extraction region of a hybrid negative ion source is modeled by means of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation. The normal coordinate and one parallel coordinate with respect to the plasma grid are considered to analyze the transport of negative ions. Results show that, in order to establish space charge compensation, the extraction of surface-produced negative ions is limited by the flux of positive ions directed toward the plasma grid surface. An electrostatic barrier appears just in front of the wall, reflecting the majority of surface-produced H{sup -} and reducing by this their extraction probability to only 8.5%. Results reproduce the experimentally observed influence of the plasma grid bias voltage on the extraction identifying as a key element the presence of a saddle point in the electric potential distribution.

  13. Roles of a plasma grid in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.; McAdams, R.

    2015-04-08

    The plasma grid is electrically biased with respect to other parts of source chamber wall in both volume sources and sources seeded with alkali metals. The roles of the plasma grid in these two kinds of sources will be described. The main functions of the plasma grid in volume sources are: optimizing the extracted negative ion current, reducing the co-extracted electron current, controlling the axial plasma potential profile, recycling the hydrogen atoms to molecules, concentrating the negative ions near its surface and, when biased positive, depleting the electron population near its surface. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with alkali metals. However an additional function appears in the Cs seeded sources, namely direct emission of negative ions under positive ion and neutral hydrogen bombardment.

  14. Vibrational States of Hydrogen Molecules in One Third LHD Negative Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiura, M.; Tsumori, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Wada, M.; Inoue, T.

    2011-09-26

    The effect of the cesium on hydrogen negative ions is discussed using the vacuum ultraviolet emissions (VUV) from vibrational states of hydrogen molecules. The VUV spectrum from 90 to 165 nm is related to the H{sup -} production from the dissociative attachment of electrons to hydrogen molecules. The VUV spectra in hydrogen plasmas are measured in the extraction region of a negative ion source for neutral beam injector. Under the pure hydrogen discharge, the cesium vapor is introduced into the ion source to enhance the hydrogen negative ion density. When the same arc power of {approx}99 kW is applied in both with and without cesium admixture cases, the ratio of the observed VUV spectrum without to with cesium is not changed clearly. Therefore the production process of H{sup -} related to the wall/electrode surface would be enhanced rather than the volume production process.

  15. Laser photodetachment diagnostics of a 1/3-size negative hydrogen ion source for NBI

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, S.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.

    2015-04-08

    To investigate the flows of charged particles in front of the plasma grid (PG) in a negative hydrogen ion source, the information of the local densities of electrons and negative hydrogen ions (H-) are necessary. For this purpose, the laser photodetachment is applied for pure hydrogen plasmas and Cs-seeded plasma in a 1/3-size negative hydrogen ion source in NIFS-NBI test stand. The H- density obtained by photodetachment is calibrated by the results from cavity ring-down (CRD). The pressure dependence and PG bias dependence of the local H- density are presented and discussed. The results show that H- density increases significantly by seeding Cs into the plasma. In Cs-seeded plasma, relativity exists between the H- ion density and plasma potential.

  16. Installation of spectrally selective imaging system in RF negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, K; Wünderlich, D; Fantz, U; Heinemann, B; Kisaki, M; Nagaoka, K; Nakano, H; Osakabe, M; Tsumori, K; Geng, S; Kaneko, O; Takeiri, Y

    2016-02-01

    A spectrally selective imaging system has been installed in the RF negative ion source in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-relevant negative ion beam test facility ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) to investigate distribution of hydrogen Balmer-α emission (Hα) close to the production surface of hydrogen negative ion. We selected a GigE vision camera coupled with an optical band-path filter, which can be controlled remotely using high speed network connection. A distribution of Hα emission near the bias plate has been clearly observed. The same time trend on Hα intensities measured by the imaging diagnostic and the optical emission spectroscopy is confirmed. PMID:26931995

  17. Vacuum insulation of the high energy negative ion source for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Inoue, T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Hilmi, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2012-02-15

    Vacuum insulation on a large size negative ion accelerator with multiple extraction apertures and acceleration grids for fusion application was experimentally examined and designed. In the experiment, vacuum insulation characteristics were investigated in the JT-60 negative ion source with >1000 apertures on the grid with the surface area of {approx}2 m{sup 2}. The sustainable voltages varied with a square root of the gap lengths between the grids, and decreased with number of the apertures and with the surface area of the grids. Based on the obtained results, the JT-60SA (super advanced) negative ion source is designed to produce 22 A, 500 keV D{sup -} ion beams for 100 s.

  18. A time projection chamber for high-rate experiments: Towards an upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketzer, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is a powerful detector for three-dimensional tracking and particle identification for ultra-high multiplicity events. It is the central tracking device of many experiments, e.g. of the ALICE experiment at CERN. The necessity of a switching electrostatic gate, which prevents ions produced in the amplification region of the MWPCs from entering the drift volume, however, restricts its application to trigger rates of the order of 1 kHz. Charge amplification by Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils instead of proportional wires offers an intrinsic suppression of the ion backflow, although not to the same level as a gating grid. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations have shown that the distortions due to residual space charge from back-drifting ions can be limited to a few cm, and thus can be corrected using standard calibration techniques. A prototype GEM-TPC has been built with the largest active volume to date for a detector of this type. It has been commissioned with cosmic rays and with particle beams at the FOPI experiment at GSI, and was employed for a physics measurement with pion beams. For the future operation of the ALICE TPC at the CERN LHC beyond 2019, where Pb-Pb collision rates of 50 kHz are expected, it is planned to replace the existing MWPCs by GEM detectors, operated in a continuous, triggerless readout mode, thus allowing an increase in event rate by a factor of 100. As a first step of the R&D program, a prototype of an Inner Readout Chamber was equipped with large-size GEM foils and exposed to beams of protons, pions and electrons from the CERN PS. In this paper, new results are shown concerning ion backflow, spatial and momentum resolution of the FOPI GEM-TPC, detector calibration, and dE/dx resolution with both detector prototypes. The perspectives of a GEM-TPC for ALICE with continuous readout will be discussed.

  19. Simulation of space charge compensation in a multibeamlet negative ion beam.

    PubMed

    Sartori, E; Maceina, T J; Veltri, P; Cavenago, M; Serianni, G

    2016-02-01

    Ion beam space charge compensation occurs by cumulating in the beam potential well charges having opposite polarity, usually generated by collisional processes. In this paper we investigate the case of a H(-) ion beam drift, in a bi-dimensional approximation of the NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization phase 1) negative ion source. H(-) beam ion transport and plasma formation are studied via particle-in-cell simulations. Differential cross sections are sampled to determine the velocity distribution of secondary particles generated by ionization of the residual gas (electrons and slow H2 (+) ions) or by stripping of the beam ions (electrons, H, and H(+)). The simulations include three beamlets of a horizontal section, so that multibeamlet space charge and secondary particle diffusion between separate generation regions are considered, and include a repeller grid biased at various potentials. Results show that after the beam space charge is effectively screened by the secondary plasma in about 3 μs (in agreement with theoretical expectations), a plasma grows across the beamlets with a characteristic time three times longer, and a slight overcompensation of the electric potential is verified as expected in the case of negative ions. PMID:26932089

  20. Simulation of space charge compensation in a multibeamlet negative ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, E.; Maceina, T. J.; Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Serianni, G.

    2016-02-01

    Ion beam space charge compensation occurs by cumulating in the beam potential well charges having opposite polarity, usually generated by collisional processes. In this paper we investigate the case of a H- ion beam drift, in a bi-dimensional approximation of the NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization phase 1) negative ion source. H- beam ion transport and plasma formation are studied via particle-in-cell simulations. Differential cross sections are sampled to determine the velocity distribution of secondary particles generated by ionization of the residual gas (electrons and slow H2+ ions) or by stripping of the beam ions (electrons, H, and H+). The simulations include three beamlets of a horizontal section, so that multibeamlet space charge and secondary particle diffusion between separate generation regions are considered, and include a repeller grid biased at various potentials. Results show that after the beam space charge is effectively screened by the secondary plasma in about 3 μs (in agreement with theoretical expectations), a plasma grows across the beamlets with a characteristic time three times longer, and a slight overcompensation of the electric potential is verified as expected in the case of negative ions.

  1. Negative-Ion Catalysis of Methane to Methanol without CO2 Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesfamichael, A.; Suggs, K.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2013-05-01

    We have carried out a theoretical investigation of the catalytic activities of the atomic Y-, Ru-, At-, In-, Pd-, Ag-, Os- and Pt- ions for the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol without CO2 emission. The objective was to identify effective atomic negative ion catalysts using the data for the atomic Au- ion as the benchmark. The role of the atomic negative ions in catalysis is essentially to disrupt the C-H bonding in CH4 oxidation thereby eliminate the competition from the carbon dioxide formation. Dispersion-corrected density-functional theory has been used for the investigation. From the energy barrier calculations and the thermodynamics of the reactions, we conclude that the catalytic effect of the atomic Ag-, At-, Ru-, and Os- ions is higher than that of the atomic Au- ion catalysis of CH4 conversion to methanol. By controlling the temperature around 290, 300, 310, 320 and 325 K methane can be completely oxidized to methanol without the emission of the CO2 through the atomic Os-, Ag-, At-, Ru- and Au- ion catalysts, respectively. We conclude by recommending the investigation of the catalytic activities of combinations of the above negative ions for significant enhancement of the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol. Research supported by Army Research Office (Grant W911NF-11-1-0194); the US DOE, Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Energy Research and AFOSR (Grants FA9550-10-1-0254).

  2. Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC): State of the Council 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambiar, Raghunath; Wakou, Nicholas; Carman, Forrest; Majdalany, Michael

    The Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) is a non-profit corporation founded to define transaction processing and database benchmarks and to disseminate objective, verifiable performance data to the industry. Established in August 1988, the TPC has been integral in shaping the landscape of modern transaction processing and database benchmarks over the past twenty-two years. This paper provides an overview of the TPC's existing benchmark standards and specifications, introduces two new TPC benchmarks under development, and examines the TPC's active involvement in the early creation of additional future benchmarks.

  3. Measurement of the positron diffusion constants in polycrystalline molybdenum by the observation of positronium negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takuji; Iida, Simpei; Yamashita, Takashi; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

    2015-06-01

    We have measured the positron diffusion constants in polycrystalline molybdenum by the observation of positronium negative ions (Ps-). The Ps- ions emitted from the sample surface coated with Na were accelerated. The γ-rays from the accelerated Ps- ions were Doppler- shifted and thus the signals of self-annihilation of the Ps- ions were isolated from those of self-annihilation of para-positronium (p-Ps) or pair-annihilation of positrons in the bulk. Clear and reliable values of the diffusion constants have been obtained.

  4. Lower ionosphere large positive and negative ions are still puzzling: A potential role in ion induced aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by greatly improved possibilities in future rocket borne high mass resolution ion mass spectrometry, previous pioneering rocket borne ion-mass spectrometer measurements, made by our MPIK-Heidelberg research group in the lower ionosphere, are revisited and reanalyzed. Here the focus is placed upon puzzling observations of lower ionosphere large positive and large negative ions. These have a role in lower ionosphere free electron removal. They also have a potential role in lower ionosphere aerosol and eventually even cloud formation. Measurements and model simulations are presented.

  5. Simulation of cesium injection and distribution in rf-driven ion sources for negative hydrogen ion generation

    SciTech Connect

    Gutser, R.; Wuenderlich, D.; Fantz, U.

    2010-02-15

    Cesium seeded sources for surface generated negative hydrogen ions are major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER. Stability and delivered current density depend highly on the cesium conditions during plasma-on and plasma-off phases of the ion source. The Monte Carlo code CSFLOW3D was used to study the transport of neutral and ionic cesium in both phases. Homogeneous and intense flows were obtained from two cesium sources in the expansion region of the ion source and from a dispenser array, which is located 10 cm in front of the converter surface.

  6. Roles of negatively-charged heavy ions and nonextensivity in cylindrical and spherical dust-ion-acoustic shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ema, S. A.; Ferdousi, M.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    A rigorous theoretical investigation has been carried out on the propagation of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) waves in an unmagnetized dusty multi-ion plasma system containing nonextensive electrons, inertial negatively-charged heavy ions, positively-charged Maxwellian light ions, and negatively-charged stationary dust. The well-known reductive perturbation technique has been used to derive the modified Burgers-type equation (which describes the shock wave's properties), and its numerical solution is obtained. The basic features (viz. polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the cylindrical and the spherical DIA shock waves are investigated. The basic features of the cylindrical and the spherical DIA shock waves are found to have been significantly modified in a way that depends on the intrinsic parameters (viz. electron nonextensivity, heavy-ion's kinematic viscosity, heavy-to-light-ion number density ratio, electron-to-light-ion temperature ratio, etc.) of the considered plasma system. The characteristics of the cylindrical and the spherical DIA shock waves are observed to be qualitatively different from those of planar ones.

  7. Performance Evaluation of the COBRA GEM for the Application of the TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, Kohei; Hamagaki, Hideki; Gunji, Taku; Yamaguchi, Yorito

    2014-09-01

    Suppression of the back-drifting ions from avalanche region to drift space (IBF: Ion Backflow) is the key for a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) since IBF easily distorts the drift field. To suppress IBF, Gating Grid system is widely used for the TPC but this limits the data taking rate. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) has advantages in the reduction of IBF and high rate capability. By adopting GEM, it is possible to run a TPC continuously under high rate and high multiplicity conditions. Motivated by the study of IBF reduction for RICH with Thick COBRA, which has been developed by F. A. Amero et al., we developed COBRA GEMs for the application of a TPC. With a stack configuration, IBF reaches about 0.1 ~ 0.5%, which is ×5--10 better IBF than the standard GEMs. However, the measured energy resolution with COBRA is 20% (σ) and this is much worse than the resolution with standard GEMs. Measurement of long-time stability of gain indicates that gain of COBRA varies significantly due to charging up effect. Simulation studies based on Garfield++ are performed for understanding quantitatively the reasons of worse energy resolution and instability of gain. In this presentation, we will report the simulation studies together with the measured performance of the COBRA GEM.

  8. BRIEF COMMUNICATION: The negative ion flux across a double sheath at the formation of a virtual cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdams, R.; Bacal, M.

    2010-08-01

    For the case of negative ions from a cathode entering a plasma, the maximum negative ion flux and the positive ion flux before the formation of a virtual cathode have been calculated for particular plasma conditions. The calculation is based on a simple modification of an analysis of electron emission into a plasma containing negative ions. The results are in good agreement with a 1d3v PIC code model.

  9. Fragmentation of peptide negative molecular ions induced by resonance electron capture

    PubMed Central

    Vasil’ev, Yury V.; Figard, Benjamin J.; Morré, Jeff; Deinzer, Max L.

    2009-01-01

    A simple robust method to study resonance gas-phase reactions between neutral peptides of low volatility and free electrons has been designed and implemented. Resonance electron capture (REC) experiments were performed by several neutral model peptides and two naturally occurring peptides. The assignment of negative ions (NIs) formed in these gas-phase reactions was based on high mass-resolving power experiments. From these accurate mass measurements, it was concluded that fragment NIs formed by low (1–2 eV) energy REC are of the same types as those observed in electron capture∕transfer dissociation, where the positive charge is a factor. The main feature resulting from these REC experiments by peptides is the occurrence of zn−1 ions, which are invariably of the highest abundances in the negative ion mass spectra of larger peptides. [M–H]− NIs presumably the carboxylate anion structure dominate the REC spectra of smaller peptides. There was no evidence for the occurrence of the complementary reaction, i.e., the formations of cn+1 ions. Instead, cn ions arose without hydrogen∕proton transfer albeit with lower abundances than that observed for zn−1 ions. Only the amide forms of small peptides showed more abundant ion peaks for the cn ions than for the zn−1 ions. The mechanisms for the N–Cα bond cleavage are discussed. PMID:19655877

  10. Travelling wave ion mobility and negative ion fragmentation for the structural determination of N-linked glycans.

    PubMed

    Harvey, David J; Scarff, Charlotte A; Edgeworth, Matthew; Crispin, Max; Scanlan, Christopher N; Sobott, Frank; Allman, Sarah; Baruah, Kavitha; Pritchard, Laura; Scrivens, James H

    2013-08-01

    Travelling wave ion mobility was investigated for its ability to separate N-glycans from other compounds and for resolution of isomers. Charged glycans, exemplified by sialylated complex N-glycans released from bovine fetuin and ionised by electrospray, could be separated from residual glycopeptides allowing the minor, more highly sialylated compounds to be detected where their ions were obscured by ions from other compounds in different charge states. This technique was also found to be excellent for extracting the N-glycan profiles from contaminated samples. Structural identification of the glycans was performed by negative ion CID fragmentation, a method that provides a wealth of structurally diagnostic ions. However, fragment ions can also appear in the glycan profiles where they can be mistaken for glycan molecular ions. Fragments and molecular ions were frequently shown to have different drift time profiles, allowing them to be differentiated. Some separation of isomers was found but only for the smallest compounds. Differentiation from conformers was achieved by plotting drift time profiles of the fragments; these profiles matched those of the precursor ions where conformers were present. The techniques were applied to investigations of N-glycans released from the fungus Piptoporus betulinus where the technique was used to separate different carbohydrate types present in biological extracts. PMID:23712623

  11. Irradiation effect of carbon negative-ion implantation on polytetrafluoroethylene for controlling cell-adhesion property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommani, Piyanuch; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Takaoka, Gikan H.

    2010-10-01

    We have investigated the irradiation effect of negative-ion implantation on the changes of physical surface property of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for controlling the adhesion property of stem cells. Carbon negative ions were implanted into PTFE sheets at fluences of 1 × 10 14-1 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 and energies of 5-20 keV. Wettability and atomic bonding state including the ion-induced functional groups on the modified surfaces were investigated by water contact angle measurement and XPS analysis, respectively. An initial value of water contact angles on PTFE decreased from 104° to 88° with an increase in ion influence to 1 × 10 16 ions/cm 2, corresponding to the peak shifting of XPS C1s spectra from 292.5 eV to 285 eV with long tail on the left peak-side. The change of peak position was due to decrease of C-F 2 bonds and increase of C-C bonds with the formation of hydrophilic oxygen functional groups of OH and C dbnd O bonds after the ion implantation. After culturing rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for 4 days, the cell-adhesion properties on the C --patterned PTFE were observed by fluorescent microscopy with staining the cell nuclei and their actin filament (F-actin). The clear adhesion patterning of MSCs on the PTFE was obtained at energies of 5-10 keV and a fluence of 1 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. While the sparse patterns and the uncontrollable patterns were found at a low fluence of 3 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 and a high fluence of 3 × 10 15 ions/cm 2, respectively. As a result, we could improve the surface wettability of PTFE to control the cell-adhesion property by carbon negative-ion implantation.

  12. 100 s extraction of negative ion beams by using actively temperature-controlled plasma grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A. Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Tobari, H.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.; Grisham, L. R.

    2014-02-15

    Long pulse beam extraction with a current density of 120 A/m{sup 2} for 100 s has been achieved with a newly developed plasma grid (PG) for the JT-60SA negative ion source which is designed to produce high power and long pulse beams with a negative ion current of 130 A/m{sup 2} (22 A) and a pulse length of 100 s. The PG temperature is regulated by fluorinated fluids in order to keep the high PG temperature for the cesium-seeded negative ion production. The time constant for temperature controllability of the PG was measured to be below 10 s, which was mainly determined by the heat transfer coefficient of the fluorinated fluid. The measured decay time of the negative ion current extracted from the actively temperature-controlled PG was 430 s which was sufficient for the JT-60SA requirement, and much longer than that by inertial-cooling PG of 60 s. Obtained results of the long pulse capability are utilized to design the full size PG for the JT-60SA negative ion source.

  13. Experiment and modeling of laser photodetachment of negative ions in helium oxygen barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschiersch, Robert; Nemschokmichal, Sebastian; Meichsner, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    Helium oxygen discharges operating at atmospheric pressure are of great interest for applications, such as surface treatment of biological samples. Helium as the buffer gas keeps the driving power low, and oxygen serves as the source of radicals. The large electronegativity of oxygen results in the formation of negative ions which in turn have a remarkable influence on the discharge development. To point out this role of negative ions, the change of the discharge behavior after the laser photodetachment of negative ions is measured in a helium oxygen barrier discharge. These measurements reveal a lower breakdown voltage when firing the laser during the pre-phase of the discharge. The reason is the additional pre-ionization by the detached electrons which was proved by an 1D numeric fluid modeling. The next step is the determination of absolute number densities of negative ions by a comparison of the experimental parameter variations with those from the modeling. Furthermore, the actual role of negative ions on the discharge behavior will be emphasized by the modeling.

