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Sample records for negatively regulates osteoblast

  1. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Fbw7 Negatively Regulates Osteoblast Differentiation by Targeting Runx2 for Degradation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Yogesh; Kapoor, Isha; Khan, Kainat; Thacker, Gatha; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Shukla, Nidhi; Kanaujiya, Jitendra Kumar; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Trivedi, Arun Kumar

    2015-12-25

    Runx2, a master regulator of osteoblast differentiation, is tightly regulated at both transcriptional and post-translational levels. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination have differential effects on Runx2 functions. Here, we show that the reduced expression and functions of Runx2 upon its phosphorylation by GSK3β are mediated by its ubiquitin-mediated degradation through E3 ubiquitin ligase Fbw7α. Fbw7α through its WD domain interacts with Runx2 both in a heterologous (HEK293T cells) system as well as in osteoblasts. GSK3β was also present in the same complex as determined by co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, overexpression of either Fbw7α or GSK3β was sufficient to down-regulate endogenous Runx2 expression and function; however, both failed to inhibit endogenous Runx2 when either of them was depleted in osteoblasts. Fbw7α-mediated inhibition of Runx2 expression also led to reduced Runx2 transactivation and osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, inhibition of Fbw7α restored Runx2 levels and promoted osteoblast differentiation. We also observed reciprocal expression levels of Runx2 and Fbw7α in models of bone loss such as lactating (physiological bone loss condition) and ovariectomized (induction of surgical menopause) animals that show reduced Runx2 and enhanced Fbw7α, whereas this was reversed in the estrogen-treated ovariectomized animals. In addition, methylprednisolone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) treatment to neonatal rats showed a temporal decrease in Runx2 with a reciprocal increase in Fbw7 in their calvarium. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Fbw7α negatively regulates osteogenesis by targeting Runx2 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation in a GSK3β-dependent manner and thus provides a plausible explanation for GSK3β-mediated bone loss as described before. PMID:26542806

  2. Ubc9 negatively regulates BMP-mediated osteoblastic differentiation in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Yukita, Akira; Hosoya, Akihiro; Ito, Yuzuru; Katagiri, Takenobu; Asashima, Makoto; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2012-05-01

    SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) modification (SUMOylation) has been reported to regulate various biological events such as cell-cycle progression, proliferation, and survival. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play an important role in osteoblast differentiation and maturation. Although Smad4, which acts as a transcriptional factor in the BMP signaling, is a target of SUMOylation, the involvement of SUMOylation in osteoblast differentiation remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrated spatial expression patterns of SUMO proteins and Ubc9 (ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 9), which is a unique E2-SUMOylation enzyme, in mouse tibia. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of Ubc9 enhanced osteoblastic differentiation induced by BMP2 in C2C12 mouse myoblasts and ST2 mouse bone-marrow derived stromal cells. Ubc9 knockdown elevated the BMP signaling transduction and reduced the expression of muscle-related genes in cooperation with BMP2. Finally, a luciferase assay using an Id1 (target gene of BMP signaling) reporter revealed that Smad4 mutants prevented from SUMOylation at their Lys158 possessed more potent transcriptional activity than wild-type Smad4. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ubc9 negatively regulates osteoblastic differentiation induced by BMP via, at least in part, SUMOylation of Smad4. PMID:22366399

  3. Identification of osteoblast stimulating factor 5 as a negative regulator in the B-lymphopoietic niche.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Natsuko; Ichii, Michiko; Maeda, Tetsuo; Saitoh, Norimitsu; Yokota, Takafumi; Yamawaki, Kengo; Kakitani, Makoto; Tomizuka, Kazuma; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have revealed the crucial role of the niche which supports B-lymphocyte differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel regulator of B lymphopoiesis secreted in the specific niche using the signal sequence trap method. Among the identified proteins from MS5 stromal cells, expression of pleiotrophin, placental proliferin 2, and osteoblast stimulating factor 5 (OSF-5) was dominantly high in several stromal cell lines. We found that OSF-5 suppressed early B lymphopoiesis in transgenic mice producing the target protein. The number of pre-B and immature B cells was reduced by more than half compared with control in the transgenic mice. In vitro studies showed that a secreted variant of OSF-5 inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of pre-B cells, whereas cell-intrinsic form had no influence on B lymphopoiesis. The main components of the B-lymphopoietic niche, osteoblasts in mice and mesenchymal cells in humans, are primary producers of OSF-5. These results define a novel mechanism of B lymphopoiesis in bone marrow. In the specific niche, B-lymphocyte differentiation is fine-tuned by negative regulators as well as supportive factors. PMID:26213229

  4. CXXC5 is a negative-feedback regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway involved in osteoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H-Y; Yoon, J-Y; Yun, J-H; Cho, K-W; Lee, S-H; Rhee, Y-M; Jung, H-S; Lim, H J; Lee, H; Choi, J; Heo, J-N; Lee, W; No, K T; Min, D; Choi, K-Y

    2015-01-01

    The positive roles of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in osteoblast differentiation and bone mineral density (BMD) maintenance have been clearly demonstrated in both animal experiments and clinical investigations. CXXC finger protein 5 (CXXC5), a recently identified negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, showed altered cellular localization and function, which were dependent on the cell type in previous studies. However, the in vivo function of CXXC5 has not been clearly investigated yet. Here, we characterized CXXC5 as a negative regulator of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Deficiency of CXXC5 resulted in elevated BMD in mice without any severe gross developmental abnormalities. CXXC5 exerted a negative-feedback effect on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway via Wnt-dependent binding to Dishevelled (Dvl) during osteoblast differentiation. Suppression of the Dvl–CXXC5 interaction using a competitor peptide resulted in the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and osteoblast differentiation, and accelerated thickness growth of ex vivo-cultured calvariae. Overall, CXXC5 is a negative-feedback regulator induced by Wnt/β-catenin signaling that inhibits osteoblast differentiation and bone formation via interaction with Dvl. PMID:25633194

  5. NF-κB RelB Negatively Regulates Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhenqiang; Li, Yanyun; Yin, Xiaoxiang; Dong, Yufeng; Xing, Lianping; Boyce, Brendan F.

    2013-01-01

    RelA-mediated NF-κB canonical signaling promotes mesenchymal progenitor cell (MPC) proliferation, but inhibits differentiation of mature osteoblasts (OBs) and thus negatively regulates bone formation. Previous studies suggest that NF-κB RelB may also negatively regulate bone formation through non-canonical signaling, but they involved a complex knockout mouse model and the molecular mechanisms involved were not investigated. Here, we report that RelB−/− mice develop age-related increased trabecular bone mass associated with increased bone formation. RelB−/− bone marrow stromal cells expanded faster in vitro and have enhanced OB differentiation associated with increased expression of the osteoblastogenic transcription factor, Runx2. In addition, RelB directly targeted the Runx2 promoter to inhibit its activation. Importantly, RelB−/− bone-derived MPCs formed bone more rapidly than wild-type cells after they were injected into a murine tibial bone defect model. Our findings indicate that RelB negatively regulates bone mass as mice age and limits bone formation in healing bone defects, suggesting that inhibition of RelB could reduce age-related bone loss and enhance bone repair. PMID:24115294

  6. The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen receptor-related receptor gamma negatively regulates BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Byung-Chul; Lee, Yong-Soo; Park, Yun-Yong; Bae, In-Ho; Kim, Don-Kyu; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Choi, Hong-Ran; Kim, Sun-Hun; Franceschi, Renny T; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2009-05-22

    Estrogen receptor-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma/ERR3/NR3B3) is a member of the orphan nuclear receptor with important functions in development and homeostasis. Recently it has been reported that ERRalpha is involved in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. In the present study we examined the role of ERRgamma in osteoblast differentiation. Here, we showed that ERRgamma is expressed in osteoblast progenitors and primary osteoblasts, and its expression is increased temporarily by BMP2. Overexpression of ERRgamma reduced BMP2-induced alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production as well as calcified nodule formation, whereas inhibition of ERRgamma expression significantly enhanced BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization, suggesting that endogenous ERRgamma plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation. In addition, ERRgamma significantly repressed Runx2 transactivity on osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein promoters. We also observed that ERRgamma physically interacts with Runx2 in vitro and in vivo and competes with p300 to repress Runx2 transactivity. Notably, intramuscular injection of ERRgamma strongly inhibited BMP2-induced ectopic bone formation in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that ERRgamma is a novel negative regulator of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation via its regulation of Runx2 transactivity. PMID:19324883

  7. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor Estrogen Receptor-related Receptor γ Negatively Regulates BMP2-induced Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Byung-Chul; Lee, Yong-Soo; Park, Yun-Yong; Bae, In-Ho; Kim, Don-Kyu; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Choi, Hong-Ran; Kim, Sun-Hun; Franceschi, Renny T.; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-related receptor γ (ERRγ/ERR3/NR3B3) is a member of the orphan nuclear receptor with important functions in development and homeostasis. Recently it has been reported that ERRα is involved in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. In the present study we examined the role of ERRγ in osteoblast differentiation. Here, we showed that ERRγ is expressed in osteoblast progenitors and primary osteoblasts, and its expression is increased temporarily by BMP2. Overexpression of ERRγ reduced BMP2-induced alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production as well as calcified nodule formation, whereas inhibition of ERRγ expression significantly enhanced BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization, suggesting that endogenous ERRγ plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation. In addition, ERRγ significantly repressed Runx2 transactivity on osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein promoters. We also observed that ERRγ physically interacts with Runx2 in vitro and in vivo and competes with p300 to repress Runx2 transactivity. Notably, intramuscular injection of ERRγ strongly inhibited BMP2-induced ectopic bone formation in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that ERRγ is a novel negative regulator of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation via its regulation of Runx2 transactivity. PMID:19324883

  8. Fibronectin regulates calvarial osteoblast differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moursi, A. M.; Damsky, C. H.; Lull, J.; Zimmerman, D.; Doty, S. B.; Aota, S.; Globus, R. K.

    1996-01-01

    The secretion of fibronectin by differentiating osteoblasts and its accumulation at sites of osteogenesis suggest that fibronectin participates in bone formation. To test this directly, we determined whether fibronectin-cell interactions regulate progressive differentiation of cultured fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts. Spatial distributions of alpha 5 integrin subunit, fibronectin, osteopontin (bone sialoprotein I) and osteocalcin (bone Gla-protein) were similar in fetal rat calvaria and mineralized, bone-like nodules formed by cultured osteoblasts. Addition of anti-fibronectin antibodies to cultures at confluence reduced subsequent formation of nodules to less than 10% of control values, showing that fibronectin is required for normal nodule morphogenesis. Anti-fibronectin antibodies selectively inhibited steady-state expression of mRNA for genes associated with osteoblast differentiation; mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were suppressed, whereas fibronectin, type I collagen and osteopontin were unaffected. To identify functionally relevant domains of fibronectin, we treated cells with soluble fibronectin fragments and peptides. Cell-binding fibronectin fragments (type III repeats 6-10) containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence blocked both nodule initiation and maturation, whether or not they contained a functional synergy site. In contrast, addition of the RGD-containing peptide GRGDSPK alone did not inhibit nodule initiation, although it did block nodule maturation. Thus, in addition to the RGD sequence, other features of the large cell-binding fragments contribute to the full osteogenic effects of fibronectin. Nodule formation and osteoblast differentiation resumed after anti-fibronectin antibodies or GRGDSPK peptides were omitted from the media, showing that the inhibition was reversible and the treatments were not cytotoxic. Outside the central cell-binding domain, peptides from the IIICS region and antibodies to the N terminus did not

  9. Thyrostimulin Regulates Osteoblastic Bone Formation During Early Skeletal Development.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J H Duncan; van der Spek, Anne; Logan, John G; Gogakos, Apostolos; Bagchi-Chakraborty, Jayashree; Murphy, Elaine; van Zeijl, Clementine; Down, Jenny; Croucher, Peter I; Boyde, Alan; Boelen, Anita; Williams, Graham R

    2015-09-01

    The ancestral glycoprotein hormone thyrostimulin is a heterodimer of unique glycoprotein hormone subunit alpha (GPA)2 and glycoprotein hormone subunit beta (GPB)5 subunits with high affinity for the TSH receptor. Transgenic overexpression of GPB5 in mice results in cranial abnormalities, but the role of thyrostimulin in bone remains unknown. We hypothesized that thyrostimulin exerts paracrine actions in bone and determined: 1) GPA2 and GPB5 expression in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, 2) the skeletal consequences of thyrostimulin deficiency in GPB5 knockout (KO) mice, and 3) osteoblast and osteoclast responses to thyrostimulin treatment. Gpa2 and Gpb5 expression was identified in the newborn skeleton but declined rapidly thereafter. GPA2 and GPB5 mRNAs were also expressed in primary osteoblasts and osteoclasts at varying concentrations. Juvenile thyrostimulin-deficient mice had increased bone volume and mineralization as a result of increased osteoblastic bone formation. However, thyrostimulin failed to induce a canonical cAMP response or activate the noncanonical Akt, ERK, or mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38) signaling pathways in primary calvarial or bone marrow stromal cell-derived osteoblasts. Furthermore, thyrostimulin did not directly inhibit osteoblast proliferation, differentiation or mineralization in vitro. These studies identify thyrostimulin as a negative but indirect regulator of osteoblastic bone formation during skeletal development. PMID:26018249

  10. [The regulation of various organs by osteoblasts].

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Takeda, Shu

    2016-05-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that osteocalcin, which is secreted from osteoblasts, plays a significant role in glucose metabolism, fat metabolism, mail fertility, and brain functions. It has been also revealed that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is secreted from osteocytes, has an important role in phosphate metabolism or calcium homeostasis. These findings suggest that bone is not only a target organ of hormones but also involved in regulating other organs as an endocrine organ. Bone forms regulatory network with various organs to maintain the whole body homeostasis. This review introduces the regulation of various organs by osteoblasts. PMID:27117618

  11. Pyk2 and Megakaryocytes Regulate Osteoblast Differentiation and Migration Via Distinct and Overlapping Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Eleniste, Pierre P; Patel, Vruti; Posritong, Sumana; Zero, Odette; Largura, Heather; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Himes, Evan R; Hamilton, Matthew; Baughman, Jenna; Kacena, Melissa A; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Osteoblast differentiation and migration are necessary for bone formation during bone remodeling. Mice lacking the proline-rich tyrosine kinase Pyk2 (Pyk2-KO) have increased bone mass, in part due to increased osteoblast proliferation. Megakaryocytes (MKs), the platelet-producing cells, also promote osteoblast proliferation in vitro and bone-formation in vivo via a pathway that involves Pyk2. In the current study, we examined the mechanism of action of Pyk2, and the role of MKs, on osteoblast differentiation and migration. We found that Pyk2-KO osteoblasts express elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen and osteocalcin mRNA levels as well as increased ALP activity, and mineralization, confirming that Pyk2 negatively regulates osteoblast function. Since Pyk2 Y402 phosphorylation is important for its catalytic activity and for its protein-scaffolding functions, we expressed the phosphorylation-mutant (Pyk2(Y402F) ) and kinase-mutant (Pyk2(K457A) ) in Pyk2-KO osteoblasts. Both Pyk2(Y402F) and Pyk2(K457A) reduced ALP activity, whereas only kinase-inactive Pyk2(K457A) inhibited Pyk2-KO osteoblast migration. Consistent with a role for Pyk2 on ALP activity, co-culture of MKs with osteoblasts led to a decrease in the level of phosphorylated Pyk2 (pY402) as well as a decrease in ALP activity. Although, Pyk2-KO osteoblasts exhibited increased migration compared to wild-type osteoblasts, Pyk2 expression was not required necessary for the ability of MKs to stimulate osteoblast migration. Together, these data suggest that osteoblast differentiation and migration are inversely regulated by MKs via distinct Pyk2-dependent and independent signaling pathways. Novel drugs that distinguish between the kinase-dependent or protein-scaffolding functions of Pyk2 may provide therapeutic specificity for the control of bone-related diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1396-1406, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26552846

  12. Developmental Regulation of the Collagenase-3 Promoter in Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Yang, Y.; DAlonzo, R. C.; Winchester, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that collagenase-3 MRNA is developmentally expressed in normal, differentiating rat osteoblasts. In vivo, the gene is expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts and developmentally regulated. Our studies aim at determining the promoter elements and proteins binding to the promoter responsible for tissue and developmental regulation of collagenase-3.

  13. Osteoblast differentiation and migration are regulated by dynamin GTPase activity.

    PubMed

    Eleniste, Pierre P; Huang, Su; Wayakanon, Kornchanok; Largura, Heather W; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Bone formation is controlled by osteoblasts, but the signaling proteins that control osteoblast differentiation and function are still unclear. We examined if the dynamin GTPase, which is associated with actin remodeling and migration in other cells, plays a role in osteoblast differentiation and migration. Dynamin mRNA was expressed in primary osteoblasts throughout differentiation (0-21 days). However, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a marker of osteoblast differentiation, was decreased in osteoblasts over-expressing dynamin. Conversely, ALP activity was increased following shRNA-mediated knockdown of dynamin and in osteoblasts treated with the dynamin inhibitor, dynasore. Dynasore also reduced c-fos and osterix expression, markers of early osteoblasts, suggesting a role for dynamin in pre-osteoblast to osteoblast differentiation. Since dynamin GTPase activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation, we examined the mechanism of dynamin dephosphorylation in osteoblasts. Dynamin formed a protein complex with the tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST and inhibition of phosphatase activity increased the level of phosphorylated dynamin. Further, PTP-PEST blocked the Src-mediated increase in the phosphorylation and GTPase activity of wild-type dynamin but not the phosphorylation mutant dynY231F/Y597F. Although ALP activity was increased in osteoblasts expressing GTPase-defective dynK44A, and to a lesser extent dynY231F/Y597F, osteoblast migration was significantly inhibited by dynK44A and dynY231F/Y597F. These studies demonstrate a novel role for dynamin GTPase activity and phosphorylation in osteoblast differentiation and migration, which may be important for bone formation. PMID:24387844

  14. Osteoblast differentiation and migration are regulated by Dynamin GTPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Eleniste, Pierre P.; Huang, Su; Wayakanon, Kornchanok; Largura, Heather W.; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Bone formation is controlled by osteoblasts but the signaling proteins that control osteoblast differentiation and function are still unclear. We examined if the dynamin GTPase, which is associated with actin remodeling and migration in other cells, plays a role in osteoblast differentiation and migration. Dynamin mRNA was expressed in primary osteoblasts throughout differentiation (0–21 days). However, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a marker of osteoblast differentiation, was decreased in osteoblasts over-expressing dynamin. Conversely, ALP activity was increased following shRNA-mediated knockdown of dynamin and in osteoblasts treated with the dynamin inhibitor, dynasore. Dynasore also reduced c-fos and osterix expression, markers of early osteoblasts, suggesting a role for dynamin in pre-osteoblast to osteoblast differentiation. Since dynamin GTPase activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation, we examined the mechanism of dynamin dephosphorylation in osteoblasts. Dynamin formed a protein complex with the tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST and inhibition of phosphatase activity increased the level of phosphorylated dynamin. Further, PTP-PEST blocked the Src-mediated increase in the phosphorylation and GTPase activity of wild-type dynamin but not the phosphorylation mutant dynY231F/Y597F. Although ALP activity was increased in osteoblasts expressing GTPase-defective dynK44A, and to a lesser extent dynY231F/Y597F, osteoblast migration was significantly inhibited by dynK44A and dynY231F/Y597F. These studies demonstrate a novel role for dynamin GTPase activity and phosphorylation in osteoblast differentiation and migration, which may be important for bone formation. PMID:24387844

  15. Signaling and transcriptional regulation in osteoblast commitment and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Shuying; Shao, Jianzhong; Li, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The major event that triggers osteogenesis is the transition of mesenchymal stem cells into bone forming, differentiating osteoblast cells. Osteoblast differentiation is the primary component of bone formation, exemplified by the synthesis, deposition and mineralization of extracellular matrix. Although not well understood, osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells is a well-orchestrated process. Recent advances in molecular and genetic studies using gene targeting in mouse enable a better understanding of the multiple factors and signaling networks that control the differentiation process at a molecular level. Osteoblast commitment and differentiation are controlled by complex activities involving signal transduction and transcriptional regulation of gene expression. We review Wnt signaling pathway and Runx2 regulation network, which are critical for osteoblast differentiation. Many other factors and signaling pathways have been implicated in regulation of osteoblast differentiation in a network manner, such as the factors Osterix, ATF4, and SATB2 and the TGF-beta, Hedgehog, FGF, ephrin, and sympathetic signaling pathways. This review summarizes the recent advances in the studies of signaling transduction pathways and transcriptional regulation of osteoblast cell lineage commitment and differentiation. The knowledge of osteoblast commitment and differentiation should be applied towards the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives for human bone diseases. PMID:17485283

  16. Serotonin regulates osteoblast proliferation and function in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dai, S.Q.; Yu, L.P.; Shi, X.; Wu, H.; Shao, P.; Yin, G.Y.; Wei, Y.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The monoamine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a well-known neurotransmitter, also has important functions outside the central nervous system. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT in the proliferation, differentiation, and function of osteoblasts in vitro. We treated rat primary calvarial osteoblasts with various concentrations of 5-HT (1 nM to 10 µM) and assessed the rate of osteoblast proliferation, expression levels of osteoblast-specific proteins and genes, and the ability to form mineralized nodules. Next, we detected which 5-HT receptor subtypes were expressed in rat osteoblasts at different stages of osteoblast differentiation. We found that 5-HT could inhibit osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization at low concentrations, but this inhibitory effect was mitigated at relatively high concentrations. Six of the 5-HT receptor subtypes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C) were found to exist in rat osteoblasts. Of these, 5-HT2A and 5-HT1B receptors had the highest expression levels, at both early and late stages of differentiation. Our results indicated that 5-HT can regulate osteoblast proliferation and function in vitro. PMID:25098615

  17. Osteoblast differentiation and skeletal development are regulated by Mdm2-p53 signaling.

    PubMed

    Lengner, Christopher J; Steinman, Heather A; Gagnon, James; Smith, Thomas W; Henderson, Janet E; Kream, Barbara E; Stein, Gary S; Lian, Jane B; Jones, Stephen N

    2006-03-13

    Mdm2 is required to negatively regulate p53 activity at the peri-implantation stage of early mouse development. However, the absolute requirement for Mdm2 throughout embryogenesis and in organogenesis is unknown. To explore Mdm2-p53 signaling in osteogenesis, Mdm2-conditional mice were bred with Col3.6-Cre-transgenic mice that express Cre recombinase in osteoblast lineage cells. Mdm2-conditional Col3.6-Cre mice die at birth and display multiple skeletal defects. Osteoblast progenitor cells deleted for Mdm2 have elevated p53 activity, reduced proliferation, reduced levels of the master osteoblast transcriptional regulator Runx2, and reduced differentiation. In contrast, p53-null osteoprogenitor cells have increased proliferation, increased expression of Runx2, increased osteoblast maturation, and increased tumorigenic potential, as mice specifically deleted for p53 in osteoblasts develop osteosarcomas. These results demonstrate that p53 plays a critical role in bone organogenesis and homeostasis by negatively regulating bone development and growth and by suppressing bone neoplasia and that Mdm2-mediated inhibition of p53 function is a prerequisite for Runx2 activation, osteoblast differentiation, and proper skeletal formation. PMID:16533949

  18. Vegfa regulates perichondrial vascularity and osteoblast differentiation in bone development

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xuchen; Murata, Yurie; Liu, Yanqiu; Nicolae, Claudia; Olsen, Bjorn R.; Berendsen, Agnes D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) has important roles in endochondral bone formation. Osteoblast precursors, endothelial cells and osteoclasts migrate from perichondrium into primary ossification centers of cartilage templates of future bones in response to Vegfa secreted by (pre)hypertrophic chondrocytes. Perichondrial osteolineage cells also produce Vegfa, but its function is not well understood. By deleting Vegfa in osteolineage cells in vivo, we demonstrate that progenitor-derived Vegfa is required for blood vessel recruitment in perichondrium and the differentiation of osteoblast precursors in mice. Conditional deletion of Vegfa receptors indicates that Vegfa-dependent effects on osteoblast differentiation are mediated by Vegf receptor 2 (Vegfr2). In addition, Vegfa/Vegfr2 signaling stimulates the expression and activity of Indian hedgehog, increases the expression of β-catenin and inhibits Notch2. Our findings identify Vegfa as a regulator of perichondrial vascularity and osteoblast differentiation at early stages of bone development. PMID:25977369

  19. Regulation of Osteoblast Survival by the Extracellular Matrix and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus. Ruth K.; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.; Searby, Nancy D.; Bowley, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Spaceflight adversely affects the skeleton, posing a substantial risk to astronaut's health during long duration missions. The reduced bone mass observed in growing animals following spaceflight is due at least in part to inadequate bone formation by osteoblasts. Thus, it is of central importance to identify basic cellular mechanisms underlying normal bone formation. The fundamental ideas underlying our research are that interactions between extracellular matrix proteins, integrin adhesion receptors, cytoplasmic signaling and cytoskeletal proteins are key ingredients for the proper functioning of osteoblasts, and that gravity impacts these interactions. As an in vitro model system we used primary fetal rat calvarial cells which faithfully recapitulate osteoblast differentiation characteristically observed in vivo. We showed that specific integrin receptors ((alpha)3(beta)1), ((alpha)5(beta)1), ((alpha)8(betal)1) and extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin, laminin) were needed for the differentiation of immature osteoblasts. In the course of maturation, cultured osteoblasts switched from depending on fibronectin and laminin for differentiation to depending on these proteins for their very survival. Furthermore, we found that manipulating the gravity vector using ground-based models resulted in activation of key intracellular survival signals generated by integrin/extracellular matrix interactions. We are currently testing the in vivo relevance of some of these observations using targeted transgenic technology. In conclusion, mechanical factors including gravity may participate in regulating survival via cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix. This leads us to speculate that microgravity adversely affects the survival of osteoblasts and contributes to spaceflight-induced osteoporosis.

  20. Osteoblast hydraulic conductivity is regulated by calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    It is our hypothesis that osteoblasts play a major role in regulating bone (re)modeling by regulating interstitial fluid (ISF) flow through individual bone compartments. We hypothesize that osteoblasts of the blood-bone membrane lining the bone surfaces are capable of regulating transosseous fluid flow. This regulatory function of the osteoblasts was tested in vitro by culturing a layer of rat calvarial osteoblasts on porous membranes. Such a layer of osteoblasts subjected to 7.3 mm Hg of hydrostatic pressure posed a significant resistance to fluid flow across the cell layer similar in magnitude to the resistance posed by endothelial monolayers in vitro. The hydraulic conductivity, the volumetric fluid flux per unit pressure drop, of the osteoblast layer was altered in response to certain hormones. Hydraulic conductivity decreased approximately 40% in response to 33 nM parathyroid hormone, while it exhibited biphasic behavior in response to calcitonin: increased 40% in response to 100 nM calcitonin and decreased 40% in response to 1000 nM calcitonin. Further, activation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin dramatically increased the hydraulic conductivity, while elevation of intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i, by the calcium ionophore A23187 initially decreased the hydraulic conductivity at 5 minutes before increasing conductivity by 30 minutes. These results suggest that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and [Ca2+]i may mediate changes in the osteoblast hydraulic conductivity. The increase in hydraulic conductivity in response to 100 nM calcitonin and the decrease in response to PTH suggest that the stimulatory and inhibitory effects on bone formation of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone, respectively, may be due in part to alterations in bone fluid flow.

  1. Estrogen Receptor α Regulates Dlx3-Mediated Osteoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Ho; Oh, Kyo-Nyeo; Han, Younho; Choi, You Hee; Lee, Kwang-Youl

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ER-α), which is involved in bone metabolism and breast cancer, has been shown to have transcriptional targets. Dlx3 is essential for the skeletal development and plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation. Various osteogenic stimulators and transcription factors can induce the protein expression of Dlx3. However, the regulatory function of ER-α in the Dlx3 mediated osteogenic process remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of Dlx3 and found that ER-α is a positive regulator of Dlx3 transcription in BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation. We also found that ER-α interacts with Dlx3 and increases its transcriptional activity and DNA binding affinity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the regulation of Dlx3 activity by ER-α is independent of the ligand (estradiol) binding domain. These results indicate that Dlx3 is a novel target of ER-α, and that ER-α regulates the osteoblast differentiation through modulation of Dlx3 expression and/or interaction with Dlx3. PMID:26674964

  2. The Macrophage Polarization Regulates MSC Osteoblast Differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Ruan, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Bone repair is a complex yet highly organized process involving interactions between various cell types and the extracellular environment. Macrophages are not only activated in inflammation during early phases of repair processes, but they are also present in bone throughout the whole bone repair process. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent an attractive therapeutic for bone fracture with their expansion potential, osteogenic capability, and potential for injury. However, less is known about the interaction between macrophage and MSC during bone repair and regeneration. This study was aimed to investigate whether macrophages in different statuses can regulate MSC osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Using in vitro cell coculture of macrophage and MSC, it was shown that macrophage polarization can regulate MSC osteoblast differentiation. This was evidenced by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteogenic markers, and bone mineralization in M2 macrophage cocultured MSC but decreased in M1 counterpart. These results might be mediated by pro-regenerative cytokines, such as TGF-β, VEGF, and IFG-1, produced by M2 macrophages and detrimental inflammation cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α, produced by M1 macrophages. Taken together, this shows that macrophage polarization could be crucial for maintaining bone homeostasis and promoting bone repair by regulating the MSC osteoblast differentiation. PMID:26927345

  3. DHEA promotes osteoblast differentiation by regulating the expression of osteoblast-related genes and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuemin; Gui, Yuyan; Xu, Yingping; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have reported that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) promotes osteoblast proliferation and inhibits osteoblast apoptosis and that DHEA inhibits osteoclast maturation. However, whether DHEA regulates osteoblast differentiation remains unclear. The present study first examined the effect of DHEA on bone morphology in vivo. DHEA was found to increase bone volume (BV), bone mineral density (BMD), and the number of trabeculae in bone (Th.N) and it was found to decrease trabecular spacing in bone (Th.sp) in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Next, the effect of DHEA on osteoblast differentiation was examined in vitro and osteoblastogenesis-related marker genes, such as Runx2, Osterix, Collagen1, and Osteocalcin, were also detected. DHEA increased osteoblast production in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in osteoblastogenic medium, and DHEA increased the expression of Runx2 and osterix, thereby increasing the expression of osteocalcin and collagen1. Immune cells and bone interact, so changes in immune cells were detected in vivo. DHEA increased the number of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the spleen but it did not affect CTLA-4 or IL-10. When MSCs were treated with DHEA in the presence of Tregs, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity increased. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are both generated by MSCs. If osteoblast differentiation increases, adipocyte differentiation will decrease, and the reverse also holds true. DHEA was found to increase the number of adipocytes in osteoblastogenic medium but it had no effect on the number of adipocytes and expression of PPARγ mRNA in adipogenic medium. This finding suggests that osteoblasts may be involved in adipocyte production. In conclusion, the current results suggest that DHEA can improve postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) by up-regulating osteoblast differentiation via the up-regulation of the expression of osteoblastogenesis-related genes and via an increase in Foxp3(+) Tregs. PMID:26559023

  4. Mechanical regulation of osteoclastic genes in human osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kreja, Ludwika Liedert, Astrid; Hasni, Sofia; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita

    2008-04-11

    Bone adaptation to mechanical load is accompanied by changes in gene expression of bone-forming cells. Less is known about mechanical effects on factors controlling bone resorption by osteoclasts. Therefore, we studied the influence of mechanical loading on several key genes modulating osteoclastogenesis. Human osteoblasts were subjected to various cell stretching protocols. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate gene expression. Cell stretching resulted in a significant up-regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) immediate after intermittent loading (3 x 3 h, 3 x 6 h, magnitude 1%). Continuous loading, however, had no effect on RANKL expression. The expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), and osteoclast inhibitory lectin (OCIL) was not significantly altered. The data suggested that mechanical loading could influence osteoclasts recruitment by modulating RANKL expression in human osteoblasts and that the effects might be strictly dependent on the quality of loading.

  5. FoxO1 expression in osteoblasts regulates glucose homeostasis through regulation of osteocalcin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rached, Marie-Therese; Kode, Aruna; Silva, Barbara C.; Jung, Dae Young; Gray, Susan; Ong, Helena; Paik, Ji-Hye; DePinho, Ronald A.; Kim, Jason K.; Karsenty, Gerard; Kousteni, Stavroula

    2009-01-01

    Osteoblasts have recently been found to play a role in regulating glucose metabolism through secretion of osteocalcin. It is unknown, however, how this osteoblast function is regulated transcriptionally. As FoxO1 is a forkhead family transcription factor known to regulate several key aspects of glucose homeostasis, we investigated whether its expression in osteoblasts may contribute to its metabolic functions. Here we show that mice lacking Foxo1 only in osteoblasts had increased pancreatic β cell proliferation, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. The ability of osteoblast-specific FoxO1 deficiency to affect metabolic homeostasis was due to increased osteocalcin expression and decreased expression of Esp, a gene that encodes a protein responsible for decreasing the bioactivity of osteocalcin. These results indicate that FoxO1 expression in osteoblasts contributes to FoxO1 control of glucose homeostasis and identify FoxO1 as a key modulator of the ability of the skeleton to function as an endocrine organ regulating glucose metabolism. PMID:20038793

  6. Osteoblast-derived VEGF regulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation during bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kai; Olsen, Bjorn R.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblast-derived VEGF is important for bone development and postnatal bone homeostasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that VEGF affects bone repair and regeneration; however, the cellular mechanisms by which it works are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the functions of osteoblast-derived VEGF in healing of a bone defect. The results indicate that osteoblast-derived VEGF plays critical roles at several stages in the repair process. Using transgenic mice with osteoblast-specific deletion of Vegfa, we demonstrated that VEGF promoted macrophage recruitment and angiogenic responses in the inflammation phase, and optimal levels of VEGF were required for coupling of angiogenesis and osteogenesis in areas where repair occurs by intramembranous ossification. VEGF likely functions as a paracrine factor in this process because deletion of Vegfr2 in osteoblastic lineage cells enhanced osteoblastic maturation and mineralization. Furthermore, osteoblast- and hypertrophic chondrocyte–derived VEGF stimulated recruitment of blood vessels and osteoclasts and promoted cartilage resorption at the repair site during the periosteal endochondral ossification stage. Finally, osteoblast-derived VEGF stimulated osteoclast formation in the final remodeling phase of the repair process. These findings provide a basis for clinical strategies to improve bone regeneration and treat defects in bone healing. PMID:26731472

  7. The Transcription Factor EB (TFEB) Regulates Osteoblast Differentiation Through ATF4/CHOP-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yoneshima, Erika; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Sakai, Eiko; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Yoshida, Noriaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells that produce large amounts of collagen type I and various bone matrix proteins. Although osteoblast differentiation is highly regulated by various factors, it remains unknown whether lysosomes are directly involved in osteoblast differentiation. Here, we demonstrate the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, modulates osteoblast differentiation. The expression levels of TFEB as well as those of endosomal/lysosomal proteins were up-regulated during osteoblast differentiation using mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. By gene knockdown (KD) experiments with small interfering RNA (siRNA), TFEB depletion caused markedly reduced osteoblast differentiation as compared with the control cells. Conversely, overexpression (OE) of TFEB resulted in strikingly enhanced osteoblastogenesis compared to the control cells. By analysis of down-stream effector molecules, TFEB KD was found to cause marked up-regulation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), both of which are essential factors for osteoblastogenesis. In contrast, TFEB OE promoted osteoblast differentiation through reduced expression of ATF4 and CHOP without differentiation agents. Given the importance of ATF4 and CHOP in osteoblastogenesis, it is clear that the TFEB-regulated signaling pathway for osteoblast differentiation is involved in ATF4/CHOP-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:26519689

  8. 17-β-estradiol up-regulates apolipoprotein genes expression during osteoblast differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yuyan; Chu, Nan; Qiu, Xuemin; Tang, Wei; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2016-05-23

    Apolipoproteins are of great physiological importance and are associated with different diseases. Many independent studies of patterns of gene expression during osteoblast differentiation have been described, and some apolipoproteins have been induced during this process. 17-β-estradiol (E2) may enhance osteoblast physiological function. However, no studies have indicated whether E2 can modulate the expression of apolipoproteins during osteoblast differentiation in vitro. The aim of the current study was to observe the regulation of apolipoprotein mRNA expression by E2 during this process. Primary osteoblasts were collected from the calvaria of newborn mice and were subjected to osteoblast differentiation in vitro with serial concentrations of E2. RNA was isolated on days 0, 5, and 25 of differentiation. Real-time PCR was performed to analyze the levels of apolipoprotein mRNA. Results showed that during osteoblast differentiation all of the apolipoprotein genes were up-regulated by E2 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, only ApoE was strongly induced during the mineralization of cultured osteoblasts. This result suggests that ApoE might be involved in osteoblast differentiation. The hypothesis is that E2 promotes osteoblast differentiation by up-regulating ApoE gene expression, though further study is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27074899

  9. Cancer–Osteoblast Interaction Reduces Sost Expression in Osteoblasts and Up-Regulates lncRNA MALAT1 in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Aimy; Hum, Nicholas R.; Hudson, Bryan D.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic interaction between prostate cancer and the bone microenvironment is a major contributor to metastasis of prostate cancer to bone. In this study, we utilized an in vitro co-culture model of PC3 prostate cancer cells and osteoblasts followed by microarray based gene expression profiling to identify previously unrecognized prostate cancer–bone microenvironment interactions. Factors secreted by PC3 cells resulted in the up-regulation of many genes in osteoblasts associated with bone metabolism and cancer metastasis, including Mmp13, Il-6 and Tgfb2, and down-regulation of Wnt inhibitor Sost. To determine whether altered Sost expression in the bone microenvironment has an effect on prostate cancer metastasis, we co-cultured PC3 cells with Sost knockout (SostKO) osteoblasts and wildtype (WT) osteoblasts and identified several genes differentially regulated between PC3-SostKO osteoblast co-cultures and PC3-WT osteoblast co-cultures. Co-culturing PC3 cells with WT osteoblasts up-regulated cancer-associated long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MALAT1 in PC3 cells. MALAT1 expression was further enhanced when PC3 cells were co-cultured with SostKO osteoblasts and treatment with recombinant Sost down-regulated MALAT1 expression in these cells. Our results suggest that reduced Sost expression in the tumor microenvironment may promote bone metastasis by up-regulating MALAT1 in prostate cancer.

  10. Expression of POEM, a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation, is suppressed by TNF-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukasaki, Masayuki; Yamada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Dai; Aizawa, Ryo; Miyazono, Agasa; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Takami, Masamichi; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Morimura, Naoko; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} TNF-{alpha} inhibits POEM gene expression. {yields} Inhibition of POEM gene expression is caused by NF-{kappa}B activation by TNF-{alpha}. {yields} Over-expression of POEM recovers inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: POEM, also known as nephronectin, is an extracellular matrix protein considered to be a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we found that tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), a key regulator of bone matrix properties and composition that also inhibits terminal osteoblast differentiation, strongly inhibited POEM expression in the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. TNF-{alpha}-induced down-regulation of POEM gene expression occurred in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. In addition, expressions of marker genes in differentiated osteoblasts were down-regulated by TNF-{alpha} in a manner consistent with our findings for POEM, while over-expression of POEM recovered TNF-{alpha}-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that TNF-{alpha} inhibits POEM expression through the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway and down-regulation of POEM influences the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-{alpha}.

  11. CGRP may regulate bone metabolism through stimulating osteoblast differentiation and inhibiting osteoclast formation.

    PubMed

    He, Haitao; Chai, Jianshen; Zhang, Shengfu; Ding, Linlin; Yan, Peng; Du, Wenjun; Yang, Zhenzhou

    2016-05-01

    Calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide, which is widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. Numerous mechanisms underlying the action of CGRP in osteoblast-associated cells have been suggested for bone growth and metabolism. The present study was designed to closely investigate the osteoblast‑ and osteoclast-associated mechanisms of the effect of CGRP administration on bone metabolism in primary osteoblasts. Primary osteoblasts were obtained from newborn rabbit calvaria and incubated with different concentrations of human CGRP (hCGRP), hCGRP and hCGRP (8‑37), or without treatment as a control. Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were detected following treatment, as well as the expression levels of osteoblast differentiation markers, including activating transcription factor‑4 (ATF4) and osteocalcin (OC), and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The isolated primary osteoblasts were found to stain positively for ALP. hCGRP treatment had no significant effect on transient intracellular Ca2+ in the osteoblasts. Treatment of the osteoblasts with hCGRP led to elevations in the expression levels of cAMP, ATF4 and OPG, and downregulation in the expression of RANKL, in a dose‑dependent manner. These effects were markedly reversed by the addition of hCGRP (8‑37). The results of the present study demonstrated that CGRP administration not only stimulated osteoblast differentiation, as demonstrated by upregulated expression levels of ATF4 and OC in the hCGRP‑treated osteoblasts, but also inhibited OPG/RANKL‑regulated osteoclastogenesis. CGRP may act as a modulator of bone metabolism through osteoblast and osteoclast-associated mechanisms, which result in osteoblast formation with subsequent activation of bone formation. PMID:27035229

  12. Gravity, an Regulation Factor in BMSCs Differentiation to osteoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huang; Yinghui, Li; Fen, Yang; Zhongquan, Dai

    PURPOSE Most studies of regulatory mechanisms of adult stem cell differentiation are concentrated in chemical factors but few efforts are put into physical factors Recent space life science studies indicate mechanical factors participate in the differentiation of cells The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity or hypergravity on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells BMSCs METHODOLOGY The BMSCs at day 7 were added osteogenic inducer 10nM dexamethasone 10mM beta -glycerophosphate and 50 mu M asorbic acid-2-phosphate for 7 days and cultured under simulated microgravity or hypergravity 2g for 1 day 3 days 5 days or 7 days RESULTS After treating BMSCs with osteogenic inducer and hypergravity the cells expressed more ColIA1 Cbfa1 and ALP than in single steogenic inducer treatment Reversely the cells treated with osteogenic inducer and simulated microgravity expressed less ColIA1 Cbfa1 and ALP CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that hypergravity promotes the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and simulated microgravity inhibits this process Gravity is an important regulation factor in BMSCs differentiation to osteoblasts

  13. Mechanisms regulating osteoblast response to surface microtopography and vitamin D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Bryan Frederick, Jr.

    A comprehensive understanding of the interactions between orthopaedic and dental implant surfaces with the surrounding host tissue is essential in the design of advanced biomaterials that better promote bone growth and osseointegration of implants. Dental implants with roughened surfaces and high surface energy are well known to promote osteoblast differentiation in vitro and promote increased bone-to-implant contact in vivo. In addition, increased surface roughness increases osteoblasts response to the vitamin D metabolite 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. However, the exact mechanisms mediating cell response to surface properties and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 are still being elucidated. The central aim of the thesis is to investigate whether integrin signaling in response to rough surface microtopography enhances osteoblast differentiation and responsiveness to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. The hypothesis is that the integrin alpha5beta1 plays a role in osteoblast response to surface microtopography and that 1alpha,25(OH) 2D3 acts through VDR-independent pathways involving caveolae to synergistically enhance osteoblast response to surface roughness and 1alpha,25(OH) 2D3. To test this hypothesis the objectives of the studies performed in this thesis were: (1) to determine if alpha5beta 1 signaling is required for osteoblast response to surface microstructure; (2) to determine if increased responsiveness to 1alpha,25(OH)2D 3 requires the vitamin D receptor, (3) to determine if rough titanium surfaces functionalized with the peptides targeting integrins (RGD) and transmembrane proteoglycans (KRSR) will enhance both osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, and (4) to determine whether caveolae, which are associated with integrin and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 signaling, are required for enhance osteogenic response to surface microstructure and 1alpha,25(OH)2D 3. The results demonstrate that integrins, VDR, and caveolae play important roles in mediating osteoblast response to surface properties and 1alpha,25

  14. Osteoblast autonomous Pi regulation via Pit1 plays a role in bone mineralization.

    PubMed

    Yoshiko, Yuji; Candeliere, G Antonio; Maeda, Norihiko; Aubin, Jane E

    2007-06-01

    The complex pathogenesis of mineralization defects seen in inherited and/or acquired hypophosphatemic disorders suggests that local inorganic phosphate (P(i)) regulation by osteoblasts may be a rate-limiting step in physiological bone mineralization. To test whether an osteoblast autonomous phosphate regulatory system regulates mineralization, we manipulated well-established in vivo and in vitro models to study mineralization stages separately from cellular proliferation/differentiation stages of osteogenesis. Foscarnet, an inhibitor of NaP(i) transport, blocked mineralization of osteoid formation in osteoblast cultures and local mineralization after injection over the calvariae of newborn rats. Mineralization was also down- and upregulated, respectively, with under- and overexpression of the type III NaP(i) transporter Pit1 in osteoblast cultures. Among molecules expressed in osteoblasts and known to be related to P(i) handling, stanniocalcin 1 was identified as an early response gene after foscarnet treatment; it was also regulated by extracellular P(i), and itself increased Pit1 accumulation in both osteoblast cultures and in vivo. These results provide new insights into the functional role of osteoblast autonomous P(i) handling in normal bone mineralization and the abnormalities seen in skeletal tissue in hypophosphatemic disorders. PMID:17438129

  15. Surface microcracks signal osteoblasts to regulate alignment and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yutian; Baumann, Melissa J; Case, Eldon D; Irwin, Regina K; Meyer, Sarah E; Pearson, Craig S; McCabe, Laura R

    2014-11-01

    Microcracks are present in bone and can result from fatigue damage due to repeated, cyclically applied stresses. From a mechanical point, microcracks can dissipate strain energy at the advancing tip of a crack to improve overall bone toughness. Physiologically, microcracks are thought to trigger bone remodeling. Here, we examine the effect of microcracks specifically on osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, by comparing cell responses on microcracked versus non-microcracked hydroxyapatite (HA) specimens. Osteoblast attachment was found to be greater on microcracked HA specimens (p<0.05). More importantly, we identified the preferential alignment of osteoblasts in the direction of the microcracks on HA. Cells also displayed a preferential attachment that was 75 to 90 μm away from the microcrack indent. After 21 days of culture, osteoblast maturation was notably enhanced on the HA with microcracks, as indicated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and gene expression. Furthermore, examination of bone deposition by confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated preferential mineralization at microcrack indentation sites. Dissolution studies indicate that the microcracks increase calcium release, which could contribute to osteoblast responses. Our findings suggest that microcracks signal osteoblast attachment and bone formation/healing. PMID:25280696

  16. Surface microcracks signal osteoblasts to regulate alignment and bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yutian; Baumann, Melissa J.; Case, Eldon D.; Irwin, Regina K.; Meyer, Sarah E.; Pearson, Craig S.; McCabe, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    Microcracks are present in bone and can result from fatigue damage due to repeated, cyclically applied stresses. From a mechanical point, microcracks can dissipate strain energy at the advancing tip of a crack to improve overall bone toughness. Physiologically, microcracks are thought to trigger bone remodeling. Here, we examine the effect of microcracks specifically on osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, by comparing cell responses on microcracked versus non-microcracked hydroxyapatite (HA) specimens. Osteoblast attachment was found to be greater on microcracked HA specimens (p<0.05). More importantly, we identified the preferential alignment of osteoblasts in the direction of the microcracks on HA. Cells also displayed a preferential attachment that was 75 to 90 μm away from the microcrack indent. After 21 days of culture, osteoblast maturation was notably enhanced on the HA with microcracks, as indicated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and gene expression. Furthermore, examination of bone deposition by confocal laser scanning microscope indicated preferential mineralization at microcrack indentation sites. Dissolution studies indicate that the microcracks increase calcium release, which could contribute to osteoblast responses. Our findings suggest that microcracks signal osteoblast attachment and bone formation/healing. PMID:25280696

  17. Smad4 controls bone homeostasis through regulation of osteoblast/osteocyte viability.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young Jae; Yun, Chi-Young; Choi, Hwajung; Ka, Sun-O; Kim, Jung Ryul; Park, Byung-Hyun; Cho, Eui-Sic

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of osteoblast and osteocyte viability is essential for bone homeostasis. Smad4, a major transducer of bone morphogenetic protein and transforming growth factor-β signaling pathways, regulates apoptosis in various cell types through a mitochondrial pathway. However, it remains poorly understood whether Smad4 is necessary for the regulation of osteoblast and osteocyte viability. In this study, we analyzed Smad4Δ(Os) mice, in which Smad4 was subjected to tissue-specific disruption under the control of the 2.3-kb Col1a1 promoter, to understand the functional significance of Smad4 in regulating osteoblast/osteocyte viability during bone formation and remodeling. Smad4Δ(Os) mice showed a significant increase in osteoblast number and osteocyte density in the trabecular and cortical regions of the femur, whereas osteoclast activity was significantly decreased. The proliferation of osteoblasts/osteocytes did not alter, as shown by measuring 5'-bromo-2'deoxyuridine incorporation. By contrast, the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells decreased, together with a decrease in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and in the proteolytic cleavage of caspase 3, in Smad4Δ(Os) mice. Apoptosis in isolated calvaria cells from Smad4Δ(Os) mice decreased after differentiation, which was consistent with the results of the TUNEL assay and western blotting in Smad4Δ(Os) mice. Conversely, osteoblast cells overexpressing Smad4 showed increased apoptosis. In an apoptosis induction model of Smad4Δ(Os) mice, osteoblasts/osteocytes were more resistant to apoptosis than were control cells, and, consequently, bone remodeling was attenuated. These findings indicate that Smad4 has a significant role in regulating osteoblast/osteocyte viability and therefore controls bone homeostasis. PMID:27585718

  18. The transcription factor ATF4 regulates glucose metabolism in mice through its expression in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Tatsuya; Hinoi, Eiichi; Jung, Dae Young; Kajimura, Daisuke; Ferron, Mathieu; Seo, Jin; Graff, Jonathan M.; Kim, Jason K.; Karsenty, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    The recent demonstration that osteoblasts have a role in controlling energy metabolism suggests that they express cell-specific regulatory genes involved in this process. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a transcription factor that accumulates predominantly in osteoblasts, where it regulates virtually all functions linked to the maintenance of bone mass. Since Atf4–/– mice have smaller fat pads than littermate controls, we investigated whether ATF4 also influences energy metabolism. Here, we have shown, through analysis of Atf4–/–mice, that ATF4 inhibits insulin secretion and decreases insulin sensitivity in liver, fat, and muscle. Several lines of evidence indicated that this function of ATF4 occurred through its osteoblastic expression. First, insulin sensitivity is enhanced in the liver of Atf4–/– mice, but not in cultured hepatocytes from these mice. Second, mice overexpressing ATF4 in osteoblasts only [termed here α1(I)Collagen-Atf4 mice] displayed a decrease in insulin secretion and were insulin insensitive. Third, the α1(I)Collagen-Atf4 transgene corrected the energy metabolism phenotype of Atf4–/– mice. Fourth, and more definitely, mice lacking ATF4 only in osteoblasts presented the same metabolic abnormalities as Atf4–/– mice. Molecularly, ATF4 favored expression in osteoblasts of Esp, which encodes a product that decreases the bioactivity of osteocalcin, an osteoblast-specific secreted molecule that enhances secretion of and sensitivity to insulin. These results provide a transcriptional basis to the observation that osteoblasts fulfill endocrine functions and identify ATF4 as a regulator of most functions of osteoblasts. PMID:19726872

  19. MicroRNA-210 is involved in the regulation of postmenopausal osteoporosis through promotion of VEGF expression and osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Cai, Feng; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Yang, An-Li

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-protein-codingRNAs that function as negative gene expression regulators. miRNA-210 (miR-210) has recently been recognized in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis associated with angiogenesis. Herein we aimed to explore the clinical significance of miR-210 treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expression of miR-210 was detected in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in vitro and miR-210 significantly promoted the expression of vascular edothelial growth factor (VEGF) in BMSCs in a time-dependent manner (p<0.05). And miR-210 suppressed PPARγ expression but increased the expression of ALP and osterix, demonstrating that miR-210 inhibited adipocyte differentiation and promoted osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. The protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and VEGF in 17β-estradiol (E2) treated osteoblasts were significantly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p<0.05). And E2 inducted the VEGF expression through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in osteoblasts. Taken together, these data implied that miR-210 played an important role in ameliorating the estrogen deficiency caused-postmenopausal osteoporosis through promotion the VEGF expression and osteoblast differentiation. PMID:25503465

  20. Runx2 Controls Bone Resorption through the Down-Regulation of the Wnt Pathway in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Haxaire, Coline; Haÿ, Eric; Geoffroy, Valérie

    2016-06-01

    The transcription factor Runx2 and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are major regulators of bone formation. Our aim was to assess the interactions between the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and Runx2 that contribute to bone resorption. Our results indicate that the activity of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway depends on Runx2. Runx2 overexpression inhibited β-catenin levels and activity in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of Gsk3b using lithium chloride in Runx2-overexpressing osteoporotic female mice rescued the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vivo and completely restored trabecular bone volume by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. The activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by lithium chloride treatment reduced the number and activity of bone marrow-derived osteoclast-like cells in vitro, suggesting that the restoration of trabecular bone in vivo was due to decreased bone resorption, consistent with the reduced receptor activator of NF-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio in Runx2-overexpressing osteoblasts. Lithium chloride also increased osteoblast differentiation and activity in vitro in agreement with the increase in mineral apposition rate and osteocalcin expression detected in vivo. Our results indicate that the activity of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway in osteoblast is modulated by Runx2. To conclude, our in vivo and in vitro results highlight the role of Runx2 as a negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity in osteoblasts and indicate that the abnormal Wnt/β-catenin activity seen in Runx2 transgenic mice affects both osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and activity. PMID:27083516

  1. Genomic approaches to identifying transcriptional regulators of osteoblast differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stains, Joseph P.; Civitelli, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Recent microarray studies of mouse and human osteoblast differentiation in vitro have identified novel transcription factors that may be important in the establishment and maintenance of differentiation. These findings help unravel the pattern of gene-expression changes that underly the complex process of bone formation.

  2. Regulation of Extracellular Matrix Remodeling Proteins by Osteoblasts in Titanium Nanoparticle-Induced Aseptic Loosening Model.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing; Hou, Yanhua; Fu, Na; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Li, Guo; Peng, Qiang; Lin, Yunfeng

    2015-10-01

    Titanium (Ti)-wear particles, formed at the bone-implant interface, are responsible for aseptic loosening, which is a main cause of total joint replacement failure. There have been many studies on Ti particle-induced function changes in mono-cultured osteoblasts and synovial cells. However, little is known on extracellular matrix remodeling displayed by osteoblasts when in coexistence with Synovial cells. To further mimic the bone-implant interface environment, we firstly established a nanoscaled-Ti particle-induced aseptic loosening system by co-culturing osteoblasts and Synovial cells. We then explored the impact of the Synovial cells on Ti particle-engulfed osteoblasts in the mimicked flamed niche. The matrix metalloproteinases and lysyl oxidases expression levels, two protein families which are critical in osseointegration, were examined under induction by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. It was found that the co-culture between the osteoblasts and Synovial cells markedly increased the migration and proliferation of the osteoblasts, even in the Ti-particle engulfed osteoblasts. Importantly, the Ti-particle engulfed osteoblasts, induced by TNF-alpha after the co-culture, enhanced the release of the matrix metalloproteinases and reduced the expressions of lysyl oxidases. The regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling at the protein level was further assessed by investigations on gene expression of the matrix metalloproteinases and lysyl oxidases, which also suggested that the regulation started at the genetic level. Our research work has therefore revealed the critical role of multi cell-type interactions in the extracellular matrix remodeling within the peri-prosthetic tissues, which provides new insights on aseptic loosening and brings new clues about incomplete osseointegration between the implantation materials and their surrounding bones. PMID:26502645

  3. Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases regulate shear stress-driven β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye; Yokota, Hiroki; Na, Sungsoo

    2013-01-01

    Beta-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancing factor) is known to be mechanosensitive and an important regulator for promoting bone formation. However, the functional connection between TCF/LEF activity and Rho family GTPases is not well understood in osteoblasts. Herein we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells using live cell imaging. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based biosensors, which allowed us to monitor signal transduction in living cells in real time. Oscillatory (1 Hz) shear stress (10 dynes/cm2) increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus with the distinct activity patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42. The shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity was blocked by the inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42 with their dominant negative mutants or selective drugs, but not by a dominant negative mutant of RhoA. In contrast, constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 mutants caused a significant enhancement of TCF/LEF activity. Moreover, activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 increased the basal level of TCF/LEF activity, while their inhibition decreased the basal level. Interestingly, disruption of cytoskeletal structures or inhibition of myosin activity did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity. Although Rac1 is reported to be involved in β-catenin in cancer cells, the involvement of Cdc42 in β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts has not been identified. Our findings in this study demonstrate that both Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases are critical regulators in shear stress-driven β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts. PMID:23524265

  4. miR-125b inhibits osteoblastic differentiation by down-regulation of cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Yagi, Ken; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko; Suda, Tatsuo; Katagiri, Takenobu; Fukuda, Toru; Maruyama, Masayoshi; Okuda, Akihiko; Amemiya, Tomoyuki; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Tashiro, Hideo; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2008-04-04

    Although various microRNAs regulate cell differentiation and proliferation, no miRNA has been reported so far to play an important role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation. Here we describe the role of miR-125b in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells, ST2, by regulating cell proliferation. The expression of miR-125b was time-dependently increased in ST2 cells, and the increase in miR-125b expression was attenuated in osteoblastic-differentiated ST2 cells induced by BMP-4. The transfection of exogenous miR-125b inhibited proliferation of ST2 cells and caused inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation. In contrast, when the endogenous miR-125b was blocked by transfection of its antisense RNA molecule, alkaline phosphatase activity after BMP-4 treatment was elevated. These results strongly suggest that miR-125b is involved in osteoblastic differentiation through the regulation of cell proliferation.

  5. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  6. A Positive Role of microRNA-15b on Regulation of Osteoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Vimalraj, S.; Partridge, Nicola C.; Selvamurugan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoblast differentiation is tightly regulated by several factors including microRNAs (miRNAs). In this paper we report that pre-mir-15b is highly expressed in differentiated osteoblasts. The functional role of miR-15b in osteoblast differentiation was determined using miR-15b mimic/inhibitor and the expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen genes was decreased by miR-15b inhibitor. Runx2, a bone specific transcription factor is generally required for expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes and in response to miR-15b inhibitor treatment, Runx2 mRNA expression was not changed; whereas its protein expression was decreased. Even though Smurf1 (SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1), HDAC4 (histone deacetylase 4), Smad7, and Crim1 were found to be few of miR-15b’s putative target genes, there was increased expression of only Smurf1 gene at mRNA and protein levels by miR-15b inhibitor. miR-15b mimic treatment significantly increased and decreased expressions of Runx2 and Smurf1 proteins, respectively. We further identified that the Smurf1 3’UTR is directly targeted by miR-15b using the luciferase reporter gene system. This is well documented that Smurf1 interacts with Runx2 and degrades it by proteasomal pathway. Hence, based on our results we suggest that miR-15b promotes osteoblast differentiation by indirectly protecting Runx2 protein from Smurf1 mediated degradation. Thus, this study identified that miR-15b can act as a positive regulator for osteoblast differentiation. PMID:24435757

  7. Zinc Finger Protein 467 Is a Novel Regulator of Osteoblast and Adipocyte Commitment*

    PubMed Central

    Quach, Julie M.; Walker, Emma C.; Allan, Elizabeth; Solano, Melissa; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Kato, Shigeaki; Sims, Natalie A.; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, T. John

    2011-01-01

    Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from common mesenchymal progenitor cells. The bone loss of osteoporosis is associated with altered progenitor differentiation from an osteoblastic to an adipocytic lineage. cDNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) were carried out in a differentiating mouse stromal osteoblastic cell line, Kusa 4b10, to identify gene targets of factors that stimulate osteoblast differentiation including parathyroid hormone (PTH) and gp130-binding cytokines, oncostatin M (OSM) and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1). Zinc finger protein 467 (Zfp467) was rapidly down-regulated by PTH, OSM, and CT-1. Retroviral overexpression and RNA interference for Zfp467 in mouse stromal cells showed that this factor stimulated adipocyte formation and inhibited osteoblast commitment compared with controls. Regulation of adipocyte markers, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, C/EBPα, adiponectin, and resistin, and late osteoblast/osteocyte markers (osteocalcin and sclerostin) by Zfp467 was confirmed by Q-PCR. Intra-tibial injection of calvarial cells transduced with retroviral Zfp467 doubled the number of marrow adipocytes in C57Bl/6 mice compared with vector control-transduced cells, providing in vivo confirmation of a pro-adipogenic role of Zfp467. Furthermore, Zfp467 transactivated a PPAR-response element reporter construct and recruited a histone deacetylase complex. Thus Zfp467 is a novel co-factor that promotes adipocyte differentiation and suppresses osteoblast differentiation. This has relevance to therapeutic interventions in osteoporosis, including PTH-based therapies currently available, and may be of relevance for the use of adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering. PMID:21123171

  8. The Role of KV7.3 in Regulating Osteoblast Maturation and Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji Eun; Song, Min Seok; Shen, Yiming; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, So Yeong

    2016-01-01

    KCNQ (KV7) channels are voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels, and the function of KV7 channels in muscles, neurons, and sensory cells is well established. We confirmed that overall blockade of KV channels with tetraethylammonium augmented the mineralization of bone-marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells during osteogenic differentiation, and we determined that KV7.3 was expressed in MG-63 and Saos-2 cells at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, functional KV7 currents were detected in MG-63 cells. Inhibition of KV7.3 by linopirdine or XE991 increased the matrix mineralization during osteoblast differentiation. This was confirmed by alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and osterix in MG-63 cells, whereas the expression of Runx2 showed no significant change. The extracellular glutamate secreted by osteoblasts was also measured to investigate its effect on MG-63 osteoblast differentiation. Blockade of KV7.3 promoted the release of glutamate via the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mediated upregulation of synapsin, and induced the deposition of type 1 collagen. However, activation of KV7.3 by flupirtine did not produce notable changes in matrix mineralization during osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that KV7.3 could be a novel regulator in osteoblast differentiation. PMID:26999128

  9. Fra-2/AP-1 controls bone formation by regulating osteoblast differentiation and collagen production.

    PubMed

    Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F

    2010-09-20

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex, in particular the Fos proteins, is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. Fra-2 (Fosl2), a Fos-related protein of the AP-1 family, is expressed in bone cells, and newborn mice lacking Fra-2 exhibit defects in chondrocytes and osteoclasts. Here we show that Fra-2-deficient osteoblasts display a differentiation defect both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Fra-2-overexpressing mice are osteosclerotic because of increased differentiation of osteoblasts, which appears to be cell autonomous. Importantly, the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin (Oc) gene and collagen1α2 (col1α2) are transcriptional targets of Fra-2 in both murine and human bone cells. In addition, Fra-2, Oc, and col1 are expressed in stromal cells of human chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcomas (Os's) as well as during osteoblast differentiation of human Os cell lines. These findings reveal a novel function of Fra-2/AP-1 as a positive regulator of bone and matrix formation in mice and humans. PMID:20837772

  10. The Role of KV7.3 in Regulating Osteoblast Maturation and Mineralization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji Eun; Song, Min Seok; Shen, Yiming; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, So Yeong

    2016-01-01

    KCNQ (KV7) channels are voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels, and the function of KV7 channels in muscles, neurons, and sensory cells is well established. We confirmed that overall blockade of KV channels with tetraethylammonium augmented the mineralization of bone-marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells during osteogenic differentiation, and we determined that KV7.3 was expressed in MG-63 and Saos-2 cells at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, functional KV7 currents were detected in MG-63 cells. Inhibition of KV7.3 by linopirdine or XE991 increased the matrix mineralization during osteoblast differentiation. This was confirmed by alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and osterix in MG-63 cells, whereas the expression of Runx2 showed no significant change. The extracellular glutamate secreted by osteoblasts was also measured to investigate its effect on MG-63 osteoblast differentiation. Blockade of KV7.3 promoted the release of glutamate via the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mediated upregulation of synapsin, and induced the deposition of type 1 collagen. However, activation of KV7.3 by flupirtine did not produce notable changes in matrix mineralization during osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that KV7.3 could be a novel regulator in osteoblast differentiation. PMID:26999128

  11. MiR-214 regulates the function of osteoblast under simulated microgravity by targeting ATF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingxian; Wang, Xiaogang; Li, Qi; Lv, Ke; Wan, Yumin; Li, Yinghui; Bai, Yanqiang

    Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small fragments of single-stranded RNA containing 18-24 nucleotides, and are generated from endogenous transcripts. MicroRNAs function in post-transcriptional gene silencing by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs, resulting in translational repression. Growing evidence shows that microRNAs (miRNAs) regu-late various developmental and homeostatic events in vertebrates and invertebrates. Osteoblast differentiation is a key step in proper skeletal development and acquisition of bone mass; How-ever, the physiological role of non-coding small RNAs, especially miRNAs, in osteoblast dif-ferentiation remains elusive. Methods: To study the potential involvement of miRNAs in osteoblast differentiation under stimulated microgravity, we analyzed the expression of 20 bone relative miRNAs using real time PCR platform to find particularly miRNAs whose expression is altered during osteoblast differentiation. TargetScan, miRBase and Miranda were used to predict the target gene of candidate miRNA. To investigate whether ATF4 can be directly targeted by miR-214, we engineered luciferase reporters that have either the wild-type 3'UTRs of these genes, or the mutant UTRs with a 6 base pair (bp) deletion in the target sites. Lastly, to address the in vivo role of miR-214 in bone formation, tail suspension mice model was used to simulate the change of osteoblast function and bone loss. Results: Recent studies have sug-gested that miRNAs might play a role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here, we identify miR-214 in MC3T3-E1 cells, which is a primary mouse osteoblasts cell line, to promote osteoblast differentiation by repressing Activating Transcription Factor4 (ATF4) ex-pression at the posttranscriptional level. What is more, miR-214 was found to be transcribed in C2C12 cells during bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced (BMP2-induced) osteogenesis, and overexpression of miR-214 attenuated BMP2-induced osteoblastogenesis

  12. ERR{alpha} regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalin, Ann-Marie; Pollock, Hanna; Aarnisalo, Piia

    2010-05-28

    The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-{alpha} (ERR{alpha}) has been reported to have both a positive and a negative regulatory role in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. We have studied the role of ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from ERR{alpha} deficient mice and their differentiation capacities were compared to that of the wild-type cells. ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced cellular proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralization. In the complementary experiment, overexpression of ERR{alpha} in MC3T3-E1 cells increased the expression of osteoblastic markers and mineralization. Alterations in the expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) may at least partially explain the effects on mineralization as BSP expression was reduced in ERR{alpha} deficient MSCs and enhanced upon ERR{alpha} overexpression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter construct driven by the BSP promoter was efficiently transactivated by ERR{alpha}. Under adipogenic conditions, ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced adipocytic differentiation. Our data thus propose a positive role for ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. The variability in the results yielded in the different studies implies that ERR{alpha} may play different roles in bone under different physiological conditions.

  13. Hydraulic Pressure during Fluid Flow Regulates Purinergic Signaling and Cytoskeleton Organization of Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gardinier, Joseph D.; Gangadharan, Vimal; Wang, Liyun; Duncan, Randall L.

