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Sample records for negative oral contrast

  1. Pineapple juice as a negative oral contrast agent in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: a preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Riordan, R D; Khonsari, M; Jeffries, J; Maskell, G F; Cook, P G

    2004-12-01

    The quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images is frequently degraded by high signal from the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study is to evaluate pineapple juice (PJ) as an oral negative contrast agent in MRCP. Preliminary in vitro evaluation demonstrated that PJ shortened T(2) relaxation time and hence decreased T(2) signal intensity on a standard MRCP sequence to a similar degree to a commercially available negative contrast agent (ferumoxsil). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry assay demonstrated a high manganese concentration in PJ of 2.76 mg dl(-1), which is likely to be responsible for its T(2) imaging properties. MRCP was subsequently performed in 10 healthy volunteers, before and at 15 min and 30 min following ingestion of 400 ml of PJ. Images were assessed blindly by two Consultant Radiologists using a standard grading technique based on contrast effect (degree of suppression of bowel signal), and image effect (diagnostic quality). There were statistically significant improvements in contrast and image effect between pre and post PJ images. There was particularly significant improvement in visualization of the pancreatic duct, but no significant difference between 15 min and 30 min post PJ images. Visualization of the ampulla, common bile duct, common hepatic and central intrahepatic ducts were also significantly improved at 15 min following PJ. Our results demonstrate that PJ, may be used as an alternative to commercially available negative oral contrast agent in MRCP. PMID:15569640

  2. Comparative Study of Pineapple Juice as a Negative Oral Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the image quality of magnetic resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using Pineapple Juice (PJ) or ranitidine as negative oral contrast agents and no agent. Materials and Methods: MRCP images of patients administered PJ (n = 117) or Ranitidine (n = 110) at random, and patients without an agent (n = 50) were evaluated. The subjective image quality of the overall, extra hepatic bile duct and pancreatic duct and the degree of elimination of gastrointestinal fluid were scored by two blinded radiologists. Results were compared using Mann-Whitney’s U-test. Results: The degrees of elimination of gastro duodenal fluid of PJ and ranitidine were significantly better than those without an agent (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). The subjective image quality of PJ of the overall and extra hepatic bile duct were significantly better, although no significant differences for ranitidine were observed compared with those without an agent (p < 0.01 and p =0.23, p = 0.025 and p = 0.18). There were no significant differences for the pancreatic duct (p = 0.13 and p = 0.20), nor were there any significant differences in the evaluations between PJ and ranitidine (p = 0.21 and p = 0.96). Conclusion: PJ showed better performance compared to that of conventional ranitidine in terms of pancreatic and biliary depiction and safety. PMID:25738055

  3. Use of pineapple juice with gadopentetate dimeglumine as a negative oral contrast for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: a multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Juliana Avila; Furtado, Alvaro Porto Alegre; Marroni, Claudio Augusto

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of pineapple juice with gadopentetate dimeglumine as a negative oral contrast agent for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Images were obtained before and after the intake of a negative oral contrast agent. Images obtained from six different areas of the biliary tree were analyzed by three different radiologists, who were blind to the exams; scores regarding image quality were given to each area. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between images before and after the use of the contrast agent (P < 0.001) for the three radiologists (R1-R3). Mean scores given by radiologists before the intake of the contrast agent were 2.49 ± 0.42 (R1), 2.62 ± 0.32 (R2), and 2.22 ± 0.46 (R3). After the intake, mean scores were 3.38 ± 0.62 (R1), 3.48 ± 0.55 (R2), and 2.89 ± 0.69 (R3). The ducts that showed the highest scores were the common bile duct and duct of Wirsung, the distal portion of the common bile duct and the cystic duct. We suggest herein that the contrast agent pineapple juice with gadopentate dimeglumine constitutes an efficient negative oral contrast agent for MRCP, for it efficiently eliminates the signal of the digestive tube in MRCP images. PMID:21630051

  4. The Contrast Theory of Negative Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Matthew

    1997-01-01

    Presents an alternative definition of negative evidence, based on the idea that the unique discourse structure created in the juxtaposition of child error and adult correct form can reveal the child in contrast or conflict between the two forms. Findings reveal that children reproduced the correct irregular model more often and persisted with…

  5. [Oral magnetic particles as an MR contrast medium for the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Rinck, P A; Myhr, G; Smevik, O; Børseth, A

    1992-12-01

    The authors summarise their experience of four clinical studies with a negative oral contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis. 140 patients were enrolled in the studies. These were partly comparative studies pre- and post-contrast, partly at 0.5 and 1.5 T, partly pre-injection and post-injection of glucagon. All patients received 800 ml of a suspension of oral magnetic particles "OMP". The distribution of this contrast agent was homogeneous throughout the entire GI tract. A complete or partial signal void was observed in all patients in T1, T2-, and intermediately weighted images. Generally, diagnostic information was higher after contrast. Artifacts caused by peristalsis and movement of the diaphragm were fewer after contrast. After contrast metallic artifacts were observed in a minority of patients. Adverse events after contrast were minimal; they included nausea and vomiting. PMID:1457787

  6. Can Contextual Cues Control Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Alan M.; Wood, Michael; Pellegrini, Santiago; Norris, Jacob N.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2008-01-01

    Rats exposed to incentive downshift show behavioral deterioration. This phenomenon, called successive negative contrast (SNC), occurs in instrumental and consummatory responses (iSNC, cSNC). Whereas iSNC is related to the violation of reward expectancies retrieved in anticipation of the goal (cued-recall), cSNC involves reward rejection and may…

  7. Effect of Neonatal Clomipramine Treatment on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruetti, Eliana; Burgueno, Adriana L.; Justel, Nadia R.; Pirola, Carlos J.; Mustaca, Alba E.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal administration of clomipramine (CLI) produces physiological, neuroendocrinal and behavioral abnormalities in rats when they reach adulthood, which are similar to those observed in animal models of depression. In consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC), rats that have had experience drinking 32% sucrose solution drink…

  8. Contrast Negation and Texture Synthesis Differentially Disrupt Natural Texture Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an “oddball” real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system’s tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns. PMID:23181049

  9. Pineapple juice labeled with gadolinium: a convenient oral contrast for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Emmanuel; Metens, Thierry; Winant, Catherine; Matos, Celso

    2005-10-01

    The aim of our study was to prepare in vitro a pineapple juice (PJ) solution labeled with a minimal gadolinium concentration working as a negative contrast agent in heavily T2-weighted imaging and to assess that solution in vivo as a negative oral contrast agent for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Three PJs were compared in vitro according to their T2. Increasing concentrations of gadolinium (Gd)-DOTA in PJ were assessed in vitro for T2 reduction. Single-shot turbo spin echo T2-weighted MR cholangiopancreatograms were obtained for 35 patients with suspected biliopancreatic duct disease, before and after ingestion of the PJ/Gd-DOTA solution. Signal intensity (SI) measurements of gastroduodenal lumens, pancreatobiliary ducts, and image quality scores were obtained systematically before and after contrast ingestion. The in vitro selected Gd-DOTA concentration in the PJ was 2.76 mmol/l. Ingestion of 180 ml of PJ labeled with 1 ml of Gd-DOTA eliminated efficiently the gastroduodenal SI in MRCP, improving significantly the rates of complete visualization of the pancreatobiliary ducts (P<0.01) and the MRCP image quality scores (P<0.05). All patients easily ingested the contrast solution and found the solution palatable. PJ labeled with gadolinium constituted an efficient and convenient negative oral contrast agent for MRCP. PMID:15999215

  10. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Mark E; Callahan, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. PMID:24573534

  11. Insular Cortex and Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Roman, Christopher; Reilly, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Rats that are expecting a high value reward (e.g., 1.0 M sucrose) show an exaggerated underresponding when they are instead given a low value reward (e.g., 0.15% saccharin), an effect termed successive negative contrast (SNC). In the present experiment, insular cortex-lesioned (ICX) rats showed normal responsivity to sucrose and saccharin prior to the reward downshift. However, when switched from sucrose to saccharin during the postshift trials these rats displayed no evidence of SNC. Indeed, over the downshift trials these ICX rats consistently drank more saccharin than the ICX rats maintained on saccharin throughout the experiment. Potential interpretations are discussed including a lesion-induced impairment in the ability to accurately recognize the novelty of the postshift saccharin stimulus. PMID:19634939

  12. A phase contrast cytomorphometric study of squames of normal oral mucosa and oral leukoplakia: Original study

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Afreen; Bavle, Radhika M; Thambiah, Lalita J; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Soumya, M

    2014-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia represents the most common potentially malignant oral disorder, representing 85% of such lesions. The worldwide prevalence of leukoplakia is 1.5- 4.3%. Leukoplakia is often associated with carcinogenic exposures, such as from use of tobacco, alcohol or betel nut. The level of risk for malignant transformation of leukoplakia is associated with lesion histology. The overall malignant transformation rates for dysplastic lesions range from 11% to 36%, depending on the length of follow-up. Exfoliative cytology is a simple and minimally invasive method. Phase contrast microscope, an essential tool in the field of biology and medical research provides improved discrimination of cellular details. Aims: To study and compare the cytomorphological and cytomorphometric features of squames obtained from the mucosa of normal individuals, tobacco habituates with and without clinically evident leukoplakia. To assess the role of phase contrast microscopy as an alternative and easy method of cytological evaluation of wet and unstained smears. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases from each group were taken. Fixed, unstained smears were viewed under phase contrast microscope and were evaluated morphologically and morphometrically for nuclear and cellular diameters. Results: The study showed a significant increase in the mean nuclear diameter and decrease in the mean cellular diameter. Conclusion: Cytomorphometric changes could be the earliest indicators of cellular alterations. This indicates that there could be a cause-effect relationship between tobacco and quantitative alterations. PMID:25364176

  13. Pre-existing oral contrast from lanthanum carbonate: a confounding factor in CT mesenteric angiography

    PubMed Central

    Bull, M D; Shrimanker, R; Thomas, M R M; Mulgrew, C J

    2012-01-01

    A 69-year-old male was referred from the renal unit to radiology for investigation of bleeding per rectum. A CT mesenteric angiogram was performed. However, it was noted on the pre-contrast images that the large bowel contained positive oral contrast media. The procedure was abandoned as it would have been difficult to see extravasation of intravenous contrast from a bleeding point in the large bowel. The initial belief was that either the patient had been given oral contrast by ward staff on the assumption that it would be needed, or had had a recent radiological study requiring contrast, which was still present. Neither was the case; it emerged that the patient was taking Fosrenol (Shire Pharmaceuticals, Wayne, PA), a lanthanum carbonate medication used in the treatment of hyperphosphataemia. Lanthanum is densely radio-opaque and appears as positive bowel contrast on CT and plain radiography studies. When considering radiological studies specifically requiring the absence of oral contrast, it is important to be aware of the patient's drug history to avoid non-diagnostic scans with the associated radiation exposure. PMID:22457410

  14. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR). The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. Methods All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. Results The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15–87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Conclusion Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma. PMID:25287952

  15. Children’s neural response to contrast-negated faces is species-specific

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin; Stevenson, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition abilities develop dramatically during the first year of life, but comparatively little is known about the nature of face-specific perceptual development in early childhood. Face-specific effects of image appearance on recognition, including face inversion and contrast negation, are a useful means of understanding the functional properties of face perception developmentally. Here, we examined the generality of the impact of contrast-negation on face perception in early childhood using event-related potentials (ERPs). Specifically, we recorded continuous EEG while adult participants and children between the ages of 4–6 years old viewed human and non-human primate faces presented either in positive or negative contrast. We examined both the P100 and N170 components to determine whether or not sensitivity to contrast polarity was evident in face-sensitive components in early childhood, and also whether or not that sensitivity was specific to species category. We find evidence of a species-specific effect of contrast negation at the N170, suggesting that by early childhood some aspects of face-specific processing have been restricted to a relatively narrow class of face stimuli. However, this effect is of opposite sign relative to adults, suggesting that there is continued maturation of face-specific processing during childhood. PMID:24309247

  16. A potentially artifact-free oral contrast agent for gastrointestinal MRI.

    PubMed

    Liebig, T; Stoupis, C; Ros, P R; Ballinger, J R; Briggs, R W

    1993-11-01

    The combination of diamagnetic barium sulfate and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in one suspension produces a macroscopic cancellation of positive and negative magnetic susceptibility components that can potentially eliminate susceptibility artifacts even with gradient echo pulse sequences. The relaxation properties that make the SPIO suspension a useful negative contrast agent are retained. PMID:8259066

  17. Interactive neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging using fruit juice as an oral contrast media

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate the use of fruit juice with an interactive inversion recovery (IR) MR pulse sequence to visualise the gastrointestinal tract. Methods We investigated the relaxation properties of 12 different natural fruit juices in vitro, to identify which could be used as oral contrast. We then describe our initial experience using an interactive MR pulse sequence to allow optimal visualisation after administering pineapple juice orally, and suppressing pre-existing bowel fluid contents, with variable TI in three adult and one child volunteer. Results Pineapple juice (PJ) had both the shortest T1 (243 ms) and shortest T2 (48 ms) of the fruit juices tested. Optimal signal differentiation between pre-existing bowel contents and oral PJ administration was obtained with TIs of between 900 and 1100 ms. Conclusion The use of an inversion recovery preparation allowed long T1 pre-existing bowel contents to be suppressed whilst the short T1 of fruit juice acts as a positive contrast medium. Pineapple juice could be used as oral contrast agent for neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25245815

  18. Successive Negative Contrast after Partial Reinforcement in the Consummatory Behavior of Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Santiago; Muzio, Ruben N.; Mustaca, Alba E.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2004-01-01

    Rats given access to a 32% sucrose solution later reject a 4% solution significantly more than controls that have only received the 4% solution. In Experiment 1, this consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) effect was attenuated by previous exposure to 50% partial reinforcement. Furthermore, recovery from cSNC was also facilitated by…

  19. Spontaneous Recovery of Consummatory Behavior, But Not of Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jacob N.; Daniel, Alan M.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments were designed to study spontaneous recovery (SR) in two situations involving consummatory behavior: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and consummatory extinction (cE). SR of consummatory suppression should occur if incentive downshift induces an egocentric memory encoding information about the emotional reaction to…

  20. In vivo flow cytometry of circulating clots using negative phototothermal and photoacoustic contrasts

    PubMed Central

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Keyrouz, Salah G.; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional photothermal (PT) and photoacousic (PA) imaging, spectroscopy, and cytometry are preferentially based on positive PT/PA effects, when signals are above background. Here, we introduce PT/PA technique based on detection of negative signals below background. Among various new applications, we propose label-free in vivo flow cytometry of circulating clots. No method has been developed for the early detection of clots of different compositions as a source of severe thromboembolisms including ischemia at strokes and myocardial dysfunction at heart attack. When a low-absorbing, platelet-rich clot passes a laser-irradiated vessel volume, a transient decrease in local absorption results in an ultrasharp negative PA hole in blood background. Using this phenomenon alone or in combination with positive contrasts, we demonstrated identification of white, red and mixed clots on a mouse model of myocardial infarction and human blood. The concentration and size of clots were measured with threshold down to few clots in the entire circulation with size as low as 20 µm. This multiparameter diagnostic platform using portable personal high-speed flow cytometer with negative dynamic contrast mode has potential to real-time defining risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and for prognosis and prevention of stroke or use clot count as a marker of therapy efficacy. Possibility for label-free detection of platelets, leukocytes, tumor cells or targeting them by negative PA probes (e.g., nonabsorbing beads or bubbles) is also highlighted. PMID:21976458

  1. Oral manganese as an MRI contrast agent for the detection of nociceptive activity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Kathleen E; Behera, Deepak; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Gold, Garry; Moseley, Michael; Yeomans, David; Biswal, Sandip

    2012-04-01

    The ability of divalent manganese to enter neurons via calcium channels makes manganese an excellent MRI contrast agent for the imaging of nociception, the afferent neuronal encoding of pain perception. There is growing evidence that nociceptive neurons possess increased expression and activity of calcium channels, which would allow for the selective accumulation of manganese at these sites. In this study, we show that oral manganese chloride leads to increased enhancement of peripheral nerves involved in nociception on T(1)-weighted MRI. Oral rather than intravenous administration was chosen for its potentially better safety profile, making it a better candidate for clinical translation with important applications, such as pain diagnosis, therapy and research. The spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain was used for the purposes of this study. SNI rats were given, sequentially, increasing amounts of manganese chloride (lowest, 2.29 mg/100 g weight; highest, 20.6 mg/100 g weight) with alanine and vitamin D(3) by oral gavage. Compared with controls, SNI rats demonstrated increased signal-to-background ratios on T(1)-weighted fast spin echo MRI, which was confirmed by and correlated strongly with spectrometry measurements of nerve manganese concentration. We also found the difference between SNI and control rats to be greater at 48 h than at 24 h after dosing, indicating increased manganese retention in addition to increased manganese uptake in nociceptive nerves. This study demonstrates that oral manganese is a viable method for the imaging of nerves associated with increased nociceptive activity. PMID:22447731

  2. Synergy of photoacoustic and fluorescence flow cytometry of circulating cells with negative and positive contrasts.

    PubMed

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Sawant, Rupa; Torchilin, Vladimir P; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Ma, Jie; Frank, Markus H; Biris, Alexandru S; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2013-05-01

    In vivo photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence flow cytometry were previously applied separately using pulsed and continuous wave lasers respectively, and positive contrast detection mode only. This paper introduces a real-time integration of both techniques with positive and negative contrast modes using only pulsed lasers. Various applications of this new tool are summarized, including detection of liposomes loaded with Alexa-660 dye, red blood cells labeled with Indocyanine Green, B16F10 melanoma cells co-expressing melanin and green fluorescent protein (GFP), C8161-GFP melanoma cells targeted by magnetic nanoparticles, MTLn3 adenocarcinoma cells expressing novel near-infrared iRFP protein, and quantum dot-carbon nanotube conjugates. Negative contrast flow cytometry provided label-free detection of low absorbing or weakly fluorescent cells in blood absorption and autofluorescence background, respectively. The use of pulsed laser for time-resolved discrimination of objects with long fluorescence lifetime (e.g., quantum dots) from shorter autofluorescence background (e.g., blood plasma) is also highlighted in this paper. The supplementary nature of PA and fluorescence detection increased the versatility of the integrated method for simultaneous detection of probes and cells having various absorbing and fluorescent properties, and provided verification of PA data using a more established fluorescence based technique. PMID:22903924

  3. Cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx: FDG PET with contrast-enhanced CT in the posttreatment setting.

    PubMed

    King, Kevin G; Kositwattanarerk, Arpakorn; Genden, Eric; Kao, Johnny; Som, Peter M; Kostakoglu, Lale

    2011-01-01

    The combined use of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for posttreatment monitoring of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx has steadily increased in recent years. FDG PET/CT offers many advantages for evaluating the effects of therapy, determining whether residual or recurrent disease is present, and assessing the extent of nodal disease. Because of the high negative predictive value of this imaging test, some have advocated the deferral of neck dissection in patients with negative findings at FDG PET/CT after chemotherapy and radiation therapy; positive findings may have a similarly heavy influence on the future course of treatment. Thus, the accuracy of image interpretation is crucial. However, the interpretation of posttreatment FDG PET images is challenging, with multiple potential pitfalls and limitations that could lead to an incorrect analysis. Accuracy depends on a detailed knowledge of the patient's treatment history and a thorough understanding of the kinds of changes that might result from treatment. Awareness of the principles underlying the selection of the optimal interval between the completion of treatment and the first follow-up FDG PET/CT examination is especially important, since an interval that is too short could lead to false-positive or false-negative findings. A period of 12 weeks or more is generally recommended, but the optimal waiting period depends on the extent of therapy and other factors. If recurrence or progression is suspected during the waiting period, contrast-enhanced CT or magnetic resonance imaging should be performed without FDG PET. PMID:21415184

  4. Fluorescent Heterodoped Nanotetrapods as Synergistically Enhancing Positive and Negative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Alipour, A; Soran-Erdem, Z; Kelestemur, Y; Aykut, Z G; Demir, H V

    2016-05-18

    In this work, we report Mn-Fe heterodoped ZnSe tetrapod nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized to synergistically enhance contrast in both T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proposed NCs were prepared using a customized heteroarchitecture such that the manganese (Mn) is confined in the core and iron (Fe) in the branches of the tetrapods. The elemental composition and profile of these NCs were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Photoluminescence quantum yield of these heterodoped NCs in water is ∼30%. Magnetic measurements reveal the simultaneous presence of superparamagnetic and paramagnetic behavior in these NCs because of the coexistence of Mn(2+) and Fe(2+) dopants. Their potential as simultaneous positive and negative MRI contrast agents was demonstrated by relaxivity measurements and in vivo MRI. From the in vivo studies, we also found that these NCs (with a hydrodynamic diameter of 20 nm) are excreted from the body within 24 h after the injection. Therefore, these heterodoped tetrapods NCs, while being fluorescent and safe, hold great future as a synergistically enhancing dual-modal MRI contrast agent. PMID:27139918

  5. Susceptibility of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Urine Isolates to Oral Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Elizabeth B; Zucchi, Paola C; Chen, Alice; Raux, Brian R; Kirby, James E; McCoy, Christopher; Eliopoulos, George M

    2016-05-01

    Increasing resistance among Gram-negative uropathogens limits treatment options, and susceptibility data for multidrug-resistant isolates are limited. We assessed the activity of five oral agents against 91 multidrug-resistant Gram-negative urine isolates that were collected from emergency department/hospitalized patients. Fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin were most active (>75% susceptibility). Susceptibilities to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin were ≤40%; empirical use of these agents likely provides inadequate coverage in areas with a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant uropathogens. PMID:26883704

  6. Confocal Microscopy and Molecular-Specific Optical Contrast Agents for the Detection of Oral Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Alicia L.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Williams, Michelle D.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Richards-Kortum, R. R.

    2009-01-01

    Using current clinical diagnostic techniques, it is difficult to visualize tumor morphology and architecture at the cellular level, which is necessary for diagnostic localization of pathologic lesions. Optical imaging techniques have the potential to address this clinical need by providing real-time, sub-cellular resolution images. This paper describes the use of dual mode confocal microscopy and optical molecular-specific contrast agents to image tissue architecture, cellular morphology, and sub-cellular molecular features of normal and neoplastic oral tissues. Fresh tissue slices were prepared from 33 biopsies of clinically normal and abnormal oral mucosa obtained from 14 patients. Reflectance confocal images were acquired after the application of 6% acetic acid, and fluorescence confocal images were acquired after the application of a fluorescence contrast agent targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The dual imaging modes provided images similar to light microscopy of hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining, but from thick fresh tissue slices. Reflectance images provided information on the architecture of the tissue and the cellular morphology. The nuclear-to-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio from the reflectance images was at least 7.5 times greater for the carcinoma than the corresponding normal samples, except for one case of highly keratinized carcinoma. Separation of carcinoma from normal and mild dysplasia was achieved using this ratio (p<0.01). Fluorescence images of EGFR expression yielded a mean fluorescence labeling intensity (FLI) that was at least 2.7 times higher for severe dysplasia and carcinoma samples than for the corresponding normal sample, and could be used to distinguish carcinoma from normal and mild dysplasia (p<0.01). Analyzed together, the N/C ratio and the mean FLI may improve the ability to distinguish carcinoma from normal squamous epithelium. PMID:17877424

  7. Piperlongumine for Enhancing Oral Bioavailability and Cytotoxicity of Docetaxel in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan; Chowdhury, Nusrat; Doddapaneni, Ravi; Boakye, Cedar H A; Godugu, Chandraiah; Singh, Mandip

    2015-12-01

    Very low oral bioavailability due to extensive pre-systemic metabolism and P-gp efflux has constrained the oral metronomic chemotherapy of docetaxel (DTX). There is tremendous need of compounds facilitating oral delivery of DTX. The research was aimed to investigate the effect of piperlongumine (PPL) on human liver microsomal metabolism, Caco-2 permeability, and cytotoxicity of DTX in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Reduction in testosterone and DTX metabolism (twofold increase in half-life) by PPL was comparable to the standard CYP3A4 inhibitor, cyclosporine A. P-gp efflux ratio of DTX across caco-2 monolayer was reduced from 2.37 to 1.52 on co-incubation with PPL. The IC50 value of DTX was reduced three to five times and combination index values in all the cell lines were below 0.6. PPL at non-cytotoxic concentration showed significant enhancement of the antimigration effect of DTX. Expression of tumor markers such as survivin, bcl2, C-myc, and cyclin D1 were downregulated to a great extent with enhanced p53 expression when treated with combination instead of individual drug. Co-treatment with PPL led to 1.68-fold enhancement in DTX bioavailability in SD rats. PPL could be a potential candidate in overcoming the obstacles associated with oral DTX delivery with synergistic anticancer activity. PMID:26372815

  8. Emotion and relative reward processing: An investigation on instrumental successive negative contrast and ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Binkley, K. A.; Webber, E.S.; Powers, D.D.; Cromwell, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Incentive contrast effects include changes in behavioral responses after a reward upshift (positive contrast) or downshift (negative contrast). Proposed influences on these behavioral changes are emotional state reactions after experiencing or anticipating a change in reward outcome. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations have been shown to be indicators of emotional state during behavior and anticipatory periods. The objective of the present study was to monitor rodent ultrasounds during incentive contrast using a classical runway procedure called instrumental successive negative contrast. The procedure is one that has been used often to examine incentive relativity because of its reliability in measuring negative contrast effects. Rats were trained to run in the alleyway to receive a high (12 pellets) or low magnitude (1 pellet) outcome. The high magnitude was then shifted to the low and running speeds in the alleyway for the reward and USV emission were compared. Replicating previous work, a negative contrast effect was observed with postshift running speeds significantly slower in the shifted group compared to the unshifted group. USVs did not follow the same pattern with an apparent lack of significant differences between the groups following the reward downshift. We also tested another group of animals using a visual predictive cue in the same runway test. When visual cues predicted high or low magnitude outcome, no incentive contrast was found for the running speeds following an outcome downshift, but a weak contrast effect was observed for the USV emission. These results demonstrate a separation between USVs and behavioral indicators of incentive contrast suggesting that concomitant shifts in negative affect may not be necessary for anticipatory relative reward processes. PMID:25150068

  9. Improvement of distension and mural visualization of bowel loops using neutral oral contrasts in abdominal computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Jahanbakhsh; Davoudi, Yasmin; Taghavi, Mina; Pezeshki Rad, Masoud; Moghadam, Amien Mahajeri

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess and compare the image quality of 4% sorbitol and diluted iodine 2% (positive oral contrast agent) in abdomino-pelvic multi-detector computed tomography. METHODS: Two-hundred patients, referred to the Radiology Department of a central educational hospital for multi-detector row abdominal-pelvic computed tomography, were randomly divided into two groups: the first group received 1500 mL of 4% sorbitol solution as a neutral contrast agent, while in the second group 1500 mL of meglumin solution as a positive contrast agent was administered in a one-way randomized prospective study. The results were independently reviewed by two radiologists. Luminal distension and mural thickness and mucosal enhancement were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 16 and the Mann-Whitney test at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS: Use of neutral oral contrast agent significantly improved visualization of the small bowel wall thickness and mural appearance in comparison with administration of positive contrast agent (P < 0.01). In patients who received sorbitol, the small bowel showed better distention compared with those who received iodine solution as a positive contrast agent (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of the study demonstrated that oral administration of sorbitol solution allows better luminal distention and visualization of mural features than iodine solution as a positive contrast agent. PMID:25550995

  10. Contexts Control Negative Contrast and Restrict the Expression of Flavor Preference Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of a high concentration of sucrose can have either a detrimental, negative contrast effect or a facilitatory, preference conditioning effect on subsequent consumption of a low concentration of sucrose, depending on the cues that are present during consumption. The role of context and flavor cues in determining these effects were studied using analysis of the microstructure of licking in mice. Exposure to a high concentration followed by exposure to a low concentration resulted in a transient reduction in mean lick cluster size, which was context dependent (Experiment 1). However, there was no change in the total number of licks or overall consumption. When a flavor that had previously been paired with a high concentration was paired with a low concentration, there was an increase in the total number of licks, and overall consumption, but no change in the mean lick cluster size (Experiment 2). Pairing a high concentration with a flavor in a particular context before pairing the context and flavor compound with a low concentration resulted in abolishing the expression of the flavor preference conditioning effect on the total number of licks and consumption (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that although context and flavor cues have dissociable effects on licking behavior, their interaction has an antagonistic effect on the behavioral expression of memory. PMID:26752234

  11. "Fortis/Lenis" Revisited One More Time: The Aerodynamics of Some Oral Stop Contrasts in Three Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The terms "fortis" and "lenis" are variously regarded as having one single underlying phonetic correlate or many. An exploratory analysis of acoustic and aerodynamic data on contrasting stop series in a number of European and non-European languages confirms that a significant variation in peak intra-oral pressure and in articulatory stricture…

  12. A clinical trial of oral cholecystography using combinations of contrast agents and two consecutive doses.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, R F; Moss, A A

    1982-07-01

    Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent a randomized trial of oral cholecystography (OCG) using 5 different combinations of contrast agents given as 2 consecutive doses: Telepaque (iopanoic acid) given with food (TF) or without food (T), Bilopaque (sodium tyropanoate) given without food, and a combination of both agents (TF-B). The density of gallbladder opacification was judged visually on a scale of 1+ to 4+ and quantitatively by a densitometric method. Comparison of gallbladder opacification on the first and second days of the study revealed 52 of 75 (70%) combinations (TF-T, TF-TF,T-T, TF-B, B-B) resulted in improved opacification, 17% in equal opacification, and 13% in worse opacification on day 2. The TF-B combination showed the highest number (9) of excellent (grade 4+) results and the lowest number (2) of poor (grade 1+ and 2+) results, gave the best opacification in 8 volunteers, and had the highest average density difference (0.32) between first- and second-day opacifications. The TF-TF combination was the next most effective, and the T-T combination was the least effective. The results indicate that OCG in 2 consecutive doses is superior to single-dose OCG, and that a combination of TF-B or TF-TF will provide the greatest gallbladder opacification. The TF-B combination is recommended because of better patient tolerance. PMID:7045975

  13. A reappraisal of successive negative contrast in two populations of domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Stefanie; Ellis, Sarah L H; Ryan, Sian; Thompson, Hannah; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-05-01

    When an anticipated food reward is unexpectedly reduced in quality or quantity, many mammals show a successive negative contrast (SNC) effect, i.e. a reduction in instrumental or consummatory responses below the level shown by control animals that have only ever received the lower-value reward. SNC effects are believed to reflect an aversive emotional state, caused by the discrepancy between the expected and the actual reward. Furthermore, how animals respond to such discrepancy has been suggested to be a sign of animals' background mood state. However, the occurrence and interpretation of SNC effects are not unequivocal, and there is a relative lack of studies conducted outside of laboratory conditions. Here, we tested two populations of domestic dogs (24 owned pet dogs and 21 dogs from rescue kennels) in a SNC paradigm following the methodology by Bentosela et al. (J Comp Psychol 123:125-130, 2009), using a design that allowed a within-, as well as a between-, subjects analysis. We found no evidence of a SNC effect in either population using a within- or between-subjects design. Indeed, the within-subjects analysis revealed a reverse SNC effect, with subjects in the shifted condition showing a significantly higher level of response, even after they received an unexpected reduction in reward quality. Using a within-, rather than a between-, subjects design may be beneficial in studies of SNC due to higher sensitivity and statistical power; however, order effects on subject performance need to be considered. These results suggest that this particular SNC paradigm may not be sufficiently robust to replicate easily in a range of environmental contexts and populations. PMID:26742929

  14. Oral cancer screening approach based on labeling exfoliated oral cells with molecularly-targeted optical contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leautaud, Veronica; Horres, Charles R.; Bhattar, Vijayashree S.; Williams, Michelle D.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

    2011-03-01

    Early detection is a potential key to improving the survival rates of oral cancer patients and reducing the morbidity associated with treatment. We seek to improve upon methods of detecting of early malignancies with oral brush biopsies by using immunofluorescence-based assessment of the expression of multiple well-described markers commonly overexpressed in oral cancers, such as Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Cytokeratin 8 (CK8). Furthermore, since abnormal cells are often scarce in brush biopsy samples, we seek to use magnetic microparticles targeted to these markers as a means of enriching the concentration of abnormal cells. Finally, we plan to conduct a small pilot study using these methods with brush biopsies from patients of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Head and Neck Clinic.

  15. Comparison of 3% sorbitol vs psyllium fibre as oral contrast agents in MR enterography

    PubMed Central

    Saini, S; Colak, E; Anthwal, S; Vlachou, P A; Raikhlin, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the degree of small bowel distension achieved by 3% sorbitol, a high osmolarity solution, and a psyllium-based bulk fibre as oral contrast agents (OCAs) in MR enterography (MRE). Methods: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board. A total of 45 consecutive normal MRE examinations (sorbitol, n = 20; psyllium, n = 25) were reviewed. The patients received either 1.5 l of 3% sorbitol or 2 l of 1.6 g kg−1 psyllium prior to imaging. Quantitative small bowel distension measurements were taken in five segments: proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, proximal ileum, distal ileum and terminal ileum by two independent radiologists. Distension in these five segments was also qualitatively graded from 0 (very poor) to 4 (excellent) by two additional independent radiologists. Statistical analysis comparing the groups and assessing agreement included intraclass coefficients, Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Small bowel distension was not significantly different in any of the five small bowel segments between the use of sorbitol and psyllium as OCAs in both the qualitative (p = 0.338–0.908) and quantitative assessments (p = 0.083–0.856). The mean bowel distension achieved was 20.1 ± 2.2 mm for sorbitol and 19.8 ± 2.5 mm for psyllium (p = 0.722). Visualization of the ileum was good or excellent in 65% of the examinations in both groups. Conclusion: Sorbitol and psyllium are not significantly different at distending the small bowel and both may be used as OCAs for MRE studies. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study to directly compare the degree of distension in MRE between these two common, readily available and inexpensive OCAs. PMID:25062448

  16. Pheomelanin-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles: a promising candidate for negative T2 contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zottis, Alexandre D A; Beltrame, Jeovandro M; Lara, Luciano R S; Costa, Thiago G; Feldhaus, Mateus J; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Ourique, Fabiana; de Campos, Carlos E M; Isoppo, Eduardo de A; da Silva Miranda, Fabio; Szpoganicz, Bruno

    2015-06-30

    We describe herein a novel type of monodisperse water-soluble magnetite nanoparticle coated with pheomelanin using an environmentally-friendly approach in aqueous medium. The results indicate superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature and show improved negative contrast in T2-weighted MRI with a transverse relaxivity of 218 mM(-1) s(-1). PMID:26073290

  17. Small bowel obstruction following computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography using psyllium seed husk as an oral contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingming Amy; Cervini, Patrick; Kirpalani, Anish; Vlachou, Paraskevi A; Grover, Samir C; Colak, Errol

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a case series describing four patients who developed small bowel obstruction following the use of psyllium seed husk as an oral contrast agent for computed tomography or magnetic resonance enterography. Radiologists who oversee computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography should be aware of this potential complication when using psyllium seed husk and other bulking agents, particularly when imaging patients with known or suspected small bowel strictures or active inflammation. PMID:25157531

  18. Small bowel obstruction following computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography using psyllium seed husk as an oral contrast agent

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingming Amy; Cervini, Patrick; Kirpalani, Anish; Vlachou, Paraskevi A; Grover, Samir C; Colak, Errol

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a case series describing four patients who developed small bowel obstruction following the use of psyllium seed husk as an oral contrast agent for computed tomography or magnetic resonance enterography. Radiologists who oversee computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography should be aware of this potential complication when using psyllium seed husk and other bulking agents, particularly when imaging patients with known or suspected small bowel strictures or active inflammation. PMID:25157531

  19. A novel foam fluid negative contrast medium for clear visualization of the colon wall in CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohui; Zhu, Jiong; Gong, Hongxia; Xu, Jianrong; Xu, Yuhong

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of colorectal diseases. However, the colonic wall depiction in 2D CT images is usually poor because of the low contrast between the colonic wall and the luminal content. In order to improve the visualization of the colonic wall and any abnormality on its surface, we report in this paper the development of an oil-free foam fluid negative contrast medium for improved CT imaging of the colon. The foam fluid negative contrast medium was prepared by dispersing and stabilizing microbubbles in a polymeric solution. The stabilities of both the individual bubbles and the foam fluid system were optimized by incorporating bovine serum albumin and gluconolactone as the stabilization agent. The medium had a mean X-ray density of -120 Hounsfield units (close to that of the extraluminal tissues), and enabled clear 2D visualization of the colonic wall in both ex vivo and in vivo imaging studies. The measured colonic wall thicknesses at different segments in a beagle dog based on the 2D CT images obtained with the negative contrast medium accurately reflected the anatomical values, as compared with the values based on air-contrasted images. In vivo study of a simulated polyps pig model demonstrated sensitive detection of 11 out of 12 polyps with the smallest one 2 mm in diameter. We believe this new and safe foam fluid negative medium would enable the implementation of CT imaging as a convenient and useful tool for diagnosis of colon cancer, especially in the elderly population. PMID:22144024

  20. Inequality across Consonantal Contrasts in Speech Perception: Evidence from Mismatch Negativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Sonia A.; Lahiri, Aditi; Eulitz, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The precise structure of speech sound representations is still a matter of debate. In the present neurobiological study, we compared predictions about differential sensitivity to speech contrasts between models that assume full specification of all phonological information in the mental lexicon with those assuming sparse representations (only…

  1. Oral contrast enhances the resolution of in-life NIS reporter gene imaging.

    PubMed

    Suksanpaisan, L; Pham, L; McIvor, S; Russell, S J; Peng, K-W

    2013-11-01

    Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) reporter gene imaging is an excellent technology for noninvasive cell fate determination in living animals unless the NIS-transduced cells reside in perigastric organs such as the spleen, liver, diaphragm, omentum, pancreas, perigastric lymph nodes or perigastric tumor deposits. Here we report that orally administered barium sulfate enhances CT definition of the stomach, masks background gamma ray emissions from the stomach and enhances signal detection from radiotracer uptake in NIS-transduced organs. PMID:24030210

  2. Blackberry (Rubus spp.): a pH-dependent oral contrast medium for gastrointestinal tract images by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, María G; Sosa, Modesto; De León-Rodríguez, Luis M; Córdova, Teodoro; Bernal-Alvarado, Jesus; Avila-Rodríguez, Mario; Reyes-Aguilera, Jose A; Ortíz, Juan J; Barrios, Fernando A

    2006-02-01

    In this study, seven fruits have been tested on their magnetic properties, paramagnetic metal content and contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of phantom and in vivo. Magnetic susceptibility was determined for the fruit pulps, as well as the contents of paramagnetic metals; iron, manganese and copper. The total content of these metals was 4.3, 8.6, 11.1, 10.9, 12.3, 8.3 and 29.3 mg/kg of fruit for plum, blueberry, apple (red), pineapple, beet, grape, blackberry, respectively, and with magnetic susceptibility of -2.29+/-0.07, -2.43+/-0.07, -2.13+/-0.07, -1.84+/-0.02, -1.75+/-0.01, -1.78+/-0.06, -2.18+/-0.07 SI, respectively. T(1)- and T(2)-weighted MR images were performed for the seven fruits and water (chi= -9.98 x 10(-3) SI) and in one subject. While there was no correlation between the magnetic susceptibility and contrast enhancement, there is a correlation with the total paramagnetic metal content determined with contrast enhancement in MRI. Thus, blackberry (Rubus spp.) contrast enhancement was the highest among the fruits in T(1)-weighted images. Furthermore, this fruit's contrast enhancement shows to be pH-dependent. These characteristics and the wide availability of the Rubus spp. suggest that it should be implemented as an oral contrast agent in images by MR to assess the function of the gastric section of the GI tract. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being a natural meal, so that it can be well tolerated by the patients and use as much as it is needed without side effects. PMID:16455409

  3. A prospective randomized comparison between two MRI studies of the small bowel in Crohn's disease, the oral contrast method and MR enteroclysis.