  14. Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus

    2012-11-15

    Reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering in Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixtures has been investigated with energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Different metal targets (Mg, Ti, Zn, In, InSn, and Sn), which are of importance for transparent conductive oxide thin film deposition, have been used to study the formation of negative ions, mainly high-energetic O{sup -}, which are supposed to induce radiation damage in thin films. Besides their energy distribution, the ions have been particularly investigated with respect to their intensity in comparison of the different target materials. To realize the comparability, various calibration factors had to be introduced. After their application, major differences in the negative ion production have been observed for the target materials. The intensity, especially of O{sup -}, differs by about two orders of magnitude. It is shown that this difference results almost exclusively from ions that gain their energy in the target sheath. Those may gain additional energy from the sputtering process or reflection at the target. Low-energetic negative ions are, however, less affected by changes of the target material. The results concerning O{sup -} formation are discussed in term of the sputtering rate from the target and are compared to models for negative ion formation.

  15. TPC2 mediates new mechanisms of platelet dense granule membrane dynamics through regulation of Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Andrea L.; Boyle, Judith A.; Di Pietro, Santiago M.

    2015-01-01

    Platelet dense granules (PDGs) are acidic calcium stores essential for normal hemostasis. They develop from late endosomal compartments upon receiving PDG-specific proteins through vesicular trafficking, but their maturation process is not well understood. Here we show that two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) is a component of the PDG membrane that regulates PDG luminal pH and the pool of releasable Ca2+. Using a genetically encoded Ca2+ biosensor and a pore mutant TPC2, we establish the function of TPC2 in Ca2+ release from PDGs and the formation of perigranular Ca2+ nanodomains. For the first time, Ca2+ spikes around PDGs—or any organelle of the endolysosome family—are visualized in real time and revealed to precisely mark organelle “kiss-and-run” events. Further, the presence of membranous tubules transiently connecting PDGs is revealed and shown to be dramatically enhanced by TPC2 in a mechanism that requires ion flux through TPC2. “Kiss-and-run” events and tubule connections mediate transfer of membrane proteins and luminal content between PDGs. The results show that PDGs use previously unknown mechanisms of membrane dynamics and content exchange that are regulated by TPC2. PMID:26202466

  16. Formations of negative ions in Sf6/N2 mixtures and their transport at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Yui; Sabo, Martin; Itoh, Haruo; Matejčík, Štefan

    2013-02-01

    Formation of negative ions initiated by interaction of thermal electrons and in the corona discharge (CD) in N2 with small admixture of SF6; was studied using the ion mobility spectrometry- orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IMS-oaTOF) at atmospheric pressure. The negative ions have been analyzed by the ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) and two-dimensional spectra (2D IMS-MS) have been recorded. We discuss the mechanisms of the negative ion formation in the N2/SF6 mixtures (0.003-0.018%) as well as the transport parameters of the ions in these mixtures. The values of the reduced ion mobilities of negative ions formed in these mixtures were determined (2.43 cm2/V s for HF2- (HF)n, 2.32 cm2/V s for NO3- (HF)n, 2.08 cm2/V s for SF5-, 2.01 cm2/V s for SOF5-, 2.00 for SOF4- 1.99 cm2/V s for SF6-, 1.83 cm2/V s for SOF5-(H2O)n and 1.73 for SOF5-(H2O)n(HF)m). The assignment of the ion mobility peaks was performed on the basis of the 2D IMS-MS spectra. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  17. Specific interaction between negative atmospheric ions and organic compounds in atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Sakai, Mami; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between negative atmospheric ions and various types of organic compounds were investigated using atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) mass spectrometry. Atmospheric negative ions such as O(2)(-), HCO(3)(-), COO(-)(COOH), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), and NO(3)(-)(HNO(3)) having different proton affinities served as the reactant ions for analyte ionization in APCDI in negative-ion mode. The individual atmospheric ions specifically ionized aliphatic and aromatic compounds with various functional groups as atmospheric ion adducts and deprotonated analytes. The formation of the atmospheric ion adducts under certain discharge conditions is most likely attributable to the affinity between the analyte and atmospheric ion and the concentration of the atmospheric ion produced under these conditions. The deprotonated analytes, in contrast, were generated from the adducts of the atmospheric ions with higher proton affinity attributable to efficient proton abstraction from the analyte by the atmospheric ion. PMID:22528201

  18. Dust acoustic solitary wave with variable dust charge: Role of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Samiran

    2005-09-15

    The role of negative ions on small but finite amplitude dust acoustic solitary wave including the effects of high and low charging rates of dust grains compared to the dust oscillation frequency in electronegative dusty plasma is investigated. In the case of high charging rate, the solitary wave is governed by Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, but in the case of low charging rate, it is governed by KdV equation with a linear damping term. Numerical investigations reveal that in both cases dust acoustic soliton sharpens (flatens) and soliton width decreases (increases) with the increase of negative-ion number density (temperature). Also, the negative ions reduce the damping rate.

  19. Formation of positive and negative ions of thymine molecules under the action of slow electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafranyosh, I. I.; Sukhoviya, M. I.; Shafranyosh, M. I.; Shimon, L. L.

    2008-12-01

    The formation of positive and negative molecules of thymine—a base of nucleic acids—under the action of slow electrons is investigated by the method of crossed electron and molecular beams. The method developed makes it possible to measure the molecular beam intensity and determine the energy dependences and absolute values of total cross sections for the formation of positive and negative ions of thymine molecules. It is found that the maximal cross section for the formation of positive ions is reached at an energy of 95 eV and its absolute value is, accordingly, 1.4 × 10-15 cm2. The total cross section for the formation of negative ions is 8.2 × 10-18 cm2 at an energy of 1.1 eV. The mass spectra of thymine molecules are measured and the cross sections of dissociative ionization are determined.

  20. Photodissociation and charge transfer dynamics of negative ions studied with femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zanni, Martin T.

    1999-12-17

    This dissertation presents studies aimed at understanding the potential energy surfaces and dynamics of isolated negative ions, and the effects of solvent on each. Although negative ions play important roles in atmospheric and solution phase chemistry, to a large extent the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of gas phase negative ions are poorly characterized, and solvent effects even less well understood. In an effort to fill this gap, the author's coworkers and the author have developed a new technique, anion femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied it to gas phase photodissociation and charge transfer processes. Studies are presented that (1) characterize the ground and excited states of isolated and clustered anions, (2) monitor the photodissociation dynamics of isolated and clustered anions, and (3) explore the charge-transfer-to-solvent states of atomic iodide clustered with polar and non-polar solvents.

  1. Theory and observation of a dynamically evolving negative ion plasma. [in F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendillo, M.; Forbes, J.

    1982-01-01

    The study described here examines the full range of negative-ion chemistry in the upper ionosphere by using current reaction rate data to investigate the many chemical paths SF6-type injections might take in an F region environment. Special attention is given to the conditions required to create heavy negative ions that persist long enough to affect the dynamical properties of the F region. The ambipolar diffusion characteristics of a three-component plasma are described, and estimates are given of the incoherent scatter spectra obtained from such a plasma. Model calculations using a first-order chemical code are defined and tested in order to investigate the actual types of negative-ion plasma capable of being created under nighttime conditions.

  2. Modeling of the rf discharge initiation in a negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, S; Hayami, T; Terasaki, R; Hatayama, A; Fukano, A

    2010-02-01

    The maintenance free rf ion source is expected to be one of the most promising candidates for the negative ion sources of plasma heating for future fusion reactors. As an alternative to the arc-discharge sources, the rf negative ion sources have been developed for H(-) production. In order to make clear the condition for the discharge initiation of the rf source, we are developing a numerical model using the finite difference time domain Monte Carlo method to analyze the electron energy distribution function in rf field. The numerical result shows that the discharge is not successfully initiated due to the wall loss unless the wall potential is considered. More self-consistent model including ion dynamics to evaluate the wall potential and the electron loss at the wall will be needed in the future. PMID:20192397

  3. Negative deuterium ions for tandem mirror next step and tandem mirror reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1980-09-25

    Recent designs for mirror fusion reactors with good power balance include ambipolar potential plugs to reduce end losses and thermal barriers to maintain a difference in electron temperature between the large-volume central cell plasma and the confining end plugs. These designs led to several new requirements for D/sup 0/ neutral beams derived from negative ions at energies of 150 to 200 keV and possibly higher. Such beams are required for injection of fat ions into the plugs and the barrier and for charge-exchange pumping of thermal ions diffusing into the barrier. Negative ions are preferred for these purposes because of their relatively high efficiency of neutralization and their high purity of single-energy D/sup -/. Examples of injector designs for Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS) and Tandem Mirror Reactors (TMR) are presented.

  4. Modeling of surface-dominated plasmas: from electric thruster to negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Taccogna, F; Schneider, R; Longo, S; Capitelli, M

    2008-02-01

    This contribution shows two important applications of the particle-in-cell/monte Carlo technique on ion sources: modeling of the Hall thruster SPT-100 for space propulsion and of the rf negative ion source for ITER neutral beam injection. In the first case translational degrees of freedom are involved, while in the second case inner degrees of freedom (vibrational levels) are excited. Computational results show how in both cases, plasma-wall and gas-wall interactions play a dominant role. These are secondary electron emission from the lateral ceramic wall of SPT-100 and electron capture from caesiated surfaces by positive ions and atoms in the rf negative ion source. PMID:18315218

  5. Comparison of measured and modelled negative hydrogen ion densities at the ECR-discharge HOMER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauner, D.; Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    As the negative hydrogen ion density nH- is a key parameter for the investigation of negative ion sources, its diagnostic quantification is essential in source development and operation as well as for fundamental research. By utilizing the photodetachment process of negative ions, generally two different diagnostic methods can be applied: via laser photodetachment, the density of negative ions is measured locally, but only relatively to the electron density. To obtain absolute densities, the electron density has to be measured additionally, which induces further uncertainties. Via cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), the absolute density of H- is measured directly, however LOS-averaged over the plasma length. At the ECR-discharge HOMER, where H- is produced in the plasma volume, laser photodetachment is applied as the standard method to measure nH-. The additional application of CRDS provides the possibility to directly obtain absolute values of nH-, thereby successfully bench-marking the laser photodetachment system as both diagnostics are in good agreement. In the investigated pressure range from 0.3 to 3 Pa, the measured negative hydrogen ion density shows a maximum at 1 to 1.5 Pa and an approximately linear response to increasing input microwave powers from 200 up to 500 W. Additionally, the volume production of negative ions is 0-dimensionally modelled by balancing H- production and destruction processes. The modelled densities are adapted to the absolute measurements of nH- via CRDS, allowing to identify collisions of H- with hydrogen atoms (associative and non-associative detachment) to be the dominant loss process of H- in the plasma volume at HOMER. Furthermore, the characteristic peak of nH- observed at 1 to 1.5 Pa is identified to be caused by a comparable behaviour of the electron density with varying pressure, as ne determines the volume production rate via dissociative electron attachment to vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules.

  6. The effects of negative air ions on various physiological functions during work in a hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, O.; Rotstein, A.; Dlin, R.; Dotan, R.; Sulman, F. G.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of negative air-ions on human physical performance has been investigated. Twenty-one healthy males, 20 25 years old (X=23.6±2.6) were exposed to two 180-min rest and exercise sessions two weeks apart. The subjects were randomly assigned into either an experimental group (n=12) or to a control group (n=9). The experimental group performed the first session in neutral air conditions and the second one in air containing 1.36 to 1.90×105 negative air ions and 1.40 to 1.66×102 positive air ions/ml. The control group performed both sessions under neutral air conditions. All sessions were held at Ta=40±1‡C and 25±5% RH. Each session included one hour of resting under the respective ionization conditions, followed by 3 30-min cycle ergometer work bouts, separated by 7-min rest periods. The mechanical work-load during the bicycle exercise was 1.64±0.6 W/kg BW. The experimental group showed a significant reduction with negative air-ions in heart rate (HR), in rectal temperature, and in the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), all when compared with their own neutral session. The control group showed no significant changes between the first and the second exposure. Although not statistically significant, being exposed to negative air-ions seems also to reduce total sweat rate and minute ventilation (VE), and to increase O2 pulse. It is suggested that under the conditions of this study negative air ions can improve various cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions as well as subjective feelings during physical effort. It is felt that such positive influences may be augmented by increasing the exposure time to negative ionized air and/or prolonging the stressful conditions.

  7. Results from the STAR TPC system test

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, W.; Bieser, F.; Bossingham, R.

    1996-12-31

    A system test of various components of the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) detector, operating in concern, has recently come on-line. Communication between a major sub-detector, a sector of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and the trigger, data acquisition and slow controls systems has been established, enabling data from cosmic ray muons to be collected. First results from an analysis of the TPC data are presented. These include measurements of system noise, electronic parameters such as amplifier gains and pedestal values, and tracking resolution for cosmic ray muons and laser induced ionization tracks. A discussion on the experience gained in integrating the different components for the system test is also given.

  8. Strange particle measurements from the EOS TPC

    SciTech Connect

    Justice, M.

    1995-02-01

    A high statistics sample of {Lambda}`s produced in 2 GeV/nucleon {sup 5}8Ni + {sup nat}Cu collisions has been obtained with the EOS Time Projection Chamber at the Bevalac. The coverage of the EOS TPC is essentially 100% for y > y{sub cm} and extends down to P{sub T} = 0 where interesting effects such as collective radial expansion may be important. In addition, the detection of a majority of the charged particles in the TPC, along with the presence of directed flow for protons and heavier fragments at this beam energy, allows for the correlation of A production with respect to the event reaction plane. Our preliminary analysis indicates the first observation of a sidewards flow signature for A`s. Comparisons with the cascade code ARC are made.

  9. Expansion of a slab of a three-component plasma with negative ions into vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, Yu. V.

    2010-06-15

    The expansion of a slab of a three-component collisionless plasma with negative ions into vacuum is studied by particle-in-cell numerical simulations. It is found that, when the ion temperatures are low in comparison with the electron temperature, the expansion process goes through several characteristic stages. The breaking phenomenon, the onset of multistream motion, and the development of instability are described.

  10. Determination of electron affinity of carbonyl radicals by means of negative ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muftakhov; Vasil'ev; Mazunov

    1999-06-01

    Appearance energies of [M-H](-) ions from carbonyl compounds R-CO-R' (R,R' = H, CH(3), NH(2), OH) have been measured by means of negative ion mass spectrometry in resonant electron capture mode. Values of electron affinity of the corresponding radicals, CH(2)&dbond;C(X)O, NH&dbond;C(X)O and O&dbond;C(X)O, have been determined. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10407285

  11. Numerical simulations of the first operational conditions of the negative ion test facility SPIDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Baltador, C.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Toigo, V.; Veltri, P.

    2016-02-01

    In view of the realization of the negative ion beam injectors for ITER, a test facility, named SPIDER, is under construction in Padova (Italy) to study and optimize production and extraction of negative ions. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the expected first operations of SPIDER in terms of single-beamlet and multiple-beamlet simulations of the hydrogen beam optics in various operational conditions. The effectiveness of the methods adopted to compensate for the magnetic deflection of the particles is also assessed. Indications for a sequence of the experimental activities are obtained.

  12. Plasma Structure in the Extraction Region of a Hybrid Negative Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Taccogna, F.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2009-03-12

    Production, destruction and transport of negative ions in the extraction region of a hybrid negative ion source are investigated with a one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell electrostatic code. The influence of the plasma grid bias and of the magnetic filter on the plasma parameter profiles is taken into account. In particular, a transition from classical to complete reverse sheath is observed using a positively biased plasma grid, while the effect of the magnetic filter is relatively small proofing that H{sup -} production is dominated by surface neutral conversion.

  13. Modeling of a negative ion source. I. Gas kinetics and dynamics in the expansion region

    SciTech Connect

    Taccogna, F.; Schneider, R.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2007-07-15

    The vibrational population distribution of the electronic ground state of H{sub 2} in the expansion region of a negative ion source is investigated using a kinetic Monte Carlo model. Operative conditions are referred to the inductively coupled plasma radio frequency negative ion source developed at IPP-Garching. The different excitation and relaxation processes are discussed, both bulk and surface contributions. In particular, due to the relatively high plasma density, the relevant role of direct low energy electron-impact excitation, surface Auger neutralization, and vibration-translation deactivation are recovered. Results of the present model will be used as input data for the neutral source model in the extraction region.

  14. Charging-delay induced dust acoustic collisionless shock wave: Roles of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Samiran; Bharuthram, R.; Khan, Manoranjan; Gupta, M. R.

    2006-11-15

    The effects of charging-delay and negative ions on nonlinear dust acoustic waves are investigated. It has been found that the charging-delay induced anomalous dissipation causes generation of dust acoustic collisionless shock waves in an electronegative dusty plasma. The small but finite amplitude wave is governed by a Korteweg-de Vries Burger equation in which the Burger term arises due to the charging-delay. Numerical investigations reveal that the charging-delay induced dissipation and shock strength decreases (increases) with the increase of negative ion concentration (temperature)

  15. Numerical simulations of the first operational conditions of the negative ion test facility SPIDER.

    PubMed

    Serianni, G; Agostinetti, P; Antoni, V; Baltador, C; Cavenago, M; Chitarin, G; Marconato, N; Pasqualotto, R; Sartori, E; Toigo, V; Veltri, P

    2016-02-01

    In view of the realization of the negative ion beam injectors for ITER, a test facility, named SPIDER, is under construction in Padova (Italy) to study and optimize production and extraction of negative ions. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the expected first operations of SPIDER in terms of single-beamlet and multiple-beamlet simulations of the hydrogen beam optics in various operational conditions. The effectiveness of the methods adopted to compensate for the magnetic deflection of the particles is also assessed. Indications for a sequence of the experimental activities are obtained. PMID:26932099

  16. Comparative analysis of continuous-wave surface-plasma negative ion sources with various discharge geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Belchenko, Yu; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O.

    2014-02-15

    Negative ion extraction from continuous-wave (CW) magnetron and semiplanotron discharges was studied and it was compared with that for the source with Penning electrode geometry. The CW negative ion beam up current to 13 mA was extracted from the magnetron source with emission aperture of 3.5 mm in diameter, while the beam with current up to 8 mA was obtained from the semiplanotron source modification. Characteristics of CW magnetron and semiplanotron sources are presented and analyzed.

  17. The STAR TPC front end electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, S.R.; Barale, P.; Beuville, E.

    1995-10-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) uses a large time projection chamber. Each of the 136,600 pads is instrumented with a waveform digitizer, implemented in custom low noise preamplifier/shaper and switched capacitor array/ADCs ICs. The system is highly integrated with all analog functions mounted on small cards that plug into the TPC. Detector mounted readout boards multiplex data from 1152 channels onto a 1.5 Gbit/sec fiber optic link to the data acquisition system.

  18. Method and apparatus for providing negative ions of actinide-metal hexafluorides

    DOEpatents

    Compton, Robert N.; Reinhardt, Paul W.; Garrett, William R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a novel method and a novel generator, or source, for providing gaseous negative ions of selected metal hexafluorides. The method is summarized as follows: in an evacuated zone, reacting gaseous fluorine with an actinide-metal body selected from the group consisting of uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium to convert at least part of the metal to the hexafluoride state, thus producing gaseous negatively charged metal-hexafluoride ions in the evacuated zone, and applying an electric field to the zone to remove the ions therefrom. The ion source comprises a chamber defining a reaction zone; means for evacuating the zone; an actinide-metal body in the zone, the metal being uranium, plutonium, neptunium, or americium; means for contacting the body with gaseous fluorine to convert at least a part thereof to the hexafluoride state; and means for applying an electric field to the evacuated zone to extract gaseous, negatively charged metal-hexafluoride ions therefrom. The invention provides unique advantages over conventional surface-ionization techniques for producing such ions.

  19. Arbitrary amplitude dust ion-acoustic shock waves in a dusty plasma with positive and negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.

    2009-11-15

    Arbitrary amplitude dust ion-acoustic shock waves in a multi-ion dusty plasma (composed of electrons, light positive ions, heavy negative ions, and stationary massive dust grains) has been studied. For this purpose, the coupled Poisson and dust-charging equations, which accounts for the fluctuation of charges on static dust, have been numerically solved. The large amplitude shocks are associated with a sudden decrease in the electrostatic potential and of the dust grain charge. It is found that in the lower speed limit small amplitude shocks are formed, while in the larger speed limit large amplitude shocks are formed. It is anticipated that the profiles and amplitudes of the DIA shocks predicted here will be observed in forthcoming laboratory and space experiments.

  20. Highly integrated electronics for the star TPC

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, A.A.; Bieser, F.; Hearn, W.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Millaud, J.; Noggle, T.; Rai, G.; Ritter, H.G.; Wieman, H.

    1991-12-31

    The concept for the STAR TPC front-end electronics is presented and the progress toward the development of a fully integrated solution is described. It is the goal of the R+D program to develop the complete electronics chain for the STAR central TPC detector at RHIC. It is obvious that solutions chosen e.g. for ALEPH are not adequate for the 150000 channels that need to be instrumented for readout. It will be necessary to perform all the signal processing, digitization and multiplexing directly on the detector in order to reduce per channel cost and the amount of cabling necessary to read out the information. We follow the approach chosen by the EOS TPC project, where the readout electronics on the detector consists of an integrated preamplifier, a hybrid shaping amplifier, an integrated switched capacitor array and a highly multiplexed ADC. The STAR electronics will be further integrated so that approximately 16 channels of the preamplifier, the shaper, the analog store and the ADC will be contained in two integrated circuits located directly on the pad plane.