    2014-01-01

    During physiological activities, osteoblasts experience a variety of mechanical forces that stimulate anabolic responses at the cellular level necessary for the formation of new bone. Previous studies have primarily investigated the osteoblastic response to individual forms of mechanical stimuli. However in this study, we evaluated the response of osteoblasts to two simultaneous, but independently controlled stimuli; fluid flow-induced shear stress (FSS) and static or cyclic hydrostatic pressure (SHP or CHP, respectively). MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts-like cells were subjected to 12dyn/cm2 FSS along with SHP or CHP of varying magnitudes to determine if pressure enhances the anabolic response of osteoblasts during FSS. For both SHP and CHP, the magnitude of hydraulic pressure that induced the greatest release of ATP during FSS was 15 mmHg. Increasing the hydraulic pressure to 50 mmHg or 100 mmHg during FSS attenuated the ATP release compared to 15 mmHg during FSS. Decreasing the magnitude of pressure during FSS to atmospheric pressure reduced ATP release to that of basal ATP release from static cells and inhibited actin reorganization into stress fibers that normally occurred during FSS with 15 mmHg of pressure. In contrast, translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) to the nucleus was independent of the magnitude of hydraulic pressure and was found to be mediated through the activation of phospholipase-C (PLC), but not src kinase. In conclusion, hydraulic pressure during FSS was found to regulate purinergic signaling and actin cytoskeleton reorganization in the osteoblasts in a biphasic manner, while FSS alone appeared to stimulate NFκB translocation. Understanding the effects of hydraulic pressure on the anabolic responses of osteoblasts during FSS may provide much needed insights into the physiologic effects of coupled mechanical stimuli on osteogenesis. PMID:24910719

  14. Glutamate Receptor Agonists and Glutamate Transporter Antagonists Regulate Differentiation of Osteoblast Lineage Cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenjie; Dolder, Silvia; Siegrist, Mark; Wetterwald, Antoinette; Hofstetter, Willy

    2016-08-01

    Development and function of osteoblast lineage cells are regulated by a complex microenvironment consisting of the bone extracellular matrix, cells, systemic hormones and cytokines, autocrine and paracrine factors, and mechanical load. Apart from receptors that transduce extracellular signals into the cell, molecular transporters play a crucial role in the cellular response to the microenvironment. Transporter molecules are responsible for cellular uptake of nutritional components, elimination of metabolites, ion transport, and cell-cell communication. In this report, the expression of molecular transporters in osteoblast lineage cells was investigated to assess their roles in cell development and activity. Low-density arrays, covering membrane and vesicular transport molecules, were used to assess gene expression in osteoblasts representing early and late differentiation states. Receptors and transporters for the amino acid glutamate were found to be differentially expressed during osteoblast development. Glutamate is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and the mechanisms of its release, signal transduction, and cellular reabsorption in the synaptic cleft are well understood. Less clear, however, is the control of equivalent processes in peripheral tissues. In primary osteoblasts, inhibition of glutamate transporters with nonselective inhibitors leads to an increase in the concentration of extracellular glutamate. This change was accompanied by a decrease in osteoblast proliferation, stimulation of alkaline phosphatase, and the expression of transcripts encoding osteocalcin. Enzymatic removal of extracellular glutamate abolished these pro-differentiation effects, as did the inhibition of PKC- and Erk1/2-signaling pathways. These findings demonstrate that glutamate signaling promotes differentiation and activation of osteoblast lineage cells. Consequently, the glutamate system may represent a putative therapeutic target to induce an anabolic response

  15. Glucocorticoid induced osteoblast apoptosis by increasing E4BP4 expression via up-regulation of Bim.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangjing; Zhang, Li; OuYang, Yueping; Guan, Huapeng; Liu, Qi; Ni, Bin

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that glucocorticoid (GC)-induced bone loss is caused primarily by hypofunction and apoptosis of osteoblasts. However, the precise molecular events underlying the effect of GC on osteoblast apoptosis are not fully understood. Recent studies implicated an important role of E4BP4 in the regulation of osteoblast apoptosis and differentiation. Furthermore, E4BP4 is a GC-regulated gene required for GC-induced apoptosis in many cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that E4BP4 may be implicated in the process of GC-induced osteoblast apoptosis. Western blot, reverse-transcription-PCR, flow cytometry, and Hoechst 33258 staining were employed to investigate the role of E4BP4 in dexamethasone (DEX)-induced osteoblast apoptosis. We found that the expression of E4BP4 is significantly up-regulated in osteoblasts exposed to DEX. Furthermore, the depletion of E4BP4 significantly decreased DEX-induced osteoblast apoptosis. In addition, E4BP4 plays a crucial role in GC-evoked apoptosis of osteoblasts by enabling induction of Bim. On the basis of these results above, we can draw the conclusion that E4BP4 may contribute to the process of DEX-induced osteoblast apoptosis. PMID:24658772

  16. Jagged1 expression by osteoblast-lineage cells regulates trabecular bone mass and periosteal expansion in mice.

    PubMed

    Youngstrom, D W; Dishowitz, M I; Bales, C B; Carr, E; Mutyaba, P L; Kozloff, K M; Shitaye, H; Hankenson, K D; Loomes, K M

    2016-10-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the Notch ligand, Jagged1 (Jag1), result in multi-system developmental pathologies associated with Alagille syndrome (ALGS). ALGS patients present with skeletal manifestations including hemi-vertebrae, reduced bone mass, increased fracture incidence and poor bone healing. However, it is not known whether the increased fracture risk is due to altered bone homeostasis (primary) or nutritional malabsorption due to chronic liver disease (secondary). To determine the significance of Jag1 loss in bone, we characterized the skeletal phenotype of two Jag1-floxed conditional knockout mouse models: Prx1-Cre;Jag1(f/f) to target osteoprogenitor cells and their progeny, and Col2.3-Cre;Jag1(f/f) to target mid-stage osteoblasts and their progeny. Knockout phenotypes were compared to wild-type (WT) controls using quantitative micro-computed tomography, gene expression profiling and mechanical testing. Expression of Jag1 and the Notch target genes Hes1 and Hey1 was downregulated in all Jag1 knockout mice. Osteoblast differentiation genes were downregulated in whole bone of both groups, but unchanged in Prx1-Cre;Jag1(f/f) cortical bone. Both knockout lines exhibited changes in femoral trabecular morphology including decreased bone volume fraction and increased trabecular spacing, with males presenting a more severe trabecular osteopenic phenotype. Prx1-Cre;Jag1(f/f) mice showed an increase in marrow mesenchymal progenitor cell number and, counterintuitively, developed increased cortical thickness resulting from periosteal expansion, translating to greater mechanical stiffness and strength. Similar alterations in femoral morphology were observed in mice with canonical Notch signaling disrupted using Prx1-Cre-regulatable dominant-negative mastermind like-protein (dnMAML). Taken together, we report that 1) Jag1 negatively regulates the marrow osteochondral progenitor pool, 2) Jag1 is required for normal trabecular bone formation and 3) Notch signaling

  17. Signal transduction pathways mediating parathyroid hormone regulation of osteoblastic gene expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Bloch, S. R.; Pearman, A. T.

    1994-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a central role in regulation of calcium metabolism. For example, excessive or inappropriate production of PTH or the related hormone, parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), accounts for the majority of the causes of hypercalcemia. Both hormones act through the same receptor on the osteoblast to elicit enhanced bone resorption by the osteoclast. Thus, the osteoblast mediates the effect of PTH in the resorption process. In this process, PTH causes a change in the function and phenotype of the osteoblast from a cell involved in bone formation to one directing the process of bone resorption. In response to PTH, the osteoblast decreases collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin expression and increases production of osteocalcin, cytokines, and neutral proteases. Many of these changes have been shown to be due to effects on mRNA abundance through either transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms. However, the signal transduction pathway for the hormone to cause these changes is not completely elucidated in any case. Binding of PTH and PTHrP to their common receptor has been shown to result in activation of protein kinases A and C and increases in intracellular calcium. The latter has not been implicated in any changes in mRNA of osteoblastic genes. On the other hand activation of PKA can mimic all the effects of PTH; protein kinase C may be involved in some responses. We will discuss possible mechanisms linking PKA and PKC activation to changes in gene expression, particularly at the nuclear level.

  18. α1B-Adrenergic receptor signaling controls circadian expression of Tnfrsf11b by regulating clock genes in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Takao; Tanaka, Kenjiro; Togari, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Circadian clocks are endogenous and biological oscillations that occur with a period of <24 h. In mammals, the central circadian pacemaker is localized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and is linked to peripheral tissues through neural and hormonal signals. In the present study, we investigated the physiological function of the molecular clock on bone remodeling. The results of loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments both indicated that the rhythmic expression of Tnfrsf11b, which encodes osteoprotegerin (OPG), was regulated by Bmal1 in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also showed that REV-ERBα negatively regulated Tnfrsf11b as well as Bmal1 in MC3T3-E1 cells. We systematically investigated the relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and the circadian clock in osteoblasts. The administration of phenylephrine, a nonspecific α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist, stimulated the expression of Tnfrsf11b, whereas the genetic ablation of α1B-AR signaling led to the alteration of Tnfrsf11b expression concomitant with Bmal1 and Per2 in bone. Thus, this study demonstrated that the circadian regulation of Tnfrsf11b was regulated by the clock genes encoding REV-ERBα (Nr1d1) and Bmal1 (Bmal1, also known as Arntl), which are components of the core loop of the circadian clock in osteoblasts. PMID:26453621

  19. Up-regulation of BMP2/4 signaling increases both osteoblast-specific marker expression and bone marrow adipogenesis in Gja1Jrt/+ stromal cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zappitelli, Tanya; Chen, Frieda; Aubin, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Gja1Jrt/+ mice carry a mutation in one allele of the gap junction protein α1 gene (Gja1), resulting in a G60S connexin 43 (Cx43) mutant protein that is dominant negative for Cx43 protein production of <50% of wild-type (WT) levels and significantly reduced gap junction formation and function in osteoblasts and other Cx43-expressing cells. Previously we reported that Gja1Jrt/+ mice exhibited early-onset osteopenia caused by activation of osteoclasts secondary to activation of osteoblast lineage cells, which expressed increased RANKL and produced an abnormal resorption-stimulating bone matrix high in BSP content. Gja1Jrt/+ mice also displayed early and progressive bone marrow atrophy, with a significant increase in bone marrow adiposity versus WT littermates but no increase in adipose tissues elsewhere in the body. BMP2/4 production and signaling were increased in Gja1Jrt/+ trabecular bone and osteogenic stromal cell cultures, which contributed to the up-regulated expression of osteoblast-specific markers (e.g., Bsp and Ocn) in Gja1Jrt/+ osteoblasts and increased Pparg2 expression in bone marrow–derived adipoprogenitors in vitro. The elevated levels of BMP2/4 signaling in G60S Cx43-containing cells resulted at least in part from elevated levels of cAMP. We conclude that up-regulation of BMP2/4 signaling in trabecular bone and/or stromal cells increases osteoblast-specific marker expression in hyperactive Gja1Jrt/+ osteoblasts and may also increase bone marrow adipogenesis by up-regulation of Pparg2 in the Cx43-deficient Gja1Jrt/+ mouse model. PMID:25568340

  20. Centrifugation of Cultured Osteoblasts And Macrophages as a Model To Study How Gravity Regulates The Function of Skeletal Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth K.; Searby, Nancy D.; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.; Sutijono, Darrell; Yu, Joon-Ho; Malouvier, Alexander; Doty, Steven B.; Morey-Holton, Emily; Weinstein, Steven L.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    examined cell survival, reasoning that osteoblasts might mold skeletal structure in a hypergravity environment in part by regulating apoptosis and thus the duration of osteoblast productivity. Finally, we tested the influence of centrifugation on microbial activation of a macrophage cell line (RAW264.7). In response to the appropriate hormonal stimulation, this cell line is reportedly capable of undergoing differentiation to express osteoclast markers. In addition, a component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccaride (LPS), stimulates the formation of osteoclasts in vivo. Thus we tested the influence on centrifugation on RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS to provide an index of the function of osteoclast precursors.

  1. Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases regulate shear stress-driven β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye; Yokota, Hiroki; Na, Sungsoo

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Shear stress increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated β-catenin nuclear localization. •Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA displayed distinct dynamic activity patterns under flow. •Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA, regulate shear stress-driven TCF/LEF activation. •Cytoskeleton did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activation. -- Abstract: Beta-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancing factor) is known to be mechanosensitive and an important regulator for promoting bone formation. However, the functional connection between TCF/LEF activity and Rho family GTPases is not well understood in osteoblasts. Herein we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells using live cell imaging. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based biosensors, which allowed us to monitor signal transduction in living cells in real time. Oscillatory (1 Hz) shear stress (10 dynes/cm{sup 2}) increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus with the distinct activity patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42. The shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity was blocked by the inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42 with their dominant negative mutants or selective drugs, but not by a dominant negative mutant of RhoA. In contrast, constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 mutants caused a significant enhancement of TCF/LEF activity. Moreover, activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 increased the basal level of TCF/LEF activity, while their inhibition decreased the basal level. Interestingly, disruption of cytoskeletal structures or inhibition of myosin activity did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity. Although Rac1 is reported to be involved in β-catenin in cancer cells, the involvement of Cdc42 in β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts has not been identified. Our findings in this study demonstrate

  2. Menin is required for bone morphogenetic protein 2- and transforming growth factor beta-regulated osteoblastic differentiation through interaction with Smads and Runx2.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Hideaki; Kaji, Hiroshi; Hendy, Geoffrey N; Canaff, Lucie; Komori, Toshihisa; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu; Chihara, Kazuo

    2004-09-24

    Menin, the product of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene, is required for commitment of multipotential mesenchymal stem cells to the osteoblast lineage, however, it inhibits their later differentiation (Sowa, H., Kaji, H., Canaff, L., Hendy, G.N., Tsukamoto, T., Yamaguchi, T., Miyazono, K., Sugimoto, T., and Chihara, K. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 21058-21069). Here, we have examined the mechanism of action of menin in regulating osteoblast differentiation using the mouse bone marrow stromal ST2 and osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell lines. In ST2 cells, reduced menin expression achieved by transfection of menin antisense DNA (AS) antagonized bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2-induced alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin and Runx2 mRNA expression. Menin was co-immunoprecipitated with Smad1/5 in ST2 and MC3T3-E1 cells, and inactivation of menin antagonized BMP-2-induced transcriptional activity of Smad1/5 in ST2 cells, but not MC3T3-E1 cells. Menin was co-immunoprecipitated with the key osteoblast regulator, Runx2, and AS antagonized Runx2 transcriptional activity and the ability of Runx2 to stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity only in ST2 cells but not in MC3T3-E1 cells. In the osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells, transforming growth factor-beta and its signaling molecule, Smad3, negatively regulated Runx2 transcriptional activity. Menin and Smad3 were co-immunoprecipitated, and combined menin and Smad3 overexpression antagonized, whereas menin and the dominant-negative Smad3DeltaC together enhanced BMP-2-induced transcriptional activity of Smad1/5 and Runx2. Smad3 alone had no effect. Therefore, menin interacts physically and functionally with Runx2 in uncommitted mesenchymal stem cells, but not in well differentiated osteoblasts. In osteoblasts the interaction of menin and the transforming growth factor-beta/Smad3 pathway negatively regulates the BMP-2/Smad1/5- and Runx2-induced transcriptional activities leading to inhibition of late

  3. Expression of osterix Is Regulated by FGF and Wnt/β-Catenin Signalling during Osteoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Felber, Katharina; Elks, Philip M.; Lecca, Maria; Roehl, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal cells is regulated by multiple signalling pathways. Here we have analysed the roles of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and canonical Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt/β-Catenin) signalling pathways on zebrafish osteogenesis. We have used transgenic and chemical interference approaches to manipulate these pathways and have found that both pathways are required for osteoblast differentiation in vivo. Our analysis of bone markers suggests that these pathways act at the same stage of differentiation to initiate expression of the osteoblast master regulatory gene osterix (osx). We use two independent approaches that suggest that osx is a direct target of these pathways. Firstly, we manipulate signalling and show that osx gene expression responds with similar kinetics to that of known transcriptional targets of the FGF and Wnt pathways. Secondly, we have performed ChIP with transcription factors for both pathways and our data suggest that a genomic region in the first intron of osx mediates transcriptional activation. Based upon these data, we propose that FGF and Wnt/β-Catenin pathways act in part by directing transcription of osx to promote osteoblast differentiation at sites of bone formation. PMID:26689368

  4. Peroxidase Enzymes Regulate Collagen Biosynthesis and Matrix Mineralization by Cultured Human Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    DeNichilo, Mark O; Shoubridge, Alexandra J; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Liapis, Vasilios; Zysk, Aneta; Zinonos, Irene; Hay, Shelley; Atkins, Gerald J; Findlay, David M; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The early recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of bone fracture and trauma is a critical determinant in successful fracture healing. Released by infiltrating inflammatory cells, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are heme-containing enzymes, whose functional involvement in bone repair has mainly been studied in the context of providing a mechanism for oxidative defense against invading microorganisms. We report here novel findings that show peroxidase enzymes have the capacity to stimulate osteoblastic cells to secrete collagen I protein and generate a mineralized extracellular matrix in vitro. Mechanistic studies conducted using cultured osteoblasts show that peroxidase enzymes stimulate collagen biosynthesis at a post-translational level in a prolyl hydroxylase-dependent manner, which does not require ascorbic acid. Our studies demonstrate that osteoblasts rapidly bind and internalize both MPO and EPO, and the catalytic activity of these peroxidase enzymes is essential to support collagen I biosynthesis and subsequent release of collagen by osteoblasts. We show that EPO is capable of regulating osteogenic gene expression and matrix mineralization in culture, suggesting that peroxidase enzymes may play an important role not only in normal bone repair, but also in the progression of pathological states where infiltrating inflammatory cells are known to deposit peroxidases. PMID:26643175

  5. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K.; Datta, Nabanita S.

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1

  6. BMP-2 Induced Expression of PLCβ1 That is a Positive Regulator of Osteoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ramazzotti, Giulia; Bavelloni, Alberto; Blalock, William; Piazzi, Manuela; Cocco, Lucio; Faenza, Irene

    2016-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a critical growth factor that directs osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Phosphoinositide-phospholipase Cβ 1 (PLCβ1) plays a crucial role in the initiation of the genetic program responsible for muscle differentiation. Differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts in response to insulin stimulation is characterized by a marked increase in nuclear PLCβ1. Here, the function of PLCβ1 in the osteogenic differentiation was investigated. Briefly, in C2C12 cells treated with BMP-2 we assist to a remarkable increase in PLCβ1 protein and mRNA expression. The data regarding the influence on differentiation demonstrated that PLCβ1 promotes osteogenic differentiation by up-regulating alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Moreover, PLCβ1 is present in the nuclear compartment of these cells and overexpression of a cytosolic-PLCβ1mutant (cyt-PLCβ1), which lacks a nuclear localization sequence, prevented the differentiation of C2C12 cells into osteocytes. Recent evidence indicates that miRNAs act as important post transcriptional regulators in a large number of processes, including osteoblast differentiation. Since miR-214 is a regulator of Osterix (Osx) which is an osteoblast-specific transcription factor that is needful for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, we further investigated whether PLCβ1 could be a potential target of miR-214 in the control of osteogenic differentiation by gain- and loss- of function experiment. The results indicated that inhibition of miR-214 in C2C12 cells significantly enhances the protein level of PLCβ1 and promotes C2C12 BMP-2-induced osteogenesis by targeting PLCβ1. PMID:26217938

  7. Wnt-Lrp5 Signaling Regulates Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Osteoblast

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Julie L.; Li, Zhu; Ellis, Jessica M.; Zhang, Qian; Farber, Charles R.; Aja, Susan; Wolfgang, Michael J.; Clemens, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt coreceptors Lrp5 and Lrp6 are essential for normal postnatal bone accrual and osteoblast function. In this study, we identify a previously unrecognized skeletal function unique to Lrp5 that enables osteoblasts to oxidize fatty acids. Mice lacking the Lrp5 coreceptor specifically in osteoblasts and osteocytes exhibit the expected reductions in postnatal bone mass but also exhibit an increase in body fat with corresponding reductions in energy expenditure. Conversely, mice expressing a high bone mass mutant Lrp5 allele are leaner with reduced plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. In this context, Wnt-initiated signals downstream of Lrp5, but not the closely related Lrp6 coreceptor, regulate the activation of β-catenin and thereby induce the expression of key enzymes required for fatty acid β-oxidation. These results suggest that Wnt-Lrp5 signaling regulates basic cellular activities beyond those associated with fate specification and differentiation in bone and that the skeleton influences global energy homeostasis via mechanisms independent of osteocalcin and glucose metabolism. PMID:25802278

  8. Transmembrane protein 64 reciprocally regulates osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation by modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Byung-Chul; Kim, Tae Soo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Seoung-Hoon; Choi, Yongwon

    2015-09-01

    Age-related osteoporosis is associated with a reciprocal decrease in bone formation and an increase in adiposity in the bone marrow niche. We previously reported Transmembrane protein 64 (Tmem64) to be an important regulator of osteoclast function; however, its precise role in osteoblasts has not yet been established. Here, we showed that ablation of the Tmem64 gene in mice resulted in markedly increased osteoblast and reduced adipocyte differentiation from bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs). Conversely, Tmem64 overexpression inhibited osteogenesis and accelerated adipogenesis. Furthermore, BMSCs isolated from Tmem64 knockout mice formed a greater number of colony-forming unit-osteoblasts and a lower number of colony-forming unit-adipocytes than the wild type controls. Mechanistically, the expression level of β-catenin, the key Wnt signaling molecule, increased significantly, and its nuclear translocation was enhanced in Tmem64-deficient cells. Introduction of Tmem64 significantly suppressed β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in an in vitro co-transfection experiment as well as during an in vivo experiment involving BAT-Gal reporter mice. These results demonstrate that Tmem64 plays an important role in the regulation of mesenchymal lineage allocation by modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:25979161

  9. Osteoblast-derived paracrine factors regulate angiogenesis in response to mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Cui, Xin; Ackermann, Thomas M; Flamini, Vittoria; Chen, Weiqiang; Castillo, Alesha B

    2016-07-11

    Angiogenesis is a process by which new blood vessels emerge from existing vessels through endothelial cell sprouting, migration, proliferation, and tubule formation. Angiogenesis during skeletal growth, homeostasis and repair is a complex and incompletely understood process. As the skeleton adapts to mechanical loading, we hypothesized that mechanical stimulation regulates "osteo-angio" crosstalk in the context of angiogenesis. We showed that conditioned media (CM) from osteoblasts exposed to fluid shear stress enhanced endothelial cell proliferation and migration, but not tubule formation, relative to CM from static cultures. Endothelial cell sprouting was studied using a dual-channel collagen gel-based microfluidic device that mimics vessel geometry. Static CM enhanced endothelial cell sprouting frequency, whereas loaded CM significantly enhanced both frequency and length. Both sprouting frequency and length were significantly enhanced in response to factors released from osteoblasts exposed to fluid shear stress in an adjacent channel. Osteoblasts released angiogenic factors, of which osteopontin, PDGF-AA, IGBP-2, MCP-1, and Pentraxin-3 were upregulated in response to mechanical loading. These data suggest that in vivo mechanical forces regulate angiogenesis in bone by modulating "osteo-angio" crosstalk through release of paracrine factors, which we term "osteokines". PMID:27332785

  10. PTH Receptor Signaling in Osteoblasts Regulates Endochondral Vascularization in Maintenance of Postnatal Growth Plate

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Tao; Xian, Lingling; Crane, Janet; Wen, Chunyi; Hilton, Matthew; Lu, William; Newman, Peter; Cao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal growth of postnatal bone requires precise control of growth plate cartilage chondrocytes and subsequent osteogenesis and bone formation. Little is known about the role of angiogenesis and bone remodeling in maintenance of cartilaginous growth plate. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone remodeling by activating PTH receptor (PTH1R). Mice with conditional deletion of PTH1R in osteoblasts showed disrupted trabecular bone formation. The mice also exhibited postnatal growth retardation with profound defects in growth plate cartilage, ascribable predominantly to a decrease in number of hypertrophic chondrocytes, resulting in premature fusion of the growth plate and shortened long bones. Further characterization of hypertrophic zone and primary spongiosa revealed that endochondral angiogenesis and vascular invasion of the cartilage were impaired, which was associated with aberrant chondrocyte maturation and cartilage development. These studies reveal that PTH1R signaling in osteoblasts regulates cartilaginous growth plate for postnatal growth of bone. PMID:25196529

  11. Caveolin-1 regulates P2X7 receptor signaling in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Vimal; Nohe, Anja; Caplan, Jeffrey; Czymmek, Kirk

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of new bone in response to a novel applied mechanical load requires a complex series of cellular signaling events in osteoblasts and osteocytes. The activation of the purinergic receptor P2X7R is central to this mechanotransduction signaling cascade. Recently, P2X7R have been found to be associated with caveolae, a subset of lipid microdomains found in several cell types. Deletion of caveolin-1 (CAV1), the primary protein constituent of caveolae in osteoblasts, results in increased bone mass, leading us to hypothesize that the P2X7R is scaffolded to caveolae in osteoblasts. Thus, upon activation of the P2X7R, we postulate that caveolae are endocytosed, thereby modulating the downstream signal. Sucrose gradient fractionation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts showed that CAV1 was translocated to the denser cytosolic fractions upon stimulation with ATP. Both ATP and the more specific P2X7R agonist 2′(3′)-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)ATP (BzATP) induced endocytosis of CAV1, which was inhibited when MC3T3-E1 cells were pretreated with the specific P2X7R antagonist A-839977. The P2X7R cofractionated with CAV1, but, using superresolution structured illumination microscopy, we found only a subpopulation of P2X7R in these lipid microdomains on the membrane of MC3T3-E1 cells. Suppression of CAV1 enhanced the intracellular Ca2+ response to BzATP, suggesting that caveolae regulate P2X7R signaling. This proposed mechanism is supported by increased mineralization in CAV1 knockdown MC3T3-E1 cells treated with BzATP. These data suggest that caveolae regulate P2X7R signaling upon activation by undergoing endocytosis and potentially carrying with it other signaling proteins, hence controlling the spatiotemporal signaling of P2X7R in osteoblasts. PMID:25318104

  12. Stretching-induced nanostructures on shape memory polyurethane films and their regulation to osteoblasts morphology.

    PubMed

    Xing, Juan; Ma, Yufei; Lin, Manping; Wang, Yuanliang; Pan, Haobo; Ruan, Changshun; Luo, Yanfeng

    2016-10-01

    Programming such as stretching, compression and bending is indispensible to endow polyurethanes with shape memory effects. Despite extensive investigations on the contributions of programming processes to the shape memory effects of polyurethane, less attention has been paid to the nanostructures of shape memory polyurethanes surface during the programming process. Here we found that stretching could induce the reassembly of hard domains and thereby change the nanostructures on the film surfaces with dependence on the stretching ratios (0%, 50%, 100%, and 200%). In as-cast polyurethane films, hard segments sequentially assembled into nano-scale hard domains, round or fibrillar islands, and fibrillar apophyses. Upon stretching, the islands packed along the stretching axis to form reoriented fibrillar apophyses along the stretching direction. Stretching only changed the chemical patterns on polyurethane films without significantly altering surface roughness, with the primary composition of fibrillar apophyses being hydrophilic hard domains. Further analysis of osteoblasts morphology revealed that the focal adhesion formation and osteoblasts orientation were in accordance with the chemical patterns of the underlying stretched films, which corroborates the vital roles of stretching-induced nanostructures in regulating osteoblasts morphology. These novel findings suggest that programming might hold great potential for patterning polyurethane surfaces so as to direct cellular behavior. In addition, this work lays groundwork for guiding the programming of shape memory polyurethanes to produce appropriate nanostructures for predetermined medical applications. PMID:27395036

  13. Zirconium Ions Up-Regulate the BMP/SMAD Signaling Pathway and Promote the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongjuan; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Lu, ZuFu; Zreiqat, Hala; Dunstan, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr) is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2) or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs) with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV) oxynitrate (ZrO(NO3)2) at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling. PMID:25602473

  14. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lei; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Hai; Chen, Wenchuan; Chen, Mengshi; Zhu, Zhimin

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes inhibits proliferation of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes enhances differentiation of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIPUS stimulates MLO-Y4 cells to secrete PGE{sub 2} and NO. -- Abstract: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used as a safe and effective modality to enhance fracture healing. As the most abundant cells in bone, osteocytes orchestrate biological activities of effector cells via direct cell-to-cell contacts and by soluble factors. In this study, we have used the osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells to study the effects of conditioned medium from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Conditioned media from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells (LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM) were collected and added on MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM demonstrated a significant inhibition of proliferation and an increased alkaline phosphatase activity. The results of PGE{sub 2} and NO assay showed that LIPUS could enhance PGE{sub 2} and NO secretion from MLO-Y4 cells at all time points within 24 h after LIPUS stimulation. We conclude that LIPUS regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes in vitro. Increased secretion of PGE{sub 2} from osteocytes may play a role in this effect.

  15. Regulation of CYP27B1 mRNA Expression in Primary Human Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, K; van Essen, H W; Bloemers, F W; Schulten, E A J M; Lips, P; Bravenboer, N

    2016-08-01

    The enzyme 1α-hydroxylase (gene CYP27B1) catalyzes the synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D in both renal and bone cells. While renal 1α-hydroxylase is tightly regulated by hormones and 1,25(OH)2D itself, the regulation of 1α-hydroxylase in bone cells is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate in a primary human osteoblast culture whether parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), calcitonin, calcium, phosphate, or MEPE affect mRNA levels of CYP27B1. Our results show that primary human osteoblasts in the presence of high calcium concentrations increase their CYP27B1 mRNA levels by 1.3-fold. CYP27B1 mRNA levels were not affected by PTH1-34, rhFGF23, calcitonin, phosphate, and rhMEPE. Our results suggest that the regulation of bone 1α-hydroxylase is different from renal 1α-hydroxylase. High calcium concentrations in bone may result in an increased local synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D leading to an enhanced matrix mineralization. In this way, the local synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D may contribute to the stimulatory effect of calcium on matrix mineralization. PMID:27016371

  16. Sclerostin Is a Locally Acting Regulator of Late-Osteoblast/Preosteocyte Differentiation and Regulates Mineralization Through a MEPE-ASARM-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Gerald J; Rowe, Peter S; Lim, Hui P; Welldon, Katie J; Ormsby, Renee; Wijenayaka, Asiri R; Zelenchuk, Lesya; Evdokiou, Andreas; Findlay, David M

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the cell type responsive to sclerostin, a negative regulator of bone mass, is unknown. Since sclerostin is expressed in vivo by mineral-embedded osteocytes, we tested the hypothesis that sclerostin would regulate the behavior of cells actively involved in mineralization in adult bone, the preosteocyte. Differentiating cultures of human primary osteoblasts exposed to recombinant human sclerostin (rhSCL) for 35 days displayed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of in vitro mineralization, with late cultures being most responsive in terms of mineralization and gene expression. Treatment of advanced (day 35) cultures with rhSCL markedly increased the expression of the preosteocyte marker E11 and decreased the expression of mature markers DMP1 and SOST. Concomitantly, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) expression was increased by rhSCL at both the mRNA and protein levels, whereas PHEX was decreased, implying regulation through the MEPE-ASARM axis. We confirmed that mineralization by human osteoblasts is exquisitely sensitive to the triphosphorylated ASARM-PO4 peptide. Immunostaining revealed that rhSCL increased the endogenous levels of MEPE-ASARM. Importantly, antibody-mediated neutralization of endogenous MEPE-ASARM antagonized the effect of rhSCL on mineralization, as did the PHEX synthetic peptide SPR4. Finally, we found elevated Sost mRNA expression in the long bones of HYP mice, suggesting that sclerostin may drive the increased MEPE-ASARM levels and mineralization defect in this genotype. Our results suggest that sclerostin acts through regulation of the PHEX/MEPE axis at the preosteocyte stage and serves as a master regulator of physiologic bone mineralization, consistent with its localization in vivo and its established role in the inhibition of bone formation. PMID:21312267

  17. Mechanisms involved in regulation of osteoclastic differentiation by mechanical stress-loaded osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneuji, Takeshi; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Toshinaga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of compressive force on osteoblasts were examined. {yields} Compressive force induced OPG expression and suppressed osteoclastogenesis. {yields} This enhancement of OPG is dependent on Wnt/Ca2+ signal pathway. -- Abstract: Mechanical stress is known to be important for regulation of bone turnover, though the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of mechanical stress on osteoblasts using a novel compression model. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in three-dimensional (3D) gels and cultured with continuous compressive force (0-10.0 g/cm{sup 2}) for 48 h, and the conditioned medium were collected. RAW264.7 cells were then incubated with the conditioned medium for various times in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL). Conditioned medium was found to inhibit the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts induced by RANKL via down-regulation of the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, and nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. Interestingly, the conditioned medium also had a high level of binding activity to RANKL and blocked the binding of RANK to RANKL. Furthermore, the binding activity of conditioned medium to RANKL was reduced when the 3D gel was supplemented with KN-93, an inhibitor of non-canonical Wnt/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. In addition, expression level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA was increased in time- and force-dependent manners, and remarkably suppressed by KN-93. These results indicate that osteoblastic cells subjected to mechanical stress produce OPG, which binds to RANKL. Furthermore, this binding activity strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis through suppression of TRAF6 and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signaling pathway, suggesting that enhancement of OPG expression induced by mechanical stress is dependent on non-canonical Wnt

  18. Differential Expression of Claudin Family Members during Osteoblast and Osteoclast Differentiation: Cldn-1 Is a Novel Positive Regulator of Osteoblastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Alshbool, Fatima Z.; Mohan, Subburaman

    2014-01-01

    Claudins (Cldns), a family of 27 transmembrane proteins, represent major components of tight junctions. Aside from functioning as tight junctions, Cldns have emerging roles as regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation. While Cldns are known to be expressed and have important functions in various tissues, their expression and function in bone cells is ill-defined. In this study, the expression of Cldns was examined during osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. The expression of Cldn-1, -7, -11, and -15 was downregulated during early stages of osteoclast differentiation, whereas Cldn-6 was upregulated. Moreover, the expression of several Cldns increased 3–7 fold in fully differentiated osteoclasts. As for osteoblasts, the expression of several Cldns was found to increase more than 10-fold during differentiation, with some peaking at early, and others at late stages. By contrast, only expression of Cldn-12, and -15 decreased during osteoblast differentiation. In subsequent studies, we focused on the role of Cldn-1 in osteoblasts as its expression was increased by more than 10 fold during osteoblast differentiation and was found to be regulated by multiple osteoregulatory agents including IGF-1 and Wnt3a. We evaluated the consequence of lentiviral shRNA-mediated knockdown of Cldn-1 on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation using MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblasts. Cldn-1 knockdown caused a significant reduction in MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and ALP activity. Accordingly, expression levels of cyclinD1 and ALP mRNA levels were reduced in Cldn-1 shRNA knockdown cells. We next determined if Cldn-1 regulates the expression of Runx-2 and osterix, master transcription factors of osteoblast differentiation, and found that their levels were reduced significantly as a consequence of Cldn-1 knockdown. Moreover, knocking down Cldn-1 reduced β-catenin level. In conclusion, the expression of Cldn family members during bone cell differentiation is complex and

  19. Regulation of expression of collagenase-3 in normal, differentiating rat osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Bloch, S. R.; Fiacco, G. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the regulation of collagenase-3 expression in normal, differentiating rat osteoblasts. Fetal rat calvarial cell cultures showed an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity reaching maximal levels between 7-14 days post-confluence, then declining with the onset of mineralization. Collagenase-3 mRNA was just detectable after proliferation ceased at day 7, increased up to day 21, and declined at later ages. Postconfluent cells maintained in non-mineralizing medium expressed collagenase-3 but did not show the developmental increase exhibited by cells switched to mineralization medium. Cells maintained in non-mineralizing medium continued to proliferate; cells in mineralization medium ceased proliferation. In addition, collagenase-3 mRNA was not detected in subcultured cells allowed to remineralize. These results suggest that enhanced accumulation of collagenase-3 mRNA is triggered by cessation of proliferation or acquisition of a mineralized extracellular matrix and that other factors may also be required. After initiation of basal expression, parathyroid hormone (PTH) caused a dose-dependent increase in collagenase-3 mRNA. Both the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analogue, 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP), and the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol myristate acetate, increased collagenase-3 expression, while the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, did not, suggesting that PTH was acting through the protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC pathways. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide caused an increase in basal collagenase-3 expression but blocked the effect of PTH, suggesting that an inhibitory factor prevents basal expression while an inductive factor is involved with PTH action. In summary, collagenase-3 is expressed in mineralized osteoblasts and cessation of proliferation and initiation of mineralization are triggers for collagenase-3 expression. PTH also stimulates expression of the enzyme through both PKA and PKC pathways in the

  20. NRROS Negatively Regulates Osteoclast Differentiation by Inhibiting RANKL-Mediated NF-κB and Reactive Oxygen Species Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ha; Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Inyoung; Seong, Semun; Kim, Nacksung

    2015-01-01

    Negative regulator of reactive oxygen species (NRROS) is known to repress ROS generation in phagocytes. In this study, we examined the roles of NRROS in both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Our results demonstrate that NRROS negatively regulates the differentiation of osteoclasts, but not osteoblasts. Further, overexpression of NRROS in osteoclast precursor cells attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Conversely, osteoclast differentiation is enhanced upon siRNA-mediated knockdown of NRROS. Additionally, NRROS attenuates RANKL-induced NF-κB activation, as well as degradation of the NOX1 and NOX2 proteins, which are required for ROS generation. Based on our observations, we present NRROS as a novel negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:26442864

  1. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Hai; Chen, Wenchuan; Chen, Mengshi; Zhu, Zhimin

    2012-02-10

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used as a safe and effective modality to enhance fracture healing. As the most abundant cells in bone, osteocytes orchestrate biological activities of effector cells via direct cell-to-cell contacts and by soluble factors. In this study, we have used the osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells to study the effects of conditioned medium from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Conditioned media from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells (LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM) were collected and added on MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM demonstrated a significant inhibition of proliferation and an increased alkaline phosphatase activity. The results of PGE(2) and NO assay showed that LIPUS could enhance PGE(2) and NO secretion from MLO-Y4 cells at all time points within 24h after LIPUS stimulation. We conclude that LIPUS regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes in vitro. Increased secretion of PGE(2) from osteocytes may play a role in this effect. PMID:22266313

  2. Impaired cell cycle regulation of osteoblast-related transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1 in osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    San Martin, Inga; Varela, Nelson; Gaete, Marcia; Villegas, Karina; Osorio, Mariana; Tapia, Julio C.; Antonelli, Marcelo; Mancilla, Edna; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Galindo, Mario

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, bone differentiation requires the functional expression of the Runx2/Cbfβ heterodimeric complex. Our previous results indicate that Runx2 is also a suppressor of pre-osteoblast proliferation by affecting cell cycle progression at G1. Runx2 levels are cell cycle regulated, oscillating from a maximum during early G1 to a minimum during late G1, S and mitosis phases in proliferating pre-osteoblasts Nevertheless, there is no information concerning Cbfβ gene expression during the cell cycle nor on Runx2 cell cycle expression in bone cancer cells. We analyzed Runx2 and Cbfβ gene expression during cell cycle progression in the pre-osteoblast MC3T3 and osteosarcoma ROS and SaOS cell lines. The expected reduction of Runx2 protein level was observed in MC3T3 cells arrested in late G1 or M phase using mimosine or nocodazole, respectively. However, this reduction was not observed in the cell cycle arrested osteosarcoma cells. Cbfβ protein levels were not regulated during the cell cycle in pre-osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cells. Using cells synchronized in late G1 and mitosis we found that Runx2 levels, but not Cbfβ levels, were cell cycle regulated in MC3T3 osteoblasts. Interestingly, both factors showed a constitutively elevated expression throughout the cell cycle in osteosarcoma cells. Proteasome inhibition by MG132 prevented cell cycle-dependent downregulation of Runx2 protein levels in osteoblasts, but not in osteosarcoma. We propose that Runx2 is involved in tumoral osteosarcoma progression. Altogether, deregulated Runx2 expression throughout the cell cycle seems to constitute a central mechanism in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. PMID:19739101

  3. Anti-apoptotic Molecule Bcl-2 Regulates the Differentiation, Activation, and Survival of Both Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts*

    PubMed Central

    Nagase, Yuichi; Iwasawa, Mitsuyasu; Akiyama, Toru; Kadono, Yuho; Nakamura, Masaki; Oshima, Yasushi; Yasui, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Takumi; Hirose, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Bouillet, Philippe; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae

    2009-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Although several studies have indicated the importance of Bcl-2 in maintaining skeletal integrity, the detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Bcl-2−/− mice are growth-retarded and exhibit increased bone volume of the primary spongiosa, mainly due to the decreased number and dysfunction of osteoclasts. Osteoblast function is also impaired in Bcl-2−/− mice. Ex vivo studies on osteoblasts and osteoclasts showed that Bcl-2 promoted the differentiation, activation, and survival of both cell types. Because Bcl-2−/− mice die before 6 weeks of age due to renal failure and cannot be compared with adult wild type mice, we generated Bcl-2−/−Bim+/− mice, in which a single Bim allele was inactivated, and compared them with their Bcl-2+/−Bim+/− littermates. Loss of a single Bim allele restored normal osteoclast function in Bcl-2−/− mice but did not restore the impaired function of osteoblasts, and the mice exhibited osteopenia. These data demonstrate that Bcl-2 promotes the differentiation, activity, and survival of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The balance between Bcl-2 and Bim regulates osteoclast apoptosis and function, whereas other pro-apoptotic members are important for osteoblasts. PMID:19846553

  4. Class I PI-3-Kinase Signaling Is Critical for Bone Formation Through Regulation of SMAD1 Activity in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Carballo, Edgardo; Graupera, Mariona; Rosa, José Luis; Ventura, Francesc

    2016-08-01

    Bone formation and homeostasis is carried out by osteoblasts, whose differentiation and activity are regulated by osteogenic signaling networks. A central mediator of these inputs is the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). However, at present, there are no data on the specific role of distinct class IA PI3K isoforms in bone biology. Here, we performed osteoblast-specific deletion in mice to show that both p110α and p110β isoforms are required for survival and differentiation and function of osteoblasts and thereby control bone formation and postnatal homeostasis. Impaired osteogenesis arises from increased GSK3 activity and a depletion of SMAD1 protein levels in PI3K-deficient osteoblasts. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 activity or ectopic expression of SMAD1 or SMAD5 normalizes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) transduction and osteoblast differentiation. Together, these results identify the PI3K-GSK3-SMAD1 axis as a central node integrating multiple signaling networks that govern bone formation and homeostasis. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26896753

  5. The Protein Kinase 2 Inhibitor CX-4945 Regulates Osteoclast and Osteoblast Differentiation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Son, You Hwa; Moon, Seong Hee; Kim, Jiyeon

    2013-01-01

    Drug repositioning can identify new therapeutic applications for existing drugs, thus mitigating high R&D costs. The Protein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor CX-4945 regulates human cancer cell survival and angiogenesis. Here we found that CX-4945 significantly inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, but enhanced the BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation in a cell culture model. CX-4945 inhibited the RANKL-induced activation of TRAP and NFATc1 expression accompanied with suppression of Akt phosphorylation, but, in contrast, it enhanced the BMP2-mediated ALP induction and MAPK ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CX-4945 is thus a novel drug candidate for bone-related disorders such as osteoporosis. PMID:24293011

  6. Soy protein isolate down-regulates caveolin-1 expression to suppress osteoblastic cell senescence pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2014-07-01

    It has been suggested that the beneficial effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on bone quality are due to either stimulation of estrogenic signaling via isoflavones or through a novel and as yet uncharacterized nonestrogenic pathway. In our study, SPI-fed rat serum inhibited the osteoblastic cell senescence pathway. This effect was accompanied by stimulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and significant restoration of replicative senescent bone marrow mesenchymal ST2 cells (passaged 30 times). These effects were reproduced in bone from 5-wk-old intact and 10-wk-old ovariectomized female rats fed SPI diets. Caveolin-1 and p53 expression was decreased in bone in SPI-fed, but not in 17β-estradiol (E2)-treated rats. In cell culture studies, membranous caveolin-1 and nuclear p53 expression was greater in replicative senescent ST2 cell cultures than in earlier passaged cells. SPI-fed rat serum significantly down-regulated both caveolin-1 and p53 in senescent and nonsenescent cells. Replicative senescent ST2 cells exhibited a strong association among caveolin-1, p53, and mouse double minute 2 homologue (mdm2), which was inhibited by SPI-fed rat serum. Overexpression of caveolin-1 in ST2 cells resulted in increased expression of p53 and p21, whereas, knockdown of caveolin-1 using shRNA led to increases in mdm2 and eliminated SPI-fed rat serum's effects on p53 and p21 expression. In contrast, manipulation of caveolin-1 expression did not affect the actions of E2 or isoflavones on p53 expression in either ST2 or OB6 cells. These results suggest that caveolin-1 is a mediator of nonestrogenic SPI effects on bone cells.-Zhang, J., Lazarenko, O. P., Blackburn, M. L., Badger, T. M., Ronis, M. J. J., Chen, J.-R. Soy protein isolate down-regulates caveolin-1 expression to suppress osteoblastic cell senescence pathways. PMID:24719353

  7. Cloning and regulation of rat tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 in osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, T. F.; Burke, J. S.; Bergman, K. D.; Quinn, C. O.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1994-01-01

    Rat tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) was cloned from a UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cDNA library. The 969-bp full-length clone demonstrates 98 and 86% sequence identity to human TIMP-2 at the amino acid and nucleic acid levels, respectively. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), at 10(-8) M, stimulates an approximately twofold increase in both the 4.2- and 1.0-kb transcripts over basal levels in UMR cells after 24 h of exposure. The PTH stimulation of TIMP-2 transcripts was not affected by the inhibitor of protein synthesis, cycloheximide (10(-5) M), suggesting a primary effect of the hormone. This is in contradistinction to regulation of interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1) by PTH in these same cells. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrate that PTH causes an increase in TIMP-2 transcription that parallels the increase in message levels. Parathyroid hormone, in its stimulation of TIMP-2 mRNA, appears to act through a signal transduction pathway involving protein kinase A (PKA) since the increase in TIMP-2 mRNA is reproduced by treatment with the cAMP analogue, 8-bromo-cAMP (5 x 10(-3) M). The protein kinase C and calcium pathways do not appear to be involved due to the lack of effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (2.6 x 10(-6) M) and the calcium ionophore, ionomycin (10(-7) M), on TIMP-2 transcript abundance. In this respect, regulation of TIMP-2 and collagenase in osteoblastic cells by PTH are similar. However, we conclude that since stimulation of TIMP-2 transcription is a primary event, the PKA pathway must be responsible for a direct increase in transcription of this gene.

  8. DLX3 regulates bone mass by targeting genes supporting osteoblast differentiation and mineral homeostasis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Isaac, J; Erthal, J; Gordon, J; Duverger, O; Sun, H-W; Lichtler, A C; Stein, G S; Lian, J B; Morasso, M I

    2014-09-01

    Human mutations and in vitro studies indicate that DLX3 has a crucial function in bone development, however, the in vivo role of DLX3 in endochondral ossification has not been established. Here, we identify DLX3 as a central attenuator of adult bone mass in the appendicular skeleton. Dynamic bone formation, histologic and micro-computed tomography analyses demonstrate that in vivo DLX3 conditional loss of function in mesenchymal cells (Prx1-Cre) and osteoblasts (OCN-Cre) results in increased bone mass accrual observed as early as 2 weeks that remains elevated throughout the lifespan owing to increased osteoblast activity and increased expression of bone matrix genes. Dlx3OCN-conditional knockout mice have more trabeculae that extend deeper in the medullary cavity and thicker cortical bone with an increased mineral apposition rate, decreased bone mineral density and increased cortical porosity. Trabecular TRAP staining and site-specific Q-PCR demonstrated that osteoclastic resorption remained normal on trabecular bone, whereas cortical bone exhibited altered osteoclast patterning on the periosteal surface associated with high Opg/Rankl ratios. Using RNA sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation-Seq analyses, we demonstrate that DLX3 regulates transcription factors crucial for bone formation such as Dlx5, Dlx6, Runx2 and Sp7 as well as genes important to mineral deposition (Ibsp, Enpp1, Mepe) and bone turnover (Opg). Furthermore, with the removal of DLX3, we observe increased occupancy of DLX5, as well as increased and earlier occupancy of RUNX2 on the bone-specific osteocalcin promoter. Together, these findings provide novel insight into mechanisms by which DLX3 attenuates bone mass accrual to support bone homeostasis by osteogenic gene pathway regulation. PMID:24948010

  9. DLX3 regulates bone mass by targeting genes supporting osteoblast differentiation and mineral homeostasis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, J; Erthal, J; Gordon, J; Duverger, O; Sun, H-W; Lichtler, A C; Stein, G S; Lian, J B; Morasso, M I

    2014-01-01

    Human mutations and in vitro studies indicate that DLX3 has a crucial function in bone development, however, the in vivo role of DLX3 in endochondral ossification has not been established. Here, we identify DLX3 as a central attenuator of adult bone mass in the appendicular skeleton. Dynamic bone formation, histologic and micro-computed tomography analyses demonstrate that in vivo DLX3 conditional loss of function in mesenchymal cells (Prx1-Cre) and osteoblasts (OCN-Cre) results in increased bone mass accrual observed as early as 2 weeks that remains elevated throughout the lifespan owing to increased osteoblast activity and increased expression of bone matrix genes. Dlx3OCN-conditional knockout mice have more trabeculae that extend deeper in the medullary cavity and thicker cortical bone with an increased mineral apposition rate, decreased bone mineral density and increased cortical porosity. Trabecular TRAP staining and site-specific Q-PCR demonstrated that osteoclastic resorption remained normal on trabecular bone, whereas cortical bone exhibited altered osteoclast patterning on the periosteal surface associated with high Opg/Rankl ratios. Using RNA sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation-Seq analyses, we demonstrate that DLX3 regulates transcription factors crucial for bone formation such as Dlx5, Dlx6, Runx2 and Sp7 as well as genes important to mineral deposition (Ibsp, Enpp1, Mepe) and bone turnover (Opg). Furthermore, with the removal of DLX3, we observe increased occupancy of DLX5, as well as increased and earlier occupancy of RUNX2 on the bone-specific osteocalcin promoter. Together, these findings provide novel insight into mechanisms by which DLX3 attenuates bone mass accrual to support bone homeostasis by osteogenic gene pathway regulation. PMID:24948010

  10. The Transcriptional Modulator Interferon-Related Developmental Regulator 1 in Osteoblasts Suppresses Bone Formation and Promotes Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Iezaki, Takashi; Onishi, Yuki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Fukasawa, Kazuya; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Yukari; Fujikawa, Koichi; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio; Yamashita, Yui; Shioi, Go; Hinoi, Eiichi

    2016-03-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the synergistic actions of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Although interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (Ifrd1) has been identified as a transcriptional coactivator/repressor in various cells, little attention has been paid to its role in osteoblastogenesis and bone homeostasis thus far. Here, we show that Ifrd1 is a critical mediator of both the cell-autonomous regulation of osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast-dependent regulation of osteoclastogenesis. Osteoblast-specific deletion of murine Ifrd1 increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, causing high bone mass. Ifrd1 deficiency enhanced osteoblast differentiation and maturation along with increased expression of Runx2 and osterix (Osx). Mechanistically, Ifrd1 deficiency increased the acetylation status of p65, a component of NF-κB, at residues K122 and K123 via the attenuation of the interaction between p65 and histone deacetylase (HDAC). This led to the nuclear export of p65 and a decrease in NF-κB-dependent Smad7 expression and the subsequent enhancement of Smad1/Smad5/Smad8-dependent transcription. Moreover, a high bone mass phenotype in the osteoblast-specific deletion of Ifrd1 was markedly rescued by the introduction of one Osx-floxed allele but not of Runx2-floxed allele. Coculture experiments revealed that Ifrd1-deficient osteoblasts have a higher osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression and a lower ability to support osteoclastogenesis. Ifrd1 deficiency attenuated the interaction between β-catenin and HDAC, subsequently increasing the acetylation of β-catenin at K49, leading to its nuclear accumulation and the activation of the β-catenin-dependent transcription of OPG. Collectively, the expression of Ifrd1 in osteoblasts repressed osteoblastogenesis and activated osteoclastogenesis through modulating the NF-κB/Smad/Osx and β-catenin/OPG pathways, respectively. These findings suggest that Ifrd1 has a pivotal role in bone

  11. Acidosis Is a key regulator of osteoblast ecto‐nucleotidase pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) expression and activity

    PubMed Central

    Key, Michelle L.; Hajjawi, Mark O.R.; Millán, José L.; Arnett, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi, a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto‐nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto‐nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto‐nucleotidases including NTPdase 1–6 (ecto‐nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1‐3 (ecto‐nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 > NTPdase 5 > alkaline phosphatase > ecto‐5‐nucleotidase > Enpp3 > NTPdase 1 > NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 > NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8‐fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto‐nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (P < 0.001). Release of ATP, one of the key substrates for NPP1, from osteoblasts, was unaffected by acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5‐fold, P < 0.001) and was partially resistant to the inhibitory effect of acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 3049–3056, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  12. Megakaryocytes regulate expression of Pyk2 isoforms and caspase-mediated cleavage of actin in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kacena, Melissa A; Eleniste, Pierre P; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Huang, Su; Shivanna, Mahesh; Meijome, Tomas E; Mayo, Lindsey D; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2012-05-18

    The proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast (OB) precursors are essential for elaborating the bone-forming activity of mature OBs. However, the mechanisms regulating OB proliferation and function are largely unknown. We reported that OB proliferation is enhanced by megakaryocytes (MKs) via a process that is regulated in part by integrin signaling. The tyrosine kinase Pyk2 has been shown to regulate cell proliferation and survival in a variety of cells. Pyk2 is also activated by integrin signaling and regulates actin remodeling in bone-resorbing osteoclasts. In this study, we examined the role of Pyk2 and actin in the MK-mediated increase in OB proliferation. Calvarial OBs were cultured in the presence of MKs for various times, and Pyk2 signaling cascades in OBs were examined by Western blotting, subcellular fractionation, and microscopy. We found that MKs regulate the temporal expression of Pyk2 and its subcellular localization. We also found that MKs regulate the expression of two alternatively spliced isoforms of Pyk2 in OBs, which may regulate OB differentiation and proliferation. MKs also induced cytoskeletal reorganization in OBs, which was associated with the caspase-mediated cleavage of actin, an increase in focal adhesions, and the formation of apical membrane ruffles. Moreover, BrdU incorporation in MK-stimulated OBs was blocked by the actin-polymerizing agent, jasplakinolide. Collectively, our studies reveal that Pyk2 and actin play an important role in MK-regulated signaling cascades that control OB proliferation and may be important for therapeutic interventions aimed at increasing bone formation in metabolic diseases of the skeleton. PMID:22447931

  13. Megakaryocytes Regulate Expression of Pyk2 Isoforms and Caspase-mediated Cleavage of Actin in Osteoblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Kacena, Melissa A.; Eleniste, Pierre P.; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Huang, Su; Shivanna, Mahesh; Meijome, Tomas E.; Mayo, Lindsey D.; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast (OB) precursors are essential for elaborating the bone-forming activity of mature OBs. However, the mechanisms regulating OB proliferation and function are largely unknown. We reported that OB proliferation is enhanced by megakaryocytes (MKs) via a process that is regulated in part by integrin signaling. The tyrosine kinase Pyk2 has been shown to regulate cell proliferation and survival in a variety of cells. Pyk2 is also activated by integrin signaling and regulates actin remodeling in bone-resorbing osteoclasts. In this study, we examined the role of Pyk2 and actin in the MK-mediated increase in OB proliferation. Calvarial OBs were cultured in the presence of MKs for various times, and Pyk2 signaling cascades in OBs were examined by Western blotting, subcellular fractionation, and microscopy. We found that MKs regulate the temporal expression of Pyk2 and its subcellular localization. We also found that MKs regulate the expression of two alternatively spliced isoforms of Pyk2 in OBs, which may regulate OB differentiation and proliferation. MKs also induced cytoskeletal reorganization in OBs, which was associated with the caspase-mediated cleavage of actin, an increase in focal adhesions, and the formation of apical membrane ruffles. Moreover, BrdU incorporation in MK-stimulated OBs was blocked by the actin-polymerizing agent, jasplakinolide. Collectively, our studies reveal that Pyk2 and actin play an important role in MK-regulated signaling cascades that control OB proliferation and may be important for therapeutic interventions aimed at increasing bone formation in metabolic diseases of the skeleton. PMID:22447931

  14. SIGIRR, a negative regulator of colon tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Junjie; Zepp, Jarod; Bulek, Katarzyna; Li, Xiaoxia

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate activation of the Toll-IL-1R (TL-IL-1) signaling by commensal bacteria contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and colitis-associated cancer. Recent studies have identified SIGIRR as a negative regulator of TL-IL-1 signaling. It dampens intestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis in the colon. In this review, we will discuss the role of SIGIRR in different cell types and the mechanisms underlying its tumor suppressor function. PMID:22529873

  15. The bio-response of osteocytes and its regulation on osteoblasts under vibration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Tong; Sun, Lian-Wen; Qi, Hong-Yu; Shi, Hao; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Vibration, especially at low magnitude and high frequency (LMHF), was demonstrated to be anabolic for bone, but how the LMHF vibration signal is perceived by osteocytes is not fully studied. On the other hand, the mechanotransduction of osteocytes under shear stress has been scientists' primary focus for years. Due to the small strain caused by low-magnitude vibration, whether the previous explanation for shear stress will still work for LMHF vibration is unknown. In this study, a finite element method (FEM) model based on the real geometrical shape of an osteocyte was built to compare the mechanical behaviors of osteocytes under LMHF vibration and shear stress. The bio-response of osteocytes to vibration under different frequencies, including the secretion of soluble factors and the concentration of intracellular calcium, were studied. The regulating effect of the conditioned medium (CM) from vibrated osteocytes on osteoblasts was also studied. The FEM analysis result showed the cell membrane deformation under LMHF vibration was very small (with a peak value of 1.09%) as compared to the deformation caused by shear stress (with a peak value of 6.65%). The F-actin stress fibers of osteocytes were reorganized, especially on the nucleus periphery after LMHF vibration. The vibration at 30 Hz has a promoting effect on osteocytes and the osteogenesis of osteoblasts, whereas vibration at 90 Hz was suppressive. These results lead to a conclusion that the bio-response of osteocytes to LMHF vibration is frequency-dependent and is more related to the cytoskeleton on nuclear periphery rather than the membrane deformation. PMID:26715381

  16. Heat shock protein 60 protects skeletal tissue against glucocorticoid-induced bone mass loss by regulating osteoblast survival.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Sheng; Wu, Re-Wen; Ko, Jih-Yang; Tai, Ming-Hong; Ke, Huei-Ching; Yeh, Da-Wei; Wu, Shin-Long; Chen, Ming-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Excessive glucocorticoid administration accelerates osteoblast apoptosis and skeletal deterioration. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) regulate metabolic activities in osteoblastic cells. This study characterized the biological significance of HSP60 in glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. Rats were treated with glucocorticoid, HSP60 antisense oligonucleotides, or adenovirus-mediated HSP60 gene transfer. Bone mineral density, metaphyseal trabecular micro-architecture, and fragility were analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry, micro-computed tomography, and material testing, respectively. Differential proteomic profiles of bone tissue extracts were detected by bi-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Survival and proapoptotic signal transduction were quantified by immunoblotting. Glucocorticoid-treated rats had low bone mineral density and metaphyseal trabecular microstructure in association with downregulation of collagen 1α1 and HSP60 expressions in bone tissue. Gain of HSP60 function by adenovirus-mediated HSP60 gene transfer abrogated the deleterious effects of glucocorticoid treatment on bone mass, trabecular microstructure, and mechanical strength. Enhancement of HSP60 signaling attenuated the glucocorticoid-induced loss of trabecular bone volume, mineral acquisition reactions and osteoblast surface. HSP60 gene transfer activated ERK and Akt and reduced Bax and cytochrome c release, as well as caspase-3 cleavage, which attenuated the inhibitory effects of glucocorticoid treatment on osteoblast survival. Loss of HSP60 function by HSP60 antisense oligonucleotides accelerated mitochondrial apoptotic programs and osteoblast apoptosis. Knockdown of HSP60 induced loss of bone mass, micro-architecture integrity, and mechanical property. Taken together, loss of HSP60 signaling contributes to the glucocorticoid-induced enhancement of pro-apoptotic reactions, thereby accelerating osteoblast apoptosis and bone mass loss. Enhancement of HSP60 function is beneficial for

  17. Nanotopography Directs Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Osteoblast Lineage through Regulation of microRNA-SMAD-BMP-2 Circuit

    PubMed Central

    KATO, ROGERIO B.; ROY, BHASKAR; DE OLIVEIRA, FABIOLA S.; FERRAZ, EMANUELA P.; DE OLIVEIRA, PAULO T.; KEMPER, AUSTIN G.; HASSAN, MOHAMMAD Q.; ROSA, ADALBERTO L.; BELOTI, MARCIO M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if chemically produced nanotopography on titanium (Ti) surface induces osteoblast differentiation of cultured human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by regulating the expression of microRNAs (miRs). It was demonstrated that Ti with nanotopography induces osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs as evidenced by upregulation of osteoblast specific markers compared with untreated (control) Ti at day 4. At this time-point, miR-sequencing analysis revealed that 20 miRs were upregulated (>2 fold) while 20 miRs were downregulated (>3 fold) in hMSCs grown on Ti with nanotopography compared with control Ti. Three miRs, namely miR-4448, -4708 and -4773, which were significantly downregulated (>5 fold) by Ti with nanotopography affect osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs. These miRs that directly target SMAD1 and SMAD4, both key transducers of the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) osteogenic signal, were upregulated by Ti with nanotopography. Overexpression of miR-4448, -4708 and 4773 in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts noticeably inhibited gene and protein expression of SMAD1 and SMAD4 and therefore repressed the gene expression of key bone markers. Additionally, it was observed that the treatment with BMP-2 displayed a higher osteogenic effect on MC3T3-E1 cells grown on Ti with nanotopography compared with control Ti, suggesting that the BMP-2 signaling pathway was more effective on this surface. Taken together, these results indicate that a complex regulatory network involving a miR-SMAD-BMP-2 circuit governs the osteoblast differentiation induced by Ti with nanotopography. PMID:24619927

  18. Osteoblast-released Matrix Vesicles, Regulation of Activity and Composition by Sulfated and Non-sulfated Glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Johannes R; Kliemt, Stefanie; Preissler, Carolin; Moeller, Stephanie; von Bergen, Martin; Hempel, Ute; Kalkhof, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Our aging population has to deal with the increasing threat of age-related diseases that impair bone healing. One promising therapeutic approach involves the coating of implants with modified glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that mimic the native bone environment and actively facilitate skeletogenesis. In previous studies, we reported that coatings containing GAGs, such as hyaluronic acid (HA) and its synthetically sulfated derivative (sHA1) as well as the naturally low-sulfated GAG chondroitin sulfate (CS1), reduce the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, but they also induce functions of the bone-forming cells, the osteoblasts. However, it remained open whether GAGs influence the osteoblasts alone or whether they also directly affect the formation, composition, activity, and distribution of osteoblast-released matrix vesicles (MV), which are supposed to be the active machinery for bone formation. Here, we studied the molecular effects of sHA1, HA, and CS1 on MV activity and on the distribution of marker proteins. Furthermore, we used comparative proteomic methods to study the relative protein compositions of isolated MVs and MV-releasing osteoblasts. The MV proteome is much more strongly regulated by GAGs than the cellular proteome. GAGs, especially sHA1, were found to severely impact vesicle-extracellular matrix interaction and matrix vesicle activity, leading to stronger extracellular matrix formation and mineralization. This study shows that the regulation of MV activity is one important mode of action of GAGs and provides information on underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:26598647

  19. Rhizobial gibberellin negatively regulates host nodule number.

    PubMed

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In legume-rhizobia symbiosis, the nodule number is controlled to ensure optimal growth of the host. In Lotus japonicus, the nodule number has been considered to be tightly regulated by host-derived phytohormones and glycopeptides. However, we have discovered a symbiont-derived phytohormonal regulation of nodule number in Mesorhizobium loti. In this study, we found that M. loti synthesized gibberellic acid (GA) under symbiosis. Hosts inoculated with a GA-synthesis-deficient M. loti mutant formed more nodules than those inoculated with the wild-type form at four weeks post inoculation, indicating that GA from already-incorporated rhizobia prevents new nodule formation. Interestingly, the genes for GA synthesis are only found in rhizobial species that inhabit determinate nodules. Our findings suggest that the already-incorporated rhizobia perform GA-associated negative regulation of nodule number to prevent delayed infection by other rhizobia. PMID:27307029

  20. Rhizobial gibberellin negatively regulates host nodule number

    PubMed Central

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In legume–rhizobia symbiosis, the nodule number is controlled to ensure optimal growth of the host. In Lotus japonicus, the nodule number has been considered to be tightly regulated by host-derived phytohormones and glycopeptides. However, we have discovered a symbiont-derived phytohormonal regulation of nodule number in Mesorhizobium loti. In this study, we found that M. loti synthesized gibberellic acid (GA) under symbiosis. Hosts inoculated with a GA-synthesis-deficient M. loti mutant formed more nodules than those inoculated with the wild-type form at four weeks post inoculation, indicating that GA from already-incorporated rhizobia prevents new nodule formation. Interestingly, the genes for GA synthesis are only found in rhizobial species that inhabit determinate nodules. Our findings suggest that the already-incorporated rhizobia perform GA-associated negative regulation of nodule number to prevent delayed infection by other rhizobia. PMID:27307029

  1. Regulation of the biological functions of osteoblasts and bone formation by Zn-incorporated coating on microrough titanium.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinkun; Hu, Yan; Xu, Gaoqiang; Chen, Weizhen; Xu, Kui; Ran, Qichun; Ma, Pingping; Zhang, Yarong; Li, Jinghua; Cai, Kaiyong

    2014-09-24

    To improve the biological performance of titanium implant, a series of Zn-incorporated coatings were fabricated on the microrough titanium (Micro-Ti) via sol-gel method by spin-coating technique. The successful fabrication of the coating was verified by combined techniques of scanning electron microscopy, surface profiler, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. The incorporated zinc existed as ZnO, which released Zn ions in a sustained manner. The Zn-incorporated samples (Ti-Zn0.08, Ti-Zn0.16, and Ti-Zn0.24) efficiently inhibited the adhesion of both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. The in vitro evaluations including cell activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), mineralization, osteogenic genes expressions (Runx2, ALP, OPG, Col I, OPN, and OC), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, confirmed that Ti-Zn0.16 sample was the optimal one to regulate the proliferation or differentiation for both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. More importantly, in vivo evaluations including Micro-CT analysis, push-out test, and histological observations verified that Ti-Zn0.16 implants could efficiently promote new bone formation after implantation for 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. The resulting material thus has potential application in orthopedic field. PMID:25148131

  2. Osteocytes subjected to pulsating fluid flow regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vezeridis, Peter S.; Chen Qian . E-mail: j.kleinnulend@vumc.nl

    2006-09-29

    Osteocytes are thought to orchestrate bone remodeling, but it is unclear exactly how osteocytes influence neighboring bone cells. Here, we tested whether osteocytes, osteoblasts, and periosteal fibroblasts subjected to pulsating fluid flow (PFF) produce soluble factors that modulate the proliferation and differentiation of cultured osteoblasts and periosteal fibroblasts. We found that osteocyte PFF conditioned medium (CM) inhibited bone cell proliferation, and osteocytes produced the strongest inhibition of proliferation compared to osteoblasts and periosteal fibroblasts. The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) attenuated the inhibitory effects of osteocyte PFF CM, suggesting that a change in NO release is at least partially responsible for the inhibitory effects of osteocyte PFF CM. Furthermore, osteocyte PFF CM stimulated osteoblast differentiation measured as increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and L-NAME decreased the stimulatory effects of osteocyte PFF CM on osteoblast differentiation. We conclude that osteocytes subjected to PFF inhibit proliferation but stimulate differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro via soluble factors and that the release of these soluble factors was at least partially dependent on the activation of a NO pathway in osteocytes in response to PFF. Thus, the osteocyte appears to be more responsive to PFF than the osteoblast or periosteal fibroblast with respect to the production of soluble signaling molecules affecting osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.

  3. Negative regulation and developmental competence in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Lee, Im-Soon; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. The three key negative regulators of conidiation SfgA, VosA, and NsdD act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. Here, we have revealed that NsdD is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in Aspergillus. Moreover, nullifying both nsdD and vosA results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even at 12 h of liquid culture, and near constitutive activation of conidiation, indicating that acquisition of developmental competence involves the removal of negative regulation exerted by both NsdD and VosA. NsdD’s role in repressing conidiation is conserved in other aspergilli, as deleting nsdD causes enhanced and precocious activation of conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus. In vivo NsdD-DNA interaction analyses identify three NsdD binding regions in the promoter of the essential activator of conidiation brlA, indicating a direct repressive role of NsdD in conidiation. Importantly, loss of flbC or flbD encoding upstream activators of brlA in the absence of nsdD results in delayed activation of brlA, suggesting distinct positive roles of FlbC and FlbD in conidiation. A genetic model depicting regulation of conidiation in A. nidulans is presented. PMID:27364479

  4. Negative regulation and developmental competence in Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Lee, Im-Soon; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. The three key negative regulators of conidiation SfgA, VosA, and NsdD act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. Here, we have revealed that NsdD is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in Aspergillus. Moreover, nullifying both nsdD and vosA results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even at 12 h of liquid culture, and near constitutive activation of conidiation, indicating that acquisition of developmental competence involves the removal of negative regulation exerted by both NsdD and VosA. NsdD's role in repressing conidiation is conserved in other aspergilli, as deleting nsdD causes enhanced and precocious activation of conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus. In vivo NsdD-DNA interaction analyses identify three NsdD binding regions in the promoter of the essential activator of conidiation brlA, indicating a direct repressive role of NsdD in conidiation. Importantly, loss of flbC or flbD encoding upstream activators of brlA in the absence of nsdD results in delayed activation of brlA, suggesting distinct positive roles of FlbC and FlbD in conidiation. A genetic model depicting regulation of conidiation in A. nidulans is presented. PMID:27364479

  5. The basic helix loop helix transcription factor Twist1 is a novel regulator of ATF4 in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Danciu, Theodora E; Li, Yan; Koh, Amy; Xiao, Guozhi; McCauley, Laurie K; Franceschi, Renny T

    2012-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an essential regulator of endochondral bone formation and an important anabolic agent for the reversal of bone loss. PTH mediates its functions in part by regulating binding of the bone-related activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) to the osteoblast-specific gene, osteocalcin. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factors Twist1 and Twist2 also regulate osteocalcin transcription in part through the interaction of the C-terminal "box" domain in these factors and Runx2. In this study, we discovered a novel function of PTH: its ability to dramatically decrease Twist1 transcription. Since ATF4 is a major regulator of the PTH response in osteoblasts, we assessed the mutual regulation between these factors and determined that Twist proteins and ATF4 physically interact in a manner that affects ATF4 DNA binding function. We mapped the interaction domain of Twist proteins to the C-terminal "box" domain and of ATF4, to the N-terminus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Twist1 overexpression in osteoblasts attenuates ATF4 binding to the osteocalcin promoter in response to PTH. This study thus identifies Twist proteins as novel inhibitory binding partners of ATF4 and explores the functional significance of this interaction. PMID:21866569

  6. The basic helix loop helix transcription factor Twist1 is a novel regulator of ATF4 in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Danciu, Theodora E.; Li, Yan; Koh, Amy; Xiao, Guozhi; McCauley, Laurie K.; Franceschi, Renny T.

