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Sample records for nelli norit villu

  1. A dunite-norite lunar microbreccia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Marvin, U. B.

    1971-01-01

    An olivine-rich microbreccia with noritic affinities, collected on the Apollo 14 mission to Fra Mauro, is described and analyzed. A photomicrograph (by plain transmitted light) of the microbreccia is discussed. One of three distinct areas on the microbreccia is shown to be a dunite containing over 90% olivine. The other two are more gabbroic in composition, though most of the mineral clasts are olivine. The fine grained matrix material contains significant amounts of K2O and P2O5, suggesting a relation to norites.

  2. Petrology of brecciated ferroan noritic anorthosite 67215

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, James J.

    1988-01-01

    A petrologic study of breccia 67215 is presented, showing that the rock has the bulk composition of a ferroan noritic anorthosite and is a polymict breccia containing several lithic clast types within a crushed, cataclastic matrix. The dominant lithic clasts contained in breccia 67215 are found to be igneous and metamorphic low- and high- Ca pyroxenes and olivine. Other clasts include granulated and sheared clasts, coarse-grained anorthosite with relatively Fe-rich augite, aphanitic, feldspathic microporphyritic melt breccias, and an impact-melt rock with strongly zoned relatively Mg-rich pyroxene. It is concluded that this rock type is relatively common in the highlands regolith excavated by the North Ray Crater.

  3. Subdivision of the Mg-suite noritic rocks into Mg-gabbronorites and Mg-norites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.; Flohr, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    Mg-suite noritic rocks can be divided into two groups, the Mg-gabbronorites and the Mg-norites. The rocks of these groups differ in ratios of high-Ca pyroxene to total pyroxene, compositions of pyroxene and plagioclase, assemblages of Ti-, Nb-, and Zr-bearing minerals, compositions of chrome spinel, bulk-rock Ti/Sm and Sc/Sm, and measured ages. The two groups probably crystallized from different types of parent magmas. Two hypotheses are offered for the differences in composition of the parent magmas. One hypothesis ascribes the differences to compositional heterogeneity of the mantle source areas. The other hypothesis ascribes the differences to variations in extent of partial melting of the mantle source regions and variations in extent of assimilation of the anorthosite and the highly differentiated residual liquid that were produced during the primordial lunar differentiation.

  4. Nellie Bly: Teaching about a Pennsylvania Traveler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mckee, Dr. Saundra

    1997-01-01

    Considers the career of Nellie Bly, a late 19th-century investigative reporter who gained fame and notoriety for her work. Bly covered wars, labor strikes, and once feigned insanity to write an expose of conditions in a mental institution. Includes a series of interdisciplinary learning activities constructed around Bly's career. (MJP)

  5. Antarctic meteorite ALHA81005 - Not just another lunar anorthositic norite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is contended that 81005 requires the existence of a component that is poor in large-ion lithophile elements, at least as mafic as anorthositic norite, and magnesian rather than ferroan. While no such component has yet been observed in nearside samples, as an end-member in mixing models it would conveniently account for the composition of some polymict samples that heretofore have been difficult to explain as mixtures of endogenous rock types. The results presented here therefore suggest that the early lunar crust contained a significant proportion of both ferroan and magnesian anorthositic norites as primary igneous rocks. It is acknowledged that this conclusion is at variance with models that treat materials of anorthositic norite composition as mixtures of anorthosite plus norite, troctolite, and dunite.

  6. Metamorphism of brecciated ANT rocks - Anorthositic troctolite 72559 and norite 78527. [Anorthositic-Noritic-Troctolitic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nehru, C. E.; Warner, R. D.; Keil, K.; Taylor, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    Rake samples 72559 and 78527 are annealed rocks of ANT-suite mineralogy and bulk composition. The rocks were presumably derived from ancient lunar highland ANT rocks of cumulate origin. Sample 72559 is polymict and its precursors were anorthositic-troctolitic in composition. Sample 78527 is monomict and of noritic derivation. The precursors were brecciated due to impact processes; 72559 shows evidence of some impact melting. The samples were thermally metamorphosed forming rocks with granoblastic matrix textures. Coexisting matrix pyroxenes indicate equilibration temperatures of 950-1000 C for both rocks. Accessory opaque oxide minerals in the rocks show rather wide compositional variations. These probably primarily reflect compositional ranges inherited from the precursor/s with little integranular equilibration among them during metamorphism.

  7. U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics of lunar norite 78235

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, W. R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1991-01-01

    A pristine high-Mg noritic cumulate thought to be relict deep-seated lunar crust is studied with an eye to obtaining evidence of initial Pb isotopic composition and U/Pb ratios of early lunar magma sources and possibly of a primary magma ocean. A leaching procedure was conducted on polymineralic separates to assure the removal of secondary Pb components. The Pb from leached separates do not form a linear trend on the Pb-Pb diagram, indicating open-system behavior either from mixtures of Pb or postcrystallization disturbances. Calculated initial Pb compositions and corresponding U-238/Pb-204 (mu) values are presented, with the assumption of reasonably precise radiometric ages from the literature for norite 78236. The results obtained support the contention that high-Mg suite rocks are coeval with the ferroan anorthosites, both being produced during the earliest stages of lunar evolution.

  8. Lunar granulites and their precursor anorthositic norites of the early lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lunar granulities, which are ancient and KREEP-free, represent the best samples of early lunar crust. They can be divided into ferroan and magnesium groups, and each group can be subdivided on the basis of mineral composition and REE concentrations. It is shown that some of the granulites may be derived from distinct anorthitic norite precursors, while some others are clearly polymict, though it is believed that even these granulites had anorthositic norites as their dominant precursors. The granulites have compositions similar to those of the two lunar meteorites, one of which is ferroan, the other magnesian. These meteorites are soil breccias from an unknown location distant from the Apollo landing sites and contain anorthositic norites as abundant clasts. Granulite and lunar-meteorite compositions more closely resemble the average composition of lunar highlands than those of any other returned lunar samples. The predominance of plutonic anorthositic norite precursors in material having the composition typical of highlands suggests that plutonic anorthositic norites were more abundant in the early lunar crust than is implied by their scarcity in Apollo pristine rocks.

  9. Apollo 15 Mg- and Fe-norites - A redefinition of the Mg-suite differentiation trend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Marvin, U. B.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Apollo 15 highland rocks from the Apennine Front include clasts of mafic plutonic rocks from deep in the lunar crust that were brought to the surface by the Imbrium and Serenitatis impacts. The Apollo 15 norites exhibit wide variations in mineral and bulk compositions and include Fe-norites that plot between the three major pristine rock fields on a diagram of Mg' in mafic minerals vs An in paglioclase. Based on assemblages and compositions of minerals, and on ratios of elemental abundances, it is concluded that these Apollo 15 Fe-norites are differentiated members of the Mg-norite suite. The Apollo 15 and 17 norites and troctolites form a closely related suite of rocks, whose variations in mineral compositions represent the main differentiation trend of the Mg-suite. This trend in mineral compositions has a steeper slope than the previous Mg-suite field. The parent magmas for these Mg-suite rocks formed by partial melting deep in the lunar mantle. Differentiation by fractional crystallization may also have included assimilation of crustal components as the magmas rose from the mantle and crystallized plutons in the lower crust.

  10. Ages of pristine noritic clasts from lunar breccias 15445 and 15455

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Dasch, E. J.; Bogard, D. D.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for two Apollo 15 pristine lunar breccias, 15445 and 15455, collected near Spur Crater on the Apennine Front. The analyses of mineral separates from two norite samples in breccia 15445 showed that the Sm-Nd isotopic system for both norites from the large Clast B of 15445 was well defined, yielding precise ages of 4.28 +/- 0.03 Ga and 4.46 +/- 0.07 Ga, suggesting that the Cast B is a mixture of two or more lithologies. The overall age results indicate that some Mg-suite rocks are as old as ferroan-anorthosite-suite rocks. Moreover, age data of three major crustal rocks (a Mg suite, a ferroan-anorthosite suite, and an evolved suite) show that they all have variable ages.

  11. Ages of pristine noritic clasts from lunar breccias 15445 and 15455

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Dasch, E. J.; Bogard, D. D.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for two Apollo 15 pristine lunar breccias, 15445 and 15455, collected near Spur Crater on the Apennine Front. The analyses of mineral separates from two norite samples in breccia 15445 showed that the Sm-Nd isotopic system for both norites from the large Clast B of 15445 was well defined, yielding precise ages of 4.28 +/- 0.03 Ga and 4.46 +/- 0.07 Ga, suggesting that the Cast B is a mixture of two or more lithologies. The overall age results indicate that some Mg-suite rocks are as old as ferroan-anorthosite-suite rocks. Moreover, age data of three major crustal rocks (a Mg suite, a ferroan-anorthosite suite, and an evolved suite) show that they all have variable ages.