  1. The behaviour of negative oxygen ions in the afterglow of a reactive HiPIMS discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowes, M.; Bradley, J. W.

    2014-07-01

    Using a single Langmuir probe, the temporal evolution of the oxygen negative ion, n-, and electron, ne, densities in the afterglow of a reactive HiPIMS discharge operating in argon-oxygen gas mixtures have been determined. The magnetron was equipped with a titanium target and operated in ‘poisoned’ mode at a frequency of 100 Hz with a pulse width of 100 µs for a range of oxygen partial pressures, {p_{O_{2}}}/{p_{total}} = 0.0{{-}}0.5 . In the initial afterglow, the density of the principle negative ion in the discharge (O-) was of the order of 1016 m-3 for all conditions. The O- concentration was found to decay slowly with characteristic decay times between 585 µs and 1.2 ms over the oxygen partial pressure range. Electron densities were observed to fall more rapidly, resulting in long-lived highly electronegative afterglow plasmas where the ratio, α = n-/ne, was found to reach values up to 672 (±100) for the highest O2 partial pressure. By comparing results to a simple plasma-chemical model, we speculate that with increased {p_{O_{2}}}/{p_{total}} ratio, more O- ions are formed in the afterglow via dissociative electron attachment to highly excited metastable oxygen molecules, with the latter being formed during the active phase of the discharge. After approximately 2.5 ms into the off-time, the afterglow degenerates into an ion-ion plasma and negative ions are free to impinge upon the chamber walls and grounded substrates with flux densities of the order of 1018 m-2 s-1, which is around 10% of the positive ion flux measured during the on-time. This illustrates the potential importance of the long afterglow in reactive HiPIMS, which can act as a steady source of low energy O- ions to a growing thin film at the substrate during periods of reduced positive ion bombardment.

  2. The production and destruction of negative ions. Progress report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, D.J.

    1993-04-01

    Single photon absorption-single electron detachment from few-electron atomic negative ions was studied. A crossed beam apparatus is being used to perform energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopic measurements following photodetachment. Forward-directed electrons were collected and energy analyzed. The kinetic energies and yields of the photoelectrons were obtained by fitting the spectral peaks to Gaussian functions. Electron affinities, asymmetry parameters and cross sections are determined from these measurements. A ratio method in which the cross section for the ion of interest is measured relative to that of a reference ion was used. The study of the photodetachment of Li{sup {minus}} was completed, and attention has turned to the photodetachment of the stable ion B{sup {minus}} and the metastable ion Be{sup {minus}}.

  3. Speciation of Nitrogen-Bearing Species Using Negative and Positive Secondary Ion Spectra with Nano Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexue; Sinha, Baerbel; Hoppe, Peter

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that Nano Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS) can be used to differentiate different nitrogen-containing species commonly observed in atmospheric aerosol particles with micrometer or submicrometer spatial resolution, on the basis of the relative intensity of secondary ion signals, both in negative and positive secondary ion mode, without the need to chemically or physically separate the samples. Compounds tested include nitrate, nitrite, ammonium salts, urea, amino acids, sugars, organic acids, amides, triazine, imidazole, protein, and biological tissue. We show that NO2(-) secondary ions are unique to the decomposition of nitrate and nitrite salts, whereas NH4(+) secondary ions are unique to samples containing ammonium ions, with low signal intensities observed from amino groups but none from biological tissue. CN(-) signals are obtained from all nitrogen-bearing compounds, but relative signal intensities are the highest for organic nitrogen-containing compounds. We demonstrate that quantitative determination of the elemental fractions of carbon, oxygen, and nitrate in nanometer-sized aerosol samples using normalized secondary ion intensities is possible. We further demonstrate that stable isotope ratios measured on in-house standards of unknown isotopic composition using the (12)C(15)N(-)/(12)C(14)N(-) ratio (all nitrogen-containing species), the (15)N(16)O2(-)/(14)N(16)O2(-) ratio (nitrate and nitrite species), and the (15)NH4(+)/(14)NH4(+) ratio (ammonium salts, amino acids, and urea) are stable and sufficiently precise for nitrogen isotope analysis. PMID:26854563

  4. Resolving Interferences in Negative Mode Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Selective Reactant Ion Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, Keith Alvin; Atkinson, David Alan; Ewing, Robert Gordon; Knighton, W. B.; Grimsrud, E. P

    2001-04-01

    During the investigation of the degradation products of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) were found to have IMS responses which overlapped those of the TNT degradation products. It was observed that the Cl- reactant ion chemistry, often used for explosives analysis, was not always successful in resolving peak overlap of analytes and interferents. It is shown here that resolution of the analytes and interferences can sometimes be achieved using only air for the formation of reactant ions, at other times through the use of Br- as an alternative to Cl- for producing reactant ions, and also through the promotion of adduct stability by lowering the IMS temperature.

  5. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Malapit, Giovanni M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Poral, Matthew D.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-15

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  6. Complete positive ion, electron, and ram negative ion measurements near Comet Halley (COPERNIC) plasma experiment for the European Giotto Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Robert P.

    1988-01-01

    Participation of U.S. scientists on the COPERNIC (COmplete Positive ions, Electrons and Ram Negative Ion measurements near Comet Halley) plasma experiment on the Giotto mission is described. The experiment consisted of two detectors: the EESA (electron electrostatic analyzer) which provided three-dimensional measurements of the distribution of electrons from 10 eV to 30 keV, and the PICCA (positive ion cluster composition analyzer) which provided mass analysis of positively charged cold cometary ions from mass 10 to 210 amu. In addition, a small 3 deg wide sector of the EESA looking in the ram direction was devoted to the detection of negatively charged cold cometary ions. Both detectors operated perfectly up to near closest approach (approx. 600 km) to Halley, but impacts of dust particles and neutral gas on the spacecraft contaminated parts of the data during the last few minutes. Although no flight hardware was fabricated in the U.S., The U.S. made very significant contributions to the hardware design, ground support equipment (GSE) design and fabrication, and flight and data reduction software required for the experiment, and also participated fully in the data reduction and analysis, and theoretical modeling and interpretation. Cometary data analysis is presented.

  7. Complete positive ion, electron, and Ram negative ion measurements near Comet Halley (COPERNIC) plasma experiment for the European Giotto Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Robert P.

    1988-05-01

    Participation of U.S. scientists on the COPERNIC (COmplete Positive ions, Electrons and Ram Negative Ion measurements near Comet Halley) plasma experiment on the Giotto mission is described. The experiment consisted of two detectors: the EESA (electron electrostatic analyzer) which provided three-dimensional measurements of the distribution of electrons from 10 eV to 30 keV, and the PICCA (positive ion cluster composition analyzer) which provided mass analysis of positively charged cold cometary ions from mass 10 to 210 amu. In addition, a small 3 deg wide sector of the EESA looking in the ram direction was devoted to the detection of negatively charged cold cometary ions. Both detectors operated perfectly up to near closest approach (approx. 600 km) to Halley, but impacts of dust particles and neutral gas on the spacecraft contaminated parts of the data during the last few minutes. Although no flight hardware was fabricated in the U.S., The U.S. made very significant contributions to the hardware design, ground support equipment (GSE) design and fabrication, and flight and data reduction software required for the experiment, and also participated fully in the data reduction and analysis, and theoretical modeling and interpretation. Cometary data analysis is presented.

  8. Development of a Negative Hydrogen Ion Source for Spatial Beam Profile Measurement of a High Intensity Positive Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Shinto, Katsuhiro; Wada, Motoi; Nishida, Tomoaki; Demura, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Daichi; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Nishiura, Masaki; Kaneko, Osamu; Kisaki, Masashi; Sasao, Mamiko

    2011-09-26

    We have been developing a negative hydrogen ion (H{sup -} ion) source for a spatial beam profile monitor of a high intensity positive ion beam as a new diagnostic tool. In case of a high intensity continuous-wave (CW) deuteron (D{sup +}) beam for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), it is difficult to measure the beam qualities in the severe high radiation environment during about one-year cyclic operation period. Conventional techniques are next to unusable for diagnostics in the operation period of about eleven months and for maintenance in the one-month shutdown period. Therefore, we have proposed an active beam probe system by using a negative ion beam and started an experimental study for the proof-of-principle (PoP) of the new spatial beam profile monitoring tool. In this paper, we present the status of development of the H{sup -} ion source as a probe beam source for the PoP experiment.

  9. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2016-02-01

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications.

  10. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Hanada, M; Kojima, A; Tobari, H; Nishikiori, R; Hiratsuka, J; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Yoshida, M; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2016-02-01

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications. PMID:26932050

  11. Development of a novel radio-frequency negative hydrogen ion source in conically converging configuration.

    PubMed

    Jung, B K; Dang, J J; An, Y H; Chung, K J; Hwang, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Volume-produced negative ion source still requires enhancement of current density with lower input RF (radio-frequency) power in lower operating pressure for various applications. To confirm recent observation of efficient negative ion production with a short cylindrical chamber with smaller effective plasma size, the RF-driven transformer-coupled plasma H(-) ion source at Seoul National University is modified by adopting a newly designed quartz RF window to reduce the chamber length. Experiments with the reduced chamber length show a few times enhancement of H(-) ion beam current compared to that extracted from the previous chamber design, which is consistent with the measured H(-) ion population. Nevertheless, decrease in H(-) ion beam current observed in low pressure regime below ∼5 mTorr owing to insufficient filtering of high energy electrons in the extraction region needs to be resolved to address the usefulness of electron temperature control by the change of geometrical configuration of the discharge chamber. A new discharge chamber with conically converging configuration has been developed, in which the chamber diameter decreases as approaching to the extraction region away from the planar RF antenna such that stronger filter magnetic field can be utilized to prohibit high energy electrons from transporting to the extraction region. First experimental results for the H(-) ion beam extraction with this configuration show that higher magnetic filter field makes peak negative beam currents happen in lower operating pressure. However, overall decrease in H(-) ion beam current due to the change of chamber geometry still requires further study of geometrical effect on particle transport and optimization of magnetic field in this novel configuration. PMID:24593552

  12. Observation of electron spin resonance of negative ions in liquid helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichert, J. F.; Dahm, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Electron spin resonance signals of negative ions in liquid helium were observed. The line width and g-value were measured. Electrons injected into helium by field emission from ferromagnetic tips are shown to be polarized. A new technique for the measurement of electron spin polarization is presented.

  13. ELECTRON AFFINITIES OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND NEGATIVE ION CHEMICAL IONIZATION SENSITIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NICI MS) has the potential to be a very useful technique in identifying various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and sediment samples. Some PAHs give much stronger signals under NICI MS conditions than others. On ...

  14. Cross-sections for the formation of negative ions by electron impact on silane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Krishnakumar, E.; De A. E Souza, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    Cross-sections and appearance potentials for the production of various negative ion species by electron impact on SiH4 have been measured. They are compared with two previous measurements which widely differ with each other. Hess' law has been applied to predict the various possible channels of dissociation.

  15. Measurement of Gas Temperature in Negative Hydrogen Ion Source by Wavelength-Modulated Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.; Nakano, H.; Goto, M.; Kisaki, M.; Tsumori, K.; NIFS-NBI Team

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of the energy distribution of hydrogen atom is important and essential to understand the production mechanism of its negative ion (H-) in cesium-seeded negative ion sources. In this work, we evaluated the temperature of atomic hydrogen in the large-scale arc-discharge negative hydrogen ion source in NIFS by wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy. The laser beam was passed through the adjacent region to the grid electrode for extracting negative ions. The frequency of the laser was scanned slowly over the whole range of the Doppler width (100 GHz in 1s). A sinusoidal frequency modulation at 600 Hz with a width of 30 GHz was superposed onto the slow modulation. The transmitted laser was detected using a photodiode, and its second harmonic component of the sinusoidal modulation was amplified using a lock-in amplifier. The obtained spectrum was in good agreement with an expected spectrum of the Doppler-broadened Balmer- α line. The estimated temperature of atomic hydrogen was approximately 3000 K. The absorption increased with the arc-discharge power, while the temperature was roughly independent of the power. This work is supported by the NIFS Collaboration Research Program NIFS13KLER021.

  16. Negative Ion Drift Velocity and Longitudinal Diffusion in Mixtures of Carbon Disulfide and Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dion, Michael P.; Son, S.; Hunter, S. D.; deNolfo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Negative ion drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion has been measured for gas mixtures of carbon disulfide (CS2) and methane (CH4)' Measurements were made as a function of total pressure, CS2 partial pressure and electric field. Constant mobility and thermal-limit longitudinal diffusion is observed for all gas mixtures tested. Gas gain for some of the mixtures is also included.

  17. Design of the new extraction grid for the NIO1 negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Baltador, C.

    2015-04-01

    NIO1 is a compact source of negative ions jointly developed by RFX and INFN, to study the physics of production and acceleration of H- beams. Negative ions, up to 120 mA of current, are extracted from a radiofrequency driven plasma, by means of a gridded electrode (plasma grid, PG) featuring 9 apertures arranged in a 3x3 square lattice. The same aperture pattern is replicated in the following electrodes, allowing ion acceleration up to 60 keV. All electrodes are realized in copper, by electro-deposition technique, leaving empty slots in the metal to place magnets and to flow water for the grid cooling. The first set of electrodes was completed, installed in the source and tested. At the same time, an upgrade of the extraction system was carried out, in order to optimize the beam optics and to explore alternative electrostatic configurations. In particular, the accelerator will be modified by completely replacing the EG grid, exploiting the modularity of NIO1. The new electrode will feature other slots in between apertures, to place additional magnets. This allows testing different magnetic configurations, to optimize electron filtering and residual ion deflection. The present paper describes the theoretical activities driving the design of these new extractors, carried out with most updated numerical codes, and exploiting the synergy with the refined modeling of the 40 A ITER negative ion sources, under development at Consorzio RFX. Beam simulations are performed both with tracing codes (SLACCAD and OPERA) and with particle in cell codes (ACCPIC)

  18. Carbon nitride films formed using sputtering and negative carbon ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Murzin, I.H.; Tompa, G.S.; Wei, J.; Muratov, V.; Fischer, T.E.; Yakovlev, V.

    1997-12-01

    The authors report the results of using sputtering and negative carbon ion sources to prepare thin films of carbon nitride. In this work, they compare the structural, tribological, and optical properties of the carbon nitride films that were prepared by two different ion assisted techniques. In the first approach they used a magnetron gun to sputter deposit carbon in a nitrogen atmosphere. The second method utilized a beam of negatively charged carbon ions of 1 to 5 {micro}A/cm{sup 2} current density impinging the substrate simultaneously with a positive nitrogen ion beam produced by a Kaufman source. They were able to synthesize microscopically smooth coatings with the carbon to nitrogen ratio of 1:0.47. These films possess wear rates lower than 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mm{sup 3}/Nm and friction coefficients in the range of 0.16 to 0.6. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the magnetron sputtered films are more structurally disordered than those formed with the negative carbon ion gun. FTIR showed the presence of the C{triple_bond}N stretching mode in both types of films. Finally, spectroscopic ellipsometry produced films with dielectric constants as low as 2.3 in the photon energy range from 1.2 to 5 eV.

  19. Landau damping effects on dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty negative-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Barman, Arnab; Misra, A. P. E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com

    2014-07-15

    The nonlinear theory of dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) with Landau damping is studied in an unmagnetized dusty negative-ion plasma in the extreme conditions when the free electrons are absent. The cold massive charged dusts are described by fluid equations, whereas the two-species of ions (positive and negative) are described by the kinetic Vlasov equations. A Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with Landau damping, governing the dynamics of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive DAWs, is derived following Ott and Sudan [Phys. Fluids 12, 2388 (1969)]. It is shown that for some typical laboratory and space plasmas, the Landau damping (and the nonlinear) effects are more pronounced than the finite Debye length (dispersive) effects for which the KdV soliton theory is not applicable to DAWs in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of the linear phase velocity, solitary wave amplitudes (in presence and absence of the Landau damping) as well as the Landau damping rate are studied with the effects of the positive ion to dust density ratio (μ{sub pd}) as well as the ratios of positive to negative ion temperatures (σ) and masses (m)

  20. Landau damping effects on dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty negative-ion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Arnab; Misra, A. P.

    2014-07-01

    The nonlinear theory of dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) with Landau damping is studied in an unmagnetized dusty negative-ion plasma in the extreme conditions when the free electrons are absent. The cold massive charged dusts are described by fluid equations, whereas the two-species of ions (positive and negative) are described by the kinetic Vlasov equations. A Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with Landau damping, governing the dynamics of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive DAWs, is derived following Ott and Sudan [Phys. Fluids 12, 2388 (1969)]. It is shown that for some typical laboratory and space plasmas, the Landau damping (and the nonlinear) effects are more pronounced than the finite Debye length (dispersive) effects for which the KdV soliton theory is not applicable to DAWs in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of the linear phase velocity, solitary wave amplitudes (in presence and absence of the Landau damping) as well as the Landau damping rate are studied with the effects of the positive ion to dust density ratio (μpd) as well as the ratios of positive to negative ion temperatures (σ) and masses (m).

  1. The development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for neutral beam injectors (invited).

    PubMed

    Kraus, W; Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Fröschle, M; Heinemann, B; Riedl, R; Wünderlich, D

    2012-02-01

    Large and powerful negative hydrogen ion sources are required for the neutral beam injection (NBI) systems of future fusion devices. Simplicity and maintenance-free operation favors RF sources, which are developed intensively at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) since many years. The negative hydrogen ions are generated by caesium-enhanced surface conversion of atoms and positive ions on the plasma grid surface. With a small scale prototype the required high ion current density and the low fraction of co-extracted electrons at low pressure as well as stable pulses up to 1 h could be demonstrated. The modular design allows extension to large source dimensions. This has led to the decision to choose RF sources for the NBI of the international fusion reactor, ITER. As an intermediate step towards the full size ITER source at IPP, the development will be continued with a half-size source on the new ELISE testbed. This will enable to gain experience for the first time with negative hydrogen ion beams from RF sources of these dimensions. PMID:22380261

  2. The development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for neutral beam injectors (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Wuenderlich, D.

    2012-02-15

    Large and powerful negative hydrogen ion sources are required for the neutral beam injection (NBI) systems of future fusion devices. Simplicity and maintenance-free operation favors RF sources, which are developed intensively at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP) since many years. The negative hydrogen ions are generated by caesium-enhanced surface conversion of atoms and positive ions on the plasma grid surface. With a small scale prototype the required high ion current density and the low fraction of co-extracted electrons at low pressure as well as stable pulses up to 1 h could be demonstrated. The modular design allows extension to large source dimensions. This has led to the decision to choose RF sources for the NBI of the international fusion reactor, ITER. As an intermediate step towards the full size ITER source at IPP, the development will be continued with a half-size source on the new ELISE testbed. This will enable to gain experience for the first time with negative hydrogen ion beams from RF sources of these dimensions.

  3. The photodetachment cross-section and threshold energy of negative ions in carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmy, E. M.; Woo, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    Threshold energy and sunlight photodetachment measurements on negative carbon dioxide ions, using a 2.5 kw light pressure xenon lamp, show that: (1) Electron affinity of CO3(+) is larger than 2.7 e.V. and that an isomeric form of CO3(+) is likely an error; (2) The photodetachment cross section of CO3(-) will roughly be like a step function across the range of 4250 to 2500A, having its threshold energy at 4250A; (3) Sunlight photodetachment rate for CO3(-) is probably much smaller than elsewhere reported; and (4) The probability of having photodetached electrons re-attach to form negative ions is less than 1%. Mass identifying drift tube tests confirm that the slower ion is CO3(-), formed through the O(-) + 2CO2 yields CO3(-) + CO2 reaction.

  4. New source of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams.

    PubMed

    Ter-Avetisyan, S; Braenzel, J; Schnürer, M; Prasad, R; Borghesi, M; Jequier, S; Tikhonchuk, V

    2016-02-01

    The scenario of "electron-capture and -loss" was recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with MeV kinetic energies. However, it does not explain why the formation of negative ions in a liquid spray is much more efficient than with an isolated atom. The role of atomic excited states in the charge-exchange processes is considered, and it is shown that it cannot account for the observed phenomena. The processes are more complex than the single electron-capture and -loss approach. It is suggested that the shell effects in the electronic structure of the projectile ion and/or target atoms may influence the capture/loss probabilities. PMID:26932016

  5. New source of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Braenzel, J.; Schnürer, M.; Prasad, R.; Borghesi, M.; Jequier, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2016-02-01

    The scenario of "electron-capture and -loss" was recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with MeV kinetic energies. However, it does not explain why the formation of negative ions in a liquid spray is much more efficient than with an isolated atom. The role of atomic excited states in the charge-exchange processes is considered, and it is shown that it cannot account for the observed phenomena. The processes are more complex than the single electron-capture and -loss approach. It is suggested that the shell effects in the electronic structure of the projectile ion and/or target atoms may influence the capture/loss probabilities.