    PubMed

    Negaard, Anne; Paulsen, Vemund; Sandvik, Leiv; Berstad, Audun Elnaes; Borthne, Arne; Try, Kirsti; Lygren, Idar; Storaas, Tryggve; Klow, Nils-Einar

    2007-09-01

    The aim was to compare bowel distension and diagnostic properties of magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel with oral contrast (MRI per OS) with magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE). Forty patients with suspected Crohn's disease (CD) were examined with both MRI methods. MRI per OS was performed with a 6% mannitol solution and MRE with nasojejunal intubation and a polyethylenglycol solution. MRI protocol consisted of balanced fast field echo (B-FFE), T2 and T1 sequences with and without gadolinium. Two experienced radiologists individually evaluated bowel distension and pathological findings including wall thickness (BWT), contrast enhancement (BWE), ulcer (BWU), stenosis (BWS) and edema (EDM). The diameter of the small bowel was smaller with MRI per OS than with MRE (difference jejunum: 0.55 cm, p < 0.001; ileum: 0.35 cm, p < 0.001, terminal ileum: 0.09 cm, p = 0.08). However, CD was diagnosed with high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values: MRI per OS 88%, 89%, 89%, 89%; MRE 88%, 84%, 82%, 89%) and inter-observer agreement (MRI per OS k = 0.95; MRE k = 1). In conclusion, bowel distension was inferior in MRI per OS compared to MRE. However, both methods diagnosed CD with a high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. PMID:17483955

  4. Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes containing traces of iron as new negative MRI contrast agents for in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Doan, Bich-Thuy; Seguin, Johanne; Breton, Marie; Le Beherec, Ronan; Bessodes, Michel; Rodríguez-Manzo, Julio A; Banhart, Florian; Beloeil, Jean-Claude; Scherman, Daniel; Richard, Cyrille

    2012-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) containing traces of iron oxide were functionalized by noncovalent lipid-PEG or covalent carboxylic acid function to supply new efficient MRI contrast agents for in vitro and in vivo applications. Longitudinal (r(1)) and transversal (r(2)) water proton relaxivities were measured at 300 MHz, showing a stronger T(2) feature as an MRI contrast agent (r(2)/r(1)  = 190 for CO(2) H functionalisation). The r(2) relaxivity was demonstrated to be correlated to the presence of iron oxide in the SWNT-carboxylic function COOH, in comparison to iron-free ones. Biodistribution studies on mice after a systemic injection showed a negative MRI contrast in liver, suggesting the presence of the nanotubes in this organ until 48 h after i.v. injection. The presence of carbon nanotubes in liver was confirmed after ex vivo carbon extraction. Finally, cytotoxicity studies showed no apparent effect owing to the presence of the carbon nanotubes. The functionalized carbon nanotubes were well tolerated by the animals at the dose of 10 µg g(-1) body weight. PMID:22434627

  5. Influence of negative affectivity and self-esteem on the oral health related quality of life in patients receiving oral rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate if and how the personality traits Negative Affectivity (NA) and self-esteem influenced the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in patients receiving oral rehabilitation. Methods OHRQoL was measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49), NA with a short form of the Eysenck Personality Inventory Questionnaire (EPI-Q), and self-esteem with Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in 66 patients treated with removable dental prosthesis (RDP). The minimally important difference (MID), effect size (ES), and standard error of the measurement (SEM) were used to clinically interpret the patient-reported effect. Results The OHIP-49 score was significantly higher and exceeded the MID pre- and post-treatment in participants with high EPI-Q and low RSES score compared to participants with low EPI-Q and high RSES score. The improvement in OHIP-49 score was significant and not limited by high EPI-Q and low RSES score. High EPI-Q score was associated high improvement in OHIP-49 score and the ES of the improvement in participants with high EPI-Q was large and exceeded the MID and SEM. Conclusion Treatment with RDP improves the OHRQoL regardless of level of NA and self-esteem. High NA is associated with a large effect, but both high NA and low self-esteem is associated with poorer OHRQoL both before and after treatment. PMID:24156271

  6. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many β-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding β-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519

  7. Using low-contrast negative-tone PMMA at cryogenic temperatures for 3D electron beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Schnauber, Peter; Schmidt, Ronny; Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Heuser, Tobias; Gschrey, Manuel; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2016-05-13

    We report on a 3D electron beam lithography (EBL) technique using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in the negative-tone regime as a resist. First, we briefly demonstrate 3D EBL at room temperature. Then we concentrate on cryogenic temperatures where PMMA exhibits a low contrast, which allows for straightforward patterning of 3D nano- and microstructures. However, conventional EBL patterning at cryogenic temperatures is found to cause severe damage to the microstructures. Through an extensive study of lithography parameters, exposure techniques, and processing steps we deduce a hypothesis for the cryogenic PMMA's structural evolution under electron beam irradiation that explains the damage. In accordance with this hypothesis, a two step lithography technique involving a wide-area pre-exposure dose slightly smaller than the onset dose is applied. It enables us to demonstrate a >95% process yield for the low-temperature fabrication of 3D microstructures. PMID:27023850

  8. Using low-contrast negative-tone PMMA at cryogenic temperatures for 3D electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnauber, Peter; Schmidt, Ronny; Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Heuser, Tobias; Gschrey, Manuel; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    We report on a 3D electron beam lithography (EBL) technique using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in the negative-tone regime as a resist. First, we briefly demonstrate 3D EBL at room temperature. Then we concentrate on cryogenic temperatures where PMMA exhibits a low contrast, which allows for straightforward patterning of 3D nano- and microstructures. However, conventional EBL patterning at cryogenic temperatures is found to cause severe damage to the microstructures. Through an extensive study of lithography parameters, exposure techniques, and processing steps we deduce a hypothesis for the cryogenic PMMA’s structural evolution under electron beam irradiation that explains the damage. In accordance with this hypothesis, a two step lithography technique involving a wide-area pre-exposure dose slightly smaller than the onset dose is applied. It enables us to demonstrate a >95% process yield for the low-temperature fabrication of 3D microstructures.

  9. "Contexts control negative contrast and restrict the expression of flavor preference conditioning": Correction to Austen and Sanderson (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Contexts control negative contrast and restrict the expression of flavor preference conditioning" by Joseph M. Austen and David J. Sanderson (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 2016[Jan], Vol 42[1], 95-105). In Table 2 of the article, the conditions in Experiment 3 are labeled AB and XY, but they should be AX and BY. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-59080-002.) Consumption of a high concentration of sucrose can have either a detrimental, negative contrast effect or a facilitatory, preference conditioning effect on subsequent consumption of a low concentration of sucrose, depending on the cues that are present during consumption. The role of context and flavor cues in determining these effects were studied using analysis of the microstructure of licking in mice. Exposure to a high concentration followed by exposure to a low concentration resulted in a transient reduction in mean lick cluster size, which was context dependent (Experiment 1). However, there was no change in the total number of licks or overall consumption. When a flavor that had previously been paired with a high concentration was paired with a low concentration, there was an increase in the total number of licks, and overall consumption, but no change in the mean lick cluster size (Experiment 2). Pairing a high concentration with a flavor in a particular context before pairing the context and flavor compound with a low concentration resulted in abolishing the expression of the flavor preference conditioning effect on the total number of licks and consumption (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that although context and flavor cues have dissociable effects on licking behavior, their interaction has an antagonistic effect on the behavioral expression of memory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27379719

  10. Contrast-enhanced X-ray microtomography of the bone structure adjacent to oral implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesei, L.; Casseler, F.; Dreossi, D.; Mancini, L.; Tromba, G.; Zanini, F.

    2005-08-01

    One of the most important aims about cortical and cancellous bone research is to understand the factors that determine their mechanical properties, how these properties are maintained, and how bone reacts to changes in its environment, such as the introduction of a titanium implant. Trabecular morphometry has been traditionally assessed in two dimensions, where the structural parameters are either inspected visually or measured from sections, and the third dimension is added on the basis of stereology. Particularly, limiting is the destructive nature of this extremely time consuming procedure, preventing the specimens from being used for other measurements. The most common technique used to overcome some of the limitations of two-dimensional analysis is stereo- or scanning microscopy to assess three-dimensional structural indices qualitatively. Synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography is a particular kind of X-ray computerized axial tomography with higher resolution and the possibility to choose among a very wide range of X-ray energies. Beam energies ranging between 30 and 40 keV will provide a satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio and contrast for bone, except for the parts falling in the shadow of the Ti implant. Higher beam energies would provide correctly exposed images, with lower -to noise ratio for the bone trabecular structure. We will show how the use of alternative materials, such as aluminum, while not altering the evaluation of the mechanical impact of an implant, allows a satisfactory non-destructive, three-dimensional analysis of the bone-implant interface.

  11. Evaluation of an operant successive negative contrast task as a method to study affective state in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Emma N; Marston, Hugh M; Nutt, David J; Robinson, Emma S J

    2012-10-01

    Successive negative contrast (SNC) describes a change in an animal's behaviour following a downshift in the quantitative or qualitative value of a reward. Previous studies suggest both consummatory and instrumental paradigms have the potential to provide an objective measure of affective state in rodents. We first investigated whether an SNC effect is observed in an operant task based on the 5 choice serial reaction time task. We then tested whether this SNC effect was sensitive to differences in affective state induced by manipulating the home cage environment. In animals trained to receive a four pellet food reward, reinforcer downshift to a single reward pellet induced a significant slowing of both correct response and collection latencies to levels below that of animals which had only ever received the lower value reward, indicating a SNC effect. Home cage environmental enrichment resulted in a paradoxical effect on responses in this SNC task where animals housed in a barren environment showed faster baseline response times and the SNC effect was significantly attenuated. These data suggest that the animals housed in the barren conditions were in a more positive affective and/or motivational state during testing than animals housed in enriched cages. Although opposite to the effects of housing conditions in a runway SNC task, these data could be explained by the enriching effects of daily training in an operant task. Rather than inducing a negative affective state in rats, the barren housing conditions resulted in a relatively more positive affective state in the chamber when compared to animals living in a highly enriched environment. PMID:22732261

  12. A method for detailed analysis of the structure of mast cell secretory granules by negative contrast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Takakuwa, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Secretory granules (SGs) in mast cells contain various molecules that elicit allergy symptoms and are generally considered therapeutic targets. However, the biogenesis, maintenance, regulation, and recycling of these granules remain controversial, mainly due to the lack of suitable live-cell imaging methods. In this study, we applied negative contrast imaging with soluble green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed in the cytoplasm as a method to validate structural information of mast cell SGs. We evaluated the accuracy of the method in detail, and we demonstrated that it can be used for quantitative analysis. Using this technique, secretory granules, the nucleus, mitochondria, and the cell body were visualized in individual RBL-2H3 mast cells without any influence. When combined with conventional multicolor fluorescence imaging, visualization of SG-associated proteins and SG–SG fusion was achieved. Moreover, 3D images were constructed based on this method, and detailed information on the number, size, and shape of individual SGs was obtained. We found that cell volume was correlated with SG number. In summary, the technique provides valuable and unique data, and will therefore advance SG research. PMID:26997316

  13. Managing Written and Oral Negative Feedback in a Synchronous Online Teaching Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichon, Nicolas; Betrancourt, Mireille; Prie, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    This case study focuses on the feedback that is provided by tutors to learners in the course of synchronous online teaching. More specifically, we study how trainee tutors used the affordances of Visu, an experimental web videoconferencing system, to provide negative feedback. Visu features classical functionalities such as video and chat, and it…

  14. Negative regulation of natural killer cell in tumor tissue and peripheral blood of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anupam; Banerjee, Arunabha; Saikia, Nabajyoti; Phookan, Jyotirmoy; Baruah, Munindra Narayan; Baruah, Shashi

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the key lymphocytes in solid tumors. Its activity is regulated by both germline encoded receptors and cytokine microenvironment. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the activation status of NK cell in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NK cell activation was assessed in context of NK cell cytotoxicity and transcript expression of NK cell receptors (NKp46 and KIRs) and NK cell associated cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12β, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β). The results revealed possible mechanisms involved in reduced NK cell activation in peripheral circulation: quantitative deficiency of NK cell number and lowered cytotoxicity together with qualitative NK impairments caused by--(1) decreased expression of NK activating receptor NKp46, (2) increased expression of NK suppressive cytokines--IL-10 and TGF-β and (3) induction of FOXP3(+)CTLA4(+) suppressor cells. On the other hand, in the tumor tissue, escape of NK immune surveillance appeared to be modulated by upregulation of TGF-β and IL-10 together with downregulation of NK cell activating cytokines (IL-2, IL-12β, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21 and IFN-γ) and NK receptors (NKp46 and KIRs). In addition, our study supported the earlier contention that TNF-α and IL-1β expression levels may be used as markers of malignant transformation in oral leukoplakia. In conclusion, the study provided an insight into the negative regulation of NK cell in tumor tissue and peripheral blood of OSCC patients, which can be exploited to boost the current NK cell and cytokine based immunotherapy for the treatment of oral cancer. PMID:26372424

  15. Tests of the Aversive Summation Hypothesis in Rats: Effects of Restraint Stress on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and Extinction in the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Cardenas-Poveda, D. Carolina; McLinden, Kristina A.; Glueck, Amanda C.; Gutierrez, German; Lamprea, Marisol R.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored the effects of restraint stress on two situations involving incentive downshift: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and extinction of escape behavior in the Barnes maze. First, Experiment 1 confirmed that the restraint stress procedure used in these experiments increased levels of circulating…

  16. Oral contrast enhanced bowel ultrasonography in the assessment of small intestine Crohn’s disease. A prospective comparison with conventional ultrasound, x ray studies, and ileocolonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Parente, F; Greco, S; Molteni, M; Anderloni, A; Sampietro, G M; Danelli, P G; Bianco, R; Gallus, S; Bianchi Porro, G

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aim: Although ultrasound (US) has proved to be useful in intestinal diseases, barium enteroclysis (BE) remains the gold standard technique for assessing patients with small bowel Crohn’s disease (CD). The ingestion of anechoic non-absorbable solutions has been recently proposed in order to distend intestinal loops and improve small bowel visualisation. The authors’ aim was to evaluate the accuracy of oral contrast US in finding CD lesions, assessing their extent within the bowel, and detecting luminal complications, compared with BE and ileocolonoscopy. Methods: 102 consecutive patients with proven CD, having undergone complete x ray and endoscopic evaluation, were enrolled in the study. Each US examination, before and after the ingestion of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (500–800 ml), was performed independently by two sonographers unaware of the results of other diagnostic procedures. The accuracy of conventional and contrast enhanced US in detecting CD lesions and luminal complications, as well as the extent of bowel involvement, were determined. Interobserver agreement between sonographers with both US techniques was also estimated. Results: After oral contrast, satisfactory distension of the intestinal lumen was obtained in all patients, with a mean time to reach the terminal ileum of 31.4 (SD 10.9) minutes. Overall sensitivity of conventional and oral contrast US in detecting CD lesions were 91.4% and 96.1%, respectively. The correlation coefficient between US and x ray extent of ileal disease was r1 = 0.83 (p<0.001) before and r2 = 0.94 (p<0.001) after PEG ingestion; r1 versus r2 p<0.01. Sensitivity in detecting strictures was 74% for conventional US and 89% for contrast US. Overall interobserver agreement for bowel wall thickness and disease location within the small bowel was already good before but significantly improved after PEG ingestion. Conclusions: Oral contrast bowel US is comparable with BE in defining anatomic

  17. Genome-Wide Loss of Heterozygosity and DNA Copy Number Aberration in HPV-Negative Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Their Associations with Disease-Specific Survival

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chu; Zhang, Yuzheng; Loomis, Melissa M.; Upton, Melissa P.; Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Houck, John R.; Doody, David R.; Mendez, Eduardo; Futran, Neal; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Wang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx (OSCC) is associated with high case-fatality. For reasons that are largely unknown, patients with the same clinical and pathologic staging have heterogeneous response to treatment and different probability of recurrence and survival, with patients with Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal tumors having the most favorable survival. To gain insight into the complexity of OSCC and to identify potential chromosomal changes that may be associated with OSCC mortality, we used Affymtrix 6.0 SNP arrays to examine paired DNA from peripheral blood and tumor cell populations isolated by laser capture microdissection to assess genome-wide loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and DNA copy number aberration (CNA) and their associations with risk factors, tumor characteristics, and oral cancer-specific mortality among 75 patients with HPV-negative OSCC. We found a highly heterogeneous and complex genomic landscape of HPV-negative tumors, and identified regions in 4q, 8p, 9p and 11q that seem to play an important role in oral cancer biology and survival from this disease. If confirmed, these findings could assist in designing personalized treatment or in the creation of models to predict survival in patients with HPV-negative OSCC. PMID:26247464

  18. Contrast Extravasation on Computed Tomography Angiography Imitating a Basilar Artery Trunk Aneurysm in Subsequent Conventional Angiogram-Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Courses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Ho; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Nam, Kyoung Hyup

    2015-01-01

    Contrast extravasation on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is rare but becoming more common, with increasing use of CTA for various cerebral vascular diseases. We report on two cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in which the CTA showed an upper basilar trunk saccular lesion suggesting ruptured aneurysm. However, immediate subsequent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) failed to show a vascular lesion. In one case, repeated follow up DSA was also negative. The patient was treated conservatively and discharged without any neurologic deficit. In the other case, the patient showed sudden mental deterioration on the third hospital day and her brain CT showed rebleeding. The immediate follow up DSA showed contrast stagnation in the vicinity of the upper basilar artery, suggestive of pseudoaneurysm. Double stents deployment at the disease segment was performed. Due to the frequent use of CTA, contrast extravasation is an increasingly common observation. Physicians should be aware that basilar artery extravasation can mimic the appearance of an aneurysm. PMID:27066442

  19. A 90-day study of subchronic oral toxicity of 20 nm, negatively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hark-Soo; Shin, Sung-Sup; Meang, Eun Ho; Hong, Jeong-sup; Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Jong-Yun; Sun, Yle-Shik; Kang, Jin Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Son, Woo-Chan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The widespread use of nanoparticles (NPs) in industrial and biomedical applications has prompted growing concern regarding their potential toxicity and impact on human health. This study therefore investigated the subchronic, systemic oral toxicity and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 20 nm, negatively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM20(−)) NPs in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days. Methods The high-dose NP level was set at 500 mg/kg of bodyweight, and the mid- and low-dose levels were set at 250 and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were observed during a 14-day recovery period after the last NP administration for the persistence or reduction of any adverse effects. Toxicokinetic and distribution studies were also conducted to determine the systemic distribution of the NPs. Results No rats died during the test period. However, ZnOSM20(−) NPs (500 mg/kg) induced changes in the levels of anemia-related factors, prompted acinar cell apoptosis and ductular hyperplasia, stimulated periductular lymphoid cell infiltration and excessive salivation, and increased the numbers of regenerative acinar cells in the pancreas. In addition, stomach lesions were seen at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, and retinal atrophy was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg. The Zn concentration was dose-dependently increased in the liver, kidney, intestines, and plasma, but not in other organs investigated. Conclusion A ZnOSM20(−) NP NOAEL could not be established from the current results, but the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level was 125 mg/kg. Furthermore, the NPs were associated with a number of undesirable systemic actions. Thus, their use in humans must be approached with caution. PMID:25565828

  20. Six-Month Incidence and Persistence of Oral HPV Infection in HIV-Negative and HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Mooij, Sofie H.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; King, Audrey J.; Verhagen, Dominique W. M.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Quint, Wim G. V.; Molijn, Anco; de Koning, Maurits N. C.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to assess incidence and persistence of oral HPV infection in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods MSM aged ≥18 years were included in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) in 2010–2011, and followed up 6 months later. Participants completed risk factor questionnaires. HPV DNA was analyzed in oral-rinse and gargle specimens using the SPF10-PCR DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of oral samples was subjected to SPF10 sequencing to identify additional HPV types. Multivariable logistic regression analyses using generalized estimating equations (GEE) were performed to assess determinants for oral high-risk HPV incidence and persistence. Results 689/795 participant MSM provided both baseline and 6-month data. Baseline prevalence of high-risk HPV was 9.4% in HIV-negative and 23.9% in HIV-infected MSM (P<0.001). 56/689 MSM acquired ≥1 high-risk HPV infection (6-month incidence 8.1%; 95%CI 6.2–10.4%); incidence was 4.1% in HIV-negative and 14.1% in HIV-infected MSM (P<0.001). HIV infection and recent use of cannabis were both independently associated with high-risk HPV incidence. Persistent high-risk HPV was observed in 48/130 (36.9%) infections. Conclusion Incidence of oral high-risk HPV infection in MSM is substantial, and is associated with HIV infection. Over a third of HPV infections persisted over a 6-month period. PMID:24896848

  1. Individual differences in reward prediction error: contrasting relations between feedback-related negativity and trait measures of reward sensitivity, impulsivity and extraversion

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Andrew J.; Duke, Éilish; Pickering, Alan D.; Smillie, Luke D.

    2014-01-01

    Medial-frontal negativity occurring ∼200–300 ms post-stimulus in response to motivationally salient stimuli, usually referred to as feedback-related negativity (FRN), appears to be at least partly modulated by dopaminergic-based reward prediction error (RPE) signaling. Previous research (e.g., Smillie et al., 2011) has shown that higher scores on a putatively dopaminergic-based personality trait, extraversion, were associated with a more pronounced difference wave contrasting unpredicted non-reward and unpredicted reward trials on an associative learning task. In the current study, we sought to extend this research by comparing how trait measures of reward sensitivity, impulsivity and extraversion related to the FRN using the same associative learning task. A sample of healthy adults (N = 38) completed a battery of personality questionnaires, before completing the associative learning task while EEG was recorded. As expected, FRN was most negative following unpredicted non-reward. A difference wave contrasting unpredicted non-reward and unpredicted reward trials was calculated. Extraversion, but not measures of impulsivity, had a significant association with this difference wave. Further, the difference wave was significantly related to a measure of anticipatory pleasure, but not consummatory pleasure. These findings provide support for the existing evidence suggesting that variation in dopaminergic functioning in brain “reward” pathways may partially underpin associations between the FRN and trait measures of extraversion and anticipatory pleasure. PMID:24808845

  2. In vivo X-Ray Computed Tomographic Imaging of Soft Tissue with Native, Intravenous, or Oral Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Wathen, Connor A.; Foje, Nathan; van Avermaete, Tony; Miramontes, Bernadette; Chapaman, Sarah E.; Sasser, Todd A.; Kannan, Raghuraman; Gerstler, Steven; Leevy, W. Matthew

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the most commonly utilized anatomical imaging modalities for both research and clinical purposes. CT combines high-resolution, three-dimensional data with relatively fast acquisition to provide a solid platform for non-invasive human or specimen imaging. The primary limitation of CT is its inability to distinguish many soft tissues based on native contrast. While bone has high contrast within a CT image due to its material density from calcium phosphate, soft tissue is less dense and many are homogenous in density. This presents a challenge in distinguishing one type of soft tissue from another. A couple exceptions include the lungs as well as fat, both of which have unique densities owing to the presence of air or bulk hydrocarbons, respectively. In order to facilitate X-ray CT imaging of other structures, a range of contrast agents have been developed to selectively identify and visualize the anatomical properties of individual tissues. Most agents incorporate atoms like iodine, gold, or barium because of their ability to absorb X-rays, and thus impart contrast to a given organ system. Here we review the strategies available to visualize lung, fat, brain, kidney, liver, spleen, vasculature, gastrointestinal tract, and liver tissues of living mice using either innate contrast, or commercial injectable or ingestible agents with selective perfusion. Further, we demonstrate how each of these approaches will facilitate the non-invasive, longitudinal, in vivo imaging of pre-clinical disease models at each anatomical site. PMID:23711461

  3. The link between a negative high resolution resist contrast/developer performance and the Flory-Huggins parameter estimated from the Hansen solubility sphere

    SciTech Connect

    StCaire, Lorri; Olynick, Deirdre L.; Chao, Weilun L.; Lewis, Mark D.; Lu, Haoren; Dhuey, Scott D.; Liddle, J. Alexander

    2008-07-01

    We have implemented a technique to identify candidate polymer solvents for spinning, developing, and rinsing for a high resolution, negative electron beam resist hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene to elicit the optimum pattern development performance. Using the three dimensional Hansen solubility parameters for over 40 solvents, we have constructed a Hansen solubility sphere. From this sphere, we have estimated the Flory Huggins interaction parameter for solvents with hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene and found a correlation between resist development contrast and the Flory-Huggins parameter. This provides new insights into the development behavior of resist materials which are necessary for obtaining the ultimate lithographic resolution.

  4. Identifying Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Background Parenchymal Enhancement Heterogeneity on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Radiomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jeff; Kato, Fumi; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Li, Ruijiang; Cui, Yi; Tha, Khin Khin; Yamashita, Hiroko; Kudo, Kohsuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the added discriminative value of detailed quantitative characterization of background parenchymal enhancement in addition to the tumor itself on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI at 3.0 Tesla in identifying “triple-negative" breast cancers. Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, DCE-MRI of 84 women presenting 88 invasive carcinomas were evaluated by a radiologist and analyzed using quantitative computer-aided techniques. Each tumor and its surrounding parenchyma were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D. A total of 85 imaging features were extracted from the two regions, including morphologic, densitometric, and statistical texture measures of enhancement. A small subset of optimal features was selected using an efficient sequential forward floating search algorithm. To distinguish triple-negative cancers from other subtypes, we built predictive models based on support vector machines. Their classification performance was assessed with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) using cross-validation. Results Imaging features based on the tumor region achieved an AUC of 0.782 in differentiating triple-negative cancers from others, in line with the current state of the art. When background parenchymal enhancement features were included, the AUC increased significantly to 0.878 (p<0.01). Similar improvements were seen in nearly all subtype classification tasks undertaken. Notably, amongst the most discriminating features for predicting triple-negative cancers were textures of background parenchymal enhancement. Conclusions Considering the tumor as well as its surrounding parenchyma on DCE-MRI for radiomic image phenotyping provides useful information for identifying triple-negative breast cancers. Heterogeneity of background parenchymal enhancement, characterized by quantitative texture features on DCE-MRI, adds value to such differentiation models as they are strongly

  5. Study of suspending agents for gadolinium(III)-exchanged hectorite. An oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent

    SciTech Connect

    Balkus, K.J. Jr.; Shi, J.

    1996-12-25

    Clays modified with paramagnetic ions have been shown to be effective magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. The efficacy in part relies on the suspension of the small clay particles in aqueous solution. In this study a series of macromolecules were eveluated as suspending agents for Gd(III) ion exchanged hectorite clay in water. The room temperature relaxivities for the Gd-hectorite clays were enhanced by the addition of poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene glycol), cyclodextrins, and cholic acid to aqueous suspensions. Additionally, there was no evidence of free Gd(III) in solution in the presence of these suspending agents. In contrast the combination of alginic acid or poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) with the clays resulted in release of the Gd(III) into solution. Xanthan gum, which is often used as an emulsifier and stabilizer in food products, forms a viscous suspension but also reacts with free Gd(III) ions. 25 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Clinical Comparison of Two Contrast Agents for Oral Cholecystography: Radiologic Efficacy and Drug Safety of Iopanoic Acid and Iopronic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Hedlund, Laurence; Putman, Charles E.; Burrell, Morton

    1979-01-01

    Oral doses of either iopronic acid (4.5 g Oravue, Squibb) or iopanoic acid (3 g Telepaque, Winthrop) were given to 98 patients requiring cholecystography. Radiographs were taken 13 to 16 hours after treatment showed good to excellent gallbladder opacification in 44 percent of patients after the first dose of iopronic acid and in an additional 29 percent after a second dose. Similar opacification occurred in 42 percent of patients after the first dose of iopanoic acid and in 34 percent after a second dose. Drug-related abnormalities in blood and urine tests occurred about equally in both groups and one patient in each group exhibited a clinically adverse reaction (diarrhea). Thus, the performance (radiographic efficacy and drug safety) of the new contrast agent, iopronic acid, was similar to a widely used drug, iopanoic acid. PMID:380184

  7. A relaxometric method for the assessment of intestinal permeability based on the oral administration of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Gianolio, Eliana; Boffa, Cinzia; Orecchia, Valeria; Bardini, Paola; Catanzaro, Valeria; Poli, Valeria; Aime, Silvio

    2016-04-01

    Herein, a new relaxometric method for the assessment of intestinal permeability based on the oral administration of clinically approved gadolinium (Gd)-based MRI contrast agents (CAs) is proposed. The fast, easily performed and cheap measurement of the longitudinal water proton relaxation rate (R1 ) in urine reports the amount of paramagnetic probe that has escaped the gastrointestinal tract. The proposed method appears to be a compelling alternative to the available methods for the assessment of intestinal permeability. The method was tested on the murine model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in comparison with healthy mice. Three CAs were tested, namely ProHance®, MultiHance® and Magnevist®. Urine was collected for 24 h after the oral ingestion of the Gd-containing CA at day 3-4 (severe damage stage) and day 8-9 (recovery stage) after treatment with DSS. The Gd content in urine measured by (1) H relaxometry was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The extent of urinary excretion was given as a percentage of excreted Gd over the total ingested dose. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained with the established methodology based on the lactulose/mannitol and sucralose tests. For ProHance and Magnevist, the excreted amounts in the severe stage of damage were 2.5-3 times higher than in control mice. At the recovery stage, no significant differences were observed with respect to healthy mice. Overall, a very good correlation with the lactulose/mannitol and sucralose results was obtained. In the case of MultiHance, the percentage of excreted Gd complex was not significantly different from that of control mice in either the severe or recovery stages. The difference from ProHance and Magnevist was explained on the basis of the (known) partial biliary excretion of MultiHance in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26866929

  8. Oral Ingestion of Transgenic RIDL Ae. aegypti Larvae Has No Negative Effect on Two Predator Toxorhynchites Species

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Oreenaiza; Donald, Wesley; Ming, Wong Hong; Ney, Teoh Guat; Mohamed, Khairul Asuad; Halim, Nor Azlina Abdul; Winskill, Peter; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Muhammad, Zulkamal Safi'in; Lacroix, Renaud; Scaife, Sarah; McKemey, Andrew Robert; Beech, Camilla; Shahnaz, Murad; Alphey, Luke; Nimmo, Derric David; Nazni, Wasi Ahmed; Lee, Han Lim

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. No specific treatment or vaccine is currently available; traditional vector control methods can rarely achieve adequate control. Recently, the RIDL (Release of Insect carrying Dominant Lethality) approach has been developed, based on the sterile insect technique, in which genetically engineered ‘sterile’ homozygous RIDL male insects are released to mate wild females; the offspring inherit a copy of the RIDL construct and die. A RIDL strain of the dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti, OX513A, expresses a fluorescent marker gene for identification (DsRed2) and a protein (tTAV) that causes the offspring to die. We examined whether these proteins could adversely affect predators that may feed on the insect. Aedes aegypti is a peri-domestic mosquito that typically breeds in small, rain-water-filled containers and has no specific predators. Toxorhynchites larvae feed on small aquatic organisms and are easily reared in the laboratory where they can be fed exclusively on mosquito larvae. To evaluate the effect of a predator feeding on a diet of RIDL insects, OX513A Ae. aegypti larvae were fed to two different species of Toxorhynchites (Tx. splendens and Tx. amboinensis) and effects on life table parameters of all life stages were compared to being fed on wild type larvae. No significant negative effect was observed on any life table parameter studied; this outcome and the benign nature of the expressed proteins (tTAV and DsRed2) indicate that Ae. aegypti OX513A RIDL strain is unlikely to have any adverse effects on predators in the environment. PMID:23527029

  9. Baicalin Downregulates Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Upregulated IL-6 and IL-8 Expression in Human Oral Keratinocytes by Negative Regulation of TLR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Cun-Yu; Jin, Lijian

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal (gum) disease is one of the main global oral health burdens and severe periodontal disease (periodontitis) is a leading cause of tooth loss in adults globally. It also increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key virulent attribute that significantly contributes to periodontal pathogenesis. Baicalin is a flavonoid from Scutellaria radix, an herb commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the modulatory effect of baicalin on P. gingivalis LPS-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs). Cells were pre-treated with baicalin (0–80 µM) for 24 h, and subsequently treated with P. gingivalis LPS at 10 µg/ml with or without baicalin for 3 h. IL-6 and IL-8 transcripts and proteins were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) proteins was analyzed by western blot. A panel of genes related to toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling was examined by PCR array. We found that baicalin significantly downregulated P. gingivalis LPS-stimulated expression of IL-6 and IL-8, and inhibited P. gingivalis LPS-activated NF-κB, p38 MAPK and JNK. Furthermore, baicalin markedly downregulated P. gingivalis LPS-induced expression of genes associated with TLR signaling. In conclusion, the present study shows that baicalin may significantly downregulate P. gingivalis LPS-upregulated expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HOKs via negative regulation of TLR signaling. PMID:23239998

  10. Oral health care for children in countries using dental therapists in public, school-based programs, contrasted with that of the United States, using dentists in a private practice model.

    PubMed

    Mathu-Muju, Kavita R; Friedman, Jay W; Nash, David A

    2013-09-01

    The United States faces a significant problem with access to oral health care, particularly for children. More than 50 countries have developed an alternative dental provider, a dental therapist, practicing in public, school-based programs, to address children's access to care. This delivery model has been demonstrated to improve access to care and oral health outcomes while providing quality care economically. We summarize elements of a recent major review of the global literature on the use of dental therapists, "A Review of the Global Literature on Dental Therapists: In the Context of the Movement to Add Dental Therapists to the Oral Health Workforce in the United States." We contrast the success of a school-based model of caring for children by dental therapists with that of the US model of dentists providing care for children in private practices. PMID:23865650

  11. Oral Health Care for Children in Countries Using Dental Therapists in Public, School-Based Programs, Contrasted with That of the United States, Using Dentists in a Private Practice Model

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jay W.; Nash, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The United States faces a significant problem with access to oral health care, particularly for children. More than 50 countries have developed an alternative dental provider, a dental therapist, practicing in public, school-based programs, to address children’s access to care. This delivery model has been demonstrated to improve access to care and oral health outcomes while providing quality care economically. We summarize elements of a recent major review of the global literature on the use of dental therapists, “A Review of the Global Literature on Dental Therapists: In the Context of the Movement to Add Dental Therapists to the Oral Health Workforce in the United States.” We contrast the success of a school-based model of caring for children by dental therapists with that of the US model of dentists providing care for children in private practices. PMID:23865650

  12. WWOX CNV-67048 Functions as a Risk Factor for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Chinese Women by Negatively Interacting with Oral Contraceptive Use

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongxiu; Tan, Xiaochang; Ding, Yongli; Mai, Bi; Huang, Xiaowen; Hu, Guiying

    2016-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) have attracted increasing evidences to represent their roles as cancer susceptibility regulators. However, little is known about the role of CNV in epithelia ovarian cancer (EOC). Recently, the CNV-67048 of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) was reported to alter cancer risks. Considering that WWOX also plays a role in EOC, we hypothesized that the CNV-67048 was associated with EOC risk. In a case-control study of 549 EOC patients and 571 age (±5 years) matched cancer-free controls, we found that the low copy number of CNV-67048 (1-copy and 0-copy) conferred a significantly increased risk of EOC (OR = 1.346, 95% CI = 1.037–1.747) and it determined the risk by means of copy number-dependent dosage effect (P = 0.009). Data from TCGA also confirmed the abovementioned association as the frequency of low copies in EOC group was 3.68 times more than that in healthy group (P = 0.023). The CNV also negatively interacted with oral contraceptive use on EOC risk (P = 0.042). Functional analyses further showed a lower mRNA level of WWOX in tissues with the 0-copy or 1-copy than that in those with the 2-copy (P = 0.045). Our data suggested the CNV-67048 to be a risk factor of EOC in Chinese women. PMID:27190995

  13. Discrimination of Native and Non-Native Vowel Contrasts in Bilingual Turkish-German and Monolingual German Children: Insight from the Mismatch Negativity ERP Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinker, Tanja; Alku, Paavo; Brosch, Sibylle; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The development of native-like memory traces for foreign phonemes can be measured by using the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), a component of the auditory event-related potential. Previous studies have shown that the MMN is sensitive to changes in neural organization depending on language experience. Here we measured the MMN response in 5-6 year-old…

  14. Computerized Image Analysis for Identifying Triple-Negative Breast Cancers and Differentiating Them from Other Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer on Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Images: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Agner, Shannon C.; Rosen, Mark A.; Englander, Sarah; Tomaszewski, John E.; Feldman, Michael D.; Zhang, Paul; Mies, Carolyn; Schnall, Mitchell D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the feasibility of using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to differentiate among triple-negative breast cancer, estrogen receptor (ER)–positive cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)–positive cancer, and benign fibroadenoma lesions on dynamic contrast material–enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective study of prospectively acquired breast MR imaging data collected from an institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant study between 2002 and 2007. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The authors collected DCE MR images from 65 women with 76 breast lesions who had been recruited into a larger study of breast MR imaging. The women had triple-negative (n = 21), ER-positive (n = 25), HER2-positive (n = 18), or fibroadenoma (n = 12) lesions. All lesions were classified as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 4 or higher on the basis of previous imaging. Images were subject to quantitative feature extraction, feed-forward feature selection by means of linear discriminant analysis, and lesion classification by using a support vector machine classifier. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) was calculated for each of five lesion classification tasks involving triple-negative breast cancers. Results For each pair-wise lesion type comparison, linear discriminant analysis helped identify the most discriminatory features, which in conjunction with a support vector machine classifier yielded an Az of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59, 0.87) for triple-negative cancer versus all non–triple-negative lesions, 0.74 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.88) for triple-negative cancer versus ER- and HER2-positive cancer, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.91) for triple-negative versus ER-positive cancer, 0.74 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.89) for triple-negative versus HER2-positive cancer, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.00) for triple-negative cancer

  15. Implicit attention to negative social, in contrast to nonsocial, words in the Stroop task differs between individuals high and low in loneliness: Evidence from event-related brain microstates.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Balogh, Stephen; Cacioppo, John T

    2015-09-01

    Being on the social perimeter is not only sad, it is dangerous. Our evolutionary model of the effects of perceived social isolation (loneliness) on the brain as well as a growing body of behavioral research suggests that loneliness promotes short-term self-preservation, including an increased implicit vigilance for social, in contrast to nonsocial, threats. However, this hypothesis has not been tested previously in a neuroimaging study. We therefore used high density EEG and a social Stroop interference task to test the hypothesis that implicit attention to negative social, in contrast to nonsocial, Words in the Stroop task differs between individuals high versus low in loneliness and to investigate the brain dynamics of implicit processing for negative social (vs nonsocial) stimuli in lonely individuals, compared to nonlonely individuals (N = 70). The present study provides the first evidence that negative social stimuli are differentiated from negative nonsocial stimuli more quickly in the lonely than nonlonely brains. Given the timing of this differentiation in the brain and the fact that participants were performing a Stroop task, these results also suggest that these differences reflect implicit rather than explicit attentional differences between lonely and nonlonely individuals. Source estimates were performed for purposes of hypothesis generation regarding underlying neural mechanisms, and the results implicated the neural circuits reminiscent of orienting and executive control aspects of attention as contributing to these differences. Together, the results are in accord with the evolutionary model of loneliness. PMID:26195152

  16. One-pot fabricating Fe3O4/graphene nanocomposite with excellent biocompatibility and non-toxicity as a negative MR contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Zan, Ping; Yang, Chunyan; Sun, Huan; Zhao, Lijun; Lv, Zhongwen; He, Yuquan

    2016-09-01

    We report a facile approach to synthesize water-dispersible nanocomposite with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) attached to graphene (G), which combines the growth of Fe3O4NPs and the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in one single step. The unique hydrophilic surface structure of Fe3O4/G nanocomposite leads to it being colloidally stable, non-cytotoxic, well-dispersible and biocompatible in aqueous solution verified via bio-experiments. In vivo tests also prove that Fe3O4/G nanocomposite, which can be cleared from the body through the metabolic processes, is harmless to the living body. Most importantly, the Fe3O4/G nanocomposite showed T2relaxivity (123.04mM(-1)s(-1)) indicating its potential as a sensitive T2 contrast agent. PMID:27182656

  17. Unemployment, measured and perceived decline of economic resources: contrasting three measures of recessionary hardships and their implications for adopting negative health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kalousova, Lucie; Burgard, Sarah A

    2014-04-01

    Economic downturns could have long-term impacts on population health if they promote changes in health behaviors, but the evidence for whether people are more or less likely to adopt negative health behaviors in economically challenging times has been mixed. This paper argues that researchers need to draw more careful distinctions amongst different types of recessionary hardships and the mechanisms that may underlie their associations with health behaviors. We focus on unemployment experience, measured decline in economic resources, and perceived decline in economic resources, all of which are likely to occur more often during recessions, and explore whether their associations with health behaviors are consistent or different. We use population-based longitudinal data collected by the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study in the wake of the Great Recession in the United States. We evaluate whether those who had experienced each of these three hardships were more likely to adopt new negative health behaviors, specifically cigarette smoking, harmful and hazardous alcohol consumption, or marijuana consumption. We find that, net of controls and the other two recessionary hardships, unemployment experience was associated with increased hazard of starting marijuana use. Measured decline in economic resources was associated with increased hazard of cigarette smoking and lower hazard of starting marijuana use. Perceived decline in economic resources was linked to taking up harmful and hazardous drinking. Our results suggest heterogeneity in the pathways that connect hardship experiences and different health behaviors. They also indicate that relying on only one measure of hardship, as many past studies have done, could lead to an incomplete understanding of the relationship between economic distress and health behaviors. PMID:24530614

  18. Nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with PEG coating as an effective oral MRI contrast agent for gastrointestinal tract imaging.