  12. Petrologic evidence for a plutonic igneous origin of anorthositic norite clasts in 67955 and 77017

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    Clasts of anorthositic norite in 67955 and 77017, and several other samples, are suggested to represent material which crystallized from a silicate magma in a plutonic environment. Although no statement can be made regarding the ultimate origin of the parent melt, its composition was relatively felsic, starting within the primary field of crystallization of either plagioclase or spinel. The sequence of crystallization was: plagioclase (and/or spinel) olivine - low-Ca pyroxene - high-Ca pyroxene.

  13. Sm-Nd for Norite 78236 and Eucrite Y980318/433: Implications for Planetary and Solar System Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we compare Sm-147-Nd-143 and Sm-146-Nd-142 data for lunar norite 78236 to those for approximately 4.54-4.56 Ga old cumulate eucrite Yamato 980318/433 and show that the norite data are compatible with its derivation from an isotopic reservoir similar to that from whence the eucrite pair came. Thus, lunar-like Sm-Nd isotopic systematics are not unique to the Earth-Moon system.

  14. Inherited transgene expression of the uidA and bar genes in Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of two transgenes, bar and uidA, was studied in Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants. ‘Nellie White’ had been transformed using the gene gun to bombard with pDM327 that contains the bar-uidA fusion gene under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. PCR analysis confirmed that eight ...

  15. Partial eclogitization of the Ambolten gabbro-norite, north-east Greenland Caledonides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilotti, J.A.; Elvevold, S.

    1998-01-01

    Partially eclogitized igneous bodies composed of gabbro, leucogabbro, anorthosite and cross-cutting diabase dikes are well represented in the North-East Greenland Eclogite Province. A 200 x 100 meter intrusive body on Ambolten Island (78?? 20' N, 19?? 15' W) records a prograde transition from gabbro-norite to eclogite facies coronitic metagabro-norite surrounded by hydrated margins of undeformed to strongly foliated amphibolite. Igneous plagioclase + olivine + enstatite + augite + oxides convert to eclogite facies assemblages consisting of garnet, omphacite, diopside, enstatite, kyanite, zoisite, rutile and pargasitic amphibole through several coronitic reactions. Relict cumulus plagioclase laths are replaced by an outer corona of garnet, an inner corona of omphacite and an internal region of sodic plagioclase, garnet, kyanite, omphacite and zoisite. Olivine and intercumulus pyroxene are partly replaced by metamorphic pyroxenes and amphibole. The corona structures, zoning patterns, diversity of mineral compositions in a single thin section, and preservation of metastable asemblages are characteristic of diffusion-controlled metamorphism. The most extreme disequilibrium is found in static amphibolites, where igneous pyroxenes, plagioclase domains with eclogite facies, assemblages, and matrix amphibole coexist. Complete eclogitization was not attained at Ambolten due to a lack of fluids needed to drive diffusion during prograde and retrograde metamorphism. The P-T conditions of the high-pressure metamorphism are estimated at ??? 750??C and > 18 kbar. Well-equilibrated, foliated amphibolites from the margin of the gabbro-norite supports our contention that the entire North-East Greenland Eclogite Province experienced Caledonian high-pressure metamorphism, even though no eclogite facies assemblages have been found in the quartzofeldspathic host gneisses to date.

  16. Optimized conditions for biolistic-mediated transformation of Lilium longilforum 'Nellie White'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of tissues were used for biolistic-mediated transformation of Lilum longiflorum 'Nellie White'. Transgenic plants were not recovered from five-month-old, non-embryogenic callus or suspension cells that had been bombarded with pDM327 that contains the bar-uidA fusion gene under control the ...

  17. Optimized growth and plant regeneration for callus of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rates of growth and regeneration were compared for compact callus, friable callus, and suspension cells of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White to determine the optimal culture conditions. The fresh weight was higher for compact callus induced from bulb scales cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s m...

  18. Mineralogy of lunar norite 78235 - Second lunar occurrence of P2 sub 1 ca pyroxene from Apollo 17 soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, I. M.

    1975-01-01

    A thin section of lunar rock 78235 is examined optically as well as with an electron microprobe and is shown to be a highly-shocked coarse norite. The rock is found to consist of approximately 30% low-Ca pyroxene, 55% Ca-rich plagioclase, and 15% glass veins. The composition of the glass veins is analyzed, and it is suggested that they resulted from shock melting of the norite. Comparisons with other noritic rocks indicate that the pyroxene in rock 78235 has P2 sub 1 ca symmetry. Based on this symmetry plus the coarse grain size, it is concluded that rock 78235 was formed under plutonic conditions. The origin of the minor phases in this rock is briefly considered.

  19. The parental magma for some rocks from the Norite 1 subzone of the Stillwater Complex - A lunar analog study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Spettel, B.

    1985-01-01

    Single samples from three successive homogeneous but contrasting layers (anorthosite, anorthositic norite, and norite) in the Stillwater Complex Norite 1 subzone were subjected to detailed petrographic and major and trace element chemical analyses. The petrography and the element chemistry of the three layers are found to be generally consistent with formation from a common magma, although a simple model of liquidus phases and trapped magma is not quite consistent with petrography and chemistry. Changes of oxidation level from layer to layer are indicated by both iron in plagioclase and by the distribution coefficient for Eu required for compatibility with a common parent. Such oxidation changes can explain qualitatively the Mg/Fe variation otherwise attributed to trapped liquid. The data demonstrate that for individual lunar highlands igneous rocks, a general picture of the parent magma can be derived, but detailed petrochemical comparisons using a simple trapped liquid model might deny a common parentage for two samples when such in fact existed.

  20. Orthopyroxene as a recorder of lunar crust evolution: An ion microprobe investigations of Mg-suite norites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Fowler, G. W.; Shearer, C. K.

    1994-01-01

    The lunar Mg suite, which includes dunites, troctolites, and norites, could make up 20-30% of the Moon's crust down to a depth of 60 km. The remainder is largely anorthositic. This report focuses on norites because we have found that the chemical characteristics of orthopyroxene are effective recorders of their parental melt compositions. Many of the samples representing the Mg suite are small and unrepresentative. In addition, they are cumulates and thus are difficult to study by whole-rock techniques. Therefore, we decided to study these rocks by SIMS techniques to analyze a suite of trace elements in orthopyroxene. The 12 norite samples were selected from a recent compilation by Warren who attempted to select the best candidate samples from the standpoint of their pristine character. Our present database includes greater than 300 superior Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) analyses and greater than 50 scanning ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analyses for 8 Rare Earth Elements (REE), Zr, Y, and Sr. The Mg#s for the parental melts calculated from Mg#s in orthopyroxene show that most melts have Mg#s in the range of 0.36-0.60. This compares with a range of Mg#s for lunar volcanic picritic glass beads of 0.4-0.68. Therefore, although the cumulate whole-rock compositions of the Mg suite can be extremely magnesian, the calculated parental melts are not anomalously high in Mg. A chemical characteristic of the Mg-suite norites that is more difficult to explain is the high KREEP content of the calculated parental melts. The REE contents for the calculated norite parental melts have REE that match or exceed the high-K KREEP component of Warren. Therefore, mixing of a KREEP component and a picritic melt cannot, by itself, explain the high estimated REE contents of the melts parental to norites. Advanced crystallization following KREEP incorporation, especially of plagiclase, may also be required.

  1. Fragments of ancient lunar crust: Ferroan noritic anorthosites from the descartes region of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Alibert, C.; Mcculloch, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Noritic anorthosite clasts from breccia 67016 have bulk compositions similar to that of the upper crust of the Moon and petrogenetic affinities with pristine ferroan anorthosites. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of mineral separates from one of these clasts suggest very old (greater than or = 4.4 Ga) ages, but interpretation of these data is complicated by the multi-stage history of the clasts which involved magmatic crystallization, brecciation, subsolidus recrystallization, and sulfide metasomatism. These clasts record some of the earliest events on the Moon, including early crust formation, accretionary bombardment, and degassing of the lunar interior. Modal analyses of these clasts show they are now composed of about 70 percent plagioclase, 28 percent pyroxene, 2 percent troilite, and minor amounts of ilmenite and chromite. No metallic iron, phosphates, or other trace phases were observed. Olivine is very rare, occurring only as relicts within secondary troilite+pyroxene intergrowths which may reflect reaction of olivine with sulfurous vapors. PIXE proton microprobe analyses of the sulfides show that the metasomatism was accompanied by enrichments of Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, and Sb. The clasts have been only mildly shocked since the observed texture was established. Major and minor element mineral compositions are very homogeneous and strikingly similar to those of pristine ferroan anorthosites. Pyroxene compositions indicate equilibration temperatures of 850-900 C. Except for the sulfide and chalcophile element metasomatism, these clasts appear to be essentially monomict and probably represent a noritic member of the ferroan anorthosite suite. Their low Ni contents and Ni/Co ratios are consistent with the interpretation of these clasts as igneous rocks which have escaped mixing with meteoritic material.