  6. Observations of Multiple Bound-Bound Transitions in the Negative Ion of Lanthanum La-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, C. W.; Gibson, N. D.; Matyas, D. J.; Crocker, C. T.; Dungan, K. A.; Matola, B. R.; Scharpf, M. T.; Rohlén, J.

    2013-05-01

    The negative ion of lanthanum has been investigated with tunable infrared laser photodetachment spectroscopy. The relative signal of neutral atom production was measured with a crossed laser-ion beam apparatus over the photon energy range 0.29 - 0.77 eV. The spectrum reveals a number of sharp peaks due to bound-bound electric-dipole transitions in La-, observed here through a two-step process of excitation followed by photodetachment of the upper state. The observed photodetachment spectrum is compared to theoretical calculations of energy levels and transition strengths by O'Malley and Beck. The richness of the observed bound state spectrum is unprecedented for atomic negative ions, and it highlights the unique properties of La- for applications such as laser cooling. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. 0757976 and 1068308.

  7. Herbert P. Broida Prize Lecture: Probing chemical dynamics with negative ion photodetachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumark, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy and its variants have been used in our laboratory to study diverse phenomena in chemical dynamics, including transition state spectroscopy, the electronic and vibrational spectroscopy of clusters, the photodissociation of reactive free radicals, hydrated electron dynamics in clusters and liquid jets, and the ultrafast dynamics of helium nanodroplets. This talk will focus on two examples of this type of work: slow electron velocity map imaging (SEVI) of trapped and cooled negative ions, and time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) of negative ions. SEVI of cold ions represents a powerful means of performing high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy on complex species. Time-resolved radiation chemistry in nucleobases will be carried out with TRPES. In this work, starting with iodide-nucleobase complexes, we inject electrons into low-lying unoccupied orbitals of the nucleobase and follow the ensuing dynamics.

  8. Negative-ion injection by charge exchange at 2.4 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1995-09-01

    The present technical note describes multi-turn injection by charge exchange of 2.4-GeV negative ions in a Accumulator Ring used as an intense Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source. The major concern of beam loss due to magnetic stripping of the negative ions is addressed. It is demonstrated that, despite the high energy of the ions and the limitation on the magnitude of the magnetic field, it is possible to control the amount of beam losses to a fractional value of better than 10{sup {minus}5}, as it is required to avoid latent activation of the accelerator components. The injection magnet system which accomplish this is described. The paper addresses also the concern of beam loss due to the same effect in the 2.4-GeV injector linear accelerator, and in the transport from the Linac to the Accumulator Ring.

  9. Cesium dynamics in long pulse operation of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantz, U.; Wimmer, C.

    2012-02-01

    Large scale negative hydrogen ion sources operating stable for 1 h (cw mode) are required for the neutral beam heating system of the fusion experiment ITER. The formation of negative hydrogen ions relies on the surface effect for which cesium is evaporated into the source. In order to monitor the cesium dynamics the laser absorption spectroscopy technique is applied to the long pulse test facility MANITU. In the vacuum phase, without plasma operation the evaporation of cesium and the built-up of the cesium in the source are measured. Typical neutral cesium densities are 1015 m-3. During plasma operation and after the plasma phase a high cesium dynamics is observed, showing also depletion of cesium during long pulses with low cesium amount. The co-extracted electron current decreases with the cesium amount to a certain level whereas the ion current indicates an optimum density range.

  10. Cesium dynamics in long pulse operation of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fantz, U.; Wimmer, C.

    2012-02-15

    Large scale negative hydrogen ion sources operating stable for 1 h (cw mode) are required for the neutral beam heating system of the fusion experiment ITER. The formation of negative hydrogen ions relies on the surface effect for which cesium is evaporated into the source. In order to monitor the cesium dynamics the laser absorption spectroscopy technique is applied to the long pulse test facility MANITU. In the vacuum phase, without plasma operation the evaporation of cesium and the built-up of the cesium in the source are measured. Typical neutral cesium densities are 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. During plasma operation and after the plasma phase a high cesium dynamics is observed, showing also depletion of cesium during long pulses with low cesium amount. The co-extracted electron current decreases with the cesium amount to a certain level whereas the ion current indicates an optimum density range.

  11. Search for a QGP with a TPC spectrometer, and QGP signals predicted by new event generator

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1988-12-08

    The BNL/CCNY/Johns Hopkins/Rice Collaboration has developed and successfully tested a TPC Magnetic Spectrometer to search for OGP signals produced by ion beams at AGS. Test data with 14.5 GeV/c /times/ A Oxygen ions incident on a Pb target has been obtained. These include a 78-prong nuclear interaction in the MPS magnet which was pattern recognized with an efficiency approx.75%. A cascade and plasma event generator has also been developed, the predictions of which are used to illustrate how our technique can detect possible plasma signals at AGS and RHIC. A 4..pi.. tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer has been proposed for RHIC. The new event generator predicts striking central rapidity bump QGP signals at RHIC for p, /bar p/, ..pi../sup +-/, K/sup +-/, etc., produced by 100 GeV/c /times/ A Au on Au collisions and these are presented. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  12. 30 years of high-intensity negative ion sources for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim Dudnikov

    2001-07-25

    Thirty years ago, July 1, 1971, significant enhancement of negative ion emission from a gas discharge following an admixture of cesium was observed for the first time. This observation became the basis for the development of Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for efficient production of negative ions from the interaction of plasma particles with electrodes on which adsorbed cesium reduced the surface work-function. The emission current density of negative ions increased rapidly from j {approximately} 10 mA/cm{sup 2} to 3.7 A/cm{sup 2} with a flat cathode and up to 8 A/cm{sup 2} with an optimized geometrical focusing in the long pulse SPS, and to 0.3 A/cm{sup 2} for DC SPS, recently increased up to 0.7 A/cm{sup 2}. Discovery of charge-exchange cooling helped decrease the negative ion temperature T below 1 eV, and increase brightness by many orders to a level compatible with the best proton sources, B = j/T> 1 A/cm{sup 2} eV. The combination of the SPS with charge-exchange injection improved large accelerators operation and has permitted beam accumulation up to space-charge limit and overcome this limit several times. The early SPS for accelerators have been in operation without modification for {approximately} 25 years. Advanced version of the SPS for accelerators is described. Features of negative ion beam formation, transportation, space-charge neutralization-overneutralization, and instability damping is considered. Practical aspects of SPS operation and high brightness beam production is discussed.

  13. Generalization of the Child-Langmuir law to the alternate extraction of positive and negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, T.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-12-01

    Using a combined analytical and simulation approach, we investigate positive and negative ion extraction between two electrodes from an ion-ion plasma source. With a square voltage waveform applied to the electrodes, we obtain approximate analytical solutions for the time-averaged extracted current densities, which are given simply by: Jp a c = [ α - f L √{ /M p q p V 0 } ] Jp d c , and Jn a c = [ ( 1 - α ) - f L √{ /M n q n V 0 } ] Jn d c , where Jac is the time-averaged current density, α is the square waveform duty cycle, f is the frequency, L is the electrode gap length, M is the ion mass, q is the ion charge, V0 is the applied voltage amplitude, Jdc is the dc extracted current density, and the subscripts p and n refer to positive and negative ions, respectively. In particular, if Jdc is the dc space-charge limited current density, then these equations describe the square waveform generalization of the Child-Langmuir law.

  14. Generalization of the Child-Langmuir law to the alternate extraction of positive and negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Lafleur, T.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-12-15

    Using a combined analytical and simulation approach, we investigate positive and negative ion extraction between two electrodes from an ion-ion plasma source. With a square voltage waveform applied to the electrodes, we obtain approximate analytical solutions for the time-averaged extracted current densities, which are given simply by: J{sub p}{sup ac}=[α−fL√((M{sub p})/(q{sub p}V{sub 0}) )]J{sub p}{sup dc}, and J{sub n}{sup ac}=[(1−α)−fL√((M{sub n})/(q{sub n}V{sub 0}) )]J{sub n}{sup dc}, where J{sup ac} is the time-averaged current density, α is the square waveform duty cycle, f is the frequency, L is the electrode gap length, M is the ion mass, q is the ion charge, V{sub 0} is the applied voltage amplitude, J{sup dc} is the dc extracted current density, and the subscripts p and n refer to positive and negative ions, respectively. In particular, if J{sup dc} is the dc space-charge limited current density, then these equations describe the square waveform generalization of the Child-Langmuir law.

  15. The emittances and brightnesses of high-intensity negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; McConnell, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The emittances of high-intensity ion beams extracted from cesium sputter negative ion sources equipped with cylindrical and ellipsoidal solid tungsten and spiral-wound tantalum (General Ionex Corporation, Model 860), and cesium surface ionizers have been measured for several ion species, including /sup 12/C/sup -/, /sup 28/Si/sup -/, /sup 58/Ni/sup -/, and /sup 197/Au/sup -/. While certain sets of data from the ellipsoidal and cylindrical geometry ionizer sources suggest a moderate growth in emittance with increasing negative ion beam intensity I over the range of intensities investigated (5 less than or equal to 1 less than or equal to 60 ..mu..A) of perhaps 20%, not all data exhibit this dependence, especially those from the Model 860 source. As well, no evidence of an emittance dependence on ion mass of a monotonic nature was found. The emittances of ion beams at the 80% intensity level from the Model 860 source are found to be higher on the average by factors of 1.8 and 1.7, respectively, than those from sources equipped with ellipsoidal and cylindrical geometry cesium surface ionizers.

  16. [Negative air ions generated by plants upon pulsed electric field stimulation applied to soil].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ren-ye; Deng, Chuan-yuan; Yang, Zhi-jian; Weng, Hai-yong; Zhu, Tie-jun-rong; Zheng, Jin-gui

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigated the capacity of plants (Schlumbergera truncata, Aloe vera var. chinensis, Chlorophytum comosum, Schlumbergera bridgesii, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var. friedrichii, Aspidistra elatior, Cymbidium kanran, Echinocactus grusonii, Agave americana var. marginata, Asparagus setaceus) to generate negative air ions (NAI) under pulsed electric field stimulation. The results showed that single plant generated low amounts of NAI in natural condition. The capacity of C. comosum and G. mihanovichii var. friedrichii generated most NAI among the above ten species, with a daily average of 43 ion · cm(-3). The least one was A. americana var. marginata with the value of 19 ion · cm(-3). When proper pulsed electric field stimulation was applied to soil, the NAI of ten plant species were greatly improved. The effect of pulsed electric field u3 (average voltage over the pulse period was 2.0 x 10(4) V, pulse frequency was 1 Hz, and pulse duration was 50 ms) was the greatest. The mean NAI concentration of C. kanran was the highest 1454967 ion · cm(-3), which was 48498.9 times as much as that in natural condition. The lowest one was S. truncata with the value of 34567 ion · cm(-3), which was 843.1 times as much as that in natural condition. The capacity of the same plants to generate negative air ion varied extremely under different intensity pulsed electric fields. PMID:26094455

  17. Operation Status of the J-PARC Negative Hydrogen Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Oguri, H.; Ikegami, K.; Ohkoshi, K.; Namekawa, Y.; Ueno, A.

    2011-09-26

    A cesium-free negative hydrogen ion source driven with a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}) filament is being operated without any serious trouble for approximately four years in J-PARC. Although the ion source is capable of producing an H{sup -} ion current of more than 30 mA, the current is routinely restricted to approximately 16 mA at present for the stable operation of the RFQ linac which has serious discharge problem from September 2008. The beam run is performed during 1 month cycle, which consisted of a 4-5 weeks beam operation and a few days down-period interval. At the recent beam run, approximately 700 h continuous operation was achieved. At every runs, the beam interruption time due to the ion source failure is a few hours, which correspond to the ion source availability of more than 99%. The R and D work is being performed in parallel with the operation in order to enhance the further beam current. As a result, the H{sup -} ion current of 61 mA with normalized rms emittance of 0.26 {pi}mm.mrad was obtained by adding a cesium seeding system to a J-PARC test ion source which has the almost same structure with the present J-PARC ion source.

  18. Directional Neutron Detection and TPC Developments and LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, M

    2009-03-24

    LLNL is involved with a number of TPC projects spanning basic science to homeland security. This talk outlines the TPC work at LLNL and specifically focuses on the neutron TPC. A number of TPC projects are now underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and there is currently a ramp up in the infrastructure both in equipment and people to support these efforts. In place are high pressure vessels for xenon studies up to 50bar, larger vessels up to 100 litters at 10bar, clean room facilities, extensive electronics development, dedicated lab space and a assortment of radioactive sources.

  19. Design and performance of TOPAZ TPC-trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Enomoto, R.; Tsukada, K.; Ujiie, N.; Shirahashi, A.

    1988-02-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is widely used in the high energy physics experiment. The authors developed the new track finding algorithm by using the TOPAZ-TPC. The logic not only finds the number of tracks, but also calculates their vertex positions. It also takes care of the sector boundary crossing tracks. The proto-type TPC-Trigger has been tested at the in-beam experiment and has shown good performance. The authors achieved the vertex resolution of less than 10cm (r.m.s.) in the beam direction. The improved TPC-Trigger system is being used in October 1987 beam run.

  20. How to Advance TPC Benchmarks with Dependability Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Raquel; Poess, Meikel; Nambiar, Raghunath; Patil, Indira; Vieira, Marco

    Transactional systems are the core of the information systems of most organizations. Although there is general acknowledgement that failures in these systems often entail significant impact both on the proceeds and reputation of companies, the benchmarks developed and managed by the Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) still maintain their focus on reporting bare performance. Each TPC benchmark has to pass a list of dependability-related tests (to verify ACID properties), but not all benchmarks require measuring their performances. While TPC-E measures the recovery time of some system failures, TPC-H and TPC-C only require functional correctness of such recovery. Consequently, systems used in TPC benchmarks are tuned mostly for performance. In this paper we argue that nowadays systems should be tuned for a more comprehensive suite of dependability tests, and that a dependability metric should be part of TPC benchmark publications. The paper discusses WHY and HOW this can be achieved. Two approaches are introduced and discussed: augmenting each TPC benchmark in a customized way, by extending each specification individually; and pursuing a more unified approach, defining a generic specification that could be adjoined to any TPC benchmark.

  1. Experimental validation of the dual positive and negative ion beam acceleration in the plasma propulsion with electronegative gases thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro Popelier, Lara; Aanesland, Ane

    2014-02-07

    The PEGASES (Plasma Propulsion with Electronegative Gases) thruster is a gridded ion thruster, where both positive and negative ions are accelerated to generate thrust. In this way, additional downstream neutralization by electrons is redundant. To achieve this, the thruster accelerates alternately positive and negative ions from an ion-ion plasma where the electron density is three orders of magnitude lower than the ion densities. This paper presents a first experimental study of the alternate acceleration in PEGASES, where SF{sub 6} is used as the working gas. Various electrostatic probes are used to investigate the source plasma potential and the energy, composition, and current of the extracted beams. We show here that the plasma potential control in such system is key parameter defining success of ion extraction and is sensitive to both parasitic electron current paths in the source region and deposition of sulphur containing dielectric films on the grids. In addition, large oscillations in the ion-ion plasma potential are found in the negative ion extraction phase. The oscillation occurs when the primary plasma approaches the grounded parts of the main core via sub-millimetres technological inputs. By controlling and suppressing the various undesired effects, we achieve perfect ion-ion plasma potential control with stable oscillation-free operation in the range of the available acceleration voltages (±350 V). The measured positive and negative ion currents in the beam are about 10 mA for each component at RF power of 100 W and non-optimized extraction system. Two different energy analyzers with and without magnetic electron suppression system are used to measure and compare the negative and positive ion and electron fluxes formed by the thruster. It is found that at alternate ion-ion extraction the positive and negative ion energy peaks are similar in areas and symmetrical in position with +/− ion energy corresponding to the amplitude of the applied

  2. A CW radiofrequency ion source for production of negative hydrogen ion beams for cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.; Tuunanen, J.; Potkins, D.; Stewart, T.; Dehnel, M. P.

    2015-04-08

    A CW 13.56 MHz radiofrequency-driven ion source RADIS for production of H{sup −} and D{sup −} beams is under development for replacing the filament-driven ion source of the MCC30/15 cyclotron. The RF ion source has a 16-pole multicusp plasma chamber, an electromagnet-based magnetic filter and an external planar spiral RF antenna behind an AlN window. The extraction is a 5-electrode system with an adjustable puller electrode voltage for optimizing the beam formation, a water-cooled electron dump electrode and an accelerating einzel lens. At 2650 W of RF power, the source produces 1 mA of H{sup −} (2.6 mA/cm{sup 2}), which is the intensity needed at injection for production of 200 µA H{sup +} with the filament-driven ion source. A simple pepperpot device has been developed for characterizing the beam emittance. Plans for improving the power efficiency with the use of a new permanent magnet front plate is discussed.

  3. Two-pore Channels Enter the Atomic Era: Structure of Plant TPC Revealed.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sandip; Penny, Christopher J; Rahman, Taufiq

    2016-06-01

    Two-pore channels (TPCs) are intracellular Ca(2+)-permeable ion channels that are expressed on acidic Ca(2+) stores. They are co-regulated by voltage and Ca(2+) in plant vacuoles and by the second messenger NAADP in animal endo-lysosomes. Two new studies of plant TPC structures reveal essential features of their architecture and provide mechanistic insight into their workings. PMID:27156118

  4. Negative ion production in the RF multiaperture surface-plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrashitov, G.; Belchenko, Yu.; Dranichnikov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Gorbovsky, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Kolmogorov, V.; Kondakov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A.; Selivanov, A.; Selivanov, P.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sotnikov, O.; Stupishin, N.; Tiunov, M.; Binderbauer, M.; Putvinski, S.; Smirnov, A.; Sevier, L.

    2015-04-01

    The experiments on negative hydrogen ion beam production in a multi-aperture long-pulse surface-plasma source are described. H- ions are produced on the surface of a plasma grid covered by cesium and illuminated by fast plasma particles. The source uses a radio-frequency driver to generate plasma. A composite magnet system made of external permanent magnets confines and filters electrons in the plasma region, and deflects them in the extraction area. A multiaperture, multi-electrode ion optical system is used for beam formation. The electrode heating and cooling during long pulses is accomplished by circulating a heat transfer fluid through channels drilled in the electrodes bodies. H- ions extraction through a single aperture and 21 apertures was performed and studied. A stable H- beam with the current up to 0.7 A, energy up to 74 kV, and pulse duration up to 7 s was routinely obtained

  5. Negative ion production in the RF multiaperture surface-plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Abdrashitov, G.; Belchenko, Yu. Dranichnikov, A.; Gorbovsky, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Kolmogorov, V.; Kondakov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A.; Selivanov, A.; Selivanov, P.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Stupishin, N.; Tiunov, M.; Ivanov, A.; Sotnikov, O.; Binderbauer, M.; Putvinski, S.; Smirnov, A.; Sevier, L.

    2015-04-08

    The experiments on negative hydrogen ion beam production in a multi-aperture long-pulse surface-plasma source are described. H- ions are produced on the surface of a plasma grid covered by cesium and illuminated by fast plasma particles. The source uses a radio-frequency driver to generate plasma. A composite magnet system made of external permanent magnets confines and filters electrons in the plasma region, and deflects them in the extraction area. A multiaperture, multi-electrode ion optical system is used for beam formation. The electrode heating and cooling during long pulses is accomplished by circulating a heat transfer fluid through channels drilled in the electrodes bodies. H- ions extraction through a single aperture and 21 apertures was performed and studied. A stable H- beam with the current up to 0.7 A, energy up to 74 kV, and pulse duration up to 7 s was routinely obtained.

  6. Improvements of the magnetic field design for SPIDER and MITICA negative ion beam sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Marconato, N.; Veltri, P.

    2015-04-08

    The design of the magnetic field configuration in the SPIDER and MITICA negative ion beam sources has evolved considerably during the past four years. This evolution was driven by three factors: 1) the experimental results of the large RF-driven ion sources at IPP, which have provided valuable indications on the optimal magnetic configurations for reliable RF plasma source operation and for large negative ion current extraction, 2) the comprehensive beam optics and heat load simulations, which showed that the magnetic field configuration in the accelerator is crucial for keeping the heat load due to electrons on the accelerator grids within tolerable limits, without compromising the optics of the negative ion beam in the foreseen operating scenarios, 3) the progress of the detailed mechanical design of the accelerator, which stimulated the evaluation of different solutions for the correction of beamlet deflections of various origin and for beamlet aiming. On this basis, new requirements and solution concepts for the magnetic field configuration in the SPIDER and MITICA beam sources have been progressively introduced and updated until the design converged. The paper presents how these concepts have been integrated into a final design solution based on a horizontal “long-range” field (few mT) in combination with a “local” vertical field of some tens of mT on the acceleration grids.

  7. Improvements of the magnetic field design for SPIDER and MITICA negative ion beam sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Marconato, N.; Veltri, P.