    PubMed

    Perera, Vindya S; Chen, Guojun; Cai, Qing; Huang, Songping D

    2016-03-01

    Biocompatible nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with the empirical formula K0.94Gd0.02Fe[Fe(CN)6] exhibit extremely high stability against the release of Gd(3+) and CN(-) ions under the acidic conditions similar to stomach juice. The high r1 relaxivity, low cytotoxicity and the ability of such nanoparticles to penetrate the cell membrane suggest that this coordination-polymer structural platform offers a unique opportunity for developing the next generation of T1-weighted oral cellular MRI probes for the early detection of tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26890149

  19. The negative regulators of Wnt pathway-DACH1, DKK1, and WIF1 are methylated in oral and oropharyngeal cancer and WIF1 methylation predicts shorter survival.

    PubMed

    Paluszczak, Jarosław; Sarbak, Joanna; Kostrzewska-Poczekaj, Magdalena; Kiwerska, Katarzyna; Jarmuż-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Grenman, Reidar; Mielcarek-Kuchta, Daniela; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2015-04-01

    The deregulation of Wnt signaling has recently emerged as one of the drivers of head and neck cancers. This is frequently related to the methylation of several antagonists of this pathway. This study aimed at the assessment of the profile of methylation of Wnt pathway antagonists and the determination of the prognostic value of the methylation of selected genes in oral carcinomas. The methylation of DACH1, DKK1, LKB1, PPP2R2B, RUNX3, SFRP2, and WIF-1 was analyzed in 16 oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The methylation of selected genes was further analyzed in tumor sections from 43 primary oral carcinoma patients. The analysis of oral carcinoma cell lines showed very frequent methylation of SFRP2 and WIF-1 and also a less frequent methylation of DACH1 and DKK1. On the other hand, RUNX3 was methylated only in one cell line, while LKB1 and PPP2R2B were not methylated in any of the cell lines. The biallelic methylation of DKK1 correlated with the low level of expression of this gene. Further evaluation of the methylation of DACH1, DKK1, and WIF1 in a clinical patient group confirmed the frequent methylation of WIF1 and intermediate or low frequency of methylation of DACH1 or DKK1, respectively. Importantly, the methylation of WIF-1 correlated with shorter survival in oral cancer patients. Overall, the methylation of the antagonists of Wnt pathway is frequently detected in oral squamous cell carcinomas. The methylation of WIF1 may be considered a prognostic marker in oral cancers. PMID:25487617

  20. Contrast studies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Contrast media plays an important role in imaging soft tissues and organs. Though contrast imaging is considered safe, radiologic technologists can improve the safety of contrast examinations by reviewing institutional safety procedures, safe practices for different methods of contrast administration and possible complications. The need for efficient communication and attention to detail during contrast procedures is essential for patient safety. PMID:16998193

  1. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were determined by fusion of mpMRI and CEUS. Subsequently, 12-core SB was performed by a different radiologist. We compared core-based cancer detection rates (CaDR) using the generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) for each biopsy method. Results Core-based CaDR was higher in TB (17.92%, 38 of 212 cores) than in SB (6.15%, 31 of 504 cores) (p < 0.0001; GLIMMIX). In the cancer-positive TB cores, CaDR with suspicious lesions by mpMRI was higher than that by CEUS (86.8% vs. 60.5%, p= 0.02; paired t-test) and concordant rate between mpMRI and CEUS was significantly different with discordant rate (48% vs. 52%, p=0.04; McNemar’s test). Conclusion The mpMRI-CEUS correlated TB technique for the repeat prostate biopsy of patients with prior negative biopsy can improve CaDR based on the number of cores taken. PMID:26083348

  2. Safety and efficacy of oral febuxostat for treatment of HLA-B*5801-negative gout: a randomized, open-label, multicentre, allopurinol-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, K-H; Lai, J-H; Hsu, P-N; Chen, D-Y; Chen, C-J; Lin, H-Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This phase IIIB study compared the efficacy and safety of febuxostat and allopurinol in gout patients with or without tophi who were HLA-B*5801 negative. Method: Eligible patients were randomized to a febuxostat group (80 mg QD) or an allopurinol group (300 mg QD). Following an initial 2-week washout period, over the next 12 weeks we made five measurements of serum urate levels along with assessments of adverse events (AEs). Results: Forty-three out of 152 screened subjects (28.3%) were ineligible either because of the presence of the HLA-B*5801 allele or for various other reasons. The febuxostat group (n = 54) and the allopurinol group (n = 55) had no significant differences in demographic or baseline characteristics. From week 2 to week 12, the febuxostat group had a significantly lower serum urate level than the allopurinol group (p ≤ 0.001 for all comparisons) and significantly more patients with serum urate levels less than 6.0 mg/dL. The serum urate levels of the febuxostat group declined by more than 40% from week 2 to week 12 and this decrease was greater than that in the allopurinol group (~30%). The two groups were similar in terms of AEs. Conclusions: Febuxostat was more effective than allopurinol in reducing the serum urate levels of Han Chinese patients with gout or tophaceous gout who were HLA-B*5801 negative, without causing any serious skin reactions. Febuxostat should be considered for treatment of Han Chinese patients with gout who are HLA-B*5801 negative. PMID:26771445

  3. Contrastive Lexicology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, R. R. K.

    This paper deals with the relation between etymologically related words in different languages. A survey is made of seven stages in the development of contrastive lexicology. These are: prelinguistic word studies, semantics, lexicography, translation, foreign language learning, bilingualism, and finally contrastive analysis. Concerning contrastive…

  4. Prevention of bone mineral changes induced by bed rest: Modification by static compression simulating weight bearing, combined supplementation of oral calcium and phosphate, calcitonin injections, oscillating compression, the oral diophosphonatedisodium etidronate, and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, V. S.; Hulley, S. B.; Donaldson, C. L.; Vogel, J. M.; Rosen, S. N.; Hantman, D. A.; Lockwood, D. R.; Seid, D.; Hyatt, K. H.; Jacobson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of calcium loss during bed rest was found to be analogous to the loss of bone material which occurs in the hypogravic environment of space flight. Ways of preventing this occurrence are investigated. A group of healthy adult males underwent 24-30 weeks of continuous bed rest. Some of them were given an exercise program designed to resemble normal ambulatory activity; another subgroup was fed supplemental potassium phosphate. The results from a 12-week period of treatment were compared with those untreated bed rest periods. The potassium phosphate supplements prevented the hypercalciuria of bed rest, but fecal calcium tended to increase. The exercise program did not diminish the negative calcium balance. Neither treatment affected the heavy loss of mineral from the calcaneus. Several additional studies are developed to examine the problem further.

  5. Contrast Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other reactions to contrast materials are rare, radiology departments are well-equipped to deal with them. ... is given. However, both the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the European Society of Urogenital Radiology ...

  6. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and pharynx (the back of the throat). Oral cancer accounts for roughly two percent of all cancers ...

  7. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  8. Irf6 directly regulates Klf17 in zebrafish periderm and Klf4 in murine oral epithelium, and dominant-negative KLF4 variants are present in patients with cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Jia, Zhonglin; Smith, Tiffany; Eshete, Mekonen; Butali, Azeez; Dunnwald, Martine; Murray, Jeffrey; Cornell, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-syndromic (NS) cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a common disorder with a strong genetic underpinning. Genome-wide association studies have detected common variants associated with this disorder, but a large portion of the genetic risk for NSCL/P is conferred by unidentified rare sequence variants. Mutations in IRF6 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 6) and GRHL3 (Grainyhead-like 3) cause Van der Woude syndrome, which includes CL/P. Both genes encode members of a regulatory network governing periderm differentiation in model organisms. Here, we report that Krüppel-like factor 17 (Klf17), like Grhl3, acts downstream of Irf6 in this network in zebrafish periderm. Although Klf17 expression is absent from mammalian oral epithelium, a close homologue, Klf4, is expressed in this tissue and is required for the differentiation of epidermis. Chromosome configuration capture and reporter assays indicated that IRF6 directly regulates an oral-epithelium enhancer of KLF4. To test whether rare missense variants of KLF4 contribute risk for NSCL/P, we sequenced KLF4 in approximately 1000 NSCL/P cases and 300 controls. By one statistical test, missense variants of KLF4 as a group were enriched in cases versus controls. Moreover, two patient-derived KLF4 variants disrupted periderm differentiation upon forced expression in zebrafish embryos, suggesting that they have dominant-negative effect. These results indicate that rare NSCL/P risk variants can be found in members of the gene regulatory network governing periderm differentiation. PMID:26692521

  9. Contrast lipocryolysis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hernán; Melamed, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Alternative crystal structures are possible for all lipids and each different crystal structure is called a polymorphic form. Inter-conversion between polymorphisms would imply the possibility of leaning crystal formation toward the most effective polymorphism for adipocyte destruction. Food industry has been tempering lipids for decades. Tempering technology applied to lipocryolysis gave birth to “contrast lipocryolysis”, which involves pre- and post-lipocryolysis fat layer heating as part of a specific tempering protocol. In this study, we evaluated the skinfold thickness of 10 subjects after a single contrast lipocryolysis session and witnessed important and fast reductions. PMID:25068088

  10. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  11. Personality and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  12. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to identify salivary and serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in patients with oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods Patients selected included 54 oral lichen planus (41 to 65 years), 50 oral leukoplakia (42 to 65 years), 51 oral submucous fibrosis (41 to 65 years), and 50 healthy controls (42 to 65 years). Oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis cases were diagnosed using histopathological analysis. Salivary and serum cytokine concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay kits in all subjects. Results The levels of serum and salivary TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were statistically significantly increased in oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, and lichen planus in contrast to normal healthy subjects (P<0.05). Serum and salivary correlation analysis revealed strong and highly significant correlations for TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in all groups (r=0.72-0.82, P<0.05). Conclusion Salivary and serum cytokines were also elevated when analyzed in oral precancerous lesions. Thus, salivary and serum IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α levels might act as diagnostic markers for detection of oral precancer. PMID:26339574

  13. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  14. Phase I trial of the oral PARP inhibitor olaparib in combination with paclitaxel for first- or second-line treatment of patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This Phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of olaparib, a potent oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC). Methods Eligible patients who had received ≤1 prior cytotoxic regimen for mTNBC were treated with olaparib 200 mg bid continuously plus weekly paclitaxel 90 mg/m2 for three weeks per four-week cycle. Dose modifications in a large proportion of patients due to neutropenia resulted in enrollment of a second cohort of patients who, if they experienced grade ≥2 neutropenia in cycle 1, received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, which was continued prophylactically in subsequent cycles. All patients had measurable disease; tumor responses were evaluated according to RECIST (version 1.0). Results Nineteen patients (cohort 1, n = 9; cohort 2, n = 10) received treatment; 15 had received prior taxane chemotherapy. The most frequent adverse events were diarrhea (n = 12, 63%), nausea (n = 11, 58%) and neutropenia (n = 11, 58%). Seven neutropenia events were reported in cohort 1 (four grade ≥3) and four in cohort 2 (two grade ≥3, including one event of febrile neutropenia). The median (range) dose intensity of paclitaxel was 57% (26 to 100%) in cohort 1 and 73% (29 to 100%) in cohort 2. Seven patients (37%) had a confirmed partial response; one patient remains on olaparib monotherapy without progression. Conclusions The combination of olaparib and weekly paclitaxel was complicated by a significant clinical interaction, with higher-than-expected rates of neutropenia despite secondary prophylaxis. Given the encouraging response rate, alternative scheduling and dosing strategies should be considered (funded by AstraZeneca; ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00707707). PMID:24063698

  15. Oral Insulin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

  16. Negative mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Richard T.

    2015-03-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given.

  17. Passive cannabis smoke exposure and oral fluid testing.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, Sam; Kardos, Keith; Salamone, Sal; Fritch, Dean; Bronsgeest, Matth; Cone, Edward J

    2004-10-01

    Oral fluid testing for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) provides a convenient means of detection of recent cannabis usage. In this study, the risk of positive oral fluid tests from passive cannabis smoke exposure was investigated by housing four cannabis-free volunteers in a small, unventilated, and sealed room with an approximate volume of 36 m(3). Five active cannabis smokers were also present in the room, and each smoked a single cannabis cigarette (1.75% THC). Cannabis smoking occurred over the first 20 min of the study session. All subjects remained in the room for approximately 4 h. Oral fluid specimens were collected with the Intercept DOA Oral Specimen Collection Device. Three urine specimens were collected (0, 20, and 245 min). In addition, three air samples were collected for measurement of THC content. All oral fluid specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for cannabinoids (cutoff concentration = 3 ng/mL) and tested by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) for THC (LOQ/LOD = 0.75 ng/mL). All urine specimens were screened by EIA for cannabinoids (cutoff concentration = 50 ng/mL) and tested by GC-MS-MS for THCCOOH (LOQ/LOD = 1 ng/mL). Air samples were measured for THC by GC-MS (LOD = 1 ng/L). A total of eight oral fluid specimens (collected 20 to 50 min following initiation of smoking) from the four passive subjects screened and confirmed positive for THC at concentrations ranging from 3.6 to 26.4 ng/mL. Two additional specimens from one passive subject, collected at 50 and 65 min, screened negative but contained THC in concentrations of 4.2 and 1.1 ng/mL, respectively. All subsequent specimens for passive participants tested negative by EIA and GC-MS-MS for the remainder of the 4-h session. In contrast, oral fluid specimens collected from the five cannabis smokers generally screened and confirmed positive for THC throughout the session at concentrations substantially higher than observed for passive subjects. Urine

  18. Policy for prevention of oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS: the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Program.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P-E

    2006-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic has become a human and social disaster, particularly affecting the developing countries of Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. By the end of 2004, about 40 million people were estimated to be infected by HIV globally. The health sectors in many affected countries are facing severe shortages of human and financial resources, and are struggling to cope with the growing impact of HIV/AIDS. In most developed countries, the availability of antiretroviral treatment has resulted in a dramatic reduction in HIV/AIDS-related mortality and morbidity. In contrast, in the developing countries, there is little access to treatment, and access to HIV-prevention services is poor. The '3 by 5' initiative was launched by the WHO and UNAIDS in 2003 with the aim of providing antiretrovirals to three million people in developing countries by the year 2005. HIV infection has a significant negative impact on oral health, with approximately 40-50% of HIV-positive persons developing oral fungal, bacterial, or viral infections early in the course of the disease. Oral health services and professionals can contribute effectively to the control of HIV/AIDS through health education and health promotion, patient care, effective infection control, and surveillance. The WHO Global Oral Health Program has strengthened its work for prevention of HIV/AIDS-related oral disease. The WHO co-sponsored conference, Oral Health and Disease in AIDS, held in Phuket, Thailand (2004), issued a declaration calling for action by national and international health authorities. The aim is to strengthen oral health promotion and the care of HIV-infected persons, and to encourage research on the impact that HIV/AIDS, public health initiatives, and surveillance have on oral health. PMID:16672544

  19. Smoking related systemic and oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Vellappally, Sajith; Fiala, Zdenĕk; Smejkalová, Jindra; Jacob, Vimal; Somanathan, Rakesh

    2007-01-01

    This article reviewed smoking related systemic diseases and oral diseases. Smoking is related to lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases and many other systemic diseases. Cigarette smoke affects the oral cavity first, so it is evident that smoking has many negative influences on oral cavity, for example, staining of teeth and dental restorations, wound healing, reduction of the ability to smell and taste, and development of oral diseases such as oral cancer, periodontitis, smoker's palate, smoker's melanosis, hairy tongue, leukoplakia, oral candidiasis and implant survival rate. The article also discusses the relationship between smoking and dental caries in detail. PMID:18254267

  20. Oral heparins.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, Linda M

    2002-01-01

    The antithrombotic drug heparin is administered parenterally and believed not effective orally. Oral heparin would be most suitable for long term administration, often required for the prevention of thrombosis. Following parenteral administration, heparin is taken up by endothelial cells. Our laboratory has shown that heparin is similarly taken up by endothelium following oral administration, despite low plasma heparin concentrations. In a twenty-four hour period, endothelial heparin concentrations are greatest within 15 minutes of oral dosing although plasma levels never exceed one percent of dose. Endothelial uptake accounts for a considerable amount of absorption if the total body endothelium is considered. In support of oral heparin absorption, we demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in thrombosis incidence in a rat jugular vein model following single oral doses of unfractionated heparins (bovine and porcine) or low molecular weight heparins (reviparin, logiparin and ardeparin). Low molecular weight heparins were effective at lower doses than unfractionated heparins where a fifty percent reduction in thrombosis was observed with 0.025 mg/kg reviparin, 0.1 mg/kg logiparin, versus 7.5 mg/kg bovine unfractionated heparin. These studies support the work of others demonstrating measurable systemic changes following oral heparin administration and suggest that heparin may be effective when administered by the oral route. It also indicates that the presence of heparin in plasma likely reflects a much greater amount associated with endothelium. PMID:11934211

  1. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  2. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  3. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  4. Oral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Charruf, Laurie Frey

    1984-01-01

    Oral tests for speaking skills evaluate two major skills: linguistic competence, including accuracy of pronunciation, vocabulary, and structure, and communication ease. Four factors affect students' oral performance: verbal intelligence, short-term auditory and visual memory, sound-symbol association skill, and grammatical analysis. Personality…

  5. Autofluorescence imaging in recurrent oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Martin; Fuss, Juliana; Derman, Mehmet Ali; Kreppel, Matthias; Neugebauer, Jörg; Rothamel, Daniel; Drebber, Uta; Zoeller, Joachim E

    2016-03-01

    The survival of patients with oral cancer is decreased by locoregional recurrence after an initial multimodal treatment. In order to identify lesions in the oral cavity for a possible recurrence, clinical evaluation as well as MRI or CT scanning is advised. The evaluation of mucosa lesions is hampered by changes related to radio- and chemotherapy as well as reconstruction with tissue flaps. Several techniques for easier identification of tissue abnormalities in the oral cavity have been advocated as adjuncts in order to facilitate identification. Especially methods using altered tissue fluorescence have gained much interest during the last decade. The aim of our prospective study was to evaluate fluorescence properties of undiagnosed mucosa lesions with the VELscope device in patients with multimodal treated oral cancer prior to histological confirmation. In total, 41 patients with a history of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) (19 females and 22 males) with undiagnosed mucosa lesions where included in the study. After clinical evaluation, examination and documentation using the VELscope® device were performed. Then, an incisional biopsy was performed. An autofluorescence loss indicating a malignant or dysplastic mucosa condition could be detected in six patients (14.6 %); however, only one OSCC and one SIN revealed a complete autofluorescence loss. In four patients, OSCC was present in lesions with retained autofluorescence. Sensitivity and specificity for the VELscope® examination to identify malignant oral lesions by autofluorescence were 33.3 and 88.6 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 33.3 and 88.6 %, respectively. No statistical correlation between gender and lesion appearance versus autofluorescence loss could be detected. In contrast to mucosa lesions in patients with no prior treatment, the autofluorescence evaluation with the VELscope reveals no additional information in our analysis. Accordingly, invasive biopsies

  6. Oral cenesthopathy.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Miura, Anna; Watanabe, Motoko; Takenoshita, Miho; Uezato, Akihito; Toriihara, Akira; Nishikawa, Toru; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cenesthopathy is characterized by abnormal and strange bodily sensations and is classified as a 'delusional disorder, somatic type' or 'somatoform disorder' according to the DSM 5. The oral cavity is one of the frequent sites of cenesthopathy, thus the term 'oral cenesthopathy.' Patients with oral cenesthopathy complain of unusual sensations without corresponding abnormal findings in the oral area, such as excessive mucus secretion, a slimy sensation, or a feeling of coils or wires being present within the oral region. They usually visit multiple dentists rather than psychiatrists. Without a proper diagnosis, they repeatedly pursue unnecessary surgical procedures to remove their 'foreign body'. This sometimes creates a dilemma between the dentists and patients. The nosography of oral cenesthopathy has been discussed in some case reports and reviews but is overlooked in mainstream medicine. This review focuses on the various aspects of oral cenesthopathy. The estimated prevalence of cenesthopathy was 0.2 to 1.9 % in a study done at a Japanese university psychiatry clinic and 27 % in a study done at a Japanese psychosomatic dentistry clinic. Oral cenesthopathy do not have clear disposition, while some studies reported that elderly women were most commonly affected. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. However, recent studies have suggested a right > left asymmetrical pattern of the cerebral blood flow of patients with oral cenesthopathy. Antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy might be effective in some cases, though it is known to be intractable. To date, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, classification and treatment of oral cenesthopathy are unknown due to the few reports on the disorder, though there are a few case reports. To overcome this difficult medical condition, clinico-statistical and case-control studies done under rigorous criteria and with a large sample size are required. PMID

  7. Stereopsis from contrast envelopes.

    PubMed

    Langley, K; Fleet, D J; Hibbard, P B

    1999-07-01

    We report two experiments concerning the site of the principal nonlinearity in second-order stereopsis. The first exploits the asymmetry in perceiving transparency with second-order stimuli found by Langley et al. (1998) (Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 265, 1837-1845) i.e. the product of a positive-valued contrast envelope and a mean-zero carrier grating can be seen transparently only when the disparities are consistent with the envelope appearing in front of the carrier. We measured the energy at the envelope frequencies that must be added in order to negate this asymmetry. We report that this amplitude can be predicted from the envelope sidebands and not from the magnitude of compressive pre-cortical nonlinearities measured by other researchers. In the second experiment, contrast threshold elevations were measured for the discrimination of envelope disparities following adaptation to sinusoidal gratings. It is reported that perception of the envelope's depth was affected most when the adapting grating was similar (in orientation and frequency) to the carrier, rather than to the contrast envelope. These results suggest that the principal nonlinearity in second-order stereopsis is cortical, occurring after orientation- and frequency-selective linear filtering. PMID:10367053

  8. Disposition of Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid after Controlled Around-the-Clock Oral THC Administration

    PubMed Central

    Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J.; Schwope, David M.; Schwilke, Eugene W.; Darwin, William D.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Oral fluid, a promising alternative matrix for drug monitoring in clinical and forensic investigations, offers noninvasive sample collection under direct observation. Cannabinoid distribution into oral fluid is complex and incompletely characterized due to the lack of controlled drug administration studies. Methods To characterize cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid, we administered around-the-clock oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Marinol®) doses to 10 participants with current daily cannabis use. We obtained oral fluid samples (n = 440) by use of Quantisal™ collection devices before, during, and after 37 20-mg THC doses over 9 days. Samples were extracted with multiple elution solvents from a single SPE column and analyzed by 2-dimensional GC-MS with electron-impact ionization for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), cannabidiol, and cannabinol and negative chemical ionization for 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Linear ranges were 0.5–50 μg/L, with the exception of cannabinol (1–50 μg/L) and THCCOOH (7.5–500 ng/L). Results THCCOOH was the most prevalent analyte in 432 samples (98.2%), with concentrations up to 1117.9 ng/L. In contrast, 11-OH-THC was not identified in any sample; cannabidiol and cannabinol were quantified in 3 and 8 samples, respectively, with maximum concentrations of 2.1 and 13 μg/L. THC was present in only 20.7% of samples, with highest concentrations near admission (median 4.2 μg/L, range 0.6–481.9) from previously self-administered smoked cannabis. Conclusions Measurement of THCCOOH in OF not only identifies cannabis exposure, but also minimizes the possibility of passive inhalation. THCCOOH may be a better analyte for detection of cannabis use. PMID:20530732

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  10. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is advanced Other symptoms may include: Chewing problems Mouth sores that may bleed Pain with swallowing Speech difficulties ... Your doctor or dentist will examine your mouth area. The exam may ... bleeding Tests used to confirm oral cancer include: Gum biopsy ...

  11. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  12. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  13. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread, even when you ...

  14. Methylprednisolone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  15. Dexamethasone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  16. Hydrocortisone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  17. Classical swine fever virus strain "C" protects the offspring by oral immunisation of pregnant sows.

    PubMed

    Kaden, V; Lange, E; Steyer, H; Lange, B; Klopfleisch, R; Teifke, J P; Bruer, W

    2008-07-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if oral immunisation of wild sows protects the fetuses from transplacental infection. Two experiments were carried out with gilts vaccinated orally with C-strain virus approximately 5 weeks after insemination. They were challenged at mid-gestation with highly virulent classical swine fever virus (CSFV) or moderately virulent field virus. The results revealed that oral vaccination has no negative impact on the pregnancy, and all vaccinated sows developed neutralising antibodies. After infection no symptoms were detected in the six vaccinated-infected sows. Challenge virus could neither be found in blood, nasal and fecal swabs or saliva nor in organs sampled at necropsy. Likewise, all fetuses originating from vaccinated sows were virologically and serologically negative. In contrast, the controls developed a short viremia and as a result of the transplacental infection all fetuses were CSFV positive. In addition, 22 serologically positive wild sows of an endemically infected area, where oral vaccination had also been carried out, and their offspring were free from CSFV or viral RNA. Our results confirm that oral immunisation of pregnant wild sows with C-strain vaccine may protect the fetuses against CSF. PMID:18321665

  18. Nonspeech Oral Movements and Oral Motor Disorders: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert. Method Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control. Results and Conclusions Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article. PMID:26126128

  19. QKI impairs self-renewal and tumorigenicity of oral cancer cells via repression of SOX2

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Feng, Feixue; Xu, Jinke; Lu, Xiaozhao; Wang, Shan; Wang, Lifeng; Lu, Huanyu; Wei, Mengying; Yang, Guodong; Wang, Li; Lu, Zifan; Liu, Yanpu; Lei, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may contribute to tumor initiation, distant metastasis and chemo-resistance. One of RNA-binding proteins, Quaking (QKI), was reported to be a tumor suppressor. Here we showed that reduced QKI levels were observed in many human oral cancer samples. Moreover further reduction of QKI expression in CSCs was detected compared with non-CSCs in oral cancer cell lines. Overexpressing QKI in oral cancer cells significantly reduced CSC sphere formation and stem cell-associated genes. In tumor implanting nude mice model, QKI significantly impeded tumor initiation rates, tumor sizes and lung metastasis rates. As a contrast, knocking down QKI enhanced the above effects. Among the putative CSC target genes, SOX2 expression was negatively affected by QKI, mechanism study revealed that QKI may directly regulate SOX2 expression via specific binding with its 3′UTR in a cis element-dependent way. Loss of SOX2 even completely reversed the sphere forming ability in QKI knockdown cell line. Taken together, these data demonstrated that SOX2 is an important CSC regulator in oral cancer. QKI is a novel CSC inhibitor and impaired multiple oral CSC properties via partial repression of SOX2. Therefore, reduced expression of QKI may provide a novel diagnostic marker for oral cancer. PMID:24918581

  20. Zoely: a new combined oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    ▼Zoely is the second estradiol-containing oral contraceptive formulated as an 'extended regimen' (pill-free interval <7 days) to be licensed in the UK. However, unlike the quadraphasic estradiol-containing contraceptive Qlaira, it is a monophasic preparation.1,2 It is postulated that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing synthetic estradiol, which is structurally identical to endogenous oestrogen,3 are potentially safer and better tolerated than those containing ethinylestradiol, the synthetic oestrogen most commonly used in COCs.4 The progestogen in Zoely is nomegestrol acetate, which is structurally related to progesterone,5 in contrast to the majority of progestogens in COCs that are derived from 19-nortestosterone6 and associated with androgenic effects.7 It is suggested that nomegestrol acetate, with its greater specificity for progesterone receptors, may minimise the potential for androgenic, oestrogenic and glucocorticoid effects.7 The company considers Zoely an option for women "who want a contraceptive with hormones similar to her own", and claims that it has a high level of contraceptive efficacy, produces shorter, lighter periods compared with a 21-day regimen of drospirenone 3mg/ethinylestradiol 30µg (Yasmin) and that most women report no negative impact on weight and skin.8 Here we review the effectiveness and place of Zoely. PMID:25104773

  1. Oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. PMID:27343964

  2. Probiotics and oral health.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

  3. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  4. Oral Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

  5. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  6. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  7. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  8. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  9. Levels of Syntactic Realization in Oral Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eric

    Two contrasting theories of reading are reviewed in light of recent research in psycholinguistics. A strictly "visual" model of fluent reading is contrasted with several mediational theories where auditory or articulatory coding is deemed necessary for comprehension. Surveying the research in visual information processing, oral reading,…

  10. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health. PMID:21335990

  11. Improving Oral Cancer Survival: The Role of Dental Providers

    PubMed Central

    MESSADI, DIANA V.; WILDER-SMITH, PETRA; WOLINSKY, LAWRENCE

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer accounts for 2 percent to 4 percent of all cancers diagnosed each year in the United States. In contrast to other cancers, the overall U.S. survival rate from oral cancer has not improved during the past 50 years, mostly due to late-stage diagnosis. Several noninvasive oral cancer detection techniques that emerged in the past decade will be discussed, with a brief overview of most common oral cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:19998655

  12. Acute appendicitis: diagnostic value of nonenhanced CT with selective use of contrast in routine clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Tamburrini, Stefania; Brunetti, Arturo; Brown, Michèle; Sirlin, Claude; Casola, Giovanna

    2007-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the (1) frequency with which nonenhanced computed tomography (CT) (NECT) permits conclusive diagnosis of acute appendicitis, (2) accuracy of NECT when findings are conclusive, and (3) overall accuracy of a CT protocol consisting of NECT with selective use of contrast. Five hundred and thirty-six patients underwent a NECT protocol with selective use of contrast. Diagnostic accuracy was then determined separately for (1) patients with conclusive initial NECT, (2) patients with inconclusive initial NECT, and (3) all patients. NECT was conclusive on initial interpretation in 404/536 patients and inconclusive in 132/536. Of 132 inconclusive studies, 126 were repeated with contrast (intravenous, oral or rectal). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value for diagnosis of acute appendicitis were (1) 90%, 96.0%, 84.8%, and 97.4% in patients with conclusive NECT (n = 404); (2) 95.6%, 92.3%, 73%, and 99% in patients with inconclusive NECT followed by repeat CT with contrast; and (3) 91.3%, 95%, 82%, and 98% in all patients. The initial diagnosis of appendicitis may be made by NECT in 75% of patients, with contrast administration reserved for inconclusive NECT studies. PMID:17180324

  13. [Contrast sensitivity in glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Bartos, D

    1989-05-01

    Author reports on results of the contrast sensitivity examinations using the Cambridge low-contrast lattice test supplied by Clement Clarke International LTD, in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. In glaucoma patients there was observed statistically significant decrease of the contrast sensitivity. In patients with ocular hypertension decrease of the contrast sensitivity was in patients affected by corresponding changes of the visual field and of the optical disc. The main advantages of the Cambridge low-contrast lattice test were simplicity, rapidity and precision of its performance. PMID:2743444

  14. The Negative Effects of Volatile Sulphur Compounds.

    PubMed

    Milella, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Oral malodor has been studied extensively in humans but not necessarily to the same degree in our veterinary patients where malodor constitutes a significant problem. Breath malodor may originate from the mouth, or from an extra oral source, originating from other organ systems such as gastrointestinal, respiratory, or even systemic disease. Oral malodor is a result of microbial metabolism of exogenous and endogenous proteinaceous substrates leading to the production of compounds such as indole, skatole, tyramine, cadaverine, puterescine, mercaptans, and sulphides. Volatile sulphur compounds have been shown to be the main cause of oral malodor. Although most clients perceive oral malodor to be primarily a cosmetic problem, there is an increasing volume of evidence in human dental literature demonstrating that volatile sulphur compounds produced by bacteria, even at low concentrations, are toxic to tissues and play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. This article reviews the current available literature in human dentistry looking at these negative effects. No veterinary studies have been conducted looking at the negative effects of volatile sulphur compounds specifically, but as this article highlights, we should be aware of the potential negative effects of volatile sulphur compounds and consider this an area of future research. PMID:26415386

  15. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections.

    PubMed

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:20300419

  16. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-07-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones.

  17. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K; Setter, Nava

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones. PMID:27396411

  18. Helicobacter pylori in oral ulcerations.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, T; Horie, N; Kato, T; Kaneko, T; Komiyama, K

    2000-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen involved in the development of gastrointestinal ulcers, but its involvement in oral ulcerous lesions is unclear. As culture is generally recognized as the gold standard for diagnosis of H. pylori infection, we employed this approach to assess the association of H. pylori with oral mucosal ulcerations. Samples were collected from patients with oral mucosal ulcerative disorders: 12 cases of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), 7 cases of herpes simplex virus (HSV) stomatitis, and 3 cases of erosive lichen planus (LP). Serum IgG antibodies against H. pylori were examined in all cases. All of the RAS and erosive LP cases were culture-negative for H. pylori, while two cases of HSV stomatitis were positive. The two culture-positive cases were also seropositve for the H. pylori antigen. It is suggested that H. pylori might not have a direct association with oral ulcerations. However, H. pylori in the oral cavity might exist in a non-culturable coccoid state without productive infection, and might form colonies only under special conditions such as HSV infection. PMID:11269381

  19. Hansen's Oral Life Histories and Healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Lee

    2013-08-01

    The individual oral statement is human story based on experience. The personal experience forms unconsciousness which appears in a form of oral statement by ego that doesn't want to lose existence. Thus, the process which exposes a tormented hearts is the objectification of oneself. Through this step, oral person attains a healing. If this sort of individual oral is accrued, the undeserved personal affairs could be a history. In case of Hansen's disease patient, She could escape from negative understanding about herself and the world. Furthermore, She kept formating her values about meaningful life and future oriented value. Also, She wants to keep a record of her life. She comes to know that what she denied is actually what she should surmount over oral statement. As a result, She could attains a healing for oneself through oral statement. The oral statement made her look into she's problems. Therefore, oral statement is a self-realization. Through this, person could know what the problem is and solution. This research is about only one person, so there is need for more cases and studies. If this sort of individual oral statement is accrued, there could be a curative narration. This can suggest an curative alternative when we suffer from problem of life. The merit of this research is rendering this possibility. PMID:24005645

  20. Contrast Intravasation During Hysterosalpingography

    PubMed Central

    Bhoil, Rohit; Sood, Dinesh; Sharma, Tanupriya; Sood, Shilpa; Sharma, Jiten; Kumar, Nitesh; Ahluwalia, Ajay; Parekh, Dipen; Mistry, Kewal A.; Sood, Saurav

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hysterosalpingography is an imaging method to evaluate the endometrial and uterine morphology and fallopian tube patency. Contrast intravasation implies backflow of injected contrast into the adjoining vessels mostly the veins and may be related to factors altering endometrial vascularity and permeability. Radiologists and gynaecologists should be well acquainted with the technique of hysterosalpingography, its interpretation, and intravasation of contrast agents for safer procedure and to minimize the associated complications. PMID:27279925

  1. Oral calcium supplementation in peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, Garrett R

    2013-07-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cattle around parturition can be manifest as clinical milk fever or subclinical hypocalcemia. Subclinical hypocalcemia has the greatest economic effect because it affects a much higher proportion of cows. Oral calcium supplements are used to mitigate the effects of both forms of hypocalcemia. Oral calcium supplements are appropriate for cows displaying early clinical signs of hypocalcemia and prophylactically to lessen the negative impacts of hypocalcemia. PMID:23809900

  2. Pharmacokinetics screening for multi-components absorbed in the rat plasma after oral administration of traditional Chinese medicine Flos Lonicerae Japonicae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple by sequential negative and positive ionization ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Tam, Kin Y; Meng, Minxin; Shan, Jinjun; Wang, Shouchuan; Ju, Wenzheng; Cai, Baochang; Di, Liuqing

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetics of multi-components (caffeic acid, quinic acid, genistein, luteolin, quercetin, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, arctigenin, genistin, luteoloside, astragalin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, rutin, loganin, pinoresinol-β-d-glucoside, phillyrin, isoforsythoside, forsythoside A and forsythoside B) following oral administration of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple in rats. A rapid and sensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS with sequential positive and negative ionization modes was developed to determine the 23 absorbed ingredients using one sample preparation combined with three chromatographic conditions in rat plasma. After mixing with internal standard (IS) (tinidazole and chloramphenicol), samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with n-butyl alcohol/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v). The separations for pinoresinol-β-d-glucoside, phillyrin, isoforsythoside, forsythoside A and forsythoside B were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) with acetonitrile/methanol (4:1, v/v)-water as mobile phase. For analyzing quinic acid, an ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) was applied with acetonitrile/methanol (4:1, v/v)-0.01% formic acid as mobile phase after dilution up to 25-fold. The same column was applied to the other components with acetonitrile/methanol (4:1, v/v)-0.4% formic acid as mobile phase. The method validation results demonstrated that the proposed method was sensitive, specific and reliable, which was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the multi-components after oral administration of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple. PMID:25533397

  3. Toward Critical Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Ryuko; Lehner, Al

    2004-01-01

    A traditional approach to contrastive rhetoric has emphasized cultural difference in rhetorical patterns among various languages. Despite its laudable pedagogical intentions to raise teachers' and students' cultural and rhetorical awareness in second language writing, traditional contrastive rhetoric has perpetuated static binaries between English…

  4. Oral health and elite sport performance.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  5. Oral health and elite sport performance

    PubMed Central

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  6. Local contrast and Pavlovian induction1

    PubMed Central

    Malone, John C.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of number and similarity of stimuli on local contrast. In the first experiment, local contrast effects differed in magnitude as a function of the similarity among stimuli; greater positive local contrast appeared when stimuli were less similar, though this effect sometimes reversed for very dissimilar stimuli. In the second experiment, both positive and negative local contrast appeared transiently during the course of training a discrimination including two quite dissimilar stimuli. When two new stimuli were added, both effects reappeared in several cases. The effects remained when the discrimination was rendered more difficult by substituting a new stimulus very similar to one of the original pair. These and other data suggest that local contrast depends on the same factors that produce Pavlovian induction; in the absence of an alternative account, Pavlov's interpretation may be useful in suggesting further research that will help identify the mechanisms involved in both classical and operant discrimination learning. PMID:16811958

  7. Compressive phase contrast tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, F.; MacDowell, A.; Marchesini, S.; Padmore, H. A.; Parkinson, D. Y.; Pien, J.; Schirotzek, A.; Yang, C.

    2010-08-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  8. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, Filipe; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Padmore, Howard A.; Parkinson, Dula Y.; Pien, Jack; Schirotzek, Andre; Yang, Chao

    2010-09-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  9. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  10. Oral Health in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin; Haber, Judith; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Bella, Abigail; Vasilyeva, Anna; Lange Kessler, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is crucial to overall health. Because of normal physiologic changes, pregnancy is a time of particular vulnerability in terms of oral health. Pregnant women and their providers need more knowledge about the many changes that occur in the oral cavity during pregnancy. In this article we describe the importance of the recognition, prevention, and treatment of oral health problems in pregnant women. We offer educational strategies that integrate interprofessional oral health competencies. PMID:27281467

  11. MALT1 Inhibition of Oral Carcinoma Cell Invasion and ERK/MAPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Chiba, T; Soeno, Y; Shirako, Y; Sudo, H; Yagishita, H; Taya, Y; Kawashiri, S; Okada, Y; Imai, K

    2016-04-01

    The expression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) that activates nuclear factor (NF)-κB in lymphocyte lineages is rapidly inactivated in oral carcinoma cells at the invasive front and the patients with worst prognosis. However, its mechanism to accelerate carcinoma progression remains unknown, and this study was carried out to examine the role in invasion. HSC2 oral carcinoma cells stably expressing wild-type MALT1 (wtMALT1) reduced the invasion of basement membrane matrices and collagen gels, and the dominant-negative form (∆MALT1)-expressing cells aggressively invaded into collagen gels. MALT1 decelerated proliferation and migration of cells and downregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9, which were confirmed by short interfering RNA transfections. Reporter assays and immunoblot analysis showed that MALT1 does not affect the NF-κB pathway but inhibits ERK/MAPK activation. This was confirmed by endogenous MALT1 expression in oral carcinoma cell lines. Orthotopic implantation of ∆MALT1-expressing HSC2 cells in mice grew rapid expansive and invasive tongue tumors in contrast to an absence of tumor formation by wtMALT1-expressing cells. These results demonstrate that MALT1 suppresses oral carcinoma invasion by inhibiting proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix degradation and that the ERK/MAPK pathway is a target of MALT1 and further suggests a role as a suppressor of carcinoma progression. PMID:26701346

  12. WHO activities in oral epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Barmes, D E; Infirri, J S

    1977-01-01

    Standard methods to facilitate the collection of data on a global basis have been developed by WHO. Data collection in accordance with criteria proposed by WHO began in 1969 from existing sources and was subsequently supplemented by new data collected using the standard methods. Associated with these methods developments, a WHO Global Oral Epidemiology program was begun with the objective of facilitating comparison of data and their use in planning, replanning, and evaluating oral health services according to needs and economic possibilities. That program provides an orderly storage and retrieval system and a visual representation of contrasts in prevalence of those oral diseases which are among the most common known to man. In selecting data for inclusion in the WHO oral epidemiology data bank, a liberal policy has been pursued to make maximum use of available material. The system of classification allows for data retrieval at various levels and for specific ages. Data on caries are available for 95 countries and on periodontal diseases for 50 countries. PMID:264415

  13. Oral Exams as a Tool for Teaching and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2014-01-01

    Oral exams are a fruitful and practical alternative to written exams in small-enrolment Science classes. In an oral exam, the instructor can assess conceptual understanding, problem-solving, scientific communication skills, and a student's philosophy of science. In contrast, a written exam gives a much poorer picture of how students learn and…

  14. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  15. Meningitis - gram-negative

    MedlinePlus

    Gram-negative meningitis ... Acute bacterial meningitis can be caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Meningococcal and H. influenzae meningitis are caused by Gram-negative bacteria and are covered in detail in other articles. This article ...