  2. In pursuit of empowerment: Sensei Nellie Kleinsmidt, race and gender challenges in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jones, D E

    2001-01-01

    This chapter traces the way in which Nellie Kleinsmidt, known as the grandmother of karate in Africa, has negotiated discriminatory practices and overcome race and gender-related struggles, including the struggle to free the female body, in pursuit of empowerment. It explores her expectations and the constraints and frustrations she experienced, as well as the many contributions she has made to women's karate in South Africa. Nellie Kleinsmidt's karate career, which began in 1965, coincided with the early developments of South African karate. As a woman of colour her life and karate career were significantly shaped by apartheid legislation. It divided the country into areas of occupancy and residency according to race and was designed to prevent contact between the people of the government defined race groups. Black karate-kas were prohibited by law from practising karate in white designated areas. Lack of facilities and qualified instructors in areas allocated to Kleinsmidt's race group meant that she received very little formal karate instruction between 1966 and 1973. Soon after, she met Johan Roux, a white male. He was to become her chief karate instructor and life-long companion. They defied the apartheid legislation and in 1978 set up home together. They organized defiance campaigns, resisting the pressures from government to close their dojo because of its non-racial policies. Freeing her body at the broader political level involved the abolition of the race categories and all other apartheid legislation which impacted on her life choices and experiences. Initially this struggle and that of freeing her body occurred simultaneously. In her ongoing struggle against gender discrimination in the sport, it was in karate that Nellie Kleinsmidt could strive for the personal empowerment she sought. She could however not translate this into freedom in South African society itself. The impact of apartheid legislation together with the imposition of a sports moratorium

  3. Distribution of Sc, Ta, Hf, Zr, Co, and Fe in the crust of weathering of metalliferous gabbro-norites in volodarsk-volyn rock body

    SciTech Connect

    Borisenko, L.F.; Chudinov, V.I.

    1986-09-01

    Nuclear physics methods are used to determine the Sc, Ta, Hf, Zr, Co, and Fe contents in gabbro-norites and the component minerals of these rocks, as well as in the various zones of the crusts of weathering developed on gabbro-norites. It has been established that Sc, Ta, Hf, and Zr accumulate in the kaolinite zone, but Co is partly washed out of it.

  4. 76 FR 39392 - Record of Decision for the F-35 Force Development Evaluation and Weapons School Beddown, Nellis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...On June 24, 2011, the United States Air Force signed the ROD for the F-35 Force Development Evaluation (FDE) and Weapons School (WS) Beddown, Nellis AFB, Nevada. The decision was based on matters discussed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), inputs from the public and regulatory agencies, and other relevant factors. The Final EIS was made available to the public on May 13, 2011,......

  5. Cogenetic Rock Fragments from a Lunar Soil: Evidence of a Ferroan Noritic-Anorthosite Pluton on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    The impact that produced North Ray Crater, Apollo 16 landing site, exhumed rocks that include relatively mafic members of the lunar ferroan anorthositic suite. Bulk and mineral compositions indicate that a majority of 2-4 mm lithic fragments from sample 67513, including impact breccias and monomict igneous rocks, are related to a common noritic-anorthosite precursor. Compositions and geochemical trends of these lithic fragments and of related samples collected along the rim of North Ray Crater suggest that these rocks derived from a single igneous body. This body developed as an orthocumulate from a mixture of cumulus plagioclase and mafic intercumulus melt, after the plagioclase had separated from any cogenetic mafic minerals and had become concentrated into a crystal mush (approximately 70 wt% plagioclase, 30 wt% intercumulus melt). We present a model for the crystallization of the igneous system wherein "system" is defined as cumulus plagioclase and intercumulus melt. The initial accumulation of plagioclase is analogous to the formation of thick anorthosites of the terrestrial Stillwater Complex; however, a second stage of formation is indicated, involving migration of the cumulus-plagioclase-intercumulus-melt system to a higher crustal level, analogous to the emplacement of terrestrial massif anorthosites. Compositional variations of the lithic fragments from sample 67513 are consistent with dominantly equilibrium crystallization of intercumulus melt. The highly calcic nature of orthocumulus pyroxene and plagioclase suggests some reaction between the intercumulus melt and cumulus plagioclase, perhaps facilitated by some recrystallization of cumulus plagioclase. Bulk compositions and mineral assemblages of individual rock fragments also require that most of the mafic minerals fortned in close contact with cumulus plagioclase, not as separate layers. The distribution of compositions (and by inference, modes) has a narrow peak at anorthosite and a broader, larger

  6. In situ radiological surveying at the Double Tracks site, Nellis Air Force Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Riedhauser, S.R.; Tipton, W.J.

    1996-04-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the Double Tracks site on the Nellis Air Force Range just east of Goldfield, Nevada, during the periods of April 10-13 and June 5-9, 1995. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This site includes the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The main purpose of the first expedition was to assess several new techniques for characterizing sites with dispersed plutonium. The two purposes of the second expedition were to characterize the distribution of transuranic contamination (primarily plutonium) at the site by measuring the gamma rays from americium-241 and to assess the performance of the two new detector platforms. Both of the new platforms performed well, and the characterization of the americium-241 activity at the site was completed. Several plots compare these ground-based system measurements and the 1993 aerial data. The agreement is good considering the systems are characterized and calibrated through independent means. During the April expedition, several methods for measuring the depth distribution of americium-241 in the field were conducted as a way of quickly and reliably obtaining depth profiles without the need to wait for laboratory analysis. Two of the methods were not very effective, but the results of the third method appear very promising.

  7. Earth analog for Martian magnetic anomalies: remanence properties of hemo-ilmenite norites in the Bjerkreim-Sokndal intrusion, Rogaland, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, S. A.; Brown, L. L.; Robinson, Peter

    2004-10-01

    To explain the very large remanent magnetic anomalies on Mars, which no longer has a global magnetic field, it is important to evaluate rocks on Earth with the necessary properties of high natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and coercivity. Here, we describe a possible analog from the 230-km 2 930 Ma Bjerkreim-Sokndal layered intrusion (BKS) in Rogaland, Norway. In the layered series of the BKS, fractional crystallization of jotunitic magma was punctuated by influx and mixing of more primitive magmas, producing six megacyclic units, each typically with early plagioclase-rich norites, intermediate hemo-ilmenite-rich norites and late magnetite norites with subordinate near end-member ilmenite. Following each influx, the magma resumed normal crystallization and, following the last, near the base of Megacyclic Unit IV, crystallization continued until norites gave way to massive fayalite-magnetite mangerites and quartz mangerites in the upper part of the intrusion. The Megacycles are marked on a regional aeromagnetic map by remanent-controlled negative anomalies over ilmenite norites and induced positive anomalies over magnetite norites and mangerites. A prominent negative anomaly (with amplitude -13,000 nT in a high-resolution helicopter survey, down to -27,000 nT below background in ground magnetic profiles) occurs over the central part of Megacyclic Unit IV. The anomaly is centered on ilmenite norite Unit IVe and is most intense where cumulate layering is near vertical at the southeast edge of the Bjerkreim Lobe of the intrusion at Heskestad. Here, Unit IVe is flanked to the east by magnetite norite of Unit IVc and country-rock gneisses (group E) and to the west by Unit IVf magnetite norite and mangerites (group W). Magnetic properties were measured on 128 oriented samples. Susceptibilities are similar for all three sample groups at ˜8×10 -2, but Koenigsberger ratios are very different, with average values of 7.7 for IVe, and <1 for groups E and W. The IVe samples

  8. A comparative Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and K-Ar study of shocked norite 78236 - Evidence of slow cooling in the lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reimold, W. U.

    1982-01-01

    The sample 78236 was chipped from the top of a norite boulder at Station 8 by the Apollo 17 landing team. Jackson et al. (1975) concluded that this rock formed at a depth of 8-30 km in the lunar crust and suggested that it was excavated by a large basin-forming impact event. A petrographic description of the boulder is provided, and isotopic analyses are discussed. Attention is given to a chronology for 78236 which seems to be most consistent with radiometric and other evidence. It is proposed that cumulate norite 78236 formed deep in the lunar crust approximately 4.4 AE ago. The rock cooled slowly in the crust until it was excavated by a major basin-forming event. Excavation may have occurred about 4.2 AE ago, but the time of this event is not well constrained.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area, Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1999-07-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 486, Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend a preferred corrective action for the single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 71-23-001-71DT, within CAU 486. Corrective Action Unit 486 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71 North, west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR, located in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 140 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 5 mi southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2).