    2011-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an essential regulator of endochondral bone formation and an important anabolic agent for the reversal of bone loss. PTH mediates its functions in part by regulating binding of the bone-related activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) to the osteoblast-specific gene, osteocalcin. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factors Twist1 and Twist2 also regulate osteocalcin transcription in part through the interaction of the C-terminal “box” domain in these factors and Runx2. In this study, we discovered a novel function of PTH: its ability to dramatically decrease Twist1 transcription. Since ATF4 is a major regulator of the PTH response in osteoblasts, we assessed the mutual regulation between these factors and determined that Twist proteins and ATF4 physically interact in a manner that affects ATF4 DNA binding function. We mapped the interaction domain of Twist proteins to the C-terminal “box” domain and of ATF4, to the N-terminus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Twist1 overexpression in osteoblasts attenuates ATF4 binding to the osteocalcin promoter in response to PTH. This study thus identifies Twist proteins as novel inhibitory binding partners of ATF4 and explores the functional significance of this interaction. PMID:21866569

  7. Impaired cell cycle regulation of the osteoblast-related heterodimeric transcription factor Runx2-Cbfbeta in osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    San Martin, Inga A; Varela, Nelson; Gaete, Marcia; Villegas, Karina; Osorio, Mariana; Tapia, Julio C; Antonelli, Marcelo; Mancilla, Edna E; Pereira, Barry P; Nathan, Saminathan S; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S; van Wijnen, Andre J; Galindo, Mario

    2009-12-01

    Bone formation and osteoblast differentiation require the functional expression of the Runx2/Cbfbeta heterodimeric transcription factor complex. Runx2 is also a suppressor of proliferation in osteoblasts by attenuating cell cycle progression in G(1). Runx2 levels are modulated during the cell cycle, which are maximal in G(1) and minimal beyond the G(1)/S phase transition (S, G(2), and M phases). It is not known whether Cbfbeta gene expression is cell cycle controlled in preosteoblasts nor how Runx2 or Cbfbeta are regulated during the cell cycle in bone cancer cells. We investigated Runx2 and Cbfbeta gene expression during cell cycle progression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, as well as ROS17/2.8 and SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells. Runx2 protein levels are reduced as expected in MC3T3-E1 cells arrested in late G(1) (by mimosine) or M phase (by nocodazole), but not in cell cycle arrested osteosarcoma cells. Cbfbeta protein levels are cell cycle independent in both osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cells. In synchronized MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts progressing from late G1 or mitosis, Runx2 levels but not Cbfbeta levels are cell cycle regulated. However, both factors are constitutively elevated throughout the cell cycle in osteosarcoma cells. Proteasome inhibition by MG132 stabilizes Runx2 protein levels in late G(1) and S in MC3T3-E1 cells, but not in ROS17/2.8 and SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells. Thus, proteasomal degradation of Runx2 is deregulated in osteosarcoma cells. We propose that cell cycle control of Runx2 gene expression is impaired in osteosarcomas and that this deregulation may contribute to the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. PMID:19739101

  8. A role for the retinoblastoma protein as a regulator of mouse osteoblast cell adhesion: implications for osteogenesis and osteosarcoma formation.

    PubMed

    Sosa-García, Bernadette; Gunduz, Volkan; Vázquez-Rivera, Viviana; Cress, W Douglas; Wright, Gabriela; Bian, Haikuo; Hinds, Philip W; Santiago-Cardona, Pedro G

    2010-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is a cell cycle regulator inactivated in most human cancers. Loss of pRb function results from mutations in the gene coding for pRb or for any of its upstream regulators. Although pRb is predominantly known as a cell cycle repressor, our data point to additional pRb functions in cell adhesion. Our data show that pRb regulates the expression of a wide repertoire of cell adhesion genes and regulates the assembly of the adherens junctions required for cell adhesion. We conducted our studies in osteoblasts, which depend on both pRb and on cell-to-cell contacts for their differentiation and function. We generated knockout mice in which the RB gene was excised specifically in osteoblasts using the cre-lox P system and found that osteoblasts from pRb knockout mice did not assemble adherens junction at their membranes. pRb depletion in wild type osteoblasts using RNAi also disrupted adherens junctions. Microarrays comparing pRb-expressing and pRb-deficient osteoblasts showed that pRb controls the expression of a number of cell adhesion genes, including cadherins. Furthermore, pRb knockout mice showed bone abnormalities consistent with osteoblast adhesion defects. We also found that pRb controls the function of merlin, a well-known regulator of adherens junction assembly, by repressing Rac1 and its effector Pak1. Using qRT-PCR, immunoblots, co-immunoprecipitation assays, and immunofluorescent labeling, we observed that pRb loss resulted in Rac1 and Pak1 overexpression concomitant with merlin inactivation by Pak1, merlin detachment from the membrane, and adherens junction loss. Our data support a pRb function in cell adhesion while elucidating the mechanism for this function. Our work suggests that in some tumor types pRb inactivation results in both a loss of cell cycle control that promotes initial tumor growth as well as in a loss of cell-to-cell contacts, which contributes to later stages of metastasis. PMID:21085651

  9. A-Raf and C-Raf differentially regulate mechanobiological response of osteoblasts to guide mechanical stress-induced differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Horiuchi, Hisanori; Liang, Xing; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2016-08-01

    Regulation of osteoblast activity by mechanical stress is important for bone remodeling. However, the precise mechanotransduction mechanism that triggers the anabolic reaction of osteoblasts is largely unknown. In this study, we performed RNA interference (RNAi) screening to identify the signaling molecules upstream of ERK, which was responsible for osteogenesis. Of twenty-two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinases (MAP3Ks), we identified A-Raf and C-Raf as upstream MAP3Ks of the mechanical stretch-activated ERK pathway. Subsequently we screened the mechanosensitive cation channel, and identified P2X7 as an upstream molecule of the ERK pathway. Intriguingly, P2X7 functioned as an upstream activator of A-Raf but not of C-Raf. Furthermore, A-Raf contributed to mechanical stretch-induced osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, C-Raf but not A-Raf protected osteoblasts from mechanical stretch-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that A-Raf and C-Raf were involved in mechanobiological osteogenesis in a distinct way: A-Raf was responsible for osteogenesis while C-Raf for anti-apoptotic protection and promotion. PMID:27240957

  10. Nitric oxide negatively regulates mammalian adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, Michael A.; Stasiv, Yuri; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Chmielnicki, Eva; Grinberg, Alexander; Westphal, Heiner; Goldman, Steven A.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2003-08-01

    Neural progenitor cells are widespread throughout the adult central nervous system but only give rise to neurons in specific loci. Negative regulators of neurogenesis have therefore been postulated, but none have yet been identified as subserving a significant role in the adult brain. Here we report that nitric oxide (NO) acts as an important negative regulator of cell proliferation in the adult mammalian brain. We used two independent approaches to examine the function of NO in adult neurogenesis. In a pharmacological approach, we suppressed NO production in the rat brain by intraventricular infusion of an NO synthase inhibitor. In a genetic approach, we generated a null mutant neuronal NO synthase knockout mouse line by targeting the exon encoding active center of the enzyme. In both models, the number of new cells generated in neurogenic areas of the adult brain, the olfactory subependyma and the dentate gyrus, was strongly augmented, which indicates that division of neural stem cells in the adult brain is controlled by NO and suggests a strategy for enhancing neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system.

  11. α1-adrenergic receptor signaling in osteoblasts regulates clock genes and bone morphogenetic protein 4 expression through up-regulation of the transcriptional factor nuclear factor IL-3 (Nfil3)/E4 promoter-binding protein 4 (E4BP4).

    PubMed

    Hirai, Takao; Tanaka, Kenjiro; Togari, Akifumi

    2014-06-13

    Several studies have demonstrated that the α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) plays an important role in regulating cell growth and function in osteoblasts. However, the physiological role of α1-AR signaling in bone metabolism is largely unknown. In this study, the stimulation of phenylephrine (PHE), a nonspecific α1-AR agonist, increased the transcriptional factor Nfil3/E4BP4 and led to the rhythmic expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. We also showed that Bmp4 mRNA expression peaked in bone near zeitgeber time 8 in a 24-h rhythm. Furthermore, the expression of Nfil3 and Bmp4 displayed a circadian pattern with opposing phases, which suggested that Nfil3 repressed the expression of the Bmp4 gene during a circadian cycle. On a molecular level, both loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that Nfil3/E4BP4 negatively regulated Bmp4 expression in osteoblasts. Furthermore, the systemic administration of PHE increased the expression of Nfil3 mRNA in bone, whereas it decreased that of Bmp4 mRNA. The expression of Bmp4 mRNA was decreased significantly by exposure to PHE, and this was concomitant with the increase in Nfil3 binding to the D-box-containing Bmp4 promoter region in MC3T3-E1 cells, which indicates that the expression of Nfil3 by α1-AR signaling can bind directly to the Bmp4 promoter and inhibit Bmp4 expression in osteoblasts. Our results suggest that α1-AR signaling regulates clock genes and Bmp4 expression in osteoblasts. Moreover, α1-AR signaling negatively regulated Bmp4 expression by up-regulating the transcriptional factor Nfil3/E4BP4 in osteoblasts. PMID:24794868

  12. Forskolin Regulates L-Type Calcium Channel through Interaction between Actinin 4 and β3 Subunit in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lin; Hei, Hongya; Tian, Lulu; Peng, Wen; Cai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels that permit cellular calcium influx are essential in calcium-mediated modulation of cellular signaling. Although the regulation of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels is linked to many factors including cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity and actin cytoskeleton, little is known about the detailed mechanisms underlying the regulation in osteoblasts. Our present study investigated the modulation of L-type calcium channel activities through the effects of forskolin on actin reorganization and on its functional interaction with actin binding protein actinin 4. The results showed that forskolin did not significantly affect the trafficking of pore forming α1c subunit and its interaction with actin binding protein actinin 4, whereas it significantly increased the expression of β3 subunit and its interaction with actinin 4 in osteoblast cells as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, pull-down assay, and immunostaining. Further mapping showed that the ABD and EF domains of actinin 4 were interaction sites. This interaction is independent of PKA phosphorylation. Knockdown of actinin 4 significantly decreased the activities of L-type calcium channels. Our study revealed a new aspect of the mechanisms by which the forskolin activation of adenylyl cyclase - cAMP cascade regulates the L-type calcium channel in osteoblast cells, besides the PKA mediated phosphorylation of the channel subunits. These data provide insight into the important role of interconnection among adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, PKA, the actin cytoskeleton, and the channel proteins in the regulation of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels in osteoblast cells. PMID:25902045

  13. C-Mpl Is Expressed on Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts and Is Important in Regulating Skeletal Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Meijome, Tomas E; Baughman, Jenna T; Hooker, R Adam; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Ciovacco, Wendy A; Balamohan, Sanjeev M; Srinivasan, Trishya L; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Eleniste, Pierre P; Horowitz, Mark C; Srour, Edward F; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Fuchs, Robyn K; Kacena, Melissa A

    2016-04-01

    C-Mpl is the receptor for thrombopoietin (TPO), the main megakaryocyte (MK) growth factor, and c-Mpl is believed to be expressed on cells of the hematopoietic lineage. As MKs have been shown to enhance bone formation, it may be expected that mice in which c-Mpl was globally knocked out (c-Mpl(-/-) mice) would have decreased bone mass because they have fewer MKs. Instead, c-Mpl(-/-) mice have a higher bone mass than WT controls. Using c-Mpl(-/-) mice we investigated the basis for this discrepancy and discovered that c-Mpl is expressed on both osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs), an unexpected finding that prompted us to examine further how c-Mpl regulates bone. Static and dynamic bone histomorphometry parameters suggest that c-Mpl deficiency results in a net gain in bone volume with increases in OBs and OCs. In vitro, a higher percentage of c-Mpl(-/-) OBs were in active phases of the cell cycle, leading to an increased number of OBs. No difference in OB differentiation was observed in vitro as examined by real-time PCR and functional assays. In co-culture systems, which allow for the interaction between OBs and OC progenitors, c-Mpl(-/-) OBs enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Two of the major signaling pathways by which OBs regulate osteoclastogenesis, MCSF/OPG/RANKL and EphrinB2-EphB2/B4, were unaffected in c-Mpl(-/-) OBs. These data provide new findings for the role of MKs and c-Mpl expression in bone and may provide insight into the homeostatic regulation of bone mass as well as bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:26375403

  14. A novel microRNA targeting HDAC5 regulates osteoblast differentiation in mice and contributes to primary osteoporosis in humans.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Xie, Hui; Liu, Wei; Hu, Rong; Huang, Bi; Tan, Yan-Fei; Xu, Kang; Sheng, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Hou-De; Wu, Xian-Ping; Luo, Xiang-Hang

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interfere with translation of specific target mRNAs and are thought to thereby regulate many cellular processes. Recent studies have suggested that miRNAs might play a role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here, we identify a new miRNA (miR-2861) in primary mouse osteoblasts that promotes osteoblast differentiation by repressing histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) expression at the post-transcriptional level. miR-2861 was found to be transcribed in ST2 stromal cells during bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced (BMP2-induced) osteogenesis, and overexpression of miR-2861 enhanced BMP2-induced osteoblastogenesis, whereas inhibition of miR-2861 expression attenuated it. HDAC5, an enhancer of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) degradation, was confirmed to be a target of miR-2861. In vivo silencing of miR-2861 in mice reduced Runx2 protein expression, inhibited bone formation, and decreased bone mass. Importantly, miR-2861 was found to be conserved in humans, and a homozygous mutation in pre-miR-2861 that blocked expression of miR-2861 was shown to cause primary osteoporosis in 2 related adolescents. Consistent with the mouse data, HDAC5 levels were increased and Runx2 levels decreased in bone samples from the 2 affected individuals. Thus, our studies show that miR-2861 plays an important physiological role in osteoblast differentiation and contributes to osteoporosis via its effect on osteoblasts. PMID:19920351

  15. Chloride-hydrogen antiporters ClC-3 and ClC-5 drive osteoblast mineralization and regulate fine-structure bone patterning in vitro.

    PubMed

    Larrouture, Quitterie C; Nelson, Deborah J; Robinson, Lisa J; Liu, Li; Tourkova, Irina; Schlesinger, Paul H; Blair, Harry C

    2015-11-01

    Osteoblasts form an epithelium-like layer with tight junctions separating bone matrix from extracellular fluid. During mineral deposition, calcium and phosphate precipitation in hydroxyapatite liberates 0.8 mole of H(+) per mole Ca(+2). Thus, acid export is needed for mineral formation. We examined ion transport supporting osteoblast vectorial mineral deposition. Previously we established that Na/H exchangers 1 and 6 are highly expressed at secretory osteoblast basolateral surfaces and neutralize massive acid loads. The Na/H exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1), a pdz-organizing protein, occurs at mineralizing osteoblast basolateral surfaces. We hypothesized that high-capacity proton transport from matrix into osteoblast cytosol must exist to support acid transcytosis for mineral deposition. Gene screening in mineralizing osteoblasts showed dramatic expression of chloride-proton antiporters ClC-3 and ClC-5. Antibody localization showed that ClC-3 and ClC-5 occur at the apical secretory surface facing the bone matrix and in membranes of buried osteocytes. Surprisingly, the Clcn3(-/-) mouse has only mildly disordered mineralization. However, Clcn3(-/-) osteoblasts have large compensatory increases in ClC-5 expression. Clcn3(-/-) osteoblasts mineralize in vitro in a striking and novel trabecular pattern; wild-type osteoblasts form bone nodules. In mesenchymal stem cells from Clcn3(-/-) mice, lentiviral ClC-5 shRNA created Clcn3(-/-), ClC-5 knockdown cells, validated by western blot and PCR. Osteoblasts from these cells produced no mineral under conditions where wild-type or Clcn3(-/-) cells mineralize well. We conclude that regulated acid export, mediated by chloride-proton exchange, is essential to drive normal bone mineralization, and that CLC transporters also regulate fine patterning of bone. PMID:26603451

  16. Aerobic Glycolysis in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Esen, Emel; Long, Fanxin

    2014-01-01

    Osteoblasts, the chief bone-making cells in the body, are a focus of osteoporosis research. Although teriparatite, a synthetic fragment of the human parathyroid hormone (PTH), has been an effective bone anabolic drug, there remains a clinical need for additional therapeutics that safely stimulates osteoblast number and function. Work in the past several decades has provided unprecedented clarity about the roles of growth factors and transcription factors in regulating osteoblast differentiation and activity, but whether these factors may regulate cellular metabolism to influence cell fate and function has been largely unexplored. The past few years have witnessed a resurgence of interest in the cellular metabolism of osteoblasts, with the hope that elucidation of their metabolic profile may open new avenues for developing bone anabolic agents. Here we review the current understanding about glucose metabolism in osteoblasts. PMID:25200872

  17. The protein kinase LKB1 negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Erna; Edlund, Karolina; Kahata, Kaoru; Zieba, Agata; Morén, Anita; Watanabe, Yukihide; Voytyuk, Iryna; Botling, Johan; Söderberg, Ola; Micke, Patrick; Pyrowolakis, George; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinase LKB1 regulates cell metabolism and growth and is implicated in intestinal and lung cancer. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates cell differentiation during development and tissue homeostasis. We demonstrate that LKB1 physically interacts with BMP type I receptors and requires Smad7 to promote downregulation of the receptor. Accordingly, LKB1 suppresses BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation and affects BMP signaling in Drosophila wing longitudinal vein morphogenesis. LKB1 protein expression and Smad1 phosphorylation analysis in a cohort of non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a negative correlation predominantly in a subset enriched in adenocarcinomas. Lung cancer patient data analysis indicated strong correlation between LKB1 loss-of-function mutations and high BMP2 expression, and these two events further correlated with expression of a gene subset functionally linked to apoptosis and migration. This new mechanism of BMP receptor regulation by LKB1 has ramifications in physiological organogenesis and disease. PMID:26701726

  18. The Rho-GEF Kalirin regulates bone mass and the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Su; Eleniste, Pierre P.; Wayakanon, Kornchanok; Mandela, Prashant; Eipper, Betty A.; Mains, Richard E.; Allen, Matthew R.; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Dysregulation in the activity of the bone cells can lead to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increase in bone fragility and risk of fracture. Kalirin is a novel GTP-exchange factor protein that has been shown to play a role in cytoskeletal remodeling and dendritic spine formation in neurons. We examined Kalirin expression in skeletal tissue and found that it was expressed in osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Furthermore, micro-CT analyses of the distal femur of global Kalirin knockout (Kal-KO) mice revealed significantly reduced trabecular and cortical bone parameters in Kal-KO mice, compared to WT mice, with significantly reduced bone mass in 8, 14 and 36 week-old female Kal-KO mice. Male mice also exhibited a decrease in bone parameters but not to the level seen in female mice. Histomorphometric analyses also revealed decreased bone formation rate in 14 week-old female Kal-KO mice, as well as decreased osteoblast number/bone surface and increased osteoclast surface/bone surface. Consistent with our in vivo findings, the bone resorbing activity and differentiation of Kal-KO osteoclasts was increased in vitro. Although alkaline phosphatase activity by Kal-KO osteoblasts was increased in vitro, Kal-KO osteoblasts showed decreased mineralizing activity, as well as decreased secretion of OPG, which was inversely correlated with ERK activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that deletion of Kalirin directly affects osteoclast and osteoblast activity, leading to decreased OPG secretion by osteoblasts which is likely to alter the RANKL/OPG ratio and promote osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, Kalirin may play a role in paracrine and/or endocrine signaling events that control skeletal bone remodeling and the maintenance of bone mass. PMID:24380811

  19. The Rho-GEF Kalirin regulates bone mass and the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Su; Eleniste, Pierre P; Wayakanon, Kornchanok; Mandela, Prashant; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E; Allen, Matthew R; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2014-03-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Dysregulation in the activity of the bone cells can lead to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increase in bone fragility and risk of fracture. Kalirin is a novel GTP-exchange factor protein that has been shown to play a role in cytoskeletal remodeling and dendritic spine formation in neurons. We examined Kalirin expression in skeletal tissue and found that it was expressed in osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Furthermore, micro-CT analyses of the distal femur of global Kalirin knockout (Kal-KO) mice revealed significantly reduced trabecular and cortical bone parameters in Kal-KO mice, compared to WT mice, with significantly reduced bone mass in 8, 14 and 36week-old female Kal-KO mice. Male mice also exhibited a decrease in bone parameters but not to the level seen in female mice. Histomorphometric analyses also revealed decreased bone formation rate in 14week-old female Kal-KO mice, as well as decreased osteoblast number/bone surface and increased osteoclast surface/bone surface. Consistent with our in vivo findings, the bone resorbing activity and differentiation of Kal-KO osteoclasts was increased in vitro. Although alkaline phosphatase activity by Kal-KO osteoblasts was increased in vitro, Kal-KO osteoblasts showed decreased mineralizing activity, as well as decreased secretion of OPG, which was inversely correlated with ERK activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that deletion of Kalirin directly affects osteoclast and osteoblast activity, leading to decreased OPG secretion by osteoblasts which is likely to alter the RANKL/OPG ratio and promote osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, Kalirin may play a role in paracrine and/or endocrine signaling events that control skeletal bone remodeling and the maintenance of bone mass. PMID:24380811

  20. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is regulated by Wnt and bone morphogenetic proteins signaling in osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qing; Kang, Quan; Si, Weike; Jiang, Wei; Park, Jong Kyung; Peng, Ying; Li, Xinmin; Luu, Hue H; Luo, Jeffrey; Montag, Anthony G; Haydon, Rex C; He, Tong-Chuan

    2004-12-31

    Osteoblast lineage-specific differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is a well regulated but poorly understood process. Both bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnt signaling are implicated in regulating osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here we analyzed the expression profiles of mesenchymal stem cells stimulated with Wnt3A and osteogenic BMPs, and we identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as a potential target of Wnt and BMP signaling. We confirmed the microarray results, and we demonstrated that CTGF was up-regulated at the early stage of BMP-9 and Wnt3A stimulations and that Wnt3A-regulated CTGF expression was beta-catenin-dependent. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of CTGF expression significantly diminished BMP-9-induced, but not Wnt3A-induced, osteogenic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt3A may also regulate osteoblast differentiation in a CTGF-independent fashion. However, constitutive expression of CTGF was shown to inhibit both BMP-9- and Wnt3A-induced osteogenic differentiation. Exogenous expression of CTGF was shown to promote cell migration and recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells. Our findings demonstrate that CTGF is up-regulated by Wnt3A and BMP-9 at the early stage of osteogenic differentiation, which may regulate the proliferation and recruitment of osteoprogenitor cells; however, CTGF is down-regulated as the differentiation potential of committed pre-osteoblasts increases, strongly suggesting that tight regulation of CTGF expression may be essential for normal osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:15496414

  1. Effects of JSOG-6 on protection against bone loss in ovariectomized mice through regulation of osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background JSOG-6 is used as a traditional medicine to relieve the symptoms associated with inflammation, rheumatism, and osteoporosis in Korea. In the present study, we investigated the effects of JSOG-6 on bone loss prevention both in in vitro and in vivo as well as its underlying mechanism of action. Methods Protection against bone loss was assessed in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model. Bone microarchitecture was measured using a micro-computed tomography to detect the parameters of three-dimensional structure of a trabecular bone. Serum biomarkers were also evaluated in an OVX-induced model. Osteoclasts derived from mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were also employed to investigate the mechanism of action. Results Oral administration of JSOG-6 significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur in OVX mice in vivo. Especially, the reduced Tb.No (trabecular bone number) in the OVX group was significantly recovered by JSOG-6 treatment. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, biomarkers of bone resorption, were significantly elevated in OVX mice, but JSOG-6 effectively inhibited the increase in OVX mice. JSOG-6 was also found to enhance the osteoblastic differentiation and maturation with the increase of the density and ALP activity, a marker of osteoblastic differentiation, as well as calcium deposition, a marker of osteoblastic maturation in MC3T3-E1 cells. The effects of JSOG-6 on osteoblastic differentiation were also associated in part with the increase of ALP and OPN mRNA expressions and the decrease of RANKL mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that JSOG-6 induced protection against bone loss in OVX mice, and its anti-osteoporotic property might be, in part, a function of the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and the inhibition of osteoclast formation. These findings suggest that

  2. Pyk2 regulates megakaryocyte-induced increases in osteoblast number and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying-Hua; Hooker, R Adam; Nguyen, Khanh; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita; Waning, David L; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Meijome, Tomas E; Chua, Hui Lin; Plett, Artur P; Orschell, Christie M; Srour, Edward F; Mayo, Lindsey D; Pavalko, Fredrick M; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Kacena, Melissa A

    2013-06-01

    Preclinical and clinical evidence from megakaryocyte (MK)-related diseases suggests that MKs play a significant role in maintaining bone homeostasis. Findings from our laboratories reveal that MKs significantly increase osteoblast (OB) number through direct MK-OB contact and the activation of integrins. We, therefore, examined the role of Pyk2, a tyrosine kinase known to be regulated downstream of integrins, in the MK-mediated enhancement of OBs. When OBs were co-cultured with MKs, total Pyk2 levels in OBs were significantly enhanced primarily because of increased Pyk2 gene transcription. Additionally, p53 and Mdm2 were both decreased in OBs upon MK stimulation, which would be permissive of cell cycle entry. We then demonstrated that OB number was markedly reduced when Pyk2-/- OBs, as opposed to wild-type (WT) OBs, were co-cultured with MKs. We also determined that MKs inhibit OB differentiation in the presence and absence of Pyk2 expression. Finally, given that MK-replete spleen cells from GATA-1-deficient mice can robustly stimulate OB proliferation and bone formation in WT mice, we adoptively transferred spleen cells from these mice into Pyk2-/- recipient mice. Importantly, GATA-1-deficient spleen cells failed to stimulate an increase in bone formation in Pyk2-/- mice, suggesting in vivo the important role of Pyk2 in the MK-induced increase in bone volume. Further understanding of the signaling pathways involved in the MK-mediated enhancement of OB number and bone formation will facilitate the development of novel anabolic therapies to treat bone loss diseases. PMID:23362087

  3. Pyk2 Regulates Megakaryocyte-Induced Increases in Osteoblast Number and Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ying-Hua; Hooker, R. Adam; Nguyen, Khanh; Gerard-O’Riley, Rita; Waning, David L.; Chitteti, Brahmananda R.; Meijome, Tomas E.; Chua, Hui Lin; Plett, Artur P.; Orschell, Christie M.; Srour, Edward F.; Mayo, Lindsey D.; Pavalko, Fredrick M.; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Kacena, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical evidence from megakaryocyte (MK) related diseases suggest that MKs play a significant role in maintaining bone homeostasis. Findings from our laboratories reveal that MKs significantly increase osteoblast (OB) number through direct MK-OB contact and the activation of integrins. We therefore examined the role of Pyk2, a tyrosine kinase known to be regulated downstream of integrins, in the MK-mediated enhancement of OBs. When OBs were co-cultured with MKs, total Pyk2 levels in OBs were significantly enhanced primarily due to increased Pyk2 gene transcription. Additionally, p53 and Mdm2 were both decreased in OBs upon MK stimulation, which would be permissive of cell cycle entry. We then demonstrated that OB number was markedly reduced when Pyk2−/− OBs, as opposed to wild-type (WT) OBs, were co-cultured with MKs. We also determined that MKs inhibit OB differentiation in the presence and absence of Pyk2 expression. Finally, given that MK replete spleen cells from GATA-1 deficient mice can robustly stimulate OB proliferation and bone formation in WT mice, we adoptively transferred spleen cells from these mice into Pyk2−/− recipient mice. Importantly, GATA-1 deficient spleen cells failed to stimulate an increase in bone formation in Pyk2−/− mice, suggesting in vivo the important role of Pyk2 in the MK-induced increase in bone volume. Further understanding of the signaling pathways involved in the MK-mediated enhancement of OB number and bone formation will facilitate the development of novel anabolic therapies to treat bone loss diseases. PMID:23362087

  4. Titanium With Nanotopography Induces Osteoblast Differentiation by Regulating Endogenous Bone Morphogenetic Protein Expression and Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    M S Castro-Raucci, Larissa; S Francischini, Marcelo; N Teixeira, Lucas; P Ferraz, Emanuela; B Lopes, Helena; T de Oliveira, Paulo; Hassan, Mohammad Q; Losa, Adalberto L; Beloti, Marcio M

    2016-07-01

    We aimed at evaluating the effect of titanium (Ti) with nanotopography (Nano) on the endogenous expression of BMP-2 and BMP-4 and the relevance of this process to the nanotopography-induced osteoblast differentiation. MC3T3-E1 cells were grown on Nano and machined (Machined) Ti surfaces and the endogenous BMP-2/4 expression and the effect of BMP receptor BMPR1A silencing in both osteoblast differentiation and expression of genes related to TGF-β/BMP signaling were evaluated. Nano supported higher BMP-2 gene and protein expression and upregulated the osteoblast differentiation compared with Machined Ti surface. The BMPR1A silencing inhibited the osteogenic potential induced by Nano Ti surface as indicated by reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin and RUNX2 gene expression, RUNX2 protein expression and ALP activity. In addition, the expression of genes related to TGF-β/BMP signaling was deeply affected by BMPR1A-silenced cells grown on Nano Ti surface. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that nanotopography induces osteoblast differentiation, at least in part, by upregulating the endogenous production of BMP-2 and modulating BMP signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1718-1726, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26681207

  5. Soy protein isolate down-regulates caveolin-1 expression to suppress osteoblastic cell senescence pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that the beneficial effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on bone quality might be due to either stimulation of estrogenic signaling via isoflavones or through a novel and as yet characterized non-estrogenic pathway. We report here that SPI-fed rat serum inhibited osteoblastic c...

  6. The type III transforming growth factor beta receptor regulates vascular and osteoblast development during palatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Cynthia R.; Jacobs, Britni H.; Brown, Christopher B.; Barnett, Joey V.; Goudy, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cleft palate occurs in up to 1:1000 live births and is associated with mutations in multiple genes. Palatogenesis involves a complex choreography of palatal shelf elongation, elevation, and fusion. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) canonical signaling is required during each stage of palate development. The type III TGFβ receptor (TGFβR3) binds all three TGFβ ligands and BMP2, but its contribution to palatogenesis is unknown. Results The role of TGFβR3 during palate formation was found to be during palatal shelf elongation and elevation. Tgfbr3-/- embryos displayed reduced palatal shelf width and height, changes in proliferation and apoptosis, and reduced vascular and osteoblast differentiation. Abnormal vascular plexus organization as well as aberrant expression of arterial (Notch1, Alk1), venous (EphB4), and lymphatic (Lyve1) markers was also observed. Decreased osteoblast differentiation factors (Runx2, alk phos, osteocalcin, col1A1, and col1A2) demonstrated poor mesenchymal cell commitment to the osteoblast lineage within the maxilla and palatal shelves in Tgfbr3-/- embryos. Additionally, in vitro bone mineralization induced by osteogenic medium (OM+BMP2) was insufficient in Tgfbr3-/- palatal mesenchyme, but mineralization was rescued by overexpression of TGFβR3. Conclusions These data reveal a critical, previously unrecognized role for TGFβR3 in vascular and osteoblast development during palatogenesis. PMID:25382630

  7. AGE-R3/galectin-3 expression in osteoblast-like cells: regulation by AGEs.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Natalia; Ahmed, Hafiz; McCarthy, Antonio D; Etcheverry, Susana B; Vasta, Gerardo R; Cortizo, Ana M

    2004-11-01

    The accumulation of irreversible advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) on long-lived proteins, and the interaction of AGEs with cellular receptors such as AGE-R3/galectin-3 and RAGE, are considered to be key events in the development of long-term complications of diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, uremia and ageing. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and sub-cellular distribution of galectin-3, as well as its possible modulation by AGEs, in MC3T3E1 mouse calvaria-derived osteoblasts and in UMR 106 rat osteosarcoma cells. Both osteoblastic lines were cultured either with control bovine serum albumin (BSA) or with AGEs-BSA for 48 h. Cells were evaluated for galectin-3 expression by fixing and immunofluorescent microscopic analysis; or Western blot analysis of whole cell extracts, sub-cellular fractions and culture media. Both cell lines express 30 kDa (monomeric) galectin-3, although expression was about 15-fold lower in the UMR106 osteosarcoma cells. Dimeric (70 kDa) galectin-3 was additionally observed in the UMR106 cells. Immunofluorescent analysis of galectin-3 distribution showed a diffuse cytoplasmic and strong nuclear pattern in MC3T3E1 osteoblasts, and a patchy cytoplasmic pattern in UMR106 cells. Western blot analysis for both cell lines showed that galectin-3 was mainly found in the cytoplasm and in minor amounts in the microsomal fraction, while considerable amounts were secreted into the culture media. Exposure to 100-200 microg/mL AGEs-BSA increased the cellular content of 30 kDa galectin-3 (20-25% for MC3T3E1 and 35-70% for UMR106 versus control BSA, p < 0.05), and decreased the culture media levels of galectin-3 (10-20% for MC3T3E1 and for UMR106 versus control BSA, p < 0.05). These results confirm the expression of galectin-3 in osteoblastic cells, and suggest different levels and sub-cellular distribution of this protein in transformed versus non-transformed osteoblasts. Osteoblastic exposure to AGEs alters their expression

  8. Sex dependent regulation of osteoblast response to implant surface properties by systemic hormones

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Osseointegration depends on the implant surface, bone quality and the local and systemic host environment, which can differ in male and female patients. This study was undertaken in order to determine if male and female cells respond differently to titanium surfaces that have micron-scale roughness and if interactions of calciotropic hormones [1α,25(OH)2D3 and 17β-oestradiol (E2)] and microstructured surfaces on osteoblasts are sex dependent. Methods Osteoblasts from 6-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) or on titanium (Ti) disks with two different surface topographies, a smooth pretreated (PT) surface and a coarse grit-blasted/acid-etched (SLA) surface, and treated with 1α,25(OH)2D3, E2, or E2 conjugated to bovine serum albumin (E2-BSA). Results Male and female cells responded similarly to Ti microstructure with respect to cell number and levels of osteocalcin, transforming growth factor-β1, osteoprotegerin and prostaglandin E2 in their conditioned media, exhibiting a more differentiated phenotype on SLA than on PT or TCPS. E2 and E2-BSA increased differentiation and local factor production, an effect that was microstructure dependent and found only in female osteoblasts. 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased osteoblast differentiation and local factor production in female and male cells, but the effect was more robust in male cells. Conclusions Male and female rat osteoblasts respond similarly to surface microstructure but exhibit sexual dimorphism in substrate-dependent responses to systemic hormones. Oestrogen affected only female cells while 1α,25(OH)2D3 had a greater effect on male cells. These results suggest that successful osseointegration in males and females may depend on the implant surface design and correct levels of calciotropic hormones. PMID:21208469

  9. Simulated microgravity inhibits L-type calcium channel currents partially by the up-regulation of miR-103 in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhongyang; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Hu, Zebing; Zhang, Lianchang; Wang, Han; Zhou, Hua; Li, Dongtao; Zhang, Shu; Xie, Manjiang

    2015-01-01

    L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (LTCCs), particularly Cav1.2 LTCCs, play fundamental roles in cellular responses to mechanical stimuli in osteoblasts. Numerous studies have shown that mechanical loading promotes bone formation, whereas the removal of this stimulus under microgravity conditions results in a reduction in bone mass. However, whether microgravity exerts an influence on LTCCs in osteoblasts and whether this influence is a possible mechanism underlying the observed bone loss remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that simulated microgravity substantially inhibited LTCC currents and suppressed Cav1.2 at the protein level in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. In addition, reduced Cav1.2 protein levels decreased LTCC currents in MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, simulated microgravity increased miR-103 expression. Cav1.2 expression and LTCC current densities both significantly increased in cells that were transfected with a miR-103 inhibitor under mechanical unloading conditions. These results suggest that simulated microgravity substantially inhibits LTCC currents in osteoblasts by suppressing Cav1.2 expression. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Cav1.2 expression and the inhibition of LTCCs caused by mechanical unloading in osteoblasts are partially due to miR-103 up-regulation. Our study provides a novel mechanism for microgravity-induced detrimental effects on osteoblasts, offering a new avenue to further investigate the bone loss induced by microgravity. PMID:25627864

  10. Skeletal Collagen Turnover by the Osteoblast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1997-01-01

    Among the most overt negative changes experienced by man and experimental animals under conditions of weightlessness are the loss of skeletal mass and attendant hypercalciuria. These clearly result from some disruption in the balance between bone formation and bone resorption (i.e. remodelling) which appears to be due to a decrease in the functions of the osteoblast. In the studies funded by this project, the clonal osteoblastic cell line, UMR 106-01, has been used to investigate the regulation of collagenase and Tissue Inhibitors of MetalloProteases (TIMPs). This project has shed light on the comprehensive role of the osteoblast in the remodelling process, and, in so doing, provided some insight into how the process might be disrupted under conditions of microgravity.

  11. Osteocytes up-regulate the terminal differentiation of pre-osteoblasts via gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Yoichi; Akiyama, Yuko; Yamamoto, Kiyofumi; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Watanabe, Eri; Watanabe, Nobukazu; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Mikami, Yoshikazu; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We examined cell-to-cell interaction between pre-osteoblasts and osteocytes using MC3T3-E1 and MLO-Y4, respectively. First, GFP expressing MC3T3-E1 (E1-GFP) cells were generated to isolate the cells from co-culture with MLO-Y4. No changes were observed in the expression of osteogenic transcription factors Runx2, Osterix, Dlx5 and Msx2, but expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) in E1-GFP co-cultured with MLO-Y4 was 300-400-fold greater than that in mono-cultured E1-GFP. In addition, mineralized nodule formation was drastically increased in co-cultured E1-GFP cells compared to mono-cultured cells. Patch clamp assay showed the presence of gap junctions between E1-GFP and MLO-Y4. Furthermore, when the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) was added to the culture, increased expression of ALP and BSP in E1-GFP co-cultured with MLO-Y4 was suppressed. These results suggest that gap junction detected between pre-osteoblasts and osteocytes plays an important role on the terminal differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. PMID:25450679

  12. Calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside stimulates osteoblast differentiation through regulating the BMP/WNT signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Jing; Sun, Lijuan; Cheng, Xun; Hu, Xiaofang; Liang, Jichao; Chen, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The isoflavone calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (CG) is a principal constituent of Astragalus membranaceus (AR) and has been reported to inhibit osteoclast development in vitro and bone loss in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic effects of CG and its underlying mechanism in ST2 cells. The results show that exposure of cells to CG in osteogenic differentiation medium increases ALP activity, osteocalcin (Ocal) mRNA expression and the osteoblastic mineralization process. Mechanistically, CG treatment increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), p-Smad 1/5/8, β-catenin and Runx2, all of which are regulators of the BMP- or wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT)/β-catenin-signaling pathways. Moreover, the osteogenic effects of CG were inhibited by Noggin and DKK-1 which are classical inhibitors of the BMP and WNT/β-catenin-signaling pathways, respectively. Taken together, the results indicate that CG promotes the osteoblastic differentiation of ST2 cells through regulating the BMP/WNT signaling pathways. On this basis, CG may be a useful lead compound for improving the treatment of bone-decreasing diseases and enhancing bone regeneration. PMID:26579475

  13. Traf2 interacts with Smad4 and regulates BMP signaling pathway in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Koichi; Ikeda, Kyoko; Ito, Koichi

    2009-12-18

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in osteoblast differentiation and maturation. In mammals, the BMP-induced receptor-regulated Smads form complexes with Smad4. These complexes translocate and accumulate in the nucleus, where they regulate the transcription of various target genes. However, the function of Smad4 remains unclear. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using Smad4 as bait and a cDNA library derived from bone marrow, to indentify the proteins interacting with Smad4. cDNA clones for Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (Traf2) were identified, and the interaction between the endogenous proteins was confirmed in the mouse osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. To investigate the function of Traf2, we silenced it with siRNA. The level of BMP-2 protein in the medium, the expression levels of the Bmp2 gene and BMP-induced transcription factor genes, including Runx2, Dlx5, Msx2, and Sp7, and the phosphorylated-Smad1 protein level were increased in cells transfected with Traf2 siRNA. The nuclear accumulation of Smad1 increased with TNF-{alpha} stimulation for 30 min at Traf2 silencing. These results suggest that the TNF-{alpha}-stimulated nuclear accumulation of Smad1 may be dependent on Traf2. Thus, the interaction between Traf2 and Smad4 may play a role in the cross-talk between TNF-{alpha} and BMP signaling pathways.

  14. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences. PMID:24708499

  15. Cellular Factor XIIIA Transglutaminase Localizes in Caveolae and Regulates Caveolin-1 Phosphorylation, Homo-oligomerization and c-Src Signaling in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Kaartinen, Mari T

    2015-11-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) are a family of widely distributed enzymes that catalyze protein crosslinking by forming a covalent isopeptide bond between the substrate proteins. We have shown that MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts express Factor XIII-A (FXIII-A), and that the extracellular crosslinking activity of FXIII-A is involved in regulating matrix secretion and deposition. In this study, we have investigated the localization and potential role of intracellular FXIII-A. Conventional immunofluorescence microscopy and TIRF microscopy analyses showed that FXIII-A co-localizes with caveolin-1 in specialized membrane structures, caveolae, in differentiating osteoblasts. The caveolae-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished FXIII-A staining and co-localization with caveolin-1 from the osteoblast plasma membrane. The presence of FXIII-A in caveolae was confirmed by preparing caveolae-enriched cellular fractions using sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation followed by western blotting. Despite this association of FXIII-A with caveolae, there was no detectable transglutaminase activity in caveolae, as measured by monodansylcadaverine incorporation. TG inhibitor NC9--which can alter TG enzyme conformation--localized to caveolae and displaced FXIII-A from these structures when added to the osteoblast cultures. The decreased FXIII-A levels in caveolae after NC9 treatment increased c-Src activation, which resulted in caveolin-1 phosphorylation, homo-oligomerization and Akt phosphorylation, suggesting cellular FXIII-A has a role in regulating c-Src signaling in osteoblasts. PMID:26231113

  16. Apolipoprotein A-1 regulates osteoblast and lipoblast precursor cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Blair, Harry C; Kalyvioti, Elena; Papachristou, Nicholaos I; Tourkova, Irina L; Syggelos, Spryros A; Deligianni, Despina; Orkoula, Malvina G; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Karavia, Eleni A; Kypreos, Kyriakos E; Papachristou, Dionysios J

    2016-07-01

    Imbalances in lipid metabolism affect bone homeostasis, altering bone mass and quality. A link between bone mass and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed. Indeed, it has been recently shown that absence of the HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) causes dense bone mediated by increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In the present study we aimed at further expanding the current knowledge as regards the fascinating bone-HDL connection studying bone turnover in apoA-1-deficient mice. Interestingly, we found that bone mass was greatly reduced in the apoA-1-deficient mice compared with their wild-type counterparts. More specifically, static and dynamic histomorphometry showed that the reduced bone mass in apoA-1(-/-) mice reflect decreased bone formation. Biochemical composition and biomechanical properties of ApoA-1(-/-) femora were significantly impaired. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation from the apoA-1(-/-) mice showed reduced osteoblasts, and increased adipocytes, relative to wild type, in identical differentiation conditions. This suggests a shift in MSC subtypes toward adipocyte precursors, a result that is in line with our finding of increased bone marrow adiposity in apoA-1(-/-) mouse femora. Notably, osteoclast differentiation in vitro and osteoclast surface in vivo were unaffected in the knock-out mice. In whole bone marrow, PPARγ was greatly increased, consistent with increased adipocytes and committed precursors. Further, in the apoA-1(-/-) mice marrow, CXCL12 and ANXA2 levels were significantly decreased, whereas CXCR4 were increased, consistent with reduced signaling in a pathway that supports MSC homing and osteoblast generation. In keeping, in the apoA-1(-/-) animals the osteoblast-related factors Runx2, osterix, and Col1a1 were also decreased. The apoA-1(-/-) phenotype also included augmented CEPBa levels, suggesting complex changes in growth and differentiation that deserve further investigation. We

  17. Protein kinase signalling pathways involved in the up-regulation of the rat alpha1(I) collagen gene by transforming growth factor beta1 and bone morphogenetic protein 2 in osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Palcy, S; Goltzman, D

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) family members are known for their important role in bone physiology. TGFbeta(1) and, to a smaller extent, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) have been reported to regulate the gene expression of different osteoblast markers in vitro. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in these actions. Here we report that BMP-2, like TGFbeta(1), up-regulated alpha1(I) collagen mRNA expression in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic cells. This was mediated through an increase in the transcriptional rate of the gene rather than through the stabilization of alpha1(I) collagen mRNA, and required new protein synthesis. In addition, TGFbeta(1)- and BMP-2-induced increases in alpha1(I) collagen mRNA levels were both dependent on protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase activities. Furthermore, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase 1/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (MEK-1/ERK)] pathway participated in the up-regulation of alpha1(I) collagen gene expression by TGFbeta(1) and BMP-2. In response to either TGFbeta(1) or BMP-2, the stimulation of alpha1(I) collagen mRNA levels was paralleled by an early increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase protein activity. Moreover, the effects of both TGFbeta(1) and BMP-2 on alpha1(I) collagen gene expression were markedly decreased in transfected ROS 17/2.8 cells expressing a dominant-negative MEK-1. Our findings therefore show that TGFbeta(1) and BMP-2, which signal through discrete cell-surface receptors, are able to trigger analogous, if not identical, protein-phosphorylation-transducing cascades leading to comparable actions on the transcription of the alpha1(I) collagen gene in osteoblastic cells. PMID:10493907

  18. Histone demethylase Jmjd3 regulates osteoblast apoptosis through targeting anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic protein Bim.

    PubMed

    Yang, Di; Okamura, Hirohiko; Teramachi, Jumpei; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2016-04-01

    Posttranslational modifications including histone methylation regulate gene transcription through directly affecting the structure of chromatin. Trimethylation of histone H3K27 (H3K27me3) contributes to gene silencing and the histone demethylase Jumonji domain-containing 3 (Jmjd3) specifically removes the methylation of H3K27me3, followed by the activation of gene expression. In the present study, we explored the roles of Jmjd3 in regulating osteoblast apoptosis. Knockdown of Jmjd3 promoted osteoblast apoptosis induced by serum deprivation with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased levels of caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation. B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), an anti-apoptotic protein, was down-regulated by knockdown of Jmjd3 through retaining H3K27me3 on its promoter region. Knockdown of Jmjd3 increased the pro-apoptotic activity of Bim through inhibiting ERK-dependent phosphorylation of Bim. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1), which stimulates ERK phosphorylation, decreased in the Jmjd3-knockdown cells and introduction of PKD1 relieved osteoblast apoptosis in the Jmjd3-knockdown cells through increasing ERK-regulated Bim phosphorylation. These results suggest that Jmjd3 regulates osteoblast apoptosis through targeting Bcl-2 expression and Bim phosphorylation. PMID:26795455

  19. Alkaline phosphatase in osteoblasts is down-regulated by pulsatile fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    It is our hypothesis that interstitial fluid flow plays a role in the bone remodeling response to mechanical loading. The fluid flow-induced expression of three proteins (collagen, osteopontin, and alkaline phosphatase) involved in bone remodeling was investigated. Rat calvarial osteoblasts subjected to pulsatile fluid flow at an average shear stress of 5 dyne/cm2 showed decreased alkaline phosphatase (AP) mRNA expression after only 1 hour of flow. After 3 hours of flow, AP mRNA levels had decreased to 30% of stationary control levels and remained at this level for an additional 5 hours of flow. Steady flow (4 dyne/cm2 fluid shear stress), in contrast, resulted in a delayed and less dramatic decrease in AP mRNA expression to 63% of control levels after 8 hours of flow. The reduced AP mRNA expression under pulsatile flow conditions was followed by reduced AP enzyme activity after 24 hours. No changes in collagen or osteopontin mRNA expression were detected over 8 hours of pulsatile flow. This is the first time fluid flow has been shown to affect gene expression in osteoblasts.

  20. TRIM32 is a novel negative regulator of p53.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Zhu, Yu; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    To ensure proper function, the tumor suppressor p53 is tightly regulated through different post-translational modifications, particularly ubiquitination. Recently, TRIM32 was identified as a p53-regulated gene and an E3 ubiquitin ligase of p53. Thus, TRIM32 and p53 form a novel auto-regulatory negative feedback loop for p53 regulation in cells. PMID:27308422

  1. TRIM32 is a novel negative regulator of p53

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Zhu, Yu; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    To ensure proper function, the tumor suppressor p53 is tightly regulated through different post-translational modifications, particularly ubiquitination. Recently, TRIM32 was identified as a p53-regulated gene and an E3 ubiquitin ligase of p53. Thus, TRIM32 and p53 form a novel auto-regulatory negative feedback loop for p53 regulation in cells. PMID:27308422

  2. Negative Emotion Regulation in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mingguo; Zhang, Jingna; Sang, Linqiong; Wang, Li; Xie, Bing; Wang, Jian; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the neural mechanisms of negative emotion regulation in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Twenty PTSD patients and 20 healthy subjects were recruited. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the modification of emotional responses to negative stimuli. Participants were required to regulate their emotional reactions according to the auditory regulation instructions via headphones, to maintain, enhance or diminish responses to negative stimuli during fMRI scans. Results The PTSD group showed poorer modification performance than the control group when diminishing responses to negative stimuli. On fMRI, the PTSD group showed decreased activation in the inferior frontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, insula and putamen, and increased activation in posterior cingulate cortex and amygdala during up-regulation of negative emotion. Similar decreased activation regions were found during down-regulation of negative emotion, but no increased activation was found. Conclusion Trauma exposure might impair the ability to down-regulate negative emotion. The present findings will improve our understanding of the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation underlying PTSD. PMID:24349161

  3. Ca(2+) regulates fluid shear-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and gene expression in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, N. X.; Ryder, K. D.; Pavalko, F. M.; Turner, C. H.; Burr, D. B.; Qiu, J.; Duncan, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Osteoblasts subjected to fluid shear increase the expression of the early response gene, c-fos, and the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase, COX-2, two proteins linked to the anabolic response of bone to mechanical stimulation, in vivo. These increases in gene expression are dependent on shear-induced actin stress fiber formation. Here, we demonstrate that MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells respond to shear with a rapid increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) that we postulate is important to subsequent cellular responses to shear. To test this hypothesis, MC3T3-E1 cells were grown on glass slides coated with fibronectin and subjected to laminar fluid flow (12 dyn/cm(2)). Before application of shear, cells were treated with two Ca(2+) channel inhibitors or various blockers of intracellular Ca(2+) release for 0. 5-1 h. Although gadolinium, a mechanosensitive channel blocker, significantly reduced the [Ca(2+)](i) response, neither gadolinium nor nifedipine, an L-type channel Ca(2+) channel blocker, were able to block shear-induced stress fiber formation and increase in c-fos and COX-2 in MC3T3-E1 cells. However, 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, or thapsigargin, which empties intracellular Ca(2+) stores, completely inhibited stress fiber formation and c-fos/COX-2 production in sheared osteoblasts. Neomycin or U-73122 inhibition of phospholipase C, which mediates D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-induced intracellular Ca(2+) release, also completely suppressed actin reorganization and c-fos/COX-2 production. Pretreatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with U-73343, the inactive isoform of U-73122, did not inhibit these shear-induced responses. These results suggest that IP(3)-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) release is required for modulating flow-induced responses in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  4. The p27 Pathway Modulates the Regulation of Skeletal Growth and Osteoblastic Bone Formation by Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Zhan; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Rong; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) 1-84 knock-in mice (Pthrp KI) develop skeletal growth retardation and defective osteoblastic bone formation. To further examine the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, microarray analyses of differential gene expression profiles were performed in long bone extracts from Pthrp KI mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. We found that the expression levels of p27, p16, and p53 were significantly upregulated in Pthrp KI mice relative to WT littermates. To determine whether p27 was involved in the regulation by PTHrP of skeletal growth and development in vivo, we generated compound mutant mice, which were homozygous for both p27 deletion and the Pthrp KI mutation (p27(-/-) Pthrp KI). We then compared p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice with p27(-/-), Pthrp KI, and WT littermates. Deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice resulted in a longer lifespan, increased body weight, and improvement in skeletal growth. At 2 weeks of age, skeletal parameters, including length of long bones, size of epiphyses, numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive chondrocytes, bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-, type I collagen-, and osteocalcin-positive bone areas were increased in p27(-/-) mice and reduced in both Pthrp KI and p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with WT mice; however, these parameters were increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. As well, protein expression levels of PTHR, IGF-1, and Bmi-1, and the numbers of total colony-forming unit fibroblastic (CFU-f) and ALP-positive CFU-f were similarly increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. Our results demonstrate that deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice can partially rescue defects in skeletal growth and osteoblastic bone formation by enhancing endochondral bone formation and osteogenesis. These studies, therefore, indicate that the p27 pathway may function downstream in the action

  5. Regulation of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation by interrod spacing of Sr-HA nanorods on microporous titania coatings.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianhong; Li, Bo; Lu, Shemin; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong

    2013-06-12

    Strontium-doped hydroxyapatite (Ca9Sr1(PO4)6(OH)2, Sr1-HA) nanorods with different lateral spacing (e.g., interrod spacing) values (67.3 ± 3.8, 95.7 ± 4.2, and 136.8 ± 8.7 nm) and nanogranulates were grown on microarc-oxidized microporous TiO2, respectively, to form multilayer coatings. The coatings reveal two kinds of micro/nanoscaled hierarchical surfaces with a similar microscale roughness, e.g., nanogranulated 2D pattern and nanorod-shaped 3D pattern in nanotopography. When hFOB1.19 cells are employed, the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts on the coatings were evaluated by examining MTT assay, expressions of osteogenesis-related genes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2, osterix, osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), and collagen I (Col-I)], ALP activity, contents of intracellular Ca(2+), Col-I, OPN, and OCN, extracellular collagen secretion, and extracellular matrix mineralization. The results reveal that the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts can be directly regulated by the interrod spacing of the Sr1-HA nanorods, which are significantly enhanced on the nanorod-shaped 3D patterns with interrod spacing smaller than 96 nm and more pronounced with decreasing the interrod spacing but inhibited on the nanorods with spacing larger than 96 nm compared to the nanogranulated 2D pattern. The difference in the cellular activity is found to be related with the intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations, which are regulated by variation of the surface topology of Sr1-HA crystals. Our work provides insight to the surface structural design of a biomedical implant favoring osteointegration. PMID:23668394

  6. Sorting nexin 27 couples PTHR trafficking to retromer for signal regulation in osteoblasts during bone growth

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Audrey S. M.; Clairfeuille, Thomas; Landao-Bassonga, Euphemie; Kinna, Genevieve; Ng, Pei Ying; Loo, Li Shen; Cheng, Tak Sum; Zheng, Minghao; Hong, Wanjin; Teasdale, Rohan D.; Collins, Brett M.; Pavlos, Nathan J.

    2016-01-01

    The parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTHR) is central to the process of bone formation and remodeling. PTHR signaling requires receptor internalization into endosomes, which is then terminated by recycling or degradation. Here we show that sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) functions as an adaptor that couples PTHR to the retromer trafficking complex. SNX27 binds directly to the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif of PTHR, wiring it to retromer for endosomal sorting. The structure of SNX27 bound to the PTHR motif reveals a high-affinity interface involving conserved electrostatic interactions. Mechanistically, depletion of SNX27 or retromer augments intracellular PTHR signaling in endosomes. Osteoblasts genetically lacking SNX27 show similar disruptions in PTHR signaling and greatly reduced capacity for bone mineralization, contributing to profound skeletal deficits in SNX27-knockout mice. Taken together, our data support a critical role for SNX27-retromer mediated transport of PTHR in normal bone development. PMID:26912788

  7. Modifications of protein-DNA interactions in the proximal promoter of a cell-growth-regulated histone gene during onset and progression of osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, T A; Holthuis, J; Markose, E; van Wijnen, A J; Wolfe, S A; Grimes, S R; Lian, J B; Stein, G S

    1990-01-01

    A temporal sequence of interrelated cellular, biochemical, and molecular events which occurs during the progressive expression of the differentiated osteoblast phenotype in primary cultures of fetal rat calvarial cells results in the development of a bone-tissue-like organization. This ordered developmental sequence encompasses three periods: proliferation, matrix maturation, and mineralization. Initially, the cells actively proliferate and synthesize type I collagen. This is followed by a period of matrix organization and maturation and then by a period of extracellular matrix mineralization. At the completion of proliferation, when expression of osteoblast phenotype markers such as alkaline phosphatase is observed, the cell-cycle-related histone genes are down-regulated transcriptionally, suggesting that a key signaling mechanism at this transition point involves modifications of protein-DNA interactions in the regulatory elements of these growth-regulated genes. Our results demonstrate that there is a selective loss of interaction of the promoter binding factor HiNF-D with the site II region of an H4 histone gene proximal promoter that regulates the specificity and level of transcription only when the down-regulation of proliferation is accompanied by modifications in the extracellular matrix that contribute to progression of osteoblast differentiation. Thus, this specific loss of protein-DNA interaction serves as a marker for a key transition point in the osteoblast developmental sequence, where the down-regulation of proliferation is functionally coupled to the appearance of osteoblast phenotypic properties associated with the organization and maturation of an extracellular matrix that becomes competent to mineralize. Images PMID:2367528

  8. Peroxisomes in Different Skeletal Cell Types during Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification and Their Regulation during Osteoblast Differentiation by Distinct Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Guofeng; Karnati, Srikanth; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    Ossification defects leading to craniofacial dysmorphism or rhizomelia are typical phenotypes in patients and corresponding knockout mouse models with distinct peroxisomal disorders. Despite these obvious skeletal pathologies, to date no careful analysis exists on the distribution and function of peroxisomes in skeletal tissues and their alterations during ossification. Therefore, we analyzed the peroxisomal compartment in different cell types of mouse cartilage and bone as well as in primary cultures of calvarial osteoblasts. The peroxisome number and metabolism strongly increased in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification from the reserve to the hypertrophic zone, whereas in bone, metabolically active osteoblasts contained a higher numerical abundance of this organelle than osteocytes. The high abundance of peroxisomes in these skeletal cell types is reflected by high levels of Pex11β gene expression. During culture, calvarial pre-osteoblasts differentiated into secretory osteoblasts accompanied by peroxisome proliferation and increased levels of peroxisomal genes and proteins. Since many peroxisomal genes contain a PPAR-responsive element, we analyzed the gene expression of PPARɑ/ß/ɣ in calvarial osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells, revealing higher levels for PPARß than for PPARɑ and PPARɣ. Treatment with different PPAR agonists and antagonists not only changed the peroxisomal compartment and associated gene expression, but also induced complex alterations of the gene expression patterns of the other PPAR family members. Studies in M3CT3-E1 cells showed that the PPARß agonist GW0742 activated the PPRE-mediated luciferase expression and up-regulated peroxisomal gene transcription (Pex11, Pex13, Pex14, Acox1 and Cat), whereas the PPARß antagonist GSK0660 led to repression of the PPRE and a decrease of the corresponding mRNA levels. In the same way, treatment of calvarial osteoblasts with GW0742 increased in peroxisome number and related gene expression

  9. Communication of cAMP by connexin43 gap junctions regulates osteoblast signaling and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditi; Anderson, Hidayah; Buo, Atum M; Moorer, Megan C; Ren, Margaret; Stains, Joseph P

    2016-08-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) containing gap junctions play an important role in bone homeostasis, yet little is known about the second messengers communicated by Cx43 among bone cells. Here, we used MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and UMR106 rat osteosarcoma cells to test the hypothesis that cAMP is a second messenger communicated by bone cells through Cx43 containing gap junctions in a manner that is sufficient to impact osteoblast function. Overexpression of Cx43 markedly enhanced the activity of a cAMP-response element driven transcriptional luciferase reporter (CRE-luc) and increased phospho-CREB and phospho-ERK1/2 levels following expression of a constitutively active Gsα or by treatment with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 3-Isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX) or forskolin. The Cx43-dependent potentiation of signaling in PGE2 treated cells was not accompanied by a further increase in cAMP levels, suggesting that the cAMP was shared between cells rather than Cx43 enhancing cAMP production. To support this, we developed a novel assay in which one set of cells expressing constitutively active Gsα (donor cells) were co-cultured with a second set of cells expressing a CRE-luc reporter (acceptor cells). Using this assay, activation of a CRE-luc reporter in the acceptor cells was both Cx43- and cell contact-dependent, indicating communication of cAMP among cells. Finally, we showed that Cx43 increased the cAMP-dependent mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and enhanced the repression of the sclerostin mRNA, implying a potential mechanism for the modulation of tissue remodeling. In total, these data demonstrate that Cx43 can communicate cAMP between cells and, more importantly, that the communicated cAMP is sufficient to impact signal transduction cascades and the expression of key bone effector molecules between interconnected cells. PMID:27156839

  10. How does the brain regulate negative bias to stigma?

    PubMed Central

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    The current study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether regulating negative bias to stigmatized individuals has a unique neural activity profile from general emotion regulation. Participants were presented with images of stigmatized (e.g. homeless people) or non-stigmatized (e.g. a man holding a gun) social targets while undergoing fMRI and were asked either to maintain or regulate their emotional response. Their implicit bias toward these stigmatized group members was also measured. Analyses were conducted in both, an event-related fashion, considering the event to be the onset of regulation, and in a blocked-design fashion, considering the sustained activity throughout the 8-s regulatory period. In the event-related (onset) analyses, participants showed more activity throughout the prefrontal cortex when initiating a regulatory response to stigmatized as compared with non-stigmatized images. This neural activity was positively correlated with their implicit bias. Interestingly, in the block (sustained) analyses, general emotion regulation elicited a more widespread pattern of neural activity as compared with stigma regulation. This activity was largely posterior, suggesting that general emotion regulation may engage more visuo-spatial processing as compared with stigma regulation. These findings suggest that regulating negative affect toward stigmatized targets may occur relatively more quickly than regulating negative affect toward non-stigmatized targets. PMID:21896496

  11. Fibroblast growth factor 2 inhibits up-regulation of bone morphogenic proteins and their receptors during osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Biver, Emmanuel; Soubrier, Anne-Sophie; Thouverey, Cyril; Cortet, Bernard; Broux, Odile; Caverzasio, Joseph; Hardouin, Pierre

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF modulates BMPs pathway in HMSCs by down-regulating BMP/BMPR expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is mediated by ERK and JNK MAPKs pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crosstalk between FGF and BMPs must be taken into account in skeletal bioengineering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It must also be considered in the use of recombinant BMPs in orthopedic and spine surgeries. -- Abstract: Understanding the interactions between growth factors and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) signaling remains a crucial issue to optimize the use of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) and BMPs in therapeutic perspectives and bone tissue engineering. BMPs are potent inducers of osteoblastic differentiation. They exert their actions via BMP receptors (BMPR), including BMPR1A, BMPR1B and BMPR2. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is expressed by cells of the osteoblastic lineage, increases their proliferation and is secreted during the healing process of fractures or in surgery bone sites. We hypothesized that FGF2 might influence HMSC osteoblastic differentiation by modulating expressions of BMPs and their receptors. BMP2, BMP4, BMPR1A and mainly BMPR1B expressions were up-regulated during this differentiation. FGF2 inhibited HMSCs osteoblastic differentiation and the up-regulation of BMPs and BMPR. This effect was prevented by inhibiting the ERK or JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases which are known to be activated by FGF2. These data provide a mechanism explaining the inhibitory effect of FGF2 on osteoblastic differentiation of HMSCs. These crosstalks between growth and osteogenic factors should be considered in the use of recombinant BMPs in therapeutic purpose of fracture repair or skeletal bioengineering.

  12. Nemo-like kinase (NLK) expression in osteoblastic cells and suppression of osteoblastic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nifuji, Akira; Ideno, Hisashi; Ohyama, Yoshio; Takanabe, Rieko; Araki, Ryoko; Abe, Masumi; Noda, Masaki; Shibuya, Hiroshi

    2010-04-15

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate proliferation and differentiation in osteoblasts. The vertebral homologue of nemo, nemo-like kinase (NLK), is an atypical MAPK that targets several signaling components, including the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/Lef1) transcription factor. Recent studies have shown that NLK forms a complex with the histone H3-K9 methyltransferase SETDB1 and suppresses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma:: action in the mesenchymal cell line ST2. Here we investigated whether NLK regulates osteoblastic differentiation. We showed that NLK mRNA is expressed in vivo in osteoblasts at embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) mouse calvariae. By using retrovirus vectors, we performed forced expression of NLK in primary calvarial osteoblasts (pOB cells) and the mesenchymal cell line ST2. Wild-type NLK (NLK-WT) suppressed alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of bone marker genes such as alkaline phosphatase, type I procollagen, runx2, osterix, steopontin and osteocalcin in these cells. NLK-WT also decreased type I collagen protein expression in pOB and ST2 cells. Furthermore, mineralized nodule formation was reduced in pOB cells overexpressing NLK-WT. In contrast, kinase-negative form of NLK (NLK-KN) did not suppress or partially suppress ALP activity and bone marker gene expression in pOB and ST2 cells. NLK-KN did not suppress nodule formation in pOB cells. In addition to forced expression, suppression of endogenous NLK expression by siRNA increased bone marker gene expression in pOB and ST2 cells. Finally, transcriptional activity analysis of gene promoters revealed that NLK-WT suppressed Wnt1 activation of TOP flash promoter and Runx2 activation of the osteocalcin promoter. Taken together, these results suggest that NLK negatively regulates osteoblastic differentiation.

  13. Differential Regulation of CXCL5 by FGF2 in Osteoblastic and Endothelial Niche Cells Supports Hematopoietic Stem Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyung-Ae; Cho, Hye-Sim; Shin, Hong-In

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell maintenance requires a specific microenvironment. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are mainly maintained by the endosteal osteoblast (OB) niche, which provides a quiescent HSC microenvironment, and the vascular niche, which regulates the proliferation, differentiation, and mobilization of HSCs. The systemic administration of FGF2 failed to induce normal hematopoiesis in bone marrow (BM) by reducing SDF-1, an important factor for hematopoiesis. Interestingly, SDF-1 levels were decreased in the OBs, but increased in vascular endothelial C166 cells when FGF2 was administered. We hypothesized that FGF2 induces changes in HSC migration from BM; therefore, we investigated FGF2-induced factors of HSC migration by a microarray chip. We searched the genes that were decreased in primary OBs, but increased in C166 cells upon FGF2 treatment. We confirmed selected genes that function in the extracellular region and identified the CXCR2-related chemokine candidate LIX/Cxcl5. A chemotaxis assay showed that CXCL5 induced the migration of HSCs (CD34−/lowLSK). Our data suggest that the differential regulation of the chemokine CXCL5 between OBs and endothelial cells upon FGF2 treatment is involved in HSC mobilization from the OB niche or BM to peripheral blood. PMID:22827607

  14. Extrapancreatic roles of glimepiride on osteoblasts from rat manibular bone in vitro: Regulation of cytodifferentiation through PI3-kinases/Akt signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pan; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Hongchen; Ma, Junli; Gu, Bin; Wu, Xia

    2011-04-01

    Glimepiride, a third-generation sulfonylurea, has also been reported to have extrapancreatic functions including activation of PI3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt in rat adipocytes, skeletal muscle and endothelial cells. It is tempting to speculate that glimepiride would improve bone-implant contact in diabetic patients by mediating the activity of GLUT1 and 3 via the PI3K/Akt pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of glimepiride on rat mandible osteoblasts cultured under two different levels of glucose. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. The supernatant was used to measure alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Glucose uptake was determined by measuring the rate of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) uptake. Western blotting was performed used to determine collagen I and PI3K/Akt expression. RT-PCR was performed used to determine osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA expression. We found that hyperglycemia down-regulated proliferation, ALP activity, OCN mRNA and GLUT3 protein expression in rat osteoblasts, and upregulated collagen I and GLUT1 protein expressions. Glimepiride enhanced the proliferation, ALP activity and OCN mRNA levels, and upregulated collagen I and GLUT1 and 3 protein expressions of rat osteoblasts at two different glucose concentrations. This study also provides the first evidence that glimepiride stimulates the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt in osteoblasts and ameliorated the damage caused by high concentrations of glucose through the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:21055727

  15. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Higuchi, Chikahisa

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  16. NCoR negatively regulates adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hong-Wei, Gao; Lan, Liu; De-Guo, Xing; Zhong-Hao, Liu; Peng, Ren; Zhi-Qiang, Li; Guo-Qiang, Shan; Ming-Zhi, Gong

    2015-08-01

    The nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) regulates the activities of gene transcription. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent cells which can differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of NCoR on adipogenic differentiation of MSCs isolated from the rats. The results suggested that rat MSCs could differentiate into adipocytes successfully after cultured in adipogenic medium. NCoR protein determined by Western blot showed a lower expression in MSC-derived adipocytes, indicating that NCoR was involved in adipocyte differentiation of rat MSCs. It further proved that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of NCoR could promote cell viability and differentiation and enhance messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and protein expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). However, over-expression of NCoR exerted its functions in contrary to NCoR knockdown. It indicated that NCoR could negatively regulate adipogenic differentiation of rat MSCs. PMID:26019118

  17. Regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts on poly(l-lactide)/gelatin composite nanofibers via timed biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caijin; Cao, Man; Lan, Jinle; Wei, Pengfei; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Mimicking the natural bone extracellular matrix, biomineralized nanofibers are envisioned as good choices for bone regeneration. Herein, composite nanofibers composed of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and gelatin (50/50, w/w) were electrospun and soaked in a modified five times simulated body fluid (SBF) for 6-24 h. Along with the soaking time, the amounts of deposited minerals increased, and the minerals transformed from dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (DCPD) to hydroxyapatite (HA). Mineral dissolution and Ca(2+) ion release of these biomineralized nanofibers were investigated by putting them in deionized water or Hank's balanced salt solution. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were cultured in transwell chambers without contacting the materials or on the biomineralized nanofibers directly. In the noncontact culture, the released ions were found able to enhance osteogenic differentiation more significantly in comparison with cell proliferation. In the contact culture, all biomineralized nanofibers demonstrated strong ability in promoting both cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Due to the fast dissolution of DCPD, the biomineralized nanofibers obtained from short SBF soaking was found to be inferior in enhancing osteogenic differentiation. Whereas the cells displayed high levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen I synthesis when the material had abundant deposition of apatite. The results revealed that cell biological behaviors were synergistically influenced by the ionic dissolution products, the composition, and the morphology of biomineralized nanofibers, which could be regulated by timed biomineralization. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1968-1980, 2016. PMID:27027483

  18. Annexin II expressed by osteoblasts and endothelial cells regulates stem cell adhesion, homing, and engraftment following transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Younghun; Wang, Jingcheng; Song, Junhui; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Wang, Jianhua; Havens, Aaron; Wang, Zhuo; Sun, Yan-Xi; Emerson, Stephen G.; Krebsbach, Paul H.