  16. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P < 0.0001), but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  17. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P < 0.0001), but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  18. [Oral viral infections].

    PubMed

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  19. Psychophysical contrast calibration

    PubMed Central

    To, Long; Woods, Russell L; Goldstein, Robert B; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Electronic displays and computer systems offer numerous advantages for clinical vision testing. Laboratory and clinical measurements of various functions and in particular of (letter) contrast sensitivity require accurately calibrated display contrast. In the laboratory this is achieved using expensive light meters. We developed and evaluated a novel method that uses only psychophysical responses of a person with normal vision to calibrate the luminance contrast of displays for experimental and clinical applications. Our method combines psychophysical techniques (1) for detection (and thus elimination or reduction) of display saturating nonlinearities; (2) for luminance (gamma function) estimation and linearization without use of a photometer; and (3) to measure without a photometer the luminance ratios of the display’s three color channels that are used in a bit-stealing procedure to expand the luminance resolution of the display. Using a photometer we verified that the calibration achieved with this procedure is accurate for both LCD and CRT displays enabling testing of letter contrast sensitivity to 0.5%. Our visual calibration procedure enables clinical, internet and home implementation and calibration verification of electronic contrast testing. PMID:23643843

  20. Wound biofilms: lessons learned from oral biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Mancl, Kimberly A.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Ajdic, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque,are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible, thus biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well-elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relatively recently directed attentionto the role biofilms have in chronic wounds. This review discusses the biofilms in periodontal disease and chronic wounds with comparisons focusing on biofilm detection, biofilm formation, the immune response to biofilms, bacterial interaction and quorum sensing. Current treatment modalities used by both fields as well as future therapies are also discussed. PMID:23551419

  1. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2014-10-21

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  2. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D.

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  3. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-17

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  4. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient's medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test. PMID:25309769

  5. Abdominal MRI without Enteral Contrast Accurately Detects Intestinal Fibrostenosis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jeremy G; Kalb, Bobby; Martin, Diego; Dhere, Tanvi; Perez, Sebastian D; Srinivasan, Jahnavi K

    2015-11-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presenting for surgical evaluation require thorough small bowel surveillance as it improves accuracy of diagnosis (ulcerative colitis versus Crohn's) and differentiates those who may respond to nonoperative therapy, preserving bowel length. MRI has not been validated conclusively against histopathology in IBD. Most protocols require enteral contrast. This study aimed to 1) evaluate the accuracy of MRI for inflammation, fibrosis, and extraluminal complications and 2) compare MRI without enteral contrast to standard magnetic resonance enterography. Adults with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis who underwent abdominal MRI and surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Of 65 patients evaluated, 55 met inclusion criteria. Overall sensitivity and specificity of MRI for disease involvement localized by segment were 93 per cent (95% confidence interval = 89.4-95.0) and 95 per cent (95% confidence interval = 92.3-97.0), respectively (positive predictive value was 86%, negative predictive value was 98%). Sensitivity and specificity between MRI with and without oral and rectal contrast were similar (96% vs 91% and 99% vs 94%, P > 0.10). As were positive predictive value and negative predictive value (85% vs 96%, P = 0.16; 97% vs 99%, P = 0.42). Magnetic resonance is highly sensitive and specific for localized disease involvement and extraluminal abdominal sequelae of IBD. It accurately differentiates patients who have chronic transmural (fibrotic) disease and thus may require an operation from those with acute inflammation, whose symptoms may improve with aggressive medical therapy alone. MRI without contrast had comparable diagnostic yield to standard magnetic resonance enterography. PMID:26672581

  6. Gadofullerene MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bolskar, Robert D

    2008-04-01

    A promising new class of MRI contrast-enhancing agents with high relaxivities is based on gadolinium-containing metallofullerenes, which are also termed gadofullerenes. Detailed study of the water-proton relaxivity properties and intermolecular nanoclustering behavior of gadofullerene derivatives has revealed valuable information about their relaxivity mechanisms and given a deeper understanding of this new class of paramagnetic contrast agent. Here, the latest findings on water-solubilized gadofullerene materials and how these findings relate to their future applications in MRI are reviewed and discussed. PMID:18373426

  7. Oral Human Papillomavirus in Youth From the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Farhat, Sepideh; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Ryder, Mark I; Russell, Jonathan S; Van Dyke, Russell B; Hazra, Rohan; Shiboski, Caroline H

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to high rates of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) found in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, only 2% of 209 perinatally HIV-infected youth had oral HPV. This rate was similar in HIV-exposed but uninfected youth. No association was found with sexual activity; however, low CD4 counts were associated with oral HPV. PMID:27414680

  8. The Use of Corpora and IT in Evaluating Oral Task Competence for Tourism English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Alejandro Curado

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method in oral fluency evaluation for Tourism English according to a corpus-based lexical approach. Our main research focus is placed on measuring oral skill competence among Tourism English (TE) learners by contrasting their word use and linguistic fluency, achieved in two types of oral tasks, with corpus data frequencies.…

  9. Efficacy of Miswak on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sukkarwalla, Adnan; Ali, Salima Mehboob; Lundberg, Pranee; Tanwir, Farzeen

    2013-01-01

    The oral cavity harbors a diverse and abundant number of complex oral pathogens causing different oral diseases. The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been found to be closely associated with various gram positive and gram negative microrganisms. Miswak, a natural toothbrush, has been documented as a potent antibacterial aid and its use is encouraged in different countries because of its good taste, texture, availability, cost and beneficial effect on teeth and supporting tissues. Different researches have been carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Miswak. This review encompasses the efficacy of Miswak on suppression of oral pathogens with respect to conducted on fungi as well as cariogenic, periodontal and endodontic bacteria. PMID:24019798

  10. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Famous People Famous historical Arts & Entertainment Sports figures ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce suffering ...

  11. Oral Health in Elders with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Giselle Rodrigues; Campos, Camila Heitor; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate objectively and subjectively the oral health of elders with Parkinson's disease (PD), using clinical oral assessments and the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). Subjects included 37 removable prosthesis wearers, 17 with PD (mean age 69.59±5.09 years) and 20 without PD (mean age 72.00±5.69 years). The objective assessment included an evaluation of oral characteristics, including the number of remaining teeth, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), visible plaque index (VPI), salivary flow rate and removable prosthesis conditions. The subjective assessment included self-perception of oral health collected using the GOHAI index. The number of remaining teeth, DMFT, VPI, salivary flow rate and GOHAI data were compared between the groups using t-tests. Removable prosthesis conditions were analyzed using χ2 tests (p<0.05). There were no group differences in the number of remaining teeth, DMFT, VPI or salivary flow rate (p>0.05). Greater maxillary prosthesis defects were observed in the control group (p=0.037). GOHAI scores were low for the PD group and moderate for controls, yielding a group difference (p=0.04). In conclusion, elders with PD have similar oral health to controls. Although all elders had few remaining teeth, high DMFT and high VPI, PD elders had more negative self-perceptions of their oral health than did the controls. PMID:27224571

  12. Hadamard speckle contrast reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisnadi, Jahja I.

    2004-01-01

    The condition for a diffuser to produce the maximum speckle contrast reduction with the minimum number of distinct phase patterns is derived. A binary realization of this optimum diffuser is obtained by mapping the rows or columns of a Hadamard matrix to the phase patterns. The method is experimentally verified in the Grating Light Valve laser projection display.

  13. Phonation in Tonal Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuang, Jianjing

    2013-01-01

    Phonation is used in many tonal languages, but how it should be incorporated into tonal systems is not well understood. The purpose of this dissertation thus is to examine the role of phonation in tonal contrasts, and to investigate how phonation and pitch interact in the tonal space. This dissertation presents close studies of tonal contrasts…

  14. Flashing anomalous color contrast.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Baingio; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S

    2004-01-01

    A new visual phenomenon that we call flashing anomalous color contrast is described. This phenomenon arises from the interaction between a gray central disk and a chromatic annulus surrounded by black radial lines. In an array of such figures, the central gray disk no longer appears gray, but assumes a color complementary to that of the surrounding annulus. The induced color appears: (1) vivid and saturated; (2) self-luminous, not a surface property; (3) flashing with eye or stimulus movement; (4) floating out of its confines; and (5) stronger in extrafoveal than in foveal vision. The strength of the effect depends on the number, length, width, and luminance contrast of the radial lines. The results suggest that the chromatic ring bounding the inner tips of the black radial lines induces simultaneous color contrast, whereas the radial lines elicit, in conjunction with the gray disk and the ring, the flashing, vividness, and high saturation of the effect. The stimulus properties inducing the illusion suggest that flashing anomalous color contrast may be based on asynchronous interactions among multiple visual pathways. PMID:15518215

  15. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  16. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  17. Endoluminal contrast for abdomen and pelvis magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mohit K; Khatri, Gaurav; Bailey, April; Pinho, Daniella F; Costa, Daniel; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the abdomen and pelvis can be limited for assessment of different conditions when imaging inadequately distended hollow organs. Endoluminal contrast agents may provide improved anatomic definition and detection of subtle pathology in such scenarios. The available routes of administration for endoluminal contrast agents include oral, endorectal, endovaginal, intravesicular, and through non-physiologic accesses. Appropriate use of endoluminal contrast agents requires a thorough understanding of the clinical indications, available contrast agents, patient preparation, and interaction of the contrast agent with the desired MR imaging protocol. For example, biphasic oral enteric contrast agents are preferred in MR enterography as their signal properties on T1- and T2-weighted imaging allow for evaluation of both intraluminal and bowel wall pathology. In specific situations such as with MR enterography, MR defecography, and accurate local staging of certain pelvic tumors, the use of an endoluminal contrast agent is imperative in providing adequate diagnostic imaging. In other clinical scenarios, the use of an endoluminal contrast agent may serve as an indispensable problem-solving tool. PMID:26907710

  18. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  19. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  20. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  2. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  3. Measuring contrast sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pelli, Denis G.; Bex, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Contrast sensitivity defines the threshold between the visible and invisible, which has obvious significance for basic and clinical vision science. Fechner's 1860 review reported that threshold contrast is 1% for a remarkably wide range of targets and conditions. While printed charts are still in use, computer testing is becoming more popular because it offers efficient adaptive measurement of threshold for a wide range of stimuli. Both basic and clinical studies usually want to know fundamental visual capability, regardless of the observer's subjective criterion. Criterion effects are minimized by the use of an objective task: multiple-alternative forced-choice detection or identification. Having many alternatives reduces the guessing rate, which makes each trial more informative, so fewer trials are needed. Finally, populations who may experience crowding or target confusion should be tested with one target at a time. PMID:23643905

  4. Chromatography: concepts and contrasts

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    As the author states in the Preface, this text attempts to provide a unified approach to chromatography (hence the title) by way of contrasting similarities and differences between gas chromatography (GC), column liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). This book is also said to be pitched at an elementary level, suitable for most newcomers to the field (e.g., advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the academic world, as well as bench-level chemists in industry).

  5. Polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.; Reischig, P.; Adrien, J.; Peetermans, S.; Ludwig, W.

    2014-11-15

    This tutorial review introduces the use of polychromatic radiation for 3D grain mapping using X-ray diffraction contrast tomography. The objective is to produce a 3D map of the grain shapes and orientations within a bulk, millimeter-sized polycrystalline sample. The use of polychromatic radiation enables the standard synchrotron X-ray technique to be applied in a wider range of contexts: 1) Using laboratory X-ray sources allows a much wider application of the diffraction contrast tomography technique. 2) Neutron sources allow large samples, or samples containing high Z elements to be studied. 3) Applied to synchrotron sources, smaller samples may be treated, or faster measurements may be possible. Challenges and particularities in the data acquisition and processing, and the limitations of the different variants, are discussed. - Highlights: • We present a tutorial review of polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography techniques. • The use of polychromatic radiation allows the standard synchrotron DCT technique to be extended to a range of other sources. • The characteristics and limitations of all variants of the techniques are derived, discussed and compared. • Examples using laboratory X-ray and cold neutron radiation are presented. • Suggestions for the future development of these techniques are presented.

  6. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. PMID:25732946

  7. Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopfenstein, Marie

    2005-09-01

    Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

  8. Negative-ion states

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

  9. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  10. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  11. [Negative symptoms: which antipsychotics?].

    PubMed

    Maurel, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    Treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia is a major issue and a challenge for the functional and social prognosis of the disease, to which they are closely linked. First- and second-generation antipsychotics allow a reduction of all negative symptoms. The hope of acting directly on primary negative symptoms with any antipsychotic is not supported by the literature. However, the effectiveness of first- and second-generation antipsychotics is demonstrated on secondary negative symptoms. PMID:26776390

  12. Oral Health Status: Impact on Dental Student Attitudes toward the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, James D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly found negative attitudes toward the aged among health professionals. Evaluates the impact of oral health status upon dental student attitudes toward the aged. Suggests that attitudes of students may become initially more negative due to exposure to generally poor oral conditions of elderly patients. (Author)

  13. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  14. The relationship between semaphorin 3C and microvessel density in the progression of breast and oral neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Cole-Healy, Zachary; Vergani, Patricia; Hunter, Keith; Brown, Nicola J; Reed, Malcolm W R; Staton, Carolyn A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify the expression of semaphorin 3C (SEMA3C) in the normal-metastatic spectrum of breast and oral cancers, and correlate expression with microvessel density (MVD, CD31), a surrogate marker of angiogenesis. Histological analysis revealed that SEMA3C expression was reduced in the development of oral cancer from normal oral tissue (P<0.0001) and expression was inversely correlated with MVD (r=-0.394, P=0.05). In contrast, SEMA3C expression increased in the transition from normal to invasive breast disease in epithelial/tumour cells (P=0.001) and endothelial cells (P=0.006), with both correlating weakly with MVD (r=0.35, p=0.03 and r=0.243, p=0.041 respectively). Furthermore, histological analysis of a breast cancer tissue microarray revealed a weak positive correlation with tumour grade (r=0.305, P=<0.001) and biological phenotype (r=0.237, p=0.004) with tumour cell expression of SEMA3C highest in triple negative and ER-, PR-, HER2+ subtypes. These data suggest that SEMA3C expression is differentially regulated in the development and progression of breast versus oral neoplasia, and that increased expression of SEMA3C may be modulating breast cancer progression and angiogenesis, and could represent a biomarker of metastatic disease. PMID:25910410

  15. On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Phonological field work is largely about establishing contrast in comparable environments. The notion of phonological contrast, however, can be confusing, particularly in its application to tone analysis. Does it mean phonemic contrast in the structuralist sense, or does it mean underlying contrast in the generative sense? Many linguists, in…

  16. Dominant Mutations in GRHL3 Cause Van der Woude Syndrome and Disrupt Oral Periderm Development

    PubMed Central

    Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Kousa, Youssef A.; Smith, Tiffany L.; Dunnwald, Martine; Magnusson, Måns; Lentz, Brian A.; Unneberg, Per; Fransson, Ingegerd; Koillinen, Hannele K.; Rautio, Jorma; Pegelow, Marie; Karsten, Agneta; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Gordon, William; Andersen, Bogi; Svensson, Thomas; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Cornell, Robert A.; Kere, Juha; Schutte, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) account for ∼70% of cases of Van der Woude syndrome (VWS), the most common syndromic form of cleft lip and palate. In 8 of 45 VWS-affected families lacking a mutation in IRF6, we found coding mutations in grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3). According to a zebrafish-based assay, the disease-associated GRHL3 mutations abrogated periderm development and were consistent with a dominant-negative effect, in contrast to haploinsufficiency seen in most VWS cases caused by IRF6 mutations. In mouse, all embryos lacking Grhl3 exhibited abnormal oral periderm and 17% developed a cleft palate. Analysis of the oral phenotype of double heterozygote (Irf6+/−;Grhl3+/−) murine embryos failed to detect epistasis between the two genes, suggesting that they function in separate but convergent pathways during palatogenesis. Taken together, our data demonstrated that mutations in two genes, IRF6 and GRHL3, can lead to nearly identical phenotypes of orofacial cleft. They supported the hypotheses that both genes are essential for the presence of a functional oral periderm and that failure of this process contributes to VWS. PMID:24360809

  17. Dominant mutations in GRHL3 cause Van der Woude Syndrome and disrupt oral periderm development.

    PubMed

    Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Kousa, Youssef A; Smith, Tiffany L; Dunnwald, Martine; Magnusson, Måns; Lentz, Brian A; Unneberg, Per; Fransson, Ingegerd; Koillinen, Hannele K; Rautio, Jorma; Pegelow, Marie; Karsten, Agneta; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Gordon, William; Andersen, Bogi; Svensson, Thomas; Murray, Jeffrey C; Cornell, Robert A; Kere, Juha; Schutte, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) account for ∼70% of cases of Van der Woude syndrome (VWS), the most common syndromic form of cleft lip and palate. In 8 of 45 VWS-affected families lacking a mutation in IRF6, we found coding mutations in grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3). According to a zebrafish-based assay, the disease-associated GRHL3 mutations abrogated periderm development and were consistent with a dominant-negative effect, in contrast to haploinsufficiency seen in most VWS cases caused by IRF6 mutations. In mouse, all embryos lacking Grhl3 exhibited abnormal oral periderm and 17% developed a cleft palate. Analysis of the oral phenotype of double heterozygote (Irf6(+/-);Grhl3(+/-)) murine embryos failed to detect epistasis between the two genes, suggesting that they function in separate but convergent pathways during palatogenesis. Taken together, our data demonstrated that mutations in two genes, IRF6 and GRHL3, can lead to nearly identical phenotypes of orofacial cleft. They supported the hypotheses that both genes are essential for the presence of a functional oral periderm and that failure of this process contributes to VWS. PMID:24360809

  18. Deficient DNA damage signaling leads to chemoresistance to cisplatin in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Mosel, Adam J; Oakley, Gregory G; Peng, Aimin

    2012-11-01

    Activation of the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is an important determinant of cell sensitivity to cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic drugs that eliminate tumor cells through induction of DNA damage. It is therefore important to investigate whether alterations of the DNA damage-signaling pathway confer chemoresistance in cancer cells and whether pharmacologic manipulation of the DDR pathway can resensitize these cells to cancer therapy. In a panel of oral/laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines, we observed deficiencies in DNA damage signaling in correlation with cisplatin resistance, but not with DNA repair. These deficiencies are consistent with reduced expression of components of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent signaling pathway and, in particular, strong upregulation of Wip1, a negative regulator of the ATM pathway. Wip1 knockdown or inhibition enhanced DNA damage signaling and resensitized oral SCC cells to cisplatin. In contrast to the previously reported involvement of Wip1 in cancer, Wip1 upregulation and function in these SCC cells is independent of p53. Finally, using xenograft tumor models, we showed that Wip1 upregulation promotes tumorigenesis and its inhibition improves the tumor response to cisplatin. Thus, this study reveals that chemoresistance in oral SCCs is partially attributed to deficiencies in DNA damage signaling, and Wip1 is an effective drug target for enhanced cancer therapy. PMID:22973056

  19. Deficient DNA damage signaling leads to chemoresistance to cisplatin in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Mosel, Adam J.; Oakley, Gregory G.; Peng, Aimin

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is an important determinant of cell sensitivity to cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic drugs that eliminate tumor cells through induction of DNA damage. It is therefore important to investigate whether alterations of the DNA damage signaling pathway confer chemoresistance in cancer cells, and whether pharmacological manipulation of the DDR pathway can re-sensitize these cells to cancer therapy. In a panel of oral/laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines, we observed deficiencies in DNA damage signaling in correlation with cisplatin-resistance, but not with DNA repair. These deficiencies are consistent with reduced expression of components of the ATM-dependent signaling pathway and, in particular, strong up-regulation of Wip1, a negative regulator of the ATM pathway. Wip1 knockdown or inhibition enhanced DNA damage signaling and re-sensitized oral SCC cells to cisplatin. In contrast to the previously reported involvement of Wip1 in cancer, Wip1 up-regulation and function in these SCC cells is independent of p53. Finally, using xenograft tumor models, we demonstrated that Wip1 up-regulation promotes tumorigenesis and its inhibition improves the tumor response to cisplatin. Thus, this study reveals that chemoresistance in oral SCCs is partially attributed to deficiencies in DNA damage signaling, and Wip1 is an effective drug target for enhanced cancer therapy. PMID:22973056

  20. Action Learning, Performativity and Negative Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the concept of negative capability as a human capacity for containment and contrasts it with well-valued positive capability as expressed through performativity in organisations and society. It identifies the problem of dispersal--the complex ways we behave in order to avoid the emotional challenges of living with uncertainty.…

  1. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  2. Towards understanding oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. PMID:25871419

  3. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  4. New negative resist design with novel photo-base generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Yun; Wu, Cheng Han; Su, Yu-Chang; Wu, Chen-Hao; Chang, Ya-Hui; Chang, Ching-Yu; Ku, Yao-Ching

    2013-03-01

    An alternate negative tone resist is investigated for advanced lithography. Unlike conventional negative tone development (NTD) resists developed with organic solvent, this negative resist use TMAH as its developer. Thermal acid generator (TAG) and photo base generator (PBG) are proposed for this resist. PBG decomposes and generates alkali at the exposed area and neutralizes the acid from TAG. Hence, positive resist can produce negative tone image (NTI), and gain better optical contrast than positive tone imaging. The new negative resist reported in this paper also shows better resolution than conventional negative resist. Several optimization studies are also reported. In addition, major limitations on further improving resist resolution are also pointed out in this paper. The solution proposed has been proven workable from experimental results. This opens the possibility to combine better optical contrast from NTI, high resist resolution from positive resist resin, and better development contrast from TMAH solution.

  5. Differential interference contrast tomography.

    PubMed

    Vishnyakov, Gennady; Levin, Gennady; Minaev, Vladimir; Latushko, Mikhail; Nekrasov, Nikolay; Pickalov, Valery

    2016-07-01

    We present a new approach to optical tomography of phase objects that is referred to as differential interference contrast tomography (DICT). The main feature of DICT is that the result of tomographic reconstruction is a 3D DIC image. This image is described by partial derivative of 3D refractive index distribution in one direction. The DICT setup consists of a lateral shearing phase-shifting interference microscope with low-coherent LED illumination. To create projections of the sample at various illumination angles, an angular scanning beam was used. 3D DIC tomograms of a white blood cell are presented. The comparison between the reconstructed DIC tomogram slices and the conventional DIC images of the same sample at the same depths are also represented. PMID:27367095

  6. Polarization contrast vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, Edward N.

    1990-05-01

    An attempt is made to establish the possibility that the geometry of certain classes of vertebrate photoreceptors results in a birefringence that allows the animals to utilize the state of polarization of light striking their retinas as a meaningful stimulus parameter. Simulate the photoreceptors as dielectric waveguides using a simple physical model, and augment this theoretical work with empirical measurements of the light guiding properties of photoreceptors in isolated pieces of retina from a green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). With a classical conditioning paradigm, this fish's sensitivity to light is modulated by the orientation of the plane of polarization of linearly polarized light. This functional dependence was predicted by a hypothetical antagonistic mechanism between twin cones of two orientations in the animal's retinal mosaic. Further study is planned for the nature of the stimulus to which the fish is sensitive by creating a camera that will generate images based purely upon the contrast between orthogonal polarizations at each point in space.

  7. The Oral History Review, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Samuel B., Ed.

    The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…

  8. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  9. Contrast echocardiography 1996. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Villarraga, H R; Foley, D A; Mulvagh, S L

    1996-01-01

    Remarkable advances in the field of contrast echocardiography have been made during the last decade. Interest in ultrasound contrast agents that strengthen the backscattered ultrasound signal and improve image display has stimulated further research. Echocardiographic contrast agents providing left ventricular cavity image enhancement after intravenous injection are now available. A role for contrast echocardiography in the assessment of myocardial perfusion has been established within the invasive clinical setting. With the development of newer contrast agents and new ultrasound technology, myocardial perfusion imaging using contrast echocardiography after venous injection is no longer the unattainable "holy grail," but is fast approaching clinical applicability. Images PMID:8792539

  10. The addiction to negativity.

    PubMed

    Lane, R C; Hull, J W; Foehrenbach, L M

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we have described a type of resistance that has attracted increasing psychoanalytic attention in recent years. Patients exposed to intense negativity during early life may develop an addiction to negative experience as adolescents and adults, and this may constitute a central organizing feature of their personality. In almost all patients, however, some moments of negativity may be observed. We have traced the developmental origins of an attachment to negativity, drawing especially on psychoanalytic investigations of preoedipal pathology. Manifestations and derivatives of early negativity include anhedonia, attachment to physical pain, fear of success, masochism, deprivation of self and others, and negative voyeurism. In discussing the dynamic functions of negativity, we place particular emphasis on two motives: the patient's desires for revenge against early objects that have been a source of deprivation and frustration; and the defensive function of negativity in helping to express as well as ward off dangerous wishes to merge with the object. Deviant forms of autoerotism are likely to be used by these patients to deal with the reactivation of early experiences of neglect and rejection. When negativity is used as a defense or method of relating to others it can lead to a severe disruption of the psychotherapeutic relationship. We have reviewed suggestions for the management of extreme negativity in treatment. Resolution of the therapist's countertransference reactions, especially induced feelings of frustration, rage, and helplessness, is crucial. Emphasis also has been placed on the patient's desires for revenge against self and object, and the manner in which these may be understood and eventually resolved. Only when patient and therapist begin to investigate the adaptive functions of extreme negativity can this pathological symptom be resolved and the patient's awareness of self and sense of autonomy be enhanced. PMID:1763149

  11. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  13. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer. PMID:27482300

  14. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... children 12 years of age and older. Mometasone powder for oral inhalation (Asmanex® Twisthaler) is used in ... Mometasone inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone oral inhalation is usually inhaled ...

  15. Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral biology curriculum cover its scope, primary educational goals, prerequisites, sequencing, faculty, course content in each subarea (oral tissues and systems and oral diagnostic methodology), and specific behavioral objectives. (MSE)

  16. Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome [AIDS]) and other sexually transmitted diseases.Some brands of oral contraceptives are also used to treat ... your doctor.Oral contraceptives come in many different brands. Different brands of oral contraceptives contain slightly different ...

  17. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview Thrush ( ... candidiasis), also known as oral moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the oral ...

  18. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  19. Sensitivity of negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects to age and associative memory performance.

    PubMed

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    The present fMRI experiment employed associative recognition to investigate the relationships between age and encoding-related negative subsequent memory effects and task-negative effects. Young, middle-aged and older adults (total n=136) were scanned while they made relational judgments on visually presented word pairs. In a later memory test, the participants made associative recognition judgments on studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new pairs. Several regions, mostly localized to the default mode network, demonstrated negative subsequent memory effects in an across age-group analysis. All but one of these regions also demonstrated task-negative effects, although there was no correlation between the size of the respective effects. Whereas negative subsequent memory effects demonstrated a graded attenuation with age, task-negative effects declined markedly between the young and the middle-aged group, but showed no further reduction in the older group. Negative subsequent memory effects did not correlate with memory performance within any age group. By contrast, in the older group only, task-negative effects predicted later memory performance. The findings demonstrate that negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects depend on dissociable neural mechanisms and likely reflect distinct cognitive processes. The relationship between task-negative effects and memory performance in the older group might reflect the sensitivity of these effects to variations in amount of age-related neuropathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory. PMID:25264353

  20. The Evolution of Negation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, William

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a method for extrapolation of diachronic processes from synchronic states, the dynamicization of synchronic typologies, to propose a hitherto unobserved historical source for markers of verbal negation, namely irregular negative existential predicate forms. Explanations are proposed for the occurrence of the attested processes in this…

  1. Learning from Negative Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oser, Fritz K.

    1996-01-01

    Identifies and discusses the elements and applications of learning from negative morality. Negative morality refers to the experience of learning from mistakes thereby creating a body of personal knowledge about "what not to do." This knowledge not only protects individuals but steers them to the right behavior. (MJP)

  2. Oral Sex, Young People, and Gendered Narratives of Reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ruth; Marston, Cicely

    2016-09-01

    Young people in many countries report gender differences in giving and receiving oral sex, yet examination of young people's own perspectives on gender dynamics in oral heterosex are relatively rare. We explored the constructs and discourses 16- to 18-year-old men and women in England used in their accounts of oral sex during in-depth interviews. Two contrasting constructs were in circulation in the accounts: on one hand, oral sex on men and women was narrated as equivalent, while on the other, oral sex on women was seen as "a bigger deal" than oral sex on men. Young men and women used a "give and take" discourse, which constructed the mutual exchange of oral sex as "fair." Appeals to an ethic of reciprocity in oral sex enabled women to present themselves as demanding equality in their sexual interactions, and men as supporting mutuality. However, we show how these ostensibly positive discourses about equality also worked in narratives to obscure women's constrained agency and work with respect to giving oral sex. PMID:26849152

  3. Oral Sex, Young People, and Gendered Narratives of Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ruth; Marston, Cicely

    2016-01-01

    Young people in many countries report gender differences in giving and receiving oral sex, yet examination of young people’s own perspectives on gender dynamics in oral heterosex are relatively rare. We explored the constructs and discourses 16- to 18-year-old men and women in England used in their accounts of oral sex during in-depth interviews. Two contrasting constructs were in circulation in the accounts: on one hand, oral sex on men and women was narrated as equivalent, while on the other, oral sex on women was seen as “a bigger deal” than oral sex on men. Young men and women used a “give and take” discourse, which constructed the mutual exchange of oral sex as “fair.” Appeals to an ethic of reciprocity in oral sex enabled women to present themselves as demanding equality in their sexual interactions, and men as supporting mutuality. However, we show how these ostensibly positive discourses about equality also worked in narratives to obscure women’s constrained agency and work with respect to giving oral sex. PMID:26849152

  4. Pedagogical Implications of Contrastive Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Waldemar

    1972-01-01

    Pessimism regarding pedagogical applications of contrastive studies, and reasons therefore, are described. Several misunderstandings believed to contribute to this pessimism, and several areas of controversy concerning uses of contrastive studies, are discussed. See FL 508 197 for availability. (RM)

  5. Risk Stratification System for Oral Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lutécia H Mateus; Reis, Isildinha M; Reategui, Erika P; Gordon, Claudia; Saint-Victor, Sandra; Duncan, Robert; Gomez, Carmen; Bayers, Stephanie; Fisher, Penelope; Perez, Aymee; Goodwin, W Jarrard; Hu, Jennifer J; Franzmann, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer (oral cancer) is a deadly disease that is increasing in incidence. Worldwide 5-year survival is only 50% due to delayed intervention with more than half of the diagnoses at stage III and IV, whereas earlier detection (stage I and II) yields survival rates up to 80% to 90%. Salivary soluble CD44 (CD44), a tumor-initiating marker, and total protein levels may facilitate oral cancer risk assessment and early intervention. This study used a hospital-based design with 150 cases and 150 frequency-matched controls to determine whether CD44 and total protein levels in oral rinses were associated with oral cancer independent of age, gender, race, ethnicity, tobacco and alcohol use, and socioeconomic status (SES). High-risk subjects receiving oral cancer prevention interventions as part of a community-based program (n = 150) were followed over 1 year to determine marker specificity and variation. CD44 ≥5.33 ng/mL was highly associated with case status [adjusted OR 14.489; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.973-35.145; P < .0001, vs. reference group CD44 <2.22 ng/mL and protein <1.23 mg/mL]. Total protein aided prediction above CD44 alone. Sensitivity and specificity in the frequency-matched study was 80% and 48.7%, respectively. However, controls were not representative of the target screening population due, in part, to a high rate of prior cancer. In contrast, specificity in the high-risk community was 74% and reached 95% after annual retesting. Simple and inexpensive salivary CD44 and total protein measurements may help identify individuals at heightened risk for oral cancer from the millions who partake in risky behaviors. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 445-55. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020654

  6. On Negative Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belletête, Jonathan; Paranjape, M. B.

    2013-06-01

    The Schwarzschild solution to the matter free, spherically symmetric Einstein equations has one free parameter, the mass. But the mass can be of any sign. What is the meaning of the negative mass solutions? The answer to this question for the case of a pure Schwarzschild negative mass black solution is still elusive, however, in this essay, we will consider negative mass solutions within a Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry. We show that there exist reasonable configurations of matter, bubbles of distributions of matter, that satisfy the dominant energy condition everywhere, that are nonsingular and well behaved everywhere, but correspond to the negative mass Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry outside the matter distribution. These negative mass bubbles could occur as the end state of a quantum tunneling transition.

  7. Recognition memory reveals just how CONTRASTIVE contrastive accenting really is

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of pitch accenting on memory were investigated in three experiments. Participants listened to short recorded discourses that contained contrast sets with two items (e.g. British scientists and French scientists); a continuation specified one item from the set. Pitch accenting on the critical word in the continuation was manipulated between non-contrastive (H* in the ToBI system) and contrastive (L+H*). On subsequent recognition memory tests, the L+H* accent increased hits to correct statements and correct rejections of the contrast item (Experiments 1–3), but did not impair memory for other parts of the discourse (Experiment 2). L+H* also did not facilitate correct rejections of lures not in the contrast set (Experiment 3), indicating that contrastive accents do not simply strengthen the representation of the target item. These results suggest comprehenders use pitch accenting to encode and update information about multiple elements in a contrast set. PMID:20835405

  8. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

  9. Eye contrast polarity is critical for face recognition by infants.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Hill, Harold C; Kobayashi, Megumi; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2013-07-01

    Just as faces share the same basic arrangement of features, with two eyes above a nose above a mouth, human eyes all share the same basic contrast polarity relations, with a sclera lighter than an iris and a pupil, and this is unique among primates. The current study examined whether this bright-dark relationship of sclera to iris plays a critical role in face recognition from early in development. Specifically, we tested face discrimination in 7- and 8-month-old infants while independently manipulating the contrast polarity of the eye region and of the rest of the face. This gave four face contrast polarity conditions: fully positive condition, fully negative condition, positive face with negated eyes ("negative eyes") condition, and negated face with positive eyes ("positive eyes") condition. In a familiarization and novelty preference procedure, we found that 7- and 8-month-olds could discriminate between faces only when the contrast polarity of the eyes was preserved (positive) and that this did not depend on the contrast polarity of the rest of the face. This demonstrates the critical role of eye contrast polarity for face recognition in 7- and 8-month-olds and is consistent with previous findings for adults. PMID:23499321

  10. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). Results The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Conclusions Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established. Key words:Quality of life, quality of life related to oral health

  11. Phase Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Menk, Ralf Hendrik

    2008-11-13

    All standard (medical) x-ray imaging technologies, rely primarily on the amplitude properties of the incident radiation, and do not depend on its phase. This is unchanged since the discovery by Roentgen that the intensity of an x-ray beam, as measured by the exposure on a film, was related to the relative transmission properties of an object. However, recently various imaging techniques have emerged which depend on the phase of the x-rays as well as the amplitude. Phase becomes important when the beam is coherent and the imaging system is sensitive to interference phenomena. Significant new advances have been made in coherent optic theory and techniques, which now promise phase information in medical imaging. The development of perfect crystal optics and the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation facilities have contributed to a significant increase in the application of phase based imaging in materials and life sciences. Unique source characteristics such as high intensity, monochromaticity, coherence and high collimating provide an ideal source for advanced imaging. Phase contrast imaging has been applied in both projection and computed tomography modes, and recent applications have been made in the field of medical imaging. Due to the underlying principle of X-ray detection conventional image receptors register only intensities of wave fields and not their phases. During the last decade basically five different methods were developed that translate the phase information into intensity variations. These methods are based on measuring the phase shift {phi} directly (using interference phenomena), the gradient {nabla}{sub {phi}}, or the Laplacian {nabla}{sup 2}{phi}. All three methods can be applied to polychromatic X-ray sources keeping in mind that the native source is synchrotron radiation, featuring monochromatic and reasonable coherent X-ray beams. Due to the vast difference in the coefficients that are driven absorption and phase effects (factor 1

  12. Autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S. K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    1998-06-01

    We report the results of an in-vitro study on autofluorescence from pathologically characterized normal and malignant squamous tissues from the oral cavity. The study involved biopsy samples from 47 patients with oral cancer of which 11 patients had cancer of tongue, 17 of buccal mucosa and 19 of alveolus. The results of excitation and emission spectroscopy at several wavelengths (280 nm less than or equal to (lambda) exless than or equal to 460 nm; 340 nm less than or equal to (lambda) em less than or equal to 520 nm) showed that at (lambda) ex equals 337 nm and 400 nm the mean value for the spectrally integrated fluorescence intensity [(Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) )] from the normal tissue sites was about a factor of 2 larger than that from the malignant tissue sites. At other excitation wavelengths the difference in (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) was not statistically significant. Similarly, for (lambda) em equals 390 nm and 460 nm, the intensity of the 340 nm band of the excitation spectra from normal tissues was observed to be a factor of 2 larger than that from malignant tissues. Analysis of these results suggests that NADH concentration is higher in normal oral tissues compared to the malignant. This contrasts with our earlier observation of an reduced NADH concentration in normal sites of breast tissues vis a vis malignant sites. For the 337 nm excited emission spectra a 10-variable MVLR score (using (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) and normalized intensities at nine wavelengths as input parameters) provided a sensitivity and specificity of 95.7% and 93.1% over the sample size investigated.

  13. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. PMID:23966202

  14. Optimal contrast enhancement liquid for dynamic MRI of swallowing.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, M; Higaki, T; Nishikawa, K; Otonari-Yamamoto, M; Sugiyama, T; Ishida, R; Wakoh, M

    2016-09-01

    Several dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to observe swallowing and their parameters have been reported. Although these studies used several contrast enhancement liquids, no studies were conducted to investigate the most suitable liquids. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal contrast enhancement liquid for dynamic MRI of swallowing. MRI was performed using a new sequence consisting of true fast imaging with steady-state precession, generalised auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisition and a keyhole imaging technique. Seven liquids were studied, including pure distilled water, distilled water with thickener at 10, 20 and 30 mg mL(-1) concentrations and oral MRI contrast medium at 1, 2 or 3 mg mL(-1) . Distilled water showed the highest signal intensity. There were statistically significant differences among the following contrast media: distilled water with thickener at 20 mg mL(-1) and the oral MRI contrast medium at 2 mg mL(-1) and 1 mg mL(-1) . It can be concluded that the optimal liquid for dynamic MRI of swallowing is a water-based substance that allows variations in viscosity. PMID:27328011

  15. Kriging without negative weights

    SciTech Connect

    Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1987-08-01

    Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

  16. Negative birefringent polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor); Cheng, Stephen Z. D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A negative birefringent film, useful in liquid crystal displays, and a method for controlling the negative birefringence of a polyimide film is disclosed which allows the matching of an application to a targeted amount of birefringence by controlling the degree of in-plane orientation of the polyimide by the selection of functional groups within both the diamine and dianhydride segments of the polyimide which affect the polyimide backbone chain rigidity, linearity, and symmetry. The higher the rigidity, linearity and symmetry of the polyimide backbone, the larger the value of the negative birefringence of the polyimide film.