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. Cox

    2000-12-01

    The Double Tracks Radiological Safety Area (DTRSA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 486, was clean-closed following the approved Corrective Action Decision Document closure alternative and in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of a single Corrective Action Site, 71-23-001-71DT. The DTRSA was used during May 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, personnel and animals from the Double Tracks Test. Double Tracks was one of four storage-transportation tests. The Double Tracks test was conducted in Stonewall Flat, approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) east of Goldfield, Nevada, on the Nellis Air Force Range. The Double Tracks Test used a single device containing plutonium and depleted uranium and was designed to investigate the characteristics of plutonium-bearing particulate material formed by the non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear weapon. All facilities associated with the DTRSA operation were removed. Based on available information, the areas of concern at the DTRSA consisted of a decon facility (vehicle decon pad and decon sump) in the southern half of the DTRSA, and a burial pit and former loading/unloading area located in the northern half of the DTRSA. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation, radiological field screening detected elevated gamma and alpha readings on excavated plastic debris. Swipe surveys taken on the plastic debris detected removable alpha. No contaminants were detected above preliminary action levels in soil samples. The debris excavated during the corrective action investigation was not characterized. The clean-closure corrective action consisted of excavation, disposal, verification sampling, backfilling, and regrading. Field activities began on May 1, 2000, and ended on May 10, 2000. Soil that was associated with the radiologically contaminated man-made debris was placed into B-25 bins, moved to the designated waste management area where it was scanned, and hauled off

  11. Ion microprobe investigation of plagioclase and orthopyroxene from lunar Mg-suite norites: Implications for calculating parental melt REE concentrations and for assessing postcrystallization REE redistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papike, J.J.; Fowler, G.W.; Shearer, C.K.; Layne, G.D.

    1996-10-01

    The lunar Mg-suite, which includes dunites, troctolites, and norites, makes up to 20-30% of the Moon`s crust down to a depth of {approximately}60 km. The remainder is largely anorthosite. This report focuses on norites (which consist mostly of orthopyroxene and plagioclase) because we have found that both phases are effective recorders of their parental melt compositions. In an earlier report, we analyzed orthopyroxene from twelve samples (three from Apollo 14, two from A-15, and seven from A-17) by orthopyroxene from twelve samples (three from Apollo 14, two from A-15, and seven from A-17) by SIMS for eight REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb). Inversion of these data to estimated melt compositions yielded extremely high REE concentrations similar to KREEP. In this study, we report SIMS REE data for plagioclase from these same twelve samples. The major objective of this study is to estimate parental REE concentrations from both orthopyroxene and plagioclase data to see if both data inversions produce concordant from both orthopyroxene and plagioclase data to see if both data inversions produce concordant melt compositions and thus better constrain the composition of melts parental to Mg-suite norites. The estimated REE concentrations from both phases show some evidence of slight postcrystallization REE redistribution. Comparison of the observed ratio of REE for pyroxene/plagioclase to the ratio of the Ds for pyroxene/plagioclase is consistent with REE redistribution which involves LREE diffusing from pyroxene into plagioclase and HREE diffusing from plagioclase into pyroxene. However, apparently these postcrystallization exchanges have not seriously affected our ability to estimate melt REE concentrations. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Record of Technical Change No.2 for ``Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area, Nellis Air Force Range,'' Rev. 0, DOE/NV--523

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-18

    This Record of Technical Change provides technical updates to the information provided in ``Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area, Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV--523. Changes are specified for Section 4.2, Par. 3 and 8; Section 5.3, Par.1; and Section 7.0 (added reference) found on pages 25, 27, 34, 35, and 41.

  13. Iron mineralogy and bioaccessibility of dust generated from soils as determined by reflectance spectroscopy and magnetic and chemical properties--Nellis Dunes recreational area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Morman, Suzette A.; Moskowitz, Bruce; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Flagg, Cody; Till, Jessica; Yauk, Kimberly; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust exerts many important effects on the Earth system, such as atmospheric temperatures, marine productivity, and melting of snow and ice. Mineral dust also can have detrimental effects on human health through respiration of very small particles and the leaching of metals in various organs. These effects can be better understood through characterization of the physical and chemical properties of dust, including certain iron oxide minerals, for their extraordinary radiative properties and possible effects on lung inflammation. Studies of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area near Las Vegas, Nevada, focus on characteristics of radiative properties (capacity of dust to absorb solar radiation), iron oxide mineral type and size, chemistry, and bioaccessibility of metals in fluids that simulate human gastric, lung, and phagolysosomal fluids. In samples of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area with median grain sizes of 2.4, 3.1, and 4.3 micrometers, the ferric oxide minerals goethite and hematite, at least some of it nanosized, were identified. In one sample, in vitro bioaccessibility experiments revealed high bioaccessibility of arsenic in all three biofluids and higher leachate concentration and bioaccessibility for copper, uranium, and vanadium in the simulated lung fluid than in the phagolysosomal fluid. The combination of methods used here to characterize mineral dust at the Nellis Dunes recreation area can be applied to global dust and broad issues of public health.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    IT Las Vegas

    1998-10-15

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 486, the Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) which is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71North (N), west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range Complex, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 486 is comprised of CAS 71-23-001-71DT consisting of two areas of concern referred to as the vehicle decontamination area and the animal burial pit. The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 8 km (5 mi) southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2). The DTRSA was used during May 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, personnel, and animals from the Double Tracks test. The DTRSA is one of three areas identified as a potential location for the disposal of radioactively contaminated

  15. Expression of a cystatin transgene can confer resistance to root lesion nematodes in Lilium longiflorum cv. 'Nellie White'.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo; Wantoch, Sarah; Lilley, Catherine J; Chitwood, David J; Atkinson, Howard J; Kamo, Kathryn

    2015-06-01

    Lilium longiflorum cv. 'Nellie White' assumes a great economic importance as cut flowers, being one of the most valuable species (annual pot plants value above $20,000,000) in terms of wholesales in the US. The root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans (RLN) constitutes one of the main pests for lily producers due to the significant root damage it causes. Our efforts have focused on the generation of soybean hairy roots (as a transient test model) and stable transgenic lilies overexpressing a modified rice cystatin (Oc-IΔD86) transgene and challenged with root lesion nematodes. Lily transformation was achieved by gene gun co-bombardment using both a pBluescript-based vector containing the cystatin gene and pDM307 that contains a bar gene for phosphinothricin selection. Both soybean hairy roots and lilies overexpressing the OcIΔD86 transgene exhibited enhanced resistance to RLN infection by means of nematode reduction up to 75 ± 5% on the total number of nematodes. In addition, lily plants overexpressing OcIΔD86 displayed an increase of plant mass and better growth performance in comparison to wild-type plants, thereby demonstrating an alternative strategy for increasing the yield and reducing nematode damage to this important floral crop. PMID:25398618

  16. Arsenic concentrations in dust emissions from wind erosion and off-road vehicles in the Nellis Dunes Recreational Area, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, Deborah; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Ulery, April; McLaurin, Brett T.; Baron, Dirk; Teng, Yuanxin

    2012-08-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were performed in the Nellis Dunes Recreational Area near Las Vegas, NV, USA to evaluate arsenic concentrations associated with dust emissions from wind erosion and off-road vehicles. Soil samples were collected from 17 types of desert surfaces and five unpaved parking lot locations for analyses. The surface units are based on surficial characteristics that affect dust emissions. Arsenic concentrations were also measured in dust emitted from each surface unit using a Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL). Emissions were measured from ORV trails and undisturbed terrain. Concentrations of As in the soil and parking lot samples ranged from 3.49 to 83.02 μg g-1 and from 16.13 to 312 μg g-1 in the PI-SWERL samples. The lower concentrations in the soil samples are expected because of the larger particle sizes (<2 mm) as compared to the PI-SWERL samples (<10 and 10-60 μm). Soluble As in the PI-SWERL samples was as high as 14.7 μg g-1. In the Nellis Dunes area the emission rates for As for wind-induced emissions (wind erosion) are highest for the surfaces with significant amounts of sand. Surfaces rich in silt and clay, on the other hand, produce nearly no arsenic during wind erosion but can emit substantial arsenic concentrations when driven on by off-road vehicles. The elevated arsenic emissions from the Nellis Dunes area are of great concern because the site is located in the immediate vicinity of the city of Las Vegas, and utilized by over 300,000 visitors annually.

  17. Ion and electron microprobe study of troctolites, norite, and anorthosites from Apollo 14: Evidence for urKREEP assimilation during petrogenesis of Apollo 14 Mg-suite rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, J.W.; McGee, J.J.