    2007-01-01

    Differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) after birth is largely restricted to the bone marrow cavity, where HSCs are associated closely with osteoblasts (OBs). How OBs localize HSCs to the endosteal niche remains unclear. To explore adhesive interactions between HSCs and OBs, a cell blot analysis was used that revealed 2 major bands that corresponded to monomers and multimers of annexin II (Anxa2). Immunohistochemistry revealed that OBs and marrow endothelial cells express Anxa2 at high levels. Function-blocking studies confirmed that Anxa2 mediates HSC adhesion mainly via the N-terminal portion of the Anxa2 peptide. Adhesion of HSCs to OBs derived from Anxa2-deficient animals (Anxa2−/−) was significantly impaired compared with OBs obtained from wild-type animals (Anxa2+/+). Moreover, fewer HSCs were found in the marrow of Anxa2−/− versus Anxa2+/+ animals. Short-term lodging, engraftment, and survival of irradiated mice with whole marrow cells were substantially inhibited by N-terminal peptide fragments of Anxa2 or anti-Anxa2 antibodies. Similar findings were noted in long-term competitive repopulation studies. Collectively, these findings reveal that Anxa2 regulates HSC homing and binding to the bone marrow microenvironment and suggest that Anxa2 is crucial for determining the bone marrow niche of HSCs. PMID:17360942

  19. Bone marrow stromal/stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles regulate osteoblast activity and differentiation in vitro and promote bone regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yunhao; Wang, Lian; Gao, Zhengliang; Chen, Genyin; Zhang, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by diverse tissues and play important roles in cell-cell communication, organ interactions and tissue homeostasis. Studies have reported the use of EVs to stimulate tissue regeneration, such as hepatic cell regeneration, and to treat diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension. However, little is known about the osteogenic effect of EVs. In this study, we explore the role of bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs in the regulation of osteoblast activity and bone regeneration. We isolated bone marrow stromal/stem cell (BMSC)-derived EVs through gradient ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration, and tested the influence of the EVs on osteogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. The results indicated that EVs positively regulated osteogenic genes and osteoblastic differentiation but did not inhibit proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, we constructed an EVs delivery system to stimulate bone formation in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with calvarial defects. We found that BMSC-derived EVs led to more bone formation in the critical-size calvarial bone defects. Moreover, we found that miR-196a plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblastic differentiation and the expression of osteogenic genes. We anticipate that our assay using bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs will become a valuable tool for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:26911789

  20. Bone marrow stromal/stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles regulate osteoblast activity and differentiation in vitro and promote bone regeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yunhao; Wang, Lian; Gao, Zhengliang; Chen, Genyin; Zhang, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by diverse tissues and play important roles in cell-cell communication, organ interactions and tissue homeostasis. Studies have reported the use of EVs to stimulate tissue regeneration, such as hepatic cell regeneration, and to treat diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension. However, little is known about the osteogenic effect of EVs. In this study, we explore the role of bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs in the regulation of osteoblast activity and bone regeneration. We isolated bone marrow stromal/stem cell (BMSC)-derived EVs through gradient ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration, and tested the influence of the EVs on osteogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. The results indicated that EVs positively regulated osteogenic genes and osteoblastic differentiation but did not inhibit proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, we constructed an EVs delivery system to stimulate bone formation in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with calvarial defects. We found that BMSC-derived EVs led to more bone formation in the critical-size calvarial bone defects. Moreover, we found that miR-196a plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblastic differentiation and the expression of osteogenic genes. We anticipate that our assay using bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs will become a valuable tool for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:26911789

  1. PECAM-1 ligation negatively regulates TLR4 signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yuxiang; Liu, Xingguang; Li, Nan; Jiang, Yingming; Chen, Guoyou; Cao, Xuetao; Wang, Jianli

    2007-12-01

    Uncontrolled TLR4 signaling may induce excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines and lead to harmful inflammation; therefore, negative regulation of TLR4 signaling attracts much attention now. PECAM-1, a member of Ig-ITIM family, can mediate inhibitory signals in T cells and B cells. However, the role and the mechanisms of PECAM-1 in the regulation of TLR4-mediated LPS response in macrophages remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that PECAM-1 ligation with CD38-Fc fusion protein negatively regulates LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IFN-beta production by inhibiting JNK, NF-kappaB, and IFN regulatory factor 3 activation in macrophages. In addition, PECAM-1 ligation-recruited Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) and Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) may be involved in the inhibitory effect of PECAM-1 on TLR4 signaling. Consistently, silencing of PECAM-1 enhances the macrophage response to LPS stimulation. Taken together with the data that PECAM-1 is constitutively expressed in macrophages and its expression is up-regulated by LPS stimulation, PECAM-1 might function as a feedback negative regulator of LPS inflammatory response in macrophages. This study may provide a potential target for intervention of inflammatory diseases. PMID:18025177

  2. Histone Deacetylase 9 Is a Negative Regulator of Adipogenic Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tapan K.; Idelman, Gila; Blanco, Victor; Blomkalns, Andra L.; Piegore, Mark G.; Weintraub, Daniel S.; Kumar, Santosh; Rajsheker, Srinivas; Manka, David; Rudich, Steven M.; Tang, Yaoliang; Hui, David Y.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.; Lingrel, Jerry B.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Weintraub, Neal L.

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes capable of efficiently storing lipids is an important regulatory mechanism in obesity. Here, we examined the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs) in the regulation of adipogenesis. We find that among the various members of the HDAC and HAT families, only HDAC9 exhibited dramatic down-regulation preceding adipogenic differentiation. Preadipocytes from HDAC9 gene knock-out mice exhibited accelerated adipogenic differentiation, whereas HDAC9 overexpression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes suppressed adipogenic differentiation, demonstrating its direct role as a negative regulator of adipogenesis. HDAC9 expression was higher in visceral as compared with subcutaneous preadipocytes, negatively correlating with their potential to undergo adipogenic differentiation in vitro. HDAC9 localized in the nucleus, and its negative regulation of adipogenesis segregates with the N-terminal nuclear targeting domain, whereas the C-terminal deacetylase domain is dispensable for this function. HDAC9 co-precipitates with USF1 and is recruited with USF1 at the E-box region of the C/EBPα gene promoter in preadipocytes. Upon induction of adipogenic differentiation, HDAC9 is down-regulated, leading to its dissociation from the USF1 complex, whereas p300 HAT is up-regulated to allow its association with USF1 and accumulation at the E-box site of the C/EBPα promoter in differentiated adipocytes. This reciprocal regulation of HDAC9 and p300 HAT in the USF1 complex is associated with increased C/EBPα expression, a master regulator of adipogenic differentiation. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms of adipogenic differentiation and document a critical regulatory role for HDAC9 in adipogenic differentiation through a deacetylase-independent mechanism. PMID:21680747

  3. Osthole-mediated cell differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway in human osteoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Po-Lin; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Chang, Cheng-Hsiung; Chang, Jiunn-Kae

    2005-09-01

    The survival of osteoblast cells is one of the determinants of the development of osteoporosis in patients. Osthole (7-methoxy-8-isopentenoxycoumarin) is a coumarin derivative present in many medicinal plants. By means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and type I collagen, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we have shown that osthole exhibits a significant induction of differentiation in two human osteoblast-like cell lines, MG-63 and hFOB. Induction of differentiation by osthole was associated with increased bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 production and the activations of SMAD1/5/8 and p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 kinases. Addition of purified BMP-2 protein did not increase the up-regulation of ALP activity and osteocalcin by osthole, whereas the BMP-2 antagonist noggin blocked both osthole and BMP-2-mediated ALP activity enhancement, indicating that BMP-2 production is required in osthole-mediated osteoblast maturation. Pretreatment of osteoblast cells with noggin abrogated p38 activation but only partially decreased ERK1/2 activation, suggesting that BMP-2 signaling is required in p38 activation and is partially involved in ERK1/2 activation in osthole-treated osteoblast cells. Cotreatment of p38 inhibitor SB203580 [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole] or p38 small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression inhibited osthole-mediated activation of ALP but only slightly affected osteocalcin production. In contrast, the production of osteocalcin induced by osthole was inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 (2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone) or by expression of an ERK2 siRNA. These data suggest that BMP-2/p38 pathway links to the early phase, whereas ERK1/2 pathway is associated with the later phase in osthole-mediated differentiation of osteoblast cells. In this study, we demonstrate that osthole is a promising agent for treating osteoporosis

  4. Transgelin is a TGFβ-inducible gene that regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of human skeletal stem cells through actin cytoskeleston organization.

    PubMed

    Elsafadi, M; Manikandan, M; Dawud, R A; Alajez, N M; Hamam, R; Alfayez, M; Kassem, M; Aldahmash, A; Mahmood, A

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a novel approach for treating conditions in which enhanced bone regeneration is required. We identified transgelin (TAGLN), a transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-inducible gene, as an upregulated gene during in vitro osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stromal (skeletal) stem cells (hMSC). siRNA-mediated gene silencing of TAGLN impaired lineage differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes but enhanced cell proliferation. Additional functional studies revealed that TAGLN deficiency impaired hMSC cell motility and in vitro transwell cell migration. On the other hand, TAGLN overexpression reduced hMSC cell proliferation, but enhanced cell migration, osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation, and in vivo bone formation. In addition, deficiency or overexpression of TAGLN in hMSC was associated with significant changes in cellular and nuclear morphology and cytoplasmic organelle composition as demonstrated by high content imaging and transmission electron microscopy that revealed pronounced alterations in the distribution of the actin filament and changes in cytoskeletal organization. Molecular signature of TAGLN-deficient hMSC showed that several genes and genetic pathways associated with cell differentiation, including regulation of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion pathways, were downregulated. Our data demonstrate that TAGLN has a role in generating committed progenitor cells from undifferentiated hMSC by regulating cytoskeleton organization. Targeting TAGLN is a plausible approach to enrich for committed hMSC cells needed for regenerative medicine application. PMID:27490926

  5. Small GTPase Rho signaling is involved in {beta}1 integrin-mediated up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand on osteoblasts and osteoclast maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Fumihiko; Nakayamada, Shingo; Okada, Yosuke; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kurose, Hitoshi; Mogami, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiya . E-mail: tanaka@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2007-04-27

    We assessed the characteristics of human osteoblasts, focusing on small GTPase Rho signaling. {beta}1 Integrin were highly expressed on osteoblasts. Engagement of {beta}1 integrins by type I collagen augmented expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts. Rho was activated by {beta}1 stimulation in osteoblasts. {beta}1 Integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL was inhibited by transfection with adenoviruses encoding C3 transferase or pretreated with Y-27632, specific Rho and Rho-kinase inhibitors. Engagement of {beta}1 integrin on osteoblasts induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (MNC) in a coculture system of osteoblasts and peripheral monocytes, but this action was completely abrogated by transfection of C3 transferase. Our results indicate the direct involvement of Rho-mediated signaling in {beta}1 integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL and RANKL-dependent osteoclast maturation. Thus, Rho-mediated signaling in osteoblasts seems to introduce major biases to bone resorption.

  6. miR-33-5p, a novel mechano-sensitive microRNA promotes osteoblast differentiation by targeting Hmga2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han; Sun, Zhongyang; Wang, Yixuan; Hu, Zebing; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Lianchang; Hong, Bo; Zhang, Shu; Cao, Xinsheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interfere with the translation of specific target mRNAs and are thought to thereby regulate many cellular processes. However, the role of miRNAs in osteoblast mechanotransduction remains to be defined. In this study, we investigated the ability of a miRNA to respond to different mechanical environments and regulate mechano-induced osteoblast differentiation. First, we demonstrated that miR-33-5p expressed by osteoblasts is sensitive to multiple mechanical environments, microgravity and fluid shear stress. We then confirmed the ability of miR-33-5p to promote osteoblast differentiation. Microgravity or fluid shear stress influences osteoblast differentiation partially via miR-33-5p. Through bioinformatics analysis and a luciferase assay, we subsequently confirmed that Hmga2 is a target gene of miR-33-5p that negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation. Moreover, miR-33-5p regulates osteoblast differentiation partially via Hmga2. In summary, our findings demonstrate that miR-33-5p is a novel mechano-sensitive miRNA that can promote osteoblast differentiation and participate in the regulation of differentiation induced by changes in the mechanical environment, suggesting this miRNA as a potential target for the treatment of pathological bone loss. PMID:26980276

  7. Integrating Negative Affect Measures in a Measurement Model: Assessing the Function of Negative Affect as Interference to Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the composition of negative affect and its function as inhibitory to thought processes such as self-regulation. Negative affect in the present study were composed of anxiety, worry, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. These four factors were selected based on the criteria of negative affect by…

  8. CD23 can negatively regulate B-cell receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chaohong; Richard, Katharina; Wiggins, Melvin; Zhu, Xiaoping; Conrad, Daniel H.; Song, Wenxia

    2016-01-01

    CD23 has been implicated as a negative regulator of IgE and IgG antibody responses. However, whether CD23 has any role in B-cell activation remains unclear. We examined the expression of CD23 in different subsets of peripheral B cells and the impact of CD23 expression on the early events of B-cell receptor (BCR) activation using CD23 knockout (KO) mice. We found that in addition to marginal zone B cells, mature follicular B cells significantly down regulate the surface expression level of CD23 after undergoing isotype switch and memory B-cell differentiation. Upon stimulation with membrane-associated antigen, CD23 KO causes significant increases in the area of B cells contacting the antigen-presenting membrane and the magnitude of BCR clustering. This enhanced cell spreading and BCR clustering is concurrent with increases in the levels of phosphorylation of tyrosine and Btk, as well as the levels of F-actin and phosphorylated Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein, an actin nucleation promoting factor, in the contract zone of CD23 KO B cells. These results reveal a role of CD23 in the negative regulation of BCR signaling in the absence of IgE immune complex and suggest that CD23 down-regulates BCR signaling by influencing actin-mediated BCR clustering and B-cell morphological changes. PMID:27181049

  9. CD23 can negatively regulate B-cell receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaohong; Richard, Katharina; Wiggins, Melvin; Zhu, Xiaoping; Conrad, Daniel H; Song, Wenxia

    2016-01-01

    CD23 has been implicated as a negative regulator of IgE and IgG antibody responses. However, whether CD23 has any role in B-cell activation remains unclear. We examined the expression of CD23 in different subsets of peripheral B cells and the impact of CD23 expression on the early events of B-cell receptor (BCR) activation using CD23 knockout (KO) mice. We found that in addition to marginal zone B cells, mature follicular B cells significantly down regulate the surface expression level of CD23 after undergoing isotype switch and memory B-cell differentiation. Upon stimulation with membrane-associated antigen, CD23 KO causes significant increases in the area of B cells contacting the antigen-presenting membrane and the magnitude of BCR clustering. This enhanced cell spreading and BCR clustering is concurrent with increases in the levels of phosphorylation of tyrosine and Btk, as well as the levels of F-actin and phosphorylated Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein, an actin nucleation promoting factor, in the contract zone of CD23 KO B cells. These results reveal a role of CD23 in the negative regulation of BCR signaling in the absence of IgE immune complex and suggest that CD23 down-regulates BCR signaling by influencing actin-mediated BCR clustering and B-cell morphological changes. PMID:27181049

  10. Regulation of positive and negative emotion: effects of sociocultural context

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Sara A.; Heller, S. Megan; Lumian, Daniel S.; McRae, Kateri

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the use of emotion regulation strategies can vary by sociocultural context. In a previous study, we reported changes in the use of two different emotion regulation strategies at an annual alternative cultural event, Burning Man (McRae et al., 2011). In this sociocultural context, as compared to typically at home, participants reported less use of expressive suppression (a strategy generally associated with maladaptive outcomes), and greater use of cognitive reappraisal (a strategy generally associated with adaptive outcomes). What remained unclear was whether these changes in self-reported emotion regulation strategy use were characterized by changes in the regulation of positive emotion, negative emotion, or both. We addressed this issue in the current study by asking Burning Man participants separate questions about positive and negative emotion. Using multiple datasets, we replicated our previous findings, and found that the decreased use of suppression is primarily driven by reports of decreased suppression of positive emotion at Burning Man. By contrast, the increased use of reappraisal is not characterized by differential reappraisal of positive and negative emotion at Burning Man. Moreover, we observed novel individual differences in the magnitude of these effects. The contextual changes in self-reported suppression that we observe are strongest for men and younger participants. For those who had previously attended Burning Man, we observed lower levels of self-reported suppression in both sociocultural contexts: Burning Man and typically at home. These findings have implications for understanding the ways in which certain sociocultural contexts may decrease suppression, and possibly minimize its associated maladaptive effects. PMID:23840191

  11. RelA-Induced Interferon Response Negatively Regulates Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kochupurakkal, Bose S; Wang, Zhigang C; Hua, Tony; Culhane, Aedin C; Rodig, Scott J; Rajkovic-Molek, Koraljka; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Richardson, Andrea L; Biswas, Debajit K; Iglehart, J Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Both oncogenic and tumor-suppressor activities are attributed to the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway. Moreover, NF-kB may positively or negatively regulate proliferation. The molecular determinants of these opposing roles of NF-kB are unclear. Using primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) as a model, we show that increased RelA levels and consequent increase in basal transcriptional activity of RelA induces IRF1, a target gene. Induced IRF1 upregulates STAT1 and IRF7, and in consort, these factors induce the expression of interferon response genes. Activation of the interferon pathway down-regulates CDK4 and up-regulates p27 resulting in Rb hypo-phosphorylation and cell cycle arrest. Stimulation of HMEC with IFN-γ elicits similar phenotypic and molecular changes suggesting that basal activity of RelA and IFN-γ converge on IRF1 to regulate proliferation. The anti-proliferative RelA-IRF1-CDK4 signaling axis is retained in ER+/HER2- breast tumors analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Using immuno-histochemical analysis of breast tumors, we confirm the negative correlation between RelA levels and proliferation rate in ER+/HER2- breast tumors. These findings attribute an anti-proliferative tumor-suppressor role to basal RelA activity. Inactivation of Rb, down-regulation of RelA or IRF1, or upregulation of CDK4 or IRF2 rescues the RelA-IRF1-CDK4 induced proliferation arrest in HMEC and are points of disruption in aggressive tumors. Activity of the RelA-IRF1-CDK4 axis may explain favorable response to CDK4/6 inhibition observed in patients with ER+ Rb competent tumors. PMID:26460486

  12. RelA-Induced Interferon Response Negatively Regulates Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kochupurakkal, Bose S.; Wang, Zhigang C.; Hua, Tony; Culhane, Aedin C.; Rodig, Scott J.; Rajkovic-Molek, Koraljka; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Richardson, Andrea L.; Biswas, Debajit K.; Iglehart, J. Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Both oncogenic and tumor-suppressor activities are attributed to the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway. Moreover, NF-kB may positively or negatively regulate proliferation. The molecular determinants of these opposing roles of NF-kB are unclear. Using primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) as a model, we show that increased RelA levels and consequent increase in basal transcriptional activity of RelA induces IRF1, a target gene. Induced IRF1 upregulates STAT1 and IRF7, and in consort, these factors induce the expression of interferon response genes. Activation of the interferon pathway down-regulates CDK4 and up-regulates p27 resulting in Rb hypo-phosphorylation and cell cycle arrest. Stimulation of HMEC with IFN-γ elicits similar phenotypic and molecular changes suggesting that basal activity of RelA and IFN-γ converge on IRF1 to regulate proliferation. The anti-proliferative RelA-IRF1-CDK4 signaling axis is retained in ER+/HER2- breast tumors analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Using immuno-histochemical analysis of breast tumors, we confirm the negative correlation between RelA levels and proliferation rate in ER+/HER2- breast tumors. These findings attribute an anti-proliferative tumor-suppressor role to basal RelA activity. Inactivation of Rb, down-regulation of RelA or IRF1, or upregulation of CDK4 or IRF2 rescues the RelA-IRF1-CDK4 induced proliferation arrest in HMEC and are points of disruption in aggressive tumors. Activity of the RelA-IRF1-CDK4 axis may explain favorable response to CDK4/6 inhibition observed in patients with ER+ Rb competent tumors. PMID:26460486

  13. Positive and negative regulators of the metallothionein gene (review).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shinichiro

    2015-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding proteins involved in diverse processes, including metal homeostasis and detoxification, the oxidative stress response and cell proliferation. Aberrant expression and silencing of these genes are important in a number of diseases. Several positive regulators of MT genes, including metal-responsive element-binding transcription factor (MTF)-1 and upstream stimulatory factor (USF)-1, have been identified and mechanisms of induction have been well described. However, the negative regulators of MT genes remain to be elucidated. Previous studies from the group of the present review have revealed that the hematopoietic master transcription factor, PU.1, directly represses the expression levels of MT genes through its epigenetic activities, and upregulation of MT results in the potent inhibition of myeloid differentiation. The present review focuses on PU.1 and several other negative regulators of this gene, including PZ120, DNA methyltransferase 3a with Mbd3 and Brg1 complex, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α and Ku protein, and describes the suppression of the MT genes through these transcription factors. PMID:25760317

  14. Soy protein isolates prevent loss of bone quantity associated with obesity in rats through regulation of insulin signaling in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Ran; Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Cao, Jay J; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J

    2013-09-01

    In both rodents and humans, excessive consumption of a typical Western diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol is known to result in disruption of energy metabolism and development of obesity and insulin resistance. However, how these high-fat, energy-dense diets affect bone development, morphology, and modeling is poorly understood. Here we show that male weanling rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet containing 45% fat and 0.5% cholesterol made with casein (HF-Cas) for 6 wk displayed a significant increase in bone marrow adiposity and insulin resistance. Substitution of casein with soy protein isolate (SPI) in the HF diet (HF-SPI) prevented these effects. Maintenance of bone quantity in the SPI-fed rats was associated with increased undercarboxylated osteocalcin secretion and altered JNK/IRS1/Akt insulin signaling in osteoblasts. The HF-Cas group had significantly greater serum nonesterified free fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations than controls, whereas the HF-SPI prevented this increase. In vitro treatment of osteoblasts or mesenchymal stromal ST2 cells with NEFAs significantly decreased insulin signaling. An isoflavone mixture similar to that found in serum of HF-SPI rats significantly increased in vitro osteoblast proliferation and blocked significantly reduced NEFA-induced insulin resistance. Finally, insulin/IGF1 was able to increase both osteoblast activity and differentiation in a set of in vitro studies. These results suggest that high-fat feeding may disrupt bone development and modeling; high concentrations of NEFAs and insulin resistance occurring with high fat intake are mediators of reduced osteoblast activity and differentiation; diets high in soy protein may help prevent high dietary fat-induced bone impairments; and the molecular mechanisms underlying the SPI-protective effects involve isoflavone-induced normalization of insulin signaling in bone. PMID:23776073

  15. Class 3 semaphorins negatively regulate dermal lymphatic network formation

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Yutaka; James, Jennifer M.; Suto, Fumikazu; Mukouyama, Yoh-suke

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The development of a patterned lymphatic vascular network is essential for proper lymphatic functions during organ development and homeostasis. Here we report that class 3 semaphorins (SEMA3s), SEMA3F and SEMA3G negatively regulate lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) growth and sprouting to control dermal lymphatic network formation. Neuropilin2 (NRP2) functions as a receptor for SEMA3F and SEMA3G, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC). In culture, Both SEMA3F and SEMA3G inhibit VEGFC-mediated sprouting and proliferation of human dermal LECs. In the developing mouse skin, Sema3f is expressed in the epidermis and Sema3g expression is restricted to arteries, whereas their receptor Nrp2 is preferentially expressed by lymphatic vessels. Both Sema3f;Sema3g double mutants and Nrp2 mutants exhibit increased LEC growth in the skin. In contrast, Sema3f;Sema3g double mutants display increased lymphatic branching, while Nrp2 mutants exhibit reduced lymphatic branching. A targeted mutation in PlexinA1 or PlexinA2, signal transducers forming a receptor complex with NRP2 for SEMA3s, exhibits an increase in LEC growth and lymphatic branching as observed in Sema3f;Sema3g double mutants. Our results provide the first evidence that SEMA3F and SEMA3G function as a negative regulator for dermal lymphangiogenesis in vivo. The reciprocal phenotype in lymphatic branching between Sema3f;Sema3g double mutants and Nrp2 mutants suggest a complex NRP2 function that regulates LEC behavior both positively and negatively, through a binding with VEGFC or SEMA3s. PMID:26319580

  16. Class 3 semaphorins negatively regulate dermal lymphatic network formation.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yutaka; James, Jennifer M; Suto, Fumikazu; Mukouyama, Yoh-Suke

    2015-01-01

    The development of a patterned lymphatic vascular network is essential for proper lymphatic functions during organ development and homeostasis. Here we report that class 3 semaphorins (SEMA3s), SEMA3F and SEMA3G negatively regulate lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) growth and sprouting to control dermal lymphatic network formation. Neuropilin2 (NRP2) functions as a receptor for SEMA3F and SEMA3G, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC). In culture, Both SEMA3F and SEMA3G inhibit VEGFC-mediated sprouting and proliferation of human dermal LECs. In the developing mouse skin, Sema3f is expressed in the epidermis and Sema3g expression is restricted to arteries, whereas their receptor Nrp2 is preferentially expressed by lymphatic vessels. Both Sema3f;Sema3g double mutants and Nrp2 mutants exhibit increased LEC growth in the skin. In contrast, Sema3f;Sema3g double mutants display increased lymphatic branching, while Nrp2 mutants exhibit reduced lymphatic branching. A targeted mutation in PlexinA1 or PlexinA2, signal transducers forming a receptor complex with NRP2 for SEMA3s, exhibits an increase in LEC growth and lymphatic branching as observed in Sema3f;Sema3g double mutants. Our results provide the first evidence that SEMA3F and SEMA3G function as a negative regulator for dermal lymphangiogenesis in vivo. The reciprocal phenotype in lymphatic branching between Sema3f;Sema3g double mutants and Nrp2 mutants suggest a complex NRP2 function that regulates LEC behavior both positively and negatively, through a binding with VEGFC or SEMA3s. PMID:26319580

  17. ERRγ Is Not Required for Skeletal Development but Is a RUNX2-Dependent Negative Regulator of Postnatal Bone Formation in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cardelli, Marco; Aubin, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effects of the orphan nuclear Estrogen receptor-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) deficiency on skeletal development and bone turnover, we utilized an ERRγ global knockout mouse line. While we observed no gross morphological anomalies or difference in skeletal length in newborn mice, by 8 weeks of age ERRγ +/− males but not females exhibited increased trabecular bone, which was further increased by 14 weeks. The increase in trabecular bone was due to an increase in active osteoblasts on the bone surface, without detectable alterations in osteoclast number or activity. Consistent with the histomorphometric results, we observed an increase in gene expression of the bone formation markers alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and bone sialoprotein (Bsp) in bone and increase in serum ALP, but no change in the osteoclast regulators receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) or the resorption marker carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX). More colony forming units-alkaline phosphatase and -osteoblast (CFU-ALP, CFU-O respectively) but not CFU-fibroblast (CFU-F) formed in ERRγ +/− versus ERRγ +/+ stromal cell cultures, suggesting that ERRγ negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization but not mesenchymal precursor number. By co-immunoprecipitation experiments, we found that ERRγ and RUNX2 interact in an ERRγ DNA binding domain (DBD)-dependent manner. Treatment of post-confluent differentiating bone marrow stromal cell cultures with Runx2 antisense oligonucleotides resulted in a reduction of CFU-ALP/CFU-O in ERRγ +/− but not ERRγ +/+ mice compared to their corresponding sense controls. Our data indicate that ERRγ is not required for skeletal development but is a sex-dependent negative regulator of postnatal bone formation, acting in a RUNX2- and apparently differentiation stage-dependent manner. PMID:25313644

  18. ERRγ is not required for skeletal development but is a RUNX2-dependent negative regulator of postnatal bone formation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Cardelli, Marco; Aubin, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effects of the orphan nuclear Estrogen receptor-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) deficiency on skeletal development and bone turnover, we utilized an ERRγ global knockout mouse line. While we observed no gross morphological anomalies or difference in skeletal length in newborn mice, by 8 weeks of age ERRγ +/- males but not females exhibited increased trabecular bone, which was further increased by 14 weeks. The increase in trabecular bone was due to an increase in active osteoblasts on the bone surface, without detectable alterations in osteoclast number or activity. Consistent with the histomorphometric results, we observed an increase in gene expression of the bone formation markers alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and bone sialoprotein (Bsp) in bone and increase in serum ALP, but no change in the osteoclast regulators receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) or the resorption marker carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX). More colony forming units-alkaline phosphatase and -osteoblast (CFU-ALP, CFU-O respectively) but not CFU-fibroblast (CFU-F) formed in ERRγ +/- versus ERRγ +/+ stromal cell cultures, suggesting that ERRγ negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization but not mesenchymal precursor number. By co-immunoprecipitation experiments, we found that ERRγ and RUNX2 interact in an ERRγ DNA binding domain (DBD)-dependent manner. Treatment of post-confluent differentiating bone marrow stromal cell cultures with Runx2 antisense oligonucleotides resulted in a reduction of CFU-ALP/CFU-O in ERRγ +/- but not ERRγ +/+ mice compared to their corresponding sense controls. Our data indicate that ERRγ is not required for skeletal development but is a sex-dependent negative regulator of postnatal bone formation, acting in a RUNX2- and apparently differentiation stage-dependent manner. PMID:25313644

  19. Parathyroid hormone regulates osterix and Runx2 mRNA expression predominantly through protein kinase A signaling in osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, B L; Dai, C L; Quan, J X; Zhu, Z F; Zheng, F; Zhang, H X; Guo, S Y; Guo, G; Zhang, J Y; Qiu, M C

    2006-02-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osterix are osteoblast-specific transcription factors essential for the development of osteoblastic cells and bone formation. PTH given intermittently has anabolic effects on bone; however, the exact role remains to be understood completely. The purpose of this study was both to investigate whether PTH regulates Runx2 as well as osterix expression and to identify the signaling used. Using RT-PCR, we confirmed that PTH (1-34) regulated Runx2 and osterix mRNA expression, in rat osteoblast-like cell line UMR 106, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PTH in low concentrations stimulated both Runx2 and osterix mRNA expression while that in high concentrations did not. Forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, also enhanced Runx2 and osterix transcription, and the stimulatory effects of PTH and forskolin were blocked by the pre-treatment of the cells with H-89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. In contrast, the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect on Runx2 transcription, but induced an increase in osterix mRNA level at the concentration of 500 nM at 12 h after treatment. Moreover, pre-treatment of the cells with calphostin C, a PKC-specific inhibitor, reduced the increase in osterix transcripts enhanced by PTH and PMA 12 h after treatment. However, these inhibitory effects were not sustained for longer terms. These observations demonstrate that PTH stimulates Runx2 and osterix expression in vitro, at least in part, at transcriptional level. Induction of Runx2 mRNA is mediated through the activation of cAMP/PKA signal transduction. In the case of osterix, although the increase in mRNA level is predominantly mediated via cAMP/PKA signaling, PKC activation might also be involved in this process. PMID:16610234

  20. Flg22-Triggered Immunity Negatively Regulates Key BR Biosynthetic Genes

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Góngora, Tamara; Kim, Seong-Ki; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Zipfel, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    In plants, activation of growth and activation of immunity are opposing processes that define a trade-off. In the past few years, the growth-promoting hormones brassinosteroids (BR) have emerged as negative regulators of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), promoting growth at the expense of defense. The crosstalk between BR and PTI signaling was described as negative and unidirectional, since activation of PTI does not affect several analyzed steps in the BR signaling pathway. In this work, we describe that activation of PTI by the bacterial PAMP flg22 results in the reduced expression of BR biosynthetic genes. This effect does not require BR perception or signaling, and occurs within 15 min of flg22 treatment. Since the described PTI-induced repression of gene expression may result in a reduction in BR biosynthesis, the crosstalk between PTI and BR could actually be negative and bidirectional, a possibility that should be taken into account when considering the interaction between these two pathways. PMID:26617621

  1. Negative transcriptional regulation in the Caulobacter flagellar hierarchy.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, H; Dingwall, A; Shapiro, L

    1989-01-01

    The Caulobacter crescentus flagellum is formed at a specific time in the cell cycle and its assembly requires the ordered expression of a large number of genes. These genes are controlled in a positive trans-acting hierarchy that reflects the order of assembly of the flagellum. Using plasmids carrying transcriptional fusions of either a neo or a lux reporter gene to the promoters of three flagellar genes representing different ranks in the hierarchy (the hook operon, a basal body gene flbN, and the flaO gene), we have measured the level of chimeric gene expression in 13 flagellar mutant backgrounds. Mutants in the hook operon or in basal body genes caused overproduction of both hook operon and basal body gene chimeric mRNAs, suggesting that negative regulation is superimposed on the positive trans-acting control for these early events in the flagellar hierarchy. Mutants in the structural genes and in genes involved in flagellar assembly had no effect on flaO expression, placing the flaO gene near the top of the hierarchy. However, flaO expression appears to be under negative control by two regulatory genes flaS and flaW. Negative control, as a response to the completion of specific steps in the assembly process, may be an important mechanism used by the cell to turn off flagellar gene expression once the gene product is no longer needed. Images PMID:2771950

  2. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 influences cellular homocysteine levels in murine pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by direct regulation of cystathionine β-synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kriebitzsch, Carsten; Verlinden, Lieve; Eelen, Guy; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Swart, Karin; Lips, Paul; Meyer, Mark B.; Pike, J Wesley; Boonen, Steven; Carlberg, Carsten; Vitvitsky, Victor; Bouillon, Roger; Banerjee, Ruma; Verstuyf, Annemieke

    2011-01-01

    High homocysteine (HCY) levels are a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture. Furthermore, bone quality and strength are compromised by elevated HCY due to its negative impact on collagen maturation. HCY is cleared by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), the first enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway. CBS converts HCY to cystathionine, thereby committing it to cysteine synthesis. A microarray experiment on MC3T3-E1 murine pre-osteoblasts treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] revealed a cluster of genes including the cbs gene, of which the transcription was rapidly and strongly induced by 1,25(OH)2D3. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis confirmed higher levels of cbs mRNA and protein after 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment in murine and human cells. Moreover, measurement of CBS enzyme activity and quantitative measurements of HCY, cystathionine and cysteine concentrations were consistent with elevated transsulfuration activity in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. The importance of a functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) for transcriptional regulation of cbs was shown in primary murine VDR knock-out osteoblasts, in which up-regulation of cbs in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 was abolished. Chromatin immunoprecipitation on chip and transfection studies revealed a functional vitamin D response element in the second intron of cbs. To further explore the potential clinical relevance of our ex vivo findings, human data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam suggested a correlation between vitamin D status [25(OH)D3 levels] and HCY levels. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that cbs is a primary 1,25(OH)2D3 target gene which renders HCY metabolism responsive to 1,25(OH)2D3. PMID:21898591

  3. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Higuchi, Chikahisa

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25998381

  4. Mice lacking JunB are osteopenic due to cell-autonomous osteoblast and osteoclast defects

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Lukas; Hoebertz, Astrid; Beil, Timo; Keon, Niamh; Karreth, Florian; Eferl, Robert; Scheuch, Harald; Szremska, Agnieszka; Amling, Michael; Schorpp-Kistner, Marina; Angel, Peter; Wagner, Erwin F.

    2004-01-01

    Because JunB is an essential gene for placentation, it was conditionally deleted in the embryo proper. JunBΔ/Δ mice are born viable, but develop severe low turnover osteopenia caused by apparent cell-autonomous osteoblast and osteoclast defects before a chronic myeloid leukemia-like disease. Although JunB was reported to be a negative regulator of cell proliferation, junBΔ/Δ osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts show reduced proliferation along with a differentiation defect in vivo and in vitro. Mutant osteoblasts express elevated p16INK4a levels, but exhibit decreased cyclin D1 and cyclin A expression. Runx2 is transiently increased during osteoblast differentiation in vitro, whereas mature osteoblast markers such as osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein are strongly reduced. To support a cell-autonomous function of JunB in osteoclasts, junB was inactivated specifically in the macrophage–osteoclast lineage. Mutant mice develop an osteopetrosis-like phenotype with increased bone mass and reduced numbers of osteoclasts. Thus, these data reveal a novel function of JunB as a positive regulator controlling primarily osteoblast as well as osteoclast activity. PMID:14769860

  5. Human osteoblast-like cells respond to mechanical strain with increased bone matrix protein production independent of hormonal regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harter, L. V.; Hruska, K. A.; Duncan, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    Exposure of osteosarcoma cell lines to chronic intermittent strain increases the activity of mechano-sensitive cation (SA-cat) channels. The impact of mechano-transduction on osteoblast function has not been well studied. We analyzed the expression and production of bone matrix proteins in human osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells, OHS-4, in response to chronic intermittent mechanical strain. The OHS-4 cells exhibit type I collagen production, 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-inducible osteocalcin, and mineralization of the extracellular matrix. The matrix protein message level was determined from total RNA isolated from cells exposed to 1-4 days of chronic intermittent strain. Northern analysis for type I collagen indicated that strain increased collagen message after 48 h. Immunofluorescent labeling of type I collagen demonstrated that secretion was also enhanced with mechanical strain. Osteopontin message levels were increased several-fold by the application of mechanical load in the absence of vitamin D, and the two stimuli together produced an additive effect. Osteocalcin secretion was also increased with cyclic strain. Osteocalcin levels were not detectable in vitamin D-untreated control cells. However, after 4 days of induced load, significant levels of osteocalcin were observed in the medium. With vitamin D present, osteocalcin levels were 4 times higher in the medium of strained cells compared to nonstrained controls. We conclude that mechanical strain of osteoblast-like cells is sufficient to increase the transcription and secretion of matrix proteins via mechano-transduction without hormonal induction.

  6. ITSN2L Interacts with and Negatively Regulates RABEP1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoxu; Yan, Feng; He, Zhicheng; Liu, Shan; Cheng, Yeqing; Wei, Ke; Gan, Shiquan; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Shang; Xiao, Ye; Ren, Kaiqun; Liu, Ning; Hu, Xiang; Ding, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xingwang; Xiang, Shuanglin

    2015-01-01

    Intersectin-2Long (ITSN2L) is a multi-domain protein participating in endocytosis and exocytosis. In this study, RABEP1 was identified as a novel ITSN2L interacting protein using a yeast two-hybrid screen from a human brain cDNA library and this interaction, specifically involving the ITSN2L CC domain and RABEP1 CC3 regions, was further confirmed by in vitro GST (glutathione-S-transferase) pull-down and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation assays. Corroboratively, we observed that these two proteins co-localize in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. Furthermore, over-expression of ITSN2L promotes RABEP1 degradation and represses RABEP1-enhanced endosome aggregation, indicating that ITSN2L acts as a negative regulator of RABEP1. Finally, we showed that ITSN2L and RABEP1 play opposite roles in regulating endocytosis. Taken together, our results indicate that ITSN2L interacts with RABEP1 and stimulates its degradation in regulation of endocytosis. PMID:26633357

  7. ITSN2L Interacts with and Negatively Regulates RABEP1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxu; Yan, Feng; He, Zhicheng; Liu, Shan; Cheng, Yeqing; Wei, Ke; Gan, Shiquan; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Shang; Xiao, Ye; Ren, Kaiqun; Liu, Ning; Hu, Xiang; Ding, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xingwang; Xiang, Shuanglin

    2015-01-01

    Intersectin-2Long (ITSN2L) is a multi-domain protein participating in endocytosis and exocytosis. In this study, RABEP1 was identified as a novel ITSN2L interacting protein using a yeast two-hybrid screen from a human brain cDNA library and this interaction, specifically involving the ITSN2L CC domain and RABEP1 CC3 regions, was further confirmed by in vitro GST (glutathione-S-transferase) pull-down and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation assays. Corroboratively, we observed that these two proteins co-localize in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. Furthermore, over-expression of ITSN2L promotes RABEP1 degradation and represses RABEP1-enhanced endosome aggregation, indicating that ITSN2L acts as a negative regulator of RABEP1. Finally, we showed that ITSN2L and RABEP1 play opposite roles in regulating endocytosis. Taken together, our results indicate that ITSN2L interacts with RABEP1 and stimulates its degradation in regulation of endocytosis. PMID:26633357

  8. Negative regulation of juvenile hormone analog for ecdysteroidogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Mari H; Hikiba, Juri; Iga, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Disruption of the appropriate balance between juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids causes abnormal insect development. The application of a JH analog (JHA) during the early days of the final (fifth) instar induces dauer larvae with low ecdysteroid titers in insects, but the mechanism that underlies the action of JHA remains unclear. In this study, we clarified the negative effects of JHA on ecdysteroidogenic enzymes. JHA application to Bombyx mori larvae during the early stage of the fifth instar suppressed the expression of four enzymes, i.e., neverland (nvd), spook, phantom, and disembodied but not non-molting glossy and shadow. Furthermore, JHA application reduced the amount of 7-dehydrocholesterol, a metabolite produced by Nvd, in both the prothoracic glands and hemolymph, indicating JHA can disrupt ecdysteroidogenic pathway from the first step. Neck ligation resulted in increased nvd expression, whereas JHA application reversed this increase. These results suggest that the endogenous JH represses ecdysteroidogenesis during the early days in final instar larvae. Neck ligation and JHA application had no substantial effects on the expression of a transcription factor, ftz-f1, or a prothoracicotropic hormone receptor, torso; therefore, the inhibitory regulation of JHA may not involve these factors. Further analysis is required to clarify the regulation of JHA in ecdysteroidogenesis, but this study showed that JHA, and probably endogenous JH, can suppress the transcription of four of six ecdysteroidogenic enzymes. This regulation may be essential for maintaining the appropriate balance between JH and ecdysone during insect development. PMID:25907890

  9. miR-223 contributes to the AGE-promoted apoptosis via down-regulating insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi; Ye, Jichao; Wang, Peng; Gao, Liangbin; Wang, Suwei; Shen, Huiyong

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been confirmed to induce bone quality deterioration in diabetes mellitus (DM), and to associate with abnormal expression of miRNAs in DM patients or in vitro. Recently, miRNAs have been recognized to mediate the onset or progression of DM. In the present study, we investigated the regulation on miR-223 level by AGE-BSA treatment in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, with real-time quantitative PCR assay. And then we examined the inhibition of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression by miR-223, via targeting of the 3′ UTR of IGF-1R with real-time quantitative PCR, western blotting and luciferase reporter assay. Then we explored the regulation of miR-223 and IGF-1R levels, via the lentivirus-mediated miR-223 inhibition and IGF-1R overexpression in the AGE-BSA-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. It was demonstrated that AGE-BSA treatment with more than 100 μg/ml significantly up-regulated miR-223 level, whereas down-regulated IGF-1R level in MC3T3-E1 cells. And the up-regulated miR-223 down-regulated IGF-1R expression in both mRNA and protein levels, via targeting the 3′ UTR of IGF-1R. Moreover, though the AGE-BSA treatment promoted apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, the IGF-1R overexpression or the miR-223 inhibition significantly attenuated the AGE-BSA-promoted apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. In summary, our study recognized the promotion of miR-223 level by AGE-BSA treatment in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. The promoted miR-223 targeted IGF-1R and mediated the AGE-BSA-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. It implies that miR-223 might be an effective therapeutic target to antagonize the AGE-induced damage to osteoblasts in DM. PMID:26893485

  10. miR-223 contributes to the AGE-promoted apoptosis via down-regulating insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yi; Ye, Jichao; Wang, Peng; Gao, Liangbin; Wang, Suwei; Shen, Huiyong

    2016-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been confirmed to induce bone quality deterioration in diabetes mellitus (DM), and to associate with abnormal expression of miRNAs in DM patients or in vitro Recently, miRNAs have been recognized to mediate the onset or progression of DM. In the present study, we investigated the regulation on miR-223 level by AGE-BSA treatment in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, with real-time quantitative PCR assay. And then we examined the inhibition of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression by miR-223, via targeting of the 3' UTR of IGF-1R with real-time quantitative PCR, western blotting and luciferase reporter assay. Then we explored the regulation of miR-223 and IGF-1R levels, via the lentivirus-mediated miR-223 inhibition and IGF-1R overexpression in the AGE-BSA-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. It was demonstrated that AGE-BSA treatment with more than 100 μg/ml significantly up-regulated miR-223 level, whereas down-regulated IGF-1R level in MC3T3-E1 cells. And the up-regulated miR-223 down-regulated IGF-1R expression in both mRNA and protein levels, via targeting the 3' UTR of IGF-1R Moreover, though the AGE-BSA treatment promoted apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, the IGF-1R overexpression or the miR-223 inhibition significantly attenuated the AGE-BSA-promoted apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. In summary, our study recognized the promotion of miR-223 level by AGE-BSA treatment in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. The promoted miR-223 targeted IGF-1R and mediated the AGE-BSA-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. It implies that miR-223 might be an effective therapeutic target to antagonize the AGE-induced damage to osteoblasts in DM. PMID:26893485

  11. Chondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; McCann, Thomas E.; Unsworth, Edward; Goldsmith, Paul; Yu, Zu-Xi; Tan, Fei; Santiago, Lizzie; Mills, Edward M.; Wang, Yu; Symes, Aviva J.; Geller, Herbert M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition, and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate (CS) mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS-A), but not chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS-C), exhibits a strong negative guidance cue to mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Enzymatic and gene-based manipulations of 4-sulfation in the GAG side chains alter their ability to direct growing axons. Furthermore, 4-sulfated CS GAG chains are rapidly and significantly increased in regions that do not support axonal regeneration proximal to spinal cord lesions in mice. Thus, our findings provide the evidence showing that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. PMID:18768934

  12. Developmental regulation of collagenase-3 mRNA in normal, differentiating osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 and the runt domain binding sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Selvamurugan, N.; D'Alonzo, R. C.; Partridge, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    Collagenase-3 mRNA is initially detectable when osteoblasts cease proliferation, increasing during differentiation and mineralization. We showed that this developmental expression is due to an increase in collagenase-3 gene transcription. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site decreased collagenase-3 promoter activity, demonstrating that these sites are responsible for collagenase-3 gene transcription. The activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites bind members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor family of transcription factors, respectively. We identified core-binding factor a1 binding to the runt domain binding site and JunD in addition to a Fos-related antigen binding to the activator protein-1 site. Overexpression of both c-Fos and c-Jun in osteoblasts or core-binding factor a1 increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos, c-Jun, and core-binding factor a1 synergistically increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site resulted in the inability of c-Fos and c-Jun or core-binding factor a1 to increase collagenase-3 promoter activity, suggesting that there is cooperative interaction between the sites and the proteins. Overexpression of Fra-2 and JunD repressed core-binding factor a1-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity. Our results suggest that members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor families, binding to the activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites are responsible for the developmental regulation of collagenase-3 gene expression in osteoblasts.

  13. TET2 Negatively Regulates Nestin Expression in Human Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Camilla B F; Zechin, Karina G; Xu, Shuyun; Stelini, Rafael F; Nishimoto, Ines N; Zhan, Qian; Xu, Ting; Qin, Gungwei; Treister, Nathaniel S; Murphy, George F; Lian, Christine G

    2016-06-01

    Although melanoma is an aggressive cancer, the understanding of the virulence-conferring pathways involved remains incomplete. We have demonstrated that loss of ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET2)-mediated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is an epigenetic driver of melanoma growth and a biomarker of clinical virulence. We also have determined that the intermediate filament protein nestin correlates with tumorigenic and invasive melanoma growth. Here we examine the relationships between these two biomarkers. Immunohistochemistry staining of nestin and 5-hmC in 53 clinically annotated primary and metastatic patient melanomas revealed a significant negative correlation. Restoration of 5-hmC, as assessed in a human melanoma cell line by introducing full-length TET2 and TET2-mutated constructs, decreased nestin gene and protein expression in vitro. Genome-wide mapping using hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing disclosed significantly less 5-hmC binding in the 3' untranslated region of the nestin gene in melanoma compared to nevi, and 5-hmC binding in this region was significantly increased after TET2 overexpression in human melanoma cells in vitro. Our findings provide evidence suggesting that nestin regulation is negatively controlled epigenetically by TET2 via 5-hmC binding at the 3' untranslated region of the nestin gene, providing one potential pathway for understanding melanoma growth characteristics. Studies are now indicated to further define the interplay between 5-hmC, nestin expression, and melanoma virulence. PMID:27102770

  14. Negative regulation of Vps34 by Cdk mediated phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Minsu; Lipinski, Marta; Li, Juying; Kim, Dohoon; Lu, Tao; Shen, Yong; Rameh, Lucia; Yankner, Bruce; Tsai, Li-Huei; Yuan, Junying

    2010-01-01

    Summary Vps34 (vacuolar protein sorting 34) complexes, the class III PtdIns3 kinase, specifically phosphorylate the D3-position of PtdIns to produce PtdIns3P. Vps34 is involved in the control of multiple key intracellular membrane trafficking pathways including endocytic sorting and autophagy. In mammalian cells, Vps34 interacts with Beclin 1, an orthologue of Atg6 in yeast, to regulate the production of PtdIns3P and autophagy. We show that Vps34 is phosphorylated on Thr159 by Cdk1, which negatively regulates its interaction with Beclin1 during mitosis. Cdk5/p25, a neuronal cdk shown to play a role in Alzheimer’s disease, can also phosphorylate Thr159 of Vps34. Phosphorylation of Vps34 on Thr159 inhibits its interaction with Beclin 1. We propose that phosphorylation of Thr159 in Vps34 is a key regulatory mechanism that controls the class III PtdIns3 kinase activity in cell cycle progression, development and human diseases including neurodegeneration and cancers. PMID:20513426

  15. SMN and coilin negatively regulate dyskerin association with telomerase RNA

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Aaron R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein comprising telomerase RNA and associated proteins. The formation of the telomerase holoenzyme takes place in the Cajal body (CB), a subnuclear domain that participates in the formation of ribonucleoproteins. CBs also contribute to the delivery of telomerase to telomeres. The protein WRAP53 is enriched within the CB and is instrumental for the targeting of telomerase RNA to CBs. Two other CB proteins, SMN and coilin, are also suspected of taking part in some aspect of telomerase biogenesis. Here we demonstrate newly discovered associations between SMN and coilin with telomerase components, and further show that reduction of SMN or coilin is correlated with increased association of telomerase RNA with one these components, dyskerin. These findings argue that SMN and coilin may negatively regulate the formation of telomerase. Furthermore, clinically defined SMN mutants found in individuals with spinal muscular atrophy are altered in their association with telomerase complex proteins. Additionally, we observe that a coilin derivative also associates with dyskerin, and the amount of this protein in the complex is regulated by SMN, WRAP53 and coilin levels. Collectively, our findings bolster the link between SMN, coilin and the coilin derivative in the biogenesis of telomerase. PMID:27215323

  16. SMN and coilin negatively regulate dyskerin association with telomerase RNA.

    PubMed

    Poole, Aaron R; Hebert, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein comprising telomerase RNA and associated proteins. The formation of the telomerase holoenzyme takes place in the Cajal body (CB), a subnuclear domain that participates in the formation of ribonucleoproteins. CBs also contribute to the delivery of telomerase to telomeres. The protein WRAP53 is enriched within the CB and is instrumental for the targeting of telomerase RNA to CBs. Two other CB proteins, SMN and coilin, are also suspected of taking part in some aspect of telomerase biogenesis. Here we demonstrate newly discovered associations between SMN and coilin with telomerase components, and further show that reduction of SMN or coilin is correlated with increased association of telomerase RNA with one these components, dyskerin. These findings argue that SMN and coilin may negatively regulate the formation of telomerase. Furthermore, clinically defined SMN mutants found in individuals with spinal muscular atrophy are altered in their association with telomerase complex proteins. Additionally, we observe that a coilin derivative also associates with dyskerin, and the amount of this protein in the complex is regulated by SMN, WRAP53 and coilin levels. Collectively, our findings bolster the link between SMN, coilin and the coilin derivative in the biogenesis of telomerase. PMID:27215323

  17. Nmp4/CIZ suppresses the response of bone to anabolic parathyroid hormone by regulating both osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Childress, Paul; Philip, Binu K.; Robling, Alexander G.; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Kacena, Melissa A.; Bivi, Nicoletta; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Heller, Aaron; Bidwell, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    How parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone mass is unclear but understanding this phenomenon is significant to the improvement of osteoporosis therapy. Nmp4/CIZ is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling transcriptional repressor that suppresses PTH-induced osteoblast gene expression and hormone-stimulated gains in murine femoral trabecular bone. To further characterize Nmp4/CIZ suppression of hormone-mediated bone growth we treated 10 wk-old Nmp4-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice with intermittent human PTH (1-34) at 30μg/kg/day or vehicle, 7 days/wk, for 2, 3, or 7 wks. Null mice treated with hormone (7 wks) gained more vertebral and tibial cancellous bone than WT animals paralleling the exaggerated response in the femur. Interestingly, Nmp4/CIZ suppression of this hormone-stimulated bone formation was not apparent during the first 2 wks of treatment. Consistent with the null mice enhanced PTH-stimulated addition of trabecular bone these animals exhibited an augmented hormone-induced increase in serum osteocalcin 3 wks into treatment. Unexpectedly the Nmp4-KO mice displayed an osteoclast phenotype. Serum C-terminal telopeptides, a marker for bone resorption, was elevated in the null mice, irrespective of treatment. Nmp4-KO bone marrow cultures produced more osteoclasts, which exhibited an elevated resorbing activity, compared to WT cultures. The expression of several genes critical to the development of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts were elevated in Nmp4-KO mice at 2 wks but not 3 wks of hormone exposure. We propose that Nmp4/CIZ dampens PTH-induced improvement of trabecular bone throughout the skeleton by transiently suppressing hormone-stimulated increases in the expression of proteins key to the required enhanced activity/number of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:21607813

  18. Nmp4/CIZ suppresses the response of bone to anabolic parathyroid hormone by regulating both osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Childress, Paul; Philip, Binu K; Robling, Alexander G; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Kacena, Melissa A; Bivi, Nicoletta; Plotkin, Lilian I; Heller, Aaron; Bidwell, Joseph P

    2011-07-01

    How parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone mass is unclear, but understanding this phenomenon is significant to the improvement of osteoporosis therapy. Nmp4/CIZ is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling transcriptional repressor that suppresses PTH-induced osteoblast gene expression and hormone-stimulated gains in murine femoral trabecular bone. To further characterize Nmp4/CIZ suppression of hormone-mediated bone growth, we treated 10-week-old Nmp4-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice with intermittent human PTH(1-34) at 30 μg/kg daily or vehicle, 7 days/week, for 2, 3, or 7 weeks. Null mice treated with hormone (7 weeks) gained more vertebral and tibial cancellous bone than WT animals, paralleling the exaggerated response in the femur. Interestingly, Nmp4/CIZ suppression of this hormone-stimulated bone formation was not apparent during the first 2 weeks of treatment. Consistent with the null mice enhanced PTH-stimulated addition of trabecular bone, these animals exhibited an augmented hormone-induced increase in serum osteocalcin 3 weeks into treatment. Unexpectedly, the Nmp4-KO mice displayed an osteoclast phenotype. Serum C-terminal telopeptide, a marker for bone resorption, was elevated in the null mice, irrespective of treatment. Nmp4-KO bone marrow cultures produced more osteoclasts, which exhibited elevated resorbing activity, compared to WT cultures. The expression of several genes critical to the development of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts was elevated in Nmp4-KO mice at 2 weeks, but not 3 weeks, of hormone exposure. We propose that Nmp4/CIZ dampens PTH-induced improvement of trabecular bone throughout the skeleton by transiently suppressing hormone-stimulated increases in the expression of proteins key to the required enhanced activity and number of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:21607813

  19. Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 and Histone Deacetylase 9c Regulate Age-Dependent Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation into Osteoblasts and Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Huey; Chung, Chiao-Chen; Liu, Yu-Chia; Yeh, Su-Peng; Hsu, Jennifer L; Hung, Mien-Chie; Su, Hong-Lin; Li, Long-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent precursors that can undergo multilineage differentiation, including osteogenesis and adipogenesis, which are two mutually exclusive events. Previously, we demonstrated that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic component of the Polycomb-repressive complex 2, mediates epigenetic silencing of histone deacetylase 9c (HDAC9c) in adipocytes but not in osteoblasts and that HDAC9c accelerates osteogenesis while attenuating adipogenesis of MSCs through inactivation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 activity. Importantly, disrupting the balance between adipogenesis and osteogenesis can lead to age-associated bone loss (osteoporosis) and obesity. Here, we investigated the relationship between age, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of MSCs by comparing EZH2 and HDAC9c expression in osteoblasts and adipocytes of both human and mice origins to determine whether the EZH2-HDAC9c axis regulates age-associated osteoporosis and obesity. Our findings indicated that a decline in HDAC9c expression over time was accompanied by increased EZH2 expression and suggested that a therapeutic intervention for age-associated osteoporosis and obesity may be feasible by targeting the EZH2-HDAC9c axis. Stem Cells 2016;34:2183-2193. PMID:27250566

  20. Surface engineering of titanium alloy substrates with multilayered biomimetic hierarchical films to regulate the growth behaviors of osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weihu; Xi, Xingfeng; Si, Yang; Huang, Song; Wang, Jiangfeng; Cai, Kaiyong

    2014-10-01

    Osseointegration is essential for the long-term survival of orthopedic implants. Inspired by the hierarchical structure of natural bone, we fabricated a hierarchical structure with osteoinduction potential on titanium alloy (Ti6Al7Nb) substrates via a spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly technique, with hydroxyapatite nanofibers as the intercalated materials and gelatin and chitosan as the polycation and polyanion, respectively. The as-synthesized hydroxyapatite nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The change of water contact angle corresponding to different layers indicated the formation of a multilayered structure, since different components have their inherent wettability natures. The multilayered lamellar structure was revealed by the cross-sectional view of SEM, suggesting that the film was successfully deposited onto Ti6Al7Nb substrates. Osteoblasts cultured on the hierarchical structure deposited Ti alloy substrates displayed significantly higher cell viability (P<0.01) and better adhesion, a higher production level of alkaline phosphatase, mineralization, genes expressions of osteocalcin and osteopontin (P<0.01 or P<0.05) compared to those of native Ti6Al7Nb substrates after culture for 4, 7 or 14days. These results indicated that the lamellar structure was beneficial for the biological functions of osteoblasts, establishing the basis for osseointegration of a titanium alloy implant. PMID:24905934

  1. Organelle acidification negatively regulates vacuole membrane fusion in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Desfougères, Yann; Vavassori, Stefano; Rompf, Maria; Gerasimaite, Ruta; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The V-ATPase is a proton pump consisting of a membrane-integral V0 sector and a peripheral V1 sector, which carries the ATPase activity. In vitro studies of yeast vacuole fusion and evidence from worms, flies, zebrafish and mice suggested that V0 interacts with the SNARE machinery for membrane fusion, that it promotes the induction of hemifusion and that this activity requires physical presence of V0 rather than its proton pump activity. A recent in vivo study in yeast has challenged these interpretations, concluding that fusion required solely lumenal acidification but not the V0 sector itself. Here, we identify the reasons for this discrepancy and reconcile it. We find that acute pharmacological or physiological inhibition of V-ATPase pump activity de-acidifies the vacuole lumen in living yeast cells within minutes. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that de-acidification induces vacuole fusion rather than inhibiting it. Cells expressing mutated V0 subunits that maintain vacuolar acidity were blocked in this fusion. Thus, proton pump activity of the V-ATPase negatively regulates vacuole fusion in vivo. Vacuole fusion in vivo does, however, require physical presence of a fusion-competent V0 sector. PMID:27363625

  2. Ribosomal protein S14 negatively regulates c-Myc activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Hao, Qian; Liao, Jun-Ming; Liao, Peng; Lu, Hua

    2013-07-26

    The ribosomal gene RPS14 is associated with the cancer-prone 5q-syndrome, which is caused by an interstitial deletion of the long arm of human chromosome 5. Previously, we found that ribosomal protein S14 (RPS14) binds to and inactivates MDM2, consequently leading to p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and growth inhibition. However, it remains elusive whether RPS14 regulates cell proliferation in a p53-independent manner. Here, we show that RPS14 interacts with the Myc homology box II (MBII) and the C-terminal basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-LZ) domains of the oncoprotein c-Myc. Further, RPS14 inhibited c-Myc transcriptional activity by preventing the recruitment of c-Myc and its cofactor, TRRAP, to the target gene promoters, as thus suppressing c-Myc-induced cell proliferation. Also, siRNA-mediated RPS14 depletion elevated c-Myc transcriptional activity determined by its target gene, Nucleolin, expression. Interestingly, RPS14 depletion also resulted in the induction of c-Myc mRNA and subsequent protein levels. Consistent with this, RPS14 promoted c-Myc mRNA turnover through an Argonaute 2 (Ago2)- and microRNA-mediated pathway. Taken together, our study demonstrates that RPS14 negates c-Myc functions by directly inhibiting its transcriptional activity and mediating its mRNA degradation via miRNA. PMID:23775087

  3. Bcr and Abr Cooperate in Negatively Regulating Acute Inflammatory Responses▿

    PubMed Central

    Cunnick, Jess M.; Schmidhuber, Sabine; Chen, Gang; Yu, Min; Yi, Sun-Ju; Cho, Young Jin; Kaartinen, Vesa; Minoo, Parviz; Warburton, David; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

    2009-01-01

    Bcr and Abr are GTPase-activating proteins for the small GTPase Rac. Both proteins are expressed in cells of the innate immune system, including neutrophils and macrophages. The function of Bcr has been linked to the negative regulation of neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but the function of Abr in the innate immune system was unknown. Here, we report that mice lacking both proteins are severely affected in two models of experimental endotoxemia, including exposure to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and polymicrobial sepsis, with extensive microvascular leakage, resulting in severe pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Additionally, in vivo-activated neutrophils of abr and bcr null mutant mice produced excessive tissue-damaging myeloperoxidase (MPO), elastase, and ROS. Moreover, the secretion of the tissue metalloproteinase MMP9 by monocytes and ROS by elicited macrophages was abnormally high. In comparison, ROS production from bone marrow monocytes was not significantly different from that of controls, and the exocytosis of neutrophil secondary and tertiary granule products, including lactoferrin, was normal. These data show that Abr and Bcr normally curb very specific functions of mature tissue innate immune cells, and that each protein has distinct as well as partly overlapping functions in the downregulation of inflammatory processes. PMID:19703997

  4. Organelle acidification negatively regulates vacuole membrane fusion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Desfougères, Yann; Vavassori, Stefano; Rompf, Maria; Gerasimaite, Ruta; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The V-ATPase is a proton pump consisting of a membrane-integral V0 sector and a peripheral V1 sector, which carries the ATPase activity. In vitro studies of yeast vacuole fusion and evidence from worms, flies, zebrafish and mice suggested that V0 interacts with the SNARE machinery for membrane fusion, that it promotes the induction of hemifusion and that this activity requires physical presence of V0 rather than its proton pump activity. A recent in vivo study in yeast has challenged these interpretations, concluding that fusion required solely lumenal acidification but not the V0 sector itself. Here, we identify the reasons for this discrepancy and reconcile it. We find that acute pharmacological or physiological inhibition of V-ATPase pump activity de-acidifies the vacuole lumen in living yeast cells within minutes. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that de-acidification induces vacuole fusion rather than inhibiting it. Cells expressing mutated V0 subunits that maintain vacuolar acidity were blocked in this fusion. Thus, proton pump activity of the V-ATPase negatively regulates vacuole fusion in vivo. Vacuole fusion in vivo does, however, require physical presence of a fusion-competent V0 sector. PMID:27363625

  5. IKKα negatively regulates ASC-dependent inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bradley N; Wang, Chenhui; Willette-Brown, Jami; Herjan, Tomasz; Gulen, Muhammet F; Zhou, Hao; Bulek, Katarzyna; Franchi, Luigi; Sato, Takashi; Alnemri, Emad S; Narla, Goutham; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; Thomas, James; Klinman, Dennis; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Karin, Michael; Nuñez, Gabriel; Dubyak, George; Hu, Yinling; Li, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    The inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that activate caspase-1 in response to infections and stress, resulting in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we report that IκB kinase α (IKKα) is a critical negative regulator of apoptosis-associated specklike protein containing a C-terminal caspase-activation-andrecruitment (CARD) domain (ASC)-dependent inflammasomes. IKKα controls the inflammasome at the level of the adaptor ASC, which interacts with IKKα in the nucleus of resting macrophages in an IKKα kinase-dependent manner. Loss of IKKα kinase activity results in inflammasome hyperactivation. Mechanistically, the downstream nuclear effector IKK-related kinase (IKKi) facilitates translocation of ASC from the nucleus to the perinuclear area during inflammasome activation. ASC remains under the control of IKKα in the perinuclear area following translocation of the ASC/IKKα complex. Signal 2 of NLRP3 activation leads to inhibition of IKKα kinase activity through the recruitment of PP2A, allowing ASC to participate in NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. Taken together, these findings reveal a IKKi-IKKα-ASC axis that serves as a common regulatory mechanism for ASC-dependent inflammasomes. PMID:25266676

  6. IKKα negatively regulates ASC-dependent inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bradley N.; Wang, Chenhui; Willette-Brown, Jami; Herjan, Tomasz; Gulen, Muhammet F.; Zhou, Hao; Bulek, Katarzyna; Franchi, Luigi; Sato, Takashi; Narla, Goutham; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; Thomas, James; Klinman, Dennis; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Karin, Michael; Nuñez, Gabriel; Dubyak, George; Hu, Yinling; Li, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    The inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that activate caspase-1 in response to infections and stress, resulting in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we report that IKKα is a critical negative regulator of ASC-dependent inflammasomes. IKKα controls the inflammasome at the level of the adaptor ASC, which interacts with IKKα in the nucleus of resting macrophages in an IKKα kinase-dependent manner. Loss of IKKα kinase activity results in inflammasome hyperactivation. Mechanistically, the downstream nuclear effector IKKi facilitates translocation of ASC from the nucleus to the perinuclear area during inflammasome activation. ASC remains under the control of IKKα in the perinuclear area following translocation of the ASC/IKKα complex. Signal 2 of NLRP3 activation leads to inhibition of IKKα kinase activity through the recruitment of PP2A, allowing ASC to participate in NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. Taken together, these findings reveal a IKKi-IKKα-ASC axis that serves as a common regulatory mechanism for ASC-dependent inflammasomes. PMID:25266676

  7. A bioceramic with enhanced osteogenic properties to regulate the function of osteoblastic and osteocalastic cells for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; No, Young Jung; Lu, Zufu; Ng, Pei Ying; Chen, Yongjuan; Shi, Jeffrey; Pavlos, Nathan J; Zreiqat, Hala

    2016-01-01

    Bioceramics for regenerative medicine applications should have the ability to promote adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast and osteoclast cells. Osteogenic properties of the material are essential for rapid bone regeneration and new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop a silicate-based ceramic, gehlenite (GLN, Ca2Al2SiO7), and characterise its physiochemical, biocompatibility and osteogenic properties. A pure GLN powder was synthesised by a facile reactive sintering method and compacted to disc-shaped specimens. The sintering behaviour and degradation of the GLN discs in various buffer solutions were fully characterised. The cytotoxicity of GLN was evaluated by direct and indirect methods. In the indirect method, primary human osteoblast cells (HOBs) were exposed to diluted extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg ml(-1)) of fine GLN particles in culture medium. The results showed that the extracts did not cause any cytotoxic effect on the HOBs with the number of cells increasing significantly from day 1 to day 7. GLN-supported HOB attachment and proliferation, and significantly enhanced osteogenic gene expression levels (Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone sialoprotein) were compared with biphasic calcium phosphate groups (BCP, a mixture of hydroxyapatite (60wt.%) and β-tricalcium phosphate(40wt.%)). We also demonstrated that in addition to supporting HOB attachment and proliferation, GLN promoted the formation of tartrate-acid resistance phosphatase (TRAP) positive multinucleated osteoclastic cells (OCs) derived from mouse bone marrow cells. Results also demonstrated the ability of GLN to support the polarisation of OCs, a prerequisite for their functional resorptive activity which is mainly influenced by the composition and degradability of biomaterials. Overall, the developed GLN is a prospective candidate to be used in bone regeneration applications due its effective osteogenic properties and biocompatibility. PMID

  8. Negative feedback confers mutational robustness in yeast transcription factor regulation

    PubMed Central

    Denby, Charles M.; Im, Joo Hyun; Yu, Richard C.; Pesce, C. Gustavo; Brem, Rachel B.