  17. Perceived contrast in complex images

    PubMed Central

    Haun, Andrew M.; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    To understand how different spatial frequencies contribute to the overall perceived contrast of complex, broadband photographic images, we adapted the classification image paradigm. Using natural images as stimuli, we randomly varied relative contrast amplitude at different spatial frequencies and had human subjects determine which images had higher contrast. Then, we determined how the random variations corresponded with the human judgments. We found that the overall contrast of an image is disproportionately determined by how much contrast is between 1 and 6 c/°, around the peak of the contrast sensitivity function (CSF). We then employed the basic components of contrast psychophysics modeling to show that the CSF alone is not enough to account for our results and that an increase in gain control strength toward low spatial frequencies is necessary. One important consequence of this is that contrast constancy, the apparent independence of suprathreshold perceived contrast and spatial frequency, will not hold during viewing of natural images. We also found that images with darker low-luminance regions tended to be judged as having higher overall contrast, which we interpret as the consequence of darker local backgrounds resulting in higher band-limited contrast response in the visual system. PMID:24190908

  18. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  19. Oral Lesions in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  20. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF AXIAL FIBRILS, OUTER ENVELOPE, AND CELL DIVISION OF CERTAIN ORAL SPIROCHETES

    PubMed Central

    Listgarten, M. A.; Socransky, S. S.

    1964-01-01

    Listgarten, M. A. (Harvard School of Dental Medicine and Forsyth Dental Center, Boston, Mass.), and S. S. Socransky. Electron microscopy of axial fibrils, outer envelope, and cell division of certain oral spirochetes. J. Bacteriol. 88:1087–1103. 1964.—The ultrastructure of axial fibrils and outer envelopes of a number of oral spirochetes was studied in thin sections and by negative contrast. The axial fibrils measured 150 to 200 A in diameter. Only one end of each fibril was inserted subterminally into the protoplasmic cylinder by means of a 400 A wide disc. The free ends of fibrils inserted near one end of the cylinder extended toward, and overlapped in close apposition, the free ends of fibrils inserted at the other end. In thin sections, some axial fibrils showed a substructure, suggestive of a dense central core. The outer envelopes of most spirochetes appeared to consist of 80 A wide polygonal structural subunits. However, in one large spirochete, the outer envelope demonstrated a “pin-striped” pattern. Cell division in a pure culture of Treponema microdentium was studied by negative contrast. Results suggested that this organism divides by transverse fission, the outer envelope being last to divide. During the course of division, new axial fibrils appeared to originate on either side of the point of constriction of the protoplasmic cylinder. Flagellalike extensions which were found in rapidly dividing organisms were due to protruding axial fibrils, and appeared to be the result of cell division. Some evidence is presented to support the concept of a homologous origin for axial fibrils and flagella. Images PMID:14219024

  1. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  2. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  3. Atomic negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  4. Atomic negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brage, T.

    1991-12-31

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  5. Negative affixes in medical English.

    PubMed

    Dzuganova, B

    2006-01-01

    Many medical terms have negative meaning expressed by means of a negative prefix or suffix. The most frequently used negative prefixes are: a-, dis-, in-, non-, and un-. There is only one negative suffix -less (Ref. 15). PMID:17125069

  6. Consensus statement: Oral health and elite sport performance.

    PubMed

    Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Fine, P; Haddad, F; Loosemore, M; de Medici, A; Donos, N; Newton, T; van Someren, K; Moazzez, R; Jaques, R; Hunter, G; Khan, K; Shimmin, M; Brewer, J; Meehan, L; Mills, S; Porter, S

    2014-11-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25415018

  7. Instrumentation for negative ion detection.

    PubMed

    McKeown, M

    1980-06-01

    The instrumentation and practical circuitry required for the detection of negative ions exiting the mass analysis section of a mass spectrometer is examined. The potentials needed to bias the electron multiplier when detecting negative ions from a low ion-energy mass spectrometer, e.g., a quadrupole, are contrasted with the biasing requirements of a mass spectrometer having high ion-energies, e.g., a magnetic sector. Methods of decoupling the biasing high voltage on the signal lead of the multiplier in pulse counting measurements are discussed in detail so that normal, ground referenced input, pulse preamplifiers may be used. Easily understood, practical rules for determining the values of circuit components are given together with a simplified theory of transferring pulse signals from multiplier collector to pulse preamplifier. The changes in circuitry needed when attempting to detect ions by current measurement methods from an electron multiplier area detailed. The effects of leakage currents into athe input of the current preamplifier and their avoidance bay using triaxial shielding on vacuum feed-throughs are explained. The article suggests possible methods of decoupling the high voltage referenced input and the ground referenced output of a current measuring preamplifier. PMID:7428750

  8. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  9. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  10. Oral hypoglycemics overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient There are many types of oral hypoglycemics. The poisonous ingredient depends on ...

  11. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA) is used ...

  12. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using an inhaler and as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Fluticasone ... Flovent® HFA) is usually inhaled twice daily. Fluticasone powder for oral inhalation (Flovent® Diskus) is usually inhaled ...

  13. Massive Oral Decoding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicke, Eugene M.

    1981-01-01

    An intensive reading clinic used the Massive Oral Decoding (MOD) technique to help 10 reading disabled students (grades 7 and 8) increase independent reading skills. MOD stresses large amounts of reading practice at the student's independent level. (CL)

  14. Predicting contrast in sentences with and without focus marking.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Katy

    2014-10-01

    How do we know when a contrast is coming? This study explores the prediction of parallel contrastive phrases, especially NPs, in sentences with and without overt focus marking. A written sentence-completion questionnaire with clauses followed by the conjunction "but" compared unmarked initial clauses to ones with the focus marker "only" on the subject or object. Both conditions with "only" elicited more contrasts overall than the condition without focus marking, and many of the contrasts were with the focus-marked NP. While the baseline (no-only) condition had full clauses for half of the completions, subject focus increased clausal completions and object focus increased negative ellipsis completions ("not"+NP structures), both changes in syntax which make a contrast with the marked NP easy. The production of negative ellipsis sentences primarily in the object-focus condition suggests that the object bias of these sentences in comprehension could relate to their being used more frequently with this meaning. Finally, the overall pattern of results shows that overt marking of contrastive focus increases continuations with contrasts, and the conjunction "but" does not reliably predict explicitly-stated contrasts within a sentence without overt focus marking. PMID:25177047

  15. Predicting contrast in sentences with and without focus marking

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Katy

    2014-01-01

    How do we know when a contrast is coming? This study explores the prediction of parallel contrastive phrases, especially NPs, in sentences with and without overt focus marking. A written sentence-completion questionnaire with clauses followed by the conjunction “but” compared unmarked initial clauses to ones with the focus marker “only” on the subject or object. Both conditions with “only” elicited more contrasts overall than the condition without focus marking, and many of the contrasts were with the focus-marked NP. While the baseline (no-only) condition had full clauses for half of the completions, subject focus increased clausal completions and object focus increased negative ellipsis completions (“not”+NP structures), both changes in syntax which make a contrast with the marked NP easy. The production of negative ellipsis sentences primarily in the object-focus condition suggests that the object bias of these sentences in comprehension could relate to their being used more frequently with this meaning. Finally, the overall pattern of results shows that overt marking of contrastive focus increases continuations with contrasts, and the conjunction “but” does not reliably predict explicitly-stated contrasts within a sentence without overt focus marking. PMID:25177047

  16. Oral Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Bn; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, Gv

    2014-09-01

    'Crohn's disease' is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  17. Oral Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

    2014-01-01

    ’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  18. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices. PMID:11486666

  19. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  20. Oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the staging of oral cancers. Imaging information is essential for determining tumour resectibility, post resection surgical reconstruction and radiation therapy planning. The aim of this paper is to highlight the natural history of oral cancer spread and how malignant infiltration can be accurately mapped. It focuses on buccal mucosa, hard palate, tongue and floor of mouth carcinoma. PMID:16361136

  1. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  2. [Dementia and oral health].

    PubMed

    Wierink, C D; de Baat, C

    2009-02-01

    The first part of this article is a translation of an editorial which appeared in the journal Gerodontology. The author warns that a great increase is expected in the number of dementia patients in the United Kingdom and he argues that care for these patients be given a high place on the national agenda. Dementia was also a major issue at the meeting of the International Association for Dental Research in March 2007. Several international studies presented there indicated that elderly people with dementia constitute a group at risk with respect to oral health. In the evaluation of the editorial, the situation in The Netherlands is described. There is also serious concern in The Netherlands about the statistics with respect to dementia. Due to the growing number of frail elderly people having a natural dentition, the need for professional oral care will increase. General practitioners have the important task of providing adequate oral health care for elderly people suffering from dementia who are still living at home. Guidelines for Oral Care, having to do with the improvement of oral care in institutions, appeared recently. With the guidelines, a good basis for developing adequate oral health care of frail elderly people is available. However, the implementation of these guidelines will require some attention. PMID:19280891

  3. Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

  4. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

  5. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  6. Pattern specificity of contrast adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Anstis, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Contrast adaptation is specific to precisely localised edges, so that adapting to a flickering photograph makes one less sensitive to that same photograph, but not to similar photographs. When two low-contrast photos, A and B, are transparently superimposed, then adapting to a flickering high-contrast B leaves no net afterimage, but it makes B disappear from the A+B picture, which now simply looks like A. PMID:25165518

  7. Oral mucositis in myelosuppressive cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J B; Schubert, M M

    1999-09-01

    Because the etiology of mucositis is multifactorial , approaches to prevention and management have also been multifactorial. Effective prevention and management of mucositis will reduce the pain and suffering experienced during cancer treatment. Oropharyngeal pain in cancer patients frequently requires systemic analgesics, adjunctive medications, physical therapy, and psychologic therapy in addition to oral care and topical treatments. Good oral hygiene reduces the severity of oral mucositis and does not increase the risk of bacteremia. Current approaches to management include frequent oral rinsing with saline or bicarbonate rinses, maintaining excellent oral hygiene, and using topical anesthetics and analgesics. Cryotherapy is a potential adjunctive approach in some cases. There are a number of approaches that appear to represent viable candidates for further study. Biologic response modifiers offer the potential for prevention and for acceleration of healing. Various cytokines will enter clinical trials in the near future; these offer the potential for reduction of epithelial cell sensitivity to the toxic effects of cancer therapy or for stimulation of repair of the damaged tissue. Other approaches include the use of medications to reduce exposure of the oral mucosa to chemotherapeutic drugs that are secreted in saliva. Antimicrobial approaches have met with conflicting results, little effect being seen with chlorhexidine and systemic antimicrobials in the prevention of mucositis in radiation patients. In patients with BMT and patients with leukemia, chlorhexidine may not be effective in preventing mucositis, although there may be reduction in oral colonization by Candida. Initial studies of topical antimicrobials that affect the gram-negative oral flora have shown reductions in ulcerative mucositis during radiation therapy but have not been assessed in leukemia/BMT. Among other approaches that require further study are low-energy lasers and anti

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  10. Environmental Enteropathy, Oral Vaccine Failure and Growth Faltering in Infants in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Caitlin; Lu, Miao; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Buonomo, Erica; Nayak, Uma; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Kirkpatrick, Beth; Colgate, Ross; Carmolli, Marya; Dickson, Dorothy; van der Klis, Fiona; Weldon, William; Steven Oberste, M.; Ma, Jennie Z.; Petri, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical enteric condition found in low-income countries that is characterized by intestinal inflammation, reduced intestinal absorption, and gut barrier dysfunction. We aimed to assess if EE impairs the success of oral polio and rotavirus vaccines in infants in Bangladesh. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study of 700 infants from an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh from May 2011 to November 2014. Infants were enrolled in the first week of life and followed to age one year through biweekly home visits with EPI vaccines administered and growth monitored. EE was operationally defied as enteric inflammation measured by any one of the fecal biomarkers reg1B, alpha-1-antitrypsin, MPO, calprotectin, or neopterin. Oral polio vaccine success was evaluated by immunogenicity, and rotavirus vaccine response was evaluated by immunogenicity and protection from disease. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01375647. Findings EE was present in greater than 80% of infants by 12 weeks of age. Oral poliovirus and rotavirus vaccines failed in 20.2% and 68.5% of the infants respectively, and 28.6% were malnourished (HAZ < − 2) at one year of age. In contrast, 0%, 9.0%, 7.9% and 3.8% of infants lacked protective levels of antibody from tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, diphtheria and measles vaccines respectively. EE was negatively associated with oral polio and rotavirus response but not parenteral vaccine immunogenicity. Biomarkers of systemic inflammation and measures of maternal health were additionally predictive of both oral vaccine failure and malnutrition. The selected biomarkers from multivariable analysis accounted for 46.3% variation in delta HAZ. 24% of Rotarix® IgA positive individuals can be attributed to the selected biomarkers. Interpretation EE as well as systemic inflammation and poor maternal health were associated with oral but not parenteral vaccine

  11. Negative Concord in Child African American English: Implications for Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles-White, D'Jaris

    2004-01-01

    In this study, African American English (AAE)-speaking children's comprehension of 2 different types of double negative sentences was examined and contrasted with that of a comparison group of Standard American English (SAE)-speaking children. The first type of double negative, negative concord, involves 2 negative elements in a sentence that are…

  12. Muscular invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma of the posterior mandibular alveolar ridge is associated with cervical lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between muscle invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma of the posterior mandibular alveolar ridge and cervical lymph node metastasis on the basis of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Twenty-six patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma of the posterior mandibular alveolar ridge were evaluated by MRI. The associations between cervical lymph node metastasis and independent factors evaluated by MRI were analyzed. Overall survival was also analyzed in this manner. Representative biopsy specimens were stained with anti-podoplanin and anti-CD34 antibodies. Results Mylohyoid muscle invasion was associated with cervical lymph node metastasis. A combinational factor of mylohyoid and/or buccinator muscle invasion was also associated with cervical lymph node metastasis. Cervical lymph node metastasis and masticator space invasion had a negative effect on overall survival. No lymphatic vessels were identified near the tumor invasion front within the mandible. In contrast, lymphatic vessels were identified near the front of tumor invasion in the muscles. Conclusion This study demonstrates an association between muscular invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma of the posterior mandibular alveolar ridge and cervical lymph node metastasis.

  13. Negative pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James T; Marks, Malcolm W

    2007-10-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy has become an increasingly important part of wound management. Over the last decade, numerous uses for this method of wound management have been reported, ranging from acute and chronic wounds, to closure of open sternal and abdominal wounds, to assistance with skin grafts. The biophysics behind the success of this treatment largely have focused on increased wound blood flow, increased granulation tissue formation, decreased bacterial counts, and stimulation of wound healing pathways through shear stress mechanisms. The overall success of negative pressure wound therapy has led to a multitude of clinical applications, which are discussed in this article. PMID:17967622

  14. Citraturic response to oral citric acid load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Alpern, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible that some orally administered citrate may appear in urine by escaping oxidation in vivo. To determine whether this mechanism contributes to the citraturic response to potassium citrate, we measured serum and urinary citrate for 4 hours after a single oral load of citric acid (40 mEq.) in 6 normal subjects. Since citric acid does not alter acid-base balance, the effect of absorbed citrate could be isolated from that of alkali load. Serum citrate concentration increased significantly (p less than 0.05) 30 minutes after a single oral dose of citric acid and remained significantly elevated for 3 hours after citric acid load. Commensurate with this change, urinary citrate excretion peaked at 2 hours and gradually decreased during the next 2 hours after citric acid load. In contrast, serum and urinary citrate remained unaltered following the control load (no drug). Differences of the citratemic and citraturic effects between phases were significant (p less than 0.05) at 2 and 3 hours. Urinary pH, carbon dioxide pressure, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide and ammonium did not change at any time after citric acid load, and did not differ between the 2 phases. No significant difference was noted in serum electrolytes, arterialized venous pH and carbon dioxide pressure at any time after citric acid load and between the 2 phases. Thus, the citraturic and citratemic effects of oral citric acid are largely accountable by provision of absorbed citrate, which has escaped in vivo degradation.

  15. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  16. Multi-contrast photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S.; Sohn, R.; Lu, Z.-H.; Soetikno, B.; Zhong, Q.; Yao, J.; Maslov, K.; Arbeit, J. M.; Wang, L. V.

    2012-02-01

    We developed multi-contrast photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) for in vivo anatomical, functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. This technical innovation enables comprehensive understanding of the tumor microenvironment. With multi-contrast PAM, we longitudinally determined tumor vascular anatomy, blood flow, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and oxygen extraction fraction.

  17. Faithful Contrastive Features in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesar, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This article pursues the idea of inferring aspects of phonological underlying forms directly from surface contrasts by looking at optimality theoretic linguistic systems (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). The main result proves that linguistic systems satisfying certain conditions have the faithful contrastive feature property: Whenever 2 distinct…

  18. Image Contrast in Holographic Reconstructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, B. R.

    1969-01-01

    The fundamental concepts of holography are explained using elementary wave ideas. Discusses wavefront reconstruction and contrast in hemigraphic images. The consequence of recording only the intensity at a given surface and using an oblique reference wave is shown to be an incomplete reconstruction resulting in image of low contrast. (LC)

  19. Coaggregation properties of human oral Veillonella spp.: relationship to colonization site and oral ecology.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, C V; Kolenbrander, P E; Andersen, R N; Moore, L V

    1988-01-01

    The primary habitats of oral veillonellae are the tongue, dental plaque, and the buccal mucosa. Isolates were obtained from each habitat and tested for coaggregation with a battery of other oral bacterial strains. All 59 tongue isolates tested for coaggregation were Veillonella atypica or Veillonella dispar. All but one of them coaggregated with strains of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant inhabitant of the tongue surface but not subgingival dental plaque. These tongue isolates were unable to coaggregate with most normal members of the subgingival flora such as Actinomyces viscosus, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus sanguis. In contrast, 24 of 29 Veillonella isolates, of which 20 were Veillonella parvula from subgingival dental plaque samples, coaggregated strongly with the three species of Actinomyces, S. sanguis, and other bacteria usually present in subgingival plaque, but they did not coaggregate with S. salivarius. The majority of isolates from the buccal mucosa (42 of 55) has coaggregation properties like those from the tongue. These results indicate that the three human oral Veillonella species are distributed on oral surfaces that are also occupied by their coaggregation partners and thus provide strong evidence that coaggregation plays a critical role in the bacterial ecology of the oral cavity. PMID:3178207

  20. Measurement of visual contrast sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Marko, A. R.

    1985-04-01

    This invention involves measurement of the visual contrast sensitivity (modulation transfer) function of a human subject by means of linear or circular spatial frequency pattern on a cathode ray tube whose contrast is automatically decreasing or increasing depending on the subject pressing or releasing a hand-switch button. The threshold of detection of the pattern modulation is found by the subject by adjusting the contrast to values which vary about the subject's threshold thereby determining the threshold and also providing by the magnitude of the contrast fluctuations between reversals some estimate of the variability of the subject's absolute threshold. The invention also involves the slow automatic sweeping of the spatial frequency of the pattern over the spatial frequencies after preset time intervals or after threshold has been defined at each frequency by a selected number of subject-determined threshold crossings; i.e., contrast reversals.

  1. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  2. [Chemotherapies of negative schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Petit, M; Dollfus, S

    1991-01-01

    Five years ago, Goldberg claimed that negative symptoms of schizophrenia do respond to neuroleptics. This apparent discovery is, in fact, a very common way of thinking for European schools of psychiatry, specially the French one guided by Delay and Deniker. Initially focused on reserpine and some alerting phenothiazines such as thioproperazine, this opinion has been extended to benzamides in the 1970s. The analysis of the publications devoted to this point indicates that several drugs are actually considered as potent disinhibitors (i.e. active on negative symptoms of schizophrenia): Phenothiazines: As shown in the controlled studies by Itil (1971), Poirier-Littré (1988), fluphenazine and pipotiazine improve the BPRS anergia factor and the SANS score. Butyrophenones: The first description of the "imipramine like" effect of trifluperidol by Janssen (1959) initiated the studies by Gallant (1960), Fox (1963). They compared trifluperidol at low doses versus haloperidol and chlorpromazine at medium and high doses, BPRS anergia factor improved only at low doses. Diphenylbutylpiperidines (DPBP): Meltzer's review (1986) concluded to the efficacy of such drugs on negative symptoms appearing as a specific biochemical relationship effect. A definite analysis about doses leads to a very different interpretation: DPBP low doses and only low doses improved negative symptoms as much as some low doses of phenothiazines. On the opposite, DPBP, phenothiazines and butyrophenones high doses are inefficient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1683624

  3. Oral Insulin Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona

    2014-01-01

    Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion’s share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606

  4. Oral health during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silk, Hugh; Douglass, Alan B; Douglass, Joanna M; Silk, Laura

    2008-04-15

    Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries. PMID:18481562

  5. The Oral Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Arweiler, Nicole B; Netuschil, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiota represents an important part of the human microbiota, and includes several hundred to several thousand diverse species. It is a normal part of the oral cavity and has an important function to protect against colonization of extrinsic bacteria which could affect systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are based on microorganisms. While (medical) research focused on the planktonic phase of bacteria over the last 100 years, it is nowadays generally known, that oral microorganisms are organised as biofilms. On any non-shedding surfaces of the oral cavity dental plaque starts to form, which meets all criteria for a microbial biofilm and is subject to the so-called succession. When the sensitive ecosystem turns out of balance - either by overload or weak immune system - it becomes a challenge for local or systemic health. Therefore, the most common strategy and the golden standard for the prevention of caries, gingivitis and periodontitis is the mechanical removal of this biofilms from teeth, restorations or dental prosthesis by regular toothbrushing. PMID:27161350

  6. Canine oral mucosal mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J W; Cripps, P; Blackwood, L; Berlato, D; Murphy, S; Grant, I A

    2016-03-01

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are the most common cutaneous tumours of dogs, however rarely they can arise from the oral mucosa. This subset of MCT is reported to demonstrate a more aggressive clinical course than those tumours on the haired skin and the authors hypothesised that dogs with oral, mucosal MCT would have a high incidence of local lymph node metastasis at presentation and that this would be a negative prognostic factor. An additional hypothesis was that mitotic index (MI) would be prognostic. This retrospective study examines 33 dogs with MCTs arising from the oral mucosa. The results suggest that oral mucosal MCTs in the dog have a high incidence of lymph node metastasis at diagnosis (55%) which results in a poor prognosis. MI and nodal metastasis is highly prognostic. Loco-regional progression is common in these patients and dogs with adequate local control of their tumour had an improved outcome. Despite a more aggressive clinical course, treatment can result in protracted survivals, even when metastasis is present. PMID:24215587

  7. Contrasts and synergies in different biofuel reports.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, A; Landeweerd, L; Van der Werf-Kulichova, Z; Puylaert, P G B; Osseweijer, P

    2011-04-01

    The societal debate on biofuels is characterised by increased complexity. This can hinder the effective governance of the field. This paper attempts a quantitative bird's eye meta-analysis of this complexity by mapping different stakeholder perspectives and expected outcomes as seen in the secondary literature on biofuels, along the lines of the People-Planet-Profit framework. Our analysis illustrates the tension between stated and actual drivers of large scale biofuel development, especially for first generation biofuels. Although environmental (Planet) aspects have dominated the biofuel debate, their overall assessment is mostly negative with regard to first generation biofuels. By contrast, economic (Profit) aspects are the only ones that are assessed positively with regard to first generation biofuels. Furthermore, positive and negative assessments of biofuel development are strongly influenced by the differences in focus between different stakeholder clusters. Stakeholders who appear generally supportive to biofuel development (industry) focus relatively more on aspects that are generally assessed as positive (Profit). By contrast, non-supportive stakeholders (NGO's) tend to focus mainly on aspects that are generally assessed as negative (Planet). Moreover, our analysis of reference lists revealed few citations of primary scientific data, and also that intergovernmental organizations produce the most influential publications in the debate. The surprising lack of listed references to scientific (primary) data reveals a need to assess in which arena the transition of scientific data towards secondary publications takes place, and how one can measure its quality. This work should be understood as a first effort to take some control over a complex and contradictory number of publications, and to allow the effective governance of the field through the identification of areas of overlapping consensus and persisting controversy, without reverting to claims on

  8. Contrasts and synergies in different biofuel reports

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, A.; Landeweerd, L.; Van der Werf-Kulichova, Z.; Puylaert, P. G. B.; Osseweijer, P.

    2011-01-01

    The societal debate on biofuels is characterised by increased complexity. This can hinder the effective governance of the field. This paper attempts a quantitative bird's eye meta-analysis of this complexity by mapping different stakeholder perspectives and expected outcomes as seen in the secondary literature on biofuels, along the lines of the People-Planet-Profit framework. Our analysis illustrates the tension between stated and actual drivers of large scale biofuel development, especially for first generation biofuels. Although environmental (Planet) aspects have dominated the biofuel debate, their overall assessment is mostly negative with regard to first generation biofuels. By contrast, economic (Profit) aspects are the only ones that are assessed positively with regard to first generation biofuels. Furthermore, positive and negative assessments of biofuel development are strongly influenced by the differences in focus between different stakeholder clusters. Stakeholders who appear generally supportive to biofuel development (industry) focus relatively more on aspects that are generally assessed as positive (Profit). By contrast, non-supportive stakeholders (NGO's) tend to focus mainly on aspects that are generally assessed as negative (Planet). Moreover, our analysis of reference lists revealed few citations of primary scientific data, and also that intergovernmental organizations produce the most influential publications in the debate. The surprising lack of listed references to scientific (primary) data reveals a need to assess in which arena the transition of scientific data towards secondary publications takes place, and how one can measure its quality. This work should be understood as a first effort to take some control over a complex and contradictory number of publications, and to allow the effective governance of the field through the identification of areas of overlapping consensus and persisting controversy, without reverting to claims on

  9. Enhancement of chromatic contrast increases predation risk for striped butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many prey species have evolved defensive colour patterns to avoid attacks. One type of camouflage, disruptive coloration, relies on contrasting patterns that hinder predators' ability to recognize an object. While high contrasts are used to facilitate detection in many visual communication systems, they are thought to provide misleading information about prey appearance in disruptive patterns. A fundamental tenet in disruptive coloration theory is the principle of ‘maximum disruptive contrast’, i.e. disruptive patterns are more effective when higher contrasts are involved. We tested this principle in highly contrasting stripes that have often been described as disruptive patterns. Varying the strength of chromatic contrast between stripes and adjacent pattern elements in artificial butterflies, we found a strong negative correlation between survival probability and chromatic contrast strength. We conclude that too high a contrast leads to increased conspicuousness rather than to effective camouflage. However, artificial butterflies that sported contrasts similar to those of the model species Limenitis camilla survived equally well as background-matching butterflies without these stripes. Contrasting stripes do thus not necessarily increase predation rates. This result may provide new insights into the design and characteristics of a range of colour patterns such as sexual, mimetic and aposematic signals. PMID:18381256

  10. [Oral problems in divers].

    PubMed

    Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J

    2005-05-01

    Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances. PMID:15932043

  11. Aetiology of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, A W; Marnewick, J C

    2012-11-01

    The terms Oral cancer (OC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are used interchangeably, as more than 95% of all OCs are OSCCs. Worldwide up to 275 000 new cases of OC are seen every year. Most of these cases are seen in developing countries such as South Africa. Up to 50% of all patients living with OC will die within five years, and this survival rate has not improved over the last few decades. Tobacco and alcohol usage account for up to 75% of all OC cases. As these causative factors can be avoided, all oral health workers should be aware of the aetiology of OC so that sound preventive advice may be given to their patients. Infections and nutrition play a lesser but still important role in the aetiology of OC. This article reviews the importance of the aetiology of OC, with the emphasis on tobacco and alcohol. PMID:23957094

  12. Nasal vs oral intubation.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, L

    2003-05-01

    Both nasal and oral route for intubation have advantages and disadvantages. Oral intubation is easier to perform, faster and less painful than nasal intubation under direct laryngoscopy, while blind nasal intubation represents a good alternative in conscious patient, without sedation. In trauma patient, oral route should be preferred, with cervical immobilisation. By the contrary, nasal intubation can cause bleeding, retro-pharyngeal and turbinate bones injury, but it seems preferable in preventing laryngeal complications. Moreover nasal intubation seem to increase risk for sinusitis while, there is no clear advantage for any of the two routes, concerning nosocomial pneumonia, bacteriemia and otitis. Nevertheless nasal route increases comfort for the patient and decreases injury and necrosis of tongue and lips; tube fastening is simpler thus reducing accidental extubation. PMID:12768165

  13. Contrasting Rhetorics/Contrasting Cultures: Why Contrastive Rhetoric Needs a Better Conceptualization of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with an underdeveloped notion in the EAP sub-discipline of contrastive rhetoric: culture. It argues that a better conceptualization of contrastive rhetoric needs to include a better conceptualization of culture. After engaging with the complex question "What is culture?" the paper moves on to consider four sets of current issues…

  14. Oral transmucosal drug delivery--current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Mohammed; Sayed, Ossama M; Lane, Majella E

    2014-08-25

    Oral transmucosal drug delivery (OTDD) dosage forms have been available since the 1980s. In contrast to the number of actives currently delivered locally to the oral cavity, the number delivered as buccal or sublingual formulations remains relatively low. This is surprising in view of the advantages associated with OTDD, compared with conventional oral drug delivery. This review examines a number of aspects related to OTDD including the anatomy of the oral cavity, models currently used to study OTDD, as well as commercially available formulations and emerging technologies. The limitations of current methodologies to study OTDD are considered as well as recent publications and new approaches which have advanced our understanding of this route of drug delivery. PMID:24879936

  15. In Defense of Dirty Words: The Case against Judicial Censorship in Oral Interpretation Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Drew B.

    Within the realm of forensic oral interpretation, concern over the use of profanity in presentations has aroused repressive criticism from some judges, who then express their offense by ranking the performance negatively. This judicial opposition is deleterious not only to the precepts of oral interpretation, but also--in a larger sense--to the…

  16. Ultrasound Despeckling for Contrast Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Peter C.; Garson, Christopher D.; Acton, Scott T.; Hossack, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Images produced by ultrasound systems are adversely hampered by a stochastic process known as speckle. A despeckling method based upon removing outlier is proposed. The method is developed to contrast enhance B-mode ultrasound images. The contrast enhancement is with respect to decreasing pixel variations in homogeneous regions while maintaining or improving differences in mean values of distinct regions. A comparison of the proposed despeckling filter is compared with the other well known despeckling filters. The evaluations of despeckling performance are based upon improvements to contrast enhancement, structural similarity, and segmentation results on a Field II simulated image and actual B-mode cardiac ultrasound images captured in vivo. PMID:20227984

  17. Ultrasound despeckling for contrast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Tay, Peter C; Garson, Christopher D; Acton, Scott T; Hossack, John A

    2010-07-01

    Images produced by ultrasound systems are adversely hampered by a stochastic process known as speckle. A despeckling method based upon removing outlier is proposed. The method is developed to contrast enhance B-mode ultrasound images. The contrast enhancement is with respect to decreasing pixel variations in homogeneous regions while maintaining or improving differences in mean values of distinct regions. A comparison of the proposed despeckling filter is compared with the other well known despeckling filters. The evaluations of despeckling performance are based upon improvements to contrast enhancement, structural similarity, and segmentation results on a Field II simulated image and actual B-mode cardiac ultrasound images captured in vivo. PMID:20227984

  18. Per-oral cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

  19. Oral and perioral candidosis.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Ray, T L

    1994-06-01

    The following article has been assembled from the current literature and our clinical experience to provide a comprehensive review of oral and perioral candidal infections. A brief review of the epidemiology and pathogenesis is followed by a description of the various clinical signs and symptoms associated with oral candidosis. Methods useful in arriving at a diagnosis of candidal infection as well as a number of effective therapeutic modalities are discussed. In addition, special considerations relating to the treatment of patients with other concurrent mucosal diseases and long-term antifungal maintenance regimes are addressed. PMID:8060823

  20. Acute oral ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Julia S; Rogers, Roy S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute oral ulcers can be challenging. Important historic details include the pattern of recurrence, anatomic areas of involvement within the mouth and elsewhere on the mucocutaneous surface, associated medical symptoms or comorbidities, and symptomology. Careful mucocutaneous examination is essential. When necessary, biopsy at an active site without ulceration is generally optimal. Depending on the clinical scenario, supplemental studies that may be useful include cultures; perilesional biopsy for direct immunofluorescence testing; and evaluation for infectious diseases, gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, connective tissue diseases, or hematinic deficiencies. Clinicians should maintain a broad differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute oral ulcers. PMID:27343961

  1. Negative refraction and superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amariti, Antonio; Forcella, Davide; Mariotti, Alberto; Siani, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    We discuss exotic properties of charged hydrodynamical systems, in the broken superconducting phase, probed by electromagnetic waves. Motivated by general arguments from hydrodynamics, we observe that negative refraction, namely the propagation in opposite directions of the phase velocities and of the energy flux, is expected for low enough frequencies. We corroborate this general idea by analyzing a holographic superconductor in the AdS/CFT correspondence, where the response functions can be explicitly computed. We study the dual gravitational theory both in the probe and in the backreacted case. We find that, while in the first case the refractive index is positive at every frequency, in the second case there is negative refraction at low enough frequencies. This is in agreement with hydrodynamic considerations.

  2. Think (Gram) negative!

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family in Europe is a worrisome phenomenon. Extended spectrum betalactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains are widespread in the community and are frequently imported into the hospital. Of even more concern is the spread of carbapenem-resistant strains of Klebsiella spp. from regions where they are already endemic. Antibiotic use is a main driver of antibiotic resistance, which again increases broad spectrum antibiotic use, resulting in a vicious circle that is difficult to interrupt. The present commentary highlights important findings of a surveillance study of antimicrobial use and resistance in German ICUs over 8 years with a focus on Gram-negative resistance. PMID:20587087

  3. The impact of oral conditions on children in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 2013.

    PubMed

    Ravaghi, V; Holmes, R D; Steele, J G; Tsakos, G

    2016-08-26

    Background The 2013 Children's Dental Health survey is the fifth in a series of national surveys.Aim To summarise key findings on oral health perceptions, oral symptoms, and the impacts of oral conditions on the daily life of children and their families.Methodology A representative sample of children (aged 5, 8 12 and 15 years) and their parents in England, Wales and Northern Ireland completed relevant questionnaires.Results Oral symptoms, even more profound ones such as toothache, were prevalent among all age groups. Overall, 58% of 12- and 45% of 15-year-olds reported at least one oral impact in the past three months. The most prevalent oral impact was feeling embarrassed to smile or laugh, followed by difficulty eating. These symptoms and oral impacts were disproportionately high among children eligible for free school meals. Furthermore, one fifth to one third of parents reported that their children's oral conditions had some impact on their family life.Conclusion Oral symptoms were common and oral conditions had a negative impact on the quality of life of large proportions of children. There were clear and marked socioeconomic inequalities, with considerably worse oral health perceptions and higher levels of oral impacts among the more deprived children. PMID:27561577

  4. Negative Emissions Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  5. The paradox of better subjective oral health in older age.

    PubMed

    Slade, G D; Sanders, A E

    2011-11-01

    We analyzed data from the 2004-06 Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health to investigate the paradoxical relationship of better subjective oral health in older adults compared with young or middle-aged adults. In interviews with 14,092 adults, prevalence of problems with eating or appearance was not significantly associated with age among dentate people with no denture(s). In contrast, among dentate denture-wearers, prevalence ranged from 18.7% in ≥ 65-year-olds to 46.7% in 25- to 34-year-olds (p < 0.01). Dentate interviewees (n = 3,724) underwent oral epidemiological examinations and completed the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire, evaluating adverse impacts of oral conditions. In multivariable analysis, mean OHIP-14 scores were only weakly associated with age among people who had none of 5 clinical conditions [≥ 5 missing teeth, denture(s), untreated decay, moderate/severe periodontitis, toothache]. However, for people with ≥ 2 clinical conditions, there was a three-fold, inverse association between age and mean OHIP-14 scores (p < 0.01). The findings show that experience of oral disease is more deleterious to subjective oral health when it occurs early in adulthood than when it occurs in old age, a pattern that likely reflects high expectations of young generations and, conversely, great resilience in Australia's oldest generation. PMID:21917599

  6. The negative repetition effect.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Peterson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising negative repetition effect, in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and across pairs, the target words were drawn from a small set of categories. In the repetition condition, the pairs were initially presented in a random order and then presented a 2nd time blocked by the category of the target words. In the single presentation condition, the pairs were presented only in the blocked order. Participants in the former condition recalled fewer target words on a free recall test despite having seen the word pairs twice (the negative repetition effect). This phenomenon is explored in a series of 5 experiments assessing 3 theoretical accounts of the effect. The experiments demonstrate that the negative repetition effect generalizes over multiple encoding conditions (reading and generative encoding), over different memory tests (free and cued recall), and over delay (5 min and 2 days). The results argue against a retrieval account and a levels-of-processing account but are consistent with the item-specific-relational account, the account upon which the effect was initially predicated. PMID:23421508

  7. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  8. [Allergy to radiographic contrast media].

    PubMed

    Vionnet, Julien; Petitpierre, Stéphanie; Fumeaux, Alexandre; Meuli, Reto; Spertini, Francois; Comte, Denis

    2013-04-17

    Allergy to radiographic contrast media Hypersensitivity reactions to radio-contrast media are common in the daily practice. These products are responsible for immediate (< or = 1 hour after administration) and non immediate (> 1 hour after administration) hypersensitivity reactions. A diagnostic work-up by an allergologist with skin tests and in some cases provocation tests is of value in reducing the risk of recurrent hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. A careful selection of the patients is required because the incidence of breakthrough reactions is still concerning, even with proper premedication. Practical recommendations are presented in this article. For gadolinium-based contrast agents, data in the literature is not sufficient for suggesting guidelines. PMID:23667970

  9. Environmentally responsive MRI contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Gemma-Louise; Kramberger, Iris; Davis, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical imaging techniques can provide a vast amount of anatomical information, enabling diagnosis and the monitoring of disease and treatment profile. MRI uniquely offers convenient, non-invasive, high resolution tomographic imaging. A considerable amount of effort has been invested, across several decades, in the design of non toxic paramagnetic contrast agents capable of enhancing positive MRI signal contrast. Recently, focus has shifted towards the development of agents capable of specifically reporting on their local biochemical environment, where a switch in image contrast is triggered by a specific stimulus/biochemical variable. Such an ability would not only strengthen diagnosis but also provide unique disease-specific biochemical insight. This feature article focuses on recent progress in the development of MRI contrast switching with molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticle-based agents. PMID:24040650

  10. Contrast-controlled retinal response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nachieketa K.

    2015-06-01

    A beam of light stimulates the retina weakly when its entry to the pupil is gradually shifted from the centre toward the edge. For single pupil entrance point the light, irrespective of its coherence would still show the Stiles-Crawford effect with diminished visibility toward the edge of the pupil. Only when coherent light is incident from opposing points in the pupil can the effect be cancelled. This paper has attempted a theoretical computation of how the contrast in an interference pattern formed on the retina controls the retina's response in three ways; first, by completely disregarding the Stiles Crawford diminution of effective brightness for unit contrast; next, taking the traditional SCE route for zero contrast, and finally enhancing the diminution in the effective brightness by giving an opposing boost to the visibility in commensurate with a contrast intermediate between the two extremes of unity and zero.

  11. The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the "literate," while the…

  12. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases. PMID:27271597

  13. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases. PMID:27271597

  14. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  15. Contrast-Enhanced Endoscopic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F.; Sharma, M.; Hocke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) introduced guidelines on the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in 2004. This EFSUMB-document focused mainly on liver applications. However, new applications extending beyond the liver were developed thereafter. Increased interest in recent years in CEUS technique and in the application of CEUS in novel fields like endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has revolutionized indications and applications. As a result, the EFSUMB initiated a new update of the guidelines in 2011 to include this additional knowledge. Some of the contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS) indications are established, whereas others are preliminary; these latter indications are categorized as emergent CEUS applications since the available evidence is insufficient for general recommendation. This article focuses on the use of CE-EUS in various clinical settings. The reader will get an overview of current indications and possible applications of CE-EUS. This involves the introduction of different contrast studies including color Doppler techniques (known as contrast-enhanced high mechanical index endosonography or CEHMI-EUS) as well as more modern high-resolution contrast-enhanced techniques (known as contrast-enhanced low mechanical index endosonography or CELMI EUS). PMID:24949350

  16. A theory of behavioral contrast.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Peter R

    2014-11-01

    The reinforcers that maintain target instrumental responses also reinforce other responses that compete with them for expression. This competition, and its imbalance at points of transition between different schedules of reinforcement, causes behavioral contrast. The imbalance is caused by differences in the rates at which different responses come under the control of component stimuli. A model for this theory of behavioral contrast is constructed by expanding the coupling coefficient of MPR (Killeen, 1994). The coupling coefficient gives the degree of association of a reinforcer with the target response (as opposed to other competing responses). Competing responses, often identified as interim or adjunctive or superstitious behavior, are intrinsic to reinforcement schedules, especially interval schedules. In addition to that base-rate of competition, additional competing responses may spill over from the prior component, causing initial contrast; and they may be modulated by conditioned reinforcement or punishment from stimuli associated with subsequent component change, causing terminal contrast. A formalization of these hypotheses employed (a) a hysteresis model of off-target responses giving rise to initial contrast, and (b) a competing traces model of the suppression or enhancement of ongoing competitive responses by signals of following-schedule transition. The theory was applied to transient contrast, the following schedule effect, and the component duration effect. PMID:25244535

  17. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

  18. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product. PMID:21091163

  19. Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... 70.1% have periodontal disease. Periodontal Disease is higher in men than women, and greatest among Mexican Americans and Non-Hispanic blacks, and those with less than a high school education. Healthy People 2020 Works to Eliminate Oral Health ...