    2015-04-01

    The design of the magnetic field configuration in the SPIDER and MITICA negative ion beam sources has evolved considerably during the past four years. This evolution was driven by three factors: 1) the experimental results of the large RF-driven ion sources at IPP, which have provided valuable indications on the optimal magnetic configurations for reliable RF plasma source operation and for large negative ion current extraction, 2) the comprehensive beam optics and heat load simulations, which showed that the magnetic field configuration in the accelerator is crucial for keeping the heat load due to electrons on the accelerator grids within tolerable limits, without compromising the optics of the negative ion beam in the foreseen operating scenarios, 3) the progress of the detailed mechanical design of the accelerator, which stimulated the evaluation of different solutions for the correction of beamlet deflections of various origin and for beamlet aiming. On this basis, new requirements and solution concepts for the magnetic field configuration in the SPIDER and MITICA beam sources have been progressively introduced and updated until the design converged. The paper presents how these concepts have been integrated into a final design solution based on a horizontal "long-range" field (few mT) in combination with a "local" vertical field of some tens of mT on the acceleration grids.

  8. Probing Dynamics from Within in Negative Ions, Neutral Molecules and van der Waals Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrah, Nora

    2006-05-01

    We have investigated with unprecedented levels of detail, processes and phenomena involving photodetachment of negative ions and photoionization of molecules and van der Waals clusters using the brightness, spectral resolution, tunability and polarization of the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Photodetachment of negative ions exhibit structure and processes differing substantially from corresponding processes in neutral and positive ions, owing to the dominance of correlation in both the initial and final states. We will report on investigations carried out in inner-valence CN^- molecules giving rise to absolute double photodetachment cross sections as well as on fragmentation of negative ions clusters. We will also present absolute inner-shell photodetachment of atoms leading to multi-Auger decay [1] and discuss threshold laws [2] and PCI effects [3]. The measurements were conducted using collinear photon-ion spectroscopy. The evolution of inner-shell photoionization of clusters, as a function of photon energy, will be presented and compared to analogous measurements in atoms. The measurements were conducted using angle resolved two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy. Molecular fragmentation results using an ion imaging detector will briefly be presented. [1] R. C. Bilodeau, J. D. Bozek, G. D. Ackerman, N. D. Gibson, C. W.Walter, A. Aguilar, G. Turri, I. Dumitriu and N. Berrah, PRA 72, 050701(R), 2005. [2] R. C. Bilodeau, J. D. Bozek, N. D. Gibson, C. W. Walter, G. D. Ackerman, I. Dumitriu, and N. Berrah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 083001 (2005). [3] R. C. Bilodeau, J. D. Bozek, A. Agular, G. D. Ackerman, and N. Berrah, (in press PRA brief report).

  9. Plasma transfer process in hydrogen negative ions source based on reflective discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Goretsky, V.P.; Ryabtsev, A.V.; Soloshenko, I.A.; Tarasenko, A.F.; Schedrin, A.I.

    1996-07-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies of stationary volume source of hydrogen negative ions based on reflective discharge are presented in the report. Measurements of plasma parameters and emission characteristics are accomplished, and the optimization of ion source geometry is provided. The best parameters of ion beam extracted from the source across a magnetic field are the following: current 40 mA, current density 80 mA/cm{sup 2}, emittance along a magnetic field 3{center_dot}10{sup {minus}5} cm{center_dot}rad, emittance across a magnetic field 1{center_dot}10{sup {minus}5} cm{center_dot}rad. The calculation of beam basic properties is performed by numeric solving of Boltzman equation for electrons, balance equations for more than 300 elementary processes in gas discharge plasma, and equations of ions and electrons motion. Calculated dependencies of hydrogen negative ions current density in a plane of emission slit on the gas pressure and the discharge current are found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Neuron attachment properties of carbon negative-ion implanted bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2002-05-01

    Modification of a bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid (PLA) by negative carbon ion implantation was investigated with resect to radiation effects on surface physical properties and nerve-cell attachment properties. Carbon negative ions were implanted to PLA at energy of 5-30 keV with a dose of 10 14-10 16 ions/cm 2. Most C-implanted PLA samples showed contact angles near 80° and almost same as that of unimplanted PLA, although a few samples at 5 keV and less 3×10 14 ions/cm 2 had contact angles larger than 90°. The attachment properties of nerve cells of PC-12h (rat adrenal phechromocytoma) in vitro were studied. PC-12h cells attached on the unimplanted region in C-implanted PLA samples at 5 and 10 keV. On the contrary, the nerve cells attached on only implanted region for the C-implanted PLA sample at 30 keV and 1×10 15 ions/cm 2.

  11. Extraction of low-energy negative oxygen ions for thin film formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, M. Jr.; Sasaki, D.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.; Maeno, S.

    2011-09-26

    Coextraction of low-energy positive and negative ions were performed using a plasma sputter-type ion source system driven by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (rf) power. Titanium (Ti) atoms were sputtered out from a target and the sputtered neutrals were postionized in oxygen/argon (O{sub 2}/Ar) plasma prior to extraction. The negative O ions were surface-produced and self-extracted. Mass spectral analyses of the extracted ion beams revealed the dependence of the ion current on the incident rf power, induced target bias and O{sub 2}/Ar partial pressure ratio. Ti{sup +} current was found to be dependent on Ar{sup +} current and reached a saturation value with increasing O{sub 2} partial pressure while the O{sup -} current showed a peak current at around 1:9 O{sub 2}/Ar partial pressure ratio. Ti{sup +} current was several orders of magnitude higher than that of the O{sup -} current.

  12. An experimental study of waveguide coupled microwave heating with conventional multicusp negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Komppula, J.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O.

    2015-04-08

    Negative ion production with conventional multicusp plasma chambers utilizing 2.45 GHz microwave heating is demonstrated. The experimental results were obtained with the multicusp plasma chambers and extraction systems of the RF-driven RADIS ion source and the filament driven arc discharge ion source LIISA. A waveguide microwave coupling system, which is almost similar to the one used with the SILHI ion source, was used. The results demonstrate that at least one third of negative ion beam obtained with inductive RF-coupling (RADIS) or arc discharge (LIISA) can be achieved with 1 kW of 2.45 GHz microwave power in CW mode without any modification of the plasma chamber. The co-extracted electron to H{sup −} ratio and the optimum pressure range were observed to be similar for both heating methods. The behaviour of the plasma implies that the energy transfer from the microwaves to the plasma electrons is mainly an off-resonance process.

  13. Comparison of measured and modelled negative hydrogen ion densities at the ECR-discharge HOMER

    SciTech Connect

    Rauner, D.; Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-08

    As the negative hydrogen ion density n{sub H{sup −}} is a key parameter for the investigation of negative ion sources, its diagnostic quantification is essential in source development and operation as well as for fundamental research. By utilizing the photodetachment process of negative ions, generally two different diagnostic methods can be applied: via laser photodetachment, the density of negative ions is measured locally, but only relatively to the electron density. To obtain absolute densities, the electron density has to be measured additionally, which induces further uncertainties. Via cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), the absolute density of H{sup −} is measured directly, however LOS-averaged over the plasma length. At the ECR-discharge HOMER, where H{sup −} is produced in the plasma volume, laser photodetachment is applied as the standard method to measure n{sub H{sup −}}. The additional application of CRDS provides the possibility to directly obtain absolute values of n{sub H{sup −}}, thereby successfully bench-marking the laser photodetachment system as both diagnostics are in good agreement. In the investigated pressure range from 0.3 to 3 Pa, the measured negative hydrogen ion density shows a maximum at 1 to 1.5 Pa and an approximately linear response to increasing input microwave powers from 200 up to 500 W. Additionally, the volume production of negative ions is 0-dimensionally modelled by balancing H{sup −} production and destruction processes. The modelled densities are adapted to the absolute measurements of n{sub H{sup −}} via CRDS, allowing to identify collisions of H{sup −} with hydrogen atoms (associative and non-associative detachment) to be the dominant loss process of H{sup −} in the plasma volume at HOMER. Furthermore, the characteristic peak of n{sub H{sup −}} observed at 1 to 1.5 Pa is identified to be caused by a comparable behaviour of the electron density with varying pressure, as n{sub e} determines

  14. The roles of electronic and nuclear stopping in the desorption valine negative molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.E.; Salehpour, M.; Fishel, D.L.; Tou, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The yield of valine negative molecular ions has been measured as a function of Xe/sup +/, Kr/sup +/, and Ar/sup +/ primary ion velocity. The electronic and nuclear stopping powers are comparable in magnitude and opposite in slope in the experimental velocity region. The yield data are explained in terms of electronic stopping power alone, with no contribution from nuclear stopping power within the experimental error. Low molecular weight atomic species are found to be best described by a nuclear stopping power related process. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Analysis of Discharge Initiation in a RF Hydrogen Negative Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hayami, T.; Yoshinari, S.; Terasaki, R.; Hatayama, A.; Fukano, A.

    2011-09-26

    The maintenance free RF ion source is expected to be one of the most promising candidates for the negative ion sources of plasma heating for fusion reactors. In order to make clear the condition for the discharge initiation of the RF source, we are developing an electromagnetic PIC model. The numerical result shows that a positive potential built-up with respect to the wall. As a result, the electron wall loss decreases and the electron density increases. The positive potential plays a key role for the suppression of wall loss and the electron confinement. The electromagnetic-PIC model developed is useful for the analysis of discharge initiation of the RF source.

  16. Mixed Pierce-two-stream instability development in an extraction system of a negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barminova, H. Y.; Chikhachev, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mixed Pierce-two-stream instability may occur in an extraction system of a negative ion source based on a volume-produced plasma. The reasons for instability development are discussed. Analytically the conditions of unstable beam propagation are determined. The instability threshold is shown to be increased compared with the pure Pierce instability. The influence of inclined perturbations on the instability behavior is investigated. The numerical calculations are performed in COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation results confirm the existence of such a mixed instability appearance that develops due to both the electrons of the external circuit and the background positive ions.

  17. Mixed Pierce-two-stream instability development in an extraction system of a negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Barminova, H Y; Chikhachev, A S

    2016-02-01

    Mixed Pierce-two-stream instability may occur in an extraction system of a negative ion source based on a volume-produced plasma. The reasons for instability development are discussed. Analytically the conditions of unstable beam propagation are determined. The instability threshold is shown to be increased compared with the pure Pierce instability. The influence of inclined perturbations on the instability behavior is investigated. The numerical calculations are performed in COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation results confirm the existence of such a mixed instability appearance that develops due to both the electrons of the external circuit and the background positive ions. PMID:26931917

  18. Observation of a New Type of Negative Ion in Superfluid Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ambarish; Maris, Humphrey J.

    2006-09-07

    In recent work, we have developed a new technique for the study of the properties of electron bubbles (negative ions) in liquid helium. We use ultrasound to measure the critical negative pressure Pc at which an electron bubble becomes unstable and explodes. The value of Pc is affected, for example, by the quantum state of the electron and is reduced if the bubble is attached to a quantized vortex. In the present experiments, we have discovered a new type of object that appears to be larger than the usual electron bubble. We will consider possible explanations of these observations.

  19. First results of negative-ion-based NBI test-stand for Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.; Oka, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Akiyama, R.; Kawamoto, T.; Kuroda, T.

    1992-10-01

    A negative-ion-based NBI test-stand has been constructed in Toki site of National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). This Toki test-stand has facilities to produce 2.5 MW neutral beam power with the energy of 125 keV for hydrogen and 250 keV for deuterium, which is utilized for developing a unit of neutral beam injection (NBI) system for Large Helical Device (LHD). All components of the Toki test-stand are installed on the basis of conceptual design of the LHD-NBI system. Development of a high-current negative ion source with vacuum-immersed structure is one of the main objectives of the test-stand, as well as transport of a high-energy beam with a small divergence angle. It is also an important subject to test all of hardware components such as beam dumps and cryo-pumps. Experiments started in July.

  20. Design of a cavity ring-down spectroscopy diagnostic for negative ion rf source SPIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Pasqualotto, R.; Alfier, A.; Lotto, L.

    2010-10-15

    The rf source test facility SPIDER will test and optimize the source of the 1 MV neutral beam injection systems for ITER. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) will measure the absolute line-of-sight integrated density of negative (H{sup -} and D{sup -}) ions, produced in the extraction region of the source. CRDS takes advantage of the photodetachment process: negative ions are converted to neutral hydrogen atoms by electron stripping through absorption of a photon from a laser. The design of this diagnostic is presented with the corresponding simulation of the expected performance. A prototype operated without plasma has provided CRDS reference signals, design validation, and results concerning the signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Simple model analysis on the negative-ion extraction from a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lishev, St.; Shivarova, A.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2009-12-01

    Extraction of negative hydrogen ions from a plasma is analyzed with a view to the description of the extraction region of the negative hydrogen ion-beam sources developed for additional heating of fusion plasmas. The numerical procedure introduced in the study is a modification of the indirect Poisson-Vlasov method. It uses a condition for the plasma meniscus and employs analogy with the particle-in-cell model simulation. The analysis of the results shows that the charged particle velocity distribution at the entrance of the extraction region influences the properties of the extracted beams and its effect should be considered when conditions for well converged beams are looked for through variation in the plasma density and in the potentials of the electrodes of the extraction system.

  2. Development of spectrally selective imaging system for negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, K. Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2014-02-15

    A spectrally selective imaging system has been developed to obtain a distribution of H{sub α} emissions at the extraction region in a hydrogen negative ion source. The diagnostic system consisted of an aspherical lens, optical filters, a fiber image conduit, and a charge coupled device detector was installed on the 1/3-scaled hydrogen negative ion source in the National Institute for Fusion Science. The center of sight line passes beside the plasma grid (PG) surface with the distance of 11 mm, and the viewing angle has coverage 35 mm from the PG surface. Two dimensional H{sub α} distribution in the range up to 20 mm from the PG surface was clearly observed. The reduction area for H{sub α} emission caused by beam extraction was widely distributed in the extraction region near the PG surface.

  3. Team Primacy Concept (TPC) Based Employee Evaluation and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniute, Eivina I.; Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explored how employees learn from Team Primacy Concept (TPC) based employee evaluation and how they use the feedback in performing their jobs. TPC based evaluation is a form of multirater evaluation, during which the employee's performance is discussed by one's peers in a face-to-face team setting. The study used Kolb's…

  4. Effect of plasma grid bias on extracted currents in the RF driven surface-plasma negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Belchenko, Yu; Ivanov, A; Sanin, A; Sotnikov, O; Shikhovtsev, I

    2016-02-01

    Extraction of negative ions from the large inductively driven surface-plasma negative ion source was studied. The dependencies of the extracted currents vs plasma grid (PG) bias potential were measured for two modifications of radio-frequency driver with and without Faraday screen, for different hydrogen feeds and for different levels of cesium conditioning. The maximal PG current was independent of driver modification and it was lower in the case of inhibited cesium. The maximal extracted negative ion current depends on the potential difference between the near-PG plasma and the PG bias potentials, while the absolute value of plasma potential in the driver and in the PG area is less important for the negative ion production. The last conclusion confirms the main mechanism of negative ion production through the surface conversion of fast atoms. PMID:26932001

  5. Effect of plasma grid bias on extracted currents in the RF driven surface-plasma negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O.; Shikhovtsev, I.

    2016-02-01

    Extraction of negative ions from the large inductively driven surface-plasma negative ion source was studied. The dependencies of the extracted currents vs plasma grid (PG) bias potential were measured for two modifications of radio-frequency driver with and without Faraday screen, for different hydrogen feeds and for different levels of cesium conditioning. The maximal PG current was independent of driver modification and it was lower in the case of inhibited cesium. The maximal extracted negative ion current depends on the potential difference between the near-PG plasma and the PG bias potentials, while the absolute value of plasma potential in the driver and in the PG area is less important for the negative ion production. The last conclusion confirms the main mechanism of negative ion production through the surface conversion of fast atoms.

  6. Photodetachment cross sections of negative ions - The range of validity of the Wigner threshold law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold behavior of the photodetachment cross section of negative ions as a function of photon frequency is usually described by the Wigner law. This paper reports the results of a model calculation using the zero-core-contribution (ZCC) approximation. Theoretical expressions for the leading correction to the Wigner law are developed, giving the range of validity of the Wigner law and the expected accuracy. The results are relevant to extraction of electron affinities from experimental photodetachment data.

  7. Requirements for negative ion based systems from users' point of view

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the projected requirements of tokamak and mirror confinement devices for negative ion based neutral beam systems. The physics bases for the requirements are reviewed; the stated requirements are summarized for various mirror and tokamak devices, including MFTF-..cap alpha..+T, MARS, FED-A, and FED-R; and changes in those stated requirements, based on improved calculations of beam-stopping cross sections, are estimated.

  8. Doubly excited states of the hydrogen negative ion and helium atom in astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Pinghui; Kar, Sabyasachi; Zhou, Y.

    2013-01-15

    The nonthermal effects on the doubly excited resonance states of the hydrogen negative ion and helium atom are investigated in Lorentzian astrophysical plasma environments using highly correlated Hylleraas-type wave functions in the framework of the stabilization method. Resonance parameters (resonance position and width) are reported for the first time as functions of the spectral index and plasma parameter. The screening effects are more pronounced in the stronger screening region.

  9. Design of the new extraction grid for the NIO1 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Baltador, C.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    NIO1 is a compact source of negative ions jointly developed by RFX and INFN, to study the physics of production and acceleration of H{sup −} beams. Negative ions, up to 120 mA of current, are extracted from a radiofrequency driven plasma, by means of a gridded electrode (plasma grid, PG) featuring 9 apertures arranged in a 3x3 square lattice. The same aperture pattern is replicated in the following electrodes, allowing ion acceleration up to 60 keV. All electrodes are realized in copper, by electro-deposition technique, leaving empty slots in the metal to place magnets and to flow water for the grid cooling. The first set of electrodes was completed, installed in the source and tested. At the same time, an upgrade of the extraction system was carried out, in order to optimize the beam optics and to explore alternative electrostatic configurations. In particular, the accelerator will be modified by completely replacing the EG grid, exploiting the modularity of NIO1. The new electrode will feature other slots in between apertures, to place additional magnets. This allows testing different magnetic configurations, to optimize electron filtering and residual ion deflection. The present paper describes the theoretical activities driving the design of these new extractors, carried out with most updated numerical codes, and exploiting the synergy with the refined modeling of the 40 A ITER negative ion sources, under development at Consorzio RFX. Beam simulations are performed both with tracing codes (SLACCAD and OPERA) and with particle in cell codes (ACCPIC)

  10. Development of STAR TPC for use at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Wieman, H.H.

    1993-10-01

    A large TPC is a main element in the STAR detector system to be used at RHIC. The TPC will provide dE/dx and tracking for the expected 4000 charged particles emitted in the pseudo rapidity window of -1 < {eta} < +1. Much of the design work has been completed on this detector and prototyping is underway. We will report on the design of this TPC and present results of prototype tests of the pad plane structure that reads out the TPC. We are investigating the use of alternative gases to improved two track resolution and momentum resolution. A new method for providing spatial calibrations with fixed photoelectric sources in the TPC is also being developed. Results of these studies will be reported.

  11. CAMAC interface for TPC data-acquisition electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Sidman, S.; Olson, S.; Jared, R.

    1983-06-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is a detector used for high-energy physics research at the Stanford PEP Accelerator. TPC requires about 17,000 channels of data acquisition, which samples on command the input to each channel at a 10 MHz rate. This high data rate is made possible by means of Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), intelligent digitizers, and a sophisticated trigger system. The TPC-CAMAC interface described here was developed to allow experiments of smaller scale than the complete TPC to use the standard data acquisition portion of the TPC electronics, namely the amplifier, CCD and digitizer bins. These three bins, when properly interconnected and controlled by the interface control bin, form a transient digitizer with a depth of 455 samples and a maximum width of 256 channels per bin set.

  12. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-11-11

    An optimized tandem two-chamber negative-ion source system is discussed. In the first chamber high energy (E > 20 eV) electron collisions provide for H/sub 2/ vibrational excitation, while in the second chamber negative ions are formed by dissociative attachment. The gas density, electron density, and system scale length are varied as independent parameters. The extracted negative ion current density passes through a maximum as electron and gas densities are varied. This maximum scales inversely with system scale length, R. The optimum extracted current densities occur for electron densities near nR = 10/sup 13/ electrons cm/sup -2/ and for gas densities, N/sub 2/R, in the range 10/sup 14/ to 10/sup 15/ molecules cm/sup -2/. The extracted current densities are sensitive to the atomic concentration in the discharge. The atomic concentration is parametrized by the wall recombination coefficient, ..gamma.., and scale length, R. As ..gamma.. ranges from 0.1 to 1.0 and for system scale lengths of one centimeter, extracted current densities range from 8.0 to 80. mA cm/sup -2/.

  13. First experiments with Cs doped Mo as surface converter for negative hydrogen ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Schiesko, L. Hopf, C.; Höschen, T.; Meisl, G.; Encke, O.; Heinemann, B.; Fantz, U.; Cartry, G.; Amsalem, P.; Achkasov, K.