    1998-09-01

    Most of the Moon`s highland crust comprises Fe-rich anorthosites with calcic plagioclase compositions. Subsequent evolution of the highland crust was dominated by troctolites, anorthosites, and norites of the Mg-suite. This plutonic series is characterized by calcic plagioclase, and mafic minerals with high mg{number_sign} (=100{sup *}Mg/[Mg + Fe]). In an effort to distinguish the origin of this important lunar rock series, the authors have analyzed the REE content of primary cumulus phases in ten Mg-suite cumulates using SIMS, along with their major and minor element compositions by electron microprobe analysis. Nine of these samples have high mg{number_sign}s, consistent with their formation from the most primitive parent melts of the Mg-suite. The data presented here show that Mg-suite troctolites and anorthosites preserve major and trace element characteristics acquired during their formation as igneous cumulate rocks and that these characteristics can be used to reconstruct related aspects of the parent magma composition. Data show that primitive cumulates of the Mg-suite crystallized from magmas with REE contents similar to high-K KREEP in both concentration and relative abundance. The highly enriched nature of this parent magma contrasts with its primitive major element characteristics, as pointed out by previous workers. This enigma is best explained by the mixing of residual magma ocean urKREEP melts with ultramagnesian komatiitic partial melts from the deep lunar interior. The data do not support earlier models that invoke crustal metasomatism to enrich the Mg-suite cumulates after formation, or models which call for a superKREEP parent for the troctolites and anorthosites.

  18. A combined Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb isotopic study of Mg-suite norite 78238: Further evidence for early differentiation of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Edmunson, J; E.Borg, L; Nyquist, L E; Asmerom, Y

    2008-11-17

    Lunar Mg-suite norite 78238 was dated using the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb isotopic systems in order to constrain the age of lunar magma ocean solidification and the beginning of Mg-suite magmatism, as well as to provide a direct comparison between the three isotopic systems. The Sm-Nd isotopic system yields a crystallization age for 78238 of 4334 {+-} 37 Ma and an initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} value of -0.27 {+-} 0.74. The age-initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} (T-I) systematics of a variety of KREEP-rich samples, including 78238 and other Mg-suite rocks, KREEP basalts, and olivine cumulate NWA 773, suggest that lunar differentiation was completed by 4492 {+-} 61 Ma assuming a Chondritic Uniform Reservoir bulk composition for the Moon. The Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of 78238 were disturbed by post-crystallization processes. Nevertheless, selected data points yield two Rb-Sr isochrons. One is concordant with the Sm-Nd crystallization age, 4366 {+-} 53 Ma. The other is 4003 {+-} 95 Ma and is concordant with an Ar-Ar age for 78236. The {sup 207}Pb-{sup 206}Pb age of 4333 {+-} 59 Ma is concordant with the Sm-Nd age. The U-Pb isotopic systematics of 78238 yield linear arrays equivalent to younger ages than the Pb-Pb system, and may reflect fractionation of U and Pb during sample handling. Despite the disturbed nature of the U-Pb systems, a time-averaged {mu} ({sup 238}U/{sup 204}Pb) value of the source can be estimated at 27 {+-} 30 from the Pb-Pb isotopic systematics. Because KREEP-rich samples are likely to be derived from source regions with the highest U/Pb ratios, the relatively low {mu} value calculated for the 78238 source suggests the bulk Moon does not have an exceedingly high {mu} value.

  19. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 411. Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411, Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis). CAU 411 is located on the Nevada Test and Training Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), NAFR-23-01, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1996 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 411 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 411 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, and to determine whether the CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU. The results of the field investigation will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 20, 2014, by representatives of NDEP, the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine whether CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 411; Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information; If COCs are no longer present, establish clean closure as the corrective action; If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions

  20. Immunotoxicological and neurotoxicological profile of health effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dust from sand dunes at the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area, Las Vegas, NV.

    PubMed

    Keil, Deborah; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Teng, Yuanxin; Leetham, Mallory; Murphy, Lacey; Pollard, James; Eggers, Margaret; McLaurin, Brett; Gerads, Russell; DeWitt, Jamie

    2016-01-15

    Exposure to geogenic particulate matter (PM) comprised of mineral particles has been linked to human health effects. However, very little data exist on health effects associated with geogenic dust exposure in natural settings. Therefore, we characterized particulate matter size, metal chemistry, and health effects of dust collected from the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a popular off-road vehicle area located near Las Vegas, NV. Adult female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to several concentrations of mineral dust collected from active and vegetated sand dunes in NDRA. Dust samples (median diameter: 4.4 μm) were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline and delivered at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 mg dust/kg body weight by oropharyngeal aspiration. ICP-MS analyses of total dissolution of the dust resulted in aluminum (55,090 μg/g), vanadium (70 μg/g), chromium (33 μg/g), manganese (511 μg/g), iron (21,600 μg/g), cobalt (9.4 μg/g), copper (69 μg/g), zinc (79 μg/g), arsenic (62 μg/g), strontium (620 μg/g), cesium (13 μg/g), lead 25 μg/g) and uranium (4.7 μg/g). Arsenic was present only as As(V). Mice received four exposures, once/week over 28-days to mimic a month of weekend exposures. Descriptive and functional assays to assess immunotoxicity and neurotoxicity were performed 24 h after the final exposure. The primary observation was that 0.1 to 100 mg/kg of this sand dune derived dust dose-responsively reduced antigen-specific IgM antibody responses, suggesting that dust from this area of NDRA may present a potential health risk. PMID:26644169

  1. Health effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dusts from arsenic-rich sediment at the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area, Las Vegas, NV.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Jamie; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Hu, Qing; Chow, Rebecca; David, Winnie; Young, Sharon; Teng, Yuanxin; Leetham-Spencer, Mallory; Murphy, Lacey; Pollard, James; McLaurin, Brett; Gerads, Russell; Keil, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Geogenic dust from arid environments is a possible inhalation hazard for humans, especially when using off-road vehicles that generate significant dust. This study focused on immunotoxicological and neurotoxicological effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dust generated from sediments in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area near Las Vegas, Nevada that are particularly high in arsenic; the naturally-occurring arsenic concentrations in these surficial sediments ranged from 4.8 to 346μg/g. Dust samples from sediments used in this study had a median diameter of 4.5μm and also were a complex mixture of naturally-occurring metals, including aluminum, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, strontium, cesium, lead, uranium, and arsenic. Adult female B6C3F1 mice exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to 0.01 to 100mg dust/kg body weight, four times, a week apart, for 28days, were evaluated 24h after the last exposure. Peripheral eosinophils were increased at all concentrations, serum creatinine was dose responsively increased beginning at 1.0mg/kg/day, and blood urea nitrogen was decreased at 10 and 100mg/kg/day. Antigen-specific IgM responses and natural killer cell activity were dose-responsively suppressed at 0.1mg/kg/day and above. Splenic CD4+CD25+ T cells were decreased at 0.01, 0.1, 10, and 100mg/kg/day. Antibodies against MBP, NF-68, and GFAP were selectively reduced. A no observed adverse effect level of 0.01mg/kg/day and a lowest observed adverse effect level of 0.1mg/kg/day were determined from IgM responses and natural killer cell activity, indicating that exposure to this dust, under conditions similar to our design, could affect these responses. PMID:27221630

  2. Evaluation of pilot-scale pulse-corona-induced plasma device to remove NO{sub x} from combustion exhausts from a subscale combustor and from a hush house at Nellis AFB, Nevada. Final report, August 1994--January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Haythornthwaite, S.M.; Durham, M.D.; Anderson, G.L.; Rugg, D.E.

    1997-05-01

    Jet engine test cells (JETCs) are used to test-fire new, installed, and reworked jet engines. Because JETCs have been classified as stationary sources of pollutant emissions, they are subject to possible regulation under Title 1 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) as amended in 1990. In Phase 1 of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, a novel NOx-control approach utilizing pulsed-corona-induced plasma successfully showed 90% removal of NOx in the laboratory. The objective of Phase 2 was to reproduce the laboratory-scale results in a pilot-scale system. The technology was successfully demonstrated at pilot scale in the field, on a slipstream of JETC flue gas at Nellis Air Force Base. Based on the field data, cost projections were made for a system to treat the full JETC exhaust. The technology efficiently converted NO into ONO, and a wet scrubber was required to achieve the treatment goal of 50-percent removal and destruction of NOx. The plasma simultaneously removes hydrocarbons from the flue gas stream. This project demonstrated that pulse-corona-induced plasma technology is scalable to practical industrial dimensions.