  20. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  1. Lakota Oral Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Vivian

    Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota…

  2. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  3. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in ... Budesonide comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler and as a suspension to inhale by mouth using a special jet nebulizer ( ...

  4. Evaluation and Oral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Articles in this journal issue focus primarily on evaluation in the language arts and oral communication. Following an introduction to the two themes, the articles discuss the following: (1) pop quizzes in literature, (2) holistic scoring, (3) self-evaluation strategies in prewriting and rewriting, (4) what not to do in student/teacher…

  5. Oral contraceptive drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Baciewicz, A M

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 50 million women use oral contraceptives (OC). Studies and case reports demonstrate that OC failure may be caused by rifampin, anticonvulsant drugs, and possibly some antibiotics. Contraceptive steroids may interfere with the metabolism of the benzodiazepines, theophylline, and the glucocorticoids. Future investigation will document the clinical significance of other OC interactions as well as give rise to new interactions. PMID:2859674

  6. Imaging in oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist. PMID:23599568

  7. Oral Skills Enhance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, J. Vernon

    1980-01-01

    Twelve methods to enhance the learning of college students and at the same time increase their oral communication skills and classroom participation are presented. They include: facilitators of class discussions, triadic critiques of students' essays, panel discussions, forum periods, debates, and manuscript reading. (JMD)

  8. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Louisville April 4-8, 2017 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine ... of Louisville April 4-8, 2017 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL Patient Resources Oral Medicine practitioners are experts ...

  9. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePlus

    Progestin-only oral contraceptives are used to prevent pregnancy. Progestin is a female hormone. It works by preventing the ... mucus and the lining of the uterus. Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of ...

  10. Oral health related quality of life in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Farhadi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Diabetic patients display an increased risk of oral disorders, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) might affect their management and treatment modalities. The aim of the present study was to determine OHRQL and associated parameters in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods. In this study two hundred patients were recruited from the diabetes clinic in Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. OHRQL was assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-20). Also, another questionnaire was designed which contained questions regarding participants' knowledge about oral complications of diabetes and oral health behavior. OHRQL was categorized as low and good. Data were analyzed using logistic regression at P = 0.05. Results. Of the diabetic patients assessed, 77.5% were in good and 22.5% were in low categories of OHRQL. This quality was significantly associated with age (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.63-11.29), knowledge about diabetes oral complications (OR = 18.17 95% CI = 4.42-158.6), educational level (OR = 26.31 95% CI = 4.2-1080.3), referred for dental visit by physician (OR = 3.16 95% CI = 1.48-6.69), frequency of brushing (OR = 10.29 95% CI = 3.96-31.2) and length of time diagnosed with diabetes (OR = 6.21 95% CI = 2.86-13.63). Conclusion. Oral health related quality of life was not negatively affected by diabetes mellitus in the assessed sample. PMID:25587385

  11. Decreasing gastrointestinal morbidity with the use of small bowel contrast during treatment planning for pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, S.H.; Curran, W.J. Jr.; Solin, L.J.; Stafford, P.M.; Lanciano, R.M.; Hanks, G.E. )

    1991-04-01

    Small bowel tolerance is a major dose-limiting factor in treating the pelvis with radiation therapy (RT). The use of small bowel contrast during RT simulation is one technique used to localize the bowel and identify the treatment plan that would exclude the greatest volume. To determine the influence of treatment planning with oral contrast on gastrointestinal injury, acute and chronic small bowel morbidity was analyzed in 115 patients with endometrial and rectal carcinoma who received postoperative radiation therapy at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Mean and median time of follow-up were 31 and 27 months, respectively. Acute diarrhea was seen in 82% of the patient population. Ten percent of patients experienced major complications requiring hospitalization. Ninety-three percent of patients simulated without contrast experienced side effects compared to 77% of patients simulated with contrast (p = .026). There was an increased incidence of chronic complications in patients who were not simulated with contrast dye (50% vs 23%, p = .014). Median duration of minor side effects was 4 months for patients planned without oral contrast and 1 month for patients who had contrast at the time of simulation (p = .036). The superior aspect of the treatment field was determined to be at a more inferior location in patients simulated with contrast, thereby excluding small bowel from treatment. Seventy-four percent of patients simulated without contrast had the upper border of the field placed at the superior aspect of the sacroiliac joint or above, compared to only 40% of patients planned with oral contrast (p = .002). This study has demonstrated decreased complications (both overall and chronic) as well as a change in the location of the treatment field with the use of small bowel contrast.

  12. Ambient illumination switches contrast preference of specific retinal processing streams

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Contrast, a fundamental feature of visual scenes, is encoded in a distributed manner by ∼20 retinal ganglion cell (RGC) types, which stream visual information to the brain. RGC types respond preferentially to positive (ONpref) or negative (OFFpref) contrast and differ in their sensitivity to preferred contrast and responsiveness to nonpreferred stimuli. Vision operates over an enormous range of mean light levels. The influence of ambient illumination on contrast encoding across RGC types is not well understood. Here, we used large-scale multielectrode array recordings to characterize responses of mouse RGCs under lighting conditions spanning five orders in brightness magnitude. We identify three functional RGC types that switch contrast preference in a luminance-dependent manner (Sw1-, Sw2-, and Sw3-RGCs). As ambient illumination increases, Sw1- and Sw2-RGCs shift from ONpref to OFFpref and Sw3-RGCs from OFFpref to ONpref. In all cases, transitions in contrast preference are reversible and track light levels. By mapping spatiotemporal receptive fields at different mean light levels, we find that changes in input from ON and OFF pathways in receptive field centers underlie shifts in contrast preference. Sw2-RGCs exhibit direction-selective responses to motion stimuli. Despite changing contrast preference, direction selectivity of Sw2-RGCs and other RGCs as well as orientation-selective responses of RGCs remain stable across light levels. PMID:25995351

  13. Hemodynamic and tubular changes induced by contrast media.

    PubMed

    Caiazza, Antonella; Russo, Luigi; Sabbatini, Massimo; Russo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury induced by contrast media (CI-AKI) is the third cause of AKI in hospitalized patients. Contrast media cause relevant alterations both in renal hemodynamics and in renal tubular cell function that lead to CI-AKI. The vasoconstriction of intrarenal vasculature is the main hemodynamic change induced by contrast media; the vasoconstriction is accompanied by a cascade of events leading to ischemia and reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Cytotoxicity of contrast media causes apoptosis of tubular cells with consequent formation of casts and worsening of ischemia. There is an interplay between the negative effects of contrast media on renal hemodynamics and on tubular cell function that leads to activation of renin-angiotensin system and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the kidney. Production of ROS intensifies cellular hypoxia through endothelial dysfunction and alteration of mechanisms regulating tubular cells transport. The physiochemical characteristics of contrast media play a critical role in the incidence of CI-AKI. Guidelines suggest the use of either isoosmolar or low-osmolar contrast media rather than high-osmolar contrast media particularly in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI. Older age, presence of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease, nephrotoxic drugs, and diuretics may multiply the risk of CI-AKI. PMID:24678510

  14. Hemodynamic and Tubular Changes Induced by Contrast Media

    PubMed Central

    Caiazza, Antonella; Russo, Luigi; Russo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury induced by contrast media (CI-AKI) is the third cause of AKI in hospitalized patients. Contrast media cause relevant alterations both in renal hemodynamics and in renal tubular cell function that lead to CI-AKI. The vasoconstriction of intrarenal vasculature is the main hemodynamic change induced by contrast media; the vasoconstriction is accompanied by a cascade of events leading to ischemia and reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Cytotoxicity of contrast media causes apoptosis of tubular cells with consequent formation of casts and worsening of ischemia. There is an interplay between the negative effects of contrast media on renal hemodynamics and on tubular cell function that leads to activation of renin-angiotensin system and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the kidney. Production of ROS intensifies cellular hypoxia through endothelial dysfunction and alteration of mechanisms regulating tubular cells transport. The physiochemical characteristics of contrast media play a critical role in the incidence of CI-AKI. Guidelines suggest the use of either isoosmolar or low-osmolar contrast media rather than high-osmolar contrast media particularly in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI. Older age, presence of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease, nephrotoxic drugs, and diuretics may multiply the risk of CI-AKI. PMID:24678510

  15. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Brittany E; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Jones, Cheron E; Chung, Michelle; Fraser, Claire M; Tate, Anupama; Zeichner, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better

  16. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Brittany E.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Jones, Cheron E.; Chung, Michelle; Fraser, Claire M.; Tate, Anupama; Zeichner, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better

  17. CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HENRY, MABEL WRIGHT, ED.

    IDEAS FOR THE CREATIVE USE OF ORAL LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM ARE PRESENTED IN THIS SYMPOSIUM. PART 1, "THE NEED FOR CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE" BY M.W. HENRY, IS CONCERNED WITH THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVE ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES AND THE ACQUISITION OF READING AND WRITING SKILLS. PART 2, "CHORIC INTERPRETATION" BY…

  18. Oral Proficiency Testing in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Barbara H., Comp.; Mayewski, Sandi, Comp.

    A handbook compiled for use in a one-day workshop on oral proficiency testing for teachers of Russian gives an overview of oral proficiency assessment principles and the available techniques. One section explains the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Service (ACTFL/ETS) Oral Proficiency Interview process and…

  19. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  20. Oral and Perioral Piercing Complications

    PubMed Central

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M.A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-01-01

    Background. The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing Methods. A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ``oral and perioral, piercing ´´, ``oral, piercing and disease”, ``recessions and oral piercing´´. It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series Results. A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. Conclusion. Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. Clinical implications. Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures. PMID:19444317

  1. Oral health for older people.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Compared with previous generations, more older people have retained some or all of their teeth, but more than 40% of community-dwelling older people aged 75 and over have unmet oral health needs. However, the importance of oral health can be undervalued by healthcare professionals and older people. Three studies relating to oral health for older people are summarised. PMID:27573957

  2. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Cancer starts when cells in ... the parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

  3. Oral Manifestations and Molecular Basis of Oral Genodermatoses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shilpasree, A.S.; Chaudhary, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377

  4. Efficacy of Oral Brush Biopsy without Computer-Assisted Analysis in Oral Premalignant and Malignant Lesions: A Study

    PubMed Central

    Trakroo, Aarti; Sunil, M K; Trivedi, Ashwarya; Garg, Ranjana; Kulkarni, Arun; Arora, Saloni

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the present study, the reliability of oral brush biopsy in identifying dysplasia in clinically diagnosed oral potentially malignant and malignant lesions was evaluated while comparing the findings with scalpel biopsy in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Materials and Methods: In our study, a total number of 50 patients that included both premalignant and malignant lesions were included. Oral brush cytology using a cytobrush was done for all patients, which was followed by incisional biopsy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were obtained. To see the agreement between two modalities Kappa test of agreement was applied. A P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Proportions were compared using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Results: Brush cytology using a cytobrush is a reliable adjunct to histopathology in detecting oral premalignant and malignant oral lesions and can be easily performed with less cost and less discomfort. This technique showed a reasonable sensitivity and specificity thus substantiating its reliability in evaluation of oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Conclusion: The oral brush biopsy is a simple and rapid, non-invasive and relatively painless and well accepted by patient. It is suitable in population screening programs and for pre- and post-treatment observation of confirmed premalignant and malignant lesions and has proved applications in incapacitated areas. PMID:25878476

  5. Contrasting persistence strategies in Salmonella and Mycobacterium

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Long-term survival of persistent bacterial pathogens in mammalian hosts critically depends on their ability to avoid elimination by innate and adaptive immune responses. The persistent human pathogens that cause typhoid fever and tuberculosis exemplify alternative strategies for survival in the host: immune evasion and immune adaptation, respectively. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi evades host innate immune responses and inflammation by expressing factors that interfere with its detection as a Gram-negative bacterium, enabling persistent colonization of an immunologically privileged niche, the gallbladder. In contrast, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has adapted to survive within phagocytic cells, which typically eliminate invading microbes, by deploying stress resistance mechanisms that counteract the harsh environment of the phagolysosome. PMID:20056478

  6. Polarized negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  7. Magsat magnetic anomaly contrast across Labrador Sea passive margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Lauren M.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Many passive margins not complicated by nearby anomalous crustal structure have satellite elevation crustal magnetic anomaly contrasts across them that are recognizable in reduced-to-pole versions of the Magsat and POGO data. In the Labrador Sea region this contrast is particularly well developed with strong positive anomalies overlying the continental crust of Greenland and eastern Canada and prominent negative anomalies situated over the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. In this work, forward modeling of the large-scale crustal bodies in this region (continental, oceanic, passive margin, several anomalous structures) was used to show that the Magsat anomaly contrast is due simply to the change in crustal susceptibility and thickness at the continental/oceanic crustal transition. Because the thickness varies more than the average susceptibility from continental to oceanic crust, the strong anomaly contrast is essentially an edge effect due mostly to the change in crustal structure.

  8. Multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuylsteke, Pieter; Schoeters, Emile P.

    1994-05-01

    This article presents a novel approach to the problem of detail contrast enhancement, based on multiresolution representation of the original image. The image is decomposed into a weighted sum of smooth, localized, 2D basis functions at multiple scales. Each transform coefficient represents the amount of local detail at some specific scale and at a specific position in the image. Detail contrast is enhanced by non-linear amplification of the transform coefficients. An inverse transform is then applied to the modified coefficients. This yields a uniformly contrast- enhanced image without artefacts. The MUSICA-algorithm is being applied routinely to computed radiography images of chest, skull, spine, shoulder, pelvis, extremities, and abdomen examinations, with excellent acceptance. It is useful for a wide range of applications in the medical, graphical, and industrial area.

  9. Contrast-enhanced refraction imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Christopher J.; Rogers, Keith D.; Lewis, Rob A.; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Siu, Karen K.; Benci, A.; Kitchen, M.; Pillon, Alessandra; Rigon, Luigi; Round, Andrew J.; Hufton, Alan P.; Evans, Andrew; Pinder, Sarah E.; Evans, S.

    2004-01-01

    An attempt has been made, for the first time, to extend the capabilities of diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) using low concentrations of a contrast agent. A phantom has been constructed to accommodate a systematic series of diluted bromine deoxyuridase (BrDU) samples in liquid form. This was imaged using a conventional DEI arrangement and at a range of energies traversing the Br K-edge. The images were analyzed to provide a quantitative measure of contrast as a function of X-ray energy and (BrDU) concentration. The results indicate that the particular experimental arrangement was not optimized to exploit the potential of this contrast enhancement and several suggestions are discussed to improve this further.

  10. Phase Contrast Imaging in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Kai; Ernst, Thomas; Buchthal, Steve; Speck, Oliver; Anderson, Lynn; Chang, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance phase images can yield superior gray and white matter contrast compared to conventional magnitude images. However, the underlying contrast mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Previous studies have been limited to high field acquisitions in adult volunteers and patients. In this study, phase imaging in the neonatal brain is demonstrated for the first time. Compared to adults, phase differences between gray and white matter are significantly reduced but not inverted in neonates with little myelination and iron deposits in their brains. The remaining phase difference between the neonatal and adult brains may be due to different macromolecule concentration in the unmyelinated brain of the neonates and thus different frequency due to water macromolecule exchange. Additionally, the susceptibility contrast from brain myelination can be separately studied in neonates during brain development. Therefore, magnetic resonance phase imaging is suggested as a novel tool to study neonatal brain development and pathologies in neonates. PMID:21232619

  11. Polycatechol Nanoparticle MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwen; Huang, Yuran; Wang, Zhao; Carniato, Fabio; Xie, Yijun; Patterson, Joseph P; Thompson, Matthew P; Andolina, Christopher M; Ditri, Treffly B; Millstone, Jill E; Figueroa, Joshua S; Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Scadeng, Miriam; Botta, Mauro; Gianneschi, Nathan C

    2016-02-01

    Amphiphilic triblock copolymers containing Fe(III) -catecholate complexes formulated as spherical- or cylindrical-shaped micellar nanoparticles (SMN and CMN, respectively) are described as new T1-weighted agents with high relaxivity, low cytotoxicity, and long-term stability in biological fluids. Relaxivities of both SMN and CMN exceed those of established gadolinium chelates across a wide range of magnetic field strengths. Interestingly, shape-dependent behavior is observed in terms of the particles' interactions with HeLa cells, with CMN exhibiting enhanced uptake and contrast via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with SMN. These results suggest that control over soft nanoparticle shape will provide an avenue for optimization of particle-based contrast agents as biodiagnostics. The polycatechol nanoparticles are proposed as suitable for preclinical investigations into their viability as gadolinium-free, safe, and effective imaging agents for MRI contrast enhancement. PMID:26681255

  12. Contrasting coloration in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Here I survey, collate and synthesize contrasting coloration in 5000 species of terrestrial mammals focusing on black and white pelage. After briefly reviewing alternative functional hypotheses for coloration in mammals, I examine nine colour patterns and combinations on different areas of the body and for each mammalian taxon to try to identify the most likely evolutionary drivers of contrasting coloration. Aposematism and perhaps conspecific signalling are the most consistent explanations for black and white pelage in mammals; background matching may explain white pelage. Evidence for contrasting coloration is being involved in crypsis through pattern blending, disruptive coloration or serving other functions, such as signalling dominance, lures, reducing eye glare or in temperature regulation has barely moved beyond anecdotal stages of investigation. Sexual dichromatism is limited in this taxon and its basis is unclear. Astonishingly, the functional significance of pelage coloration in most large charismatic black and white mammals that were new to science 150 years ago still remains a mystery. PMID:18990666

  13. Segment aberration effects on contrast.

    PubMed

    Crossfield, Ian J; Troy, Mitchell

    2007-07-20

    High-contrast imaging, particularly the direct detection of extrasolar planets, is a major science driver for the next generation of telescopes. This science requires the suppression of scattered starlight at extremely high levels and that telescopes be correctly designed today to meet these stringent requirements in the future. The challenge increases in systems with complicated aperture geometries such as obscured, segmented telescopes. Such systems can also require intensive modeling and simulation efforts in order to understand the trade-offs between different optical parameters. The feasibility and development of a contrast prediction tool for use in the design and systems engineering of these telescopes is described. The performance of a particular starlight suppression system on a large segmented telescope is described analytically. These analytical results and the results of a contrast predictor are then compared with the results of a full wave-optics simulation. PMID:17609697

  14. Contrast-guided image interpolation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhe; Ma, Kai-Kuang

    2013-11-01

    In this paper a contrast-guided image interpolation method is proposed that incorporates contrast information into the image interpolation process. Given the image under interpolation, four binary contrast-guided decision maps (CDMs) are generated and used to guide the interpolation filtering through two sequential stages: 1) the 45(°) and 135(°) CDMs for interpolating the diagonal pixels and 2) the 0(°) and 90(°) CDMs for interpolating the row and column pixels. After applying edge detection to the input image, the generation of a CDM lies in evaluating those nearby non-edge pixels of each detected edge for re-classifying them possibly as edge pixels. This decision is realized by solving two generalized diffusion equations over the computed directional variation (DV) fields using a derived numerical approach to diffuse or spread the contrast boundaries or edges, respectively. The amount of diffusion or spreading is proportional to the amount of local contrast measured at each detected edge. The diffused DV fields are then thresholded for yielding the binary CDMs, respectively. Therefore, the decision bands with variable widths will be created on each CDM. The two CDMs generated in each stage will be exploited as the guidance maps to conduct the interpolation process: for each declared edge pixel on the CDM, a 1-D directional filtering will be applied to estimate its associated to-be-interpolated pixel along the direction as indicated by the respective CDM; otherwise, a 2-D directionless or isotropic filtering will be used instead to estimate the associated missing pixels for each declared non-edge pixel. Extensive simulation results have clearly shown that the proposed contrast-guided image interpolation is superior to other state-of-the-art edge-guided image interpolation methods. In addition, the computational complexity is relatively low when compared with existing methods; hence, it is fairly attractive for real-time image applications. PMID:23846469

  15. Management of oral cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. E.; Langdon, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Oral cancer is a serious disease that is on the increase. The most pressing need is early recognition and referral for specialist treatment. Too many cases present with advanced tumours. Radiotherapy and surgery remain the primary modalities of curative treatment, but understanding of tumour pathology and developments in surgical and radiotherapeutic technique have combined to produce a rational approach to management. In many instances 'radical' methods of surgical access can be combined with a more 'conservative' resection of the mandible or cervical lymph nodes. One-stage reconstructive procedures, often incorporating osteotomy techniques, miniature bone plating and free tissue transfer, have minimised the morbidity and functional deficit so often seen after earlier operations. All surgeons involved in the modern management of oral cancer should have expertise in these techniques or be part of a team which can provide them. PMID:8540656

  16. Oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Olson, Meredith A; Rogers, Roy S; Bruce, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that can affect the skin, hair, nails, and mucosal surfaces. Mucosal sites of involvement include oral, genital, ocular, otic, esophageal, and, less commonly, bladder, nasal, laryngeal, and anal surfaces. Oral lichen planus is a mucosal variant of lichen planus, which tends to affect women more often than men, with a typically more chronic course and potential for significant morbidity. Treatment can be challenging, and there is potentially a low risk of malignant transformation; however, therapeutic benefits can be obtained with various topical and systemic medications. Clinical monitoring is recommended to ensure symptomatic control. Increasing awareness and recognition of this entity have continued to fuel advances in therapy and in our understanding of the disease. PMID:27343965

  17. The new oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Garcia, David; Libby, Edward; Crowther, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Although their first application in clinical practice occurred in the 1940s, vitamin K antagonists remain the only form of oral anticoagulant medication approved for long-term use. Although the available vitamin K antagonists are highly effective for the prevention and/or treatment of most thrombotic disease, the significant interpatient and intrapatient variability in dose-response, the narrow therapeutic index, and the numerous drug and dietary interactions associated with these agents have led clinicians, patients, and investigators to search for alternative agents. Three new orally administered anticoagulants (apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban) are in the late stages of development and several others are just entering (or moving through) earlier phases of investigation. These novel anticoagulant medications are being studied for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism, the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. This review summarizes published clinical trial data pertinent to apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban. PMID:19880491

  18. Immunologically mediated oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N; Anita, N; Babu, R

    2015-04-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713

  19. Negative Entropy of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  20. Negative Optical Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C. T.

    2014-09-01

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of ``negative optical torque'', meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.

  1. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  2. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  3. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  4. Negative Optical Torque

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of “negative optical torque”, meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained. PMID:25226863

  5. Do `negative' temperatures exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  6. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  7. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature. PMID:27352462

  8. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Rubin, D F

    1981-04-01

    Dermatologists often prescribe oral tetracycline for the control of acne, primarily, and to a much lesser extent, for the treatment of cutaneous infections. A number of the patients taking tetracycline are also taking birth control pills. A recent article in the British Medical Journal (1980;1:293) indicates that this combination can lead to a failure of the (OC) oral contraceptive. Such failure had been associated with ampicillin as well. It is believed that the mechanism for this was the disturbance in normal gut flora, with consequent effects on bacterial hydrolysis of steroid conjugates. This would interrupt the enterohepatic circulation of contraceptive steroids, resulting in a less than normal concentration of circulating steroids. It was recommended that women taking low-dose OCs take extra precautions against pregnancy during any cycle in which antibiotics are given. In regard to our care of and responsibilities to our patients, and in an era when malpractice suits for all types of reasons are more common, it certainly behooves dermatologists to recognize and be concerned about this potential consequence of prescribing oral antibiotics. PMID:7212735

  9. The impact of an educational pamphlet on the awareness of parents about 4‒6-year-old children’s oral habits and dentofacial discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Faghihi, Fatemeh; Golkari, Ali; Saki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to evaluate whether the parents’ knowledge about the adverse effects of oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies would improve by an educational pamphlet. Methods. A parallel-group randomized clinical trial was conducted on parents in kindergartens of Shiraz, Iran, 2013. The parents completed a designed questionnaire to determine the pre-intervention score. The study group received an educational pamphlet on the oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, in contrast to the control group. Three weeks later, the parents in both groups took the questionnaire again (post-intervention score). The primary outcome was a change in the parents’ knowledge about oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, which was measured by 13 questions of the questionnaire. Each correct answer was given a positive point and each incorrect answer a negative point. The total pre- and post-intervention scores were calculated by summing up the points and compared using Mann–Whitney U test. Results. A total of 550 subjects were assessed for eligibility and 413 were randomized. Of the study group, 203 subjects (98.56%), and of the control group, 204 parents (98.54%) completed the questionnaire for the second time. The score of the study group in the "normal occlusion" section of the questionnaire had significantly improved (P < 0.001) and in the "oral habits" section the score of both groups had improved but in the study group the improvement was significantly higher (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The educational pamphlet can be effective in increasing the level of parents’ knowledge about normal occlusion and complications of oral habits. PMID:27092216

  10. 19. Print from copy negative (original glass plate negative in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Print from copy negative (original glass plate negative in Tippecanoe County Historical Society.) Original photo dated May 7, 1893. View north, south side. - Big Four Depot, 10 South Second Street, Lafayette, Tippecanoe County, IN

  11. Effects of Hangeshashinto on Growth of Oral Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Fukamachi, Haruka; Matsumoto, Chinami; Omiya, Yuji; Arimoto, Takafumi; Morisaki, Hirobumi; Kataoka, Hideo; Kadena, Miki; Funatsu, Takahiro; Fukutake, Masato; Kase, Yoshio; Kuwata, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy has a significant impact on quality of life, and causes considerable morbidity. Oral microorganisms are likely to intensify the inflammatory process and aggravate the formation of ulcers. Hangeshashinto (HST), a Japanese kampo medicine, has been reported to be effective when used as a gargle for the treatment of OM. To clarify the effects of HST on oral microorganisms, we assessed its antimicrobial activity against 27 microbial species, including 19 oral bacteria and one fungus. HST extract inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, though inhibitory effects were less pronounced for Gram-positive bacteria and the fungal strain. We then investigated the effects of antibacterial activities on 15 purified ingredients of HST and determined that baicalein, berberine, coptisine, [6]-shogaol, and homogentisic acid actively inhibited the growth of these bacteria. These findings showed that HST inhibits the growth of specific Gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria, which are significant pathogens in OM, without disturbing the normal oral flora. Our data suggest that HST may be a useful treatment for OM in patients undergoing anticancer treatment. PMID:26170876

  12. Contrast Analysis for Scale Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olejnik, Stephen F.; And Others

    Research on tests for scale equality have focused exclusively on an overall test statistic and have not examined procedures for identifying specific differences in multiple group designs. The present study compares four contrast analysis procedures for scale differences in the single factor four-group design: (1) Tukey HSD; (2) Kramer-Tukey; (3)…

  13. Cluster Analysis by Linear Contrasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafto, Michael

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a technique of cluster analysis which is similar in aim to the Interactive Intercolumnar Correlation Analysis (IICA), though different in detail. Two methods are proposed for extracting a single bipolar factor (a "contrast compenent") directly from the initial similarities matrix. The advantages of this…

  14. Oral health-related quality of life and its relationship to self-reported oral discomfort and clinical status.

    PubMed

    Einarson, Susanne; Gerdin, Elisabeth Wärnbring; Hugoson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The impact of oral health on quality of life is one aspect when it comes to understanding the significance of oral health. The aim of this study was to analyse the self-reported oral discomfort and clinical status of individuals reporting oral problems never/very seldom affecting quality of life during the last year and compare them with individuals who reported oral problems hardly ever/occasionally or often/very often during the the same period. The study comprised a stratified random sample of 515 individuals who lived in four parishes in the City of Jonköping, Sweden, and turned 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 years of age in 2003. The impact of oral health on quality of life was examined using the OHIP-14 questionnaire. The individuals were also examined clinically and radiographically. Of the participants, 21% reported no experience of impaired quality of life and 20% of the individuals reported that they had experienced impaired quality of life often or very often during the last year. The highest frequency of oral problems was found among individuals aged 20 and 80 years. Subjective symptoms, such as grinding/clenching and headache, were found among 20- and 30-year-olds. Edentulous individuals and individuals with many missing teeth, individuals with severe periodontal disease or subjective dry mouth answered that they experienced problems according to the OHIP-14 often or very often. A number of individuals, young and old, had thus experienced subjective or clinically verified oral conditions associated with a negative experience of quality of life. This complementary information will provide a deeper understanding of the importance of oral health in the population. PMID:25771651

  15. HIV Prevention by Oral Preexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Heneine, Walid; Kashuba, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The impressive advances in antiretroviral (ARV) therapy of chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections during the last decade and the availability of potent ARV drugs have fueled interest in using chemoprophylaxis as a novel HIV prevention strategy. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) refers to the use of ARV drugs in HIV-negative persons to prevent HIV infection. The rationale for PrEP builds on the success of ARV prophylaxis in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV and on a large body of animal studies that show the efficacy of PrEP against mucosal and parenteral infection. We focus on oral administration of ARV drugs for prevention of HIV infection. Identifying an effective prophylactic pill that individuals can take outside the setting of sexual intercourse precludes the necessity to disclose such use to their partners, thereby empowering those who might not be in a position to negotiate with their partners. Several human clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of daily regimens of the HIV reverse-transcriptase (RT) inhibitors tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or Truvada (TDF and emtricitabine [FTC]) are under way among high-risk populations. The results of one trial among men who have sex with men showed that daily Truvada was safe and effective, providing the first support for oral PrEP as a prevention strategy. Here we outline the preclinical and clinical research on oral PrEP, pharmacologic considerations, and future directions and challenges. PMID:22393535

  16. Work Group report: oral food challenge testing.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Assa'ad, Amal H; Bahna, Sami L; Bock, S Allan; Sicherer, Scott H; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2009-06-01

    Oral food challenges are procedures conducted by allergists/immunologists to make an accurate diagnosis of immediate, and occasionally delayed, adverse reactions to foods. The timing of the challenge is carefully chosen based on the individual patient history and the results of skin prick tests and food specific serum IgE values. The type of the challenge is determined by the history, the age of the patient, and the likelihood of encountering subjective reactions. The food challenge requires preparation of the patient for the procedure and preparation of the office for the organized conduct of the challenge, for a careful assessment of the symptoms and signs and the treatment of reactions. The starting dose, the escalation of the dosing, and the intervals between doses are determined based on experience and the patient's history. The interpretation of the results of the challenge and arrangements for follow-up after a challenge are important. A negative oral food challenge result allows introduction of the food into the diet, whereas a positive oral food challenge result provides a sound basis for continued avoidance of the food. PMID:19500710

  17. Single-resonator double-negative metamaterial

    DOEpatents

    Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Johnson, William A.; Ihlefeld, Jon; Ginn, III, James C.; Clem, Paul G.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2016-06-21

    Resonances can be tuned in dielectric resonators in order to construct single-resonator, negative-index metamaterials. For example, high-contrast inclusions in the form of metallic dipoles can be used to shift the first electric resonance down (in frequency) to the first magnetic resonance, or alternatively, air splits can be used to shift the first magnetic resonance up (in frequency) near the first electric resonance. Degenerate dielectric designs become especially useful in infrared- or visible-frequency applications where the resonator sizes associated with the lack of high-permittivity materials can become of sufficient size to enable propagation of higher-order lattice modes in the resulting medium.

  18. Negative impact of manganese on honeybee foraging

    PubMed Central

    Søvik, Eirik; Perry, Clint J.; LaMora, Angie; Barron, Andrew B.; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic accumulation of metals such as manganese is a well-established health risk factor for vertebrates. By contrast, the long-term impact of these contaminants on invertebrates is mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrate that manganese ingestion alters brain biogenic amine levels in honeybees and fruit flies. Furthermore, we show that manganese exposure negatively affects foraging behaviour in the honeybee, an economically important pollinator. Our findings indicate that in addition to its direct impact on human health, the common industrial contaminant manganese might also have indirect environmental and economical impacts via the modulation of neuronal and behavioural functions in economically important insects. PMID:25808001

  19. Interference of medical contrast media on laboratory testing

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Daves, Massimo; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The use of contrast media such as organic iodine molecules and gadolinium contrast agents is commonplace in diagnostic imaging. Although there is widespread perception that side effects and drug interactions may be the leading problems caused by these compounds, various degrees of interference with some laboratory tests have been clearly demonstrated. Overall, the described interference for iodinate contrast media include inappropriate gel barrier formation in blood tubes, the appearance of abnormal peaks in capillary zone electrophoresis of serum proteins, and a positive bias in assessment of cardiac troponin I with one immunoassay. The interference for gadolinium contrast agents include negative bias in calcium assessment with ortho-cresolphthalein colorimetric assays and occasional positive bias using some Arsenazo reagents, negative bias in measurement of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and zinc (colorimetric assay), as well as positive bias in creatinine (Jaffe reaction), total iron binding capacity (TIBC, ferrozine method), magnesium (calmagite reagent) and selenium (mass spectrometry) measurement. Interference has also been reported in assessment of serum indices, pulse oximetry and methaemoglobin in samples of patients receiving Patent Blue V. Under several circumstances the interference was absent from manufacturer-supplied information and limited to certain type of reagents and/or analytes, so that local verification may be advisable to establish whether or not the test in use may be biased. Since the elimination half-life of these compounds is typically lower than 2 h, blood collection after this period may be a safer alternative in patients who have received contrast media for diagnostic purposes. PMID:24627717

  20. Veillonella, Firmicutes: Microbes disguised as Gram negatives

    PubMed Central

    Vesth, Tammi; Ozen, Aslı; Andersen, Sandra C.; Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Bohlin, Jon; Nookaew, Intawat; Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Ussery, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The Firmicutes represent a major component of the intestinal microflora. The intestinal Firmicutes are a large, diverse group of organisms, many of which are poorly characterized due to their anaerobic growth requirements. Although most Firmicutes are Gram positive, members of the class Negativicutes, including the genus Veillonella, stain Gram negative. Veillonella are among the most abundant organisms of the oral and intestinal microflora of animals and humans, in spite of being strict anaerobes. In this work, the genomes of 24 Negativicutes, including eight Veillonella spp., are compared to 20 other Firmicutes genomes; a further 101 prokaryotic genomes were included, covering 26 phyla. Thus a total of 145 prokaryotic genomes were analyzed by various methods to investigate the apparent conflict of the Veillonella Gram stain and their taxonomic position within the Firmicutes. Comparison of the genome sequences confirms that the Negativicutes are distantly related to Clostridium spp., based on 16S rRNA, complete genomic DNA sequences, and a consensus tree based on conserved proteins. The genus Veillonella is relatively homogeneous: inter-genus pair-wise comparison identifies at least 1,350 shared proteins, although less than half of these are found in any given Clostridium genome. Only 27 proteins are found conserved in all analyzed prokaryote genomes. Veillonella has distinct metabolic properties, and significant similarities to genomes of Proteobacteria are not detected, with the exception of a shared LPS biosynthesis pathway. The clade within the class Negativicutes to which the genus Veillonella belongs exhibits unique properties, most of which are in common with Gram-positives and some with Gram negatives. They are only distantly related to Clostridia, but are even less closely related to Gram-negative species. Though the Negativicutes stain Gram-negative and possess two membranes, the genome and proteome analysis presented here confirm their place within the

  1. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  2. Comprehension of action negation involves inhibitory simulation.

    PubMed

    Foroni, Francesco; Semin, Gün R

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that action language is comprehended by activating the motor system. We report a study, investigating a critical question in this research field: do negative sentences activate the motor system? Participants were exposed to sentences in the affirmation and negation forms while the zygomatic muscle activity on the left side of the face was continuously measured (Electromyography technique: EMG). Sentences were descriptions of emotional expressions that mapped either directly upon the zygomatic muscle (e.g., "I am smiling") or did not (e.g., "I am frowning"). Reading sentences involving the negation of the activity of a specific muscle (zygomatic major-"I am not smiling") is shown to lead to the inhibition of this muscle. Reading sentences involving the affirmative form instead ("I am smiling") leads to the activation of zygomatic mucle. In contrast, sentences describing an activity that is irrelevant to the zygomatic muscle (e.g., "I am frowning" or "I am not frowning") produce no muscle activity. These results extend the range of simulation models to negation and by implication to an abstract domain. We discuss how this research contributes to the grounding of abstract and concrete concepts. PMID:23754996

  3. Oral toxicity produced by chemotherapy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Antineoplastic chemotherapy remains one of the most widely used management strategies in cancer, either alone or in combination with other types of treatment. The main inconvenience of chemotherapy is its lack of selectivity, since it acts upon both tumor cells and rapidly multiplying normal cells such as bone marrow cells, hair follicle cells and oral and gastrointestinal mucosal cells. Material and method: An exhaustive search was made of the main oral toxic effects of chemotherapy in the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases. A total of 1293 articles were identified, of which 333 met the study inclusion criteria. Results: The toxic effects of chemotherapy at oral mucosal level comprise mucositis, osteonecrosis of the jaws secondary to bisphosphonate use, susceptibility to infections, dental alterations, salivary and neurological disorders, dysgeusia and bleeding tendency. These complications have a negative impact upon patient quality of life, and in some cases can prove life-threatening. Conclusions: Evaluation of patient oral and dental health is essential before administering chemotherapy, in order to minimize the risk of oral and systemic complications of such treatment. Key words:Chemotherapy, oral complications, dental, saliva and osteonecrosis jaw. PMID:24596641

  4. Implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Almas, Khalid; Romanos, George E

    2010-12-01

    The overall impression regarding the success of dental implants (DI) in patients having undergone oral cancer therapy remains unclear. The aim of the present review study was to assess the implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy. Databases were explored from 1986 up to and including September 2010 using the following keywords in various combinations: "cancer", "chemotherapy", "dental implant", "oral", "osseointegration", "radiotherapy", "surgery" and "treatment". The eligibility criteria were: (1) original research articles; (2) clinical studies; (3) reference list of pertinent original and review studies; (4) intervention: patients having undergone radio- and chemotherapy following oral cancer surgery; and (5) articles published only in English. Twenty-one clinical studies were included. Results from 16 studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone radiotherapy following oral cancer surgery; whereas three studies showed irradiation to have negative effects on the survival of DI. Two studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone chemotherapy. It is concluded that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone oral cancer treatment. PMID:21055997

  5. Prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Stecksén-Blicks, C; Granström, E; Silfverdal, S A; West, C E

    2015-09-01

    Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by primary microbial exposure and bioactive factors in breastmilk. The aim was to explore the prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life in relation to selected exposures. Oral Candida was studied in 100 healthy infants at 4 and 8 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months of age and related to delivery mode, birth weight, infant health and feeding, antibiotics, antimycotics, steroids and probiotics in mother and infant, living conditions, maternal smoking and infections The association between lactoferrin and antisecretory factor in breastmilk and maternal serum haemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin levels in relation to oral Candida was also explored. About 11% to 15% of the infants had oral Candida at the respective age. Colonisation was fairly stable until 6 months of age. There was no conclusive impact of the investigated exposures at entry. Infants with a furry pet at home had a lower frequency of Candida at 3 months, (P < 0.05) whereas all but one colonised infant had older siblings at 12 months (P < 0.01). Lactoferrin in breastmilk was negatively associated with colonisation at 6 months of age. It is concluded that 11 to 15% had oral Candida. Exposure to furry pets and siblings impacted oral Candida. PMID:26214300

  6. Oral transit time: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Thais Jacóe; MORAES, Danielle Pedroni; de MEDEIROS, Gisele Chagas; SASSI, Fernanda Chiarion; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno; de ANDRADE, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral transit time is one of the parameters observed during the clinical assessment of the swallowing function. The importance of this parameter is due to its impact on the total duration of a meal, whose consequence can be an unfavorable nutritional prognostic. Objective To document scientific papers that measure oral transit time in healthy subjects. Method The review followed the steps proposed by the Cochrane Handbook. The search was done via the PubMed database through the use of descriptors related to the oral phase of swallowing, as well as to types of food consistency. Results The articles on the theme had different definitions for oral transit time, as well as heterogeneity of tested volumes, age and gender of the participants. The times found varied from 0.35 s to 1.54 s for liquids, from 0.39 s to 1.05 s for pasty foods and from 1 s to 12.8 s for solid foods. Also, regardless of volume or consistency, oral transit time in elderly people is significantly longer than in adults. Conclusion There's no consensus in the literature about oral transit time in healthy subjects. However, this parameter should be valued during the assessment of the swallowing function due to its negative impact on the dynamics of swallowing, which can cause high energy expenditure during feeding. PMID:26176255

  7. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  8. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  9. Plasmonics without negative dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2016-05-01

    Plasmonic phenomena are exhibited in light-matter interaction involving materials whose real parts of permittivity functions attain negative values at operating wavelengths. However, such materials usually suffer from dissipative losses, thus limiting the performance of plasmon-based optical devices. Here, we utilize an alternative methodology that mimics a variety of plasmonic phenomena by exploiting the well-known structural dispersion of electromagnetic modes in bounded guided-wave structures filled with only materials with positive permittivity. A key issue in the design of such structures is prevention of mode coupling, which can be achieved by implementing thin metallic wires at proper interfaces. This method, which is more suitable for lower frequencies, allows designers to employ conventional dielectrics and highly conductive metals for which the loss is low at these frequencies, while achieving plasmonic features. We demonstrate, numerically and analytically, that this platform can provide surface plasmon polaritons, local plasmonic resonance, plasmonic cloaking, and epsilon-near-zero-based tunneling using conventional positive-dielectric materials.