    2012-01-01

    Organismal fitness depends on the ability of gene networks to function robustly in the face of environmental and genetic perturbations. Understanding the mechanisms of this stability is one of the key aims of modern systems biology. Dissecting the basis of robustness to mutation has proven a particular challenge, with most experimental models relying on artificial DNA sequence variants engineered in the laboratory. In this work, we hypothesized that negative regulatory feedback could stabilize gene expression against the disruptions that arise from natural genetic variation. We screened yeast transcription factors for feedback and used the results to establish ROX1 (Repressor of hypOXia) as a model system for the study of feedback in circuit behaviors and its impact across genetically heterogeneous populations. Mutagenesis experiments revealed the mechanism of Rox1 as a direct transcriptional repressor at its own gene, enabling a regulatory program of rapid induction during environmental change that reached a plateau of moderate steady-state expression. Additionally, in a given environmental condition, Rox1 levels varied widely across genetically distinct strains; the ROX1 feedback loop regulated this variation, in that the range of expression levels across genetic backgrounds showed greater spread in ROX1 feedback mutants than among strains with the ROX1 feedback loop intact. Our findings indicate that the ROX1 feedback circuit is tuned to respond to perturbations arising from natural genetic variation in addition to its role in induction behavior. We suggest that regulatory feedback may be an important element of the network architectures that confer mutational robustness across biology. PMID:22355134

  9. RNF4 negatively regulates NF-κB signaling by down-regulating TAB2.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bo; Mu, Rui; Chang, Yan; Wang, Yu-Bo; Wu, Min; Tu, Hai-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Cheng; Guo, Sai-Sai; Qin, Xuan-He; Li, Tao; Li, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Xue-Min; Li, Ai-Ling; Li, Hui-Yan

    2015-09-14

    Most of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) signaling molecules have various types of post-translational modifications. In this study, we focused on ubiquitination and designed a siRNA library including most ubiquitin-binding domains. With this library, we identified several candidate regulators of canonical NF-κB pathway, including RNF4. Overexpression of RNF4 impaired NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas RNF4 knockdown potentiated NF-κB activation. We showed that RNF4 interacts with the TAK1-TAB2-TAB3 complex, but not TAB1. Further, we found that RNF4 specifically down-regulated TAB2 through a lysosomal pathway, and knockdown of RNF4 impaired endogenous TAB2 degradation. Therefore, our findings will provide new insights into the negative regulation of NF-κB signaling. PMID:26299341

  10. Nicotine induces cell proliferation in association with cyclin D1 up-regulation and inhibits cell differentiation in association with p53 regulation in a murine pre-osteoblastic cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tsuyoshi Abe, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Norimichi; Tomaru, Yasuhisa; Koshikiya, Noboru; Nojima, Junya; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Sakata, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Akio; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2008-12-05

    Recent studies have suggested that nicotine critically affects bone metabolism. Many studies have examined the effects of nicotine on proliferation and differentiation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We examined cell cycle regulators involved in the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Nicotine induced cell proliferation in association with p53 down-regulation and cyclin D1 up-regulation. In differentiated cells, nicotine reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation in dose-dependent manners. Furthermore, p53 expression was sustained in nicotine-treated cells during differentiation. These findings indicate that nicotine promotes the cell cycle and inhibits differentiation in association with p53 regulation in pre-osteoblastic cells.

  11. miR-30e reciprocally regulates the differentiation of adipocytes and osteoblasts by directly targeting low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Guan, X; Guo, F; Zhou, J; Chang, A; Sun, B; Cai, Y; Ma, Z; Dai, C; Li, X; Wang, B

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal relationship usually exists between osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis, with factors stimulating one of these processes at the same time inhibiting the other. In the present study, miR-30e was found to be involved in the reciprocal regulation of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Our data indicated that miR-30e was induced in primarily cultured mouse bone marrow stromal cell, mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 and preadipocyte 3T3-L1 after adipogenic treatment. Conversely, it was reduced in mouse stromal line ST2 and preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 after osteogenic treatment. Enforced expression of miR-30e in 3T3-L1 significantly suppressed the growth of the cells and induced the preadipocytes to differentiate into mature adipocytes, along with increased expression of adipocyte-specific transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and C/EBPβ, and the marker gene aP2. In contrast, inhibition of the endogenous miR-30e enhanced the cell growth and repressed preadipocytes to differentiate. Conversely, supplementing miR-30e activity blocked, whereas knocking down miR-30e enforced the preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 to fully differentiate. Furthermore, miR-30e overexpression stimulated adipocyte formation and inhibited osteoblast differentiation from marrow stromal cells. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), one of the critical coreceptor for Wnts, was shown to be a direct target of miR-30e by using the luciferase assay. Knockdown of LRP6 in 3T3-L1 cells downregulated β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) transcriptional activity and dramatically potentiated the differentiation of the cells into mature adipocytes. Taken together, the present work suggests that the expression of miR-30e is indispensable for maintaining the balance of adipocytes and osteoblasts by targeting the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:24113179

  12. p53 negatively regulates Aurora A via both transcriptional and posttranslational regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chun-Chi; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Yu, Chang-Tze Ricky; Phan, Liem; Ivan, Cristina; Sood, Anil K.; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lee, Mong-Hong

    2012-01-01

    p53 plays an important role in mitotic checkpoint, but what its role is remains enigmatic. Aurora A is a Ser/Thr kinase involved in correcting progression of mitosis. Here, we show that p53 is a negative regulator for Aurora A. We found that p53 deficiency leads to Aurora A elevation. Ectopic expression of p53 or DNA damage-induced expression of p53 can suppress the expression of Aurora A. Mechanistic studies show that p53 is a negative regulator for Aurora A expression through both transcriptional and posttranslational regulation. p53 knockdown in cancer cells reduces the level of p21, which, in turn, increases the activity of CDK2 followed by induction of Rb1 hyperphosphorylation and its dissociation with transcriptional factor E2F3. E2F3 can bind to Aurora A gene promoter, potentiating Aurora A gene expression and p53 deficiency, enhancing the binding of E2F3 on Aurora A promoter. Also, p53 deficiency leads to decelerating Aurora A’s turnover rate, due to the fact that p53 deficiency causes the downregulation of Fbw7α, a component of E3 ligase of Aurora A. Consistently, p53 knockdown-mediated Aurora A elevation is mitigated when Fbw7α is ectopically expressed. Thus, p53-mediated Aurora A degradation requires Fbw7α expression. Significantly, inverse correlation between p53 and Aurora A elevation is translated into the deregulation of centrosome amplification. p53 knockdown leads to high percentages of cells with abnormal amplification of centrosome. These data suggest that p53 is an important negative regulator of Aurora A, and that loss of p53 in many types of cancer could lead to abnormal elevation of Aurora A and dysregulated mitosis, which provides a growth advantage for cancer cells. PMID:22894933

  13. Hydrocarbon Deposition Attenuates Osteoblast Activity on Titanium

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, R.; Ueno, T.; Migita, S.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Doi, H.; Ogawa, T.; Hanawa, T.; Wakabayashi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Although the reported percentage of bone-implant contact is far lower than 100%, the cause of such low levels of bone formation has rarely been investigated. This study tested the negative biological effect of hydrocarbon deposition onto titanium surfaces, which has been reported to be inevitable. Osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on titanium disks on which the carbon concentration was experimentally regulated to achieve carbon/titanium (C/Ti) ratios of 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0. Initial cellular activities such as cell attachment and cell spreading were concentration-dependently suppressed by the amount of carbon on the titanium surface. The osteoblastic functions of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization were also reduced by more than 40% on the C/Ti (1.0) surface. These results indicate that osteoblast activity is influenced by the degree of hydrocarbon contamination on titanium implants and suggest that hydrocarbon decomposition before implant placement may increase the biocompatibility of titanium. PMID:24868012

  14. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation. PMID:25539497

  15. IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase-13 is activated by a disintegrin and metalloprotease-28-regulated proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Kawai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki; Kinoshita, Katsue; Hase, Naoko; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Ayami; Mogi, Makio; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-15

    We reported previously that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 accelerates bone remodeling in oral periradicular lesions, and indicated a potentially unique role for MMP-13 in wound healing and regeneration of alveolar bone. The ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family is a set of multifunctional cell surface and secreted glycoproteins, of which ADAM-28 has been localized in bone and bone-like tissues. In this study, we show that interleukin (IL)-1β induces the expression of MMP-13 and ADAM-28 in homogeneous α7 integrin-positive human skeletal muscle stem cell (α7{sup +}hSMSC)-derived osteoblast-like (α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB) cells, and promotes proliferation while inhibiting apoptosis in these cells. At higher concentrations, however, IL-1β failed to induce the expression of these genes and caused an increase in apoptosis. We further employed ADAM-28 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate whether IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression is linked to this IL-1β-mediated changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Silencing ADAM-28 expression potently suppressed IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression and activity, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cells. In contrast, MMP-13 siRNA had no effect on ADAM-28 expression, suggesting ADAM-28 regulates MMP-13. Exogenous MMP-13 induced α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cell proliferation and could rescue ADAM-28 siRNA-induced apoptosis, and we found that proMMP-13 is partially cleaved into its active form by ADAM-28 in vitro. Overall, our results suggest that IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression and changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis in α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cells are regulated by ADAM-28. - Highlights: • IL-1β induces the MMP-13 and ADAM-28 expression in human osteoblast-like cells. • IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression increases proliferation and decreased apoptosis. • MMP-13 expression induced by IL-1β is regulated by ADAM-28. • proMMP-13 appears to be cleaved into its active form via

  16. Spontaneous Emotion Regulation to Positive and Negative Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volokhov, Rachael N.; Demaree, Heath A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions is an integral part of human social behavior. One antecedent emotion regulation strategy, known as reappraisal, is characterized by cognitively evaluating an emotional stimulus to alter its emotional impact and one response-focused strategy, suppression, is aimed at reducing behavioral output. People are…

  17. Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) suppresses osteoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Ebina, Kosuke; Shi, Kenrin; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Otsuki, Dai; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Higuchi, Chikahisa

    2015-09-01

    The Tec family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases has been shown to play a key role in inflammation and bone destruction. Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been the most widely studied because of its critical role in B cells. Furthermore, recent evidence has demonstrated that blocking Btk signaling is effective in ameliorating lymphoma progression and experimental arthritis. The role of Btk in osteoblastic differentiation has not been well elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated the role of Btk in osteoblastic differentiation and investigated the effects of a Btk inhibitor on osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, primary calvarial osteoblasts, and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. Btk expression was detected in all three cell lines. Btk inhibition stimulated mRNA expression of osteoblastic markers (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and osterix) and promoted mineralization of the extracellular matrix. In addition, Btk knockdown caused increased mRNA expression of osteoblastic markers. Furthermore, Btk inhibition suppressed the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), and protein kinase Cα (PKCα). Our results indicate that Btk may regulate osteoblastic differentiation through the MAPK, NFκB, and PKCα signaling pathways. PMID:25230818

  18. Effects of IGF-II on promoting proliferation and regulating nitric oxide synthase gene expression in mouse osteoblast-like cell*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei-lian; Chen, Li-li; Yan, Jie; Yu, Zhong-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) on promoting cell proliferation, regulating levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA transcriptions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) in mouse osteoblast-like cells. Methods: Mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 was selected as the effective cell of IGF-II. After the cells were treated with IGF-II at different concentrations for different time duration, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay was used to examine cell proliferation, and nitrate reductase method was applied to detect NO concentrations in cell culture supernatants and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to determine transcription levels of cellular iNOS and eNOS mRNAs. Results: After the MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with IGF-II at concentration of 1 ng/ml for 72 h, 10 and 100 ng/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, all the MTT values increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01) with obvious dosage-time dependent pattern. NO levels of the MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 100 ng/ml IGF-II for 48 h, and with 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml IGF-II for 72 h were remarkably lower than that of the normal control, respectively (P<0.05 or P<0.01). After the cells were treated with 100 ng/ml IGF-II for 48 h cellular iNOS mRNA levels were significantly decreased (P<0.01). But the levels of eNOS mRNA in the cells treated with each of the used IGF-II dosages for different time duration did not show any differences compared with the normal control (P>0.05). Conclusion: IGF-II at different concentrations could promote proliferation of mouse MC3T3-E1 cell. This cell proliferation promotion was associated with the low NO levels maintained by IGF-II. Higher concentration of IGF-II could down-regulate iNOS gene expression at the level of transcription but not affect transcription of eNOS mRNA, which might be one of the mechanisms for IGF

  19. Children's Negative Emotionality Combined with Poor Self-Regulation Affects Allostatic Load in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey; Evans, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the concurrent and prospective, longitudinal effects of childhood negative emotionality and self-regulation on allostatic load (AL), a physiological indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that negative emotionality in combination with poor self-regulation would predict elevated AL. Mothers reported on children's…

  20. Effects of farnesyl pyrophosphate accumulation on calvarial osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Weivoda, Megan M; Hohl, Raymond J

    2011-08-01

    Statins, drugs commonly used to lower serum cholesterol, have been shown to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Statins inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), the first step of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, leading to the depletion of the isoprenoids farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). The effects of statins on bone have previously been attributed to the depletion of GGPP, because the addition of exogenous GGPP prevented statin-stimulated osteoblast differentiation in vitro. However, in a recent report, we demonstrated that the specific depletion of GGPP did not stimulate but, in fact, inhibited osteoblast differentiation. This led us to hypothesize that isoprenoids upstream of GGPP play a role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation. We demonstrate here that the expression of HMGCR and FPP synthase decreased during primary calvarial osteoblast differentiation, correlating with decreased FPP and GGPP levels during differentiation. Zaragozic acid (ZGA) inhibits the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway enzyme squalene synthase, leading to an accumulation of the squalene synthase substrate FPP. ZGA treatment of calvarial osteoblasts led to a significant increase in intracellular FPP and resulted in inhibition of osteoblast differentiation as measured by osteoblastic gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and matrix mineralization. Simultaneous HMGCR inhibition prevented the accumulation of FPP and restored osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, specifically inhibiting GGPPS to lower the ZGA-induced increase in GGPP did not restore osteoblast differentiation. The specificity of HMGCR inhibition to restore osteoblast differentiation of ZGA-treated cultures through the reduction in isoprenoid accumulation was confirmed with the addition of exogenous mevalonate. Similar to ZGA treatment, exogenous FPP inhibited the mineralization of primary calvarial osteoblasts

  1. Quantifying negative feedback regulation by micro-RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shangying; Raghavachari, Sridhar

    2011-10-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in post-transcriptional gene regulation by pairing with target mRNAs to repress protein production. It has been shown that over one-third of human genes are targeted by miRNA. Although hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in mammalian genomes, the function of miRNA-based repression in the context of gene regulation networks still remains unclear. In this study, we explore the functional roles of feedback regulation by miRNAs. In a model where repression of translation occurs by sequestration of mRNA by miRNA, we find that miRNA and mRNA levels are anti-correlated, resulting in larger fluctuation in protein levels than theoretically expected assuming no correlation between miRNA and mRNA levels. If miRNA repression is due to a catalytic suppression of translation rates, we analytically show that the protein fluctuations can be strongly repressed with miRNA regulation. We also discuss how either of these modes may be relevant for cell function.

  2. VEGF-C and TGF-β reciprocally regulate mesenchymal stem cell commitment to differentiation into lymphatic endothelial or osteoblastic phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Chosa, Naoyuki; Sawada, Shunsuke; Kondo, Hisatomo; Yaegashi, Takashi; Ishisaki, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The direction of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation is regulated by stimulation with various growth factors and cytokines. We recently established MSC lines, [transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-responsive SG‑2 cells, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-responsive SG‑3 cells, and TGF-β/BMP-non-responsive SG‑5 cells], derived from the bone marrow of green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice. In this study, to compare gene expression profiles in these MSC lines, we used DNA microarray analysis to characterize the specific gene expression profiles observed in the TGF-β-responsive SG‑2 cells. Among the genes that were highly expressed in the SG‑2 cells, we focused on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 3 (VEGFR3), the gene product of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 4 (Flt4). We found that VEGF-C, a specific ligand of VEGFR3, significantly induced the cell proliferative activity, migratory ability (as shown by Transwell migration assay), as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the SG‑2 cells. Additionally, VEGF-C significantly increased the expression of prospero homeobox 1 (Prox1) and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (Lyve1), which are lymphatic endothelial cell markers, and decreased the expression of osteogenic differentiation marker genes in these cells. By contrast, TGF-β significantly increased the expression of early-phase osteogenic differentiation marker genes in the SG‑2 cells and markedly decreased the expression of lymphatic endothelial cell markers. The findings of our study strongly suggest the following: i) that VEGF-C promotes the proliferative activity and migratory ability of MSCs; and ii) VEGF-C and TGF-β reciprocally regulate MSC commitment to differentiation into lymphatic endothelial or osteoblastic phenotypes, respectively. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regenerative ability of MSCs. PMID:26934950

  3. VEGF-C and TGF-β reciprocally regulate mesenchymal stem cell commitment to differentiation into lymphatic endothelial or osteoblastic phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    IGARASHI, YASUYUKI; CHOSA, NAOYUKI; SAWADA, SHUNSUKE; KONDO, HISATOMO; YAEGASHI, TAKASHI; ISHISAKI, AKIRA

    2016-01-01

    The direction of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation is regulated by stimulation with various growth factors and cytokines. We recently established MSC lines, [transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-responsive SG-2 cells, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-responsive SG-3 cells, and TGF-β/BMP-non-responsive SG-5 cells], derived from the bone marrow of green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice. In this study, to compare gene expression profiles in these MSC lines, we used DNA microarray analysis to characterize the specific gene expression profiles observed in the TGF-β-responsive SG-2 cells. Among the genes that were highly expressed in the SG-2 cells, we focused on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 3 (VEGFR3), the gene product of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 4 (Flt4). We found that VEGF-C, a specific ligand of VEGFR3, significantly induced the cell proliferative activity, migratory ability (as shown by Transwell migration assay), as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the SG-2 cells. Additionally, VEGF-C significantly increased the expression of prospero homeobox 1 (Prox1) and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (Lyve1), which are lymphatic endothelial cell markers, and decreased the expression of osteogenic differentiation marker genes in these cells. By contrast, TGF-β significantly increased the expression of early-phase osteogenic differentiation marker genes in the SG-2 cells and markedly decreased the expression of lymphatic endothelial cell markers. The findings of our study strongly suggest the following: i) that VEGF-C promotes the proliferative activity and migratory ability of MSCs; and ii) VEGF-C and TGF-β reciprocally regulate MSC commitment to differentiation into lymphatic endothelial or osteoblastic phenotypes, respectively. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regenerative ability of MSCs. PMID:26934950

  4. miR-124 negatively regulates osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Abdul S; Um, Soyoun; Lee, Heesu; Baek, Kyunghwa; Seo, Byoung Moo; Lee, Gene; Kim, Gwan-Shik; Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs are novel key regulators of cellular differentiation. Dlx transcription factors play an important role in osteoblast differentiation, and Dlx5 and Dlx2 are known targets of miR-124. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the regulatory effects of miR-124 on the osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). During osteogenic induction by BMP2, the expression levels of miR-124 were inversely correlated with those of osteogenic differentiation marker genes in human and mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs, MC3T3-E1 cells and C2C12 cells. The overexpression of a miR-124 mimic significantly decreased the expression levels of Dlx5, Dlx3, and Dlx2, whereas the silencing of miR-124 with hairpin inhibitors significantly increased the expression of these Dlx genes. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-124 directly targets the 3'UTRs of Dlx3, Dlx5, and Dlx2. The overexpression of a miR-124 mimic suppressed the osteogenic marker gene expression levels, alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization, which were all significantly increased by the overexpression of a miR-124 inhibitor. When ectopic bone formation was induced by the subcutaneous transplantation of human bone marrow-derived MSCs in nude mice, MSCs overexpressing a miR-124 inhibitor significantly enhanced woven bone formation compared with control MSCs. However, MSCs overexpressing a miR-124 mimic exhibited increased adipocyte differentiation at the expense of ectopic bone formation. These results suggest that miR-124 is a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation and that the targeting of Dlx5, Dlx3, and Dlx2 genes partly contributes to this inhibitory effect exerted by miR-124. PMID:25424317

  5. miR-23a/b regulates the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qi; Chen, Yusi; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Lin, Zhangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Age-related osteoporosis is associated with the reduced capacity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to differentiate into osteoblasts instead of adipocytes. However, the molecular mechanisms that decide the fate of BMSCs remain unclear. In our study, microRNA-23a, and microRNA-23b (miR-23a/b) were found to be markedly downregulated in BMSCs of aged mice and humans. The overexpression of miR-23a/b in BMSCs promoted osteogenic differentiation, whereas the inhibition of miR-23a/b increased adipogenic differentiation. Transmembrane protein 64 (Tmem64), which has expression levels inversely related to those of miR-23a/b in aged and young mice, was identified as a major target of miR-23a/b during BMSC differentiation. In conclusion, our study suggests that miR-23a/b has a critical role in the regulation of mesenchymal lineage differentiation through the suppression of Tmem64. PMID:27606130

  6. miR-23a/b regulates the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi; Chen, Yusi; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Lin, Zhangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Age-related osteoporosis is associated with the reduced capacity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to differentiate into osteoblasts instead of adipocytes. However, the molecular mechanisms that decide the fate of BMSCs remain unclear. In our study, microRNA-23a, and microRNA-23b (miR-23a/b) were found to be markedly downregulated in BMSCs of aged mice and humans. The overexpression of miR-23a/b in BMSCs promoted osteogenic differentiation, whereas the inhibition of miR-23a/b increased adipogenic differentiation. Transmembrane protein 64 (Tmem64), which has expression levels inversely related to those of miR-23a/b in aged and young mice, was identified as a major target of miR-23a/b during BMSC differentiation. In conclusion, our study suggests that miR-23a/b has a critical role in the regulation of mesenchymal lineage differentiation through the suppression of Tmem64. PMID:27606130

  7. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta is a critical regulator of insulin-like growth factor-I gene transcription in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umayahara, Y.; Billiard, J.; Ji, C.; Centrella, M.; McCarthy, T. L.; Rotwein, P.

    1999-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a major role in promoting skeletal growth by stimulating bone cell replication and differentiation. Prostaglandin E2 and other agents that induce cAMP production enhance IGF-I gene transcription in cultured rat osteoblasts through a DNA element termed HS3D, located in the proximal part of the major rat IGF-I promoter. We previously determined that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPdelta) is the key cAMP-stimulated regulator of IGF-I transcription in these cells and showed that it transactivates the rat IGF-I promoter through the HS3D site. We now have defined the physical-chemical properties and functional consequences of the interactions between C/EBPdelta and HS3D. C/EBPdelta, expressed in COS-7 cells or purified as a recombinant protein from Escherichia coli, bound to HS3D with an affinity at least equivalent to that of the albumin D-site, a known high affinity C/EBP binding sequence, and both DNA elements competed equally for C/EBPdelta. C/EBPdelta bound to HS3D as a dimer, with protein-DNA contact points located on guanine residues on both DNA strands within and just adjacent to the core C/EBP half-site, GCAAT, as determined by methylation interference footprinting. C/EBPdelta also formed protein-protein dimers in the absence of interactions with its DNA binding site, as indicated by results of glutaraldehyde cross-linking studies. As established by competition gel-mobility shift experiments, the conserved HS3D sequence from rat, human, and chicken also bound C/EBPdelta with similar affinity. We also found that prostaglandin E2-induced expression of reporter genes containing human IGF-I promoter 1 or four tandem copies of the human HS3D element fused to a minimal promoter and show that these effects were enhanced by a co-transfected C/EBPdelta expression plasmid. Taken together, our results provide evidence that C/EBPdelta is a critical activator of IGF-I gene transcription in osteoblasts and potentially in

  8. Tissue damage negatively regulates LPS-induced macrophage necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Scott, M J; Fan, E K; Li, Y; Liu, J; Xiao, G; Li, S; Billiar, T R; Wilson, M A; Jiang, Y; Fan, J

    2016-09-01

    Infection is a common clinical complication following tissue damage resulting from surgery and severe trauma. Studies have suggested that cell pre-activation by antecedent trauma/tissue damage profoundly impacts the response of innate immune cells to a secondary infectious stimulus. Cell necroptosis, a form of regulated inflammatory cell death, is one of the mechanisms that control cell release of inflammatory mediators from important innate immune executive cells such as macrophages (Mφ), which critically regulate the progress of inflammation. In this study, we investigated the mechanism and role of trauma/tissue damage in the regulation of LPS-induced Mφ necroptosis using a mouse model simulating long-bone fracture. We demonstrate that LPS acting through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 promotes Mφ necroptosis. However, necroptosis is ameliorated by high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release from damaged tissue. We show that HMGB1 acting through cell surface receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) upregulates caveolin-1 expression, which in turn induces caveolae-mediated TLR4 internalization and desensitization to decrease Mφ necroptosis. We further show that RAGE-MyD88 activation of Cdc42 and subsequent activation of transcription factor Sp1 serves as a mechanism underlying caveolin-1 transcriptional upregulation. These results reveal a previous unidentified protective role of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules in restricting inflammation in response to exogenous pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. PMID:26943325

  9. Defective osteoblast function in ICAP-1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Bouvard, Daniel; Aszodi, Attila; Kostka, Günter; Block, Marc R.; Albigès-Rizo, Corinne; Fässler, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY The integrin receptor family plays important roles in cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions through the recruitment of accessory molecules. One of them is the integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein-1 (ICAP-1), which specifically interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of β1 integrin subunit and negatively regulates its function in vitro. To address the role of ICAP-1 in vivo, we ablated the Icap-1 gene in mice. Here we report an unexpected role of ICAP-1 for osteoblast function during bone development. Icap-1-deficient mice suffer from a reduced osteoblast proliferation and delayed bone mineralization, giving rise to a retarded formation of bone sutures. In vitro studies revealed that primary and immortalized Icap-1-null osteoblasts display enhanced adhesion and spreading on extracellular matrix substrates likely due to an increase in β1 integrin activation. Finally, we provide evidence that ICAP-1 promotes differentiation of osteoprogenitors by supporting their condensation through modulating the integrin high affinity state. PMID:17567669

  10. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Qiang; Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie; Lian, Qing-Quan; Deng, Hai-Teng; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2010-08-15

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

  11. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability. PMID:25527899

  12. miR-141 modulates osteoblastic cell proliferation by regulating the target gene of lncRNA H19 and lncRNA H19-derived miR-675

    PubMed Central

    He, Peiheng; Zhang, Ziji; Huang, Guangxin; Wang, Hua; Xu, Dongliang; Liao, Weiming; Kang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has reported the significant roles of lncRNA or miRNAs in the biology of various diseases. This study was aimed to elucidate the potential roles of miR-141 and lncRNA H19 and H19-derived miR-675 in regulating osteoblasts proliferation and apoptosis and to explore its potential mechanism. miR-141 mimic or miR-141 inhibitor or siRNA-H19 or miR-675 inhibitor was transfected into human hFOB1.19 cells. The effects or miR-141 expression on H19 or miR-675 expression, on osteoblasts proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed. Moreover, effects of H19 and miR-675 expression on cell proliferation were also analyzed. The results showed that miR-141 was down-regulated in both hFOB1.19 cells and osteosarcoma tissues. The overexpressed miR-141 suppressed H19 and miR-675 expression in hFOB1.19 cells. Besides, miR-141 suppression significantly increased cell viability but this effect was blocked by silencing H19 or miR-675 inhibitor, which is similar to the effects on VEGF and IGF2 expression. Furthermore, miR-141 overexpression induced osteoblasts apoptosis, but decreased the levels of caspase-3 and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Taken together, our study revealed that tumor-suppressor miR-141 overexpression suppressed osteoblasts proliferation but induced apoptosis through down-regulating H19 or miR-675 in osteosarcoma. This study may provide theoretical basis for illustrating the interaction between lncRNA and miRNAs in osteosarcoma and for the therapeutic target of miR-141 in osteosarcoma treatment. PMID:27186302

  13. Vitamin D and gene networks in human osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    van de Peppel, Jeroen; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bone formation is indirectly influenced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) through the stimulation of calcium uptake in the intestine and re-absorption in the kidneys. Direct effects on osteoblasts and bone formation have also been established. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in osteoblasts and 1,25D3 modifies gene expression of various osteoblast differentiation and mineralization-related genes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), osteocalcin (BGLAP), and osteopontin (SPP1). 1,25D3 is known to stimulate mineralization of human osteoblasts in vitro, and recently it was shown that 1,25D3 induces mineralization via effects in the period preceding mineralization during the pre-mineralization period. For a full understanding of the action of 1,25D3 in osteoblasts it is important to get an integrated network view of the 1,25D3-regulated genes during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. The current data will be presented and discussed alluding to future studies to fully delineate the 1,25D3 action in osteoblast. Describing and understanding the vitamin D regulatory networks and identifying the dominant players in these networks may help develop novel (personalized) vitamin D-based treatments. The following topics will be discussed in this overview: (1) Bone metabolism and osteoblasts, (2) Vitamin D, bone metabolism and osteoblast function, (3) Vitamin D induced transcriptional networks in the context of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. PMID:24782782

  14. MEIS1 functions as a potential AR negative regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Liang; Yang, Yutao; Hang, Xingyi; Cui, Jiajun; Gao, Jiangping

    2014-10-15

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in human prostate carcinoma progression and transformation. However, the activation of AR is regulated by co-regulators. MEIS1 protein, the homeodomain transcription factor, exhibited a decreased level in poor-prognosis prostate tumors. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between MEIS1 and AR. We found that overexpression of MEIS1 inhibited the AR transcriptional activity and reduced the expression of AR target gene. A potential protein–protein interaction between AR and MEIS1 was identified by the immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Furthermore, MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment to androgen response element in prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter sequences. In addition, MEIS1 promoted the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT in the presence of R1881. Finally, MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our data suggests that MEIS1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor. - Highlights: • A potential interaction was identified between MEIS1 and AR signaling. • Overexpression of MEIS1 reduced the expression of AR target gene. • MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation. • MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells.

  15. Negative regulation of mitochondrial transcription by mitochondrial topoisomerase I

    PubMed Central

    Sobek, Stefan; Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Pommier, Yves; Bornholz, Beatrice; Kalfalah, Faiza; Zhang, Hongliang; Wiesner, Rudolf J.; von Kleist-Retzow, Jürgen-Christoph; Hillebrand, Frank; Schaal, Heiner; Mielke, Christian; Christensen, Morten O.; Boege, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial topoisomerase I is a genetically distinct mitochondria-dedicated enzyme with a crucial but so far unknown role in the homeostasis of mitochondrial DNA metabolism. Here, we present data suggesting a negative regulatory function in mitochondrial transcription or transcript stability. Deficiency or depletion of mitochondrial topoisomerase I increased mitochondrial transcripts, whereas overexpression lowered mitochondrial transcripts, depleted respiratory complexes I, III and IV, decreased cell respiration and raised superoxide levels. Acute depletion of mitochondrial topoisomerase I triggered neither a nuclear mito-biogenic stress response nor compensatory topoisomerase IIβ upregulation, suggesting the concomitant increase in mitochondrial transcripts was due to release of a local inhibitory effect. Mitochondrial topoisomerase I was co-immunoprecipitated with mitochondrial RNA polymerase. It selectively accumulated and rapidly exchanged at a subset of nucleoids distinguished by the presence of newly synthesized RNA and/or mitochondrial RNA polymerase. The inactive Y559F-mutant behaved similarly without affecting mitochondrial transcripts. In conclusion, mitochondrial topoisomerase I dampens mitochondrial transcription and thereby alters respiratory capacity. The mechanism involves selective association of the active enzyme with transcriptionally active nucleoids and a direct interaction with mitochondrial RNA polymerase. The inhibitory role of topoisomerase I in mitochondrial transcription is strikingly different from the stimulatory role of topoisomerase I in nuclear transcription. PMID:23982517

  16. TRIM65 negatively regulates p53 through ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ma, Chengyuan; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Ying; Sun, Luyao; Yu, Zhenxiang

    2016-04-22

    Tripartite-motif protein family member 65 (TRIM65) is an important protein involved in white matter lesion. However, the role of TRIM65 in human cancer remains less understood. Through the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) gene alteration database, we found that TRIM65 is upregulated in a significant portion of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. Our cell growth assay revealed that TRIM65 overexpression promotes cell proliferation, while knockdown of TRIM65 displays opposite effect. Mechanistically, TRIM65 binds to p53, one of the most critical tumor suppressors, and serves as an E3 ligase toward p53. Consequently, TRIM65 inactivates p53 through facilitating p53 poly-ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Notably, chemotherapeutic reagent cisplatin induction of p53 is markedly attenuated in response to ectopic expression of TRIM65. Cell growth inhibition by TRIM65 knockdown is more significant in p53 positive H460 than p53 negative H1299 cells, and knockdown of p53 in H460 cells also shows compromised cell growth inhibition by TRIM65 knockdown, indicating that p53 is required, at least in part, for TRIM65 function. Our findings demonstrate TRIM65 as a potential oncogenic protein, highly likely through p53 inactivation, and provide insight into development of novel approaches targeting TRIM65 for NSCLC treatment, and also overcoming chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27012201

  17. Glatiramer acetate treatment negatively regulates type I interferon signaling

    PubMed Central

    Molnarfi, Nicolas; Prod'homme, Thomas; Schulze-Topphoff, Ulf; Spencer, Collin M.; Weber, Martin S.; Patarroyo, Juan C.; Lalive, Patrice H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone), a disease-modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), promotes development of anti-inflammatory (M2, type II) monocytes that can direct differentiation of regulatory T cells. We investigated the innate immune signaling pathways that participate in GA-mediated M2 monocyte polarization. Methods: Monocytes were isolated from myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)–deficient, Toll-IL-1 receptor domain–containing adaptor inducing interferon (IFN)–β (TRIF)–deficient, IFN-α/β receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1)–deficient, and wild-type (WT) mice and human peripheral blood. GA-treated monocytes were stimulated with Toll-like receptor ligands, then evaluated for activation of kinases and transcription factors involved in innate immunity, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. GA-treated mice were evaluated for cytokine secretion and susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Results: GA-mediated inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes occurred independently of MyD88 and nuclear factor–κB, but was blocked by TRIF deficiency. Furthermore, GA did not provide clinical benefit in TRIF-deficient mice. GA inhibited activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, an upstream regulator of activating transcription factor (ATF)–2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, which regulates IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Consequently, nuclear translocation of ATF-2 and IRF3, components of the IFN-β enhanceosome, was impaired. Consistent with these observations, GA inhibited production of IFN-β in vivo in WT mice, but did not modulate proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes from IFNAR1-deficient mice. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that GA inhibits the type I IFN pathway in M2 polarization of monocytes independently of MyD88, providing an important mechanism connecting innate and adaptive immune modulation in GA therapy and valuable insight regarding its

  18. Genome-wide alterations in polycomb-regulated epigenomic modifications in embryonic osteoblasts following exposure to maternal obesity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases, presumably via epigenetic mechanisms. However, evidence on the impact of gestational events on regulation of bone development is sparse. Recently we showed that bone development is inhibited in gest...

  19. miRNA-132-3p inhibits osteoblast differentiation by targeting Ep300 in simulated microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zebing; Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Zhongyang; Wang, Han; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Lianchang; Zhang, Shu; Cao, Xinsheng

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs can play important roles in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, the function of miRNAs in bone loss induced by microgravity remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the differentially expressed miRNAs in both the femur tissues of hindlimb unloading rats and primary rat osteoblasts (prOB) exposed to simulated microgravity. Specifically, miR-132-3p was found up-regulated and negatively correlated with osteoblast differentiation. Overexpression of miR-132-3p significantly inhibited prOB differentiation, whereas inhibition of miR-132-3p function yielded an opposite effect. Furthermore, silencing of miR-132-3p expression effectively attenuated the negative effects of simulated microgravity on prOB differentiation. Further experiments confirmed that E1A binding protein p300 (Ep300), a type of histone acetyltransferase important for Runx2 activity and stability, was a direct target of miR-132-3p. Up-regulation of miR-132-3p by simulated microgravity could inhibit osteoblast differentiation in part by decreasing Ep300 protein expression, which, in turn, resulted in suppression of the activity and acetylation of Runx2, a key regulatory factor of osteoblast differentiation. Taken together, our findings are the first to demonstrate that miR-132-3p can inhibit osteoblast differentiation and participate in the regulation of bone loss induced by simulated microgravity, suggesting a potential target for counteracting decreases in bone formation. PMID:26686902

  20. PRELP (proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein) promotes osteoblastic differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by regulating the β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiying; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Chengzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Liang; Wang, Huaxin; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-02-12

    Proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP) is a collagen-binding proteoglycan highly expressed in the developing bones. Recent studies indicated that PRELP could inhibit osteoclastogenesis as a NF-κB inhibitor. However, its role during osteoblast differentiation is still unclear. In this study, we confirmed that the expression of PRELP increased with the osteogenesis induction of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Down-regulation of PRELP expression by shRNA reduced ALP activity, mineralization and expression of osteogenic marker gene Runx2. Our microarray analysis data suggested that β-catenin may act as a hub gene in the PRELP-mediated gene network. We validated furtherly that PRELP knockdown could inhibit the level of connexin43, a key regulator of osteoblast differentiation by affecting β-catenin protein expression, and its nuclear translocation in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Therefore, this study established a new role of PRELP in modulating β-catenin/connexin43 pathway and osteoblast differentiation. PMID:26809092

  1. Staphylococcus aureus CodY Negatively Regulates Virulence Gene Expression▿

    PubMed Central

    Majerczyk, Charlotte D.; Sadykov, Marat R.; Luong, Thanh T.; Lee, Chia; Somerville, Greg A.; Sonenshein, Abraham L.

    2008-01-01

    CodY is a global regulatory protein that was first discovered in Bacillus subtilis, where it couples gene expression to changes in the pools of critical metabolites through its activation by GTP and branched-chain amino acids. Homologs of CodY can be found encoded in the genomes of nearly all low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus. The introduction of a codY-null mutation into two S. aureus clinical isolates, SA564 and UAMS-1, through allelic replacement, resulted in the overexpression of several virulence genes. The mutant strains had higher levels of hemolytic activity toward rabbit erythrocytes in their culture fluid, produced more polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), and formed more robust biofilms than did their isogenic parent strains. These phenotypes were associated with derepressed levels of RNA for the hemolytic alpha-toxin (hla), the accessory gene regulator (agr) (RNAII and RNAIII/hld), and the operon responsible for the production of PIA (icaADBC). These data suggest that CodY represses, either directly or indirectly, the synthesis of a number of virulence factors of S. aureus. PMID:18156263

  2. Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase is Negatively Regulated Via Prion Protein.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Marcio Henrique Mello; Glezer, Isaias; Xavier, Andre Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Alberti Paiva; Pino, Jessica Monteiro Volejnik; Zamith, Thiago Panaro; Vieira, Taynara Fernanda; Antonio, Bruno Brito; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Martins, Vilma Regina; Lee, Kil Sun

    2016-07-01

    Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a glycoprotein of the plasma membrane that plays pleiotropic functions by interacting with multiple signaling complexes at the cell surface. Recently, a number of studies have reported the involvement of PrP(C) in dopamine metabolism and signaling, including its interactions with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine receptors. However, the outcomes reported by independent studies are still debatable. Therefore in this study, we investigated the effects of PrP(C) on the TH expression during the differentiation of N2a cells with dibutyryl-cAMP, a well-known cAMP analog that activates TH transcription. Upon differentiation, TH was induced with concomitant reduction of PrP(C) at protein level, but not at mRNA level. shRNA-mediated PrP(C) reduction increased the basal level of TH at both mRNA and protein levels without dibutyryl-cAMP treatment. This phenotype was reversed by re-expression of PrP(C). PrP(C) knockdown also potentiated the effect of dibutyryl-cAMP on TH expression. Our findings suggest that PrP(C) has suppressive effects on TH expression. As a consequence, altered PrP(C) functions may affect the regulation of dopamine metabolism and related neurological disorders. PMID:26975317

  3. Osteoblast differentiation is functionally associated with decreased AMP kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Takayuki; Bandow, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Hiraku; Chiba, Norika; Kakimoto, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Kawamoto, Shin-ichiro; Nagaoka, Eiichi; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    Osteoblasts, originating from mesenchymal stem cells, play a pivotal role in bone formation and mineralization. Several transcription factors including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) have been reported to be essential for osteoblast differentiation, whereas the cytoplasmic signal transduction pathways controlling the differentiation process have not been fully elucidated. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine-threonine kinase generally regarded as a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, polarity, and division. Recent lines of evidence have indicated that the activity of the catalytic alpha subunit of AMPK is regulated through its phosphorylation by upstream AMPK kinases (AMPKKs) including LKB1. Here, we explored the role of AMPK in osteoblast differentiation using in vitro culture models. Phosphorylation of AMPKalpha was significantly decreased during osteoblastic differentiation in both primary osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1, a mouse osteoblastic cell line. Conversely, the terminal differentiation of primary osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells, represented by matrix mineralization, was significantly inhibited by glucose restriction and stimulation with metformin, both of which are known activators of AMPK. Matrix mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells was also inhibited by the forced expression of a constitutively active form of AMPKalpha. Metformin significantly inhibited gene expression of Runx2 along with osteoblast differentiation markers including osteocalcin (Ocn), bone sialo protein (Bsp), and osteopontin (Opn). Thus, our present data indicate that differentiation of osteoblasts is functionally associated with decreased AMPK activity. PMID:19725053

  4. Dioxin-induced up-regulation of the active form of vitamin D is the main cause for its inhibitory action on osteoblast activities, leading to developmental bone toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Noriko Nishimura, Hisao; Ito, Tomohiro; Miyata, Chie; Izumi, Keiko; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Matsumura, Fumio

    2009-05-01

    Dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD) is known to cause bone toxicity, particularly during animal development, although its action mechanism to cause this toxicity has yet to be elucidated. Mouse pups were exposed to TCDD via dam's milk that were administered orally with 15 {mu}g TCDD/kg b.w. on postnatal day 1. Here we report that TCDD causes up-regulation of vitamin D 1{alpha}-hydroxylase in kidney, resulting in a 2-fold increase in the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}, in serum. This action of TCDD is not caused by changes in parathyroid hormone, a decrease in vitamin D degrading enzyme, vitamin D 24-hydroxylase, or alterations in serum Ca{sup 2+} concentration. Vitamin D is known to affect bone mineralization. Our data clearly show that TCDD-exposed mice exhibit a marked decrease in osteocalcin and collagen type 1 as well as alkaline phosphatase gene expression in tibia by postnatal day 21, which is accompanied with a mineralization defect in the tibia, lowered activity of osteoblastic bone formation, and an increase in fibroblastic growth factor-23, a sign of increased vitamin D effect. Despite these significant effects of TCDD on osteoblast activities, none of the markers of osteoclast activities was found to be affected. Histomorphometry confirmed that osteoblastic activity, but not bone resorption activity, was altered by TCDD. A prominent lesion commonly observed in these TCDD-treated mice was impaired bone mineralization that is characterized by an increased volume and thickness of osteoids lining both the endosteum of the cortical bone and trabeculae. Together, these data suggest that the impaired mineralization resulting from reduction of the osteoblastic activity, which is caused by TCDD-induced up-regulation of vitamin D, is responsible for its bone developmental toxicity.

  5. Negative urgency and emotion regulation strategy use: Associations with displaced aggression.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jillian Panuzio; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E

    2015-09-01

    The numerous public health consequences of interpersonal aggression highlight the necessity of a comprehensive understanding of factors influencing its perpetration. This study examined direct and interactive associations between negative urgency and emotion regulation strategy use in predicting displaced aggression under conditions of negative mood. Participants were 197 male and female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to employ either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression in response to a negative mood induction. Immediately afterwards, participants engaged in an analog displaced aggression task. Results revealed direct, positive associations between negative urgency and aggression. In addition, the use of suppression was associated with greater aggression than was the use of reappraisal alone. Counter to the hypothesis, there were no interactive effects between negative urgency and emotion regulation strategy use in predicting aggression. Findings suggest reducing negative urgency and use of suppression as potential intervention targets for individuals who engage in aggressive behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:502-512, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25753818

  6. Toddler Emotion Regulation with Mothers and Fathers: Temporal Associations between Negative Affect and Behavioral Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Maxwell, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated temporal associations between putative emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in 20-month-old toddlers. Toddlers' parent-focused, self-distraction, and toy-focused strategies, as well as negative affect, were rated on a second-by-second basis during laboratory parent-toddler interactions. Longitudinal…

  7. The Role of Depression and Negative Affect Regulation Expectancies in Tobacco Smoking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Nazir, Niaman

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Expectancies about nicotine's ability to alleviate negative mood states may play a role in the relationship between smoking and depression. The authors examined the role of negative affect regulation expectancies as a potential mediator of depression (history of depression and depressive symptoms) and smoking among college students.…

  8. Retromer in Osteoblasts Interacts With Protein Phosphatase 1 Regulator Subunit 14C, Terminates Parathyroid Hormone's Signaling, and Promotes Its Catabolic Response.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lei; Xia, Wen-Fang; Tang, Fu-Lei; Pan, Jin-Xiu; Mei, Lin; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays critical, but distinct, roles in bone remodeling, including bone formation (anabolic response) and resorption (catabolic response). Although its signaling and function have been extensively investigated, it just began to be understood how distinct functions are induced by PTH activating a common receptor, the PTH type 1 receptor (PTH1R), and how PTH1R signaling is terminated. Here, we provide evidence for vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35), a major component of retromer, in regulating PTH1R trafficking, turning off PTH signaling, and promoting its catabolic function. VPS35 is expressed in osteoblast (OB)-lineage cells. VPS35-deficiency in OBs impaired PTH(1-34)-promoted PTH1R translocation to the trans-Golgi network, enhanced PTH(1-34)-driven signaling, and reduced PTH(1-34)'s catabolic response in culture and in mice. Further mechanical studies revealed that VPS35 interacts with not only PTH1R, but also protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 14C (PPP1R14C), an inhibitory subunit of PP1 phosphatase. PPP1R14C also interacts with PTH1R, which is necessary for the increased endosomal PTH1R signaling and decreased PTH(1-34)'s catabolic response in VPS35-deficient OB-lineage cells. Taken together, these results suggest that VPS35 deregulates PTH1R-signaling likely by its interaction with PTH1R and PPP1R14C. This event is critical for the control of PTH(1-34)-signaling dynamics, which may underlie PTH-induced catabolic response and adequate bone remodeling. PMID:27333042

  9. Blocking c-Met signaling enhances bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Kitano, Sachie; Karasaki, Miki; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that blocking hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor/c-Met signaling inhibited arthritis and articular bone destruction in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, we investigated the role of c-Met signaling in osteoblast differentiation using the C2C12 myoblast cell line derived from murine satellite cells and the MC3T3-E1 murine pre-osteoblast cell line. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by treatment with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 or osteoblast-inducer reagent in the presence or absence of either HGF antagonist (NK4) or c-Met inhibitor (SU11274). Osteoblast differentiation was confirmed by Runx2 expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin production by the cells. Production of ALP, osteocalcin and HGF was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Runx2 expression was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. The phosphorylation status of ERK1/2, AKT, and Smads was determined by Western blot analysis. Both NK4 and SU11274 enhanced Runx2 expression, and ALP and osteocalcin production but suppressed HGF production in BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells. SU11274 also enhanced ALP and osteocalcin production in osteoblast-inducer reagent-stimulated MC3T3-E1 cells. SU11274 inhibited ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation in HGF-stimulated C2C12 cells. This result suggested that ERK and AKT were functional downstream of the c-Met signaling pathway. However, both mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor suppressed osteocalcin and HGF production in BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells. Furthermore, SU11274, MEK, and PI3K inhibitor suppressed Smad phosphorylation in BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells. These results indicate that although the c-Met-MEK-ERK-Smad and c-Met-PI3K-AKT-Smad signaling pathways positively regulate osteoblast differentiation, c-Met signaling negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation, independent of the MEK-ERK-Smad and PI3

  10. Blocking c-Met signaling enhances bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Kitano, Sachie; Karasaki, Miki; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that blocking hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor/c-Met signaling inhibited arthritis and articular bone destruction in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, we investigated the role of c-Met signaling in osteoblast differentiation using the C2C12 myoblast cell line derived from murine satellite cells and the MC3T3-E1 murine pre-osteoblast cell line. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by treatment with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 or osteoblast-inducer reagent in the presence or absence of either HGF antagonist (NK4) or c-Met inhibitor (SU11274). Osteoblast differentiation was confirmed by Runx2 expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin production by the cells. Production of ALP, osteocalcin and HGF was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Runx2 expression was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. The phosphorylation status of ERK1/2, AKT, and Smads was determined by Western blot analysis. Both NK4 and SU11274 enhanced Runx2 expression, and ALP and osteocalcin production but suppressed HGF production in BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells. SU11274 also enhanced ALP and osteocalcin production in osteoblast-inducer reagent-stimulated MC3T3-E1 cells. SU11274 inhibited ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation in HGF-stimulated C2C12 cells. This result suggested that ERK and AKT were functional downstream of the c-Met signaling pathway. However, both mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor suppressed osteocalcin and HGF production in BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells. Furthermore, SU11274, MEK, and PI3K inhibitor suppressed Smad phosphorylation in BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells. These results indicate that although the c-Met-MEK-ERK-Smad and c-Met-PI3K-AKT-Smad signaling pathways positively regulate osteoblast differentiation, c-Met signaling negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation, independent of the MEK-ERK-Smad and PI3

  11. Mothers' Socialization of Emotion Regulation: The Moderating Role of Children's Negative Emotional Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabile, Scott P.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Robison, Sarah D.

    2009-01-01

    During the toddler period, children begin to shift from being primarily dependent on parents to regulate their emotions to managing their emotions independently. The present study considers how children's propensity towards negative emotional arousal interacts with mothers' efforts to socialize emotion regulation. Fifty-five low income mothers and…

  12. Control your anger! The neural basis of aggression regulation in response to negative social feedback.

    PubMed

    Achterberg, Michelle; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-05-01

    Negative social feedback often generates aggressive feelings and behavior. Prior studies have investigated the neural basis of negative social feedback, but the underlying neural mechanisms of aggression regulation following negative social feedback remain largely undiscovered. In the current study, participants viewed pictures of peers with feedback (positive, neutral or negative) to the participant's personal profile. Next, participants responded to the peer feedback by pressing a button, thereby producing a loud noise toward the peer, as an index of aggression. Behavioral analyses showed that negative feedback led to more aggression (longer noise blasts). Conjunction neuroimaging analyses revealed that both positive and negative feedback were associated with increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and bilateral insula. In addition, more activation in the right dorsal lateral PFC (dlPFC) during negative feedback vs neutral feedback was associated with shorter noise blasts in response to negative social feedback, suggesting a potential role of dlPFC in aggression regulation, or top-down control over affective impulsive actions. This study demonstrates a role of the dlPFC in the regulation of aggressive social behavior. PMID:26755768

  13. The SLE-associated Pbx1-d isoform acts as a dominant-negative transcriptional regulator

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, M; Liang, S; Potula, H-HS; Chang, L-J; Morel, L

    2013-01-01

    Pbx1 is a transcription factor involved in multiple cellular processes, including the maintenance of self-renewal of hematopoietic progenitors. We have shown that the CD4 + T-cell expression of a novel splice isoform of Pbx1, Pbx1-d, is associated with lupus susceptibility in the NZM2410 mouse and in lupus patients. The function of Pbx1 in T cells is unknown, but the splicing out of the DNA-binding domain in Pbx1-d predicts a dominant-negative function. In support of this hypothesis, we have shown that Pbx1-d transduction accelerates differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast pregenitors and mimics the effect of short hairpin RNA silencing of Pbx1. Conversely, Pbx1-d transduction reduced the expression of Sox3, a gene strongly transactivated by Pbx1, and Pbx1-d did not bind the Sox3 promoter. These results constitute a first step towards the understanding on how Pbx1-d contributes to systemic autoimmunity in the NZM2410 mouse model as well as in lupus patients. PMID:22992721

  14. Regulation of the collagenase-3 receptor and its role in intracellular ligand processing in rat osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walling, H. W.; Chan, P. T.; Omura, T. H.; Barmina, O. Y.; Fiacco, G. J.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously described a specific, saturable receptor for rat collagenase-3 in the rat osteosarcoma cell line, UMR 106-01. Binding of rat collagenase-3 to this receptor is coupled to the internalization and eventual degradation of the enzyme and correlates with observed extracellular levels of the enzyme. In this study we have shown that decreased binding, internalization, and degradation of 125I-rat collagenase-3 were observed in cells after 24 h of parathyroid hormone treatment; these activities returned to control values after 48 h and were increased substantially (twice control levels) after 96 h of treatment with the hormone. Subcellular fractionation studies to identify the route of uptake and degradation of collagenase-3 localized intracellular accumulation of 125I-rat collagenase-3 initially in Golgi-associated lysosomes and later in secondary lysosomes. Maximal lysosomal accumulation of the radiolabel and stimulation of general lysosomal activity occurred after 72 h of parathyroid hormone treatment. Preventing fusion of endosomes with lysosomes (by temperature shift, colchicine, or monensin) resulted in no internalized 125I-collagenase-3 in either lysosomal fraction. Treatment of UMR cells with the above agents or ammonium chloride decreased excretion of 125I-labeled degradation products of collagenase-3. These experiments demonstrated that degradation of collagenase-3 required receptor-mediated endocytosis and sequential processing by endosomes and lysosomes. Thus, parathyroid hormone regulates the expression and synthesis of collagenase-3 as well as the abundance and functioning of the collagenase-3 receptor and the intracellular degradation of its ligand. The coordinate changes in the secretion of collagenase-3 and expression of the receptor determine the net abundance of the enzyme in the extracellular space.

  15. Automatic control of negative emotions: Evidence that structured practice increases the efficiency of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Christou-Champi, Spyros; Farrow, Tom F. D.; Webb, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is vital to everyday functioning. However, the effortful nature of many forms of ER may lead to regulation being inefficient and potentially ineffective. The present research examined whether structured practice could increase the efficiency of ER. During three training sessions, comprising a total of 150 training trials, participants were presented with negatively valenced images and asked either to “attend” (control condition) or “reappraise” (ER condition). A further group of participants did not participate in training but only completed follow-up measures. Practice increased the efficiency of ER as indexed by decreased time required to regulate emotions and increased heart rate variability (HRV). Furthermore, participants in the ER condition spontaneously regulated their negative emotions two weeks later and reported being more habitual in their use of ER. These findings indicate that structured practice can facilitate the automatic control of negative emotions and that these effects persist beyond training. PMID:24678930

  16. miRNA863-3p sequentially targets negative immune regulator ARLPKs and positive regulator SERRATE upon bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Dongdong; Lii, Yifan E.; Chellappan, Padmanabhan; Lei, Lei; Peralta, Karl; Jiang, Chunhao; Guo, Jianhua; Coaker, Gitta; Jin, Hailing

    2016-01-01

    Plant small RNAs play important roles in gene regulation during pathogen infection. Here we show that miR863-3p is induced by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae carrying various effectors. Early during infection, miR863-3p silences two negative regulators of plant defence, atypical receptor-like pseudokinase1 (ARLPK1) and ARLPK2, both lacking extracellular domains and kinase activity, through mRNA degradation to promote immunity. ARLPK1 associates with, and may function through another negative immune regulator ARLPK1-interacting receptor-like kinase 1 (AKIK1), an active kinase with an extracellular domain. Later during infection, miR863-3p silences SERRATE, which is essential for miRNA accumulation and positively regulates defence, through translational inhibition. This results in decreased miR863-3p levels, thus forming a negative feedback loop to attenuate immune responses after successful defence. This is an example of a miRNA that sequentially targets both negative and positive regulators of immunity through two modes of action to fine-tune the timing and amplitude of defence responses. PMID:27108563

  17. Beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1, the Generation Z of Negative Checkpoint Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Le Mercier, Isabelle; Lines, J. Louise; Noelle, Randolph J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last two years, clinical trials with blocking antibodies to the negative checkpoint regulators CTLA-4 and PD-1 have rekindled the hope for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple negative checkpoint regulators protect the host against autoimmune reactions but also restrict the ability of T cells to effectively attack tumors. Releasing these brakes has emerged as an exciting strategy for cancer treatment. Conversely, these pathways can be manipulated to achieve durable tolerance for treatment of autoimmune diseases and transplantation. In the future, treatment may involve combination therapy to target multiple cell types and stages of the adaptive immune responses. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the recently discovered negative checkpoint regulators, future targets for immunotherapy. PMID:26347741

  18. The role of versican G3 domain in regulating breast cancer cell motility including effects on osteoblast cell growth and differentiation in vitro – evaluation towards understanding breast cancer cell bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Versican is detected in the interstitial tissues at the invasive margins of breast carcinoma, is predictive of relapse, and negatively impacts overall survival rates. The versican G3 domain is important in breast cancer cell growth, migration and bone metastasis. However, mechanistic studies evaluating versican G3 enhanced breast cancer bone metastasis are limited. Methods A versican G3 construct was exogenously expressed in the 66c14 and the MC3T3-E1 cell line. Cells were observed through light microscopy and viability analyzed by Coulter Counter or determined with colorimetric proliferation assays. The Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit was used to detect apoptotic activity. Modified Chemotactic Boyden chamber migration invasion assays were applied to observe tumor migration and invasion to bone stromal cells and MC3T3-E1 cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and ALP ELISA assays were performed to observe ALP activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. Results In the four mouse breast cancer cell lines 67NR, 66c14, 4T07, and 4T1, 4T1 cells expressed higher levels of versican, and showed higher migration and invasion ability to MC3T3-E1 cells and primary bone stromal cells. 4T1 conditioned medium (CM) inhibited MC3T3-E1 cell growth, and even lead to apoptosis. Only 4T1 CM prevented MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation, noted by inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. We exogenously expressed a versican G3 construct in a cell line that expresses low versican levels (66c14), and observed that the G3-expressing 66c14 cells showed enhanced cell migration and invasion to bone stromal and MC3T3-E1 cells. This observation was prevented by selective EGFR inhibitor AG1478, selective MEK inhibitor PD 98059, and selective AKT inhibitor Triciribine, but not by selective JNK inhibitor SP 600125. Versican G3 enhanced breast cancer cell invasion to bone stromal cells or osteoblast cells appears to occur through enhancing EGFR/ERK or AKT signaling. G3 expressing MC3T3-E1

  19. E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 negatively regulates tumor suppressor p53 to promote tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju; Zhang, C; Wang, X L; Ly, P; Belyi, V; Xu-Monette, Z Y; Young, K H; Hu, W; Feng, Z

    2014-11-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 has a key role in maintaining genomic stability and preventing tumorigenesis through its regulation of cellular stress responses, including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence. To ensure its proper levels and functions in cells, p53 is tightly regulated mainly through post-translational modifications, such as ubiquitination. Here, we identified E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 as a novel p53 target gene and negative regulator to regulate p53-mediated stress responses. In response to stress, such as DNA damage, p53 binds to the p53 responsive element in the promoter of the TRIM32 gene and transcriptionally induces the expression of TRIM32 in cells. In turn, TRIM32 interacts with p53 and promotes p53 degradation through ubiquitination. Thus, TRIM32 negatively regulates p53-mediated apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence in response to stress. TRIM32 is frequently overexpressed in different types of human tumors. TRIM32 overexpression promotes cell oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis in mice in a largely p53-dependent manner. Taken together, our results demonstrated that as a novel p53 target and a novel negative regulator for p53, TRIM32 has an important role in regulation of p53 and p53-mediated cellular stress responses. Furthermore, our results also revealed that impairing p53 function is a novel mechanism for TRIM32 in tumorigenesis. PMID:25146927

  20. Inhibitors of Growth 1b Suppresses Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-β/δ Expression Through Downregulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α in Osteoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Bo; Hong, Zhen; Gong, Kai; Sheng, Jun; Wu, Hong-Hua; Deng, Shao-Lin; Huang, Gang; Ma, Ze-Hui; Pan, Xian-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Bone formation, a highly regulated developmental process, involves osteoblast differentiation, which is controlled by different important transcription factors. Recent evidence has suggested possible negative regulation of inhibitors of growth (ING) 1b on the osteoblast marker expression. The aim of this study is to examine the detailed mechanism by which the activity of ING1b inhibits osteoblast differentiation. In the current study, we investigated the function and mechanism by which ING1b inhibits osteoblast differentiation using C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells and MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting showed that ING1b was decreased during osteoblast differentiation and ING1b overexpression markedly decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression, and collagen type 1 synthesis, whereas ING1b silencing significantly upregulated ALP activity, Runx2 expression, and collagen type 1 synthesis. Further studies indicated that ING1b suppressed the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-β/δ in a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α-dependent manner, while ING1b silencing significantly increased the expression of PPAR-β/δ and HIF1α. Moreover, PPAR-β/δ or HIF1α silencing significantly inhibited ALP activity, Runx2 expression, and collagen type 1 synthesis. These results demonstrated that ING1b is an important regulator of osteoblast differentiation and suppresses PPAR-β/δ. Our study may provide additional insight into osteoblast differentiation and offer a potential new molecular target for osteoporosis. PMID:26849833

  1. Negative transcriptional regulation of the interferon-gamma promoter by glucocorticoids and dominant negative mutants of c-Jun.

    PubMed

    Cippitelli, M; Sica, A; Viggiano, V; Ye, J; Ghosh, P; Birrer, M J; Young, H A

    1995-05-26

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is an immunoregulatory cytokine expressed in large granular lymphocytes and T cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying IFN-gamma gene transcription have not been fully defined. Here, we analyze the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of IFN-gamma promoter activity by the glucocorticoid hormone dexamethasone. Cotransfection assays performed in Jurkat T cells demonstrated that the activity of the initial 108 base pairs of the IFN-gamma promoter was down-regulated in the presence of dexamethasone. Furthermore, utilizing electrophoretic mobility shift analysis, we identified activator protein 1 AP-1-cAMP response element binding protein-activating transcription factor (CREB-ATF) binding elements situated in positions of the IFN-gamma promoter previously identified as essential for promoter activity. Moreover, dominant negative mutants of the c-Jun proto-oncogene were able to mimic the same down-regulatory effect exerted by dexamethasone, and mutations that abolished the binding of the AP-1 CREB-ATF factors were able to block the glucocorticoid effect. These results suggest a model involving the inhibition of IFN-gamma AP-1 CREB-ATF DNA binding complexes as one of the mechanisms involved in the negative regulatory action of glucocorticoids on IFN-gamma gene expression and support the relevance of AP-1 CREB-ATF binding factors during the transcriptional activation of the IFN-gamma promoter in T cells. PMID:7759501

  2. No fear, no panic: probing negation as a means for emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Cornelia; Deutsch, Roland; Platte, Petra; Pauli, Paul

    2013-08-01

    This electroencephalographic study investigated if negating one's emotion results in paradoxical effects or leads to effective emotional downregulation. Healthy participants were asked to downregulate their emotions to happy and fearful faces by using negated emotional cue words (e.g., no fun, no fear). Cue words were congruent with the emotion depicted in the face and presented prior to each face. Stimuli were presented in blocks of happy and fearful faces. Blocks of passive stimulus viewing served as control condition. Active regulation reduced amplitudes of early event-related brain potentials (early posterior negativity, but not N170) and the late positive potential for fearful faces. A fronto-central negativity peaking at about 250 ms after target face onset showed larger amplitude modulations during downregulation of fearful and happy faces. Behaviorally, negating was more associated with reappraisal than with suppression. Our results suggest that in an emotional context, negation processing could be quite effective for emotional downregulation but that its effects depend on the type of the negated emotion (pleasant vs unpleasant). Results are discussed in the context of dual process models of cognition and emotion regulation. PMID:22490924

  3. Proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in connexin43-null osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furlan, F.; Lecanda, F.; Screen, J.; Civitelli, R.

    2001-01-01

    Osteoblasts are highly coupled by gap junctions formed primarily by connexin43 (Cx43). We have shown that interference with Cx43 expression or function disrupts transcriptional regulation of osteoblast genes, and that deletion of Cx43 in the mouse causes skeletal malformations, delayed mineralization, and osteoblast dysfunction. Here, we studied the mechanisms by which genetic deficiency of Cx43 alters osteoblast development. While cell proliferation rates were similar in osteoblastic cells derived from calvaria of Cx43-null and wild type mice, camptothecin-induced apoptosis was 3-fold higher in mutant compared to wild type osteoblasts. When grown in mineralizing medium, Cx43-null cells were able to produce mineralized matrix but it took one week longer to reach the same mineralization levels as in normal cells. Likewise, expression of alkaline phosphatase activity per cell--a marker of osteoblast differentiation--was maximal only 2 weeks later in Cx43-null relative to wild-type cells. These observations suggest that Cx43 is important for a normal and timely development of the osteoblastic phenotype. Delayed differentiation and increase programmed cell death may explain the skeletal phenotype of Cx43-null mice.

  4. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 regulates CCAAT-enhancer-binding homologous protein expression in osteoblasts through upregulation of microRNA-205

    PubMed Central

    ZHUANG, JIAN; GAO, RUFENG; WU, HAIHUI; WU, XIAO; PAN, FUGEN

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), is induced by endoplasmic reticulum-stress and mediates programmed cell death. In osteoblasts, CHOP overexpression increases the rate of apoptosis, leading to osteoblastic dysfunction. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying CHOP expression remain unclear. In the present study, western blot analysis was used to demonstrate that the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibited the levels of the CHOP protein, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated the knockdown of STAT3 upregulated CHOP expression. Furthermore, STAT3 was shown to increase the expression level of microRNA (miR)-205. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-205 was able to directly target the 3′-untranslated region of the CHOP gene to inhibit its protein expression. The miR-205 antisense largely abolished the inhibitory effect of STAT3 activation on the levels of CHOP protein. Therefore, the results demonstrated a previously unknown STAT3/miR-205/CHOP signaling pathway in osteoblasts, which may aid the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of associated diseases, including osteoporosis. PMID:26170952

  5. Membrane peptidases on human osteoblast-like cells in culture: hydrolysis of calcitonin and hormonal regulation of endopeptidase-24.11.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, S; Caswell, A M; Kenny, A J; Turner, A J

    1993-01-01

    Five membrane peptidase activities have been identified on cultured human osteoblast-like cells. These consisted of the four exopeptidases aminopeptidase-A, aminopeptidase-N, aminopeptidase-W and carboxypeptidase-M, and the endopeptidase, endopeptidase-24.11. The presence of endopeptidase-24.11 was confirmed immunochemically by immunofluorescent staining and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The inclusion of phosphoramidon partially inhibited the hydrolysis of human calcitonin by a membrane fraction prepared from osteoblast-like cell membranes, thus implicating endopeptidase-24.11 in its inactivation. Another metallopeptidase also contributed substantially to calcitonin hydrolysis. Purified porcine endopeptidase-24.11 (1 microgram) was shown to hydrolyse calcitonin with a half-life of 23 min, which compared to a half-life of 0.5 min for substance P under similar conditions. Sequence data revealed that the initial site of hydrolysis of calcitonin was between residues Lys18 and Phe19. The expression of endopeptidase-24.11 by cultured osteoblast-like cells was shown to be modified by various agents: expression was decreased by phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (160 nM for 48 h) and increased in the presence of calcitonin (1.5 nM for 48 h) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.01-1 microM for 72 h). Images Figure 1 PMID:8439284

  6. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions. PMID:26244914

  7. Relationships among Burnout, Social Support, and Negative Mood Regulation Expectancies of Elementary School Teachers in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mi Y.; Lee, Jee Y.; Kim, Jinsook

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study are as follows: (1) to determine whether burnout among elementary school teachers in Korea differs on selected demographic variables, (2) to investigate the relationship between burnout and negative mood regulation expectancies, as an internal variable, and social support, as an external variable, and (3) to examine the…

  8. Therapeutic Alliance, Negative Mood Regulation, and Treatment Outcome in Child Abuse-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloitre, Marylene; Chase Stovall McClough,K.; Miranda, Regina; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the related contributions of the therapeutic alliance and negative mood regulation to the outcome of a 2-phase treatment for childhood abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Phase 1 focused on stabilization and preparatory skills building, whereas Phase 2 was comprised primarily of imaginal exposure to traumatic…

  9. Conflict Management with Friends and Romantic Partners: The Role of Attachment and Negative Mood Regulation Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creasey, Gary; Kershaw, Kathy; Boston, Ada

    1999-01-01

    Studied the degree to which attachment orientations were related to negative mood regulation expectancies and conflict management strategies with best friends and romantic partners in a sample of 140 female college students. Discusses results in relation to previous research on attachment theory and implications for interventions. (SLD)

  10. Regulation of FGF signaling: Recent insights from studying positive and negative modulators.

    PubMed

    Korsensky, Lina; Ron, Dina

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is involved in a multitude of biological processes, while impairment of FGF signaling is implicated in a variety of human diseases including developmental disorders and cancer. Therefore, it is not surprising that FGF activity is regulated at multiple and distinct levels. This review focuses on positive and negative modulation of the FGF signal exemplified by recently identified protein modulators anosmin-1, fibronectin-leucine-rich transmembrane protein 3 (FLRT3) and similar expression to FGF (Sef). We examine how these proteins regulate FGF signaling at multiple levels and across species. Finally, we describe the role of these regulators in human disease. PMID:26903404

  11. Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris

    2012-05-01

    Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT) should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound's environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT) is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review. PMID:23162229

  12. Wheat CBL-interacting protein kinase 25 negatively regulates salt tolerance in transgenic wheat

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xia; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiatian; Su, Peipei; Ma, Jingfei; He, Guangyuan; Yang, Guangxiao

    2016-01-01

    CBL-interacting protein kinases are involved in plant responses to abiotic stresses, including salt stress. However, the negative regulating mechanism of this gene family in response to salinity is less reported. In this study, we evaluated the role of TaCIPK25 in regulating salt response in wheat. Under conditions of high salinity, TaCIPK25 expression was markedly down-regulated in roots. Overexpression of TaCIPK25 resulted in hypersensitivity to Na+ and superfluous accumulation of Na+ in transgenic wheat lines. TaCIPK25 expression did not decline in transgenic wheat and remained at an even higher level than that in wild-type wheat controls under high-salinity treatment. Furthermore, transmembrane Na+/H+ exchange was impaired in the root cells of transgenic wheat. These results suggested that TaCIPK25 negatively regulated salt response in wheat. Additionally, yeast-one-hybrid, β-glucuronidase activity and DNA-protein-interaction-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays showed that the transcription factor TaWRKY9 bound W-box in the TaCIPK25 promoter region. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays showed concomitantly inverted expression patterns of TaCIPK25 and TaWRKY9 in wheat roots under salt treatment, ABA application and inhibition of endogenous ABA condition. Overall, based on our results, in a salt stress condition, the negative salt response in wheat involved TaCIPK25 with the expression regulated by TaWRKY9. PMID:27358166

  13. RRAD inhibits the Warburg effect through negative regulation of the NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rui; Lin, Meihua; Liang, Yingjian; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xiaolong; Yang, Bo; Feng, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells preferentially use aerobic glycolysis to meet their increased energetic and biosynthetic demands, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. Its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. RRAD, a small GTPase, is a potential tumor suppressor in lung cancer. RRAD expression is frequently down-regulated in lung cancer, which is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. Recently, RRAD was reported to repress the Warburg effect, indicating that down-regulation of RRAD expression is an important mechanism contributing to the Warburg effect in lung cancer. However, the mechanism by which RRAD inhibits the Warburg effect remains unclear. Here, we found that RRAD negatively regulates the NF-κB signaling to inhibit the GLUT1 translocation and the Warburg effect in lung cancer cells. Mechanically, RRAD directly binds to the p65 subunit of the NF-κB complex and inhibits the nuclear translocation of p65, which in turn negatively regulates the NF-κB signaling to inhibit GLUT1 translocation and the Warburg effect. Blocking the NF-κB signaling largely abolishes the inhibitory effects of RRAD on the translocation of GLUT1 to the plasma membrane and the Warburg effect. Taken together, our results revealed a novel mechanism by which RRAD negatively regulates the Warburg effect in lung cancer cells. PMID:25893381

  14. Wheat CBL-interacting protein kinase 25 negatively regulates salt tolerance in transgenic wheat.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xia; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiatian; Su, Peipei; Ma, Jingfei; He, Guangyuan; Yang, Guangxiao

    2016-01-01

    CBL-interacting protein kinases are involved in plant responses to abiotic stresses, including salt stress. However, the negative regulating mechanism of this gene family in response to salinity is less reported. In this study, we evaluated the role of TaCIPK25 in regulating salt response in wheat. Under conditions of high salinity, TaCIPK25 expression was markedly down-regulated in roots. Overexpression of TaCIPK25 resulted in hypersensitivity to Na(+) and superfluous accumulation of Na(+) in transgenic wheat lines. TaCIPK25 expression did not decline in transgenic wheat and remained at an even higher level than that in wild-type wheat controls under high-salinity treatment. Furthermore, transmembrane Na(+)/H(+) exchange was impaired in the root cells of transgenic wheat. These results suggested that TaCIPK25 negatively regulated salt response in wheat. Additionally, yeast-one-hybrid, β-glucuronidase activity and DNA-protein-interaction-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays showed that the transcription factor TaWRKY9 bound W-box in the TaCIPK25 promoter region. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays showed concomitantly inverted expression patterns of TaCIPK25 and TaWRKY9 in wheat roots under salt treatment, ABA application and inhibition of endogenous ABA condition. Overall, based on our results, in a salt stress condition, the negative salt response in wheat involved TaCIPK25 with the expression regulated by TaWRKY9. PMID:27358166

  15. When death is not a problem: Regulating implicit negative affect under mortality salience.

    PubMed

    Lüdecke, Christina; Baumann, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Terror management theory assumes that death arouses existential anxiety in humans which is suppressed in focal attention. Whereas most studies provide indirect evidence for negative affect under mortality salience by showing cultural worldview defenses and self-esteem strivings, there is only little direct evidence for implicit negative affect under mortality salience. In the present study, we assume that this implicit affective reaction towards death depends on people's ability to self-regulate negative affect as assessed by the personality dimension of action versus state orientation. Consistent with our expectations, action-oriented participants judged artificial words to express less negative affect under mortality salience compared to control conditions whereas state-oriented participants showed the reversed pattern. PMID:26335149

  16. Prostaglandin E2-induced up-regulation of c-fos messenger ribonucleic acid is primarily mediated by 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Dietz, T. J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism by which the proto-oncogene, c-fos, is up-regulated in response to PGE2 in the mouse osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cell line was investigated using RT-PCR. c-fos messenger RNA up-regulation by dmPGE2 is rapid, starting 10 min post stimulation, and transient. The specific protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, inhibited c-fos induction. Moreover, down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment had no effect on the induction of c-fos by dmPGE2. We conclude that up-regulation of c-fos by dmPGE2 is primarily dependent on PKA in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In S49 lymphoma wild-type but not S49 cyc- cells, which are deficient in cAMP signaling, dmPGE2 up-regulates c-fos and increases cell growth compared with unstimulated cells. Thus in S49 lymphoma cells, c-fos induction by PGE2 is also dependent on cAMP signaling. The minimal c-fos promoter region required for dmPGE2-induced expression was identified by transfecting c-fos promoter deletion constructs coupled to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene into Vero cells. Transfection of a plasmid containing 99 bp c-fos proximal promoter was sufficient to direct c-fos/CAT expression following stimulation with dmPGE2. Because induction of c-fos is mediated by cAMP, these data are consistent with activation of c-fos via the CRE/ATF cis element.