  3. Subdivision of the Mg-suite noritic rocks into Mg-gabbronorites and Mg-norites.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, O.B.; Flohr, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    The rocks of these two groups differ in ratios of high-Ca pyroxene to total pyroxene, compositions of pyroxene and plagioclase, assemblages of Ti-, Nb- and Zr-bearing minerals, compositions of chrome spinel, bulk-rock Ti/Sm and Sc/Sm, and measured ages. Two hypotheses are offered for differences in composition of the parent magmas: 1) compositional heterogeneity of the mantle source areas; 2) variations in extent of partial melting of mantle source regions and variations in extent of assimilation of the anorthosite and highly differentiated residual liquid that were produced during the primordial lunar differentiation.-P.Br.

  4. Three-System Isotopic of Lunar Norite 78238: Rb-Sr Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmundson, J.; Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Asmerom, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The duration of lunar magma ocean (LMO) crystallization is poorly constrained (Fig. 1). Three techniques employed to determine the age of LMO solidification are 1) dating ferroan anorthosites (FANs), thought to be primary cumulates from the LMO, 2) calculating model ages for KREEP, the most incompatible element enriched material that remained after approx.99.5% of the LMO crystallized [1], and 3) constraining the age of the oldest KREEP-rich magnesium suite (Mg-suite) or alkali suite rock. Dating FANs is difficult because the samples are essentially monomineralic and contain low abundances of many elements used in isotopic dating. In addition, the young ages determined for some FANs may be related to impact metamorphism, potentially making FANs non-ideal for dating the age of LMO crystallization (e.g., [2]). Model ages for KREEP formation are dependent on the assumptions of the initial isotopic composition and parent/daughter ratio of the source. However, lunar rocks are susceptible to isotopic resetting and volatile element loss during shock, and are therefore unlikely to yield consistent model LMO crystallization ages (e.g., [3]). Rocks from the Mg-suite contain KREEP, indicating that they formed after LMO crystallization, and have old ages that indicate they formed almost immediately after the LMO crystallized (Fig. 1). Therefore, precisely dating the oldest Mg-suite rock is a promising way to constrain the age of LMO solidification.

  5. "Learning at Nellie's Elbow": Will It Truly Improve the Preparation of Educational Administrators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daresh, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some widely held assumptions about administrator field experience aims and accomplishments. Shows that adding more ways to engage in field-based practice is insufficient. Envisions a professional formation period, wherein administrator candidates synthesize all learning experiences, values, and priorities to form a more wholistic, personal…

  6. The Amazing Nellie Bly: Teaching about Women in United States History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    March is Women's History Month. While the approach to the study of the role of women in U.S. history has changed dramatically since the author was a classroom teacher, there is still a need to do more to fully integrate women into history throughout the curriculum and throughout the school year. Finding good sites to help classroom teachers and…

  7. 77 FR 8895 - Jimbilnan, Pinto Valley, Black Canyon, Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C), the National Park Service (NPS) is the lead agency for the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) for a wilderness management plan for eight wilderness areas in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, three of which are partially located on adjacent Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands. The BLM will......

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Ares, Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada, Rev. 0; DOE/NV--523 UPDATED WITH ROTC No.1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1999-11-16

    This CAIP presents a plan to investigate the DTRSA where unregulated disposal of radioactive and possibly hazardous waste occurred during decontamination activities for the Double Tracks test. The purpose of the corrective action investigation described in this CAIP is to: Identify and verify the locations of the decontamination facility and animal burial pit within the DTRSA; Identify the presence and nature of COPCs; Determine the vertical and lateral extent of COPCs; and Provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the CAS. This CAIP was developed using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) (EPA, 1994d) process to clearly define the goals for collecting environmental data, to determine data uses, and to design a data collection program that will satisfy these uses. A DQO scoping meeting was held prior to preparation of this plan; a brief summary of the DQOs is presented in Section 3.4. A more detailed summary of the DQO process and results is included in Appendix A.

  9. The Red Dress: Getting to the Heart of Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dereon (center right), and Nelly Furtado for Betsey Johnson (far right). Photo courtesy NIH/NHLBI For the ... Donna Karan, Ralph Lauren, Luca Luca, and Betsey Johnson. "In my own family, there is a history ...

  10. 77 FR 54949 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    .... 1701-1706) (``IEEPA''), issued Executive Order 12978 (60 FR 54579, October 24, 1995) (the ``Order... (Colombia) (INDIVIDUAL) . 14. GONZALEZ, Maria Luz Nelly, c/o COOPERATIVA MULTIACTIVA DE COLOMBIA...

  11. Apollo 14 glasses of impact origin and their parent rock types.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, E. C. T.; Best, J. B.; Minkin, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Eight chemical groups can be recognized on the basis of studies of more than 200 Apollo 14 glass particles of impact origin. It is found that the major rock type of a highland site is dominated by annealed noritic rocks rather than by anorthosites as previously suggested. Both mafic and salic rock types are associated with the noritic rocks. A number of tables are provided showing the chemical composition of the minerals investigated.

  12. The relationships between geology and soil chemistry at the Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, J. M.; Rodgers, K. V.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hubbard, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    Within the wide compositional range of the Apollo 17 soils, three distinct chemical groups have been recognized, each one corresponding broadly with a major geological and physiographic unit. These groups are: (1) Valley Floor type soils, (2) South Massif type soils, and (3) North Massif type soils. The observed chemical variations within and between these three groups is interpreted by means of mixing models in terms of lateral transport and mixing of prevailing local rock types, such as high-titanium basalts, KREEP-like noritic breccias, anorthositic gabbro breccias and orange glass. According to these models, North Nassif types evolved on the lower slopes of the North Massif and Sculptured Hills where anorthositic gabbro predominates over noritic breccia and where lateral mixing with basalt is effective, whereas the South Massif type soils originally developed on the upper slopes of the South Massif, where anorthositic breccia and noritic breccias are equally abundant, and where lateral mixing with basalt was minimal.

  13. Differentiation of the South Pole-Aitken basin impact melt sheet: Implications for lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Debra M.; Kring, David A.

    2014-06-01

    We modeled the differentiation of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) impact melt sheet to determine whether noritic lithologies observed within SPA formed as a result of the impact. Results indicate differentiation of SPA impact melt can produce noritic layers that may accommodate observed surface compositions but only in specific scenarios. One of nine modeled impact melt compositions yielded layers of noritic materials that account for observations of noritic lithologies at depths of ~6 km. In this scenario, impact occurred before a hypothesized lunar magma ocean cumulate overturn. The 50 km deep melt sheet would have formed an insulating quenched layer at the surface before differentiating. The uppermost differentiated layers in this scenario have FeO and TiO2 contents consistent with orbital observations if they were subsequently mixed with the uppermost quenched melt layer and with less FeO- and TiO2-enriched materials such as ejecta emplaced during younger impacts. These results verify that noritic lithologies observed within SPA could have formed as a direct result of the impact. Therefore, locations within SPA that contain noritic materials represent potential destinations for collecting samples that can be analyzed to determine the age of the SPA impact. Potential destinations include central peaks of Bhabha, Bose, Finsen, and Antoniadi craters, as well as walls of Leibnitz and Schrödinger basins. Additionally, potential remnants of the uppermost quenched melt may be preserved in gabbroic material exposed in "Mafic Mound." Exploring and sampling these locations can constrain the absolute age of SPA, a task that ranks among the highest priorities in lunar science.

  14. Geological structure and ore mineralization of the South Sopchinsky and Gabbro-10 massifs and the Moroshkovoe Lake target, Monchegorsk area, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pripachkin, Pavel V.; Rundkvist, Tatyana V.; Miroshnikova, Yana A.; Chernyavsky, Alexey V.; Borisenko, Elena S.

    2015-08-01

    The South Sopchinsky massif (SSM), Gabbro-10 (G-10) massif, and Moroshkovoe Lake (ML) target Monchegorsk area, Kola Peninsula, are located at the junction of the Monchepluton and Monchetundra layered intrusions. The intrusions were studied in detail as they are targets for platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization. The rocks in these targets comprise medium- to coarse-grained mesocratic to leucocratic gabbronorites, medium-grained mesocratic to melanocratic norites and pyroxenites, and various veins mainly comprising norite, plagioclase-amphibole-magnetite rocks, and quartz-magnetite rocks. The veins contain Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization associated with magnetite and chromite. In all targets, the contacts between gabbronorite and norite-pyroxenite are undulating, and the presence of magmatic (intrusive) breccias suggests that these rocks formed through mingling of two distinct magmatic pulses. In places, the gabbronorites clearly crosscut the modal layering of the norites and pyroxenites. Trace element data indicate that the gabbronorites have similar compositions to rocks of the upper part of the Monchetundra intrusion, whereas the norites and pyroxenites resemble rocks from the lower to intermediate stratigraphic levels of the Monchepluton, such as in the Nude-Poaz and Sopcha massifs. Sulfide mineralization in the studied targets principally consists of secondary bornite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. In contrast, the primary sulfide assemblage within the layered sequence of the adjacent Monchepluton is characterized by pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite. Therefore, the mineralization in the studied targets is interpreted to be of a contact style. We argue that the studied area represents the contact zone between gabbronorites of the Monchetundra intrusion and norites and pyroxenites of the Monchepluton. In addition, the rocks were overprinted by postmagmatic veining and remobilization of contact style sulfide and PGE mineralization.