  10. Coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karsten; Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-10-01

    The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  11. Vallecular Varix: A Perplexing Cause of Oral Cavity Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Polacco, Marc A.; Ossoff, Jacob; Paydarfar, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Often discovered only after an extensive work up for hemoptysis and hematemesis, vallecular varices are a rare cause of oral bleeding that increase patient morbidity due to delay of diagnosis. We describe an 89-year-old male who presented with a week of intermittent oral blood production. A vallecular varix was identified on fiberoptic laryngoscopy after studies for hematemesis and hemoptysis had been performed, including negative esophagogastroduodenoscopy and bronchoscopy. Awareness of this pathology and key points in the patient history can direct the clinician toward the correct diagnosis, expediting treatment and limiting invasive diagnostic procedures for pulmonary or gastric etiologies of bleeding. PMID:26759685

  12. Contrast media in cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Massimo; Aquaro, Giovanni; Favilli, Brunella

    2005-01-01

    Among the available imaging techniques, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is gaining an increasing role in the cardiologic setting because its specific properties such as the use of non ionising energies, the natural strong contrast between different tissues, the absence of spatial limitations, the good spatial and temporal resolution, the reduced operator dependency. To further improve the images quality and the histopathologic characterisation of tissues the use of contrast media (molecules containing gadolinium, manganese, iron, dysprosium ions) has been proposed both in the experimental and in the clinical settings. Among these ions gadolinium, which having 7 odd electrons in the external orbit has a strong magnetic momentum, is the most used. Gadolinium by itself is extremely toxic but once it is linked with a chelanting agent such as DTPA (Dietilen-Triamin-Penta-Acetic acid) the resulting complex shows a very low toxicity. The number of Gadolinium based compound is growing together with the use of contrast agents in MRI. These contrast agents are routinely used to perform Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and to a better definition of several cardiac diseases such as the presence of a intra- or paracardiac mass, the evaluation of myocardial perfusion and the evaluation of viability. Both the latter applications have relevant clinical implications. In fact the assessment of myocardial perfusion is one of the most used approach for detecting inducible myocardial ischemia due to major coronary artery disease or to assess the presence of a microvascular disease. The presence and the extent of viable myocardium is deeply modifying the clinical decision making as this viable tissue can recruit a normal function spontaneously or after revascularisation. Furthermore, the extent of viable myocardium has a strong correlation with negative prognosis. Clinical events are also time related to the detection of viable tissue. These evidences imply that the diagnostic

  13. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Many wounds are difficult to heal, despite medical and nursing care. They may result from complications of an underlying disease, like diabetes; or from surgery, constant pressure, trauma, or burns. Chronic wounds are more often found in elderly people and in those with immunologic or chronic diseases. Chronic wounds may lead to impaired quality of life and functioning, to amputation, or even to death. The prevalence of chronic ulcers is difficult to ascertain. It varies by condition and complications due to the condition that caused the ulcer. There are, however, some data on condition-specific prevalence rates; for example, of patients with diabetes, 15% are thought to have foot ulcers at some time during their lives. The approximate community care cost of treating leg ulcers in Canada, without reference to cause, has been estimated at upward of $100 million per year. Surgically created wounds can also become chronic, especially if they become infected. For example, the reported incidence of sternal wound infections after median sternotomy is 1% to 5%. Abdominal surgery also creates large open wounds. Because it is sometimes necessary to leave these wounds open and allow them to heal on their own (secondary intention), some may become infected and be difficult to heal. Yet, little is known about the wound healing process, and this makes treating wounds challenging. Many types of interventions are used to treat wounds. Current best practice for the treatment of ulcers and other chronic wounds includes debridement (the removal of dead or contaminated tissue), which can be surgical, mechanical, or chemical; bacterial balance; and moisture balance. Treating the cause, ensuring good nutrition, and preventing primary infection also help wounds to heal. Saline or wet-to-moist dressings are reported as

  14. Desmosomal component expression in normal, dysplastic, and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Nagamani; Gist, Julie; Smith, Tyler; Tylka, Daniel; Trogdon, Gavin; Wahl, James K

    2010-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (oral SCC) is the most common oral cancer in the U.S., affecting nearly 30,000 Americans each year. Despite recent advances in detection and treatment, there has been little improvement in the five-year survival rate for this devastating disease. Oral cancer may be preceded by premalignant disease that appears histologically as dysplasia. Identification of molecular markers for cellular change would assist in determining the risk of dysplasia progressing to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The goal of this study was to determine if any correlation exists between histological diagnosed dysplasia and OSCC lesions and altered expression of desmosomal cell-cell adhesion molecules in the oral epithelium. Our data showed that oral SCC tissue samples showed decreased immunoreactivity of both desmoplakin and plakophilin-1 proteins compared to normal oral epithelium. Furthermore, significant decrease in desmoplakin immunoreactivity was observed in dysplastic tissue compared to normal oral epithelium. In contrast, the level of desmoglein-1 staining was unchanged between samples however desmoglein-1 was found localized to cell borders in oral SCC samples. These data suggest that changes in expression of desmoplakin and plakophilin-1 may prove to be a useful marker for changes in tissue morphology and provide a tool for identifying pre-neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:20585603

  15. Comparative analysis of oral health indicators among young children in Hawai'i, the Republic of Palau and Territory of Guam, 1999-2000.

    PubMed

    Greer, Mark H K; Larson, Keith; Sison, Suzanne

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries prevalence data were collected in Hawai'i, Palau and Guam and analyzed for dft, DMFT, unmet treatment needs, sealant utilization and various caries patterns. Data sets include examinations of 24,752 children ages 5 through 9 years of age in Hawai'i, 558 children in Palau and 1,518 children in Guam. Dental disease in early childhood is truly endemic throughout the Pacific basin. The findings of this report quantify in a standardized manner and contrast, basic oral health / oral disease indicators from each jurisdiction. While children from all three jurisdictions demonstrated dental disease prevalence rates which far exceed those found on the U.S. mainland, overall, children in Guam were found to be the poorest oral health indicators, followed by Palau and Hawai'i. Overall, young children at all sites exhibited excessively high caries prevalence and unmet treatment needs rates. Significant progress has been made at Palau in the past decade, however, at all three sites presented, more work is necessary if early childhood caries is to be brought under control. Findings also include an apparent negative correlation between dental sealants and DMFT rates. PMID:16276935

  16. Conservatives, liberals, and "the negative".

    PubMed

    Charney, Evan

    2014-06-01

    The authors connect conservatism with aversion to negativity via the tendentious use of the language of threats to characterize conservatism, but not liberalism. Their reliance upon an objective conception of the negative ignores the fact that much of the disagreement between liberals and conservatives is over whether or not one and the same state of affairs is negative or positive. PMID:24970432

  17. Negativity bias and basic values.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H

    2014-06-01

    Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

  18. High-contrast imaging testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Silva, D; Poyneer, L; Macintosh, B; Bauman, B; Palmer, D; Remington, T; Delgadillo-Lariz, M

    2008-01-23

    Several high-contrast imaging systems are currently under construction to enable the detection of extra-solar planets. In order for these systems to achieve their objectives, however, there is considerable developmental work and testing which must take place. Given the need to perform these tests, a spatially-filtered Shack-Hartmann adaptive optics system has been assembled to evaluate new algorithms and hardware configurations which will be implemented in these future high-contrast imaging systems. In this article, construction and phase measurements of a membrane 'woofer' mirror are presented. In addition, results from closed-loop operation of the assembled testbed with static phase plates are presented. The testbed is currently being upgraded to enable operation at speeds approaching 500 hz and to enable studies of the interactions between the woofer and tweeter deformable mirrors.

  19. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229

  20. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  1. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

  2. Advancing High Contrast Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammons, M.; Poyneer, L.; GPI Team

    2014-09-01

    A long-standing challenge has been to directly image faint extrasolar planets adjacent to their host suns, which may be ~1-10 million times brighter than the planet. Several extreme AO systems designed for high-contrast observations have been tested at this point, including SPHERE, Magellan AO, PALM-3000, Project 1640, NICI, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI, Macintosh et al. 2014). The GPI is the world's most advanced high-contrast adaptive optics system on an 8-meter telescope for detecting and characterizing planets outside of our solar system. GPI will detect a previously unstudied population of young analogs to the giant planets of our solar system and help determine how planetary systems form. GPI employs a 44x44 woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor operating at 1 kHz. The controller uses Fourier-based reconstruction and modal gains optimized from system telemetry (Poyneer et al. 2005, 2007). GPI has an apodized Lyot coronal graph to suppress diffraction and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph for obtaining planetary spectra. This paper discusses current performance limitations and presents the necessary instrumental modifications and sensitivity calculations for scenarios related to high-contrast observations of non-sidereal targets.

  3. Electrofluidic systems for contrast management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, Keith J.; Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Tiffany, Jason E.; Brown, Christopher Y.; Maisano, Adam J.; Hagedon, Matthew A.; Heikenfeld, Jason C.

    2012-06-01

    Operating in dynamic lighting conditions and in greatly varying backgrounds is challenging. Current paints and state-ofthe- art passive adaptive coatings (e.g. photochromics) are not suitable for multi- environment situations. A semi-active, low power, skin is needed that can adapt its reflective properties based on the background environment to minimize contrast through the development and incorporation of suitable pigment materials. Electrofluidic skins are a reflective display technology for electronic ink and paper applications. The technology is similar to that in E Ink but makes use of MEMS based microfluidic structures, instead of simple black and white ink microcapsules dispersed in clear oil. Electrofluidic skin's low power operation and fast switching speeds (~20 ms) are an improvement over current state-ofthe- art contrast management technologies. We report on a microfluidic display which utilizes diffuse pigment dispersion inks to change the contrast of the underlying substrate from 5.8% to 100%. Voltage is applied and an electromechanical pressure is used to pull a pigment dispersion based ink from a hydrophobic coated reservoir into a hydrophobic coated surface channel. When no voltage is applied, the Young-Laplace pressure pushes the pigment dispersion ink back down into the reservoir. This allows the pixel to switch from the on and off state by balancing the two pressures. Taking a systems engineering approach from the beginning of development has enabled the technology to be integrated into larger systems.

  4. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. PMID:25565096

  5. Oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michaell A; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

    2014-11-01

    Oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a complex and often relentless malignancy prone to local invasion and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the disease and improved therapeutic interventions, it continues to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and the survival rate remains poor. The financial cost of treating OPC may be the highest of all cancers in the United States and survivors often experience major detriments to quality of life. Major risk factors for OPC are tobacco, alcohol, areca nut, and human papillomavirus infection. This article updates medical practitioners on the causes, presentation, diagnosis, and management of OPC. PMID:25443678

  6. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  7. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis.

    PubMed

    de Paulo, Luiz Fernando Barbosa; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; Durighetto, Antonio Francisco; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny

    2015-06-01

    Known as "the great imitator," secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions. PMID:25892249

  8. Association of parental health literacy with oral health of Navajo Nation preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Brega, A G; Thomas, J F; Henderson, W G; Batliner, T S; Quissell, D O; Braun, P A; Wilson, A; Bryant, L L; Nadeau, K J; Albino, J

    2016-02-01

    Health literacy is 'the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions'. Although numerous studies show a link between health literacy and clinical outcomes, little research has examined the association of health literacy with oral health. No large-scale studies have assessed these relationships among American Indians, a population at risk for limited health literacy and oral health problems. This analysis was conducted as part of a clinical trial aimed at reducing dental decay among preschoolers in the Navajo Nation Head Start program. Using baseline data for 1016 parent-child dyads, we examined the association of parental health literacy with parents' oral health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, as well as indicators of parental and pediatric oral health. More limited health literacy was associated with lower levels of oral health knowledge, more negative oral health attitudes, and lower levels of adherence to recommended oral health behavior. Parents with more limited health literacy also had significantly worse oral health status (OHS) and reported their children to have significantly worse oral health-related quality of life. These results highlight the importance of oral health promotion interventions that are sensitive to the needs of participants with limited health literacy. PMID:26612050

  9. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2) 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile. PMID:23836965

  10. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Burke, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2) 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile. PMID:23836965

  11. Practical pearls for oral procedures.

    PubMed

    Davari, Parastoo; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    We provide an overview of clinically relevant principles of oral surgical procedures required in the workup and management of oral mucosal diseases. An understanding of the fundamental concepts of how to perform safely and effectively minor oral procedures is important to the practicing dermatologist and can minimize the need for patient referrals. This chapter reviews the principles of minor oral procedures, including incisional, excisional, and punch biopsies, as well as minor salivary gland excision. Pre- and postoperative patient care is also discussed. PMID:27343958

  12. Oral periopathogens and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Costerton, John; Keller, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Management of oral biofilms allows dentists to help control the pathogens responsible for periodontal disease and decay. Increasing evidence indicates that the oral system is a portal for pathogenic microorganisms. This is a cumulative situation with systemic effects that can overcome an individual's resistance threshold, culminating in systemic sequela. New evidence indicates that controlling these oral pathogens has systemic benefits, as oral pathology is related to cardiovascular and respiratory disease, diabetes, and systemic inflammatory responses, as well as low birth weight and pre-term deliveries. Some insurance companies now cover periodontal scaling for gingivitis and periodontal disease for pregnant women and patients at risk for pregnancy. PMID:17511362

  13. Halitosis. A common oral problem.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A I; Bivona, P; Rifkin, B R

    1996-12-01

    Halitosis is caused primarily by bacterial putrefaction and the generation of volatile sulfur compounds. Ninety percent of patients suffering from halitosis have oral causes, such as poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, tongue coat, food impaction, unclean dentures, faulty restorations, oral carcinomas, and throat infections. The remaining 10 percent of halitosis sufferers have systemic causes that include renal or hepatic failure, carcinomas, diabetes or trimethylaminuria. Modern analytical and microbiological techniques permit diagnosis of bad breath. Management of halitosis involves maintaining proper oral hygiene, and periodontal treatment, including tongue brushing. PMID:9002736

  14. HIV-related oral disease.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, D; Greenspan, J S

    1996-09-14

    Few people with HIV infection fall to experience oral lesions during the course of their disease. Oral mucosal and salivary gland manifestations include several that were not seen before the AIDS epidemic, while others are more severe in this population. Oral lesions reflect HIV status and the stage of immunosuppression, are important elements in HIV staging and classification schemes, raise pertinent questions about mucosal aspect of immunosuppression, and provide therapeutic challenges. Their pervasive nature and biological significance emphasise the importance of a careful oral examination as part of the general clinical evaluation. PMID:8806295

  15. Exogenous pubertal induction by oral versus transdermal estrogen therapy.

    PubMed

    Kenigsberg, Lisa; Balachandar, Sadana; Prasad, Kris; Shah, Bina

    2013-04-01

    Hypogonadal adolescent girls need estrogen therapy for the induction of puberty. For years, oral conjugated estrogens have been used for this purpose, starting at a very low dose, with gradual increments over time, to allow for the maturation of the reproductive organs, in order to mimic physiologic conditions. Several concerns, mainly due to first pass through the liver, are manifest with oral estrogen therapy. With the advent of transdermal estrogens and its improved efficacy profile as well as reduced side effects, it seems reasonable to consider it for pubertal induction. The primary objective of this study was to compare and contrast oral versus transdermal estrogen with regard to metabolism and physiology and to review current available data on transdermal estrogens with respect to exogenous pubertal induction. PMID:22112543

  16. Nonspecific side effects of oral contraceptives: nocebo or noise?

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2011-01-01

    Side effects of combined oral contraceptives are the most common reason why women discontinue them. Over the past half century, an elaborate mythology about these ill effects has evolved, fueled by rumor, gossip and poor-quality research. In contrast, placebo-controlled randomized trials document that nonspecific side effects are not significantly more common with combined oral contraceptives than with inert pills. These reported nonspecific side effects may reflect the nocebo phenomenon (the inverse of a placebo): if women are told to expect noxious side effects, these complaints occur because of the power of suggestion. Alternatively, nonspecific complaints may simply reflect their background prevalence in the population. Because Level I evidence documents no important increase in nonspecific side effects with oral contraceptives, counseling about these side effects or including them in package labeling is unwarranted and probably unethical. When in doubt, clinicians should err on the side of optimism. PMID:21134497

  17. Oral and non-oral sensorimotor interventions enhance oral feeding performance in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    FUCILE, SANDRA; GISEL, ERIKA G; MCFARLAND, DAVID H; LAU, CHANTAL

    2011-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether oral, tactile/kinaesthetic (T/K), or combined (oral + T/K) interventions enhance oral feeding performance and whether combined (oral + T/K) interventions have an additive/synergistic effect. Method Seventy-five preterm infants (mean gestational age 29wk; standard error of the mean [SEM] 0.3wk; mean birthweight 1340.3g; SEM 52.5g; 49 males and 26 females) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups or a control group. The oral group received sensorimotor input to the oral structures, the T/K group received sensorimotor input to the trunk and limbs, and the combined (oral + T/K) group received both. The outcomes were time from introduction of nipple feeding to independent oral feeding (days), proficiency (intake in the first 5min, %), volume transfer (%), rate of transfer (ml/min), volume loss (%), and length of hospital stay (days). Results Infants in the three intervention groups achieved independent oral feeding 9 to 10 days earlier than those in the control group (p<0.001; effect size 1.9–2.1). Proficiency (p≤0.002; effect size 0.7–1.4) at the time of one to two and three to five oral feedings per day, volume transfer (p≤0.001; effect size 0.8–1.1) at one to two, three to five, and six to eight oral feedings per day, and overall rate of transfer (p≤0.018; effect size 0.8–1.1) were greater, and overall volume losses were less (p≤0.007; effect size 0.9–1.1), than in the control group (p≤0.042). The combined (oral + T/K) group attained independent oral feeding at a significantly younger postmenstrual age than controls (p=0.020) and had clinically greater proficiency than the T/K group (p=0.020; effect size 0.7) and oral group (p=0.109; effect size 0.5). Length of hospital stay was not significantly different between groups (p=0.792; effect size 0.02–0.3). Interpretation Oral and T/K interventions accelerated the transition from introduction to independent oral feeding and

  18. Using PCR-based detection and genotyping to trace Streptococcus salivarius meningitis outbreak strain to oral flora of radiology physician assistant.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Velusamy; Gertz, Robert E; Shewmaker, Patricia L; Patrick, Sarah; Chitnis, Amit S; O'Connell, Heather; Benowitz, Isaac; Patel, Priti; Guh, Alice Y; Noble-Wang, Judith; Turabelidze, George; Beall, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    We recently investigated three cases of bacterial meningitis that were reported from a midwestern radiology clinic where facemasks were not worn during spinal injection of contrast agent during myelography procedures. Using pulsed field gel electrophoresis we linked a case strain of S. salivarius to an oral specimen of a radiology physician assistant (RPA). We also used a real-time PCR assay to detect S. salivarius DNA within a culture-negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen. Here we extend this investigation through using a nested PCR/sequencing strategy to link the culture-negative CSF specimen to the case strain. We also provide validation of the real-time PCR assay used, demonstrating that it is not solely specific for Streptococcus salivarius, but is also highly sensitive for detection of the closely related oral species Streptococcus vestibularis. Through using multilocus sequence typing and 16S rDNA sequencing we further strengthen the link between the CSF case isolate and the RPA carriage isolate. We also demonstrate that the newly characterized strains from this study are distinct from previously characterized S. salivarius strains associated with carriage and meningitis. PMID:22384169

  19. Using PCR-Based Detection and Genotyping to Trace Streptococcus salivarius Meningitis Outbreak Strain to Oral Flora of Radiology Physician Assistant

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Velusamy; Gertz Jr., Robert E.; Shewmaker, Patricia L.; Patrick, Sarah; Chitnis, Amit S.; O'Connell, Heather; Benowitz, Isaac; Patel, Priti; Guh, Alice Y.; Noble-Wang, Judith; Turabelidze, George; Beall, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    We recently investigated three cases of bacterial meningitis that were reported from a midwestern radiology clinic where facemasks were not worn during spinal injection of contrast agent during myelography procedures. Using pulsed field gel electrophoresis we linked a case strain of S. salivarius to an oral specimen of a radiology physician assistant (RPA). We also used a real-time PCR assay to detect S. salivarius DNA within a culture-negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen. Here we extend this investigation through using a nested PCR/sequencing strategy to link the culture-negative CSF specimen to the case strain. We also provide validation of the real-time PCR assay used, demonstrating that it is not solely specific for Streptococcus salivarius, but is also highly sensitive for detection of the closely related oral species Streptococcus vestibularis. Through using multilocus sequence typing and 16S rDNA sequencing we further strengthen the link between the CSF case isolate and the RPA carriage isolate. We also demonstrate that the newly characterized strains from this study are distinct from previously characterized S. salivarius strains associated with carriage and meningitis. PMID:22384169

  20. [Oral jewelry: a review].

    PubMed

    Jeger, Franziska; Lussi, Adrian; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Oral jewelry is popular. One of the most widely spread types are so-called tooth diamonds made of composite materials which are applied to the teeth with an adhesive. Note that parents are required to sign a release form for under-aged patients in Switzerland. Tooth cap grills and gold teeth are considered status symbols within the Hip-Hop fashion scene. However, tooth ornaments favour the accumulation of plaque and can diminish the ability to articulate. With respect to jewelry in oral soft tissue especially tongue and lip piercings are of significance to dentists. Besides the systemic complications, which are mostly caused by a lack of hygiene or the failure of noting medical contraindications by the piercer, local complications occur frequently. After surgery, pain, swelling, infections as well as hemorrhages or hematomas can be observed. Long-term effects can be problematic: gingival recession can be discernes mainly in the case of lip piercings the loss of hard tooth substance in the case of tongue piercings. Because of that, conservation therapies can become indespensable. Patients wearing dental jewelry have to be aware of risks of tooth damage, and they regularly have to undergo dental check-ups. Information campaigns--for dentists as well as patients--are necessary. PMID:20112640

  1. Pharmacogenetics of oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ann K; King, Barry P

    2003-05-01

    There is wide interindividual variation in oral anticoagulant dose requirement, which is partly genetically determined. Several cytochrome P450s contribute to oxidative metabolism of oral anticoagulants. The most important of these is CYP2C9, which hydroxylates the S-enantiomers of warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon with high catalytic activity. In at least eight separate clinical studies, possession of the CYP2C9*2 or CYP2C9*3 variant alleles, which result in decreased enzyme activity, has been associated with a significant decrease in a mean warfarin dose requirement. Several studies also suggest that possession of a CYP2C9 variant allele is associated with an increased risk of adverse events, such as bleeding. Possession of the CYP2C9*3 variant also appears to be associated with a low acenocoumarol dose requirement. Other genetic factors, such as polymorphisms in the cytochromes P450 that metabolize the R-enantiomers of warfarin and acenocoumarol, may also be relevant to anticoagulant dose. The molecular basis of anticoagulant resistance where a higher than normal dose of anticoagulant is required remains unclear, but could be due to unusually high CYP2C9 activity (pharmacokinetic resistance) or to an abnormality in the target enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase (pharmacodynamic resistance). PMID:12724615

  2. Apixaban and oral implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagán, Jose V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western world, and in this regard a number of anticoagulation treatment have been used, including heparins, fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin, acenocoumarol), and new oral anticoagulants such as apixaban. For years there has been great controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants in planning dental treatments that imply bleeding. The main concerns about using new oral anticoagulants in invasive dental procedures are bleeding due to the lack of an antidote, and the thrombotic risk of the disease for which anticoagulation was indicated in the first place. Material and Methods A literature search was conducted through May 2014 using the keyword “apixaban” for publications in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The search was extended to other databases (PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library). Results Based on the results of the different studies, apixaban seems to be a good alternative to conventional anticoagulation and a reasonable treatment option, though its main and most common adverse effect is bleeding. Dose adjustment is needed in some patients, though regular laboratory monitoring is not required. The use of the drug in different patient populations will define its final indications and doses. Conclusions Regarding the use of apixaban in the dental setting, there is a compelling need for further clinical studies in order to establish more evidence-based guidelines for patients requiring antithrombotic treatment. Key words:Apixaban, dental treatment, dental implications. PMID:26535102

  3. Negative concord in child African American English: implications for specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Coles-White, D'Jaris

    2004-02-01

    In this study, African American English (AAE)-speaking children's comprehension of 2 different types of double negative sentences was examined and contrasted with that of a comparison group of Standard American English (SAE)-speaking children. The first type of double negative, negative concord, involves 2 negative elements in a sentence that are interpreted together as single negation. The second type of double negative, called true double negation, involves 2 negatives that are interpreted as independent negatives. A cross-sectional cohort of 61 (35 AAE, 26 SAE) typically developing children ranging in age from 5;2 (years;months) to 7;11 participated. The children responded to story-based grammatical judgment tasks that required them to differentiate between negative concord and true double negation. Results revealed no statistically significant differences between AAE- and SAE-speaking children in the way they interpreted negative concord and true double negation. However, there were significantly more correct responses to negative concord sentences across combined groups. In particular, the older children (i.e., 7-year-olds) produced more correct responses to negative concord than did the younger group (i.e., 5-year-olds). Explanations for these findings are framed in terms of children's knowledge about sentences with 2 negatives, the constraints affecting the interpretation of 2 negatives that include negative concord, and the clinical importance of negative concord for assessing specific language impairment in child AAE speakers. PMID:15072540

  4. Oral Conversations Online: Redefining Oral Competence in Synchronous Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Marie-Noelle

    2004-01-01

    In this article the focus is on methodology for analysing learner-learner oral conversations mediated by computers. With the increasing availability of synchronous voice-based groupware and the additional facilities offered by audio-graphic tools, language learners have opportunities for collaborating on oral tasks, supported by visual and textual…

  5. Effective contrast of colored stimuli in the mesopic range: a metric for perceived contrast based on achromatic luminance contrast.

    PubMed

    Walkey, Helen C; Barbur, John L; Harlow, J Alister; Hurden, Antony; Moorhead, Ian R; Taylor, Julie A F

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about how color signals and cone- and rod-based luminance signals contribute to perceived contrast in the mesopic range. In this study the perceived contrast of colored, mesopic stimuli was matched with that of spatially equivalent achromatic stimuli. The objective was to develop a metric for perceived contrast in the mesopic range in terms of an equivalent achromatic luminance contrast, referred to here as effective contrast. Stimulus photopic luminance contrast, scotopic luminance contrast, and chromatic difference from the background all contributed to effective contrast over the mid-mesopic range, but their contributions were not independent and varied markedly with background luminance. Surprisingly, color made a significant contribution to effective contrast from 10 to approximately 0.003 cd m(-2). A model describing this relationship is introduced (R2 = 0.89) and compared with predictions of mesopic luminance contrast obtained from a number of models proposed as systems of mesopic photometry. PMID:15669611

  6. Effective contrast of colored stimuli in the mesopic range: a metric for perceived contrast based on achromatic luminance contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkey, Helen C.; Barbur, John L.; Harlow, J. Alister; Hurden, Antony; Moorhead, Ian R.; Taylor, Julie A. F.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about how color signals and cone- and rod-based luminance signals contribute to perceived contrast in the mesopic range. In this study the perceived contrast of colored, mesopic stimuli was matched with that of spatially equivalent achromatic stimuli. The objective was to develop a metric for perceived contrast in the mesopic range in terms of an equivalent achromatic luminance contrast, referred to here as effective contrast. Stimulus photopic luminance contrast, scotopic luminance contrast, and chromatic difference from the background all contributed to effective contrast over the mid-mesopic range, but their contributions were not independent and varied markedly with background luminance. Surprisingly, color made a significant contribution to effective contrast from 10 to approximately 0.003 cd m-2. A model describing this relationship is introduced (R2=0.89) and compared with predictions of mesopic luminance contrast obtained from a number of models proposed as systems of mesopic photometry.

  7. Negation and Nonveridicality in the History of Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzopoulou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a thorough investigation of the expression primarily of sentential negation in the history of Greek, through quantitative data from representative texts from three major stages of vernacular Greek (Attic Greek, Koine, Late Medieval Greek), and qualitative data from Homeric Greek until Standard Modern. The contrast between two…

  8. Oral Mucosal Lesions: Oral Cavity Biology-Part I.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Syed, Nazim Hussain; Aggarwal, Ashok; Sehgal, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the background of oral cavity biology to define morphologic abrasions in oral mucosa following a host of local and/ or systemic disorders. The oral cavity is not only the beginning of the digestive system, but it also plays a significant role in communication; the voice (although the voice is produced in the throat), tongue, lips, and jaw are its essential components to produce the range of sounds. The vestibule and the oral cavity are its major parts, and are usually moist. The lips and the teeth are in approximation, marking its start up. The anatomy of the oral cavity in brief has been reviewed in right prospective for disease related changed morphology, thus facilitating interpretation. PMID:26861428

  9. Oral insulin delivery by means of solid lipid nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento, Bruno; Martins, Susana; Ferreira, Domingos; Souto, Eliana B

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce and characterize cetyl palmitate-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing insulin, and to evaluate the potential of these colloidal carriers for oral administration. SLN were prepared by a modified solvent emulsification-evaporation method based on a w/o/w double emulsion. The particle size, zeta potential and association efficiency of unloaded and insulin-loaded SLN were determined and were found to be around 350 nm, negatively charged and the insulin association efficiency was over 43%. After oral administration of insulin-loaded SLN to diabetic rats, a considerable hypoglycemic effect was observed during 24 hours. These results demonstrated that SLN promote the oral absorption of insulin. PMID:18203440

  10. Negative-ion source applications.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, J

    2008-02-01

    In this paper heavy negative-ion sources which we developed and their applications for materials science are reviewed. Heavy negative ions can be effectively produced by the ejection of a sputtered atom through the optimally cesiated surface of target with a low work function. Then, enough continuous negative-ion currents for materials-science applications can be obtained. We developed several kinds of sputter-type heavy negative-ion sources such as neutral- and ionized-alkaline metal bombardment-type heavy negative-ion source and rf-plasma sputter type. In the case where a negative ion is irradiated on a material surface, surface charging seldom takes place because incoming negative charge of the negative ion is well balanced with outgoing negative charge of the released secondary electron. In the negative-ion implantation into an insulator or insulated conductive material, high precision implantation processing with charge-up free properties can be achieved. Negative-ion implantation technique, therefore, can be applied to the following novel material processing systems: the surface modification of micrometer-sized powders, the nanoparticle formation in an insulator for the quantum devices, and the nerve cell growth manipulation by precise control of the biocompatibility of polymer surface. When a negative ion with low kinetic energy approaches the solid surface, the kinetic energy causes the interatomic bonding (kinetic bonding), and formation of a metastable material is promoted. Carbon films with high constituent of sp(3) bonding, therefore, can be formed by carbon negative-ion beam deposition. PMID:18315249

  11. Early diagnosis of asymptomatic oral and oropharyngeal squamous cancers.

    PubMed

    Mashberg, A; Samit, A

    1995-01-01

    An examination of the oral cavity and oropharynx in asymptomatic patients at high risk requires an orderly visual inspection of the entire oral and oropharyngeal mucosa with particular attention to the tongue, floor of mouth, soft palate, uvula, tonsillar pillars, and the lingual aspects of the retromolar trigones. Completion and clear documentation of the entire examination should be recorded. Detected lesions that do not resolve in a reasonable length of time--two to three weeks--require intense and assiduous investigation. The following specifics should be considered. 1. Alcohol drinkers and cigarette smokers, especially those 40 years of age and older, are at very high risk for the development of upper aerodigestive tract and lung squamous carcinomas. 2. The floor of the mouth, the ventrolateral tongue, and the soft palate complex are the high-risk sites within the oral cavity and oropharynx. 3. Persistent mucosal erythroplasia rather than leukoplakia is the earliest visual sign of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma. These lesions should not be regarded merely as precancerous changes. The evidence indicates that these lesions in high-risk sites should be considered to be invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ unless proven otherwise by biopsy. 4. Toluidine blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct, particularly as a method of ruling out false-negative clinical impressions. It may also be used as a rinse in high-risk patients to encompass the entire oral mucosa after a negative clinical examination and as a guide to improve biopsy yields. 5. If oral or oropharyngeal cancer is identified, evaluations of the larynx, hypopharynx, esophagus, and lungs should be performed to rule out multiple primary cancers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7583906

  12. The value of "negative" appraisals for resilience. Is positive (re)appraisal always good and negative always bad?

    PubMed

    Freund, Alexandra M; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the PASTOR model by Kalisch et al. we point to the potential negative long-term effects of positive (re)appraisals of events for resilience. This perspective posits that emotional reactions to events provide important guidelines as to which events, environments, or social relations should be sought out and which ones should be avoided in the future. PMID:26785853

  13. Oral History in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Ron

    1979-01-01

    Defines oral history as the act of talking to another person about the past. By obtaining the common man's view, a more complete interpretation of the past results. Outlines an oral history unit on the depression. Activities include tape recorded interviews and use of letters, pictures, diaries, newspapers, films, music, and books. (KC)

  14. Dyslexia and Oral Reading Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Thomson was the first of very few researchers to have studied oral reading errors as a means of addressing the question: Are dyslexic readers different to other readers? Using the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability and Goodman's taxonomy of oral reading errors, Thomson concluded that dyslexic readers are different, but he found that they do not…

  15. Oral Communications in Kentucky Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Oral communications. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The central portion of the guide is divided into five units: public speaking, voice and diction, drama, oral interpretation, and radio-television. Each unit is in straight text or list form. The guide is offset printed and perfect-bound…

  16. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  17. Pediatric soft tissue oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Andres; Haberland, Christel M; Baker, Suher

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of common color changes and soft tissue oral nodular abnormalities in children and adolescents. The clinical presentation and treatment options to address these conditions are presented in a concise approach, highlighting key features relevant to the oral health care professional. PMID:24655531

  18. Embracing Plurality through Oral Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Bich; Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The transmission and dissemination of knowledge in Aboriginal societies for the most part occurs orally in an Aboriginal language or in Aboriginal English. However, whilst support is given to speaking skills in Indigenous communities, in our education system less emphasis is given to developing equivalent oral communicative competence in Standard…

  19. Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Danielle Marie; Mirowski, Ginat W

    2010-01-01

    Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B(2), B(3), B(6), B(12), C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa. PMID:20620760

  20. Recent Trends in Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Chloe

    1974-01-01

    The field of oral interpretation has been influenced by both the analytical approach to literature study, with significant emphasis on understanding the literary text, and the interpersonal approach. While oral reading may utilize various performance arts or media such as dance, music, or film, the most popular movement currently is Readers…

  1. The New Basic: Oral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Don M.; McBath, James H.

    1987-01-01

    School systems are increasingly following national reports' recommendations that oral communication instruction in the high school curriculum should develop students' everyday academic competencies, personal confidence, and research and employment abilities. This report discusses instructional applications of oral communication and offers course…

  2. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  3. The potential of immobilized artificial membrane chromatography to predict human oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Fotios; Vallianatou, Theodosia; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The potential of immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) chromatography to estimate human oral absorption (%HOA) was investigated. For this purpose, retention indices on IAM stationary phases reported previously by our group or measured by other authors under similar conditions were used to model %HOA data, compiled from literature sources. Considering the pH gradient in gastrointestinal tract, the highest logkw(IAM) values were considered, obtained either at pH7.4 or 5.5, defined as logkw(IAM)(best). Non linear models were established upon introduction of additional parameters and after exclusion of drugs which are substrates either to efflux or uptake transporters. The best model included Abraham's hydrogen-bond acidity parameter, molecular weight as well as the positively and negatively charged molecular fractions. For reasons of comparison between IAM chromatography and traditional lipophilicity, corresponding models were derived by replacing IAM retention factors with octanol-water distribution coefficients (logD). An overexpression of electrostatic interactions with phosphate anions was observed in the case of IAM retention as expressed by the negative contribution of the positively charged fraction F(+). The same parameter is statistically significant also in the logD model, but with a positive sign, indicating the attraction of basic drugs in the negatively charged inner membrane. To validate the obtained models a blind test set of 22 structurally diverse drugs was used, whose logkw(IAM)(best) values were determined and analyzed in the present study under similar conditions. IAM retention factors were further compared with MDCK cell lines permeability data taken from literature for a set of validation drugs. The overexpression of electrostatic interactions with phosphate anions on IAM surface was also evident in respect to MDCK permeability. In contrast to the clear classification between drugs with high and poor (or intermediate) absorption provided by MDCK

  4. Natural chemopreventive alternatives in oral cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Scrobota, I; Bolfa, P; Filip, A G; Catoi, C; Alb, C; Pop, O; Tatomir, C; Baciut, G

    2016-02-01

    We studied the effect of grape seed extract Burgund Mare (BM) on oral carcinogenesis and compared it with that of curcumin (CU). Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 10): 4-nitro-quinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) oral carcinogenesis was induced to groups 1 - 5; groups 2 and 3 received BM and CU respectively during initiation and groups 4 and 5 BM and CU during post-initiation of carcinogenesis; group 6 represented the negative control group. Total malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assayed fluorometrically in oral tissue (gingival, jugal, palatal, lingual mucosa) and serum. Histopathological exam was performed and a dysplasia score given to each oral mucosal lesion. Ki67, cyclin D1, p63, Bcl2 and p53 were immunohistochemically evaluated. BM and CU reduced tissue MDA values elevated by 4NQO (P = 0.000). The difference between CU and BM effect was significant in the initiation (P = 0.02) but not in the post-initiation phase of carcinogenesis (P = 0.58). Tissue GSH levels decreased by 4NQO (P < 0.001) were not significantly modified by BM or CU. Serum MDA levels increased by 4NQO (P = 0.000) were significantly lowered by CU (P = 0.04) and BM (P = 0.04) during initiation and by CU during post-initiation of carcinogenesis (P = 0.01). CU was more potent than BM during post-initiation of carcinogenesis (P = 0.01). Serum GSH lowered by 4NQO (P = 0.55) was significantly decreased by BM and CU (P < 0.012), with no significant difference between groups receiving BM or CU. Moderate dysplasia was the most advanced dysplasia induced and gingival localization the most frequent. Both BM and CU lowered dysplasia scores, with BM being the most efficient during post-initiation of carcinogenesis (P = 0.001). Ki67, cyclin D1, p63, Bcl2 and p53 expression increased with dysplasia scores. BM showed chemopreventive properties during initiation and post-initiation of oral carcinogenesis, reducing local and general oxidative stress and the intensity of dysplasia

  5. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  6. Oral reconstruction with submental flap

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Submental flap is a useful technique for reconstruction of medium to large oral cavity defects. Hair bearing nature of this flap in men makes it less appropriate. Therefore, deepithelialized variant is introduced to overcome the problem of hair with this flap. Recently, application of this flap has been introduced in maxillofacial trauma patients. Materials and Methods: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is used for the reconstruction of oral cavity mucosal defects. Results: Four cases including two trauma patients and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of oral cavity were treated using deepithelialized orthograde submental flap. There were no complications in all four patients and secondary epithelialization occurred in raw surface of the flap which was exposed to oral cavity. Conclusion: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is very effective in reconstruction of oral cavity in men. The problem of hair is readily solved using this technique without jeopardizing flap blood supply. PMID:24205473

  7. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome. PMID:26519069

  8. Cadaverine as a putative component of oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, S; Kozlovsky, A; Gordon, D; Gelernter, I; Sintov, A; Rosenberg, M

    1994-06-01

    Whereas previous studies have shown correlations between volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) and bad breath levels, it is probable that other compounds found in the oral cavity may contribute to oral malodor. In the present investigation, the possibility that diamines (cadaverine and putrescine) are associated with oral malodor parameters was assessed. Saliva samples from 52 subjects were analyzed for cadaverine and putrescine by HPLC. Oral malodor of whole mouth, tongue, and saliva of the subjects was recorded by an experienced judge on a continuous 10-cm scale; peak and steady-state VSC intraoral levels were measured by the Interscan 1170 sulphide monitor. Log-transformed VSC and diamine levels were compared with odor judge measurements by Pearson analysis and stepwise forward multiple regression. Putrescine scores were not significantly associated with odor judge parameters or with VSC levels (p > 0.1). However, highly significant correlations (p < or = 0.003) were found between cadaverine levels and all three odor judge assessments. In contrast, associations between cadaverine and VSC measurements were non-significant. In an attempt to correlate odor judge results in terms of both VSC and diamines, we carried out stepwise forward multiple regression. Results showed that VSC and cadaverine both factor significantly in explaining each of the odor judge measurements, with multiple r values ranging from 0.545 (p = 0.0002) to 0.604 (p < 0.0001). The results suggest that cadaverine levels are associated with oral malodor, and that this association may be independent of VSC. PMID:8046106

  9. Glycosyltransferase-mediated Sweet Modification in Oral Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, F.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial glycosyltransferases play important roles in bacterial fitness and virulence. Oral streptococci have evolved diverse strategies to survive and thrive in the carbohydrate-rich oral cavity. In this review, we discuss 2 important biological processes mediated by 2 distinct groups of glycosyltransferases in oral streptococci that are important for bacterial colonization and virulence. The first process is the glycosylation of highly conserved serine-rich repeat adhesins by a series of glycosyltransferases. Using Streptococcus parasanguinis as a model, we highlight new features of several glycosyltransferases that sequentially modify the serine-rich glycoprotein Fap1. Distinct features of a novel glycosyltransferase fold from a domain of unknown function 1792 are contrasted with common properties of canonical glycosyltransferases. The second biological process we cover is involved in building sticky glucan matrix to establish cariogenic biofilms by an important opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus mutans through the action of a family of 3 glucosyltransferases. We focus on discussing the structural feature of this family as a glycoside hydrolase family of enzymes. While the 2 processes are distinct, they all produce carbohydrate-coated biomolecules, which enable bacteria to stick better in the complex oral microbiome. Understanding the making of the sweet modification presents a unique opportunity to develop novel antiadhesion and antibiofilm strategies to fight infections by oral streptococci and beyond. PMID:25755271

  10. 24. Duplicate negative of an historic negative. 'AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Duplicate negative of an historic negative. 'AERIAL VIEW OF AREA 'B' HOLSTON ORDNANCE WORKS.' 1944. #OCMH 4-12.2ASAV3 in Super Explosives Program RDX and Its Composition A, B, & C, Record Group No. 319, National Archives, Washington, D.C. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  11. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  12. Accessory oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

  13. Biomechanics of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure-pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  14. Negative cooperativity in regulatory enzymes.