  17. Receptor for advanced glycation end products inhibits proliferation in osteoblast through suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guofeng; Xu, Jingren; Li, Zengchun

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAGE overexpression suppresses cell proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAGE overexpression decreases Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAGE overexpression decreases ERK and PI3K signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Wnt signaling abolishes PI3K signaling restored by RAGE blockade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Wnt signaling abolishes ERK signaling restored by RAGE blockade. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a crucial role in bone metabolism. However, the role of RAGE in the control of osteoblast proliferation is not yet evaluated. In the present study, we demonstrate that RAGE overexpression inhibits osteoblast proliferation in vitro. The negative regulation of RAGE on cell proliferation results from suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling, and is restored by RAGE neutralizing antibody. Prevention of Wnt signaling using Sfrp1 or DKK1 rescues RAGE-decreased PI3K and ERK signaling and cell proliferation, indicating that the altered cell growth in RAGE overexpressing cells is in part secondary to alterations in Wnt signaling. Consistently, RAGE overexpression inhibits the expression of Wnt targets cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is partially reversed by RAGE blockade. Overall, these results suggest that RAGE inhibits osteoblast proliferation via suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling, which provides novel mechanisms by which RAGE regulates osteoblast growth.

  18. Fibronectin is a survival factor for differentiated osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Doty, S. B.; Lull, J. C.; Holmuhamedov, E.; Humphries, M. J.; Damsky, C. H.

    1998-01-01

    The skeletal extracellular matrix produced by osteoblasts contains the glycoprotein fibronectin, which regulates the adhesion, differentiation and function of various adherent cells. Interactions with fibronectin are required for osteoblast differentiation in vitro, since fibronectin antagonists added to cultures of immature fetal calvarial osteoblasts inhibit their progressive differentiation. To determine if fibronectin plays a unique role in fully differentiated osteoblasts, cultures that had already formed mineralized nodules in vitro were treated with fibronectin antagonists. Fibronectin antibodies caused >95% of the cells in the mature cultures to display characteristic features of apoptosis (nuclear condensation, apoptotic body formation, DNA laddering) within 24 hours. Cells appeared to acquire sensitivity to fibronectin antibody-induced apoptosis as a consequence of differentiation, since antibodies failed to kill immature cells and the first cells killed were those associated with mature nodules. Intact plasma fibronectin, as well as fragments corresponding to the amino-terminal, cell-binding, and carboxy-terminal domains of fibronectin, independently induced apoptosis of mature (day-13), but not immature (day-4), osteoblasts. Finally, transforming growth factor-beta1 partially protected cells from the apoptotic effects of fibronectin antagonists. Thus, in the course of maturation cultured osteoblasts switch from depending on fibronectin for differentiation to depending on fibronectin for survival. These data suggest that fibronectin, together with transforming growth factor-beta1, may affect bone formation, in part by regulating the survival of osteoblasts.

  19. The osteoblastic niche in the context of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Toscani, Denise; Bolzoni, Marina; Accardi, Fabrizio; Aversa, Franco; Giuliani, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The osteoblastic niche has a critical role in the regulation of hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence and self-renewal and in the support of hematopoiesis. Several mechanisms are involved in the crosstalk between stem cells and osteoblasts, including soluble cytokines, adhesion molecules, and signal pathways such as the wingless-Int (Wnt), Notch, and parathyroid hormone pathways. According to the most recent evidence, there is an overlap between osteoblastic and perivascular niches that affects HSC function involving mesenchymal stromal and endothelial cells and a gradient of oxygen regulated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Derived from plasma cells, multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematopoietic malignancy characterized by a peculiar dependency on the bone microenvironment. Quiescent MM cells may reside in the osteoblastic niche for protection from apoptotic stimuli; in turn, MM cells suppress osteoblast formation and function, leading to impairment of bone formation and the development of osteolytic lesions. Several recent studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in the relationship between osteoblasts and MM cells and identified potential therapeutic targets in the osteoblastic niche, including the HIF-1α, Runx2, and Wnt (both canonical and noncanonical) signaling pathways. PMID:25424768

  20. Relationship of Maternal Negative Moods to Child Emotion Regulation during Family Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Dagne, Getachew A.; Snyder, James

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of maternal hostile and depressive moods to children’s down-regulation of unprovoked anger and sadness/fear was assessed in a community sample of 267 five year old boys and girls. The speed of children’s down-regulation of unprovoked anger and sadness/fear was based on real-time observations during mother-child interaction. The association of down-regulation with maternal mood was estimated using Bayesian event history analysis. As mothers reported higher depressive mood, both boys and girls were faster to down regulate anger displays as those displays accumulated during mother child interaction. The speed of boys’ down regulation of anger and of sadness/fear was not associated with maternal hostile mood. As mothers reported more hostile mood, girls were faster to down regulate displays of sadness/fear, but the speed of this down regulation slowed as those displays accumulated during ongoing mother-child interaction. These associations of child down regulation and maternal mood were observed after controlling for child adjustment. The data suggest frequent exposure to different negative maternal moods affect children’s expression and regulation of emotions in relatively specific ways, conditional on the type of maternal mood, the type of child emotion, and child gender. PMID:21262049

  1. Corp Regulates P53 in Drosophila melanogaster via a Negative Feedback Loop

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Riddhita; Li, Ying; Zhou, Lei; Golic, Kent G.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor P53 is a critical mediator of the apoptotic response to DNA double-strand breaks through the transcriptional activation of pro-apoptotic genes. This mechanism is evolutionarily conserved from mammals to lower invertebrates, including Drosophila melanogaster. P53 also transcriptionally induces its primary negative regulator, Mdm2, which has not been found in Drosophila. In this study we identified the Drosophila gene companion of reaper (corp) as a gene whose overexpression promotes survival of cells with DNA damage in the soma but reduces their survival in the germline. These disparate effects are shared by p53 mutants, suggesting that Corp may be a negative regulator of P53. Confirming this supposition, we found that corp negatively regulates P53 protein level. It has been previously shown that P53 transcriptionally activates corp; thus, Corp produces a negative feedback loop on P53. We further found that Drosophila Corp shares a protein motif with vertebrate Mdm2 in a region that mediates the Mdm2:P53 physical interaction. In Corp, this motif mediates physical interaction with Drosophila P53. Our findings implicate Corp as a functional analog of vertebrate Mdm2 in flies. PMID:26230084

  2. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    PubMed

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way. PMID:26032031

  3. Maternal Attachment Style and Responses to Adolescents’ Negative Emotions: The Mediating Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Brett, Bonnie E.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Previous research has examined the developmental consequences, particularly in early childhood, of parents’ supportive and unsupportive responses to children’s negative emotions. Much less is known about factors that explain why parents respond in ways that may support or undermine their children’s emotions, and even less is known about how these parenting processes unfold with adolescents. We examined the associations between mothers’ attachment styles and their distress, harsh, and supportive responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions two years later and whether these links were mediated by maternal emotion regulation difficulties. Design Mothers in a longitudinal study (n = 230) reported on their attachment style, difficulties regulating their emotions, and their hypothetical responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions, respectively, at consecutive laboratory visits one year apart. Results Mothers who reported greater attachment-related avoidance and anxiety reported having greater difficulties with emotion regulation one year later. Emotion dysregulation, in turn, predicted more distressed, harsher, and less supportive maternal responses to adolescents’ negative emotions the following year. In addition, greater avoidance directly predicted harsher maternal responses two years later. Conclusions These findings extend previous research by identifying maternal attachment style as a predictor of responses to adolescent distress and by documenting the underlying role of emotion dysregulation in the link between adult attachment style and parenting. PMID:25568638

  4. DDIT4/REDD1/RTP801 is a novel negative regulator of Schwann cell myelination.

    PubMed

    Noseda, Roberta; Belin, Sophie; Piguet, Françoise; Vaccari, Ilaria; Scarlino, Stefania; Brambilla, Paola; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Feltri, Maria Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Quattrini, Angelo; Feinstein, Elena; Huganir, Richard L; Bolino, Alessandra

    2013-09-18

    Signals that promote myelination must be tightly modulated to adjust myelin thickness to the axonal diameter. In the peripheral nervous system, axonal neuregulin 1 type III promotes myelination by activating erbB2/B3 receptors and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in Schwann cells. Conversely, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10) dephosphorylates PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and negatively regulates the AKT pathway and myelination. Recently, the DLG1/SAP97 scaffolding protein was described to interact with PTEN to enhance PIP3 dephosphorylation. Here we now report that nerves from mice with conditional inactivation of Dlg1 in Schwann cells display only a transient increase in myelin thickness during development, suggesting that DLG1 is a transient negative regulator of myelination. Instead, we identified DDIT4/RTP801/REDD1 as a sustained negative modulator of myelination. We show that DDIT4 is expressed in Schwann cells and its maximum expression level precedes the peak of AKT activation and of DLG1 activity in peripheral nerves. Moreover, loss of DDIT4 expression both in vitro and in vivo in Ddit4-null mice provokes sustained hypermyelination and enhanced mTORC1 activation, thus suggesting that this molecule is a novel negative regulator of PNS myelination. PMID:24048858

  5. Negative Regulation of Tumor Suppressor p53 by microRNA miR-504

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenwei; Chan, Chang S.; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Cen; Sun, Yvonne; Song, Jun S.; Tang, Laura H.; Levine, Arnold J.; Feng, Zhaohui

    2010-01-01

    Summary Tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in tumor prevention. p53 protein levels and activity are under a tight and complex regulation in cells to maintain the proper function of p53. microRNAs play a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Here we report the regulation of p53 through microRNA miR-504. miR-504 acts as a negative regulator of human p53 through its direct binding to two sites in p53 3′-UTR. Overexpression of miR-504 decreases p53 protein levels and functions in cells, including p53 transcriptional activity, p53-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in response to stress, and furthermore, promotes tumorigenecity of cells in vivo. These results demonstrate the direct negative regulation of p53 by miR-504 as a mechanism for p53 regulation in cells, which highlights the importance of microRNAs in tumorigenesis. PMID:20542001

  6. ERK5 negatively regulates tobacco smoke-induced pulmonary epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhaofeng; Xie, Wei; Wu, Rui; Geng, Hao; Zhao, Li; Xie, Chunfeng; Li, Xiaoting; Huang, Cong; Zhu, Jianyun; Zhu, Mingming; Zhu, Weiwei; Wu, Jieshu; Geng, Shanshan; Zhong, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    As the primary cause of lung cancer, tobacco smoke (TS) promotes the initiation and progression of lung tumorigenesis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process involved in cell malignant transformation. The role of ERK5, the lesser studied member of MAPKs family, in regulating TS-triggered pulmonary EMT has not been investigated. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells and BALB/c mice were used as in vitro and in vivo TS exposure models. Exposure of normal human bronchial epithelial cells to TS for 7 days induced morphological change, enhanced migratory and invasive capacities, reduced epithelial marker expression and increased mesenchymal marker expression. Importantly, we demonstrated for the first time that ERK5 negatively regulated TS-mediated lung epithelial EMT, as evidenced by the findings that TS suppressed ERK5 activation, and that TS-triggered EMT was mimicked with ERK5 inhibition and reversed by ERK5 overexpression. The negative regulation of ERK5 on pulmonary EMT was further confirmed in mice exposed to TS for 12 weeks. Taken together, our data suggest that ERK5 negatively regulates TS-mediated pulmonary EMT. These findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of TS-associated lung tumorigenesis and may open up new avenues in the search for potential target of lung cancer intervention. PMID:25965818

  7. Parental Negative Control Moderates the Shyness–Emotion Regulation Pathway to School-Age Internalizing Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Moilanen, Kristin L.

    2011-01-01

    Models of developmental psychopathology emphasize both mediation and moderation processes among child and caregiving attributes; however, little research has examined both these processes simultaneously on the development of internalizing problems. This study tested a moderated mediation model that related early childhood shyness, emotion regulation and maternal negative control to school-age internalizing problems among 257 boys from low-income families. Shyness and maternal negative control was assessed at ages 1.5–2, emotion regulation was observed at age 3.5, and internalizing symptoms were assessed by mothers and teachers at age 6 or 7. Results indicated that 1) the active distraction regulation strategy mediated the relations between early shyness and maternal report of internalizing symptoms; 2) the passive/dependent regulation strategy mediated the relations between shyness and teacher report of internalizing symptoms; and 3) both mediation processes were moderated by maternal negative control. The results are discussed in relation to implications for early prevention and intervention. PMID:21107676

  8. Phosphorylation of Trihelix Transcriptional Repressor ASR3 by MAP KINASE4 Negatively Regulates Arabidopsis Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Shan; Yu, Xiao; Cheng, Cheng; Chen, Sixue; Cheng, Yanbing; Yuan, Joshua S.; Jiang, Daohong; He, Ping; Shan, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Proper control of immune-related gene expression is crucial for the host to launch an effective defense response. Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) induces rapid and profound transcriptional reprogramming via unclear mechanisms. Here, we show that ASR3 (ARABIDOPSIS SH4-RELATED3) functions as a transcriptional repressor and plays a negative role in regulating pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in Arabidopsis thaliana. ASR3 belongs to a plant-specific trihelix transcription factor family for which functional studies are lacking. MAMP treatments induce rapid phosphorylation of ASR3 at threonine 189 via MPK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase that negatively regulates PTI responses downstream of multiple MAMP receptors. ASR3 possesses transcriptional repressor activity via its ERF-associated amphiphilic repression motifs and negatively regulates a large subset of flg22-induced genes. Phosphorylation of ASR3 by MPK4 enhances its DNA binding activity to suppress gene expression. Importantly, the asr3 mutant shows enhanced disease resistance to virulent bacterial pathogen infection, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing the wild-type or phospho-mimetic form of ASR3 exhibit compromised PTI responses. Our studies reveal a function of the trihelix transcription factors in plant innate immunity and provide evidence that ASR3 functions as a transcriptional repressor regulated by MAMP-activated MPK4 to fine-tune plant immune gene expression. PMID:25770109

  9. Inorganic pyrophosphatase induces type I collagen in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Polewski, Monika D.; Johnson, Kristen A.; Foster, Melissa; Millán, José Luis; Terkeltaub, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The physiologic selectivity of calcification in bone tissue reflects selective co-expression by osteoblasts of fibrillar collagen I and of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), which hydrolyzes the calcification inhibitor pyrophosphate (PPi) and generates phosphate (Pi). Humans and mice deficient in the PPi-generating ecto-enzyme NPP1 demonstrate soft tissue calcification, occurring at sites of extracellular matrix expansion. Significantly, the function in osteoblasts of cytosolic inorganic pyrophosphatase (abbreviated iPPiase), which generates Pi via PPi hydrolysis with neutral pH optimum, remains unknown. We assessed iPPiase in Enpp1−/− and wild type (WT) mouse osteoblasts and we tested the hypothesis that iPPiase regulates collagen I expression. Methods We treated mouse calvarial osteoblasts with ascorbate and β-glycerol phosphate to promote calcification, and we assessed cytosolic Pi and PPi levels, sodium-dependent Pi uptake, Pit-1 Pi co-transporter expression, and iPPiase and TNAP activity and expression. We also assessed the function of transfected Ppa1 in osteoblasts. Results Inorganic pyrophosphatase but not TNAP was elevated in Enpp1−/− calvariae in situ. Cultured primary Enpp1−/− calvarial osteoblasts demonstrated increased calcification despite flat TNAP activity rather than physiologic TNAP up-regulation seen in WT osteoblasts. Despite decreased cytosolic PPi in early culture, Enpp1−/− osteoblasts maintained cytosolic Pi levels comparable to WT osteoblasts, in association with increased iPPiase, enhanced sodium-dependent Pi uptake and expression of Pit-1, and markedly increased collagen I synthesis. Suppression of collagen synthesis in Enpp1−/− osteoblasts using 3,4-dehydroproline markedly suppressed calcification. Last, transfection of Ppa1 in WT osteoblasts increased cytosolic Pi and decreased cytosolic but not extracellular PPi, and induced both collagen I synthesis and calcification. Conclusions Increased

  10. Negative regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal damage responses by death-associated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Amy; Lynn, Grace; Ngo, Vy; Wong, Daniel; Moseley, Sarah L.; Ewbank, Jonathan J.; Goncharov, Alexandr; Wu, Yi-Chun; Pujol, Nathalie; Chisholm, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Wounding of epidermal layers triggers multiple coordinated responses to damage. We show here that the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the tumor suppressor death-associated protein kinase, dapk-1, acts as a previously undescribed negative regulator of barrier repair and innate immune responses to wounding. Loss of DAPK-1 function results in constitutive formation of scar-like structures in the cuticle, and up-regulation of innate immune responses to damage. Overexpression of DAPK-1 represses innate immune responses to needle wounding. Up-regulation of innate immune responses in dapk-1 requires the TIR-1/p38 signal transduction pathway; loss of function in this pathway synergizes with dapk-1 to drastically reduce adult lifespan. Our results reveal a previously undescribed function for the DAPK tumor suppressor family in regulation of epithelial damage responses. PMID:19164535

  11. TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Mio; Sato, Tomonobu; Nukiwa, Ryota; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B plays an important role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth. -- Abstract: The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-{kappa}B is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one of the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth.

  12. Krüppel-like factor 4 negatively regulates cellular antiviral immune response

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei-Wei; Lian, Huan; Zhong, Bo; Shu, Hong-Bing; Li, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Viral infection triggers activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and IRF3, which collaborate to induce the expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and elicit innate antiviral response. In this report, we identified Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) as a negative regulator of virus-triggered signaling. Overexpression of KLF4 inhibited virus-induced activation of ISRE and IFN-β promoter in various types of cells, while knockdown of KLF4 potentiated viral infection-triggered induction of IFNB1 and downstream genes and attenuated viral replication. In addition, KLF4 was found to be localized in the cytosol and nucleus, and viral infection promoted the translocation of KLF4 from cytosol to nucleus. Upon virus infection, KLF4 was bound to the promoter of IFNB gene and inhibited the recruitment of IRF3 to the IFNB promoter. Our study thus suggests that KLF4 negatively regulates cellular antiviral response. PMID:25531393

  13. An RNA chaperone, AtCSP2, negatively regulates salt stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kentaro; Liu, Yuelin; Kim, Myung-Hee; Imai, Ryozo

    2015-01-01

    Cold shock domain (CSD) proteins are RNA chaperones that destabilize RNA secondary structures. Arabidopsis Cold Shock Domain Protein 2 (AtCSP2), one of the 4 CSD proteins (AtCSP1-AtCSP4) in Arabidopsis, is induced during cold acclimation but negatively regulates freezing tolerance. Here, we analyzed the function of AtCSP2 in salt stress tolerance. A double mutant, with reduced AtCSP2 and no AtCSP4 expression (atcsp2–3 atcsp4–1), displayed higher survival rates after salt stress. In addition, overexpression of AtCSP2 resulted in reduced salt stress tolerance. These data demonstrate that AtCSP2 acts as a negative regulator of salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:26252779

  14. Ceramide and ceramide 1-phosphate are negative regulators of TNF-α production induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Józefowski, Szczepan; Czerkies, Maciej; Łukasik, Anna; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna; Sobota, Andrzej

    2010-12-01

    LPS is a constituent of cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria that, acting through the CD14/TLR4 receptor complex, causes strong proinflammatory activation of macrophages. In murine peritoneal macrophages and J774 cells, LPS at 1-2 ng/ml induced maximal TNF-α and MIP-2 release, and higher LPS concentrations were less effective, which suggested a negative control of LPS action. While studying the mechanism of this negative regulation, we found that in J774 cells, LPS activated both acid sphingomyelinase and neutral sphingomyelinase and moderately elevated ceramide, ceramide 1-phosphate, and sphingosine levels. Lowering of the acid sphingomyelinase and neutral sphingomyelinase activities using inhibitors or gene silencing upregulated TNF-α and MIP-2 production in J774 cells and macrophages. Accordingly, treatment of those cells with exogenous C8-ceramide diminished TNF-α and MIP-2 production after LPS stimulation. Exposure of J774 cells to bacterial sphingomyelinase or interference with ceramide hydrolysis using inhibitors of ceramidases also lowered the LPS-induced TNF-α production. The latter result indicates that ceramide rather than sphingosine suppresses TNF-α and MIP-2 production. Of these two cytokines, only TNF-α was negatively regulated by ceramide 1-phosphate as was indicated by upregulated TNF-α production after silencing of ceramide kinase gene expression. None of the above treatments diminished NO or RANTES production induced by LPS. Together the data indicate that ceramide negatively regulates production of TNF-α and MIP-2 in response to LPS with the former being sensitive to ceramide 1-phosphate as well. We hypothesize that the ceramide-mediated anti-inflammatory pathway may play a role in preventing endotoxic shock and in limiting inflammation. PMID:21041721

  15. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. PMID:26232242

  16. Identifying miRNA/mRNA negative regulation pairs in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xile; Xu, Xiangming; Wang, Jinhai; Lin, Jianjiang; Chen, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the molecular biology of Colorectal cancer (CRC), novel approaches are still required to uncover the detailed molecular mechanism of CRC. We aim to explore the potential negatively regulated miRNA-mRNA pairs and investigate their regulatory roles so as to elaborate the potential roles of the critical proteins in the signaling pathways enriched by the differential target genes of negatively regulated miRNA in CRC. Firstly, the differential miRNA-mRNA pairs were selected, followed by pairs of miRNA and their target genes. The obtained relationships were subjected to do functional enrichment analysis and those enriched in CRC pathways were chose to further construct a protein interaction network. Finally, we analyzed the regulatory roles of these relationships and constructed a regulatory network of negatively regulated miRNA and mRNA relationships. A total of 372 pairs of miRNA-mRNA were found and 108 target genes of miRNA were obtained. Three miRNAs including hsa-mir-23b, hsa-mir-365-1 and hsa-mir-365-2 showed significant influence on prognosis of CRC patients. To conclude, the miRNA/mRNA deregulations pairs identified in this study have high potentials to be further applied in diagnosis and treatment of CRC. PMID:26269151

  17. Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 and Its Regulatory Protein Inhibitor 2 Negatively Regulate ABA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Xie, Shaojun; Batelli, Giorgia; Wang, Bangshing; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xing, Lu; Lei, Mingguang; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The core ABA signaling pathway consists of three major components: ABA receptor (PYR1/PYLs), type 2C Protein Phosphatase (PP2C) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2). Nevertheless, the complexity of ABA signaling remains to be explored. To uncover new components of ABA signal transduction pathways, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for SnRK2-interacting proteins. We found that Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 (TOPP1) and its regulatory protein, At Inhibitor-2 (AtI-2), physically interact with SnRK2s and also with PYLs. TOPP1 inhibited the kinase activity of SnRK2.6, and this inhibition could be enhanced by AtI-2. Transactivation assays showed that TOPP1 and AtI-2 negatively regulated the SnRK2.2/3/6-mediated activation of the ABA responsive reporter gene RD29B, supporting a negative role of TOPP1 and AtI-2 in ABA signaling. Consistent with these findings, topp1 and ati-2 mutant plants displayed hypersensitivities to ABA and salt treatments, and transcriptome analysis of TOPP1 and AtI-2 knockout plants revealed an increased expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes in the mutants. Taken together, our results uncover TOPP1 and AtI-2 as negative regulators of ABA signaling. PMID:26943172

  18. SOCS3 Drives Proteasomal Degradation of TBK1 and Negatively Regulates Antiviral Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Sheng, Chunjie; Gao, Shijuan; Yao, Chen; Li, Jiandong; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Huiming; Wu, Jiaoxiang; Pan, Changchuan; Chen, Shuai; Huang, Wenlin

    2015-07-01

    TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)-mediated induction of type I interferon (IFN) plays a critical role in host antiviral responses and immune homeostasis. The negative regulation of TBK1 activity is largely unknown. We report that suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) inhibits the IFN-β signaling pathway by promoting proteasomal degradation of TBK1. Overexpression and knockdown experiments indicated that SOCS3 is a negative regulator of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation and IFN-β transcription. Moreover, SOCS3 directly associates with TBK1, and they colocalize in the cytoplasm. SOCS3 catalyzes K48-linked polyubiquitination of TBK1 at Lys341 and Lys344 and promotes subsequent TBK1 degradation. On the contrary, SOCS3 knockdown markedly increases the abundance of TBK1. Interestingly, both the BOX domain of SOCS3 and Ser172 phosphorylation of TBK1 are indispensable for the processes of ubiquitination and degradation. Ectopic expression of SOCS3 significantly inhibits vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and influenza A virus strain A/WSN/33 (WSN)-induced IRF3 phosphorylation and facilitates the replication of WSN virus by detecting the transcription of its viral RNA (vRNA). Knockdown of SOCS3 represses WSN replication. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SOCS3 acts as a negative regulator of IFN-β signal by ubiquitinating and degrading TBK1, shed light on the understanding of antiviral innate immunity, and provide a potential target for developing antiviral agents. PMID:25939384

  19. Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways.

  20. Down-Regulation of Negative Emotional Processing by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Effects of Personality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Gómez, Cleofé; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Clemente, Immaculada C.; Pascual-Leone, Álvaro; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies indicates that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a core region in emotional processing, particularly during down-regulation of negative emotional conditions. However, emotional regulation is a process subject to major inter-individual differences, some of which may be explained by personality traits. In the present study we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left DLPFC to investigate whether transiently increasing the activity of this region resulted in changes in the ratings of positive, neutral and negative emotional pictures. Results revealed that anodal, but not cathodal, tDCS reduced the perceived degree of emotional valence for negative stimuli, possibly due to an enhancement of cognitive control of emotional expression. We also aimed to determine whether personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) might condition the impact of tDCS. We found that individuals with higher scores on the introversion personality dimension were more permeable than extraverts to the modulatory effects of the stimulation. The present study underlines the role of the left DLPFC in emotional regulation, and stresses the importance of considering individual personality characteristics as a relevant variable, although replication is needed given the limited sample size of our study. PMID:21829522

  1. Transcription Factor Foxo1 Is a Negative Regulator of NK Cell Maturation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Youcai; Kerdiles, Yann; Chu, Jianhong; Yuan, Shunzong; Wang, Youwei; Chen, Xilin; Mao, Hsiaoyin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianying; Hughes, Tiffany; Deng, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Fangjie; Zou, Xianghong; Liu, Chang-Gong; Freud, Aharon G.; Li, Xiaohui; Caligiuri, Michael A; Vivier, Eric; Yu, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Little is known about the role of negative regulators in controlling natural killer (NK) cell development and effector functions. Foxo1 is a multifunctional transcription factor of the forkhead family. Using a mouse model of conditional deletion in NK cells, we found that Foxo1 negatively controlled NK cell differentiation and function. Immature NK cells expressed abundant Foxo1 and little Tbx21 relative to mature NK cells, but these two transcription factors reversed their expression as NK cells proceeded through development. Foxo1 promoted NK cell homing to lymph nodes through upregulating CD62L expression, and impaired late-stage maturation and effector functions by repressing Tbx21 expression. Loss of Foxo1 rescued the defect in late-stage NK cell maturation in heterozygous Tbx21+/− mice. Collectively, our data reveal a regulatory pathway by which the negative regulator Foxo1 and the positive regulator Tbx21 play opposing roles in controlling NK cell development and effector functions. PMID:25769609

  2. A balance of positive and negative regulators determines the pace of the segmentation clock

    PubMed Central

    Wiedermann, Guy; Bone, Robert Alexander; Silva, Joana Clara; Bjorklund, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Somitogenesis is regulated by a molecular oscillator that drives dynamic gene expression within the pre-somitic mesoderm. Previous mathematical models of the somitogenesis clock that invoke the mechanism of delayed negative feedback predict that its oscillation period depends on the sum of delays inherent to negative-feedback loops and inhibitor half-lives. We develop a mathematical model that explores the possibility that positive feedback also plays a role in determining the period of clock oscillations. The model predicts that increasing the half-life of the positive regulator, Notch intracellular domain (NICD), can lead to elevated NICD levels and an increase in the oscillation period. To test this hypothesis, we investigate a phenotype induced by various small molecule inhibitors in which the clock is slowed. We observe elevated levels and a prolonged half-life of NICD. Reducing NICD production rescues these effects. These data provide the first indication that tight control of the turnover of positive as well as negative regulators of the clock determines its periodicity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05842.001 PMID:26357015

  3. A salt-regulated peptide derived from the CAP superfamily protein negatively regulates salt-stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Pei-Shan; Nam, Hong Gil; Chen, Yet-Ran

    2015-01-01

    High salinity has negative impacts on plant growth through altered water uptake and ion-specific toxicities. Plants have therefore evolved an intricate regulatory network in which plant hormones play significant roles in modulating physiological responses to salinity. However, current understanding of the plant peptides involved in this regulatory network remains limited. Here, we identified a salt-regulated peptide in Arabidopsis. The peptide was 11 aa and was derived from the C terminus of a cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins (CAP) superfamily. This peptide was found by searching homologues in Arabidopsis using the precursor of a tomato CAP-derived peptide (CAPE) that was initially identified as an immune signal. In searching for a CAPE involved in salt responses, we screened CAPE precursor genes that showed salt-responsive expression and found that the PROAtCAPE1 (AT4G33730) gene was regulated by salinity. We confirmed the endogenous Arabidopsis CAP-derived peptide 1 (AtCAPE1) by mass spectrometry and found that a key amino acid residue in PROAtCAPE1 is critical for AtCAPE1 production. Moreover, although PROAtCAPE1 was expressed mainly in the roots, AtCAPE1 was discovered to be upregulated systemically upon salt treatment. The salt-induced AtCAPE1 negatively regulated salt tolerance by suppressing several salt-tolerance genes functioning in the production of osmolytes, detoxification, stomatal closure control, and cell membrane protection. This discovery demonstrates that AtCAPE1, a homologue of tomato immune regulator CAPE1, plays an important role in the regulation of salt stress responses. Our discovery thus suggests that the peptide may function in a trade-off between pathogen defence and salt tolerance. PMID:26093145

  4. Negative feedback regulation of Homer 1a on norepinephrine-dependent cardiac hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarello, Carmelina; Bortoloso, Elena; Carpi, Andrea; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo

    2013-07-15

    Homers are scaffolding proteins that modulate diverse cell functions being able to assemble signalling complexes. In this study, the presence, sub-cellular distribution and function of Homer 1 was investigated. Homer 1a and Homer 1b/c are constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle of both mouse and rat and in HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. As judged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Homer 1a displays sarcomeric and peri-nuclear localization. In cardiomyocytes and cultured HL-1 cells, the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine (NE) induces α{sub 1}-adrenergic specific Homer 1a over-expression, with a two-to-three-fold increase within 1 h, and no up-regulation of Homer 1b/c, as judged by Western blot and qPCR. In HL-1 cells, plasmid-driven over-expression of Homer 1a partially antagonizes activation of ERK phosphorylation and ANF up-regulation, two well-established, early markers of hypertrophy. At the morphometric level, NE-induced increase of cell size is likewise and partially counteracted by exogenous Homer 1a. Under the same experimental conditions, Homer 1b/c does not have any effect on ANF up-regulation nor on cell hypertrophy. Thus, Homer 1a up-regulation is associated to early stages of cardiac hypertrophy and appears to play a negative feedback regulation on molecular transducers of hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • Homer 1a is constitutively expressed in cardiac tissue. • In HL-1 cells, norepinephrine activates signaling pathways leading to hypertrophy. • Homer 1a up-regulation is an early event of norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy. • Homer 1a plays a negative feedback regulation modulating pathological hypertrophy. • Over-expression of Homer 1a per se does not induce hypertrophy.

  5. MiR-214 suppressed ovarian cancer and negatively regulated semaphorin 4D.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhou, Honglin; Ma, Lan; Hou, Youfang; Pan, Jing; Sun, Chunyi; Yang, Yingying; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common human malignancies in women. MiR-214 and semaphorin 4D (sema 4D) were found to be abhorrently expressed and involved in the progress of several kinds of malignant cancers. This study is aimed to investigate the cellular role of miR-214 and demonstrate that miR-214 negatively regulated sema 4D in ovarian cancer cells. The data showed that miR-214 expression was consistently lower in ovarian cancer tissues and cells than those in the normal controls. Over-expression of miR-214 in ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. It was suggested that miR-214 functioned as the tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that miR-214 possibly regulated sema 4D by binding the sema 4D messenger RNA (mRNA) 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Sema 4D mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and SKOV-3 cells. Up-regulation of miR-214 in SKOV-3 cell line suppressed the sema 4D expression in both protein and nucleic acid levels. While, down-regulation of miR-214 in SKOV-3 cells would increase sema 4D protein and nucleic acid expression levels. The effects of miR-214 up- and down-regulation on luciferase activities of wild-type (WT) sema 4D 3'-UTR were completely removed upon introduction of mutation in 3'-UTR of WT sema 4D. Therefore, the data also demonstrated that sema 4D was the direct target of miR-214 and was negatively regulated by miR-214 in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26718213

  6. OsGF14b Positively Regulates Panicle Blast Resistance but Negatively Regulates Leaf Blast Resistance in Rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Yang, Jianyuan; Zhang, Shaohong; Zhao, Junliang; Feng, Aiqing; Yang, Tifeng; Wang, Xiaofei; Mao, Xinxue; Dong, Jingfang; Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Although 14-3-3 proteins have been reported to be involved in responses to biotic stresses in plants, their functions in rice blast, the most destructive disease in rice, are largely unknown. Only GF14e has been confirmed to negatively regulate leaf blast. We report that GF14b is highly expressed in seedlings and panicles during blast infection. Rice plants overexpressing GF14b show enhanced resistance to panicle blast but are susceptible to leaf blast. In contrast, GF14b-silenced plants show increased susceptibility to panicle blast but enhanced resistance to leaf blast. Yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrate that WRKY71 binds to the promoter of GF14b and modulates its expression. Overexpression of GF14b induces expression of jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis-related genes but suppresses expression of salicylic acid (SA) synthesis-related genes. In contrast, suppressed GF14b expression causes decreased expression of JA synthesis-related genes but activation of SA synthesis-related genes. These results suggest that GF14b positively regulates panicle blast resistance but negatively regulates leaf blast resistance, and that GF14b-mediated disease resistance is associated with the JA- and SA-dependent pathway. The different functions for 14-3-3 proteins in leaf and panicle blast provide new evidence that leaf and panicle blast resistance are controlled by different mechanisms. PMID:26467468

  7. MecA Protein Acts as a Negative Regulator of Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Gaofeng; Liu, Tianlei; Gomez, Zubelda A.; Wahl, Astrid; Hols, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans develops competence for genetic transformation through a complex network that receives inputs from at least two signaling peptides, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) and sigX-inducing peptide (XIP). The key step of competence induction is the transcriptional activation of comX, which encodes an alternative sigma factor, SigX (σX), controlling the expression of late competence genes essential for DNA uptake and recombination. In this study, we provide evidence that MecA acts as a negative regulator in the posttranslational regulation of SigX in S. mutans. Using luxAB transcriptional reporter strains, we demonstrate that MecA represses the expression of late competence genes in S. mutans grown in a complex medium that is subpermissive for competence induction by CSP. The negative regulation of competence by MecA requires the presence of a functional SigX. Accordingly, inactivation of MecA results in a prolonged competence state of S. mutans under this condition. We have also found that the AAA+ protease ClpC displays a similar repressing effect on late competence genes, suggesting that both MecA and ClpC function coordinately to regulate competence in the same regulatory circuit in S. mutans. This suggestion is strongly supported by the results of bacterial two-hybrid assays, which demonstrate that MecA interacts with both SigX and ClpC, forming a ternary SigX-MecA-ClpC complex. Western blot analysis also confirms that inactivation of MecA or ClpC results in the intracellular accumulation of the SigX in S. mutans. Together, our data support the notion that MecA mediates the formation of a ternary SigX-MecA-ClpC complex that sequesters SigX and thereby negatively regulates genetic competence in S. mutans. PMID:24039267

  8. EFFECTS OF PAMIDRONATE ON HUMAN ALVEOLAR OSTEOBLASTS IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Marolt, Darja; Cozin, Matthew; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Cremers, Serge; Landesberg, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Administration of bisphosphonates has recently been associated with the development of osteonecrotic lesions of the jaw (ONJ). To elucidate the potential contributions of osteogenic cells to the development and regeneration of ONJ, we have isolated primary cells from human alveolar and long/iliac bones, and examined the effects of pamidronate on cell viability, proliferation, osteogenesis and wound healing. Materials and Methods Primary human osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells were isolated from alveolar and iliac/long bone and marrow tissue. Cellular proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, apoptosis (TUNEL, Caspase-3, and DAPI assays) and wound healing in an in vitro scratch assay were assessed after exposure to pamidronate at a range of clinically relevant doses. Results Primary alveolar osteoblasts proliferated at significantly higher rates than long/iliac bone osteoblasts in vitro. Upon exposure of alveolar osteoblasts and long/iliac bone marrow stromal cells to pamidronate for more than 72h, we have observed significantly decreased cell viability, proliferation, osteogenesis and in vitro wound healing at ≥6 × 10−5 M pamidronate, with the induction of apoptosis in ~20% of cell population. Conclusions The remodeling activity of alveolar bone, indicated by higher proliferation of alveolar osteoblasts, could be negatively affected by exposure to high concentrations of pamidronate over extended periods of time. The absence of anabolic effects of pamidronate on alveolar osteoblasts, and induction of apoptosis in osteogenic cells could negatively affect bone balance at this site, and contribute to osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:21856057

  9. mTORC1 Signaling Promotes Osteoblast Differentiation from Preosteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianquan; Long, Fanxin

    2015-01-01

    Preosteoblasts are precursor cells that are committed to the osteoblast lineage. Differentiation of these cells to mature osteoblasts is regulated by the extracellular factors and environmental cues. Recent studies have implicated mTOR signaling in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation. However, mTOR exists in two distinct protein complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2), and the specific role of mTORC1 in regulating the progression of preosteoblasts to mature osteoblastis still unclear. In this study, we first deleted Raptor, a unique and essential component of mTORC1, in primary calvarial cells. Deletion of Raptor resulted in loss of mTORC1 but an increase in mTORC2 signaling without overtly affecting autophagy. Under the osteogenic culture condition, Raptor-deficient cells exhibited a decrease in matrix synthesis and mineralization. qPCR analyses revealed that deletion of Raptor reduced the expression of late-stage markers for osteoblast differentiation (Bglap, Ibsp, and Col1a), while slightly increasing early osteoblast markers (Runx2, Sp7, and Alpl). Consistent with the findings in vitro, genetic ablation of Raptor in osterix-expressing cells led to osteopenia in mice. Together, our findings have identified a specific role for mTORC1 in the transition from preosteoblasts to mature osteoblasts. PMID:26090674

  10. Psoriasis is characterized by deficient negative immune regulation compared to transient delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Nicholas; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Correa da Rosa, Joel; Krueger, James G

    2015-01-01

    Diphencyprone (DPCP) is a hapten that causes delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in human skin, and is used as a topical therapeutic for alopecia areata, warts, and cutaneous melanoma metastases.  We examined peak DTH reactions induced by DPCP (3 days post-challenge) by comprehensive gene expression and histological analysis.  To better understand how these DTH reactions naturally resolve, we compared our DPCP biopsies to those from patients with psoriasis vulgaris, a chronic inflammatory disease that does not resolve.  By both microarray and qRT-PCR, we found that psoriasis lesional skin has significantly lower expression of many negative immune regulators compared to peak DPCP reactions.  These regulators include: interleukin-10, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD1), programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PDL1), programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 (PDL2), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1).  Their decreased expression was confirmed at the protein level by immunohistochemistry.  To more completely determine the balance of positive vs. negative immune regulators in both DPCP reactions and psoriasis, we developed one comprehensive gene list for positive regulatory (inflammatory) genes, and another for negative regulatory (immunosuppressive) genes, through Gene Ontology terms and literature review.  With this approach, we found that DPCP reactions have a higher ratio of negative to positive regulatory genes (both in terms of quantity and expression levels) than psoriasis lesional skin.  These data suggest that the disease chronicity that distinguishes psoriasis from transient DTH reactions may be related to absence of negative immune regulatory pathways, and induction of these is therefore of therapeutic interest.  Further study of these negative regulatory mechanisms that are present in DPCP reactions, but not in psoriasis, could reveal novel players in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation.  The DPCP system

  11. Psoriasis is characterized by deficient negative immune regulation compared to transient delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Nicholas; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Correa da Rosa, Joel; Krueger, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Diphencyprone (DPCP) is a hapten that causes delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in human skin, and is used as a topical therapeutic for alopecia areata, warts, and cutaneous melanoma metastases.  We examined peak DTH reactions induced by DPCP (3 days post-challenge) by comprehensive gene expression and histological analysis.  To better understand how these DTH reactions naturally resolve, we compared our DPCP biopsies to those from patients with psoriasis vulgaris, a chronic inflammatory disease that does not resolve.  By both microarray and qRT-PCR, we found that psoriasis lesional skin has significantly lower expression of many negative immune regulators compared to peak DPCP reactions.  These regulators include: interleukin-10, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD1), programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PDL1), programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 (PDL2), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1).  Their decreased expression was confirmed at the protein level by immunohistochemistry.  To more completely determine the balance of positive vs. negative immune regulators in both DPCP reactions and psoriasis, we developed one comprehensive gene list for positive regulatory (inflammatory) genes, and another for negative regulatory (immunosuppressive) genes, through Gene Ontology terms and literature review.  With this approach, we found that DPCP reactions have a higher ratio of negative to positive regulatory genes (both in terms of quantity and expression levels) than psoriasis lesional skin.  These data suggest that the disease chronicity that distinguishes psoriasis from transient DTH reactions may be related to absence of negative immune regulatory pathways, and induction of these is therefore of therapeutic interest.  Further study of these negative regulatory mechanisms that are present in DPCP reactions, but not in psoriasis, could reveal novel players in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation.  The DPCP system

  12. Aberrant Notch Signaling in the Bone Marrow Microenvironment of Acute Lymphoid Leukemia Suppresses Osteoblast-Mediated Support of Hematopoietic Niche Function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weihuan; Zimmerman, Grant; Huang, Xiaoran; Yu, Shuiliang; Myers, Jay; Wang, Yiwei; Moreton, Stephen; Nthale, Joseph; Awadallah, Amad; Beck, Rose; Xin, Wei; Wald, David; Huang, Alex Y; Zhou, Lan

    2016-03-15

    More than half of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients harbor gain-of-function mutations in the intracellular domain of Notch1. Diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow commonly occurs in T-ALL and relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, and is associated with worse prognosis. However, the mechanism of leukemia outgrowth in the marrow and the resulting biologic impact on hematopoiesis are poorly understood. Here, we investigated targetable cellular and molecular abnormalities in leukemia marrow stroma responsible for the suppression of normal hematopoiesis using a T-ALL mouse model and human T-ALL xenografts. We found that actively proliferating leukemia cells inhibited normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation and homing to the perivascular region. In addition, leukemia development was accompanied by the suppression of the endosteum-lining osteoblast population. We further demonstrated that aberrant Notch activation in the stroma plays an important role in negatively regulating the expression of CXLC12 on osteoblasts and their differentiation. Notch blockade reversed attenuated HSPC cycling, leukemia-associated abnormal blood lineage distribution, and thrombocytopenia as well as recovered osteoblast and HSPC abundance and improved the hematopoietic-supportive functions of osteoblasts. Finally, we confirmed that reduced osteoblast frequency and enhanced Notch signaling were also features of the marrow stroma of human ALL tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that therapeutically targeting the leukemia-infiltrated hematopoietic niche may restore HSPC homeostasis and improve the outcome of ALL patients. PMID:26801976

  13. Clostridium difficile toxin synthesis is negatively regulated by TcdC.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, B; Govind, R; Antunes, A; Matamouros, S

    2008-06-01

    Clostridium difficile toxin synthesis is growth phase-dependent and is regulated by various environmental signals. The toxin genes tcdA and tcdB are located in a pathogenicity locus, which also includes three accessory genes, tcdR, tcdC and tcdE. TcdR has been shown to act as an alternative sigma factor that mediates positive regulation of both the toxin genes and its own gene. The tcdA, tcdB and tcdR genes are transcribed during the stationary growth phase. The tcdC gene, however, is expressed during exponential phase. This expression pattern suggested that TcdC may act as a negative regulator of toxin gene expression. TcdC is a small acidic protein without any conserved DNA-binding motif. It is able to form dimers and its N-terminal region includes a putative transmembrane domain. Genetic and biochemical evidence showed that TcdC negatively regulates C. difficile toxin synthesis by interfering with the ability of TcdR-containing RNA polymerase to recognize the tcdA and tcdB promoters. In addition, the C. difficile NAP1/027 epidemic strains that produce higher levels of toxins have mutations in tcdC. Interestingly, a frameshift mutation at position 117 of the tcdC coding sequence seems to be, at least in part, responsible for the hypertoxigenicity phenotype of these epidemic strains. PMID:18480323

  14. Btg2 is a Negative Regulator of Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy through a Decrease in Cytosolic RNA

    PubMed Central

    Masumura, Yuki; Higo, Shuichiro; Asano, Yoshihiro; Kato, Hisakazu; Yan, Yi; Ishino, Saki; Tsukamoto, Osamu; Kioka, Hidetaka; Hayashi, Takaharu; Shintani, Yasunori; Yamazaki, Satoru; Minamino, Tetsuo; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei; Takashima, Seiji; Sakata, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Under hypertrophic stimulation, cardiomyocytes enter a hypermetabolic state and accelerate biomass accumulation. Although the molecular pathways that regulate protein levels are well-studied, the functional implications of RNA accumulation and its regulatory mechanisms in cardiomyocytes remain elusive. Here, we have elucidated the quantitative kinetics of RNA in cardiomyocytes through single cell imaging and c-Myc (Myc)-mediated hypermetabolic analytical model using cultured cardiomyocytes. Nascent RNA labeling combined with single cell imaging demonstrated that Myc protein significantly increased the amount of global RNA production per cardiomyocyte. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with high-throughput sequencing clarified that overexpressed Myc bound to a specific set of genes and recruits RNA polymerase II. Among these genes, we identified Btg2 as a novel target of Myc. Btg2 overexpression significantly reduced cardiomyocyte surface area. Conversely, shRNA-mediated knockdown of Btg2 accelerated adrenergic stimulus-induced hypertrophy. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we determined that Btg2 binds a series of proteins that comprise mRNA deadenylation complexes. Intriguingly, Btg2 specifically suppresses cytosolic, but not nuclear, RNA levels. Btg2 knockdown further enhances cytosolic RNA accumulation in cardiomyocytes under adrenergic stimulation, suggesting that Btg2 negatively regulates reactive hypertrophy by negatively regulating RNA accumulation. Our findings provide insight into the functional significance of the mechanisms regulating RNA levels in cardiomyocytes. PMID:27346836

  15. Negative feedback regulation of auxin signaling by ATHB8/ACL5-BUD2 transcription module.

    PubMed

    Baima, Simona; Forte, Valentina; Possenti, Marco; Peñalosa, Andrés; Leoni, Guido; Salvi, Sergio; Felici, Barbara; Ruberti, Ida; Morelli, Giorgio

    2014-06-01

    The role of auxin as main regulator of vascular differentiation is well established, and a direct correlation between the rate of xylem differentiation and the amount of auxin reaching the (pro)cambial cells has been proposed. It has been suggested that thermospermine produced by ACAULIS5 (ACL5) and bushy and dwarf2 (BUD2) is one of the factors downstream to auxin contributing to the regulation of this process in Arabidopsis. Here, we provide an in-depth characterization of the mechanism through which ACL5 modulates xylem differentiation. We show that an increased level of ACL5 slows down xylem differentiation by negatively affecting the expression of homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) III and key auxin signaling genes. This mechanism involves the positive regulation of thermospermine biosynthesis by the HD-ZIP III protein Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox8 tightly controlling the expression of ACL5 and BUD2. In addition, we show that the HD-ZIP III protein REVOLUTA contributes to the increased leaf vascularization and long hypocotyl phenotype of acl5 likely by a direct regulation of auxin signaling genes such as like auxin resistant2 (LAX2) and LAX3. We propose that proper formation and differentiation of xylem depend on a balance between positive and negative feedback loops operating through HD-ZIP III genes. PMID:24777988

  16. Btg2 is a Negative Regulator of Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy through a Decrease in Cytosolic RNA.

    PubMed

    Masumura, Yuki; Higo, Shuichiro; Asano, Yoshihiro; Kato, Hisakazu; Yan, Yi; Ishino, Saki; Tsukamoto, Osamu; Kioka, Hidetaka; Hayashi, Takaharu; Shintani, Yasunori; Yamazaki, Satoru; Minamino, Tetsuo; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei; Takashima, Seiji; Sakata, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Under hypertrophic stimulation, cardiomyocytes enter a hypermetabolic state and accelerate biomass accumulation. Although the molecular pathways that regulate protein levels are well-studied, the functional implications of RNA accumulation and its regulatory mechanisms in cardiomyocytes remain elusive. Here, we have elucidated the quantitative kinetics of RNA in cardiomyocytes through single cell imaging and c-Myc (Myc)-mediated hypermetabolic analytical model using cultured cardiomyocytes. Nascent RNA labeling combined with single cell imaging demonstrated that Myc protein significantly increased the amount of global RNA production per cardiomyocyte. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with high-throughput sequencing clarified that overexpressed Myc bound to a specific set of genes and recruits RNA polymerase II. Among these genes, we identified Btg2 as a novel target of Myc. Btg2 overexpression significantly reduced cardiomyocyte surface area. Conversely, shRNA-mediated knockdown of Btg2 accelerated adrenergic stimulus-induced hypertrophy. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we determined that Btg2 binds a series of proteins that comprise mRNA deadenylation complexes. Intriguingly, Btg2 specifically suppresses cytosolic, but not nuclear, RNA levels. Btg2 knockdown further enhances cytosolic RNA accumulation in cardiomyocytes under adrenergic stimulation, suggesting that Btg2 negatively regulates reactive hypertrophy by negatively regulating RNA accumulation. Our findings provide insight into the functional significance of the mechanisms regulating RNA levels in cardiomyocytes. PMID:27346836

  17. TORC1 Signaling Is Governed by Two Negative Regulators in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Qingbin; Zhang, Lili; Henske, Elizabeth P.; Ma, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a highly conserved protein kinase that regulates cell growth and metabolism. Here we performed a genome-wide screen to identify negative regulators of TOR complex 1 (TORC1) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by isolating mutants that phenocopy Δtsc2, in which TORC1 signaling is known to be up-regulated. We discovered that Δnpr2 displayed similar phenotypes to Δtsc2 in terms of amino acid uptake defects and mislocalization of the Cat1 permease. However, Δnpr2 and Δtsc2 clearly showed different phenotypes in terms of rapamycin supersensitivity and Isp5 transcription upon various treatments. Furthermore, we showed that Tor2 controls amino acid homeostasis at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Our data reveal that both Npr2 and Tsc2 negatively regulate TORC1 signaling, and Npr2, but not Tsc2, may be involved in the feedback loop of a nutrient-sensing pathway. PMID:23934889

  18. RIP1 negatively regulates basal autophagic flux through TFEB to control sensitivity to apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yonekawa, Tohru; Gamez, Graciela; Kim, Jihye; Tan, Aik Choon; Thorburn, Jackie; Gump, Jacob; Thorburn, Andrew; Morgan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    In a synthetic lethality/viability screen, we identified the serine–threonine kinase RIP1 (RIPK1) as a gene whose knockdown is highly selected against during growth in normal media, in which autophagy is not critical, but selected for in conditions that increase reliance on basal autophagy. RIP1 represses basal autophagy in part due to its ability to regulate the TFEB transcription factor, which controls the expression of autophagy-related and lysosomal genes. RIP1 activates ERK, which negatively regulates TFEB though phosphorylation of serine 142. Thus, in addition to other pro-death functions, RIP1 regulates cellular sensitivity to pro-death stimuli by modulating basal autophagy. PMID:25908842

  19. Microbe–Host Interactions are Positively and Negatively Regulated by Galectin–Glycan Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Linda G.; Garner, Omai B.; Schaefer, Katrin; Lee, Benhur

    2014-01-01

    Microbe–host interactions are complex processes that are directly and indirectly regulated by a variety of factors, including microbe presentation of specific molecular signatures on the microbial surface, as well as host cell presentation of receptors that recognize these pathogen signatures. Cell surface glycans are one important class of microbial signatures that are recognized by a variety of host cell lectins. Host cell lectins that recognize microbial glycans include members of the galectin family of lectins that recognize specific glycan ligands on viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this review, we will discuss the ways that the interactions of microbial glycans with host cell galectins positively and negatively regulate pathogen attachment, invasion, and survival, as well as regulate host responses that mitigate microbial pathogenesis. PMID:24995007

  20. IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells negatively regulate fucosylation of epithelial cells in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yoshiyuki; Lamichhane, Aayam; Kamioka, Mariko; Sato, Shintaro; Honda, Kenya; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Fucosylated glycans on the surface of epithelial cells (ECs) regulate intestinal homeostasis by serving as attachment receptors and a nutrient source for some species of bacteria. We show here that epithelial fucosylation in the ileum is negatively regulated by IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells. The number of fucosylated ECs was increased in the ileum of mice lacking T cells, especially those expressing αβ T cell receptor (TCR), CD4, and IL-10. No such effect was observed in mice lacking B cells. Adoptive transfer of αβTCR+ CD4+ T cells from normal mice, but not IL-10-deficient mice, normalized fucosylation of ECs. These findings suggest that IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells contribute to the maintenance of the function of ECs by regulating their fucosylation. PMID:26522513

  1. Systems Genetic Analysis of Osteoblast-Lineage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Gina; Bennett, Brian J.; Orozco, Luz; Kang, Hyun M.; Eskin, Eleazar; Dombret, Carlos; De Backer, Olivier; Lusis, Aldons J.; Farber, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    The osteoblast-lineage consists of cells at various stages of maturation that are essential for skeletal development, growth, and maintenance. Over the past decade, many of the signaling cascades that regulate this lineage have been elucidated; however, little is known of the networks that coordinate, modulate, and transmit these signals. Here, we identify a gene network specific to the osteoblast-lineage through the reconstruction of a bone co-expression network using microarray profiles collected on 96 Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) inbred strains. Of the 21 modules that comprised the bone network, module 9 (M9) contained genes that were highly correlated with prototypical osteoblast maker genes and were more highly expressed in osteoblasts relative to other bone cells. In addition, the M9 contained many of the key genes that define the osteoblast-lineage, which together suggested that it was specific to this lineage. To use the M9 to identify novel osteoblast genes and highlight its biological relevance, we knocked-down the expression of its two most connected “hub” genes, Maged1 and Pard6g. Their perturbation altered both osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated the mice deficient in Maged1 had decreased bone mineral density (BMD). It was also discovered that a local expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) regulating the Wnt signaling antagonist Sfrp1 was a key driver of the M9. We also show that the M9 is associated with BMD in the HMDP and is enriched for genes implicated in the regulation of human BMD through genome-wide association studies. In conclusion, we have identified a physiologically relevant gene network and used it to discover novel genes and regulatory mechanisms involved in the function of osteoblast-lineage cells. Our results highlight the power of harnessing natural genetic variation to generate co-expression networks that can be used to gain insight into the function of specific cell-types. PMID

  2. RivR is a negative regulator of virulence factor expression in group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Jeanette; Liu, Zhuyun; Cao, Tram N; Ramirez-Peña, Esmeralda; Sumby, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes human diseases ranging from self-limiting pharyngitis (also known as strep throat) to severely invasive necrotizing fasciitis (also known as the flesh-eating syndrome). To control virulence factor expression, GAS utilizes both protein- and RNA-based mechanisms of regulation. Here we report that the transcription factor RivR (RofA-like protein IV) negatively regulates the abundance of mRNAs encoding the hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis proteins (hasABC; ∼7-fold) and the protein G-related α(2)-macroglobulin-binding protein (grab; ∼29-fold). Our data differ significantly from those of a previous study of the RivR regulon. Given that grab and hasABC are also negatively regulated by the two-component system CovR/S (control of virulence), we tested whether RivR functions through CovR/S. A comparison of riv and cov single and double mutant strains showed that RivR requires CovR activity for grab and hasABC regulation. Analysis of the upstream region of rivR identified a novel promoter the deletion of which reduced rivR mRNA abundance by 70%. A rivR mutant strain had a reduced ability to adhere to human keratinocytes relative to that of the parental and complemented strains, a phenotype that was abolished upon GAS pretreatment with hyaluronidase, highlighting the importance of capsule regulation by RivR during colonization. The rivR mutant strain was also attenuated for virulence in a murine model of bacteremia infection. Thus, we identify RivR as an important regulator of GAS virulence and provide new insight into the regulatory networks controlling virulence factor production in this pathogen. PMID:23147037

  3. RivR Is a Negative Regulator of Virulence Factor Expression in Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Jeanette; Liu, Zhuyun; Cao, Tram N.; Ramirez-Peña, Esmeralda

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes human diseases ranging from self-limiting pharyngitis (also known as strep throat) to severely invasive necrotizing fasciitis (also known as the flesh-eating syndrome). To control virulence factor expression, GAS utilizes both protein- and RNA-based mechanisms of regulation. Here we report that the transcription factor RivR (RofA-like protein IV) negatively regulates the abundance of mRNAs encoding the hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis proteins (hasABC; ∼7-fold) and the protein G-related α2-macroglobulin-binding protein (grab; ∼29-fold). Our data differ significantly from those of a previous study of the RivR regulon. Given that grab and hasABC are also negatively regulated by the two-component system CovR/S (control of virulence), we tested whether RivR functions through CovR/S. A comparison of riv and cov single and double mutant strains showed that RivR requires CovR activity for grab and hasABC regulation. Analysis of the upstream region of rivR identified a novel promoter the deletion of which reduced rivR mRNA abundance by 70%. A rivR mutant strain had a reduced ability to adhere to human keratinocytes relative to that of the parental and complemented strains, a phenotype that was abolished upon GAS pretreatment with hyaluronidase, highlighting the importance of capsule regulation by RivR during colonization. The rivR mutant strain was also attenuated for virulence in a murine model of bacteremia infection. Thus, we identify RivR as an important regulator of GAS virulence and provide new insight into the regulatory networks controlling virulence factor production in this pathogen. PMID:23147037

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability/Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that, for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a mediator between emotion lability/negativity and internalizing symptomatology, whereas emotion lability/negativity was not a mediator between emotion regulation and internalizing symptomatology. Early maltreatment was associated with high emotion lability/negativity (age 7) that contributed to poor emotion regulation (age 8), which in turn was predictive of increases in internalizing symptomatology (from age 8 to 9). The results imply important roles of emotion regulation in the development of internalizing symptomatology, especially for children with high emotion lability/negativity. PMID:23034132

  5. Conserved miR164-targeted NAC genes negatively regulate drought resistance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kabin; Xiong, Lizhong

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs constitute a large group of endogenous small RNAs of ~22 nt that emerge as vital regulators, mainly by targeting mRNAs for post-transcriptional repression. Previous studies have revealed that the miR164 family in Arabidopsis is comprised of three members which guide the cleavage of the mRNAs of five NAC genes to modulate developmental processes. However, the functions of the miR164-targeted NAC genes in crops are poorly deciphered. In this study, the conserved features of six miR164-targeted NAC genes (OMTN1–OMTN6) in rice are described, and evidence is provided that four of them confer a negative regulatory role in drought resistance. OMTN proteins have the characteristics of typical NAC transcriptional factors. The miR164 recognition sites of the OMTN genes are highly conserved in rice germplasms. Deletion of the recognition sites impaired the transactivation activity, indicating that the conserved recognition sites play a crucial role in maintaining the function of the OMTN proteins. The OMTN genes were responsive to abiotic stresses, and showed diverse spatio-temporal expression patterns in rice. Overexpression of OMTN2, OMTN3, OMTN4, and OMTN6 in rice led to negative effects on drought resistance at the reproductive stage. The expression of numerous genes related to stress response, development, and metabolism was altered in OMTN2-, OMTN3-, OMTN4-, and OMTN6-overexpressing plants. Most of the up-regulated genes in the OMTN-overexpressing plants were down-regulated by drought stress. The results suggest that the conserved miR164-targeted NAC genes may be negative regulators of drought tolerance in rice, in addition to their reported roles in development. PMID:24604734

  6. BRAFV600E Negatively Regulates the AKT Pathway in Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F.; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2) and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways. PMID:22880048

  7. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2) and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways. PMID:22880048

  8. Complex Negative Regulation of TLR9 by Multiple Proteolytic Cleavage Events.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Siddhartha S; Cameron, Jody; Brooks, James C; Leifer, Cynthia A

    2016-08-15

    TLR9 is an innate immune receptor important for recognizing DNA of host and foreign origin. A mechanism proposed to prevent excessive response to host DNA is the requirement for proteolytic cleavage of TLR9 in endosomes to generate a mature form of the receptor (TLR9(471-1032)). We previously described another cleavage event in the juxtamembrane region of the ectodomain that generated a dominant-negative form of TLR9. Thus, there are at least two independent cleavage events that regulate TLR9. In this study, we investigated whether an N-terminal fragment of TLR9 could be responsible for regulation of the mature or negative-regulatory form. We show that TLR9(471-1032), corresponding to the proteolytically cleaved form, does not function on its own. Furthermore, activity is not rescued by coexpression of the N-terminal fragment (TLR9(1-440)), inclusion of the hinge region (TLR9(441-1032)), or overexpression of UNC93B1, the last of which is critical for trafficking and cleavage of TLR9. TLR9(1-440) coimmunoprecipitates with full-length TLR9 and TLR9(471-1032) but does not rescue the native glycosylation pattern; thus, inappropriate trafficking likely explains why TLR9(471-1032) is nonfunctional. Lastly, we show that TLR9(471-1032) is also a dominant-negative regulator of TLR9 signaling. Together, these data provide a new perspective on the complexity of TLR9 regulation by proteolytic cleavage and offer potential ways to inhibit activity through this receptor, which may dampen autoimmune inflammation. PMID:27421483

  9. Identification of a New Class of Negative Regulators Affecting Sporulation-Specific Gene Expression in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Benni, M. L.; Neigeborn, L.