    2015-08-21

    A study was conducted on the properties of molybdenum implanted with caesium as an approach to reduce the Cs consumption of negative hydrogen ion sources based on evaporated Cs. The depth profiles of the implanted Cs were simulated by SDTrimSP and experimentally determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. In particular, one year after implantation, the depth profiles showed no signs of Cs diffusion into the molybdenum, suggesting long term stability of the implanted Cs atoms. The H{sup −} surface generation mechanisms on the implanted samples in hydrogen plasma were investigated, and the stability of the H{sup −} yield during four hours low power hydrogen plasma discharges was demonstrated. An estimation of the work function reduction (−0.8 eV) by the Cs implantation was performed, and a comparison of the relative negative ion yields between the implanted samples and highly oriented pyrolitic graphite showed that the Cs doped Mo negative ion yield was larger.

  14. A Negative Hydrogen-Ion Source for SNS Using a Helicon Plasma Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, R. H.; Welton, R. F.; Baity, F. W.; Crisp, D. W.; Fadnek, A.; Kang, Y.; Murray, S. N.; Sparks, D. O.; Stockli, M. P.

    2007-09-28

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a world-class facility for materials research based on neutron scattering. It consists of a negative hydrogen (H-) ion source, linear accelerator, proton accumulator ring, and liquid Hg target. A power upgrade is planned for the device, which will require significant improvements in the negative ion source, including the production of H-beam currents of 70-95 mA ({approx}2xthe present SNS source value), with a pulse length of 1 ms and duty factor of {approx}7%. No H-sources currently in existence meet these combined requirements. A proof-of-principle experiment is being constructed in which the rf inductive plasma generator in the present source is replaced by a helicon plasma generator. This is expected to produce a factor of three or better increase in the maximum source plasma density at a reduced rf power level, resulting in significantly increased negative ion current with reduced heat removal requirements.

  15. A Negative Hydrogen-Ion Source for SNS Using a Helicon Plasma Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, Richard Howell; Welton, Robert F; Baity Jr, F Wallace; Crisp, Danny W; Fadnek, Andy; Kang, Yoon W; Murray Jr, S N; Sparks, Dennis O; Stockli, Martin P

    2007-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Labo ratory is a world-class facility for materials research based on neutron scattering. It consists of a negative hydrogen (H-) ion source, linear accelerator, proton accumulator ring, and liquid Hg target. A power up grade is planned for the device, which will require significant improvements in the negative ion source, including the production of H- beam currents of 70-95 mA (~2 the present SNS source value), with a pulse length of 1 ms and duty factor of ~ 7%. No H- sources currently in existence meet these combined requirements. A proof-of-principle experiment is being constructed in which the rf inductive plasma generator in the present source is replaced by a helicon plasma generator. This is expected to produce a factor of three or better in crease in the maximum source plasma density at a reduced rf power level, resulting in significantly increased negative ion current with reduced heat removal requirements.

  16. The influence of negative ions in helium-oxygen barrier discharges: I. Laser photodetachment experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschiersch, R.; Nemschokmichal, S.; Meichsner, J.

    2016-04-01

    This work is the experimental part of a comprehensive study that aims to understand the influence of negative ions on the development of atmospheric pressure barrier discharges in electronegative systems. The investigations will be complemented by a 1D numerical fluid simulation. Laser photodetachment experiments were performed in a glow-like barrier discharge operated in helium with admixtures of oxygen up to 1 vol.% at a gas pressure of 500 mbar. The discharge gap between the glass-coated electrodes was 3 mm. The discharge properties were characterized by electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. Laser photodetachment of {{\\text{O}}-} , {\\text{O}}2- , and {\\text{O}}3- was studied using the fundamental and second harmonic wavelength of a Nd-YAG laser. The laser photodetachment of negative ions influences the breakdown characteristics when the laser is fired during the prephase of the discharge only. The breakdown voltage is reduced, which indicates an enhanced pre-ionization initiated by the detached electrons. Systematic variations in the laser pulse in time, the axial laser beam position, the laser pulse energy, and the laser wavelength provided detailed knowledge on this process. The investigation underlines the importance of the discharge prephase in general and aims to differentiate between the negative ion species {{\\text{O}}-} , {\\text{O}}2- , and {\\text{O}}3- .

  17. Inductively driven surface-plasma negative ion source for N-NBI use (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Abdrashitov, G.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A.; Gorbovsky, A.; Kondakov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O.; Shikhovtsev, I.

    2016-02-01

    The long-pulse surface-plasma source prototype is developed at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics for negative-ion based neutral beam injector use. The essential source features are (1) an active temperature control of the ion-optical system electrodes by circulation of hot thermal fluid through the channels, drilled in the electrode bodies, (2) the concaved transverse magnetic field in the extraction and acceleration gaps, preventing the electrons trapping and avalanching, and (3) the directed cesium deposition via distribution tubes adjacent to the plasma grid periphery. The long term effect of cesium was obtained just with the single cesium deposition. The high voltage strength of ion-optical system electrodes was improved with actively heated electrodes. A stable H- beam with a current ˜1 A and energy 90 keV was routinely extracted and accelerated.

  18. Over-the-barrier electron detachment in the hydrogen negative ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, M. Z.; Simonović, N. S.

    2016-09-01

    The electron detachment from the hydrogen negative ion in strong fields is studied using the two-electron and different single-electron models within the quasistatic approximation. Special attention is payed to over-the-barrier regime where the Stark saddle is suppressed below the lowest energy level. It is demonstrated that the single-electron description of the lowest state of the ion, that is a good approximation for weak fields, fails in this and partially in the tunnelling regime. The exact lowest state energies and detachment rates for the ion at different strengths of the applied field are determined by solving the eigenvalue problem of the full two-electron Hamiltonian. A simple formula for the rate, which is valid in both regimes, is determined by fitting the exact data to the expression estimated using single-electron descriptions.

  19. Analyses of high power negative ion accelerators for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Dairaku, M.; Grisham, L. R.; Hanada, M.; Mizuno, T.; Tobari, H.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Inoue, T.

    2010-02-01

    In JAEA, research and developments to realize high power accelerator (1 MeV, 40 AD- ion beams for 3600 s) for ITER have been carried out experimentally and numerically utilizing a five stage MAMuG (Multiaperture, Multigrid) accelerator. In this paper, the extension of the gap length, which is required to improve the voltage holding capability, is examined in two dimensional beam optics analyses and also from view point of stripping loss of ions. In order to suppress excess power loadings due to the direct interception of negative ions, which is issued in long pulse tests, the beamlet deflection is analyzed in three dimensional multibeamlet analyses. The necessary modifications shown above are applied to the MAMuG accelerator for coming long pulse tests in JAEA and ITER.

  20. Concepts of magnetic filter fields in powerful negative ion sources for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Heinemann, B.; Wünderlich, D.

    2016-02-01

    The performance of large negative ion sources used in neutral beam injection systems is in long pulses mainly determined by the increase of the currents of co-extracted electrons. This is in particular a problem in deuterium and limits the ion currents which are for long pulses below the requirements for the ITER source. In the source of the ELISE test facility, the magnetic field in front of the first grid, which is essential to reduce the electron current, is generated by a current of several kA flowing through the plasma facing grid. Weakening of this field by the addition of permanent magnets placed close to the lateral walls has led to a reduction of the electron current by a factor three without loss of ion current when source was operated in volume production. If this effect can be validated for the cesiated source, it would be a large step towards achieving the ITER parameter in long pulses.

  1. Solitary and freak waves in a dusty plasma with negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelsalam, U. M.; Moslem, W. M.; Khater, A. H.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-09-15

    It is shown that solitary and freak waves can propagate in a dusty plasma composed of positive and negative ions, as well as nonextensive electrons. The evolution of the solitary waves is described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. However, when the frequency of the carrier wave is much smaller than the ion plasma frequency then the KdV equation is also used to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable modified ion-acoustic wavepackets through the derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation. In order to show that the characteristics of the solitary and freak waves are influenced by the plasma parameters, the relevant numerical analysis of the appropriate nonlinear solutions is presented. The relevance of the present investigation to nonlinear waves in astrophysical plasma environments is discussed.

  2. Analyses of high power negative ion accelerators for ITER neutral beam injector (invited).

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, M; Taniguchi, M; Dairaku, M; Grisham, L R; Hanada, M; Mizuno, T; Tobari, H; Umeda, N; Watanabe, K; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, T

    2010-02-01

    In JAEA, research and developments to realize high power accelerator (1 MeV, 40 AD(-) ion beams for 3600 s) for ITER have been carried out experimentally and numerically utilizing a five stage MAMuG (Multiaperture, Multigrid) accelerator. In this paper, the extension of the gap length, which is required to improve the voltage holding capability, is examined in two dimensional beam optics analyses and also from view point of stripping loss of ions. In order to suppress excess power loadings due to the direct interception of negative ions, which is issued in long pulse tests, the beamlet deflection is analyzed in three dimensional multibeamlet analyses. The necessary modifications shown above are applied to the MAMuG accelerator for coming long pulse tests in JAEA and ITER. PMID:20192419

  3. Negative ion ESI-MS analysis of natural yellow dye flavonoids--An isotopic labelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, Hamish; Ferreira, Ester S. B.; Hulme, Alison N.; Quye, Anita

    2009-07-01

    Flavonoids are amongst the most commonly used natural yellow colourants in paintings, as lakes, and in historical textiles as mordant dyes. In this paper, evidence from isotopically labelled substrates is used to propose negative ion electrospray collision induced decomposition mechanisms of flavones, flavonols and an isoflavone. These mechanisms include a retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation (observed for flavones and flavonols) and an M-122 fragmentation (characteristic of 3',4'-dihydroxyflavonols). In addition, the presence of a m/z 125 fragment ion is shown to be characteristic of 2'-hydroxyflavonols and an ion at m/z 149 is shown to be characteristic of 4'-hydroxyflavones. Applications of these methods are exemplified by the identification of a minor component of Dyer's camomile (Anthemis tinctoria L.) and the identification of the dye source in green threads sampled from an 18th Century Scottish tartan fragment.

  4. Oscillatory instability development in extraction system of a negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barminova, H. Y.; Chikhachev, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Conditions of oscillatory instability development in the extraction system of a negative hydrogen ion source based on a volume-produced plasma are studied. Such an ion source is characterized by the presence of the parent gas in the extraction system due to the leakage from the gas-discharge chamber. The secondary electrons in the area of the ion-optical system become the reason of oscillation appearance and possible beam current modulation. Analytically the range of the stable beam propagation is found. The instability increment is shown to be rather small. Maximum increment of the oscillations corresponds to the beam velocity equal to the thermal velocity of plasma electrons. The group velocity of the oscillations is close to the beam velocity so the oscillations are convective. Simulation of the low energy beam propagation is performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, the beam current modulation being observed.

  5. Operation of RF driven negative ion source in a pure-hydrogen mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrashitov, G.; Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A. A.; Gusev, I.; Senkov, D.; Sanin, A.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sotnikov, O.; Kondakov, A.

    2015-04-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions in the radio-frequency driven long-pulsed source with external antenna is studied. RF drivers with various geometry of external antenna, Faraday shield and magnets at the rear flange were examined. H- beam extraction through the single emission aperture was performed in the source pure-hydrogen mode with no external seed of alkali additives. H- beam with ion emission current density up to 5 mA/cm2 and energy up to 75 keV was regularly obtained in the 1 s pulses of the pure-hydrogen mode. The regular temporal increase of H- ion production due to deposition of impurities on the plasma grid surface was recorded. The H- emission current density increased up to 9 mA/cm2 in this case.

  6. Oscillatory instability development in extraction system of a negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Barminova, H Y; Chikhachev, A S

    2016-02-01

    Conditions of oscillatory instability development in the extraction system of a negative hydrogen ion source based on a volume-produced plasma are studied. Such an ion source is characterized by the presence of the parent gas in the extraction system due to the leakage from the gas-discharge chamber. The secondary electrons in the area of the ion-optical system become the reason of oscillation appearance and possible beam current modulation. Analytically the range of the stable beam propagation is found. The instability increment is shown to be rather small. Maximum increment of the oscillations corresponds to the beam velocity equal to the thermal velocity of plasma electrons. The group velocity of the oscillations is close to the beam velocity so the oscillations are convective. Simulation of the low energy beam propagation is performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, the beam current modulation being observed. PMID:26931916

  7. Inductively driven surface-plasma negative ion source for N-NBI use (invited).

    PubMed

    Belchenko, Yu; Abdrashitov, G; Deichuli, P; Ivanov, A; Gorbovsky, A; Kondakov, A; Sanin, A; Sotnikov, O; Shikhovtsev, I

    2016-02-01

    The long-pulse surface-plasma source prototype is developed at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics for negative-ion based neutral beam injector use. The essential source features are (1) an active temperature control of the ion-optical system electrodes by circulation of hot thermal fluid through the channels, drilled in the electrode bodies, (2) the concaved transverse magnetic field in the extraction and acceleration gaps, preventing the electrons trapping and avalanching, and (3) the directed cesium deposition via distribution tubes adjacent to the plasma grid periphery. The long term effect of cesium was obtained just with the single cesium deposition. The high voltage strength of ion-optical system electrodes was improved with actively heated electrodes. A stable H(-) beam with a current ∼1 A and energy 90 keV was routinely extracted and accelerated. PMID:26932044

  8. Concepts of magnetic filter fields in powerful negative ion sources for fusion.

    PubMed

    Kraus, W; Fantz, U; Heinemann, B; Wünderlich, D

    2016-02-01

    The performance of large negative ion sources used in neutral beam injection systems is in long pulses mainly determined by the increase of the currents of co-extracted electrons. This is in particular a problem in deuterium and limits the ion currents which are for long pulses below the requirements for the ITER source. In the source of the ELISE test facility, the magnetic field in front of the first grid, which is essential to reduce the electron current, is generated by a current of several kA flowing through the plasma facing grid. Weakening of this field by the addition of permanent magnets placed close to the lateral walls has led to a reduction of the electron current by a factor three without loss of ion current when source was operated in volume production. If this effect can be validated for the cesiated source, it would be a large step towards achieving the ITER parameter in long pulses. PMID:26932043

  9. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, Øystein

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  10. Operation of RF driven negative ion source in a pure-hydrogen mode

    SciTech Connect

    Abdrashitov, G.; Belchenko, Yu. Gusev, I.; Senkov, D.; Sanin, A.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Kondakov, A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Sotnikov, O.

    2015-04-08

    The production of negative hydrogen ions in the radio-frequency driven long-pulsed source with external antenna is studied. RF drivers with various geometry of external antenna, Faraday shield and magnets at the rear flange were examined. H- beam extraction through the single emission aperture was performed in the source pure-hydrogen mode with no external seed of alkali additives. H- beam with ion emission current density up to 5 mA/cm{sup 2} and energy up to 75 keV was regularly obtained in the 1 s pulses of the pure-hydrogen mode. The regular temporal increase of H- ion production due to deposition of impurities on the plasma grid surface was recorded. The H- emission current density increased up to 9 mA/cm{sup 2} in this case.

  11. Single discharge of the matrix source of negative hydrogen ions: Influence of the neutral particle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Paunska, Ts.; Todorov, D. Shivarova, A.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2015-04-08

    The study presents two-dimensional (2D) fluid-plasma-model description of a planar-coil inductively-driven discharge, considered as a single element of a matrix source of volume-produced negative hydrogen ions. Whereas the models developed up to now have been directed towards description of the charged particle behavior in the discharge, including that of the negative ions, this model stresses on the role of the neutral particle dynamics and of the surface processes in the formation of the discharge structure. The latter is discussed based on comparison of results obtained for discharges in a flowing gas and at a constant gas pressure as well as for different values of the coefficient of atom recombination on the walls. The conclusions are that the main plasma parameters – electron density and temperature and plasma potential – determining the gas discharge regime stay stable, regardless of changes in the redistribution of the densities of the neutral particles and of the positive ions. With regards to the volume production of the ions, which requires high density of (vibrationally excited) molecules, the impact on the degree of dissociation of the coefficient of atom recombination on the wall is discussed.

  12. Simulation of diatomic gas-wall interaction and accommodation coefficients for negative ion sources and accelerators.

    PubMed

    Sartori, E; Brescaccin, L; Serianni, G

    2016-02-01

    Particle-wall interactions determine in different ways the operating conditions of plasma sources, ion accelerators, and beams operating in vacuum. For instance, a contribution to gas heating is given by ion neutralization at walls; beam losses and stray particle production-detrimental for high current negative ion systems such as beam sources for fusion-are caused by collisional processes with residual gas, with the gas density profile that is determined by the scattering of neutral particles at the walls. This paper shows that Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies at the nano-scale can provide accommodation parameters for gas-wall interactions, such as the momentum accommodation coefficient and energy accommodation coefficient: in non-isothermal flows (such as the neutral gas in the accelerator, coming from the plasma source), these affect the gas density gradients and influence efficiency and losses in particular of negative ion accelerators. For ideal surfaces, the computation also provides the angular distribution of scattered particles. Classical MD method has been applied to the case of diatomic hydrogen molecules. Single collision events, against a frozen wall or a fully thermal lattice, have been simulated by using probe molecules. Different modelling approximations are compared. PMID:26931910

  13. Charge steering of laser plasma accelerated fast ions in a liquid spray — creation of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schnürer, M.; Abicht, F.; Priebe, G.; Braenzel, J.; Prasad, R.; Borghesi, M.; Andreev, A.; Nickles, P. V.; Jequier, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2013-11-15

    The scenario of “electron capture and loss” has been recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with up to MeV kinetic energy [S. Ter-Avetisyan, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051501 (2011)]. Validation of these processes and of their generic nature is here provided in experiments where the ion source and the interaction medium have been spatially separated. Fast positive ions accelerated from a laser plasma source are sent through a cold spray where their charge is changed. Such formed neutral atom or negative ion has nearly the same momentum as the original positive ion. Experiments are released for protons, carbon, and oxygen ions and corresponding beams of negative ions and neutral atoms have been obtained. The electron capture and loss phenomenon is confirmed to be the origin of the negative ion and neutral atom beams. The equilibrium ratios of different charge components and cross sections have been measured. Our method is general and allows the creation of beams of neutral atoms and negative ions for different species which inherit the characteristics of the positive ion source.

  14. Modified Ion-Acoustic Shock Waves and Double Layers in a Degenerate Electron-Positron-Ion Plasma in Presence of Heavy Negative Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, M. A.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    A general theory for nonlinear propagation of one dimensional modified ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) degenerate plasma is investigated. This plasma system is assumed to contain relativistic electron and positron fluids, non-degenerate viscous positive ions, and negatively charged static heavy ions. The modified Burgers and Gardner equations have been derived by employing the reductive perturbation method and analyzed in order to identify the basic features (polarity, width, speed, etc.) of shock and double layer (DL) structures. It is observed that the basic features of these shock and DL structures obtained from this analysis are significantly different from those obtained from the analysis of standard Gardner or Burgers equations. The implications of these results in space and interstellar compact objects (viz. non-rotating white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc.) are also briefly mentioned.

  15. The study of discharge characteristic of the cold-cathode negative hydrogen PIG-type ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Dong, P.; Long, J. D.; Wang, T.; Lan, C. H.; Peng, Y. F.; Wei, T.; He, X. Z.; Zhang, K. Z.; Shi, J. S.

    2012-09-01

    The cold-cathode Penning ion gage (PIG)-type ion source is designed for the internal ion source of the compact cyclotron. This kind of ion source has been used for generation of the negative hydrogen (H-) ions for many decades. The discharge characteristics of the ion source are investigated systematically for hydrogen operation at different discharge currents, gas flow rates and magnetic fields, respectively. In this paper, optical emission spectroscopy measurement is carried out to diagnose the parameters of the hydrogen plasma in the ion source. The preliminary optimization of the H- formation with the gas flow rates is discussed and analyzed. Current experimental results can provide useful information for the design and operation of the negative ion source.

  16. Drift and clustering of daughter negative ions of H2O in parent gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Urquijo, J.; Bekstein, A.; Ruiz-Vargas, G.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    The mobility of daughter negative ions of H2O in parent gas has been measured with a pulsed Townsend technique over the density-reduced field strength, E/N, range 9-100 Td and a pressure range 2-16 Torr. It has been found that the mobility of the anions is dependent on the gas pressure. Using a transport theory considering the influence of the permanent dipole field of H2O, we have found that the pressure-dependent mobilities can be associated with a series of cluster ions of the type OH-(H2O)n (n = 1-3), with the mass of the cluster species increasing with the total gas pressure. Also, the mobility of H- and OH- could be estimated. Using a Townsend avalanche simulator we have been able to explain the measured ionic currents in terms of an ion-molecule reaction scheme with a single set of swarm and reaction coefficients for each value of the density-reduced field strength, E/N, at several pressures. Regarding the positive ions, the only drifting ion is H3O+, the mobility of which could be estimated. The rate constants relative to the formation of the OH-(H2O)n (n = 1-3) species were also derived from this study.