    PubMed

    Levitzki, A; Koshland, D E

    1969-04-01

    Negative cooperativity has been observed in CTP synthetase, an allosteric enzyme which contains a regulatory site. Thus, the same enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity for GTP (an effector) and glutamine (a substrate) and positive cooperativity for ATP and UTP (both substrates). In the process of the delineation of these phenomena, diagnostic procedures for negative cooperativity were developed. Application of these procedures to other enzymes indicates that negative cooperativity is a characteristic of many of them. These findings add strong support for the sequential model of subunit interactions which postulates that ligand-induced conformational changes are responsible for regulatory and cooperative phenomena in enzymes. PMID:5256410

  15. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Christophorou, L G

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules area discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to "hot" molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules ("electron affinity"), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies. PMID:7428744

  16. Intrinsic Negative Mass from Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mei, F.; Caramazza, P.; Pierangeli, D.; Di Domenico, G.; Ilan, H.; Agranat, A. J.; Di Porto, P.; DelRe, E.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and provide experimental evidence of a mechanism able to support negative intrinsic effective mass. The idea is to use a shape-sensitive nonlinearity to change the sign of the mass in the leading linear propagation equation. Intrinsic negative-mass dynamics is reported for light beams in a ferroelectric crystal substrate, where the diffusive photorefractive nonlinearity leads to a negative-mass Schrödinger equation. The signature of inverted dynamics is the observation of beams repelled from strongly guiding integrated waveguides irrespective of wavelength and intensity and suggests shape-sensitive nonlinearity as a basic mechanism leading to intrinsic negative mass.

  17. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:25797499

  18. Novel oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Reiffel, James A

    2014-04-01

    Warfarin has a proven record as an oral anticoagulant; almost every study, however, has found that it is not prescribed for 40-60% of patients who are eligible and should receive it, and of those who do receive it, serum warfarin levels only achieved a time in therapeutic range (TTR) equal to INR 2-3 about 55-60% of the time (online video available at: http://education.amjmed.com/video.php?event_id=445&stage_id=5&vcs=1). This means that only about 1 in 4 patients are adequately anticoagulated with warfarin, and thus there is a large unmet need for achieving better anticoagulation in these patients. Although physicians have sometimes tried to use antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, plus or minus clopidogrel) for anticoagulation, this may result in as much as a doubling of the risk of thromboembolic events. Recently 2 new classes of oral anticoagulant agents have appeared: direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) and factor Xa inhibitors. This review sequentially examines the recent clinical trial evidence for the 3 approved NOACs in the 2 classes, highlighting that all 3 share a class effect of being noninferior to warfarin for reducing risk of stroke and systemic embolization and reducing risk of bleeding, with a relative risk of mortality consistently reduced by 10% per year. In addition, all of the NOACs have a significantly lower risk of intracranial/intracerebral bleeding than warfarin, an important clinical consideration, since that is the most feared bleeding risk and may be sufficient reason to consider switching patients from warfarin to a NOAC, even if they seem to be doing well on warfarin. Finally in addition to reviewing the overall benefits of these NOACs over traditional therapy, the clinical application differences between the classes and between the agents are reviewed. PMID:24655744

  19. Changeability of Oral Cavity Environment

    PubMed Central

    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka³a, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. Methods 24 healthy individuals aged 20–30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having professional hygiene procedures performed and caries lesions filled. Baseline examination and the examination two years afterwards, evaluated clinical and laboratory parameters of oral cavity environment. Caries incidence was determined based on DMFT and DMFS values, oral cavity hygiene on Plaque Index (acc. Silness & Loe) and Hygiene Index (acc. O’Leary), and the gingival status on Gingival Index (acc. Loe & Silness) and Gingival Bleeding Index (acc. Ainamo & Bay). Saliva osmolarity, pH and concentrations of Ca2+, Pi, Na+, Cl−, total protein, albumins, F− and Sr2+ were determined. Results The results confirmed ongoing changeability of the oral cavity environment. After 2 years of the study reduction in oral cavity hygiene parameters PLI and HI (P<0.1), and gingival indices as well as lower saliva concentration of Ca2+ (P<.001), Pi (P<.06), K+ (P<.04), Sr2+ (P<.03), Na+ (P<.1), against the baseline values, were observed. Total protein and albumin saliva concentrations were also significantly lower. Conclusion Physiological oral cavity environment is subject to constant, individually different, changes which should be considered when analysing studies that employ oral cavity environment parameters. PMID:19212491

  20. Effect of Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma on Pathogenic Oral Biofilms and In Vitro Reconstituted Oral Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Zago, Chaiene Evelin; Tyhovych, Natalia; Duarte, Simone; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Considering the ability of atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (ACP) to disrupt the biofilm matrix and rupture cell structure, it can be an efficient tool against virulent oral biofilms. However, it is fundamental that ACP does not cause damage to oral tissue. So, this study evaluated (1) the antimicrobial effect of ACP on single- and dual-species biofilms of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as well as (2) the biological safety of ACP on in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium. Standardized cell suspensions of each microorganism were prepared for biofilm culture on acrylic resin discs at 37°C for 48 hours. The biofilms were submitted to ACP treatment at 10 mm of plasma tip-to-sample distance during 60 seconds. Positive controls were penicillin G and fluconazole for S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively. The biofilms were analyzed through counting of viable colonies, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy for detection of reactive oxygen species. The in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium was submitted to similar ACP treatment and analyzed through histology, cytotoxocity test (LDH release), viability test (MTT assay) and imunnohistochemistry (Ki67 expression). All plasma-treated biofilms presented significant log10 CFU/mL reduction, alteration in microorganism/biofilm morphology, and reduced viability in comparison to negative and positive controls. In addition, fluorescence microscopy revealed presence of reactive oxygen species in all plasma-treated biofilms. Low cytotoxicity and high viability were observed in oral epithelium of negative control and plasma group. Histology showed neither sign of necrosis nor significant alteration in plasma-treated epithelium. Ki67-positive cells revealed maintenance of cell proliferation in plasma-treated epithelium. Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma is a promissing approach to eliminate single- and dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. aureus without having

  1. Effect of Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma on Pathogenic Oral Biofilms and In Vitro Reconstituted Oral Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Chaiene Evelin; Tyhovych, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Considering the ability of atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (ACP) to disrupt the biofilm matrix and rupture cell structure, it can be an efficient tool against virulent oral biofilms. However, it is fundamental that ACP does not cause damage to oral tissue. So, this study evaluated (1) the antimicrobial effect of ACP on single- and dual-species biofilms of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as well as (2) the biological safety of ACP on in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium. Standardized cell suspensions of each microorganism were prepared for biofilm culture on acrylic resin discs at 37°C for 48 hours. The biofilms were submitted to ACP treatment at 10 mm of plasma tip-to-sample distance during 60 seconds. Positive controls were penicillin G and fluconazole for S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively. The biofilms were analyzed through counting of viable colonies, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy for detection of reactive oxygen species. The in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium was submitted to similar ACP treatment and analyzed through histology, cytotoxocity test (LDH release), viability test (MTT assay) and imunnohistochemistry (Ki67 expression). All plasma-treated biofilms presented significant log10 CFU/mL reduction, alteration in microorganism/biofilm morphology, and reduced viability in comparison to negative and positive controls. In addition, fluorescence microscopy revealed presence of reactive oxygen species in all plasma-treated biofilms. Low cytotoxicity and high viability were observed in oral epithelium of negative control and plasma group. Histology showed neither sign of necrosis nor significant alteration in plasma-treated epithelium. Ki67-positive cells revealed maintenance of cell proliferation in plasma-treated epithelium. Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma is a promissing approach to eliminate single- and dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. aureus without having

  2. Characteristics of atmospheric ions in contrasting environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, M.

    1984-01-01

    The general nature of atmospheric small ions with mobilities in the approximate range of 1-2 x 10/sup -4/ m/sup 2//Vs has been known for many decades. In this study changes in ion-pair production rates, ion density, mobility, and polar conductivity have been observed in contrasting environments with the results that new light is shed on the properties of these ions which play such an important role in atmospheric electricity. /sup 222/Rn, /sup 220/Rn and their daughter products are the chief ionizing agents in the lower layers of the atmosphere exceeding that due to cosmic rays and radioactive substances in the ground. A single alpha particle from the decay of /sup 222/Rn will produce about 150,000 ion pairs. It is important, therefore, to give careful consideration to the role of these natural radioactive nuclides when investigating the characteristics of atmospheric ions. Over a period of years studies of the behavior of positive and negative small ions have been made in outdoor environments at a mountain location, in the Rio Grande Valley at Socorro, New Mexico and in the Carlsbad Caverns. These sites provided wide variation in ion-pair production rates, water vapor mixing ratios, and condensation nuclei concentrations against which the atmospheric electrical characteristics could be measured and analyzed. The role of the radon-daughter ions in storm and fair weather conditions at the Langmuir Laboratory has been treated previously. 16 references, 2 tables.

  3. MMP-14 Triggered Fluorescence Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mai-Dung; Kang, Kyung A

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) is involved in cancer invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Therefore, it is considered to be a biomarker for aggressive cancer types, including some of the triple-negative breast cancer. Accurate (i.e., specific) and sensitive detection of MMP-14 can, thus, be important for the early diagnosis of and accurate prognosis for aggressive cancer, including the breast cancer caused by cell line MDA-MB 231. Fluorophore-mediated molecular sensing has been used for detecting biomarkers, for a long time. One way to increase the specificity of the sensing is designing the fluorophore to emit its fluorescence only when it encounters the biomarker of interest. When a fluorophore is placed on the surface of, or very close to a gold nanoparticle (GNP), its fluorescence is quenched. Applying this relationship between the GNP and fluorophore, we have developed a GNP-based, near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent that is highly specific for MMP-14. This agent normally emits only 14-17 % fluorescence of the free fluorophore. When the agent encounters MMP-14, its fluorescence gets fully restored, allowing MMP-14 specific optical signal emission. PMID:27526171

  4. Multi-contrast Photoacoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie

    Photoacoustic microscopy is a hybrid imaging modality with high spatial resolution, moderate imaging depth, excellent imaging contrast and functional imaging capability. Taking full advantage of this powerful weapon, we have investigated different anatomical, functional, flow dynamic and metabolic parameter measurements using photoacoustic microscopy. Specifically, Evans-blue dye was used to enhance photoacoustic microscopy of capillaries; label-free transverse and axial blood flow was measured based on bandwidth broadening and time shift of the photoacoustic signals; metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified in vivo from all the five parameters measured by photoacoustic microcopy; whole cross-sectional imaging of small intestine was achieved on a double-illumination photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of focus and imaging depth; hemodynamic imaging was performed on a MEMS-mirror enhanced photoacoustic microscopy with a cross-sectional imaging rate of 400 Hz. As a maturing imaging technique, PAM is expected to find new applications in both fundamental life science and clinical practice.

  5. Sensitivity to Auditory Velocity Contrast.

    PubMed

    Locke, Shannon M; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A natural auditory scene often contains sound moving at varying velocities. Using a velocity contrast paradigm, we compared sensitivity to velocity changes between continuous and discontinuous trajectories. Subjects compared the velocities of two stimulus intervals that moved along a single trajectory, with and without a 1 second inter stimulus interval (ISI). We found thresholds were threefold larger for velocity increases in the instantaneous velocity change condition, as compared to instantaneous velocity decreases or thresholds for the delayed velocity transition condition. This result cannot be explained by the current static "snapshot" model of auditory motion perception and suggest a continuous process where the percept of velocity is influenced by previous history of stimulation. PMID:27291488

  6. Sensitivity to Auditory Velocity Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Shannon M.; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A natural auditory scene often contains sound moving at varying velocities. Using a velocity contrast paradigm, we compared sensitivity to velocity changes between continuous and discontinuous trajectories. Subjects compared the velocities of two stimulus intervals that moved along a single trajectory, with and without a 1 second inter stimulus interval (ISI). We found thresholds were threefold larger for velocity increases in the instantaneous velocity change condition, as compared to instantaneous velocity decreases or thresholds for the delayed velocity transition condition. This result cannot be explained by the current static “snapshot” model of auditory motion perception and suggest a continuous process where the percept of velocity is influenced by previous history of stimulation. PMID:27291488

  7. Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Palombo, Enzo A.

    2011-01-01

    Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described. PMID:19596745

  8. Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases.

    PubMed

    Palombo, Enzo A

    2011-01-01

    Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described. PMID:19596745

  9. Sturge-Weber syndrome: oral and extra-oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Kumar, Vivek; Dwivedi, Rahul; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rare, congenital, neuro-oculo-cutaneous disorder which is characterised extra-orally by unilateral port wine stains on the face, glaucoma, seizures and mental retardation, and intra-orally by ipsilateral gingival haemangioma which frequently affects the maxilla or mandible. In the present case, a 15-year-old female patient presented with a port wine stain on the right side of the face and glaucoma of the right eye, and intra-orally with gingival haemangioma on the right side of the maxilla. PMID:25766438

  10. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  11. Phage-bacteria interaction network in human oral microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinfeng; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Fangqing

    2016-07-01

    Although increasing knowledge suggests that bacteriophages play important roles in regulating microbial ecosystems, phage-bacteria interaction in human oral cavities remains less understood. Here we performed a metagenomic analysis to explore the composition and variation of oral dsDNA phage populations and potential phage-bacteria interaction. A total of 1,711 contigs assembled with more than 100 Gb shotgun sequencing data were annotated to 104 phages based on their best BLAST matches against the NR database. Bray-Curtis dissimilarities demonstrated that both phage and bacterial composition are highly diverse between periodontally healthy samples but show a trend towards homogenization in diseased gingivae samples. Significantly, according to the CRISPR arrays that record infection relationship between bacteria and phage, we found certain oral phages were able to invade other bacteria besides their putative bacterial hosts. These cross-infective phages were positively correlated with commensal bacteria while were negatively correlated with major periodontal pathogens, suggesting possible connection between these phages and microbial community structure in oral cavities. By characterizing phage-bacteria interaction as networks rather than exclusively pairwise predator-prey relationships, our study provides the first insight into the participation of cross-infective phages in forming human oral microbiota. PMID:26036920

  12. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1996-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of baking soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor. PMID:11524864

  13. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1997-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of backing soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor. PMID:12017931

  14. Unmet diagnostic needs in contact oral mucosal allergies.

    PubMed

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Paolino, Giovanni; Vacca, Maddalena; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Nettis, Eustachio

    2016-01-01

    The oral mucosa including the lips is constantly exposed to several noxious stimuli, irritants and allergens. However, oral contact pathologies are not frequently seen because of the relative resistance of the oral mucosa to irritant agents and allergens due to anatomical and physiological factors. The spectrum of signs and symptoms of oral contact allergies (OCA) is broad and a large number of condition can be the clinical expression of OCA such as allergic contact stomatitis, allergic contact cheilitis, geographic tongue, oral lichenoid reactions, burning mouth syndrome. The main etiological factors causing OCA are dental materials, food and oral hygiene products, as they contain flavouring agents and preservatives. The personal medical history of the patient is helpful to perform a diagnosis, as a positive history for recent dental procedures. Sometimes histology is mandatory. When it cannot identify a direct cause of a substance, in both acute and chronic OCA, patch tests can play a pivotal role in the diagnosis. However, patch tests might have several pitfalls. Indeed, the presence of metal ions as haptens and specifically the differences in their concentrations in oral mucosa and in standard preparation for patch testing and in the differences in pH of the medium might result in either false positive/negative reactions or non-specific irritative reactions. Another limitation of patch test results is the difficulty to assess the clinical relevance of haptens contained in dental materials and only the removal of dental materials or the avoidance of other contactant and consequent improvement of the disease may demonstrate the haptens' responsibility. In conclusion, the wide spectrum of clinical presentations, the broad range of materials and allergens which can cause it, the difficult interpretation of patch-test results, the clinical relevance assessment of haptens found positive at patch test are the main factors that make sometimes difficult the diagnosis

  15. Effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe shape characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Steve N H; Chan, Alan H S; Yu, R F

    2012-01-01

    The effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe (effective visual field) shape characteristics was studied using three levels of luminance contrast with combinations of positive and negative polarities. The binocular effective visual field for a detection task, with a peripherally presented target (V) embedded in a homogeneous competing background (Xs), was mapped on 24 imaginary axes passing through the fixation point. The results showed that visual lobes mapped using positive polarity were statistically larger in area, rounder and more regular in shape than those for negative polarity. The medium contrast condition lobes were more symmetric and regular than low contrast condition lobes, and lobe area and perimeter increased with increasing luminance contrast ratio. Under the interaction of positive polarity and high luminance contrast, visual lobes were found to be larger, smoother and rounder. The high level of luminance and contrast however resulted in a higher degree of visual discomfort. The results indicated that positive polarity and contrast of medium (26:1) to high (41:1) levels are possible display settings for better visual lobe characteristics and better anticipated search performance. Practitioner Summary: The effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe shape characteristics was examined with uniform stimulus materials in this study. The results help to identify the optimum display settings for luminance contrast and display polarity to enhance lobe shape characteristics and hence search performance in industrial inspection tasks. PMID:22676836

  16. In Vitro Ability of a Novel Nanohydroxyapatite Oral Rinse to Occlude Dentine Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert G.; Chen, Xiaohui; Gillam, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a novel nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) desensitizing oral rinse to occlude dentine tubules compared to selected commercially available desensitizing oral rinses. Methods. 25 caries-free extracted molars were sectioned into 1 mm thick dentine discs. The dentine discs (n = 25) were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed with distilled water, prior to a 30-second application of test and control oral rinses. Evaluation was by (1) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the dentine surface and (2) fluid flow measurements through a dentine disc. Results. Most of the oral rinses failed to adequately cover the dentine surface apart from the nHa oral rinse. However the hydroxyapatite, 1.4% potassium oxalate, and arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinses, appeared to be relatively more effective than the nHA test and negative control rinses (potassium nitrate) in relation to a reduction in fluid flow measurements. Conclusions. Although the novel nHA oral rinse demonstrated the ability to occlude the dentine tubules and reduce the fluid flow measurements, some of the other oral rinses appeared to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in fluid flow through the dentine disc, in particular the arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinse. PMID:26161093

  17. Non-toxic lead sulfide nanodots as efficient contrast agents for visualizing gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Ran, Xiang; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) tract using novel but efficient contrast agents is of the most important issues in the diagnosis and prognosis of GI diseases. Here, for the first time, we reported the design and synthesis of biothiol-decorated lead sulfide nanodots, as well as their usages in functional dual-modality imaging of GI tract in vivo. Due to the presence of glutathione on the surface of the nanodots, these well-prepared contrast agents could decrease the unwanted ion leakage, withstand the harsh conditions in GI tract, and avoid the systemic absorption after oral administration. Compared with clinical barium meal and iodine-based contrast agents, these nanodots exhibited much more significant enhancement in contrast efficiency during both 2D X-ray imaging and 3D CT imaging. Different from some conventional invasive imaging modalities, such as gastroscope and enteroscope, non-invasive imaging strategy by using glutathione modified PbS nanodots as contrast agents could reduce the painfulness towards patients, facilitate the imaging procedure, and economize the manipulation period. Moreover, long-term toxicity and bio-distribution of these nanodots after oral administration were evaluated in detail, which indicated their overall safety. Based on our present study, these nanodots could act as admirable contrast agents to integrate X-ray imaging and CT imaging for the direct visualization of GI tract. PMID:27240159

  18. The use of photographic methods in contrast enhancement of ERTS-1 images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    The contrast of ERTS 70mm positive images can be enhanced to varying degrees by rephotographing the images with different types of negative films, and by overdeveloping the films with different developers. A combination of high contrast copy film (Kodak 5069) and a high energy developer (Kodak D-11) yields high contrast. Still greater contrast may be otbained by using a film of higher contrast capability and a developer of higher energy capability. Contrast can also be enhanced in the printing process with the use of highcontrast photographic papers, or with the use of polycontrast photographic paper and filters. Contrast enhancement by photocopying delineates topographic boundaries and may aid in the objective measurement of topographic parameters.

  19. New oral anticoagulants – a practical guide

    PubMed Central

    Ciurus, Tomasz; Sobczak, Sebastian; Cichocka-Radwan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Oral direct inhibitors of thrombin and activated factor Xa are approved as new anticoagulant drugs. In contrast to vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and heparins, the new agents have single targets in the coagulation cascade and more predictable pharmacokinetics, but they lack validated and available antidotes. Unlike VKA, they do not require routine monitoring of coagulation. However, the measurement of their pharmacologic effects might be of value in selected patients. They interfere with the routine coagulation tests, which should be interpreted with caution. Specific tests exist and can be used in case of emergencies. Adequate supportive care and temporary removal of all antithrombotic agents constitute the basis for management of serious bleeding complications. The administration of coagulation factors, such as fresh frozen plasma, prothrombin complex concentrates or recombinant activated FVII, can benefit in life-threatening bleeding or emergency surgery. Specific antidotes for non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants are in clinical development. This review aims at answering in a brief and simplified manner some clinical questions. PMID:26336492

  20. Assessment of oral mucosa in normal, precancer and cancer using chemiluminescent illumination, toluidine blue supravital staining and oral exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Rajmohan, M; Rao, Umadevi Krishnamohan; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rajasekaran, Saraswathy Thillai; Kannan, Ranganathan

    2012-01-01

    Context: Carcinoma in an early stage of development is hard to detect clinically because the lesion may not be palpable and color of the lesional tissue is not necessarily different from the color of the surrounding mucosa. In order to improve the efficacy of the diagnosis, techniques are being developed to complement clinical examination and to facilitate the identification of initial carcinomas. Aims: To find out the efficacy of chemiluminescent illumination (ViziLite™) for the diagnosis in precancer and cancer patients and compare this result to toluidine blue staining and oral exfoliative cytology. Materials and Methods: This study was done in 3 groups. Each group consists of 10 cases. Group I consists of normal appearing mucosa. Group II and III consist of clinically diagnosed pre-cancer and clinically suggestive of cancer respectively. Chemiluminescent illumination, toluidine blue supravital staining, oral exfoliative cytology and biopsy were performed in all cases. Statistical analysis used: SPSS version 10.05 was used to calculate positive and negative predictive values. Results: In Group I, all 10 patients showed negative result to ViziLite™. 8 patients showed positivity and 2 patients showed negativity to ViziLite™ test in Group II. 9 patients were positive and one patient was negative for ViziLite™. Conclusions: Chemiluminescent illumination test was sensitive for precancerous and cancerous lesions, which presented as keratotic lesions and red-white lesions. It showed negative result to erosive lesions. Toluidine blue staining test was reliable in precancerous and cancerous lesions, which present as erosive and red-white lesions. It showed negative result to keratotic lesions. Oral exfoliative cytology has diagnostic value in cancer patients than in precancer patients. These Results indicate that chemiluminescent illumination test is relatively reliable and accurate than toluidine blue staining test and useful chair side diagnostic test. PMID

  1. Oral pulse or hyaline ring granuloma: A case report and a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Swetha; Hallikeri, Kaveri; Anehosur, Ventakesh; Okade, Akshatha

    2015-01-01

    Pulse or hyaline ring granulomas are rare but are well-defined oral and extraoral lesions due to implantation of the cellulose moiety of plant foods in contrast starch components. A unique form as reactive gingival growth showing histologic features of oral pulse or hyaline ring granuloma (OPHRG) which had resulted from implantation of food particles of plant or vegetable origin into the periodontium has been illustrated. Such a presentation is attributable to compromised periodontal health and poor oral hygiene favoring the implantation of food particles has been described here along with a literature update on OPHRG. PMID:26229277

  2. Negation in the Chaamling Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Vishnu S.

    This paper examines the different ways of forming negative sentences in the Chaamling language, an indigenous language spoken in the eastern, hilly districts of Nepal. It explains that negation, or negativization, in the Chaamling language is done with the help of affixation. In imperative sentences, the prefix mi- is added to the verb, which is…

  3. Quantitative mammography contrast threshold test tool.

    PubMed

    Wagner, A J; Frey, G D

    1995-02-01

    Mammographic contrast is commonly evaluated by visualizing small objects of varying size or mass divided by projected area. These qualitative contrast determinations are commonly performed by imaging a phantom like the American College of Radiology accreditation phantom at clinical mammographic settings. However, this contrast assessment does not take into account the kVp of the machine. This work describes a quantitative mammography contrast threshold test tool which examines light object contrast on a uniform background for a contrast range of 0.32% to 1.38% at 25 kVp. For this mammography contrast threshold test tool, contrast is defined by delta I/I = loge (psi O/ psi b), where psi O is the target energy flux, and psi b is the background energy flux. Contrast threshold is defined as the lowest contrast value for which the objects are visible. Unlike traditional assessments of mammographic contrast, this measurement of contrast threshold is kVp corrected. The mammography contrast threshold test tool is constructed out of common plastics and provides a quantitative means of assessing contrast threshold for individual mammographic units and total mammographic systems. PMID:7565343

  4. Distribution and persistence of probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the human oral cavity as determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Horz, H-P; Meinelt, A; Houben, B; Conrads, G

    2007-04-01

    The bacteriocin producer Streptococcus salivarius K12 is used as a probiotic targeting the oral cavity, so our study aimed to assess whether its dispersal and persistence could be monitored using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To this end, we designed polymerase chain reaction primers and a hybridization probe specifically targeting salA, which encodes for the prepropeptide of salivaricin A. Using a single individual as our subject, we administered four lozenges of K12 Throat Guard per day over 3 days, then measured salA gene levels for 16 different oral sites at six different intervals over 35 days. Four samples each from gingival sulci and from teeth all remained negative. In contrast, in saliva and at all mucosal membranes K12 was detected, but with varying amounts and time profiles. Relatively high salA gene copy numbers, calibrated on the basis of colony-forming units, were seen on the tongue (maximum 4.6 x 10(4)/swab at day 4), in stimulated saliva (2.4 x 10(4)/ml, day 4) and on buccal membranes (1.3 x 10(4)/swab, day 8). K12 was present on both sides of the pharynx but asymmetrically in both quantity and duration. In conclusion, we have developed a real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction for counting S. salivarius K12 at various sites in the oral cavity. In the individual studied, K12 could be detected at the mucosal membranes for as long as 3 weeks, but with steadily decreasing numbers after day 8. Thus, K12 may have the potential to control oral bacterial infections only when the uptake is repeated frequently. PMID:17311636

  5. Invasion of dentinal tubules by oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Love, R M; Jenkinson, H F

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules commonly occurs when dentin is exposed following a breach in the integrity of the overlying enamel or cementum. Bacterial products diffuse through the dentinal tubule toward the pulp and evoke inflammatory changes in the pulpo-dentin complex. These may eliminate the bacterial insult and block the route of infection. Unchecked, invasion results in pulpitis and pulp necrosis, infection of the root canal system, and periapical disease. While several hundred bacterial species are known to inhabit the oral cavity, a relatively small and select group of bacteria is involved in the invasion of dentinal tubules and subsequent infection of the root canal space. Gram-positive organisms dominate the tubule microflora in both carious and non-carious dentin. The relatively high numbers of obligate anaerobes present-such as Eubacterium spp., Propionibacterium spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Peptostreptococcus micros, and Veillonella spp.-suggest that the environment favors growth of these bacteria. Gram-negative obligate anaerobic rods, e.g., Porphyromonas spp., are less frequently recovered. Streptococci are among the most commonly identified bacteria that invade dentin. Recent evidence suggests that streptococci may recognize components present within dentinal tubules, such as collagen type I, which stimulate bacterial adhesion and intra-tubular growth. Specific interactions of other oral bacteria with invading streptococci may then facilitate the invasion of dentin by select bacterial groupings. An understanding the mechanisms involved in dentinal tubule invasion by bacteria should allow for the development of new control strategies, such as inhibitory compounds incorporated into oral health care products or dental materials, which would assist in the practice of endodontics. PMID:12097359

  6. A dielectrophoretic method of discrimination between normal oral epithelium, and oral and oropharyngeal cancer in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Graham, K A; Mulhall, H J; Labeed, F H; Lewis, M P; Hoettges, K F; Kalavrezos, N; McCaul, J; Liew, C; Porter, S; Fedele, S; Hughes, M P

    2015-08-01

    Despite the accessibility of the oral cavity to clinical examination, delays in diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma (OOPC) are observed in a large majority of patients, with negative impact on prognosis. Diagnostic aids might help detection and improve early diagnosis, but there remains little robust evidence supporting the use of any particular diagnostic technology at the moment. The aim of the present feasibility first-in-human study was to evaluate the preliminary diagnostic validity of a novel technology platform based on dielectrophoresis (DEP). DEP does not require labeling with antibodies or stains and it is an ideal tool for rapid analysis of cell properties. Cells from OOPC/dysplasia tissue and healthy oral mucosa were collected from 57 study participants via minimally-invasive brush biopsies and tested with a prototype DEP platform using median membrane midpoint frequency as main analysis parameter. Results indicate that the current DEP platform can discriminate between brush biopsy samples from cancerous and healthy oral tissue with a diagnostic sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 81.0%. The present ex vivo results support the potential application of DEP testing for identification of OOPC. This result indicates that DEP has the potential to be developed into a low-cost, rapid platform as an assistive tool for the early identification of oral cancer in primary care; given the rapid, minimally-invasive and non-expensive nature of the test, dielectric characterization represents a promising platform for cost-effective early cancer detection. PMID:26086875

  7. Widespread geographic distribution of oral Candida dubliniensis strains in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, D; Haynes, K; Bille, J; Boerlin, P; Rodero, L; Lloyd, S; Henman, M; Coleman, D

    1997-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a recently identified chlamydospore-positive yeast species associated with oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+) patients and is closely related to Candida albicans. Several recent reports have described atypical oral Candida isolates with phenotypic and genetic properties similar to those of C. dubliniensis. In this study 10 atypical chlamydospore-positive oral isolates from HIV+ patients in Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Argentina and 1 isolate from an HIV-negative Irish subject were compared to reference strains of C. albicans and Candida stellatoidea and reference strains of C. dubliniensis recovered from Irish and Australian HIV+ individuals. All 11 isolates were phenotypically and genetically similar to and phylogenetically identical to C. dubliniensis. These findings demonstrate that the geographical distribution of C. dubliniensis is widespread, and it is likely that it is a significant constituent of the normal oral flora with the potential to cause oral candidiasis, particularly in immunocompromised patients. PMID:9157162

  8. Oral corn pollen hypersensitivity in Arizona Native Americans: some sociologic aspects of allergy practice.

    PubMed

    Freeman, G L

    1994-05-01

    Thirty-three Navajo patients were seen in a private allergy consultation practice in Flagstaff, Arizona between 1978 and 1990. Sufficient skin test and historical data were available from nine atopic patients to evaluate hypersensitivity reactions to oral corn pollen used in the Navajo ceremonials. Six of the nine patients had positive skin test reactions to corn pollen and four of these six reported symptoms from oral corn pollen. The symptoms included various combinations of oral and ear itching, sneezing, cough, and wheezing. One corn pollen skin test-negative patient reported slight throat itching from the pollen. In no case did the patient or referring primary care physician associate the symptoms with ceremonial oral corn pollen use. This is the first report of hypersensitivity reactions to the ceremonial use of oral corn pollen in native Americans. PMID:8179227

  9. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution

    PubMed Central

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966

  10. Decreased inhibitory control of negative information in directed forgetting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianliang; Lei, Xu; Anderson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A great deal of evidence suggests that emotion enhances memory. Thus, it may be harder to forget emotional information. By means of fMRI, this question was investigated in the item-method directed forgetting paradigm. Behavioral results demonstrated that although all kinds of material could be forgotten, negative words showed reduced directed forgetting effect. At the neural level, the initial viewing of negative words elicited increased activities in inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule when contrasted with neutral words, which reflected the capture of attention by negative content. Forgetting instructions for negative and neutral words led to enhanced activations in frontal and parietal cortex, consistent with the engagement of an active inhibitory process. Surprisingly, whereas successful directed forgetting of neutral words elicited stronger activations in right middle frontal gyrus compared with incidental forgetting, no such activation was observed for negative words. The lack of activation for negative words may be due to an attentional bias in processing negative words, which may briefly interfere with the deployment of inhibitory control. The present findings are consistent with the engagement of an active forgetting mechanism that contributes to the item-method directed forgetting. However, evidence of impeded inhibitory control suggests that forgetting negative words is harder. PMID:26386395

  11. Diabetes mellitus and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health. PMID:25487035

  12. [Tobacco, snuff and oral health].

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Meurman, Jukka H; Sorsa, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is estimated to cause 6.3 million deaths annually worldwide. The use of snuff, differing from smoking, has significantly increased especially among the adolescents. Snuff powder contains 20-fold more nicotine compared to cigarettes, leading to strong nicotine addiction. In addition to cancer development, both smoking and snuff use exert other risks for oral health. Compared with non-smokers, smokers are at a 10-fold risk for the development and progression of periodontal diseases. Snuff causes oral mucosal changes, gingival recessions and root surface caries. Smoking induces systemic low-grade inflammation, which weakens defensive immune responses in oral mucosa, gingiva, gingival crevicular fluid and saliva. PMID:26677547

  13. Systemic diseases and oral health.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Mary; Lindefjeld Calabi, Kari A; San Martin, Laura

    2014-10-01

    The US population is at the beginning of a significant demographic shift; the American geriatric population is burgeoning, and average longevity is projected to increase in the coming years. Elder adults are affected by numerous chronic conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases. These older adults need special dental care and an improved understanding of the complex interactions of oral disease and systemic chronic diseases that can complicate their treatment. Oral diseases have strong associations with systemic diseases, and poor oral health can worsen the impact of systemic diseases. PMID:25201543

  14. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  15. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  16. Pharmacogenetics in Oral Antithrombotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Maier, Cheryl L; Duncan, Alexander; Hill, Charles E

    2016-09-01

    Certain antithrombotic drugs exhibit high patient-to-patient variability that significantly impacts the safety and efficacy of therapy. Pharmacogenetics offers the possibility of tailoring drug treatment to patients based on individual genotypes, and this type of testing has been recommended for 2 oral antithrombotic agents, warfarin and clopidogrel, to influence use and guide dosing. Limited studies have identified polymorphisms that affect the metabolism and activity of newer oral antithrombotic drugs, without clear evidence of the clinical relevance of such polymorphisms. This article provides an overview of the current status of pharmacogenetics in oral antithrombotic therapy. PMID:27514462

  17. Contrasting Effects of Starting Age and Input on the Oral Performance of Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the influence of starting age and input on foreign language learning. In relation to starting age, the study investigates whether early starters in instructional settings achieve the same kind of long-term advantage as learners in naturalistic settings and it complements previous research by using data from oral…

  18. Oral health in the elderly patient and its impact on general well-being: a nonsystematic review.

    PubMed

    Gil-Montoya, José Antonio; de Mello, Ana Lucia Ferreira; Barrios, Rocío; Gonzalez-Moles, Miguel Angel; Bravo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Data on the oral health of the elderly depict a worrying situation, with an elevated prevalence of caries and moderate periodontal disease, frequent edentulism, and numerous cases of dry mouth and oral cancer. There is wide evidence that periodontitis is a risk factor for certain systemic diseases, and impaired oral health has been associated with mastication and nutritional problems, especially among the elderly, with highly negative effects on their quality of life. In this nonsystematic review, the authors discuss the importance of evaluating the oral health of the geriatric population in a comprehensive manner, beyond simple clinical assessments. PMID:25709420

  19. Oral health in the elderly patient and its impact on general well-being: a nonsystematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Montoya, José Antonio; Ferreira de Mello, Ana Lucia; Barrios, Rocío; Gonzalez-Moles, Miguel Angel; Bravo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Data on the oral health of the elderly depict a worrying situation, with an elevated prevalence of caries and moderate periodontal disease, frequent edentulism, and numerous cases of dry mouth and oral cancer. There is wide evidence that periodontitis is a risk factor for certain systemic diseases, and impaired oral health has been associated with mastication and nutritional problems, especially among the elderly, with highly negative effects on their quality of life. In this nonsystematic review, the authors discuss the importance of evaluating the oral health of the geriatric population in a comprehensive manner, beyond simple clinical assessments. PMID:25709420

  20. Noninvasive visualization of in vivo release and intratumoral distribution of surrogate MR contrast agent using the dual MR contrast technique.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Jacobs, Igor; Artemov, Dmitri; Kato, Yoshinori

    2010-09-01

    A direct evaluation of the in vivo release profile of drugs from carriers is a clinical demand in drug delivery systems, because drug release characterized in vitro correlates poorly with in vivo release. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the in vivo applicability of the dual MR contrast technique as a useful tool for noninvasive monitoring of the stability and the release profile of drug carriers, by visualizing in vivo release of the encapsulated surrogate MR contrast agent from carriers and its subsequent intratumoral distribution profile. The important aspect of this technique is that it incorporates both positive and negative contrast agents within a single carrier. GdDTPA, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, and 5-fluorouracil were encapsulated in nano- and microspheres composed of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), which was used as a model carrier. In vivo studies were performed with orthotopic xenograft of human breast cancer. The MR-based technique demonstrated here has enabled visualization of the delivery of carriers, and release and intratumoral distribution of the encapsulated positive contrast agent. This study demonstrated proof-of-principle results for the noninvasive monitoring of in vivo release and distribution profiles of MR contrast agents, and thus, this technique will make a great contribution to the field. PMID:20580427