    1997-01-01

    We characterized two yeast loci, MDS3 and PMD1, that negatively regulate sporulation. Initiation of sporulation is mediated by the meiotic activator IME1, which relies on MCK1 for maximal expression. We isolated the MDS3-1 allele (encoding a truncated form of Mds3p) as a suppressor that restores IME1 expression in mck1 mutants. mds3 null mutations confer similar suppression phenotypes as MDS3-1, indicating that Mds3p is a negative regulator of sporulation and the MDS3-1 allele confers a dominant-negative phenotype. PMD1 is predicted to encode a protein sharing significant similarity with Mds3p. mds3 pmd1 double mutants are better suppressors of mck1 than is either single mutant, indicating that Mds3p and Pmd1p function synergistically. Northern blot analysis revealed that suppression is due to increased IME1 transcript accumulation. The roles of Mds3p and Pmd1p are not restricted to the MCK1 pathway because mds3 pmd1 mutations also suppress IME1 expression defects associated with MCK1-independent sporulation mutants. Furthermore, mds3 pmd1 mutants express significant levels of IME1 even in vegetative cells and this unscheduled expression results in premature sporulation. These phenotypes and interactions with RAS2-Val19 suggest that unscheduled derepression of IME1 is probably due to a defect in recognition of nutritional status. PMID:9383076

  10. Cutting Edge: EZH2 Promotes Osteoclastogenesis by Epigenetic Silencing of the Negative Regulator IRF8.

    PubMed

    Fang, Celestia; Qiao, Yu; Mun, Se Hwan; Lee, Min Joon; Murata, Koichi; Bae, Seyeon; Zhao, Baohong; Park-Min, Kyung-Hyun; Ivashkiv, Lionel B

    2016-06-01

    Osteoclasts are resorptive cells that are important for homeostatic bone remodeling and pathological bone resorption. Emerging evidence suggests an important role for epigenetic mechanisms in osteoclastogenesis. A recent study showed that epigenetic silencing of the negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis Irf8 by DNA methylation is required for osteoclast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the role of EZH2, which epigenetically silences gene expression by histone methylation, in osteoclastogenesis. Inhibition of EZH2 by the small molecule GSK126, or decreasing its expression using antisense oligonucleotides, impeded osteoclast differentiation. Mechanistically, EZH2 was recruited to the IRF8 promoter after RANKL stimulation to deposit the negative histone mark H3K27me3 and downregulate IRF8 expression. GSK126 attenuated bone loss in the ovariectomy mouse model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our findings provide evidence for an additional mechanism of epigenetic IRF8 silencing during osteoclastogenesis that likely works cooperatively with DNA methylation, further emphasizing the importance of IRF8 as a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:27183582

  11. Drosophila protein kinase N (Pkn) is a negative regulator of actin-myosin activity during oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tânia; Prudêncio, Pedro; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo

    2014-10-15

    Nurse cell dumping is an actin-myosin based process, where 15 nurse cells of a given egg chamber contract and transfer their cytoplasmic content through the ring canals into the growing oocyte. We isolated two mutant alleles of protein kinase N (pkn) and showed that Pkn negatively-regulates activation of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton during the onset of dumping. Using live-cell imaging analysis we observed that nurse cell dumping rates sharply increase during the onset of fast dumping. Such rate increase was severely impaired in pkn mutant nurse cells due to excessive nurse cell actin-myosin activity and/or loss of tissue integrity. Our work demonstrates that the transition between slow and fast dumping is a discrete event, with at least a five to six-fold dumping rate increase. We show that Pkn negatively regulates nurse cell actin-myosin activity. This is likely to be important for directional cytoplasmic flow. We propose Pkn provides a negative feedback loop to help avoid excessive contractility after local activation of Rho GTPase. PMID:25131196

  12. AMPK Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus Negatively Regulates Contextual Fear Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Luo, Yixiao; Sun, Jia; Ding, Zengbo; Liu, Jianfeng; Yan, Wei; Jian, Min; Xue, Yanxue; Shi, Jie; Wang, Ji-Shi; Lu, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Both the formation of long-term memory (LTM) and dendritic spine growth that serves as a physical basis for the long-term storage of information require de novo protein synthesis. Memory formation also critically depends on transcription. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a transcriptional regulator that has emerged as a major energy sensor that maintains cellular energy homeostasis. However, still unknown is its role in memory formation. In the present study, we found that AMPK is primarily expressed in neurons in the hippocampus, and then we demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in AMPK activity and increase in mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity after contextual fear conditioning in the CA1 but not CA3 area of the dorsal hippocampus. Using pharmacological methods and adenovirus gene transfer to bidirectionally regulate AMPK activity, we found that increasing AMPK activity in the CA1 impaired the formation of long-term fear memory, and decreasing AMPK activity enhanced fear memory formation. These findings were associated with changes in the phosphorylation of AMPK and p70s6 kinase (p70s6k) and expression of BDNF and membrane GluR1 and GluR2 in the CA1. Furthermore, the prior administration of an mTORC1 inhibitor blocked the enhancing effect of AMPK inhibition on fear memory formation, suggesting that this negative regulation of contextual fear memory by AMPK in the CA1 depends on the mTORC1 signaling pathway. Finally, we found that AMPK activity regulated hippocampal spine growth associated with memory formation. In summary, our results indicate that AMPK is a key negative regulator of plasticity and fear memory formation. PMID:26647974

  13. Suppressor of IKKɛ is an essential negative regulator of pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ke-Qiong; Wang, Aibing; Ji, Yan-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Peng; Jiang, Xi; Gao, Lu; Zhu, Xue-Yong; Zhao, Yichao; Gao, Lingchen; Yang, Qinglin; Zhu, Xue-Hai; Wei, Xiang; Pu, Jun; Li, Hongliang

    2016-01-01

    Although pathological cardiac hypertrophy represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease is still poor. Here, we demonstrate that suppressor of IKKɛ (SIKE), a negative regulator of the interferon pathway, attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy in rodents and non-human primates in a TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)/AKT-dependent manner. Sike-deficient mice develop cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, whereas Sike-overexpressing transgenic (Sike-TG) mice are protected from hypertrophic stimuli. Mechanistically, SIKE directly interacts with TBK1 to inhibit the TBK1-AKT signalling pathway, thereby achieving its anti-hypertrophic action. The suppression of cardiac remodelling by SIKE is further validated in rats and monkeys. Collectively, these findings identify SIKE as a negative regulator of cardiac remodelling in multiple animal species due to its inhibitory regulation of the TBK1/AKT axis, suggesting that SIKE may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. PMID:27249321

  14. Hfq negatively regulates type III secretion in EHEC and several other pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Shakhnovich, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Hfq is a conserved RNA-binding protein that regulates diverse cellular processes through post-transcriptional control of gene expression, often by functioning as a chaperone for regulatory sRNAs. Here, we explored the role of Hfq in enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a group of non-invasive intestinal pathogens. EHEC virulence is dependent on a Type III secretion system encoded in the LEE pathogenicity island. The abundance of transcripts for all 41 LEE genes and more than half of confirmed non-LEE-encoded T3 effectors were elevated in an EHEC hfq deletion mutant. Thus, Hfq promotes coordinated expression of the LEE-encoded T3S apparatus and both LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors. Increased transcript levels led to the formation of functional secretion complexes capable of secreting high quantities of effectors into the supernatant. The increase in LEE-derived transcripts and proteins was dependent on Ler, the LEE-encoded transcriptional activator, and the ler transcript appears to be a direct target of Hfq-mediated negative regulation. Finally, we found that Hfq contributes to the negative regulation of T3SSs in several other pathogens, suggesting that Hfq, potentially along with species-specific sRNAs, underlies a common means to prevent unfettered expression of T3SSs. PMID:19703108

  15. Mechanisms of JAK/STAT pathway negative regulation by the short coreceptor Eye Transformer/Latran

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Katherine H.; Stec, Wojciech; Brown, Stephen; Zeidler, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane receptors interact with extracellular ligands to transduce intracellular signaling cascades, modulate target gene expression, and regulate processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and homeostasis. As a consequence, aberrant signaling events often underlie human disease. Whereas the vertebrate JAK/STAT signaling cascade is transduced via multiple receptor combinations, the Drosophila pathway has only one full-length signaling receptor, Domeless (Dome), and a single negatively acting receptor, Eye Transformer/Latran (Et/Lat). Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Et/Lat activity. We demonstrate that Et/Lat negatively regulates the JAK/STAT pathway activity and can bind to Dome, thus reducing Dome:Dome homodimerization by creating signaling-incompetent Dome:Et/Lat heterodimers. Surprisingly, we find that Et/Lat is able to bind to both JAK and STAT92E but, despite the presence of putative cytokine-binding motifs, does not detectably interact with pathway ligands. We find that Et/Lat is trafficked through the endocytic machinery for lysosomal degradation but at a much slower rate than Dome, a difference that may enhance its ability to sequester Dome into signaling-incompetent complexes. Our data offer new insights into the molecular mechanism and regulation of Et/Lat in Drosophila that may inform our understanding of how short receptors function in other organisms. PMID:26658615

  16. Mechanisms of JAK/STAT pathway negative regulation by the short coreceptor Eye Transformer/Latran.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Katherine H; Stec, Wojciech; Brown, Stephen; Zeidler, Martin P

    2016-02-01

    Transmembrane receptors interact with extracellular ligands to transduce intracellular signaling cascades, modulate target gene expression, and regulate processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and homeostasis. As a consequence, aberrant signaling events often underlie human disease. Whereas the vertebrate JAK/STAT signaling cascade is transduced via multiple receptor combinations, the Drosophila pathway has only one full-length signaling receptor, Domeless (Dome), and a single negatively acting receptor, Eye Transformer/Latran (Et/Lat). Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Et/Lat activity. We demonstrate that Et/Lat negatively regulates the JAK/STAT pathway activity and can bind to Dome, thus reducing Dome:Dome homodimerization by creating signaling-incompetent Dome:Et/Lat heterodimers. Surprisingly, we find that Et/Lat is able to bind to both JAK and STAT92E but, despite the presence of putative cytokine-binding motifs, does not detectably interact with pathway ligands. We find that Et/Lat is trafficked through the endocytic machinery for lysosomal degradation but at a much slower rate than Dome, a difference that may enhance its ability to sequester Dome into signaling-incompetent complexes. Our data offer new insights into the molecular mechanism and regulation of Et/Lat in Drosophila that may inform our understanding of how short receptors function in other organisms. PMID:26658615

  17. Social anxiety and emotion regulation in daily life: spillover effects on positive and negative social events.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Antonina Savostyanova; Kashdan, Todd B

    2012-01-01

    To minimize the possibility of scrutiny, people with social anxiety difficulties exert great effort to manage their emotions, particularly during social interactions. We examined how the use of two emotion regulation strategies, emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal, predict the generation of emotions and social events in daily life. Over 14 consecutive days, 89 participants completed daily diary entries on emotions, positive and negative social events, and their regulation of emotions. Using multilevel modeling, we found that when people high in social anxiety relied more on positive emotion suppression, they reported fewer positive social events and less positive emotion on the subsequent day. In contrast, people low in social anxiety reported fewer negative social events on days subsequent to using cognitive reappraisal to reduce distress; the use of cognitive reappraisal did not influence the daily lives of people high in social anxiety. Our findings support theories of emotion regulation difficulties associated with social anxiety. In particular, for people high in social anxiety, maladaptive strategy use contributed to diminished reward responsiveness. PMID:22428662

  18. The Arabidopsis Protein Phosphatase PP2C38 Negatively Regulates the Central Immune Kinase BIK1.

    PubMed

    Couto, Daniel; Niebergall, Roda; Liang, Xiangxiu; Bücherl, Christoph A; Sklenar, Jan; Macho, Alberto P; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Derbyshire, Paul; Altenbach, Denise; Maclean, Dan; Robatzek, Silke; Uhrig, Joachim; Menke, Frank; Zhou, Jian-Min; Zipfel, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Plants recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via cell surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to PRR-triggered immunity (PTI). The Arabidopsis cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 is a downstream substrate of several PRR complexes. How plant PTI is negatively regulated is not fully understood. Here, we identify the protein phosphatase PP2C38 as a negative regulator of BIK1 activity and BIK1-mediated immunity. PP2C38 dynamically associates with BIK1, as well as with the PRRs FLS2 and EFR, but not with the co-receptor BAK1. PP2C38 regulates PAMP-induced BIK1 phosphorylation and impairs the phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by BIK1, leading to reduced oxidative burst and stomatal immunity. Upon PAMP perception, PP2C38 is phosphorylated on serine 77 and dissociates from the FLS2/EFR-BIK1 complexes, enabling full BIK1 activation. Together with our recent work on the control of BIK1 turnover, this study reveals another important regulatory mechanism of this central immune component. PMID:27494702

  19. The Arabidopsis Protein Phosphatase PP2C38 Negatively Regulates the Central Immune Kinase BIK1

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiangxiu; Bücherl, Christoph A.; Sklenar, Jan; Macho, Alberto P.; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Derbyshire, Paul; Altenbach, Denise; Robatzek, Silke; Uhrig, Joachim; Menke, Frank; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via cell surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to PRR-triggered immunity (PTI). The Arabidopsis cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 is a downstream substrate of several PRR complexes. How plant PTI is negatively regulated is not fully understood. Here, we identify the protein phosphatase PP2C38 as a negative regulator of BIK1 activity and BIK1-mediated immunity. PP2C38 dynamically associates with BIK1, as well as with the PRRs FLS2 and EFR, but not with the co-receptor BAK1. PP2C38 regulates PAMP-induced BIK1 phosphorylation and impairs the phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by BIK1, leading to reduced oxidative burst and stomatal immunity. Upon PAMP perception, PP2C38 is phosphorylated on serine 77 and dissociates from the FLS2/EFR-BIK1 complexes, enabling full BIK1 activation. Together with our recent work on the control of BIK1 turnover, this study reveals another important regulatory mechanism of this central immune component. PMID:27494702

  20. Two distinct mechanisms for negative regulation of the Wee1 protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Z; Coleman, T R; Dunphy, W G

    1993-01-01

    The Wee1 protein kinase negatively regulates the entry into mitosis by catalyzing the inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of the Cdc2 protein. To examine the potential mechanisms for Wee1 regulation during the cell cycle, we have introduced a recombinant form of the fission yeast Wee1 protein kinase into Xenopus egg extracts. We find that the Wee1 protein undergoes dramatic changes in its phosphorylation state and kinase activity during the cell cycle. The Wee1 protein oscillates between an underphosphorylated 107 kDa form during interphase and a hyperphosphorylated 170 kDa version at mitosis. The mitosis-specific hyperphosphorylation of the Wee1 protein results in a substantial reduction in its activity as a Cdc2-specific tyrosine kinase. This phosphorylation occurs in the N-terminal region of the protein that lies outside the C-terminal catalytic domain, which was recently shown to be a substrate for the fission yeast Nim1 protein kinase. These experiments demonstrate the existence of a Wee1 regulatory system, consisting of both a Wee1-inhibitory kinase and a Wee1-stimulatory phosphatase, which controls the phosphorylation of the N-terminal region of the Wee1 protein. Moreover, these findings indicate that there are apparently two potential mechanisms for negative regulation of the Wee1 protein, one involving phosphorylation of its C-terminal domain by the Nim1 protein and the other involving phosphorylation of its N-terminal region by a different kinase. Images PMID:7504624

  1. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression.

    PubMed

    Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-11-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders. PMID:24914736

  2. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression

    PubMed Central

    SHACKMAN, JESSICA E.; POLLAK, SETH D.

    2015-01-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children’s allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders. PMID:24914736

  3. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SCF receptor c-Kit is functionally expressed in primary and transformed osteoblasts. • SCF protects primary and transformed osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • SCF activation of c-Kit in osteoblasts, required for its cyto-protective effects. • c-Kit mediates SCF-induced Akt activation in cultured osteoblasts. • Akt activation is required for SCF-regulated cyto-protective effects in osteoblasts. - Abstract: Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  4. TRIM39 negatively regulates the NFκB-mediated signaling pathway through stabilization of Cactin.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masanobu; Watanabe, Masashi; Nakamaru, Yuji; Takagi, Dai; Takahashi, Hidehisa; Fukuda, Satoshi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2016-03-01

    NFκB is one of the central regulators of cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis and organogenesis. The activation of NFκB is strictly regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. Several types of ubiquitination play important roles in multi-step regulations of the NFκB pathway. Some of the tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins functioning as E3 ubiquitin ligases are known to regulate various biological processes such as inflammatory signaling pathways. One of the TRIM family proteins, TRIM39, for which the gene has single nucleotide polymorphisms, has been identified as one of the genetic factors in Behcet's disease. However, the role of TRIM39 in inflammatory signaling had not been fully elucidated. In this study, to elucidate the function of TRIM39 in inflammatory signaling, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening using TRIM39 as a bait and identified Cactin, which has been reported to inhibit NFκB- and TLR-mediated transcriptions. We show that TRIM39 stabilizes Cactin protein and that Cactin is upregulated after TNFα stimulation. TRIM39 knockdown also causes activation of the NFκB signal. These findings suggest that TRIM39 negatively regulates the NFκB signal in collaboration with Cactin induced by inflammatory stimulants such as TNFα. PMID:26363554

  5. Negative mood regulation expectancies moderate the relationship between psychological abuse and avoidant coping.

    PubMed

    Shepherd-McMullen, Cassandra; Mearns, Jack; Stokes, Julie E; Mechanic, Mindy B

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the relationships among psychological abuse, attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV), negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE), and coping. Participants were 126 female college students in dating, cohabitating, or married relationships within the previous year. In one single session, they completed self-report scales measuring IPV, NMRE, and coping. Results indicated that women reporting higher levels of psychological abuse reported less negative attitudes toward IPV, engaged in less-active coping responses, and had lower NMRE. Psychological abuse was a significant predictor of avoidant coping, while NMRE significantly predicted both active and avoidant coping. In addition, the interaction of NMRE × Psychological abuse added incremental prediction of avoidant coping. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25049030

  6. MDM2/MDMX: Master negative regulators for p53 and RB.

    PubMed

    Hu, Linshan; Zhang, Haibo; Bergholz, Johann; Sun, Shengnan; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong Jim

    2016-03-01

    MDM2 (mouse double minute 2 homolog) and MDMX (double minute X human homolog, also known as MDM4) are critical negative regulators of tumor protein p53. Our recent work shows that MDMX binds to and promotes degradation of retinoblastoma protein (RB) in an MDM2-dependent manner. In a xenograft tumor growth mouse model, silencing of MDMX results in inhibition of p53-deficient tumor growth, which can be effectively reversed by concomitant RB silencing. Thus, MDMX exerts its oncogenic activity via suppression of RB. PMID:27308631

  7. Evidence for the negative impact of reward on self-regulated learning.

    PubMed

    Wehe, Hillary S; Rhodes, Matthew G; Seger, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    The undermining effect refers to the detrimental impact rewards can have on intrinsic motivation to engage in a behaviour. The current study tested the hypothesis that participants' self-regulated learning behaviours are susceptible to the undermining effect. Participants were assigned to learn a set of Swahili-English word pairs. Half of the participants were offered a reward for performance, and half were not offered a reward. After the initial study phase, participants were permitted to continue studying the words during a free period. The results were consistent with an undermining effect: Participants who were not offered a reward spent more time studying the words during the free period. The results suggest that rewards may negatively impact self-regulated learning behaviours and provide support for the encouragement of intrinsic motivation. PMID:26106977

  8. Antennally mediated negative feedback regulation of pheromone production in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzel, Matthew D.; Bearfield, Jeremy C.; Keeling, Christopher I.; McCormack, Colin C.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles use monoterpenoid aggregation pheromones to coordinate host colonization and mating. These chemical signals are produced de novo in midgut cells via the mevalonate pathway, and pheromone production may be regulated by a negative feedback system mediated through the antennae. In this study, we explored the effect of antennectomy on pheromone production and transcript levels of key mevalonate pathway genes in juvenile hormone III-treated male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say). Antennectomized males produced significantly greater amounts of pheromone than podectomized males and those with intact antennae. Likewise, mRNA levels of three mevalonate pathway genes important in pheromone biosynthesis were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and found to be induced to a greater extent with antennectomy, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of pheromone production.

  9. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Acts in the Drosophila Mushroom Body to Negatively Regulate Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lei; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Though evidence is mounting that a major function of sleep is to maintain brain plasticity and consolidate memory, little is known about the molecular pathways by which learning and sleep processes intercept. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk), the gene encoding a tyrosine receptor kinase whose inadvertent activation is the cause of many cancers, is implicated in synapse formation and cognitive functions. In particular, Alk genetically interacts with Neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1) to regulate growth and associative learning in flies. We show that Alk mutants have increased sleep. Using a targeted RNAi screen we localized the negative effects of Alk on sleep to the mushroom body, a structure important for both sleep and memory. We also report that mutations in Nf1 produce a sexually dimorphic short sleep phenotype, and suppress the long sleep phenotype of Alk. Thus Alk and Nf1 interact in both learning and sleep regulation, highlighting a common pathway in these two processes. PMID:26536237

  10. miR-375 negatively regulates porcine preadipocyte differentiation by targeting BMPR2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyuan; Sun, Guangjie; Yuan, Bao; Zhang, Lianjiang; Gao, Yan; Jiang, Hao; Dai, Lisheng; Zhang, Jiabao

    2016-05-01

    The differentiation of preadipocytes into adipose tissues is tightly regulated by various factors including miRNAs and cytokines. In this study, taking advantage of isolated porcine primary preadipocytes, we showed that ectopic expression of miR-375 could change preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) was identified as a direct target of miR-375. Silencing BMPR2 had the same inhibition effects as overexpressing miR-375 on the preadipocyte differentiation. Together, we demonstrated that miR-375 is a negative regulator of adipogenic differentiation using porcine primary preadipocytes. These results clarified the role of miR-375 in ex vivo adipogenic differentiation. PMID:27059117

  11. CD45 negatively regulates tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6 production in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Piercy, Jenny; Petrova, Svetla; Tchilian, Elma Z; Beverley, Peter C L

    2006-06-01

    CD45 is known to regulate signalling through many different surface receptors in diverse haemopoietic cell types. Here we report for the first time that CD45-/- bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDC) are more activated than CD45+/+ cells and that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by BMDC and splenic dendritic cells (sDC), is increased following stimulation via Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 and TLR9. Nuclear factor-kappaB activation, an important downstream consequence of TLR3 and TLR9 signalling, is also increased in CD45-/- BMDC. BMDC of CD45-/- mice also produce more TNF and IL-6 following stimulation with the cytokines TNF and interferon-alpha. These results show that TLR signalling is increased in CD45-/- dendritic cells and imply that CD45 is a negative regulator of TLR and cytokine receptor signalling in dendritic cells. PMID:16771860

  12. The Emerging Regulation of VEGFR-2 in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) signals vascular development and angiogenesis mainly by binding to VEGF receptor family member 2 (VEGFR-2). Adaptor proteins mediate many VEGFR-2’s functions in the development of blood vessels. Cancer cells secrete VEGF to activate VEGFR-2 pathway in their neighboring endothelial cells in the process of cancer-related angiogenesis. Interestingly, activation of VEGFR-2 signaling is found in breast cancer cells, but its role and regulation are not clear. We highlighted research advances of VEGFR-2, with a focus on VEGFR-2’s regulation by mutant p53 in breast cancer. In addition, we reviewed recent Food and Drug Administration-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs that can inhibit the function of VEGFR-2. Ongoing preclinical and clinical studies might prove that pharmaceutically targeting VEGFR-2 could be an effective therapeutic strategy in treating triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:26500608

  13. TRIM13 Is a Negative Regulator of MDA5-Mediated Type I Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Kavitha; Waggoner, Lisa; Pham, Serena T.; Hendricks, Gabriel L.; Waggoner, Stephen N.; Conlon, Joseph; Wang, Jennifer P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are essential intracellular detectors of viral RNA. They contribute to the type I interferon (IFN) response that is crucial for host defense against viral infections. Given the potent antiviral and proinflammatory activities elicited by the type I IFNs, induction of the type I IFN response is tightly regulated. Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins have recently emerged as key regulators of antiviral immunity. We show that TRIM13, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is expressed in immune cells and is upregulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages upon stimulation with inducers of type I IFN. TRIM13 interacts with MDA5 and negatively regulates MDA5-mediated type I IFN production in vitro, acting upstream of IFN regulatory factor 3. We generated Trim13−/− mice and show that upon lethal challenge with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), which is sensed by MDA5, Trim13−/− mice produce increased amounts of type I IFNs and survive longer than wild-type mice. Trim13−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) challenged with EMCV or poly(I·C) also show a significant increase in beta IFN (IFN-β) levels, but, in contrast, IFN-β responses to the RIG-I-detected Sendai virus were diminished, suggesting that TRIM13 may play a role in positively regulating RIG-I function. Together, these results demonstrate that TRIM13 regulates the type I IFN response through inhibition of MDA5 activity and that it functions nonredundantly to modulate MDA5 during EMCV infection. IMPORTANCE The type I interferon (IFN) response is crucial for host defense against viral infections, and proper regulation of this pathway contributes to maintaining immune homeostasis. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are intracellular detectors of viral RNA that induce the type I IFN response. In this study, we show that expression of the

  14. Rapid estrogen signaling negatively regulates PTEN activity through phosphorylation in endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Melanie M.; Palacios-Helgeson, Leslie K.; Wah, Lah S.; Jackson, Twila A.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperestrogenicity is a risk factor for endometrial cancer. 17β-estradiol (E2) is known to stimulate both genomic and nongenomic estrogen receptor-α (ERα) actions in a number of reproductive tissues. However, the contributions of transcription-independent ERα signaling on normal and malignant endometrium are not fully understood. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor that decreases cellular mitosis primarily through negative regulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling axis. PTEN levels are elevated during the E2 dominated, mitotically active, proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle, indicating possible hormonal regulation of PTEN in the uterus. In order to determine if rapid E2 signaling regulates PTEN, we used ERα positive, PTEN positive, endometrial cells. We show that cytosolic E2/ERα signaling leads to increased phosphorylation of PTEN at key regulatory residues. Importantly, E2 stimulation decreased PTEN lipid phosphatase activity and caused consequent increases in phospho-AKT. We further demonstrate that cytosolic ERα forms a complex with PTEN in an E2-dependent manner, and that ERα constitutively complexes with protein kinase2-α (CK2α), a kinase previously shown to phosphorylate the C-terminal tail of PTEN. These results provide mechanistic support for an E2-dependent, ERα cytosolic signaling complex that negatively regulates PTEN activity through carboxy terminus phosphorylation. Using an animal model, we show that sustained E2 signaling results in increased phospho-PTEN (S380, T382, T383), total PTEN and phospho-AKT (S473). Taken together, we provide a novel mechanism in which transcription-independent E2/ERα signaling may promote a pro-tumorigenic environment in the endometrium. PMID:24844349

  15. Penta-EF-Hand Protein Peflin Is a Negative Regulator of ER-To-Golgi Transport

    PubMed Central

    Held, Aaron; Sargeant, John; Thorsen, Kevin; Hay, Jesse C.

    2016-01-01

    Luminal calcium regulates vesicle transport early in the secretory pathway. In ER-to-Golgi transport, depletion of luminal calcium leads to significantly reduced transport and a buildup of budding and newly budded COPII vesicles and vesicle proteins. Effects of luminal calcium on transport may be mediated by cytoplasmic calcium sensors near ER exits sites (ERES). The penta-EF-hand (PEF) protein apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) stabilizes sec31A at ER exit sites (ERES) and promotes the assembly of inner and outer shell COPII components. However, in vitro and intact cell approaches have not determined whether ALG-2 is a negative or positive regulator, or a regulator at all, under basal physiological conditions. ALG-2 interacts with another PEF protein, peflin, to form cytosolic heterodimers that dissociate in response to calcium. However, a biological function for peflin has not been demonstrated and whether peflin and the ALG-2/peflin interaction modulates transport has not been investigated. Using an intact, single cell, morphological assay for ER-to-Golgi transport in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, we found that depletion of peflin using siRNA resulted in significantly faster transport of the membrane cargo VSV-G. Double depletion of peflin and ALG-2 blocked the increased transport resulting from peflin depletion, demonstrating a role for ALG-2 in the increased transport. Furthermore, peflin depletion caused increased targeting of ALG-2 to ERES and increased ALG-2/sec31A interactions, suggesting that peflin may normally inhibit transport by preventing ALG-2/sec31A interactions. This work identifies for the first time a clear steady state role for a PEF protein in ER-to-Golgi transport—peflin is a negative regulator of transport. PMID:27276012

  16. The R3-MYB Gene GhCPC Negatively Regulates Cotton Fiber Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bingliang; Zhu, Yichao; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers are single-cell trichomes that arise from the outer epidermal layer of seed coat. Here, we isolated a R3-MYB gene GhCPC, identified by cDNA microarray analysis. The only conserved R3 motif and different expression between TM-1 and fuzzless-lintless mutants suggested that it might be a negative regulator in fiber development. Transgenic evidence showed that GhCPC overexpression not only delayed fiber initiation but also led to significant decreases in fiber length. Interestingly, Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed an interaction complex, in which GhCPC and GhTTG1/4 separately interacted with GhMYC1. In transgenic plants, Q-PCR analysis showed that GhHOX3 (GL2) and GhRDL1 were significantly down regulated in −1–5 DPA ovules and fibers. In addition, Yeast one-hybrid analysis demonstrated that GhMYC1 could bind to the E-box cis-elements and the promoter of GhHOX3. These results suggested that GhHOX3 (GL2) might be downstream gene of the regulatory complex. Also, overexpression of GhCPC in tobacco led to differential loss of pigmentation. Taken together, the results suggested that GhCPC might negatively regulate cotton fiber initiation and early elongation by a potential CPC-MYC1-TTG1/4 complex. Although the fibers were shorter in transgenic cotton lines than in the wild type, no significant difference was detected in stem or leaf trichomes, even in cotton mutants (five naked seed or fuzzless), suggesting that fiber and trichome development might be regulated by two sets of genes sharing a similar model. PMID:25646816

  17. Retinoic acid negatively regulates dact3b expression in the hindbrain of zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Amrita; Waxman, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in normal development as well as pathophysiological conditions. The Dapper antagonist of β-catenin (Dact) proteins are modulators of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling via direct interactions with Dishevelled (Dvl) and Van Gogh like-2 (Vangl2). Here, we report the dynamic expression patterns of two zebrafish dact3 paralogs during early embryonic development. Our whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) analysis indicates that specific dact3a expression starts by the tailbud stage in adaxial cells. Later, it is expressed in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm, somites, migrating cranial neural crest, and hindbrain neurons. By comparison, dact3b expression initiates on the dorsal side at the dome stage and soon after is expressed in the dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) during gastrulation. At later stages, dact3b expression becomes restricted to the branchial neurons of the hindbrain and to the 2nd pharyngeal arch. To investigate how zebrafish dact3 gene expression is regulated, we manipulated retinoic acid (RA) signaling during development and found it negatively regulates dact3b in the hindbrain. Our study is the first to document the expression of the paralogous zebrafish dact3 genes during early development and demonstrate dact3b can be regulated by RA signaling. Therefore, our study opens up new avenues to study Dact3 function in the development of multiple tissues and suggests a previously unappreciated cross regulation of Wnt signaling by RA signaling in the developing vertebrate hindbrain. PMID:25266145

  18. Constitutive Negative Regulation of R Proteins in Arabidopsis also via Autophagy Related Pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Pečenková, Tamara; Sabol, Peter; Kulich, Ivan; Ortmannová, Jitka; Žárský, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Even though resistance (R) genes are among the most studied components of the plant immunity, there remain still a lot of aspects to be explained about the regulation of their function. Many gain-of-function mutants of R genes and loss-of-function of their regulators often demonstrate up-regulated defense responses in combination with dwarf stature and/or spontaneous leaf lesions formation. For most of these mutants, phenotypes are a consequence of an ectopic activation of R genes. Based on the compilation and comparison of published results in this field, we have concluded that the constitutively activated defense phenotypes recurrently arise by disruption of tight, constitutive and multilevel negative control of some of R proteins that might involve also their targeting to the autophagy pathway. This mode of R protein regulation is supported also by protein–protein interactions listed in available databases, as well as in silico search for autophagy machinery interacting motifs. The suggested model could resolve some explanatory discrepancies found in the studies of the immunity responses of autophagy mutants. PMID:26973696

  19. All-trans retinoic acid negatively regulates cytotoxic activities of nature killer cell line 92

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ang . E-mail: liang3829@sina.com.cn; He Meilan; Wang Hui; Qiao Bin; Chen Ping; Gu Hua; Zhang Mengjie; He Shengxiang

    2007-01-05

    NK cells are key components of innate immune systems and their activities are regulated by cytokines and hormones. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), as a metabolite of vitamin A and an immunomodulatory hormone, plays an important role in regulating immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ATRA on human NK cell line NK92. We found that ATRA dose-dependently suppressed cytotoxic activities of NK92 cells without affecting their proliferation. To explore the mechanisms underlying the ATRA influence on NK92 cells, we examined the production of cytokines (TNF-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma}), gene expression of cytotoxic-associated molecules (perforin, granzyme B, nature killer receptors (NCRs), and NKG2D), and the activation of NF-{kappa}B pathways related with immune response. Our results demonstrated that ATRA suppressed NF-{kappa}B activity and prevented I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation in a dose-dependent way, inhibited IFN-{gamma} production and gene expression of granzyme B and NKp46. Our findings suggest that ATRA is a negative regulator of NK92 cell activation and may act as a potential regulator of anti-inflammatory functions in vivo.

  20. Sorting nexin 9 negatively regulates invadopodia formation and function in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bendris, Nawal; Stearns, Carrie J S; Reis, Carlos R; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Liu, Hui; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka W; Schmid, Sandra L

    2016-07-15

    The ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix and invade interstitial tissues contributes to their metastatic potential. We recently showed that overexpression of sorting nexin 9 (SNX9) leads to increased cell invasion and metastasis in animal models, which correlates with increased SNX9 protein expression in metastases from human mammary cancers. Here, we report that SNX9 expression is reduced relative to neighboring normal tissues in primary breast tumors, and progressively reduced in more aggressive stages of non-small-cell lung cancers. We show that SNX9 is localized at invadopodia where it directly binds the invadopodia marker TKS5 and negatively regulates invadopodia formation and function. SNX9 depletion increases invadopodia number and the local recruitment of MT1-MMP by decreasing its internalization. Together, these effects result in increased localized matrix degradation. We further identify SNX9 as a Src kinase substrate and show that this phosphorylation is important for SNX9 activity in regulating cell invasion, but is dispensable for its function in regulating invadopodia. The diversified changes associated with SNX9 expression in cancer highlight its importance as a central regulator of cancer cell behavior. PMID:27278018

  1. microRNAs are differentially regulated between MDM2-positive and negative malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Robert Fred Henry; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Werner, Robert; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Christoph, Daniel Christian; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Mairinger, Fabian Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive tumour first-line treated with a combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed. MDM2 and P14/ARF (CDKN2A) are upstream regulators of TP53 and may contribute to its inactivation. In the present study, we now aimed to define the impact of miRNA expression on this mechanism. Material and Methods 24 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour specimens were used for miRNA expression analysis of the 800 most important miRNAs using the nCounter technique (NanoString). Significantly deregulated miRNAs were identified before a KEGG-pathway analysis was performed. Results 17 miRNAs regulating TP53, 18 miRNAs regulating MDM2, and 11 miRNAs directly regulating CDKN2A are significantly downregulated in MDM2-expressing mesotheliomas. TP53 is downregulated in MDM2-negative tumours through miRNAs with a miSVR prediction score of 11.67, RB1 with a prediction score of 8.02, MDM2 with a prediction score of 4.50 and CDKN2A with a prediction score of 1.27. Conclusion MDM2 expression seems to impact miRNA expression levels in MPM. Especially, miRNAs involved in TP53-signaling are strongly decreased in MDM2-positive mesotheliomas. A better understanding of its tumour biology may open the chance for new therapeutic approaches and thereby augment patients' outcome. PMID:26918730

  2. PINK1 Is a Negative Regulator of Growth and the Warburg Effect in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Sameer; Golbourn, Brian; Huang, Xi; Remke, Marc; Younger, Susan; Cairns, Rob A; Chalil, Alan; Smith, Christian A; Krumholtz, Stacey-Lynn; Mackenzie, Danielle; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taccone, Michael S; Mischel, Paul S; Fuller, Gregory N; Hawkins, Cynthia; Stanford, William L; Taylor, Michael D; Zadeh, Gelareh; Rutka, James T

    2016-08-15

    Proliferating cancer cells are characterized by high rates of glycolysis, lactate production, and altered mitochondrial metabolism. This metabolic reprogramming provides important metabolites for proliferation of tumor cells, including glioblastoma. These biological processes, however, generate oxidative stress that must be balanced through detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using an unbiased retroviral loss-of-function screen in nontransformed human astrocytes, we demonstrate that mitochondrial PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a regulator of the Warburg effect and negative regulator of glioblastoma growth. We report that loss of PINK1 contributes to the Warburg effect through ROS-dependent stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1A and reduced pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 activity, both key regulators of aerobic glycolysis. Mechanistically, PINK1 suppresses ROS and tumor growth through FOXO3a, a master regulator of oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase 2. These findings highlight the importance of PINK1 and ROS balance in normal and tumor cells. PINK1 loss was observed in a significant number of human brain tumors including glioblastoma (n > 900) and correlated with poor patient survival. PINK1 overexpression attenuates in vivo glioblastoma growth in orthotopic mouse xenograft models and a transgenic glioblastoma model in Drosophila Cancer Res; 76(16); 4708-19. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27325644

  3. Histone deacetylase HDA9 negatively regulates salt and drought stress responsiveness in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Ding, Yue; Sun, Xuan; Xie, Sisi; Wang, Dan; Liu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lufang; Wei, Wei; Pan, Lei; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2016-04-01

    Histone modification is an important epigenetic regulation in higher plants adapting to environment changes including salt and drought stresses. In this report, we show that the Arabidopsis RPD3-type histone deacetylase HDA9 is involved in modulating plant responses to salt and drought stresses in Arabidopsis. Loss-of-function mutants of the gene displayed phenotypes (such as seedling root growth and seed germination) insensitive to NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments. HDA9 mutation led to up-regulation of many genes, among which those involved in response to water deprivation stress (GO: 0009414) were enriched. These genes were much more induced in the mutants than wild-type plants when treated with PEG and NaCl. In addition, we found that in the mutants, salt and drought stresses led to much higher levels of histone H3K9 acetylation at promoters of 14 genes randomly selected from those that respond to water-deprivation stress than in wild-type plants. Our study suggested that HDA9 might be a novel chromatin protein that negatively regulates plant sensitivity to salt and drought stresses by regulating histone acetylation levels of a large number of stress-responsive genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:26733691

  4. Mycobacterial FurA is a negative regulator of catalase-peroxidase gene katG.

    PubMed

    Zahrt, T C; Song, J; Siple, J; Deretic, V

    2001-03-01

    In several bacteria, the catalase-peroxidase gene katG is under positive control by oxyR, a transcriptional regulator of the peroxide stress response. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome also contains sequences corresponding to oxyR, but this gene has been inactivated in the tubercle bacillus because of the presence of multiple mutations and deletions. Thus, M. tuberculosis katG and possibly other parts of the oxidative stress response in this organism are either not regulated or are controlled by a factor different from OxyR. The mycobacterial FurA is a homologue of the ferric uptake regulator Fur and is encoded by a gene located immediately upstream of katG. Here, we examine the possibility that FurA regulates katG expression. Inactivation of furA on the Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosome, a mycobacterial species that also lacks an oxyR homologue, resulted in derepression of katG, concomitant with increased resistance of the furA mutant to H2O2. In addition, M. smegmatis furA::Km(r) was more sensitive to the front-line antituberculosis agent isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) compared with the parental furA+ strain. The phenotypic manifestations were specific, as the mutant strain did not show altered sensitivity to organic peroxides, and both H2O2 and INH susceptibility profiles were complemented by the wild-type furA+ gene. We conclude that FurA is a second regulator of oxidative stress response in mycobacteria and that it negatively controls katG. In species lacking a functional oxyR, such as M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis, FurA appears to be a dominant regulator affecting mycobacterial physiology and intracellular survival. PMID:11251835

  5. Soybean Homologs of MPK4 Negatively Regulate Defense Responses and Positively Regulate Growth and Development1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Zhong; Horstman, Heidi D.; Braun, Edward; Graham, Michelle A.; Zhang, Chunquan; Navarre, Duroy; Qiu, Wen-Li; Lee, Yeunsook; Nettleton, Dan; Hill, John H.; Whitham, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important roles in disease resistance in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). However, the importance of MAPK signaling pathways in the disease resistance of crops is still largely uninvestigated. To better understand the role of MAPK signaling pathways in disease resistance in soybean (Glycine max), 13, nine, and 10 genes encoding distinct MAPKs, MAPKKs, and MAPKKKs, respectively, were silenced using virus-induced gene silencing mediated by Bean pod mottle virus. Among the plants silenced for various MAPKs, MAPKKs, and MAPKKKs, those in which GmMAPK4 homologs (GmMPK4s) were silenced displayed strong phenotypes including stunted stature and spontaneous cell death on the leaves and stems, the characteristic hallmarks of activated defense responses. Microarray analysis showed that genes involved in defense responses, such as those in salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathways, were significantly up-regulated in GmMPK4-silenced plants, whereas genes involved in growth and development, such as those in auxin signaling pathways and in cell cycle and proliferation, were significantly down-regulated. As expected, SA and hydrogen peroxide accumulation was significantly increased in GmMPK4-silenced plants. Accordingly, GmMPK4-silenced plants were more resistant to downy mildew and Soybean mosaic virus compared with vector control plants. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis and in vitro kinase assays, we determined that GmMKK1 and GmMKK2 might function upstream of GmMPK4. Taken together, our results indicate that GmMPK4s negatively regulate SA accumulation and defense response but positively regulate plant growth and development, and their functions are conserved across plant species. PMID:21878550

  6. Inhibitory PAS domain protein is a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Yuichi; Cao, Renhai; Svensson, Kristian; Bertilsson, Göran; Asman, Mikael; Tanaka, Hirotoshi; Cao, Yihai; Berkenstam, Anders; Poellinger, Lorenz

    2001-11-01

    Alteration of gene expression is a crucial component of adaptive responses to hypoxia. These responses are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Here we describe an inhibitory PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain protein, IPAS, which is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS protein structurally related to HIFs. IPAS contains no endogenous transactivation function but demonstrates dominant negative regulation of HIF-mediated control of gene expression. Ectopic expression of IPAS in hepatoma cells selectively impairs induction of genes involved in adaptation to a hypoxic environment, notably the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene, and results in retarded tumour growth and tumour vascular density in vivo. In mice, IPAS was predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in corneal epithelium of the eye. Expression of IPAS in the cornea correlates with low levels of expression of the VEGF gene under hypoxic conditions. Application of an IPAS antisense oligonucleotide to the mouse cornea induced angiogenesis under normal oxygen conditions, and demonstrated hypoxia-dependent induction of VEGF gene expression in hypoxic corneal cells. These results indicate a previously unknown mechanism for negative regulation of angiogenesis and maintenance of an avascular phenotype.

  7. BMX Negatively Regulates BAK Function, Thereby Increasing Apoptotic Resistance to Chemotherapeutic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fox, Joanna L; Storey, Alan

    2015-04-01

    The ability of chemotherapeutic agents to induce apoptosis, predominantly via the mitochondrial (intrinsic) apoptotic pathway, is thought to be a major determinant of the sensitivity of a given cancer to treatment. Intrinsic apoptosis, regulated by the BCL2 family, integrates diverse apoptotic signals to determine cell death commitment and then activates the nodal effector protein BAK to initiate the apoptotic cascade. In this study, we identified the tyrosine kinase BMX as a direct negative regulator of BAK function. BMX associates with BAK in viable cells and is the first kinase to phosphorylate the key tyrosine residue needed to maintain BAK in an inactive conformation. Importantly, elevated BMX expression prevents BAK activation in tumor cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents and is associated with increased resistance to apoptosis and decreased patient survival. Accordingly, BMX expression was elevated in prostate, breast, and colon cancers compared with normal tissue, including in aggressive triple-negative breast cancers where BMX overexpression may be a novel biomarker. Furthermore, BMX silencing potentiated BAK activation, rendering tumor cells hypersensitive to otherwise sublethal doses of clinically relevant chemotherapeutic agents. Our finding that BMX directly inhibits a core component of the intrinsic apoptosis machinery opens opportunities to improve the efficacy of existing chemotherapy by potentiating BAK-driven cell death in cancer cells. PMID:25649765

  8. High mobility group protein DSP1 negatively regulates HSP70 transcription in Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zongyu; Xu, Delin; Cui, Miao; Zhang, Qizhong

    2016-06-10

    HSP70 acts mostly as a molecular chaperone and plays important roles in facilitating the folding of nascent peptides as well as the refolding or degradation of the denatured proteins. Under stressed conditions, the expression level of HSP70 is upregulated significantly and rapidly, as is known to be achieved by various regulatory factors controlling the transcriptional level. In this study, a high mobility group protein DSP1 was identified by DNA-affinity purification from the nuclear extracts of Crassostrea hongkongensis using the ChHSP70 promoter as a bait. The specific interaction between the prokaryotically expressed ChDSP1 and the FITC-labeled ChHSP70 promoter was confirmed by EMSA analysis. ChDSP1 was shown to negatively regulate ChHSP70 promoter expression by Luciferase Reporter Assay in the heterologous HEK293T cells. Both ChHSP70 and ChDSP1 transcriptions were induced by either thermal or CdCl2 stress, while the accumulated expression peaks of ChDSP1 were always slightly delayed when compared with that of ChHSP70. This indicates that ChDSP1 is involved, very likely to exert its suppressive role, in the recovery of the ChHSP70 expression from the induced level to its original state. This study is the first to report negative regulator of HSP70 gene transcription, and provides novel insights into the mechanisms controlling heat shock protein expression. PMID:27154224

  9. Negative reciprocal regulation between Sirt1 and Per2 modulates the circadian clock and aging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Hong; Zhao, Tingrui; Cui, Kairong; Hu, Gangqing; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Weiping; Wang, Xin-Wei; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Zhao, Keji; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in both aging and circadian-clock regulation, yet the link between the two processes in relation to SIRT1 function is not clear. Using Sirt1-deficient mice, we found that Sirt1 and Period 2 (Per2) constitute a reciprocal negative regulation loop that plays important roles in modulating hepatic circadian rhythmicity and aging. Sirt1-deficient mice exhibited profound premature aging and enhanced acetylation of histone H4 on lysine16 (H4K16) in the promoter of Per2, the latter of which leads to its overexpression; in turn, Per2 suppresses Sirt1 transcription through binding to the Sirt1 promoter at the Clock/Bmal1 site. This negative reciprocal relationship between SIRT1 and PER2 was also observed in human hepatocytes. We further demonstrated that the absence of Sirt1 or the ectopic overexpression of Per2 in the liver resulted in a dysregulated pace of the circadian rhythm. The similar circadian rhythm was also observed in aged wild type mice. The interplay between Sirt1 and Per2 modulates aging gene expression and circadian-clock maintenance. PMID:27346580

  10. Human Discs Large Is a New Negative Regulator of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Perugi, Fabien; Muriaux, Delphine; Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia; Chabani, Sabah; Decroly, Etienne; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Blot, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication is positively or negatively regulated through multiple interactions with host cell proteins. We report here that human Discs Large (Dlg1), a scaffold protein recruited beneath the plasma membrane and involved in the assembly of multiprotein complexes, restricts HIV-1 infectivity. The endogenous Dlg1 and HIV-1 Gag polyprotein spontaneously interact in HIV-1-chronically infected T cells. Depleting endogenous Dlg1 in either adherent cells or T cells does not affect Gag maturation, production, or release, but it enhances the infectivity of progeny viruses five- to sixfold. Conversely, overexpression of Dlg1 reduces virus infectivity by ∼80%. Higher virus infectivity upon Dlg1 depletion correlates with increased Env content in cells and virions, whereas the amount of virus-associated Gag or genomic RNA remains identical. Dlg1 knockdown is also associated with the redistribution and colocalization of Gag and Env toward CD63 and CD82 positive vesicle-like structures, including structures that seem to still be connected to the plasma membrane. This study identifies both a new negative regulator that targets the very late steps of the HIV-1 life cycle, and an assembly pathway that optimizes HIV-1 infectivity. PMID:18946087

  11. The homeobox transcription factor Irxl1 negatively regulates MyoD expression and myoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Han-Ni; Hsiao, Kuang-Ming; Chang, Hui-Yi; Wu, Chia-Chi; Pan, Huichin

    2014-07-01

    Irxl1/Mkx (Iroquois homeobox-like 1/Mohawk) encodes a member of the TALE subfamily of homeodomain proteins. It is expressed in multiple mesoderm-derived tissues and has recently been shown to regulate tendon differentiation during mouse embryonic development. Previously we showed that knockdown of Irxl1 in zebrafish caused a deficit in neural crest cells which consequently resulted in deformation of craniofacial muscles and arch cartilages. Here, we further demonstrate that loss of Irxl1 function results in deformed somites with disordered muscle fibers and myotendinous junctions. Because expression of myoD is increased in the somites of Irxl1 knockdown morphants, we test whether Irxl1 negatively regulates myoD expression. When stable C2C12 myoblasts overexpressing Irxl1/Mkx were induced to differentiate, myotube formation was inhibited and protein levels of myoD and myosin heavy chain were decreased accordingly. A series of deletion constructs of myoD promoter fragments were tested by luciferase reporter assays, which identified a promoter fragment that is necessary and sufficient for Irxl1-mediated repression. Direct interaction of Irxl1 and myoD promoter was subsequently elucidated by yeast one-hybrid assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Furthermore, mouse Mkx also binds to and represses myoD promoter. These results indicate that Irxl1/Mkx can repress myoD expression through direct binding to its promoter and may thus play a negative regulatory role in muscle differentiation. PMID:24814716

  12. The Dishevelled-binding protein CXXC5 negatively regulates cutaneous wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soung-Hoon; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Lee, Young-Mi; Kim, Heesu; Nam, Kyoung Ae; Roh, Mi Ryung; Min, Do Sik; Chung, Kee Yang

    2015-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in cutaneous wound healing and dermal fibrosis. However, its regulatory mechanism has not been fully elucidated, and a commercially available wound-healing agent targeting this pathway is desirable but currently unavailable. We found that CXXC-type zinc finger protein 5 (CXXC5) serves as a negative feedback regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by interacting with the Dishevelled (Dvl) protein. In humans, CXXC5 protein levels were reduced in epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts of acute wounds. A differential regulation of β-catenin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen I by overexpression and silencing of CXXC5 in vitro indicated a critical role for this factor in myofibroblast differentiation and collagen production. In addition, CXXC5−/− mice exhibited accelerated cutaneous wound healing, as well as enhanced keratin 14 and collagen synthesis. Protein transduction domain (PTD)–Dvl-binding motif (DBM), a competitor peptide blocking CXXC5-Dvl interactions, disrupted this negative feedback loop and activated β-catenin and collagen production in vitro. Co-treatment of skin wounds with PTD-DBM and valproic acid (VPA), a glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) inhibitor which activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, synergistically accelerated cutaneous wound healing in mice. Together, these data suggest that CXXC5 would represent a potential target for future therapies aimed at improving wound healing. PMID:26056233

  13. [NEGATIVE REGULATORS OF TUMOR SUPPRESSOR P53 IN THE CONTEXT OF ANTICANCER THERAPY].

    PubMed

    Shuvalov, O Yu; Fedorova, O A; Petukhov, A V; Daks, A A; Vasilieva, E A; Grigorieva, T A; Ivanov, G S; Barlev, N A

    2015-01-01

    P53 protein is considered to be the major tumor suppressor in human cells. Cancer cells do not survive if the p53-mediated signaling pathways function properly. However, about half of all malignancies still express wild type p53. One of the explanations to this is that p53 is suppressed by overexpression of p53-specific E3-ubiquitin ligases: Mdm2, MdmX, Pirh2 and Cop1. Pharmacological inhibition of protein-protein interactions between p53 and these negative regulators is a promising therapeutic approach to treat cancers retaining wild type p53. To date, a series of chemical inhibitors of p53 interactions with Mdm2 and MdmX E3-ubiquitin ligases have been discovered and characterized. Several of them are in the early stages of clinical trials. Despite this fact, their clinical efficacy may be hampered by a number of reasons, including tumor-specific expression of multiple isoforms of the target E3-ligases, which become inert to treatment with small molecules. This and other biochemical mechanisms of possible resistance of tumor cells with wild type p53 to small molecules against its negative regulators will be discussed in this review. PMID:26995961

  14. Quercetin negatively regulates TLR4 signaling induced by lipopolysaccharide through Tollip expression.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Yang, Mi-So; Choi, Han-Gyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Song, Du-Sup; Sin, Sung-Jae; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2013-02-22

    Polyphenolic compounds have been regarded as one of the most promising dietary agents for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-related chronic diseases; however, the anti-inflammatory activities of flavonoids, such as quercetin, are not completely characterized, and many features remain to be elucidated. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the downregulation of TLR4 signal transduction by quercetin. Quercetin markedly elevated the expression of the Toll-interacting protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of cell surface molecules (CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II) and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p70) were inhibited by quercetin, and this action was prevented by Toll-interacting protein silencing. In addition, quercetin-treated macrophages inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and the translocation of nuclear factor-κB and p65 through Toll-interacting protein. Treatment with quercetin resulted in a significant decrease in prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, these findings represent new insights into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and effective therapeutic intervention for the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:23353651

  15. AtMYB93 is a novel negative regulator of lateral root development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Daniel J; Voß, Ute; Harding, Susan A; Fannon, Jessica; Moody, Laura A; Yamada, Erika; Swarup, Kamal; Nibau, Candida; Bassel, George W; Choudhary, Anushree; Lavenus, Julien; Bradshaw, Susan J; Stekel, Dov J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Coates, Juliet C

    2014-01-01

    Plant root system plasticity is critical for survival in changing environmental conditions. One important aspect of root architecture is lateral root development, a complex process regulated by hormone, environmental and protein signalling pathways. Here we show, using molecular genetic approaches, that the MYB transcription factor AtMYB93 is a novel negative regulator of lateral root development in Arabidopsis. We identify AtMYB93 as an interaction partner of the lateral-root-promoting ARABIDILLO proteins. Atmyb93 mutants have faster lateral root developmental progression and enhanced lateral root densities, while AtMYB93-overexpressing lines display the opposite phenotype. AtMYB93 is expressed strongly, specifically and transiently in the endodermal cells overlying early lateral root primordia and is additionally induced by auxin in the basal meristem of the primary root. Furthermore, Atmyb93 mutant lateral root development is insensitive to auxin, indicating that AtMYB93 is required for normal auxin responses during lateral root development. We propose that AtMYB93 is part of a novel auxin-induced negative feedback loop stimulated in a select few endodermal cells early during lateral root development, ensuring that lateral roots only develop when absolutely required. Putative AtMYB93 homologues are detected throughout flowering plants and represent promising targets for manipulating root systems in diverse crop species. PMID:24902892

  16. Negative reciprocal regulation between Sirt1 and Per2 modulates the circadian clock and aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Hong; Zhao, Tingrui; Cui, Kairong; Hu, Gangqing; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Weiping; Wang, Xin-Wei; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Zhao, Keji; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in both aging and circadian-clock regulation, yet the link between the two processes in relation to SIRT1 function is not clear. Using Sirt1-deficient mice, we found that Sirt1 and Period 2 (Per2) constitute a reciprocal negative regulation loop that plays important roles in modulating hepatic circadian rhythmicity and aging. Sirt1-deficient mice exhibited profound premature aging and enhanced acetylation of histone H4 on lysine16 (H4K16) in the promoter of Per2, the latter of which leads to its overexpression; in turn, Per2 suppresses Sirt1 transcription through binding to the Sirt1 promoter at the Clock/Bmal1 site. This negative reciprocal relationship between SIRT1 and PER2 was also observed in human hepatocytes. We further demonstrated that the absence of Sirt1 or the ectopic overexpression of Per2 in the liver resulted in a dysregulated pace of the circadian rhythm. The similar circadian rhythm was also observed in aged wild type mice. The interplay between Sirt1 and Per2 modulates aging gene expression and circadian-clock maintenance. PMID:27346580

  17. The Dishevelled-binding protein CXXC5 negatively regulates cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soung-Hoon; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Lee, Young-Mi; Kim, Heesu; Nam, Kyoung Ae; Roh, Mi Ryung; Min, Do Sik; Chung, Kee Yang; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2015-06-29

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in cutaneous wound healing and dermal fibrosis. However, its regulatory mechanism has not been fully elucidated, and a commercially available wound-healing agent targeting this pathway is desirable but currently unavailable. We found that CXXC-type zinc finger protein 5 (CXXC5) serves as a negative feedback regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by interacting with the Dishevelled (Dvl) protein. In humans, CXXC5 protein levels were reduced in epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts of acute wounds. A differential regulation of β-catenin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen I by overexpression and silencing of CXXC5 in vitro indicated a critical role for this factor in myofibroblast differentiation and collagen production. In addition, CXXC5(-/-) mice exhibited accelerated cutaneous wound healing, as well as enhanced keratin 14 and collagen synthesis. Protein transduction domain (PTD)-Dvl-binding motif (DBM), a competitor peptide blocking CXXC5-Dvl interactions, disrupted this negative feedback loop and activated β-catenin and collagen production in vitro. Co-treatment of skin wounds with PTD-DBM and valproic acid (VPA), a glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) inhibitor which activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, synergistically accelerated cutaneous wound healing in mice. Together, these data suggest that CXXC5 would represent a potential target for future therapies aimed at improving wound healing. PMID:26056233

  18. Zac1 functions through TGFβII to negatively regulate cell number in the developing retina

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lin; Cantrup, Robert; Varrault, Annie; Colak, Dilek; Klenin, Natalia; Götz, Magdalena; McFarlane, Sarah; Journot, Laurent; Schuurmans, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Background Organs are programmed to acquire a particular size during development, but the regulatory mechanisms that dictate when dividing progenitor cells should permanently exit the cell cycle and stop producing additional daughter cells are poorly understood. In differentiated tissues, tumor suppressor genes maintain a constant cell number and intact tissue architecture by controlling proliferation, apoptosis and cell dispersal. Here we report a similar role for two tumor suppressor genes, the Zac1 zinc finger transcription factor and that encoding the cytokine TGFβII, in the developing retina. Results Using loss and gain-of-function approaches, we show that Zac1 is an essential negative regulator of retinal size. Zac1 mutants develop hypercellular retinae due to increased progenitor cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis at late developmental stages. Consequently, supernumerary rod photoreceptors and amacrine cells are generated, the latter of which form an ectopic cellular layer, while other retinal cells are present in their normal number and location. Strikingly, Zac1 functions as a direct negative regulator of a rod fate, while acting cell non-autonomously to modulate amacrine cell number. We implicate TGFβII, another tumor suppressor and cytokine, as a Zac1-dependent amacrine cell negative feedback signal. TGFβII and phospho-Smad2/3, its downstream effector, are expressed at reduced levels in Zac1 mutant retinae, and exogenous TGFβII relieves the mutant amacrine cell phenotype. Moreover, treatment of wild-type retinae with a soluble TGFβ inhibitor and TGFβ receptor II (TGFβRII) conditional mutants generate excess amacrine cells, phenocopying the Zac1 mutant phenotype. Conclusion We show here that Zac1 has an essential role in cell number control during retinal development, akin to its role in tumor surveillance in mature tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Zac1 employs a novel cell non-autonomous strategy to regulate amacrine cell number

  19. Ligand binding to WW tandem domains of YAP2 transcriptional regulator is under negative cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Brett J; Mikles, David C; Hoang, Lawrence M; Bhat, Vikas; McDonald, Caleb B; Sudol, Marius; Farooq, Amjad

    2014-12-01

    YES-associated protein 2 (YAP2) transcriptional regulator drives a multitude of cellular processes, including the newly discovered Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, by virtue of the ability of its WW domains to bind and recruit PPXY-containing ligands to specific subcellular compartments. Herein, we employ an array of biophysical tools to investigate allosteric communication between the WW tandem domains of YAP2. Our data show that the WW tandem domains of YAP2 negatively cooperate when binding to their cognate ligands. Moreover, the molecular origin of such negative cooperativity lies in an unfavorable entropic contribution to the overall free energy relative to ligand binding to isolated WW domains. Consistent with this notion, the WW tandem domains adopt a fixed spatial orientation such that the WW1 domain curves outwards and stacks onto the binding groove of the WW2 domain, thereby sterically hindering ligand binding to both itself and its tandem partner. Although ligand binding to both WW domains disrupts such interdomain stacking interaction, they reorient themselves and adopt an alternative fixed spatial orientation in the liganded state by virtue of their ability to engage laterally so as to allow their binding grooves to point outwards and away from each other. In short, while the ability of WW tandem domains to aid ligand binding is well documented, our demonstration that they may also be subject to negative binding cooperativity represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the molecular action of this ubiquitous family of protein modules. PMID:25283809

  20. Ligand Binding to WW Tandem Domains of YAP2 Transcriptional Regulator Is Under Negative Cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Brett J.; Mikles, David C.; Hoang, Lawrence M.; Bhat, Vikas; McDonald, Caleb B.; Sudol, Marius; Farooq, Amjad

    2014-01-01

    YAP2 transcriptional regulator drives a multitude of cellular processes, including the newly discovered Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, by virtue of the ability of its WW domains to bind and recruit PPXY-containing ligands to specific subcellular compartments. Herein, we employ an array of biophysical tools to investigate allosteric communication between the WW tandem domains of YAP2. Our data show that the WW tandem domains of YAP2 negatively cooperate when binding to their cognate ligands. Moreover, the molecular origin of such negative cooperativity lies in an unfavorable entropic contribution to the overall free energy relative to ligand binding to isolated WW domains. Consistent with this notion, the WW tandem domains adopt a fixed spatial orientation such that the WW1 domain curves outwards and stacks onto the binding groove of WW2 domain, thereby sterically hindering ligand binding to both itself and its tandem partner. Although ligand binding to both WW domains disrupts such interdomain stacking interaction, they reorient themselves and adopt an alternative fixed spatial orientation in the liganded state by virtue of their ability to engage laterally so as to allow their binding grooves to point outwards and away from each other. In short, while the ability of WW tandem domains to aid ligand binding is well-documented, our demonstration that they may also be subject to negative binding cooperativity represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the molecular action of this ubiquitous family of protein modules. PMID:25283809

  1. PKC{eta} is a negative regulator of AKT inhibiting the IGF-I induced proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Shahaf, Galit; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Koifman, Gabriela; Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Frost, Sigal A.; Livneh, Etta

    2012-04-15

    The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in human cancers, including breast cancer, and its activation appears to be critical for tumor maintenance. Some malignant cells are dependent on activated AKT for their survival; tumors exhibiting elevated AKT activity show sensitivity to its inhibition, providing an Achilles heel for their treatment. Here we show that the PKC{eta} isoform is a negative regulator of the AKT signaling pathway. The IGF-I induced phosphorylation on Ser473 of AKT was inhibited by the PKC{eta}-induced expression in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells. This was further confirmed in shRNA PKC{eta}-knocked-down MCF-7 cells, demonstrating elevated phosphorylation on AKT Ser473. While PKC{eta} exhibited negative regulation on AKT phosphorylation it did not alter the IGF-I induced ERK phosphorylation. However, it enhanced ERK phosphorylation when stimulated by PDGF. Moreover, its effects on IGF-I/AKT and PDGF/ERK pathways were in correlation with cell proliferation. We further show that both PKC{eta} and IGF-I confer protection against UV-induced apoptosis and cell death having additive effects. Although the protective effect of IGF-I involved activation of AKT, it was not affected by PKC{eta} expression, suggesting that PKC{eta} acts through a different route to increase cell survival. Hence, our studies show that PKC{eta} provides negative control on AKT pathway leading to reduced cell proliferation, and further suggest that its presence/absence in breast cancer cells will affect cell death, which could be of therapeutic value.

  2. Negative regulation of TGFβ-induced lens epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) by RTK antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guannan; Wojciechowski, Magdalena C; Jee, Seonah; Boros, Jessica; McAvoy, John W; Lovicu, Frank J

    2015-03-01

    An eclectic range of ocular growth factors with differing actions are present within the aqueous and vitreous humors that bathe the lens. Growth factors that exert their actions via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as FGF, play a normal regulatory role in lens; whereas other factors, such as TGFβ, can lead to an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that underlies several forms of cataract. The respective downstream intracellular signaling pathways of these factors are in turn tightly regulated. One level of negative regulation is thought to be through RTK-antagonists, namely, Sprouty (Spry), Sef and Spred that are all expressed in the lens. In this study, we tested these different negative regulators and compared their ability to block TGFβ-induced EMT in rat lens epithelial cells. Spred expression within the rodent eye was confirmed using RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. Rat lens epithelial explants were used to examine the morphological changes associated with TGFβ-induced EMT over 3 days of culture, as well as α-smooth muscle actin (α-sma) immunolabeling. Cells in lens epithelial explants were transfected with either a reporter (EGFP) vector (pLXSG), or with plasmids also coding for different RTK-antagonists (i.e. pLSXG-Spry1, pLSXG-Spry2, pLXSG-Sef, pLSXG-Spred1, pLSXG-Spred2, pLSXG-Spred3), before treating with TGFβ for up to 3 days. The percentages of transfected cells that underwent TGFβ-induced morphological changes consistent with an EMT were determined using cell counts and validated with a paired two-tailed t-test. Explants transfected with pLXSG demonstrated a distinct transition in cell morphology after TGFβ treatment, with ∼60% of the cells undergoing fibrotic-like cell elongation. This percentage was significantly reduced in cells overexpressing the different antagonists, indicative of a block in lens EMT. Of the antagonists tested under these in vitro conditions, Spred1 was the most potent demonstrating the

  3. Procyanidin dimer B2-mediated IRAK-M induction negatively regulates TLR4 signaling in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Yang, Mi-So; Song, Du-Sub; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Pro B2 elevated the expression of IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. •LPS-induced expression of cell surface molecules was inhibited by Pro B2. •LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was inhibited by Pro B2. •Pro B2 inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB through IRAK-M. •Pro B2 inactivated naïve T cells by inhibiting LPS-induced cytokines via IRAK-M. -- Abstract: Polyphenolic compounds have been found to possess a wide range of physiological activities that may contribute to their beneficial effects against inflammation-related diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory activity are not completely characterized, and many features remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by procyanidin dimer B2 (Pro B2) in macrophages. Pro B2 markedly elevated the expression of the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-M protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of cell surface molecules (CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II) and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p70) were inhibited by Pro B2, and this action was prevented by IRAK-M silencing. In addition, Pro B2-treated macrophages inhibited LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the translocation of nuclear factor κB and p65 through IRAK-M. We also found that Pro B2-treated macrophages inactivated naïve T cells by inhibiting LPS-induced interferon-γ and IL-2 secretion through IRAK-M. These novel findings provide new insights into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and the immune-pharmacological role of Pro B2 in the immune response against the development

  4. Spleen tyrosine kinase suppresses osteoblastic differentiation through MAPK and PKCα.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Higuchi, Chikahisa; Nakura, Akio; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2011-08-12

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a non-receptor protein kinase present in abundance in a wide range of hematopoietic cells. Syk reportedly plays a crucial role in immune signaling in B cells and cells bearing Fcγ-activation receptors. The role of syk in osteoblastic differentiation has not been well elucidated. We report herein the role of syk in osteoblastic differentiation. We investigated the effects of two syk inhibitors on osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. Expression of syk was detected in these two cell lines. Two syk inhibitors stimulated mRNA expression of osteoblastic markers (ALP, Runx2, Osterix). Mineralization of extracellular matrix was also promoted by treatment with syk inhibitors. Knockdown of Syk caused increased mRNA expression of osteoblastic markers. In addition, syk inhibitor and knockdown of Syk suppressed phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase Cα (PKCα). Our results indicate that syk might regulate osteoblastic differentiation through MAPK and PKCα. PMID:21782794

  5. Peroxiredoxin II Is an Antioxidant Enzyme That Negatively Regulates Collagen-stimulated Platelet Function*

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji Yong; Wang, Su Bin; Min, Ji Hyun; Chae, Yun Hee; Baek, Jin Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-01-01

    Collagen-induced platelet signaling is mediated by binding to the primary receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Reactive oxygen species produced in response to collagen have been found to be responsible for the propagation of GPVI signaling pathways in platelets. Therefore, it has been suggested that antioxidant enzymes could down-regulate GPVI-stimulated platelet activation. Although the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) has emerged as having a role in negatively regulating signaling through various receptors by eliminating H2O2 generated upon receptor stimulation, the function of PrxII in collagen-stimulated platelets is not known. We tested the hypothesis that PrxII negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet activation. We analyzed PrxII-deficient murine platelets. PrxII deficiency enhanced GPVI-mediated platelet activation through the defective elimination of H2O2 and the impaired protection of SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) against oxidative inactivation, which resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of key components for the GPVI signaling cascade, including Syk, Btk, and phospholipase Cγ2. Interestingly, PrxII-mediated antioxidative protection of SHP-2 appeared to occur in the lipid rafts. PrxII-deficient platelets exhibited increased adhesion and aggregation upon collagen stimulation. Furthermore, in vivo experiments demonstrated that PrxII deficiency facilitated platelet-dependent thrombus formation in injured carotid arteries. This study reveals that PrxII functions as a protective antioxidant enzyme against collagen-stimulated platelet activation and platelet-dependent thrombosis. PMID:25802339

  6. EWI-2 negatively regulates TGF-β signaling leading to altered melanoma growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Sharma, Chandan; Knoblich, Konstantin; Granter, Scott R; Hemler, Martin E

    2015-01-01

    In normal melanocytes, TGF-β signaling has a cytostatic effect. However, in primary melanoma cells, TGF-β-induced cytostasis is diminished, thus allowing melanoma growth. Later, a second phase of TGF-β signaling supports melanoma EMT-like changes, invasion and metastasis. In parallel with these “present-absent-present” TGF-β signaling phases, cell surface protein EWI motif-containing protein 2 (EWI-2 or IgSF8) is “absent-present-absent” in melanocytes, primary melanoma, and metastatic melanoma, respectively, suggesting that EWI-2 may serve as a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling. Using melanoma cell lines and melanoma short-term cultures, we performed RNAi and overexpression experiments and found that EWI-2 negatively regulates TGF-β signaling and its downstream events including cytostasis (in vitro and in vivo), EMT-like changes, cell migration, CD271-dependent invasion, and lung metastasis (in vivo). When EWI-2 is present, it associates with cell surface tetraspanin proteins CD9 and CD81 — molecules not previously linked to TGF-β signaling. Indeed, when associated with EWI-2, CD9 and CD81 are sequestered and have no impact on TβR2-TβR1 association or TGF-β signaling. However, when EWI-2 is knocked down, CD9 and CD81 become available to provide critical support for TβR2-TβR1 association, thus markedly elevating TGF-β signaling. Consequently, all of those TGF-β-dependent functions specifically arising due to EWI-2 depletion are reversed by blocking or depleting cell surface tetraspanin proteins CD9 or CD81. These results provide new insights into regulation of TGF-β signaling in melanoma, uncover new roles for tetraspanins CD9 and CD81, and strongly suggest that EWI-2 could serve as a favorable prognosis indicator for melanoma patients. PMID:25656846

  7. A mechanism for negative gene regulation in Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leisy, D.J.; Rasmussen, C.; Owusu, E.O.; Rohrmann, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) ie-1 gene product (IE-1) is thought to play a central role in stimulating early viral transcription. IE-1 has been demonstrated to activate several early viral gene promoters and to negatively regulate the promoters of two other AcMNPV regulatory genes, ie-0 and ie-2. Our results indicate that IE-1 negatively regulates the expression of certain genes by binding directly, or as part of a complex, to promoter regions containing a specific IE-1-binding motif (5'-ACBYGTAA-3') near their mRNA start sites. The IE-1 binding motif was also found within the palindromic sequences of AcMNPV homologous repeat (hr) regions that have been shown to bind IE-1. The role of this IE-1 binding motif in the regulation of the ie-2 and pe-38 promoters was examined by introducing mutations in these promoters in which the central 6 bp were replaced with Bg/II sites. GUS reporter constructs containing ie-2 and pe-38 promoter fragments with and without these specific mutations were cotransfected into Sf9 cells with various amounts of an ie-1-containing plasmid (ple-1). Comparisons of GUS expression produced by the mutant and wild-type constructs demonstrated that the IE-1 binding motif mediated a significant decrease in expression from the ie-2 and pe-38 promoters in response to increasing pIe-1 concentrations. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with pIe-1-transfected cell extracts and supershift assays with IE-1- specific antiserum demonstrated that IE-1 binds to promoter fragments containing the IE-1 binding motif but does not bind to promoter fragments lacking this motif.