  17. Immobilization of extracellular matrix on polymeric materials by carbon-negative-ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sommani, Piyanuch; Muto, Takashi; Utagawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Shun; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2005-08-01

    Effects of ion implantation into polystyrene (PS), silicone rubber (SR) and poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) have been investigated for immobilization of extracellular matrix. Carbon negative ions were implanted into PS and SR sheets at various energies between 5-30 keV and various doses between 1.0 × 1014-1.0 × 1016 ions/cm2. Contact angles of pure water on C-implanted surfaces of PS and SR were decreased as increase in ion energy and in dose due to formation of functional groups such as OH and C-O. Selective attachment of nerve cells was observed on C-implanted them at 10 keV and 3 × 1015 ions/cm2 after in vitro cell culture of nerve cells of PC-12 h. Neurite outgrowth also extended over the implanted area. After dipping in a serum medium and in a fibronectin solution for 2 h, the detection of N 1s electrons by X-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) revealed a significant distinction of protein adhesion on the implanted area. Thus, immobilization of proteins on surface is used for considering the selective cell-attachment. For PLA, the selective attachment of cells and protein depended on the implantation conditions.

  18. RTV silicone rubber surface modification for cell biocompatibility by negative-ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chenlong; Wang, Guangfu; Chu, Yingjie; Xu, Ya; Qiu, Menglin; Xu, Mi

    2016-03-01

    A negative cluster ion implantation system was built on the injector of a GIC4117 tandem accelerator. Next, the system was used to study the surface modification of room temperature vulcanization silicone rubber (RTV SR) for cell biocompatibility. The water contact angle was observed to decrease from 117.6° to 99.3° as the C1- implantation dose was increased to 1 × 1016 ions/cm2, and the effects of C1-, C2- and O1- implantation result in only small differences in the water contact angle at 3 × 1015 ions/cm2. These findings indicate that the hydrophilicity of RTV SR improves as the dose is increased and that the radiation effect has a greater influence than the doping effect on the hydrophilicity. There are two factors influence hydrophilicity of RTV: (1) based on the XPS and ATR-FTIR results, it can be inferred that ion implantation breaks the hydrophobic functional groups (Sisbnd CH3, Sisbnd Osbnd Si, Csbnd H) of RTV SR and generates hydrophilic functional groups (sbnd COOH, sbnd OH, Sisbnd (O)x (x = 3,4)). (2) SEM reveals that the implanted surface of RTV SR appears the micro roughness such as cracks and wrinkles. The hydrophilicity should be reduced due to the lotus effect (Zhou Rui et al., 2009). These two factors cancel each other out and make the C-implantation sample becomes more hydrophilic in general terms. Finally, cell culture demonstrates that negative ion-implantation is an effective method to improve the cell biocompatibility of RTV SR.

  19. Relative dissociation fractions of CF4 under 15–30 keV H‑, C‑ and O‑ negative ion impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dedong; Fan, Yikui; Zhao, Zilong; Min, Guangxin; Zhang, Xuemei

    2016-08-01

    The relative dissociation fractions to produce the fragments of CF4 molecule are studied under the impact of 15 keV to 30 keV H‑, C‑ and O‑ negative ions. By using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the recoil ions and ion pairs originating from the target molecule CF4 are detected and identified in coincidence with scattered ions in q = 0 and q = +1 charge states. The fractions for the production of the fragment ions are obtained relative to the {\\text{CF} }3+ yield, while that of the ion pairs relative to the (C+, F+) coincidence yield.

  20. Surface-plasma negative ion source for the medicine accelerator (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchenko, Y. I.; Grigoryev, E. V.

    2002-02-01

    A neutron source for boron capture neutron therapy is under development at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP). It is based on a tandem vacuum-isolated accelerator using a dc negative hydrogen ion source. A compact dc ion source model having reliable operation and simplified maintenance was developed at BINP as a prototype of the high current source for the medicine accelerator. The compact model (CM) uses a glow discharge with modified Penning geometry of the electrodes and explores surface-plasma negative ion (NI) production on the cesiated anode surface. The CM optimal parameters are as follows: discharge voltage 60-80 V, discharge current up to 6 A, hydrogen pressure 4-5 Pa, cesium consumption <1 mg/h, transverse magnetic field 0.5-1 kG s, optimal anode temperature 250-350 °C. A built-in heater provides the CM a quick start and simplifies CM electrode conditioning. The CM delivers a NI beam with a current of 5 mA, beam energy of 17 keV, normalized emittance of about 0.3 π mm mrad and an emission current density of about 0.1 A/cm2. NI beam current is directly proportional to the discharge current and to the emission hole area. The CM quick start and stable dc operation for several hour runs were multiply tested. No essential erosion of electrodes was recorded.

  1. Electron stimulated desorption of negative ions: A time-of-flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeden, C.; Dollinger, G.

    2002-08-01

    We present a setup for stimulated desorption experiments of negative ions using low energy incident electrons and time-of-flight identification of the desorbed ions. It consists of a pulsed electron gun, an electrostatic focusing system, and a channel plate detector setup. Electron beams down to sub-eV energies can be used due to electrostatic shielding and the compensation of the earth's magnetic field by a set of Helmholtz coils. The main advantage is the large acceptance for ions of all masses, energies, and desorption angles at the same time, which keeps measuring time reasonably short and allows us to gain information before degeneration of the irradiated sample occurs, even if weak desorption channels are investigated. We demonstrate the power of our setup with first results from a boron doped, (100)-oriented diamond sample, which is partly oxidized and partly hydrogenated with some water contaminations on it. Different binding states of oxygen are disclosed clearly by different desorption thresholds. The C-O binding on oxidized diamond forms a carbonyl group. The 1b2 orbital of water can be seen in a O desorption threshold. The yield of negative hydrogen desorption shows a linear increase for incident electron energies higher than 13 eV. It results from a dipolar dissociation as has been published previously.

  2. Modeling activities on the negative-ion-based Neutral Beam Injectors of the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Chitarin, G.; Pilan, N.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Nakano, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.

    2011-09-26

    At the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) large-scaled negative ion sources have been widely used for the Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) mounted on the Large Helical Device (LHD), which is the world-largest superconducting helical system. These injectors have achieved outstanding performances in terms of beam energy, negative-ion current and optics, and represent a reference for the development of heating and current drive NBIs for ITER.In the framework of the support activities for the ITER NBIs, the PRIMA test facility, which includes a RF-drive ion source with 100 keV accelerator (SPIDER) and a complete 1 MeV Neutral Beam system (MITICA) is under construction at Consorzio RFX in Padova.An experimental validation of the codes has been undertaken in order to prove the accuracy of the simulations and the soundness of the SPIDER and MITICA design. To this purpose, the whole set of codes have been applied to the LHD NBIs in a joint activity between Consorzio RFX and NIFS, with the goal of comparing and benchmarking the codes with the experimental data. A description of these modeling activities and a discussion of the main results obtained are reported in this paper.

  3. Behavior of Negative Hydrogen Ion and its Beam by Bias and Beam Extraction Voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Haruhisa; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Kisaki, Masashi; Ikeda, Katsunori; Geng, Shaofei; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Kaneko, Osamu; Serianni, Gianluigi; Agostinetti, Piero; Sartori, Emanuele; Brombin, Matteo; Wimmer, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Negative hydrogen ion (H-) dynamics from production to beam extraction in H- source for fusion have not been enough understood in cesium-seeded negative-hydrogen-ion sources. This dynamics understanding contributes constructions of higher performance ion sources. The H- is produced on and emitted from plasma grid electrode (PG) which is boundary electrode between source plasma and beam. The H- density in the vicinity of the PG decreased with bias voltage (between PG and arc chamber) by suppression of H- emission and/or yield. The H- density decrement was observed in H- beam extraction phase and penetrated to 30 mm depth from PG. The depth and H- beam current decreased with bias voltage. One of the possibilities which explain it is extracted H- coming from space in the vicinity of the PG. An object made of ceramic was inserted above the PG aperture. The H- beam intensity decreased if the object was set 9 mm from PG. This does not conflict with the possibility. This work is supported by NIFS Research Programs NIFS13ULRR008 and NIFS13ULRR702, and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25800307 and 25249134.

  4. A collisional radiative model of hydrogen plasmas developed for diagnostic purposes of negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanova, Snejana; Paunska, Tsvetelina

    2016-02-01

    A collisional radiative model of low-pressure hydrogen plasmas is elaborated and applied in optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of a single element of a matrix source of negative hydrogen ions. The model accounts for the main processes determining both the population densities of the first ten states of the hydrogen atom and the densities of the positive hydrogen ions H+, H2+, and H3+. In the calculations, the electron density and electron temperature are varied whereas the atomic and molecular temperatures are included as experimentally obtained external parameters. The ratio of the Hα to Hβ line intensities is calculated from the numerical results for the excited state population densities, obtained as a solution of the set of the steady-state rate balance equations. The comparison of measured and theoretically obtained ratios of line intensities yields the values of the electron density and temperature as well as of the degree of dissociation, i.e., of the parameters which have a crucial role for the volume production of the negative ions.

  5. Analysis of saturated hydrocarbons by redox reaction with negative-ion electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xibin; Shi, Quan; Zhang, Yahe; Zhao, Suoqi; Zhang, Rui; Chung, Keng H; Xu, Chunming

    2012-04-01

    A novel technique was developed for characterization of saturated hydrocarbons. Linear alkanes were selectively oxidized to ketones by ruthenium ion catalyzed oxidation (RICO). Branched and cyclic alkanes were oxidized to alcohols and ketones. The ketones were then reduced to alcohols by lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH(4)). The monohydric alcohols (O(1)) in the products obtained from the RICO and RICO-LiAlH(4) reduction reactions were characterized using negative-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) for identification of iso-paraffins, acyclic paraffins and cyclic paraffins. Various model saturated compounds were used to determine the RICO reaction and ionization selectivity. The results from the FTICR MS analysis on the petroleum distillates derived saturated fraction were in agreement with those from field ionization gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (FI GC-TOF MS) analysis. The technique was also used to characterize a petroleum vacuum residue (VR) derived saturates. The results showed that the saturated molecules in the VR contained up to 11 cyclic rings, and the maximum carbon number was up to 92. PMID:22424498

  6. Analysis of the beam halo in negative ion sources by using 3D3V PIC code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.; Hiratsuka, J.

    2016-02-01

    The physical mechanism of the formation of the negative ion beam halo and the heat loads of the multi-stage acceleration grids are investigated with the 3D PIC (particle in cell) simulation. The following physical mechanism of the beam halo formation is verified: The beam core and the halo consist of the negative ions extracted from the center and the periphery of the meniscus, respectively. This difference of negative ion extraction location results in a geometrical aberration. Furthermore, it is shown that the heat loads on the first acceleration grid and the second acceleration grid are quantitatively improved compared with those for the 2D PIC simulation result.

  7. Effects of roughness and temperature on low-energy hydrogen positive and negative ion reflection from silicon and carbon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, N.; Kato, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Wada, M.; Nishiura, M.; Tsumori, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kenmotsu, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Yamaoka, H.

    2014-02-15

    Angle-resolved energy distribution functions of positive and negative hydrogen ions produced from a rough-finished Si surface under 1 keV proton irradiation have been measured. The corresponding distribution from a crystalline surface and a carbon surface are also measured for comparison. Intensities of positive and negative ions from the rough-finished Si are substantially smaller than those from crystalline Si. The angular distributions of these species are broader for rough surface than the crystalline surface. No significant temperature dependence for positive and negative ion intensities is observed for all samples in the temperature range from 300 to 400 K.

  8. Analysis of the beam halo in negative ion sources by using 3D3V PIC code.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Nishioka, S; Goto, I; Hatayama, A; Hanada, M; Kojima, A; Hiratsuka, J

    2016-02-01

    The physical mechanism of the formation of the negative ion beam halo and the heat loads of the multi-stage acceleration grids are investigated with the 3D PIC (particle in cell) simulation. The following physical mechanism of the beam halo formation is verified: The beam core and the halo consist of the negative ions extracted from the center and the periphery of the meniscus, respectively. This difference of negative ion extraction location results in a geometrical aberration. Furthermore, it is shown that the heat loads on the first acceleration grid and the second acceleration grid are quantitatively improved compared with those for the 2D PIC simulation result. PMID:26932006

  9. 193 nm Ultraviolet Photodissociation Mass Spectrometry for Phosphopeptide Characterization in the Positive and Negative Ion Modes.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michelle R; Taliaferro, Juliana M; Dalby, Kevin N; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2016-08-01

    Advances in liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have permitted phosphoproteomic analysis on a grand scale, but ongoing challenges specifically associated with confident phosphate localization continue to motivate the development of new fragmentation techniques. In the present study, ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) at 193 nm is evaluated for the characterization of phosphopeptides in both positive and negative ion modes. Compared to the more standard higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD), UVPD provided more extensive fragmentation with improved phosphate retention on product ions. Negative mode UVPD showed particular merit for detecting and sequencing highly acidic phosphopeptides from alpha and beta casein, but was not as robust for larger scale analysis because of lower ionization efficiencies in the negative mode. HeLa and HCC70 cell lysates were analyzed by both UVPD and HCD. While HCD identified more phosphopeptides and proteins compared to UVPD, the unique matches from UVPD analysis could be combined with the HCD data set to improve the overall depth of coverage compared to either method alone. PMID:27425180

  10. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a reagent for complex mixture analysis by negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Juyal, Priyanka; McKenna, Amy M; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2013-08-20

    Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) enables the direct characterization of complex mixtures without prior fractionation. High mass resolution can distinguish peaks separated by as little as 1.1 mDa), and high mass accuracy enables assignment of elemental compositions in mixtures that contain tens of thousands of individual components (crude oil). Negative electrospray ionization (ESI) is particularly useful for the speciation of the most acidic petroleum components that are implicated in oil production and processing problems. Here, we replace conventional ammonium hydroxide by tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, a much stronger base, with higher solubility in toluene) to more uniformly deprotonate acidic components of complex mixtures by negative ESI FTICR MS. The detailed compositional analysis of four crude oils (light to heavy, from different geographical locations) reveals that TMAH reagent accesses 1.5-6 times as many elemental compositions, spanning a much wider range of chemical classes than does NH4OH. For example, TMAH reagent produces abundant negative electrosprayed ions from less acidic and neutral species that are in low abundance or absent with NH4OH reagent. More importantly, the increased compositional coverage of TMAH-modified solvent systems maintains, or even surpasses, the compositional information for the most acidic species. The method is not limited to petroleum-derived materials and could be applied to the analysis of dissolved organic matter, coal, lipids, and other naturally occurring compositionally complex organic mixtures. PMID:23919350

  11. The design and implementation of TPC encoder and decoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, L. J.; Wang, Z. B.; Yuan, J. B.; Zheng, L. H.

    2016-02-01

    Based on the analysis and simulation of TPC codec principle and iteration decoding algorithm based on Chase 2, the design and implementation methods of TPC encoder and decoder are presented in this paper. In particular, circuit design and implementation flow of soft-input soft-output modified method in decoder algorithm and iteration decoding are analyzed. Aiming at (64,57,4) TPC, when the iteration times is 3 and the uncertain position number is 3, simulation and implementation results show that at least 6.8dB encoding gain can be obtained under the condition of BER=10-6

  12. Dark Sector Searches in LArTPC Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himwich, Elizabeth; MicroBooNE Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) experiments, which allow for excellent event characterization and topological visualization, are sensitive to the distinct signatures of theorized low-energy dark sector phenomena. With the unique technology of LArTPC experiments, it is possible to perform a quasi-model independent dark sector search that can encompass a number of models. This talk will discuss the dark sector search in LArTPC experiments as well as the sensitivity of the MicroBooNE and Lar1-ND experiments to dark sector signatures predicted by leptophobic models, which has been evaluated based on simulated signal and background event rates.

  13. Early time evolution of negative ion clouds and electron density depletions produced during electron attachment chemical release experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Ganguli, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations are used to study the early time evolution of electron depletions and negative ion clouds produced during electron attachment chemical releases in the ionosphere. The simulation model considers the evolution in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field and a three-species plasma that contains electrons, positive ions, and also heavy negative ions that result as a by-product of the electron attachment reaction. The early time evolution (less than the negative ion cyclotron period) of the system shows that a negative charge surplus initially develops outside of the depletion boundary as the heavy negative ions move across the boundary. The electrons are initially restricted from moving into the depletion due to the magnetic field. An inhomogenous electric field develops across the boundary layer due to this charge separation. A highly sheared electron flow velocity develops in the depletion boundary due to E x B and Delta-N x B drifts that result from electron density gradients and this inhomogenous electric field. Structure eventually develops in the depletion boundary layer due to low-frequency electrostatic waves that have growth times shorter than the negative ion cyclotron period. It is proposed that these waves are most likely produced by the electron-ion hybrid instability that results from sufficiently large shears in the electron flow velocity.

  14. Aharonov-Bohm Effect in the Photodetachment Microscopy of Hydrogen Negative Ions in an Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dehua

    2014-09-01

    The Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in the photodetachment microscopy of the H- ions in an electric field has been studied on the basis of the semiclassical theory. After the H- ion is irradiated by a laser light, they provide a coherent electron source. When the detached electron is accelerated by a uniform electric field, two trajectories of a detached electron which run from the source to the same point on the detector, will interfere with each other and lead to an interference pattern in the photodetachment microscopy. After the solenoid is electrified beside the H- ion, even though no Lorentz force acts on the electron outside the solenoid, the photodetachment microscopy interference pattern on the detector is changed with the variation in the magnetic flux enclosed by the solenoid. This is caused by the AB effect. Under certain conditions, the interference pattern reaches the macroscopic dimensions and could be observed in a direct AB effect experiment. Our study can provide some predictions for the future experimental study of the AB effect in the photodetachment microscopy of negative ions.

  15. Sodium titanate nanotubes as negative electrode materials for sodium-ion capacitors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jiao; Qi, Li; Wang, Hongyu

    2012-05-01

    The lithium-based energy storage technology is currently being considered for electric automotive industry and even electric grid storage. However, the hungry demand for vast energy sources in the modern society will conflict with the shortage of lithium resources on the earth. The first alternative choice may be sodium-related materials. Herein, we propose an electric energy storage system (sodium-ion capacitor) based on porous carbon and sodium titanate nanotubes (Na-TNT, Na(+)-insertion compounds) as positive and negative electrode materials, respectively, in conjunction with Na(+)-containing non-aqueous electrolytes. As a low-voltage (0.1-2 V) sodium insertion nanomaterial, Na-TNT was synthesized via a simple hydrothermal reaction. Compared with bulk sodium titanate, the predominance of Na-TNT is the excellent rate performance, which exactly caters to the need for electrochemical capacitors. The sodium-ion capacitors exhibited desirable energy density and power density (34 Wh kg(-1), 889 W kg(-1)). Furthermore, the sodium-ion capacitors had long cycling life (1000 cycles) and high coulombic efficiency (≈ 98 % after the second cycle). More importantly, the conception of sodium-ion capacitor has been put forward. PMID:22500466

  16. Plasma And Beam Homogeneity Of The RF-Driven Negative Hydrogen Ion Source For ITER NBI

    SciTech Connect

    Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Wuenderlich, D.; Gutser, R.; Berger, M.

    2009-03-12

    The neutral beam injection (NBI) system of ITER is based on a large RF driven negative hydrogen ion source. For good beam transmission ITER requires a beam homogeneity of better than 10%. The plasma uniformity and the correlation with the beam homogeneity are being investigated at the prototype ion sources at IPP. Detailed studies are carried out at the long pulse test facility MANITU with a source of roughly 1/8 of the ITER source size. The plasma homogeneity close to plasma grid is measured by optical emission spectroscopy and by fixed Langmuir probes working in the ion saturation region. The beam homogeneity is measured with a spatially resolved H{sub {alpha}} Doppler-shifted beam spectroscopy system. The plasma top-to-bottom symmetry improves with increasing RF power and increasing bias voltage which is applied to suppress the co-extracted electron current. The symmetry is better in deuterium than in hydrogen. The boundary layer near the plasma grid determines the plasma symmetry. At high ion currents with a low amount of co-extracted electrons the plasma is symmetrical and the beam homogeneity is typically 5-10%(RMS). The size scaling and the influence of the magnetic field strength of the filter field created by a plasma grid current is studied at the test facility RADI (roughly a 1/2 size ITER source) at ITER relevant RF power levels. In volume operation in deuterium (non-cesiated source), the plasma illumination of the grid is satisfying.

  17. Properties of clusters in the gas phase. V - Complexes of neutral molecules onto negative ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keesee, R. G.; Lee, N.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Ion-molecules association reactions of the form A(-)(B)n-1 + B = A(-)(B)n were studied over a range of temperatures in the gas phase using high pressure mass spectrometry. Enthalpy and entropy changes were determined for the stepwise clustering reactions of (1) sulfur dioxide onto Cl(-), I(-), and NO2(-) with n ranging from one to three or four, and onto SO2(-) and SO3(-) with n equal to one; and (2) carbon dioxide onto Cl(-), I(-), NO2(-), CO3(-), and SO3(-) with n equal to one. From these data and earlier hydration results, the order of the magnitude of the enthalpy changes on the association of the first neutral for a series of negative ions was found to parallel the gas-phase basicity of those anions.

  18. Monitoring Surface Condition of Plasma Grid of a Negative Hydrogen Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Kasuya, T.; Tokushige, S.; Kenmotsu, T.