  15. Lunar sample 14425 - Characterization and resemblance to high-magnesium microtektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berliner, L.; Fujii, H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of the surface of lunar sample 14425, a large glass bead, yield a noritic composition enriched in aluminum and magnesium and, as compared with other norites, depleted in iron and especially calcium. The sample is close in composition to the most basic microtektites. Spherical inclusions of nickel-iron, flattened where they protrude, are found to be enriched in sulfur and phosphorus, at least at the surface. The inclusions form approximately 1 percent of the volume.

  16. Apollo 16 stratigraphy - The ANT hills, the Cayley Plains, and a pre-Imbrian regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Drake, M. J.; Hallam, M. E.; Marvin, U. B.; Wood, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 645 particles in the 1 to 2 mm size range has been classified in the Apollo 16 soil samples 60602,3, 61242,7, 66042,4, 67602,13, and 69942,13. Five major categories of lithic fragments recognized in these samples include (1) an anorthositic/noritic/troctolitic, or ANT suite, (2) light-matrix breccias, (3) poikiloblastic noritic/anorthositic fragments, (4) spinel-troctolites, and (5) feldspathic basalts. The petrography and phase chemistry of the lithic fragments are discussed along with results of the fragment census and the stratigraphy of the Apollo 16 site.

  17. Mineralogy of the Mafic Anomaly in the South Pole-Aitken Basin: Implications for excavation of the lunar mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Tompkins, S.; Head, J. W.; Hess, P. C.

    1997-01-01

    Mineralogy of South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) (the largest confirmed impact basin on the Moon) is evaluated using five-color images from Clementine. Although olivine-rich material as well as basalts rich in clinopyroxene are readily identified elsewhere on the farside, the dominant rock type observed across the interior of SPA is of a very noritic composition. This mineralogy suggests that lower crust rather than the mantle is the dominant source of the mafic component at SPA. The lack of variation in observed noritic composition is probably due to basin formation processes, during which extensive melting and mixing of target materials are likely to occur.

  18. Rock types present in lunar highland soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Several investigators have studied soils from the lunar highlands with the objective of recognizing the parent rocks that have contributed significant amounts of material to these soils. Comparing only major element data, and thus avoiding the problems induced by individual classifications, these data appear to converge on a relatively limited number of rock types. The highland soils are derived from a suite of highly feldspathic rocks comprising anorthositic gabbros (or norites), high alumina basalts, troctolites, and less abundant gabbroic (or noritic) anorthosites, anorthosites, and KREEP basalts.

  19. 2. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph/negative located at the Remote ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph/negative located at the Remote Sensing Laboratory, Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada). David Wehner, EG&G Photographic Services Photographer, October 13, 1992. Overall view of Japanese village, facing north - Nevada Test Site, Japanese Village, Area 4, Yucca Flat, 4-04 Road near Rainier Mesa Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. 1. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph/negative located at the Remote ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph/negative located at the Remote Sensing Laboratory, Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada). R.B., Photograph for Civil Effects Test Organization, May 9, 1962. Historic view of Japanese village, facing west - Nevada Test Site, Japanese Village, Area 4, Yucca Flat, 4-04 Road near Rainier Mesa Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  1. 76 FR 65508 - Extension of the Public Comment Period for the Draft Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... the public comment period. The original NNSA Notice of Availability (76 FR 45548) indicated that the... (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) and other NNSA-managed sites in Nevada, including the Remote Sensing Laboratory on Nellis Air Force Base, the North Las Vegas Facility, and the Tonopah Test Range...

  2. 40 CFR 197.2 - What definitions apply in subpart A?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... everywhere outside the Yucca Mountain site, the Nellis Air Force Range, and the Nevada Test Site. High-level.... Committed effective dose equivalent means the effective dose equivalent received over a period of time (e.g....). Radioactive material includes, but is not limited to, high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear...

  3. 40 CFR 197.2 - What definitions apply in subpart A?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... everywhere outside the Yucca Mountain site, the Nellis Air Force Range, and the Nevada Test Site. High-level.... Committed effective dose equivalent means the effective dose equivalent received over a period of time (e.g....). Radioactive material includes, but is not limited to, high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear...

  4. 40 CFR 197.2 - What definitions apply in subpart A?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... everywhere outside the Yucca Mountain site, the Nellis Air Force Range, and the Nevada Test Site. High-level.... Committed effective dose equivalent means the effective dose equivalent received over a period of time (e.g....). Radioactive material includes, but is not limited to, high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear...

  5. Our Most Valuable Population: The Case for Disconnected Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Nicholas C.

    2009-01-01

    In May, President Obama stated the need for every American to have at least one year of postsecondary education. That sentiment echoes the Nellie Mae Education Foundation's 2008 report, "What It Takes to Succeed in the 21st Century--and How New Englanders Are Faring." The report cites a growing consensus that reveals the minimum indicator of the…

  6. CHARACTERISTICS AND MIGRATION PATTERNS OF MULE DEER ON THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    When NTS deer migrate, the majority of the animals stay within the confines of the NTS or the Nellis Bombing Range, and present little potential for radiation transport off the NTS. Also, the few deer that leave the NTS area do so during the winter when they cannot legally be hun...

  7. 40 CFR 197.2 - What definitions apply in subpart A?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA... everywhere outside the Yucca Mountain site, the Nellis Air Force Range, and the Nevada Test Site. High-level... material with the intent or capability to readily access or retrieve such material. Yucca...

  8. Head Start on College: Dual Enrollment Strategies in New England, 2004-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Nancy; Robins, Amy

    2005-01-01

    The Nellie Mae Education Foundation asked Jobs for the Future to explore the degree to which secondary and postsecondary institutions in the six New England states are implementing dual enrollment. This report of the findings of that research focuses on secondary/postsecondary systems and programs serving the second population--those who may not…

  9. Foundation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Nicholas C. Donohue is the new president and CEO of the Quincy, Massachusetts-based Nellie Mae Education Foundation, the largest philanthropy in New England devoted exclusively to education. Donohue has been a classroom teacher, a university trustee, and commissioner of education for the state of New Hampshire. Most recently, he served as special…

  10. 10 CFR 63.202 - Definitions for Subpart K.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Preclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards § 63.202 Definitions for Subpart K. General environment means everywhere outside the Yucca Mountain site, the Nellis... material with the intent or capability to readily access or retrieve such material. Yucca...

  11. 10 CFR 63.202 - Definitions for Subpart K.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Preclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards § 63.202 Definitions for Subpart K. General environment means everywhere outside the Yucca Mountain site, the Nellis... material with the intent or capability to readily access or retrieve such material. Yucca...

  12. 10 CFR 63.202 - Definitions for Subpart K.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Preclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards § 63.202 Definitions for Subpart K. General environment means everywhere outside the Yucca Mountain site, the Nellis... material with the intent or capability to readily access or retrieve such material. Yucca...

  13. Why Johnny's Dad Can't Read: The Elusive Goal of Universal Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Meredith

    1991-01-01

    Discusses efforts to achieve higher rates of adult literacy and pedagogical approaches to learning to read. Describes definitions of literacy, school standards, and possible reasons for high rates of adult illiteracy. Discusses teaching methods, particularly the Nellie Thomas method, which has had success in prison literacy programs. (JB)

  14. Arts and the City: Tapping the Creative Energy of Urban Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgerson, Susan; Wilson, Blenda J.

    2005-01-01

    When visitors enter the offices of the Nellie Mae Education Foundation, they are often taken by the art on display. The collection is striking and vibrant. Like all good art, each piece makes a statement--sometimes quietly, but boldly. When foundation staff proudly tell guests that the exhibit was created by Boston high school students, the…

  15. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation and the…

  16. Commentary on Carnoy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnove, Robert F.; Stromquist, Nelly P.; Fox, Christine; Levin, Henry M.; Masemann, Vandra Lea; Epstein, Erwin H.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief critical commentary on Martin Carnoy's presidential address from Robert F. Arnove, Nelly P. Stromquist, Christine Fox, Henry M. Levin, Vandra Lea Masemann, and Erwin H. Epstein. Among other things, Arnove finds particularly useful Carnoy's recommendations on ways to engage in comparative education research, from…

  17. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

  18. Distribution of materials excavated by the lunar crater Bullialdus and implications for the geologic history of the Nubium region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Pieters, Carle M.; Mustard, John F.; Pinet, Patrick; Chevrel, Serge D.