  8. Checkpoint Kinase 2 Negatively Regulates Androgen Sensitivity and Prostate Cancer Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Ta, Huy Q; Ivey, Melissa L; Frierson, Henry F; Conaway, Mark R; Dziegielewski, Jaroslaw; Larner, James M; Gioeli, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, and curing metastatic disease remains a significant challenge. Nearly all patients with disseminated prostate cancer initially respond to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), but virtually all patients will relapse and develop incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A high-throughput RNAi screen to identify signaling pathways regulating prostate cancer cell growth led to our discovery that checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) knockdown dramatically increased prostate cancer growth and hypersensitized cells to low androgen levels. Mechanistic investigations revealed that the effects of CHK2 were dependent on the downstream signaling proteins CDC25C and CDK1. Moreover, CHK2 depletion increased androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity on androgen-regulated genes, substantiating the finding that CHK2 affects prostate cancer proliferation, partly, through the AR. Remarkably, we further show that CHK2 is a novel AR-repressed gene, suggestive of a negative feedback loop between CHK2 and AR. In addition, we provide evidence that CHK2 physically associates with the AR and that cell-cycle inhibition increased this association. Finally, IHC analysis of CHK2 in prostate cancer patient samples demonstrated a decrease in CHK2 expression in high-grade tumors. In conclusion, we propose that CHK2 is a negative regulator of androgen sensitivity and prostate cancer growth, and that CHK2 signaling is lost during prostate cancer progression to castration resistance. Thus, perturbing CHK2 signaling may offer a new therapeutic approach for sensitizing CRPC to ADT and radiation. PMID:26573794

  9. Procyanidin dimer B2-mediated IRAK-M induction negatively regulates TLR4 signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Yang, Mi-So; Song, Du-Sub; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2013-08-16

    Polyphenolic compounds have been found to possess a wide range of physiological activities that may contribute to their beneficial effects against inflammation-related diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory activity are not completely characterized, and many features remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by procyanidin dimer B2 (Pro B2) in macrophages. Pro B2 markedly elevated the expression of the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-M protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of cell surface molecules (CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II) and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p70) were inhibited by Pro B2, and this action was prevented by IRAK-M silencing. In addition, Pro B2-treated macrophages inhibited LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the translocation of nuclear factor κB and p65 through IRAK-M. We also found that Pro B2-treated macrophages inactivated naïve T cells by inhibiting LPS-induced interferon-γ and IL-2 secretion through IRAK-M. These novel findings provide new insights into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and the immune-pharmacological role of Pro B2 in the immune response against the development and progression of many chronic diseases. PMID:23872113

  10. Plexin-B2 negatively regulates macrophage motility, Rac, and Cdc42 activation.

    PubMed

    Roney, Kelly E; O'Connor, Brian P; Wen, Haitao; Holl, Eda K; Guthrie, Elizabeth H; Davis, Beckley K; Jones, Stephen W; Jha, Sushmita; Sharek, Lisa; Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Bear, James E; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2011-01-01

    Plexins are cell surface receptors widely studied in the nervous system, where they mediate migration and morphogenesis though the Rho family of small GTPases. More recently, plexins have been implicated in immune processes including cell-cell interaction, immune activation, migration, and cytokine production. Plexin-B2 facilitates ligand induced cell guidance and migration in the nervous system, and induces cytoskeletal changes in overexpression assays through RhoGTPase. The function of Plexin-B2 in the immune system is unknown. This report shows that Plexin-B2 is highly expressed on cells of the innate immune system in the mouse, including macrophages, conventional dendritic cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. However, Plexin-B2 does not appear to regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, phagocytosis of a variety of targets, or directional migration towards chemoattractants or extracellular matrix in mouse macrophages. Instead, Plxnb2(-/-) macrophages have greater cellular motility than wild type in the unstimulated state that is accompanied by more active, GTP-bound Rac and Cdc42. Additionally, Plxnb2(-/-) macrophages demonstrate faster in vitro wound closure activity. Studies have shown that a closely related family member, Plexin-B1, binds to active Rac and sequesters it from downstream signaling. The interaction of Plexin-B2 with Rac has only been previously confirmed in yeast and bacterial overexpression assays. The data presented here show that Plexin-B2 functions in mouse macrophages as a negative regulator of the GTPases Rac and Cdc42 and as a negative regulator of basal cell motility and wound healing. PMID:21966369

  11. P. brasiliensis Virulence Is Affected by SconC, the Negative Regulator of Inorganic Sulfur Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Sturme, Mark; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Ludovico, Paula; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Conidia/mycelium-to-yeast transition of Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis is a critical step for the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Thus, knowledge of the factors that mediate this transition is of major importance for the design of intervention strategies. So far, the only known pre-requisites for the accomplishment of the morphological transition are the temperature shift to 37°C and the availability of organic sulfur compounds. In this study, we investigated the auxotrophic nature to organic sulfur of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides, with special attention to P. brasiliensis species. For this, we addressed the role of SconCp, the negative regulator of the inorganic sulfur assimilation pathway, in the dimorphism and virulence of this pathogen. We show that down-regulation of SCONC allows initial steps of mycelium-to-yeast transition in the absence of organic sulfur compounds, contrarily to the wild-type fungus that cannot undergo mycelium-to-yeast transition under such conditions. However, SCONC down-regulated transformants were unable to sustain yeast growth using inorganic sulfur compounds only. Moreover, pulses with inorganic sulfur in SCONC down-regulated transformants triggered an increase of the inorganic sulfur metabolism, which culminated in a drastic reduction of the ATP and NADPH cellular levels and in higher oxidative stress. Importantly, the down-regulation of SCONC resulted in a decreased virulence of P. brasiliensis, as validated in an in vivo model of infection. Overall, our findings shed light on the inability of P. brasiliensis yeast to rely on inorganic sulfur compounds, correlating its metabolism with cellular energy and redox imbalances. Furthermore, the data herein presented reveal SconCp as a novel virulence determinant of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24066151

  12. Grouper TRIM13 exerts negative regulation of antiviral immune response against nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youhua; Yang, Min; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-08-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins have attracted particular attention to their multiple functions in different biological processes. TRIM13, a member of the TRIM family, is a RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase which plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes including cell death, cancer and antiviral immunity. In this study, a TRIM13 homolog from orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides (EcTRIM13) was cloned and characterized. The full-length of EcTRIM13 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 399 amino acids which shared 81% identity with TRIM13 homolog from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Amino acid alignment analysis showed that EcTRIM13 contained conserved RING finger and B-box domain. Expression patterns analysis indicated that EcTRIM13 was abundant in liver, spleen, kidney, intestine and gill. Moreover, the transcript of EcTRIM13 in grouper spleen was differently regulated after injection with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Under fluorescence microscopy, we observed the tubular structure in wild type EcTRIM13 transfected cells, but the RING domain mutant resulted in the fluorescence distribution was changed and the bright punctate fluorescence was evenly situated throughout the cytoplasm, suggesting that the RING domain was essential for its accurate localization. Overexpression of EcTRIM13 in vitro obviously increased the replication of red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), and the enhancing effect of EcTRIM13 on virus replication was affected by the RING domain. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of EcTRIM13 not only negatively regulated the interferon promoter activity induced by interferon regulator factor (IRF) 3, IRF7, and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), but also decreased the expression of several interferon related factors. In addition, the overexpression of EcTRIM13 also differently regulated the transcription of pro

  13. KIF14 negatively regulates Rap1a-Radil signaling during breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed M; Thériault, Brigitte L; Uppalapati, Maruti; Chiu, Catherine W N; Gallie, Brenda L; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Angers, Stéphane

    2012-12-10

    The small GTPase Rap1 regulates inside-out integrin activation and thereby influences cell adhesion, migration, and polarity. Several Rap1 effectors have been described to mediate the cellular effects of Rap1 in a context-dependent manner. Radil is emerging as an important Rap effector implicated in cell spreading and migration, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its functions are unclear. We report here that the kinesin KIF14 associates with the PDZ domain of Radil and negatively regulates Rap1-mediated inside-out integrin activation by tethering Radil on microtubules. The depletion of KIF14 led to increased cell spreading, altered focal adhesion dynamics, and inhibition of cell migration and invasion. We also show that Radil is important for breast cancer cell proliferation and for metastasis in mice. Our findings provide evidence that the concurrent up-regulation of Rap1 activity and increased KIF14 levels in several cancers is needed to reach optimal levels of Rap1-Radil signaling, integrin activation, and cell-matrix adhesiveness required for tumor progression. PMID:23209302

  14. Tumor suppressive microRNA-137 negatively regulates Musashi-1 and colorectal cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amber R.; Marquez, Rebecca T.; Tsao, Wei-Chung; Pathak, Surajit; Roy, Alexandria; Ping, Jie; Wilkerson, Bailey; Lan, Lan; Meng, Wenjian; Neufeld, Kristi L.; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell marker, Musashi-1 (MSI1) is over-expressed in many cancer types; however the molecular mechanisms involved in MSI1 over-expression are not well understood. We investigated the microRNA (miRNA) regulation of MSI1 and the implications this regulation plays in colorectal cancer. MicroRNA miR-137 was identified as a MSI1-targeting microRNA by immunoblotting and luciferase reporter assays. MSI1 protein was found to be highly expressed in 79% of primary rectal tumors (n=146), while miR-137 expression was decreased in 84% of the rectal tumor tissues (n=68) compared to paired normal mucosal samples. In addition to reduced MSI1 protein, exogenous expression of miR-137 inhibited cell growth, colony formation, and tumorsphere growth of colon cancer cells. Finally, in vivo studies demonstrated that induction of miR-137 can decrease growth of human colon cancer xenografts. Our results demonstrate that miR-137 acts as a tumor-suppressive miRNA in colorectal cancers and negatively regulates oncogenic MSI1. PMID:25940441

  15. Negative transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) by nuclear TFAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Cheol; Park, Wook-Ha; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Pak, Youngmi Kim

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • TFAM localizes in nuclei and mitochondria of neuronal cells. • Nuclear TFAM does not bind the Tfam promoter. • Nuclear TFAM reduced the Tfam promoter activity via suppressing NRF-1 activity. • A novel self-negative feedback regulation of Tfam gene expression is explored. • FAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations. - Abstract: The nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is synthesized in cytoplasm and transported into mitochondria. TFAM enhances both transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA. It is unclear, however, whether TFAM plays a role in regulating nuclear gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that TFAM was localized to the nucleus and mitochondria by immunostaining, subcellular fractionation, and TFAM-green fluorescent protein hybrid protein studies. In HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells, human TFAM (hTFAM) overexpression suppressed human Tfam promoter-mediated luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mitochondria targeting sequence-deficient hTFAM also repressed Tfam promoter activity to the same degree as hTFAM. It indicated that nuclear hTFAM suppressed Tfam expression without modulating mitochondrial activity. The repression required for nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), but hTFAM did not bind to the NRF-1 binding site of its promoter. TFAM was co-immunoprecipitated with NRF-1. Taken together, we suggest that nuclear TFAM down-regulate its own gene expression as a NRF-1 repressor, showing that TFAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations.

  16. Phosphorylation acts positively and negatively to regulate MRTF-A subcellular localisation and activity.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Richard; Miralles, Francesc; Pawlowski, Rafal; Diring, Jessica; Flynn, Helen R; Skehel, Mark; Treisman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) regulate cytoskeletal genes through their partner transcription factor SRF. The MRTFs bind G-actin, and signal-regulated changes in cellular G-actin concentration control their nuclear accumulation. The MRTFs also undergo Rho- and ERK-dependent phosphorylation, but the function of MRTF phosphorylation, and the elements and signals involved in MRTF-A nuclear export are largely unexplored. We show that Rho-dependent MRTF-A phosphorylation reflects relief from an inhibitory function of nuclear actin. We map multiple sites of serum-induced phosphorylation, most of which are S/T-P motifs and show that S/T-P phosphorylation is required for transcriptional activation. ERK-mediated S98 phosphorylation inhibits assembly of G-actin complexes on the MRTF-A regulatory RPEL domain, promoting nuclear import. In contrast, S33 phosphorylation potentiates the activity of an autonomous Crm1-dependent N-terminal NES, which cooperates with five other NES elements to exclude MRTF-A from the nucleus. Phosphorylation thus plays positive and negative roles in the regulation of MRTF-A. PMID:27304076

  17. Effects of negative air ions on activity of neural substrates involved in autonomic regulation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Yanagita, Shinya; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kato, Yumi; Kubota, Natsuko; Ryushi, Tomoo; Kita, Ichiro

    2008-07-01

    The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus ambiguus (NA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) with c-Fos immunohistochemistry in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. In addition, we performed cervical vagotomy to reveal the afferent pathway involved in mediating the effects of NAI on autonomic regulation. NAI significantly decreased BP and HR, and increased HF power of the HRV spectrum. Significant decreases in c-Fos positive nuclei in the PVN and LC, and enhancement of c-Fos expression in the NA and NTS were induced by NAI. After vagotomy, these physiological and neuronal responses to NAI were not observed. These findings suggest that NAI can modulate autonomic regulation through inhibition of neuronal activity in PVN and LC as well as activation of NA neurons, and that these effects of NAI might be mediated via the vagus nerves.

  18. Chondroitin sulfate addition to CD44H negatively regulates hyaluronan binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffell, Brian; Johnson, Pauline . E-mail: pauline@interchange.ubc.ca

    2005-08-26

    CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule that binds hyaluronan, an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, in a tightly regulated manner. This regulated interaction has been implicated in inflammation and tumor metastasis. CD44 exists in the standard form, CD44H, or as higher molecular mass isoforms due to alternative splicing. Here, we identify serine 180 in human CD44H as the site of chondroitin sulfate addition and show that lack of chondroitin sulfate addition at this site enhances hyaluronan binding by CD44. A CD44H-immunoglobulin fusion protein expressed in HEK293 cells, and CD44H expressed in murine L fibroblast cells were modified by chondroitin sulfate, as determined by reduced sulfate incorporation after chondroitinase ABC treatment. Mutation of serine 180 or glycine 181 in CD44H reduced chondroitin sulfate addition and increased hyaluronan binding, indicating that serine 180 is the site for chondroitin sulfate addition in CD44H and that this negatively regulates hyaluronan binding.

  19. An Arabidopsis SUMO E3 Ligase, SIZ1, Negatively Regulates Photomorphogenesis by Promoting COP1 Activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Niu, De; Hu, Zi-Liang; Kim, Dae Heon; Jin, Yin Hua; Cai, Bin; Liu, Peng; Miura, Kenji; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Lin, Rongcheng; Jin, Jing Bo

    2016-04-01

    COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is a central negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. However, how COP1 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications remains largely unknown. Here we show that SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification enhances COP1 activity. Loss-of-function siz1 mutant seedlings exhibit a weak constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype. SIZ1 physically interacts with COP1 and mediates the sumoylation of COP1. A K193R substitution in COP1 blocks its SUMO modification and reduces COP1 activity in vitro and in planta. Consistently, COP1 activity is reduced in siz1 and the level of HY5, a COP1 target protein, is increased in siz1. Sumoylated COP1 may exhibits higher transubiquitination activity than does non-sumoylated COP1, but SIZ1-mediated SUMO modification does not affect COP1 dimerization, COP1-HY5 interaction, and nuclear accumulation of COP1. Interestingly, prolonged light exposure reduces the sumoylation level of COP1, and COP1 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of SIZ1. These regulatory mechanisms may maintain the homeostasis of COP1 activity, ensuing proper photomorphogenic development in changing light environment. Our genetic and biochemical studies identify a function for SIZ1 in photomorphogenesis and reveal a novel SUMO-regulated ubiquitin ligase, COP1, in plants. PMID:27128446

  20. An Arabidopsis SUMO E3 Ligase, SIZ1, Negatively Regulates Photomorphogenesis by Promoting COP1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Niu, De; Hu, Zi-Liang; Kim, Dae Heon; Jin, Yin Hua; Cai, Bin; Liu, Peng; Miura, Kenji; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Lin, Rongcheng

    2016-01-01

    COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is a central negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. However, how COP1 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications remains largely unknown. Here we show that SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification enhances COP1 activity. Loss-of-function siz1 mutant seedlings exhibit a weak constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype. SIZ1 physically interacts with COP1 and mediates the sumoylation of COP1. A K193R substitution in COP1 blocks its SUMO modification and reduces COP1 activity in vitro and in planta. Consistently, COP1 activity is reduced in siz1 and the level of HY5, a COP1 target protein, is increased in siz1. Sumoylated COP1 may exhibits higher transubiquitination activity than does non-sumoylated COP1, but SIZ1-mediated SUMO modification does not affect COP1 dimerization, COP1-HY5 interaction, and nuclear accumulation of COP1. Interestingly, prolonged light exposure reduces the sumoylation level of COP1, and COP1 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of SIZ1. These regulatory mechanisms may maintain the homeostasis of COP1 activity, ensuing proper photomorphogenic development in changing light environment. Our genetic and biochemical studies identify a function for SIZ1 in photomorphogenesis and reveal a novel SUMO-regulated ubiquitin ligase, COP1, in plants. PMID:27128446

  1. WDR82 Negatively Regulates Cellular Antiviral Response by Mediating TRAF3 Polyubiquitination in Multiple Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kun; Wang, Xiang; Ju, Lin-Gao; Zhu, Yuan; Yao, Jie; Wang, Yanyi; Wu, Min; Li, Lian-Yun

    2015-12-01

    Upon virus infection, retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors in host cells recognize viral RNA and activate type I IFN expression. Previously, we identified WD repeat domain (WDR) 5 as one positive regulator for pathway activation. In this study, we report that WDR82, a homolog protein of WDR5, acts opposite to WDR5 and inhibits the activation of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I signaling pathway. WDR82 overexpression inhibits virus-triggered pathway activation, whereas its knockdown enhances induced IFN-β expression. WDR82 is localized on the mitochondria, and its first N-terminal WD40 domain is critical for localization. WDR82 interacts with TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) 3, and its overexpression promotes K48-linked, but not K63-linked, polyubiquitination on TRAF3. Furthermore, WDR82 knockdown inhibits viral replication in the cell, whereas its overexpression has the opposite effect. Interestingly, WDR82 regulates Sendai virus-induced IFNB1 expression in a cell type-specific manner. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that WDR82 is a negative regulator of virus-triggered type I IFNs pathway through mediating TRAF3 polyubiquitination status and stability on mitochondria. PMID:26519536

  2. p73: a Positive or Negative Regulator of Angiogenesis, or Both?

    PubMed

    Sabapathy, Kanaga

    2016-03-01

    The role of p73, the homologue of the tumor suppressor p53, in regulating angiogenesis has recently been extensively investigated, resulting in the publication of five articles. Of these, two studies suggested a suppressive role, while the others implied a stimulatory role for the p73 isoforms in regulating angiogenesis. A negative role for TAp73, the full-length form that is often associated with tumor suppression, in blood vessel formation, is consistent with its general attributes and was proposed to be effected indirectly through the degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1-α), the master angiogenic regulator. In contrast, a positive role for TAp73 coincides with its recently understood role in supporting cellular survival and thus tumorigenesis, consistent with TAp73 being not-mutated but rather often overexpressed in clinical contexts. In the latter case, TAp73 expression was induced by hypoxia via HIF1-α, and it appears to directly promote angiogenic target gene activation and blood vessel formation independent of HIF1-α. This mini review will provide an overview of these seemingly opposite recent findings as well as earlier data, which collectively establish the definite possibility that TAp73 is indeed capable of both promoting and inhibiting angiogenesis, depending on the cellular context. PMID:26711266

  3. Phosphorylation acts positively and negatively to regulate MRTF-A subcellular localisation and activity

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotou, Richard; Miralles, Francesc; Pawlowski, Rafal; Diring, Jessica; Flynn, Helen R; Skehel, Mark; Treisman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) regulate cytoskeletal genes through their partner transcription factor SRF. The MRTFs bind G-actin, and signal-regulated changes in cellular G-actin concentration control their nuclear accumulation. The MRTFs also undergo Rho- and ERK-dependent phosphorylation, but the function of MRTF phosphorylation, and the elements and signals involved in MRTF-A nuclear export are largely unexplored. We show that Rho-dependent MRTF-A phosphorylation reflects relief from an inhibitory function of nuclear actin. We map multiple sites of serum-induced phosphorylation, most of which are S/T-P motifs and show that S/T-P phosphorylation is required for transcriptional activation. ERK-mediated S98 phosphorylation inhibits assembly of G-actin complexes on the MRTF-A regulatory RPEL domain, promoting nuclear import. In contrast, S33 phosphorylation potentiates the activity of an autonomous Crm1-dependent N-terminal NES, which cooperates with five other NES elements to exclude MRTF-A from the nucleus. Phosphorylation thus plays positive and negative roles in the regulation of MRTF-A. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15460.001 PMID:27304076

  4. Piwi maintains germline stem cells and oogenesis in Drosophila through negative regulation of Polycomb group proteins.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jamy C; Valouev, Anton; Liu, Na; Lin, Haifan

    2016-03-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster Piwi protein regulates both niche and intrinsic mechanisms to maintain germline stem cells, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that Piwi interacts with Polycomb group complexes PRC1 and PRC2 in niche and germline cells to regulate ovarian germline stem cells and oogenesis. Piwi physically interacts with the PRC2 subunits Su(z)12 and Esc in the ovary and in vitro. Chromatin coimmunoprecipitation of Piwi, the PRC2 enzymatic subunit E(z), histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and RNA polymerase II in wild-type and piwi mutant ovaries demonstrates that Piwi binds a conserved DNA motif at ∼ 72 genomic sites and inhibits PRC2 binding to many non-Piwi-binding genomic targets and H3K27 trimethylation. Moreover, Piwi influences RNA polymerase II activities in Drosophila ovaries, likely via inhibiting PRC2. We hypothesize that Piwi negatively regulates PRC2 binding by sequestering PRC2 in the nucleoplasm, thus reducing PRC2 binding to many targets and influencing transcription during oogenesis. PMID:26780607

  5. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells. PMID:26425545

  6. p73: a Positive or Negative Regulator of Angiogenesis, or Both?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The role of p73, the homologue of the tumor suppressor p53, in regulating angiogenesis has recently been extensively investigated, resulting in the publication of five articles. Of these, two studies suggested a suppressive role, while the others implied a stimulatory role for the p73 isoforms in regulating angiogenesis. A negative role for TAp73, the full-length form that is often associated with tumor suppression, in blood vessel formation, is consistent with its general attributes and was proposed to be effected indirectly through the degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1-α), the master angiogenic regulator. In contrast, a positive role for TAp73 coincides with its recently understood role in supporting cellular survival and thus tumorigenesis, consistent with TAp73 being not-mutated but rather often overexpressed in clinical contexts. In the latter case, TAp73 expression was induced by hypoxia via HIF1-α, and it appears to directly promote angiogenic target gene activation and blood vessel formation independent of HIF1-α. This mini review will provide an overview of these seemingly opposite recent findings as well as earlier data, which collectively establish the definite possibility that TAp73 is indeed capable of both promoting and inhibiting angiogenesis, depending on the cellular context. PMID:26711266

  7. Integrated expression analysis of muscle hypertrophy identifies Asb2 as a negative regulator of muscle mass

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Jonathan R.; Watt, Kevin I.; Parker, Benjamin L.; Chaudhuri, Rima; Ryall, James G.; Cunningham, Louise; Qian, Hongwei; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Sandri, Marco; Chamberlain, Jeffrey; James, David E.; Gregorevic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling network is a critical regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function and, thus, is an attractive therapeutic target for combating muscle disease, but the underlying mechanisms of action remain undetermined. We report that follistatin-based interventions (which modulate TGF-β network activity) can promote muscle hypertrophy that ameliorates aging-associated muscle wasting. However, the muscles of old sarcopenic mice demonstrate reduced response to follistatin compared with healthy young-adult musculature. Quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of young-adult muscles identified a transcription/translation signature elicited by follistatin exposure, which included repression of ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 2 (Asb2). Increasing expression of ASB2 reduced muscle mass, thereby demonstrating that Asb2 is a TGF-β network–responsive negative regulator of muscle mass. In contrast to young-adult muscles, sarcopenic muscles do not exhibit reduced ASB2 abundance with follistatin exposure. Moreover, preventing repression of ASB2 in young-adult muscles diminished follistatin-induced muscle hypertrophy. These findings provide insight into the program of transcription and translation events governing follistatin-mediated adaptation of skeletal muscle attributes and identify Asb2 as a regulator of muscle mass implicated in the potential mechanistic dysfunction between follistatin-mediated muscle growth in young and old muscles. PMID:27182554

  8. Mammalian Maf1 is a negative regulator of transcription by all three nuclear RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sandra S; Zhang, Cheng; Fromm, Jody; Willis, Ian M; Johnson, Deborah L

    2007-05-11

    Most eukaryotic transcriptional regulators act in an RNA polymerase (Pol)-selective manner. Here we show that the human Maf1 protein negatively regulates transcription by all three nuclear Pols. Changes in Maf1 expression affect Pol I- and Pol III-dependent transcription in human glioblastoma lines. These effects are mediated, in part, through the ability of Maf1 to repress transcription of the TATA binding protein, TBP. Maf1 targets an Elk-1-binding site in the TBP promoter, and its occupancy of this region is reciprocal with that of Elk-1. Similarly, Maf1 occupancy of Pol III genes is inversely correlated with that of the initiation factor TFIIIB and Pol III. The phenotypic consequences of reducing Maf1 expression include changes in cell morphology and the accumulation of actin stress fibers, whereas Maf1 overexpression suppresses anchorage-independent growth. Together with the ability of Maf1 to reduce biosynthetic capacity, these findings support the idea that Maf1 regulates the transformation state of cells. PMID:17499043

  9. Induction of Posttranslational Modifications of Mitochondrial Proteins by ATP Contributes to Negative Regulation of Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Zhiyun; Ke, Bilun; Wan, Lin; Wang, Hui; Ye, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that ATP regulates mitochondrial function through the AMPK signaling pathway. However, the AMPK-independent pathway remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated ATP surplus in the negative regulation of mitochondrial function with a focus on pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation and protein acetylation. PDH phosphorylation was induced by a high fat diet in the liver of obese mice, which was associated with ATP elevation. In 1c1c7 hepatoma cells, the phosphorylation was induced by palmitate treatment through induction of ATP production. The phosphorylation was associated with a reduction in mitochondria oxygen consumption after 4 h treatment. The palmitate effect was blocked by etomoxir, which inhibited ATP production through suppression of fatty acid β-oxidation. The PDH phosphorylation was induced by incubation of mitochondrial lysate with ATP in vitro without altering the expression of PDH kinase 2 (PDK2) and 4 (PDK4). In addition, acetylation of multiple mitochondrial proteins was induced by ATP in the same conditions. Acetyl-CoA exhibited a similar activity to ATP in induction of the phosphorylation and acetylation. These data suggest that ATP elevation may inhibit mitochondrial function through induction of the phosphorylation and acetylation of mitochondrial proteins. The results suggest an AMPK-independent mechanism for ATP regulation of mitochondrial function. PMID:26930489

  10. SMARCAL1 Negatively Regulates C-Myc Transcription By Altering The Conformation Of The Promoter Region

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Tapan; Bansal, Ritu; Haokip, Dominic Thangminlen; Goel, Isha; Muthuswami, Rohini

    2015-01-01

    SMARCAL1, a member of the SWI2/SNF2 protein family, stabilizes replication forks during DNA damage. In this manuscript, we provide the first evidence that SMARCAL1 is also a transcriptional co-regulator modulating the expression of c-Myc, a transcription factor that regulates 10–15% genes in the human genome. BRG1, SMARCAL1 and RNAPII were found localized onto the c-myc promoter. When HeLa cells were serum starved, the occupancy of SMARCAL1 on the c-myc promoter increased while that of BRG1 and RNAPII decreased correlating with repression of c-myc transcription. Using Active DNA-dependent ATPase A Domain (ADAAD), the bovine homolog of SMARCAL1, we show that the protein can hydrolyze ATP using a specific region upstream of the CT element of the c-myc promoter as a DNA effector. The energy, thereby, released is harnessed to alter the conformation of the promoter DNA. We propose that SMARCAL1 negatively regulates c-myc transcription by altering the conformation of its promoter region during differentiation. PMID:26648259

  11. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells. PMID:26425545

  12. KIF14 negatively regulates Rap1a–Radil signaling during breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed M.; Thériault, Brigitte L.; Uppalapati, Maruti; Chiu, Catherine W.N.; Gallie, Brenda L.; Sidhu, Sachdev S.

    2012-01-01

    The small GTPase Rap1 regulates inside-out integrin activation and thereby influences cell adhesion, migration, and polarity. Several Rap1 effectors have been described to mediate the cellular effects of Rap1 in a context-dependent manner. Radil is emerging as an important Rap effector implicated in cell spreading and migration, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its functions are unclear. We report here that the kinesin KIF14 associates with the PDZ domain of Radil and negatively regulates Rap1-mediated inside-out integrin activation by tethering Radil on microtubules. The depletion of KIF14 led to increased cell spreading, altered focal adhesion dynamics, and inhibition of cell migration and invasion. We also show that Radil is important for breast cancer cell proliferation and for metastasis in mice. Our findings provide evidence that the concurrent up-regulation of Rap1 activity and increased KIF14 levels in several cancers is needed to reach optimal levels of Rap1–Radil signaling, integrin activation, and cell–matrix adhesiveness required for tumor progression. PMID:23209302

  13. Piwi maintains germline stem cells and oogenesis in Drosophila through negative regulation of Polycomb Group proteins

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jamy C.; Valouev, Anton; Liu, Na; Lin, Haifan

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila Piwi protein regulates both niche and intrinsic mechanisms to maintain germline stem cells, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that Piwi cooperates with Polycomb Group complexes PRC1 and PRC2 in niche and germline cells to regulate ovarian germline stem cells and oogenesis. Piwi physically interacts with PRC2 subunits Su(z)12 and Esc in the ovary and in vitro. Chromatin co-immunoprecipitation of Piwi, the PRC2 enzymatic subunit E(z), lysine-27-tri-methylated histone 3 (H3K27m3), and RNA polymerase II in wild-type and piwi mutant ovaries reveals that Piwi binds a conserved DNA motif at ~72 genomic sites, and inhibits PRC2 binding to many non-Piwi-binding genomic targets and H3K27 tri-methylation. Moreover, Piwi influences RNA Polymerase II activities in Drosophila ovaries likely via inhibiting PRC2. We hypothesize that Piwi negatively regulates PRC2 binding by sequestering PRC2 in the nucleoplasm, thus reducing PRC2 binding to many targets and influences transcription during oogenesis. PMID:26780607

  14. Arabidopsis type B cytokinin response regulators ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 negatively regulate plant responses to drought.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kien Huu; Ha, Chien Van; Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; Fujita, Yasunari; Tran, Uven Thi; Li, Weiqiang; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki; Schaller, G Eric; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we used a loss-of-function approach to elucidate the functions of three Arabidopsis type B response regulators (ARRs)--namely ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12--in regulating the Arabidopsis plant responses to drought. The arr1,10,12 triple mutant showed a significant increase in drought tolerance versus WT plants, as indicated by its higher relative water content and survival rate on drying soil. This enhanced drought tolerance of arr1,10,12 plants can be attributed to enhanced cell membrane integrity, increased anthocyanin biosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, and reduced stomatal aperture, but not to altered stomatal density. Further drought-tolerance tests of lower-order double and single mutants indicated that ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 negatively and redundantly control plant responses to drought, with ARR1 appearing to bear the most critical function among the three proteins. In agreement with these findings, a comparative genome-wide analysis of the leaves of arr1,10,12 and WT plants under both normal and dehydration conditions suggested a cytokinin (CK) signaling-mediated network controlling plant adaptation to drought via many dehydration/drought- and/or ABA-responsive genes that can provide osmotic adjustment and protection to cellular and membrane structures. Expression of all three ARR genes was repressed by dehydration and ABA treatments, inferring that plants down-regulate these genes as an adaptive mechanism to survive drought. Collectively, our results demonstrate that repression of CK response, and thus CK signaling, is one of the strategies plants use to cope with water deficit, providing novel insight for the design of drought-tolerant plants by genetic engineering. PMID:26884175

  15. Arabidopsis type B cytokinin response regulators ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 negatively regulate plant responses to drought

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kien Huu; Ha, Chien Van; Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; Fujita, Yasunari; Tran, Uven Thi; Li, Weiqiang; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki; Schaller, G. Eric; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a loss-of-function approach to elucidate the functions of three Arabidopsis type B response regulators (ARRs)—namely ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12—in regulating the Arabidopsis plant responses to drought. The arr1,10,12 triple mutant showed a significant increase in drought tolerance versus WT plants, as indicated by its higher relative water content and survival rate on drying soil. This enhanced drought tolerance of arr1,10,12 plants can be attributed to enhanced cell membrane integrity, increased anthocyanin biosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, and reduced stomatal aperture, but not to altered stomatal density. Further drought-tolerance tests of lower-order double and single mutants indicated that ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 negatively and redundantly control plant responses to drought, with ARR1 appearing to bear the most critical function among the three proteins. In agreement with these findings, a comparative genome-wide analysis of the leaves of arr1,10,12 and WT plants under both normal and dehydration conditions suggested a cytokinin (CK) signaling-mediated network controlling plant adaptation to drought via many dehydration/drought- and/or ABA-responsive genes that can provide osmotic adjustment and protection to cellular and membrane structures. Expression of all three ARR genes was repressed by dehydration and ABA treatments, inferring that plants down-regulate these genes as an adaptive mechanism to survive drought. Collectively, our results demonstrate that repression of CK response, and thus CK signaling, is one of the strategies plants use to cope with water deficit, providing novel insight for the design of drought-tolerant plants by genetic engineering. PMID:26884175

  16. Identification of the Homeobox Protein Prx1 (MHox, Prrx-1) as a Regulator of Osterix Expression and Mediator of Tumor Necrosis Factor α Action in Osteoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xianghuai; Beck, George R; Gilbert, Linda C; Camalier, Corinne E; Bateman, Nicholas W; Hood, Brian L; Conrads, Thomas P; Kern, Michael J; You, Shaojin; Chen, Hong; Nanes, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) promotes bone loss and inhibits bone formation. Osterix (Osx, SP7) is a transcription factor required for osteoblast (OB) differentiation because deletion results in a cartilaginous skeleton. We previously described a TNF suppressor element in the Osx promoter that was used to isolate nuclear proteins mediating TNF inhibition of OB differentiation. Nuclear extracts from TNF-treated pre-OBs were incubated with the TNF suppressor element for protein pull-down, and tryptic fragments were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed eight bound transcription factors. One protein, the paired related homeobox protein (Prx1), had been shown previously to have a critical role in limb bud formation and skeletal patterning. PCR revealed Prx1 expression in primary stromal cells (MSCs), C3H10T1/2 cells, and MC3T3 preosteoblasts. TNF stimulated a 14-fold increase in mRNA for Prx1, rapid cell accumulation in MC3T3 cells, and expression in periosteal and trabecular lining cells in vivo. Transient expression of Prx inhibited transcription of Osx and RUNX2. Expression of the Prx1b isoform or Prx2 decreased Osx and RUNX2 mRNA and OB differentiation in preosteoblasts. Silencing of Prx1 with siRNA abrogated TNF suppression of Osx mRNA and increased basal Osx expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift revealed Prx1b as the preferred isoform binding the Osx promoter. These results identify the homeobox protein Prx1 as an obligate mediator of TNF inhibition of Osx and differentiation of OB progenitors. Activation of Prx1 by TNF may contribute to reduced bone formation in inflammatory arthritis, menopause, and aging. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20683885

  17. PACT is a negative regulator of p53 and essential for cell growth and embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Deng, Binwei; Xing, Guichun; Teng, Yan; Tian, Chunyan; Cheng, Xuan; Yin, Xiushan; Yang, Juntao; Gao, Xue; Zhu, Yunping; Sun, Qihong; Zhang, Lingqiang; Yang, Xiao; He, Fuchu

    2007-05-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 regulates cell cycle progression and apoptosis in response to various types of stress, whereas excess p53 activity creates unwanted effects. Tight regulation of p53 is essential for maintaining normal cell growth. p53-associated cellular protein-testes derived (PACT, also known as P2P-R, RBBP6) is a 250-kDa Ring finger-containing protein that can directly bind to p53. PACT is highly up-regulated in esophageal cancer and may be a promising target for immunotherapy. However, the physiological role of the PACT-p53 interaction remains largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the disruption of PACT in mice leads to early embryonic lethality before embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5), accompanied by an accumulation of p53 and widespread apoptosis. p53-null mutation partially rescues the lethality phenotype and prolonged survival to E11.5. Endogenous PACT can interact with Hdm2 and enhance Hdm2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of p53 as a result of the increase of the p53-Hdm2 affinity. Consequently, PACT represses p53-dependent gene transcription. Knockdown of PACT significantly attenuates the p53-Hdm2 interaction, reduces p53 polyubiquitination, and enhances p53 accumulation, leading to both apoptosis and cell growth retardation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the PACT-p53 interaction plays a critical role in embryonic development and tumorigenesis and identify PACT as a member of negative regulators of p53. PMID:17470788

  18. Cardiovascular regulation in humans in response to oscillatory lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levenhagen, D. K.; Evans, J. M.; Wang, M.; Knapp, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency response characteristics of human cardiovascular regulation during hypotensive stress have not been determined. We therefore exposed 10 male volunteers to seven frequencies (0.004-0.1 Hz) of oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP; 0-50 mmHg). Fourier spectra of arterial pressure (AP), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were determined and first harmonic mean, amplitude, and phase angles with respect to OLBNP are presented. AP was relatively well regulated as demonstrated by small oscillations in half amplitude (3.5 mmHg) that were independent of OLBNP frequency and similar to unstressed control spectra. Due to the biomechanics of the system, the magnitudes of oscillations in calf circumference (CC) and CVP decreased with increasing frequency; therefore, we normalized responses by these indexes of the fluid volume shifted. The ratios of oscillations in AP to oscillations in CC increased by an order of magnitude, whereas oscillations in CVP to oscillations in CC and oscillations in AP to oscillations in CVP both tripled between 0.004 and 0.1 Hz. Therefore, even though the amount of fluid shifted by OLBNP decreased with increasing frequency, the magnitude of both CVP and AP oscillations per volume of fluid shifted increased (peaking at 0.08 Hz). The phase relationships between variables, particularly the increasing lags in SV and TPR, but not CVP, indicated that efferent responses with lags of 5-6 s could account for the observed responses. We conclude that, at frequencies below 0.02 Hz, the neural system of humans functioned optimally in regulating AP; OLBNP-induced decreases in SV (by as much as 50%) were counteracted by appropriate oscillations in HR and TPR responses. As OLBNP frequency increased, SV, TPR, and HR oscillations increasingly lagged the input and became less optimally timed for AP regulation.

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Alternatively Spliced Isoform Negatively Regulates TLR9 Signaling in Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nai-Yu; Nagarajan, Govindarajulu; Chiou, Pinwen Peter

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes and binds unmethylated CpG motifs in DNA, which are found in the genomes of bacteria and DNA viruses. In fish, Tlr9 is highly diverse, with the number of introns ranging from 0 to 4. A fish Tlr9 gene containing two introns has been reported to express two alternatively spliced isoforms, namely gTLR9A (full-length) and gTLR9B (with a truncated Cʹ-terminal signal transducing domain), whose regulation and function remain unclear. Here, we report a unique regulatory mechanism of gTLR9 signaling in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), whose gTlr9 sequence also contains two introns. We demonstrated that the grouper gTlr9 gene indeed has the capacity to produce two gTLR9 isoforms via alternative RNA splicing. We found that gTLR9B could function as a negative regulator to suppress gTLR9 signaling as demonstrated by the suppression of downstream gene expression. Following stimulation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), gTLR9A and gTLR9B were observed to translocate into endosomes and co-localize with ODN and the adaptor protein gMyD88. Both gTLR9A and gTLR9B could interact with gMyD88; however, gTLR9B could not interact with downstream IRAK4 and TRAF6. Further analysis of the expression profile of gTlr9A and gTlr9B upon immune-stimulation revealed that the two isoforms were differentially regulated in a time-dependent manner. Overall, these data suggest that fish TLR9B functions as a negative regulator, and that its temporal expression is mediated by alternative RNA splicing. This has not been observed in mammalian TLR9s and might have been acquired relatively recently in the evolution of fish. PMID:25955250

  20. Smart conjugated polymer nanocarrier for healthy weight loss by negative feedback regulation of lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Lei; Zhu, Sha; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Pei-Jian; Yao, Xi-Kuang; Qian, Cheng-Gen; Zhang, Can; Jiang, Xi-Qun; Shen, Qun-Dong

    2016-02-14

    Healthy weight loss represents a real challenge when obesity is increasing in prevalence. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer nanocarrier for smart deactivation of lipase and thus balancing calorie intake. After oral administration, the nanocarrier is sensitive to lipase in the digestive tract and releases orlistat, which deactivates the enzyme and inhibits fat digestion. It also creates negative feedback to control the release of itself. The nanocarrier smartly regulates activity of the lipase cyclically varied between high and low levels. In spite of high fat diet intervention, obese mice receiving a single dose of the nanocarrier lose weight over eight days, whereas a control group continues the tendency to gain weight. Daily intragastric administration of the nanocarrier leads to lower weight of livers or fat pads, smaller adipocyte size, and lower total cholesterol level than that of the control group. Near-infrared fluorescence of the nanocarrier reveals its biodistribution. PMID:26790821

  1. A Putative PP2C-Encoding Gene Negatively Regulates ABA Signaling in Populus euphratica

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinhuan; Zhang, Dongzhi; Zhang, Chong; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun; Tian, Qianqian

    2015-01-01

    A PP2C homolog gene was cloned from the drought-treated cDNA library of Populus euphratica. Multiple sequence alignment analysis suggested that the gene is a potential ortholog of HAB1. The expression of this HAB1 ortholog (PeHAB1) was markedly induced by drought and moderately induced by ABA. To characterize its function in ABA signaling, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing this gene. Transgenic lines exhibited reduced responses to exogenous ABA and reduced tolerance to drought compared to wide-type lines. Yeast two-hybrid analyses indicated that PeHAB1 could interact with the ABA receptor PYL4 in an ABA-independent manner. Taken together; these results indicated that PeHAB1 is a new negative regulator of ABA responses in poplar. PMID:26431530

  2. A sulfated metabolite produced by stf3 negatively regulates the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mougous, Joseph D.; Senaratne, Ryan H.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Jain, Madhulika; Lee, Dong H.; Schelle, Michael W.; Leavell, Michael D.; Cox, Jeffery S.; Leary, Julie A.; Riley, Lee W.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfated molecules have been shown to modulate isotypic interactions between cells of metazoans and heterotypic interactions between bacterial pathogens or symbionts and their eukaryotic host cells. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, produces sulfated molecules that have eluded functional characterization for decades. We demonstrate here that a previously uncharacterized sulfated molecule, termed S881, is localized to the outer envelope of M. tuberculosis and negatively regulates the virulence of the organism in two mouse infection models. Furthermore, we show that the biosynthesis of S881 relies on the universal sulfate donor 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate and a previously uncharacterized sulfotransferase, stf3. These findings extend the known functions of sulfated molecules as general modulators of cell–cell interactions to include those between a bacterium and a human host. PMID:16537518

  3. IRTKS negatively regulates antiviral immunity through PCBP2 sumoylation-mediated MAVS degradation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Pengyan; Wang, Shuo; Xiong, Zhen; Ye, Buqing; Huang, Li-Yu; Han, Ze-Guang; Fan, Zusen

    2015-01-01

    RNA virus infection is recognized by the RIG-I family of receptors that activate the mitochondrial adaptor MAVS, leading to the clearance of viruses. Antiviral signalling activation requires strict modulation to avoid damage to the host from exacerbated inflammation. Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate (IRTKS) participates in actin bundling and insulin signalling and its deficiency causes insulin resistance. However, whether IRTKS is involved in the regulation of innate immunity remains elusive. Here we show that IRTKS deficiency causes enhanced innate immune responses against RNA viruses. IRTKS-mediated suppression of antiviral responses depends on the RIG-I-MAVS signalling pathway. IRTKS recruits the E2 ligase Ubc9 to sumoylate PCBP2 in the nucleus, which causes its cytoplasmic translocation during viral infection. The sumoylated PCBP2 associates with MAVS to initiate its degradation, leading to downregulation of antiviral responses. Thus, IRTKS functions as a negative modulator of excessive inflammation. PMID:26348439

  4. Abscisic acid is a negative regulator of root gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Han, Woong; Rong, Honglin; Zhang, Hanma; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2009-01-23

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in root gravitropism and has led to an intense debate over whether ABA acts similar to auxin by translating the gravitational signal into directional root growth. While tremendous advances have been made in the past two decades in establishing the role of auxin in root gravitropism, little progress has been made in characterizing the role of ABA in this response. In fact, roots of plants that have undetectable levels of ABA and that display a normal gravitropic response have raised some serious doubts about whether ABA plays any role in root gravitropism. Here, we show strong evidence that ABA plays a role opposite to that of auxin and that it is a negative regulator of the gravitropic response of Arabidopsis roots. PMID:19056344

  5. Dynamic control of type I IFN signalling by an integrated network of negative regulators.

    PubMed

    Porritt, Rebecca A; Hertzog, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Whereas type I interferons (IFNs) have critical roles in protection from pathogens, excessive IFN responses contribute to pathology in both acute and chronic settings, pointing to the importance of balancing activating signals with regulatory mechanisms that appropriately tune the response. Here we review evidence for an integrated network of negative regulators of IFN production and action, which function at all levels of the activating and effector signalling pathways. We propose that the aim of this extensive network is to limit tissue damage while enabling an IFN response that is temporally appropriate and of sufficient magnitude. Understanding the architecture and dynamics of this network, and how it differs in distinct tissues, will provide new insights into IFN biology and aid the design of more effective therapeutics. PMID:25725583

  6. A Putative PP2C-Encoding Gene Negatively Regulates ABA Signaling in Populus euphratica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinhuan; Zhang, Dongzhi; Zhang, Chong; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun; Tian, Qianqian

    2015-01-01

    A PP2C homolog gene was cloned from the drought-treated cDNA library of Populus euphratica. Multiple sequence alignment analysis suggested that the gene is a potential ortholog of HAB1. The expression of this HAB1 ortholog (PeHAB1) was markedly induced by drought and moderately induced by ABA. To characterize its function in ABA signaling, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing this gene. Transgenic lines exhibited reduced responses to exogenous ABA and reduced tolerance to drought compared to wide-type lines. Yeast two-hybrid analyses indicated that PeHAB1 could interact with the ABA receptor PYL4 in an ABA-independent manner. Taken together; these results indicated that PeHAB1 is a new negative regulator of ABA responses in poplar. PMID:26431530

  7. Positive and negative regulation of the human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Takahashi, Y; Ito, K; Nagano, T; Shibahara, S; Miura, T

    1999-10-28

    To elucidate the regulation of the human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) gene expression, we assessed approximately 4 kb of the 5'-flanking region of the hHO-1 gene for basal promoter activity and sequenced approximately 2 kb of the 5'-flanking region. A series of deletion mutants of the 5'-flanking region linked to the luciferase gene was constructed. Basal level expression of these constructs was tested in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and HeLa cervical cancer cells. By measuring luciferase activity, which was transiently expressed in the transfected cells, we found a positive regulatory region at position -1976 to -1655 bp. This region functions in HepG2 cells but not in HeLa cells. A negative regulatory region was also found at position -981 to -412 bp that functions in both HepG2 cells and HeLa cells. PMID:10542320

  8. Carvacrol Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis and Negatively Regulates the Survival of Mature Osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Vishwa; Kasonga, Abe; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes continuous remodeling coupled with the action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoclast activity is elevated during osteoporosis and periodontitis resulting in excessive loss of trabecular and alveolar bone. Osteoclasts are formed in an inflammatory response to cytokine production receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) and bacterial challenge lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol present in Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris, is a natural compound with known medicinal properties. We investigated the effects of carvacrol on osteoclast formation induced by RANKL and LPS. Carvacrol suppressed RANKL-induced formation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells in RAW264.7 macrophages and human CD14(+) monocytes. Furthermore, carvacrol inhibited LPS-induced osteoclast formation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Investigation of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that carvacrol downregulated RANKL-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the suppression of NF-κB activation correlated with inhibition of inhibitor of kappaB (IκB) kinase (IKK) activation and attenuation of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBa) degradation. Carvacrol potentiated apoptosis in mature osteoclasts by caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, carvacrol did not affect the viability of proliferating MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that carvacrol mitigates osteoclastogenesis by impairing the NF-κB pathway and induction of apoptosis in mature osteoclasts. PMID:27170515

  9. PECAM-1 negatively regulates GPIb/V/IX signaling in murine platelets.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Vipul; Stapleton, Michelle A; Hillery, Cheryl A; Montgomery, Robert R; Nichols, Timothy C; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Newman, Debra K; Newman, Peter J

    2003-11-15

    Platelet adhesion at sites of vascular injury is mediated, in part, by interaction of the platelet plasma membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib/V/IX complex with von Willebrand Factor (VWF) presented on collagen-exposed surfaces. Recent studies indicate that GPIb/V/IX may be functionally coupled with the Fc receptor gamma (FcR gamma)-chain, which, by virtue of its cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif, sends activation signals into the cell. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is an inhibitory receptor that has previously been shown to negatively regulate platelet responses to collagen, which transduces activation signals via the GPVI/FcR gamma-chain complex. To determine whether PECAM-1 might similarly regulate signals emanating from GPIb/FcR gamma, we compared activation and aggregation responses to VWF of PECAM-1-positive and PECAM-1-deficient murine platelets. PECAM-1 and the FcR gamma-chain became rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in platelets following botrocetin-induced VWF binding, but FcR gamma-chain tyrosine phosphorylation was delayed in PECAM-1-positive, versus PECAM-1-deficient, platelets. PECAM-1-deficient platelets were hyperaggregable to VWF, exhibited enhanced spreading and, under conditions of arterial flow, formed markedly larger thrombi on immobilized VWF than did wild-type platelets. Taken together, these data support the notion that engagement of the GPIb complex, in addition to sending activation signals, also initiates a negative feedback loop involving PECAM-1 that controls the rate and extent of platelet activation. PMID:12893757

  10. Smart conjugated polymer nanocarrier for healthy weight loss by negative feedback regulation of lipase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Lei; Zhu, Sha; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Pei-Jian; Yao, Xi-Kuang; Qian, Cheng-Gen; Zhang, Can; Jiang, Xi-Qun; Shen, Qun-Dong

    2016-02-01

    Healthy weight loss represents a real challenge when obesity is increasing in prevalence. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer nanocarrier for smart deactivation of lipase and thus balancing calorie intake. After oral administration, the nanocarrier is sensitive to lipase in the digestive tract and releases orlistat, which deactivates the enzyme and inhibits fat digestion. It also creates negative feedback to control the release of itself. The nanocarrier smartly regulates activity of the lipase cyclically varied between high and low levels. In spite of high fat diet intervention, obese mice receiving a single dose of the nanocarrier lose weight over eight days, whereas a control group continues the tendency to gain weight. Daily intragastric administration of the nanocarrier leads to lower weight of livers or fat pads, smaller adipocyte size, and lower total cholesterol level than that of the control group. Near-infrared fluorescence of the nanocarrier reveals its biodistribution.Healthy weight loss represents a real challenge when obesity is increasing in prevalence. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer nanocarrier for smart deactivation of lipase and thus balancing calorie intake. After oral administration, the nanocarrier is sensitive to lipase in the digestive tract and releases orlistat, which deactivates the enzyme and inhibits fat digestion. It also creates negative feedback to control the release of itself. The nanocarrier smartly regulates activity of the lipase cyclically varied between high and low levels. In spite of high fat diet intervention, obese mice receiving a single dose of the nanocarrier lose weight over eight days, whereas a control group continues the tendency to gain weight. Daily intragastric administration of the nanocarrier leads to lower weight of livers or fat pads, smaller adipocyte size, and lower total cholesterol level than that of the control group. Near-infrared fluorescence of the nanocarrier reveals its biodistribution

  11. Cannabinoid Modulation of Frontolimbic Activation and Connectivity During Volitional Regulation of Negative Affect.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Phan, K Luan; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Angstadt, Mike; Rabinak, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral and brain research indicates that administration of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alters threat perception and enhances the suppression of conditioned fear responses via modulation of the frontolimbic circuit. No prior studies, however, have examined whether THC also affects volitional forms of emotion processing such as cognitive reappraisal. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine the effects of THC on frontolimbic activation and functional connectivity during cognitive reappraisal in a sample of healthy adults. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subject design and all participants ingested either an oral dose of synthetic THC (n=41) or placebo (n=37) before completion of an emotion regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional connectivity was assessed using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analyses. Results indicated that although there were no group differences in self-reported attenuation of negative affect during cognitive reappraisal, relative to placebo, THC increased amygdala activation and reduced amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) functional coupling during cognitive reappraisal of emotionally negative pictures. This suggests that in addition to automatic emotional processes, THC affects frontolimbic functioning during cognitive reappraisal. PMID:26647971

  12. The Lipid-Modifying Enzyme SMPDL3B Negatively Regulates Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Leonhard X; Baumann, Christoph L; Köberlin, Marielle S; Snijder, Berend; Gawish, Riem; Shui, Guanghou; Sharif, Omar; Aspalter, Irene M; Müller, André C; Kandasamy, Richard K; Breitwieser, Florian P; Pichlmair, Andreas; Bruckner, Manuela; Rebsamen, Manuele; Blüml, Stephan; Karonitsch, Thomas; Fauster, Astrid; Colinge, Jacques; Bennett, Keiryn L; Knapp, Sylvia; Wenk, Markus R; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2015-06-30

    Lipid metabolism and receptor-mediated signaling are highly intertwined processes that cooperate to fulfill cellular functions and safeguard cellular homeostasis. Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) leads to a complex cellular response, orchestrating a diverse range of inflammatory events that need to be tightly controlled. Here, we identified the GPI-anchored Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase, Acid-Like 3B (SMPDL3B) in a mass spectrometry screening campaign for membrane proteins co-purifying with TLRs. Deficiency of Smpdl3b in macrophages enhanced responsiveness to TLR stimulation and profoundly changed the cellular lipid composition and membrane fluidity. Increased cellular responses could be reverted by re-introducing affected ceramides, functionally linking membrane lipid composition and innate immune signaling. Finally, Smpdl3b-deficient mice displayed an intensified inflammatory response in TLR-dependent peritonitis models, establishing its negative regulatory role in vivo. Taken together, our results identify the membrane-modulating enzyme SMPDL3B as a negative regulator of TLR signaling that functions at the interface of membrane biology and innate immunity. PMID:26095358

  13. The Lipid-Modifying Enzyme SMPDL3B Negatively Regulates Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Leonhard X.; Baumann, Christoph L.; Köberlin, Marielle S.; Snijder, Berend; Gawish, Riem; Shui, Guanghou; Sharif, Omar; Aspalter, Irene M.; Müller, André C.; Kandasamy, Richard K.; Breitwieser, Florian P.; Pichlmair, Andreas; Bruckner, Manuela; Rebsamen, Manuele; Blüml, Stephan; Karonitsch, Thomas; Fauster, Astrid; Colinge, Jacques; Bennett, Keiryn L.; Knapp, Sylvia; Wenk, Markus R.; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lipid metabolism and receptor-mediated signaling are highly intertwined processes that cooperate to fulfill cellular functions and safeguard cellular homeostasis. Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) leads to a complex cellular response, orchestrating a diverse range of inflammatory events that need to be tightly controlled. Here, we identified the GPI-anchored Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase, Acid-Like 3B (SMPDL3B) in a mass spectrometry screening campaign for membrane proteins co-purifying with TLRs. Deficiency of Smpdl3b in macrophages enhanced responsiveness to TLR stimulation and profoundly changed the cellular lipid composition and membrane fluidity. Increased cellular responses could be reverted by re-introducing affected ceramides, functionally linking membrane lipid composition and innate immune signaling. Finally, Smpdl3b-deficient mice displayed an intensified inflammatory response in TLR-dependent peritonitis models, establishing its negative regulatory role in vivo. Taken together, our results identify the membrane-modulating enzyme SMPDL3B as a negative regulator of TLR signaling that functions at the interface of membrane biology and innate immunity. PMID:26095358

  14. DCIR negatively regulates CpG-ODN-induced IL-1β and IL-6 production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xibao; Shen, Yaping; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Junru; Wu, Tian; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Juan; Wu, Tingting; Chen, Weilin

    2015-12-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLR) are a diverse family of proteins mainly expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC). As antigen-uptake and signaling receptors, CLR modulate immune responses of APC. The dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR) is a member of CLR and has an immunoreceptor tyrosine based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in cytoplasmic tail, which is believed to play a negative role in cellular responses after antigen exposure. In addition to pathogen recognition, DCIR has been shown to be pivotal in preventing autoimmune disease by controlling dendritic cell proliferation. However, much less is known about the role of DCIR in innate immunity and its crosstalk with the Toll like receptors (TLR) pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that CpG-ODN stimulation can promote DCIR expression in macrophages and DCIR triggering inhibits the production of CpG-ODN-induced proinflammatory cytokines. We further confirm that siRNA-mediated knockdown of DCIR expression enhances CpG-ODN-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 in macrophages. Collectively, these results indicate that DCIR is a negatively regulator in TLR9-mediated innate immune response. PMID:26514427

  15. Transcription factor interactions: Selectors of positive or negative regulation from a single DNA element

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, M.I.; Miner, J.N.; Yoshinaga, S.K.; Yamamoto, K.R. )

    1990-09-14

    The mechanism by which a single factor evokes opposite regulatory effects from a specific DNA sequence is not well understood. In this study, a 25-base pair element that resides upstream of the mouse proliferin gene was examined; it conferred on linked promoters either positive or negative glucocorticoid regulation, depending upon physiological context. This sequence, denoted a composite glucocorticoid response element (GRE), was bound selective in vitro both by the glucocorticoid receptor and by c-Jun and c-Fos, components of the phorbol ester-activated AP-1 transcription factor. Indeed, c-Jun and c-Fos served as selectors of hormone responsiveness: the composite GRE was inactive in the absence of c-Jun, whereas it conferred a positive glucocorticoid effect in the presence of c-Jun, and a negative glucocorticoid effect in the presence of c-Jun and relatively high levels of c-Fos. The receptor also interacted selectively with c-Jun in vitro. A general model for composite GRE action is proposed that invokes both DNA binding and protein-protein interactions by receptor and nonreceptor factors.

  16. Mutual enhancement of differentiation of osteoblasts and osteocytes occurs through direct cell-cell contact

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Koji; Xing, Qian; Khosla, Sundeep; Monroe, David G.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that osteocytes regulate multiple aspects of bone remodeling through bi-directional communication with osteoblasts. This is potentially mediated through cell-cell contact via osteocytic dendritic processes, through the activity of secreted factors, or both. To test whether cell-cell contact affects gene expression patterns in osteoblasts and osteocytes, we used a co-culture system where calvarial osteoblasts and IDG-SW3 osteocytes were allowed to touch through a porous membrane, while still being physically separated to allow for phenotypic characterization. Osteoblast/osteocyte cell-contact resulted in up-regulation of osteoblast differentiation genes in the osteoblasts, when compared to wells where no cell contact was allowed. Examination of osteocyte gene expression when in direct contact with osteoblasts also revealed increased expression of osteocyte-specific genes. These data suggest that physical contact mutually enhances both the osteoblastic and osteocytic character of each respective cell type. Interestingly, Gja1 (a gap junction protein) was increased in the osteoblasts only when in direct contact with the osteocytes, suggesting that Gja1 may mediate some of the effects of direct cell contact. To test this hypothesis, we treated the direct contact system with the gap junction inhibitor 18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and found that Bglap expression was significantly inhibited. This suggests that osteocytes may regulate late osteoblast differentiation at least in part through Gja1. Identification of the specific factors involved in the enhancement of differentiation of both osteoblasts and osteocytes when in direct contact will uncover new biology concerning how these bone cells communicate. PMID:25043105

  17. EB1 Levels Are Elevated in Ascorbic Acid (AA)-stimulated Osteoblasts and Mediate Cell-Cell Adhesion-induced Osteoblast Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Pustylnik, Sofia; Fiorino, Cara; Nabavi, Noushin; Zappitelli, Tanya; da Silva, Rosa; Aubin, Jane E.; Harrison, Rene E.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoblasts are differentiated mesenchymal cells that function as the major bone-producing cells of the body. Differentiation cues including ascorbic acid (AA) stimulation provoke intracellular changes in osteoblasts leading to the synthesis of the organic portion of the bone, which includes collagen type I α1, proteoglycans, and matrix proteins, such as osteocalcin. During our microarray analysis of AA-stimulated osteoblasts, we observed a significant up-regulation of the microtubule (MT) plus-end binding protein, EB1, compared with undifferentiated osteoblasts. EB1 knockdown significantly impaired AA-induced osteoblast differentiation, as detected by reduced expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes. Intracellular examination of AA-stimulated osteoblasts treated with EB1 siRNA revealed a reduction in MT stability with a concomitant loss of β-catenin distribution at the cell cortex and within the nucleus. Diminished β-catenin levels in EB1 siRNA-treated osteoblasts paralleled an increase in phospho-β-catenin and active glycogen synthase kinase 3β, a kinase known to target β-catenin to the proteasome. EB1 siRNA treatment also reduced the expression of the β-catenin gene targets, cyclin D1 and Runx2. Live immunofluorescent imaging of differentiated osteoblasts revealed a cortical association of EB1-mcherry with β-catenin-GFP. Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed an interaction between EB1 and β-catenin. We also determined that cell-cell contacts and cortically associated EB1/β-catenin interactions are necessary for osteoblast differentiation. Finally, using functional blocking antibodies, we identified E-cadherin as a major contributor to the cell-cell contact-induced osteoblast differentiation. PMID:23740245

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability-Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability-negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a…

  19. Working memory capacity and spontaneous emotion regulation: high capacity predicts self-enhancement in response to negative feedback.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Demaree, Heath A

    2010-10-01

    Although previous evidence suggests that working memory capacity (WMC) is important for success at emotion regulation, that evidence may reveal simply that people with higher WMC follow instructions better than those with lower WMC. The present study tested the hypothesis that people with higher WMC more effectively engage in spontaneous emotion regulation following negative feedback, relative to those with lower WMC. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either no feedback or negative feedback about their emotional intelligence. They then completed a disguised measure of self-enhancement and a self-report measure of affect. Experimental condition and WMC interacted such that higher WMC predicted more self-enhancement and less negative affect following negative feedback. This research provides novel insight into the consequences of individual differences in WMC and illustrates that cognitive capacity may facilitate the spontaneous self-regulation of emotion. PMID:21038959

  20. Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated Potassium Channels Negatively Regulate Aldosterone Secretion in Human Adrenocortical Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingting; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Liang, Qingnan; Shi, Yingtang; Mei, Yan-Ai; Barrett, Paula Q; Hu, Changlong

    2016-09-01

    Aldosterone, which plays a key role in maintaining water and electrolyte balance, is produced by zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex. Autonomous overproduction of aldosterone from zona glomerulosa cells causes primary hyperaldosteronism. Recent clinical studies have highlighted the pathological role of the KCNJ5 potassium channel in primary hyperaldosteronism. Our objective was to determine whether small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (SK) channels may also regulate aldosterone secretion in human adrenocortical cells. We found that apamin, the prototypic inhibitor of SK channels, decreased membrane voltage, raised intracellular Ca(2+) and dose dependently increased aldosterone secretion from human adrenocortical H295R cells. By contrast, 1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone, an agonist of SK channels, antagonized apamin's action and decreased aldosterone secretion. Commensurate with an increase in aldosterone production, apamin increased mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and aldosterone synthase that control the early and late rate-limiting steps in aldosterone biosynthesis, respectively. In addition, apamin increased angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone secretion, whereas 1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone suppressed both angiotensin II- and high K(+)-stimulated production of aldosterone in H295R cells. These findings were supported by apamin-modulation of basal and angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone secretion from acutely prepared slices of human adrenals. We conclude that SK channel activity negatively regulates aldosterone secretion in human adrenocortical cells. Genetic association studies are necessary to determine whether mutations in SK channel subtype 2 genes may also drive aldosterone excess in primary hyperaldosteronism. PMID:27432863

  1. Hormonal regulation of the gravity s negative control of morphogenesis in cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Kamada, M.; Saito, Y.; Fujii, N.

    Just after germination, seedlings of most cucurbitaceous plants develop a peg to pull the cotyledons and plumule out from the seed coat. The peg usually develops on the concave side of the gravitropically bending transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. Because cucumber seedlings grown in microgravity developed a peg on each side of the transition zone, it was suggested that peg formation was negatively regulated by gravity on Earth. It has also been suggested that auxin is an essential factor responsible for peg formation. To verify this hypothesis and to understand the molecular mechanism of the gravity-regulated peg formation, we measured the distribution of endogenous auxin in the transition zone, examined the expression patterns of an auxininducible genes (CS-IAAs), auxin response factor and auxin carrier genes (CS-ARFs, CS-AUX1, CS-PIN1). Because ethylene modifies peg development, we examined the expression of ACC synthase genes (CS-ACSs) and its relation to the auxin-mediated development of peg. Furthermore, we examined some other factors that might interact with auxin for peg formation. Based on the results of these studies, we propose a model for the mechanism of peg formation in cucumber seedlings.

  2. Tetraspanin CD151 Is a Negative Regulator of FcεRI-Mediated Mast Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Bryce, Paul J.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Wechsler, Joshua B.; Loffredo, Lucas F.; Cook-Mills, Joan M.; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Berdnikovs, Sergejs

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are critical in the pathogenesis of allergic disease due to the release of preformed and newly synthesized mediators, yet the mechanisms controlling mast cell activation are not well understood. Members of the tetraspanin family are recently emerging as modulators of FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation; however, mechanistic understanding of their function is currently lacking. The tetraspanin CD151 is a poorly understood member of this family and is specifically induced on mouse and human mast cells upon FcεRI aggregation but its functional effects are unknown. In this study, we show that CD151 deficiency significantly exacerbates the IgE-mediated late phase inflammation in a murine model of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Ex vivo, FcεRI stimulation of bone marrow–derived mast cells from CD151−/− mice resulted in significantly enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α compared with wild-type controls. However, FcεRI -induced mast cell degranulation was unaffected. At the molecular signaling level, CD151 selectively regulated IgE-induced activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K, associated with cytokine production, but had no effect on the phospholipase Cγ1 signaling, associated with degranulation. Collectively, our data indicate that CD151 exerts negative regulation over IgE-induced late phase responses and cytokine production in mast cells. PMID:26136426

  3. Tetraspanin CD151 Is a Negative Regulator of FcεRI-Mediated Mast Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Bryce, Paul J; Schleimer, Robert P; Wechsler, Joshua B; Loffredo, Lucas F; Cook-Mills, Joan M; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Berdnikovs, Sergejs

    2015-08-15

    Mast cells are critical in the pathogenesis of allergic disease due to the release of preformed and newly synthesized mediators, yet the mechanisms controlling mast cell activation are not well understood. Members of the tetraspanin family are recently emerging as modulators of FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation; however, mechanistic understanding of their function is currently lacking. The tetraspanin CD151 is a poorly understood member of this family and is specifically induced on mouse and human mast cells upon FcεRI aggregation but its functional effects are unknown. In this study, we show that CD151 deficiency significantly exacerbates the IgE-mediated late phase inflammation in a murine model of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Ex vivo, FcεRI stimulation of bone marrow-derived mast cells from CD151(-/-) mice resulted in significantly enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α compared with wild-type controls. However, FcεRI-induced mast cell degranulation was unaffected. At the molecular signaling level, CD151 selectively regulated IgE-induced activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K, associated with cytokine production, but had no effect on the phospholipase Cγ1 signaling, associated with degranulation. Collectively, our data indicate that CD151 exerts negative regulation over IgE-induced late phase responses and cytokine production in mast cells. PMID:26136426

  4. Sip1 Is a Catabolite Repression-Specific Negative Regulator of Gal Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mylin, L. M.; Bushman, V. L.; Long, R. M.; Yu, X.; Lebo, C. M.; Blank, T. E.; Hopper, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The yeast Snflp kinase is required for normal expression of amny genes involved in utilization of non-glucose carbon. Snflp is known to associate with several proteins. One is Sip1p, a protein that becomes phosphorylated in the presence of Snflp and thus is a candidate Snflp kinase substrate. We have isolated the SIP1 gene as a multicopy suppressor of the gal83-associated defect in glucose repression of GAL gene expression. Multicopy SIP1 also suppressed the gal82-associated defect in glucose repression, suggesting that SIP1, GAL83 and GAL82 function interdependently. Multicopy SIP1 gene reduces GAL1, GAL2, GAL7 and GAL10 gene expression three- to fourfold in cells grown in the presence of glucose but has no effect in cells grown on nonrepressing carbon. Sip1-deletion cells exhibited a two- to threefold increase in GAL gene expression compared to wild-type cells when grown on glucose. These studies show that SIP1 is a catabolite repression-specific negative regulator of GAL gene expression. Northern analysis revealed two SIP1 transcripts whose relative abundance changed with carbon source. Western blots revealed that Sip1p abundance is not markedly affected by carbon source, suggesting that Sip1p may be regulated post-translationally. PMID:8088514

  5. Neuronal leucine-rich repeat 1 negatively regulates anaplastic lymphoma kinase in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Shunpei; Takatori, Atsushi; Ogura, Atsushi; Kohashi, Kenichi; Souzaki, Ryota; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Taguchi,