    2011-09-26

    Surface condition of a plasma grid in a negative hydrogen ion source is controlled so as to maximize the beam current under a discharge operation with introducing Cs into the ion source. Photoelectric current induced by laser beams incident on the plasma grid can produce a signal to monitor the surface condition, but the signal detection can be easily hindered by plasma noise. Reduction in size of a detection electrode embedded in the plasma grid can improve signal-to-noise ratio of the photoelectric current from the electrode. To evaluate the feasibility of monitoring surface condition of a plasma gird by utilizing photoelectric effect, a small experimental setup capable of determining quantum yields of a surface in a cesiated plasma environment is being assembled. Some preliminary test results of the apparatus utilizing oxide cathodes are reported.

  19. Ambipolar escape from Venus, Mars and Titan, and negative ions at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Ionospheric photoelectrons are a natural product of the photo-ionisation of planetary atmospheres. Their energy spectrum is distinctive and depends on the solar spectrum in the EUV and X-ray region. On production, the energetic electrons move along the magnetic field (open or draped), setting up an ambipolar electric field which can extract ions. This provides an escape mechanism similar to Earth's 'polar wind'. As these objects are unmagnetised, this produces an extended escape mechanism over the whole sunlit ionosphere. Here, we review recent measurements of photoelectrons far from the parent objects at Venus, Mars and Titan, from Venus Express, Mars Express, Maven and Cassini, and discuss similarities and related escape rates. We also review the pioneering observations of the remarkably heavy negative ions discovered in Titan's ionosphere.

  20. A Negative-Surface Ionization for Generation of Halogen Radioactive Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zaim, H.

    2001-04-16

    A simple and efficient negative surface ionization source has been designed, fabricated and initially tested for on-line generation of radioactive ion beams of the halogens (Cl, Br, I, and At) for use in the nuclear-structure and nuclear-astrophysics research programs at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. The source utilizes a solid, spherical geometry LaB{sub 6} surface ionizer for forming highly electronegative atoms and molecules. Despite its widely publicized propensity for being easily poisoned, no evidences of this effect were experienced during testing of the source. Nominal efficiencies of 15% for Br{sup {minus}} beam generation were obtained during off-line evaluation of the source with AlBr3 feed material when account is taken of the fractional dissociation of the molecule. Principles of operation, design features, operational parameter data, initial performance results, and beam quality data (emittance) are presented in this article.

  1. Negative ion clusters in oxygen: collision cross sections and transport coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Urquijo, J.; Bekstein, A.; Ducasse, O.; Ruíz-Vargas, G.; Yousfi, M.; Benhenni, M.

    2009-12-01

    Using a pulsed Townsend experiment, we have observed the formation of two negative ion species in oxygen over the pressure range 100-600 torr, and the density-normalised electric field strength, E/N, from 2 to 14 Td. The peculiar shape of these transients has led us to propose a scheme of three-body ion-molecule reactions leading to the formation of O4 - and O6 -, which is substantiated by a curve fitting procedure. The resulting mobility data of these two ionic species have been used to calculate their respective momentum transfer collision cross sections, together with the dissociation cross sections that are needed to extend the range of calculation of mobility and diffusion (transverse and longitudinal) to 1000 Td. These calculations were based on an optimised Monte Carlo algorithm, using collision cross sections obtained from a JWKB approximation (Jeffreys-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) or taken from literature.

  2. First negative ion beam measurement by the Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment (STRIKE)

    SciTech Connect

    Serianni, G. De Muri, M.; Veltri, P.; Bonomo, F.; Chitarin, G.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Valente, M.; Muraro, A.; Franzen, P.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-02-15

    The Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from Rf plasma (SPIDER) test facility is under construction in Padova to optimise the operation of the beam source of ITER neutral beam injectors. The SPIDER beam will be characterised by the instrumented calorimeter STRIKE, whose main components are one-directional carbon-fibre-carbon-composite tiles. A small-scale version of the entire system has been employed in the BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions (BATMAN) testbed by arranging two prototype tiles in the vertical direction. The paper presents a description of the mini-STRIKE system and of the data analysis procedures, as well as some results concerning the BATMAN beam under varying operating conditions.

  3. On the meniscus formation and the negative hydrogen ion extraction from ITER neutral beam injection relevant ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Ruf, B.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Minea, T.

    2014-10-01

    The development of a large area (Asource,ITER = 0.9 × 2 m2) hydrogen negative ion (NI) source constitutes a crucial step in construction of the neutral beam injectors of the international fusion reactor ITER. To understand the plasma behaviour in the boundary layer close to the extraction system the 3D PIC MCC code ONIX is exploited. Direct cross checked analysis of the simulation and experimental results from the ITER-relevant BATMAN source testbed with a smaller area (Asource,BATMAN ≈ 0.32 × 0.59 m2) has been conducted for a low perveance beam, but for a full set of plasma parameters available. ONIX has been partially benchmarked by comparison to the results obtained using the commercial particle tracing code for positive ion extraction KOBRA3D. Very good agreement has been found in terms of meniscus position and its shape for simulations of different plasma densities. The influence of the initial plasma composition on the final meniscus structure was then investigated for NIs. As expected from the Child-Langmuir law, the results show that not only does the extraction potential play a crucial role on the meniscus formation, but also the initial plasma density and its electronegativity. For the given parameters, the calculated meniscus locates a few mm downstream of the plasma grid aperture provoking a direct NI extraction. Most of the surface produced NIs do not reach the plasma bulk, but move directly towards the extraction grid guided by the extraction field. Even for artificially increased electronegativity of the bulk plasma the extracted NI current from this region is low. This observation indicates a high relevance of the direct NI extraction. These calculations show that the extracted NI current from the bulk region is low even if a complete ion-ion plasma is assumed, meaning that direct extraction from surface produced ions should be present in order to obtain sufficiently high extracted NI current density. The calculated extracted currents, both ions

  4. A High Efficiency, Kinetic-Ejection Negative Ion Source for RIB Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Murray, S.N.; Williams, C.

    1998-10-05

    Chemically active radioactive species, diffused from RIB target materials, often arrive at the ionization chamber of the source in a variety of molecular forms. Because of the low probability for simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents of molecules with conventional hot-cathode electron-impact ion sources, the species of interest are often distributed in several mass channels in the form of molecular side-band beams and consequently, their intensities are diluted. The sputter negative ion beam generation technique offers an efficient means for simultaneously dissociating and ionizing highly electronegative atomic species present in molecular carriers. We have incorporated these principles in the design and fabrication of a kinetic ejection negative ion source and evaluated its potential for generating {sup 17,18}F{sup {minus}} beams for the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility astrophysics research program. The source utilizes Cs{sup +} beams to bombard condensable fluorine compounds that emanate from a target material, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and are transported to the cooled inner surface of a conical-geometry cathode where they are adsorbed. The energetic Cs{sup +} beams efficiently dissociate these molecules and sputter their constituents. Since the work functions of cesiated surfaces are low, highly electronegative species such as fluorine are efficiently ionized in the sputter-injection process. Measured efficiencies for ionizing atomic fluorine, dissociated from condensable compounds that are formed by reactions of SF{sub 6} with fibrous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material, exceed 6.5%. In this report, we describe the mechanical design features and principles of operation, and present emittance, F{sup {minus}} yield and ionization efficiency data derived from off-line, experimental evaluation of the source.

  5. Binding of monovalent alkali metal ions with negatively charged phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Maity, Pabitra; Saha, Baishakhi; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh; Karmakar, Sanat

    2016-04-01

    We have systematically investigated the effect of various alkali metal ions with negatively charged phospholipid membranes. Size distributions of large unilamellar vesicles have been confirmed using dynamic light scattering. Zeta potential and effective charges per vesicle in the presence of various alkali metal ions have been estimated from the measured electrophoretic mobility. We have determined the intrinsic binding constant from the zeta potential using electrostatic double layer theory. The reasonable and consistent value of the intrinsic binding constant of Na(+), found at moderate NaCl concentration (10-100 mM), indicates that the Gouy-Chapman theory cannot be applied for very high (> 100mM) and very low (< 10 mM) electrolyte concentrations. The isothermal titration calorimetry study has revealed that the net binding heat of interaction of the negatively charged vesicles with monovalent alkali metal ions is small and comparable to those obtained from neutral phosphatidylcholine vesicles. The overall endothermic response of binding heat suggests that interaction is primarily entropy driven. The entropy gain might arise due to the release of water molecules from the hydration layer vicinity of the membranes. Therefore, the partition model which does not include the electrostatic contribution suffices to describe the interaction. The binding constant of Na(+) (2.4 ± 0.1 M(-1)), obtained from the ITC, is in agreement with that estimated from the zeta potential (-2.0 M(-1)) at moderate salt concentrations. Our results suggest that hydration dynamics may play a vital role in the membrane solution interface which strongly affects the ion-membrane interaction. PMID:26802251

  6. Improvement of accelerator of negative ion source on the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Osakabe, M.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Geng, S.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.

    2016-02-01

    To improve the performance of negative-ion based neutral beam injection on the Large Helical Device, the accelerator was modified on the basis of numerical investigations. A field limiting ring was installed on the upper side of a grounded grid (GG) support and a multi-slot GG was adopted instead of a multi-aperture GG. As a result, the voltage holding capability is improved and the heat load on the GG decreases by 40%. In addition, the arc efficiency is improved significantly only by replacing the GG.

  7. Negative ion mass spectrometry and the detection of carbonyls and HCN from clover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custer, Thomas G.; Kato, Shuji; Fall, Ray; Bierbaum, Veronica M.

    2000-12-01

    We have demonstrated that negative ion-chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NI-CIMS) can be used to distinguish several isomeric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted from wounded plants. Reaction chemistry with HO-, hydrogen/deuterium exchange patterns, and collision-induced dissociation spectra allow identification of the isomers. Laboratory studies of emissions from wounded clover using NI-CIMS show several previously detected VOCs, but also clearly demonstrate the emission of HCN. This compound is presumably formed by the decomposition of cyanogenic glycosides which also form aldehyde and ketone byproducts. These results suggest that NI-CIMS may be a valuable tool for investigating VOCs and HCN release from vegetation.

  8. Optics of the NIFS negative ion source test stand by infrared calorimetry and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, P.; Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Brombin, M.; Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.

    2016-02-01

    At National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), a multi-ampere negative ion source is used to support the R&D on H- production, extraction, and acceleration. In this contribution, we study the characteristics of the acceleration system of this source, in order to characterize the beam optics at different operational conditions. A dedicated experimental campaign was carried out at NIFS, using as main diagnostic the infra-red imaging of the beam profiles. The experimental measurements are also compared with 3D numerical simulations, in order to validate the codes and to assess their degree of reliability. The simulations show a satisfactory agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Off-normal and failure condition analysis of the MITICA negative-ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitarin, Giuseppe; Agostinetti, Piero; Aprile, Daniele; Marconato, Nicolò; Marcuzzi, Diego; Serianni, Gianluigi; Veltri, Pierluigi; Zaccaria, Pierluigi

    2016-02-01

    The negative-ion accelerator for the MITICA neutral beam injector has been designed and optimized in order to reduce the thermo-mechanical stresses in all components below limits compatible with the required fatigue life. However, deviation from the expected beam performances can be caused by "off-normal" operating conditions of the accelerator. The purpose of the present work is to identify and analyse all the "off-normal" operating conditions, which could possibly become critical in terms of thermo-mechanical stresses or of degradation of the optical performances of the beam.

  10. Optics of the NIFS negative ion source test stand by infrared calorimetry and numerical modelling.

    PubMed

    Veltri, P; Antoni, V; Agostinetti, P; Brombin, M; Ikeda, K; Kisaki, M; Nakano, H; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Takeiri, Y; Tsumori, K

    2016-02-01

    At National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), a multi-ampere negative ion source is used to support the R&D on H(-) production, extraction, and acceleration. In this contribution, we study the characteristics of the acceleration system of this source, in order to characterize the beam optics at different operational conditions. A dedicated experimental campaign was carried out at NIFS, using as main diagnostic the infra-red imaging of the beam profiles. The experimental measurements are also compared with 3D numerical simulations, in order to validate the codes and to assess their degree of reliability. The simulations show a satisfactory agreement with the experimental results. PMID:26932080

  11. Off-normal and failure condition analysis of the MITICA negative-ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Chitarin, Giuseppe; Agostinetti, Piero; Aprile, Daniele; Marconato, Nicolò; Marcuzzi, Diego; Serianni, Gianluigi; Veltri, Pierluigi; Zaccaria, Pierluigi

    2016-02-01

    The negative-ion accelerator for the MITICA neutral beam injector has been designed and optimized in order to reduce the thermo-mechanical stresses in all components below limits compatible with the required fatigue life. However, deviation from the expected beam performances can be caused by "off-normal" operating conditions of the accelerator. The purpose of the present work is to identify and analyse all the "off-normal" operating conditions, which could possibly become critical in terms of thermo-mechanical stresses or of degradation of the optical performances of the beam. PMID:26932039

  12. Improvement of accelerator of negative ion source on the Large Helical Device.

    PubMed

    Kisaki, M; Ikeda, K; Osakabe, M; Tsumori, K; Nakano, H; Geng, S; Nagaoka, K; Kaneko, O; Takeiri, Y

    2016-02-01

    To improve the performance of negative-ion based neutral beam injection on the Large Helical Device, the accelerator was modified on the basis of numerical investigations. A field limiting ring was installed on the upper side of a grounded grid (GG) support and a multi-slot GG was adopted instead of a multi-aperture GG. As a result, the voltage holding capability is improved and the heat load on the GG decreases by 40%. In addition, the arc efficiency is improved significantly only by replacing the GG. PMID:26932049

  13. Measurement of Gain and Drift Velocity of the Prototype AT-TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Michael; Soussi Tanani, Rim; Cortesi, Marco; Mittig, Wolfgang; Fritsch, Adam

    2015-10-01

    The Prototype Active-Target Time-Projection Chamber (PAT-TPC) at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is used to study reactions induced by radioactive ions in a detector gas that serves both as the target and tracking medium. It employs gaseous amplification of the primary electrons that drift to the amplification gap to track and measure charged particles traversing the active gaseous volume of the chamber. A setup consisting of two THGEMs (Thick Gas Electron Multipliers) stacked on a Micromegas (Micro mesh gas amplifier) device was tested in the PAT-TPC in June and July of 2015. A 337-Si laser, a 252Cf spontaneous fission source, and an α source were used to ionize target gas molecules in the active volume. Electron drift velocity was measured as a function of the electric field held across the volume and for varying gas compositions ranging from pure H2 to a 95:5 H2:C4H10 mixture. Analysis of the tests provided information on conditions for optimal gain for the setup used in an August 2015 PAT-TPC experiment at the University of Notre Dame's Nuclear Science Laboratory and other future experiments. Data and results will be presented. Funded in part thanks to College of Wooster and NSF Grant Nos. PHy-1430152, MRI09-23087, and PHY09-69456.

  14. Spatial and temporal evolution of negative ions in a pulsed inductively coupled hydrogen plasma source across a magnetic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nulty, Stuart; Corr, Cormac

    2015-09-01

    Low-temperature electronegative plasmas have important applications in high-energy sources for fusion energy, plasma thrusters and materials processing. Neutral beam injection systems and space thruster technology such as the PEGASUS propulsion system rely on efficiently producing extractable negative ions. In this work we investigate the production of hydrogen negative ions in a pulsed inductively coupled plasma across a magnetic filter. The electron energy distribution function, plasma density and electron temperature are determined using an RF compensated Langmuir probe, and time-resolved laser photo-detachment is used to measure the negative ion fraction. The spatial and temporal evolution of these plasma parameters within the plasma source will be presented. Using a pulsed plasma and a magnetic filter, the electron temperature can be efficiently controlled and a higher density of negative ions compared to electrons can be obtained at certain locations within the source.

  15. Experimental investigation of the relation between H- negative ion density and Lyman-α emission intensity in a microwave discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleiferis, S.; Tarvainen, O.; Svarnas, P.; Bacal, M.; Béchu, S.

    2016-03-01

    A new mechanism for producing negative ions in low density and low power hydrogen plasmas was proposed recently. It refers to anion formation due to collisions between hydrogen atoms being in the first excited state. The proposed mechanism was indirectly supported by the quadratic relation observed between the extracted negative ion current and Lyman-α radiation of a filament-driven arc discharge, when borrowed data from the literature were combined. The present work provides experimental data comparing directly the absolute negative ion density and Lyman-α radiation in an ECR-driven hydrogen plasma source. The previously mentioned quadratic relation is not observed in the specific source studied, underlying the difficulty of distinguishing between the proposed mechanism and other negative ion production paths.

  16. High-energy negative ion beam obtained from pulsed inductively coupled plasma for charge-free etching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozniy, O. V.; Yeom, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    Negative ions in conventional inductively coupled plasma are often more chemically active than positive ions (for example, in CF4 or SF6 plasmas), but inconveniently they are trapped inside the sheath and cannot be used for high-energy surface etching in sources with a grid-type acceleration system. In this work we describe a method of positive and negative ion extraction that allows the energy and flux of oppositely charged particles to be varied independently. Then by scattering the ions off from a metal surface, it is possible to form a high-energy beam of neutrals from the negative ions by using the low-energy positive component of the beam current for better charge compensation.

  17. Contribution of positive and negative ions to the electrohydrodynamic force in a dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator operating in air

    SciTech Connect

    Boeuf, J. P.; Lagmich, Y.; Pitchford, L. C.

    2009-07-15

    We present a parametric study of the electrohydrodynamic force generated by surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators in air for sinusoidal voltage waveforms. The simulation results confirm that momentum is transferred from the charged particles to the neutral species in the same direction during both positive and negative parts of the cycle. The momentum transfer is due to positive ions during the positive part of the cycle (electrode above the dielectric layer is the anode), and to negative ions during the negative part of the cycle. The relative contribution of the positive and negative parts of the cycle depends on the voltage amplitude and frequency. The model predicts that the contribution of negative ions tends to be dominant at low voltage frequencies and high voltage amplitudes.

  18. The effect of exposure to negative air ions on the recovery of physiological responses after moderate endurance exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryushi, T.; Kita, Ichirou; Sakurai, Tomonobu; Yasumatsu, Mikinobu; Isokawa, Masanori; Aihara, Yasutugu; Hama, Kotaro

    This study examined the effects of negative air ion exposure on the human cardiovascular and endocrine systems during rest and during the recovery period following moderate endurance exercise. Ten healthy adult men were studied in the presence (8,000-10,000 cm-3) or absence (200-400 cm-3) of negative air ions (25° C, 50% humidity) after 1 h of exercise. The level of exercise was adjusted to represent a 50-60% load compared with the subjects' maximal oxygen uptake, which was determined using a bicycle ergometer in an unmodified environment (22-23° C, 30-35% humidity, 200-400 negative air ions.cm-3). The diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values during the recovery period were significantly lower in the presence of negative ions than in their absence. The plasma levels of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) were significantly lower in the presence of negative ions than in their absence. These results demonstrated that exposure to negative air ions produced a slow recovery of DBP and decreases in the levels of 5-HT and DA in the recovery period after moderate endurance exercise. 5-HT is thought to have contributed to the slow recovery of DBP.

  19. Particle model of full-size ITER-relevant negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P.; Ippolito, N.

    2016-02-01

    This work represents the first attempt to model the full-size ITER-relevant negative ion source including the expansion, extraction, and part of the acceleration regions keeping the mesh size fine enough to resolve every single aperture. The model consists of a 2.5D particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision representation of the plane perpendicular to the filter field lines. Magnetic filter and electron deflection field have been included and a negative ion current density of jH- = 660 A/m2 from the plasma grid (PG) is used as parameter for the neutral conversion. The driver is not yet included and a fixed ambipolar flux is emitted from the driver exit plane. Results show the strong asymmetry along the PG driven by the electron Hall (E × B and diamagnetic) drift perpendicular to the filter field. Such asymmetry creates an important dis-homogeneity in the electron current extracted from the different apertures. A steady state is not yet reached after 15 μs.

  20. Rovibrational molecular populations, atoms, and negative ions in H2 and D2 magnetic multicusp discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pealat, M.; Taran, J.-P. E.; Bacal, M.; Hillion, F.

    1985-06-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering is applied to the study of rovibrational populations in magnetic multicusp H2 and D2 discharges. This subject is of interest to negative hydrogen-ion formation by volume plasma processes. The populations of high-lying rotational states (J greater than 5) in the vibrational levels v = 0, 1, and 2 are found to be significantly higher than expected from the Boltzmann law. In H2 the net populations of the first four vibrational levels follow approximately the Boltzmann law, with the vibrational temperature of 2390 K (in a 90 V-10 A discharge at 55 micro bar). In similar discharge conditions, the population of the state v = 3 in D2 is higher than expected from the Boltzmann law. In the presence of the discharge a deficiency in H2 and D2 molecule density was observed and was attributed to the possible presence of H and D atoms. This was verified by an independent measurement of the atomic fraction and temperature. The density of negative ions, measured by the photodetachment technique, is also reported.