    1994-01-01

    Previous spectroscopic studies of the lunar crater Bullialdus, located in the Nubium Basin, indicated an unusual stratigraphy of two gabbroic layers overlying a noritic unit. The possible existence of a layered mafic pluton at Bullialdus was suggested. To investigate the geologic context with more detailed spatial information, charge-coupled device (CCD) images of Bullialdus were obtained using eight filters. A linear mixing model was used to investigate the fractional abundances of spectral end-members chosen from within the multispectral image. Since the reflectance properties of lunar materials over this wavelength range are sensitive to variations in composition and soil maturity, fractional abundance images were used to create a new geologic map of the crater. The spatial relationships of the surface materials confirm the previously inferred stratigraphy, and further reveal the central peaks to exhibit two distinct compositional units: noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite. Three models for the origin of the observed stratigraphy are considered: Bullialdus has excavated stratigraphic units containing (1) early mare basalt overlying anorthositic-noritic crustal material, (2) part of a layered mafic pluton, and/or (3) part of an impact melt sheet formed by the Nubium Basin impact event.

  19. Siderophile and volatile trace elements in 72255 and 72275. [meteoritic and igneous composition of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1974-01-01

    Of six samples from boulder 1 at Station 2, four contain a unique meteoritic component, which is attributed to the Crisium projectile. The other two samples are meteorite free, igneous rocks: an unusual, alkali- and Ge-rich pigeonitic basalt, and an alkali-poor norite of unexceptional trace element chemistry.

  20. Possible petrogenetic associations among igneous components in North Massif soils: Evidence in 2-4 mm soil particles from 76503

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Bishop, Kaylynn M.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of Apollo 17 highland igneous rocks and clasts in breccias from the North and South Massifs have described magnesian troctolite, norite, anorthositic gabbro, dunite, spinel cataclasites, and granulitic lithologies that may have noritic anothosite or anorthositic norite/gabbro as igneous precursors, and have speculated on possible petrogenetic relationships among these rock types. Mineral compositions and relative proportions of plagioclase and plagioclase-olivine particles in samples 76503 indicate that the precursor lithology of those particles were troctolitic anorthosite, not troctolite. Mineral and chemical compositions of more pyroxene-rich, magnesian breccias and granulites in 76503 indicate that their precursor lithology was anorthositic norite/gabbro. The combination of mineral compositions and whole-rock trace-element compositional trends supports a genetic relationship among these two groups as would result from differentiation of a single pluton. Although highland igneous lithologies in Apollo 17 materials have been described previously, the proportions of different igneous lithologies present in the massifs, their frequency of association, and how they are related are not well known. We consider the proportions of, and associations among, the igneous lithologies found in a North Massif soil, which may represent those of the North Massif or a major part of it.

  1. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  2. Insight into the adsorption of PPCPs by porous adsorbents: Effect of the properties of adsorbents and adsorbates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zengyin; Xie, Jiawen; Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Fuqiang

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption is an efficient method for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Magnetic resins are efficient adsorbents for water treatment and exhibit potential for PPCP removal. In this study, the magnetic hypercrosslinked resin Q100 was used for adsorption of PPCPs. The adsorption behavior of this resin was compared with those of two activated carbons, namely, Norit and F400D. Norit exhibited the fastest adsorption kinetics, followed by Q100. Norit featured a honeycomb shape and long-range ordered pore channels, which facilitated the diffusion of PPCPs. Moreover, the large average pore size of Q100 reduced diffusion resistance. The adsorbed amounts of 11 PPCPs on the three adsorbents increased with increasing adsorbate hydrophobicity. For Q100, a significant linear correlation was observed between the adsorption performance for PPCPs and hydrophobicity (logD value) of adsorbates (R(2) = 0.8951); as such, PPCPs with high logD values (>1.69) could be efficiently removed. Compared with those of Norit and F400D, the adsorption performance of Q100 was less affected by humic acid because of the dominant hydrophobic interaction. Furthermore, Q100 showed improved regeneration performance, which renders it promising for PPCP removal in practical applications. PMID:27131811

  3. Petrology of NWA 7533: Formation by Impacts on Ancient Martian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, R. H.; Zanda, B.; Humayun, M.; Lorand, J.-P.; Deldicque, D.; Pont, S.; Fieni, C.; Nemchin, A.; Grange, M.; Kennedy, A.; Göpel, C.; Lewin, E.

    2013-09-01

    NWA 7533 contains FeNi grains (~1μm), up to 4.5% Ni in pyrite, and 500 nm Os-Ir-rich particles. Lithic clasts are pyroxenite, norite and zircon-bearing monzonite. The impact melt can be modeled as a mixture of crystal clasts and is poor in monzonite.

  4. Sm-Nd study of the Sudbury Complex, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Faggart, B.E. Jr.; Basu, A.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    Sm-Nd systematics of sixteen whole-rock samples from traverses across the North and South Ranges of the Sudbury Complex, Ontario, Canada were determined. Ten mineral separates from five of these rocks were also analyzed. An internal mineral isochron age of 1840 +/- 21 m.y. with an initial /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd of 0.50986 +/- 4 was obtained for the crystallization of the norite of the Lower Irruptive. This age is in agreement with two high-precision U-Pb dates obtained from zircons in the same unit by other investigators. Within the Complex, Sm concentration values ranged from 14 to 62 times chondritic value in samples of norite and quartz diorite, respectively. Nd concentrations extended from 32 to 161 times that of chondrite with the values for the micropegmatite consistently averaging higher than those for the norite. Initial epsilon Nd values at 1840 m.y. range from -6.98 for a norite sample to -8.83 for a quartz diorite sample from the sublayer, thus falling on the crustal evolution trend of Nd as represented by Australian shales. The overall REE patterns for Sudbury samples also show a strong similarity to the REE abundances of upper crustal rocks. These data suggest that the Sudbury Complex originated entirely from the melting of crustal rocks by way of asteroid impact.

  5. Magma mixing in the genesis of the Kalatongke dioritic intrusion: Implications for the tectonic switch from subduction to post-collision, Chinese Altay, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jian-Feng; Zhou, Mei-Fu

    2013-03-01

    The Kalatongke complex, located in south Chinese Altay of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), consists of the ~ 308 Ma dioritic suite intruded by the 287 Ma noritic suite. The noritic suite is composed of olivine norite and hornblende norite and hosts sulfide mineralization. The dioritic suite is composed of ferrodiorite, diorite and quartz diorite. Ferrodiorites have 43.6 to 51.8 wt.% SiO2, 8.2 to 12.1 wt.% Fe2O3T, 2.87 to 4.86 wt.% MgO, with Mg# ranging from 42 to 53. They have highly variable Al2O3 (17.4-20.7 wt.%), Na2O (2.78-4.50%), K2O (0.58-3.70%), Sr (280-1300 ppm) and Ba (219-3100 ppm). Diorites and quartz diorites have 15.2-19.6 wt.% Al2O3, 239-890 ppm Sr and170-1100 ppm Ba, 11.2-25.5 ppm Y and1.2-2.2 ppm Yb. All rocks have LREE enriched REE patterns and do not display Eu anomalies. They have primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns enriched in large ion lithosphile elements (LILE) (e.g. Ba and Sr) and depleted in Ti, Nb and Ta. Both ferrodiorites and diorites have relatively constant initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7037 to 0.7040 but highly variable ɛNd(t) values of + 4.5 to + 11.6, whereas quartz diorites have higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7056) and lower ɛNd(t) values (+ 0.5). Plagioclase from ferrodiorites, diorites and quartz diorites has similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7015 to 0.7055. The dioritic suite formed from a mixed magma of an evolved mantle-derived basaltic magma by partial melting of subduction-modified mantle source in response to slab breakoff and a crustal-derived granitic magma at ~ 308 Ma. Before mixing with granitic magmas, basaltic magmas underwent fractional crystallization of olivine to form ferrodiorite. The mixed magma also formed diorite and quartz diorite combining fractionation clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase. The noritic suite formed from a mantle-derived high-Mg magma in a post-collisional environment. Both the dioritic and noritic suites in Kalatongke suggest the switch from subduction to

  6. Catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} with methane over molybdenum catalyst. Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltowski, T.

    1995-03-01

    One of the primary concerns in coal utilization is the emission of sulfur compounds, especially SO{sub 2}. This project deals with catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} with methane using molybdenum sulfide catalyst supported on different activated carbons: Darco TRS, Norit ROZ-3, and an activated carbon prepared from Illinois coal IBC-110. The work conducted during this quarter has concentrated on catalyst preparation and characterization along with synthesis of activated carbon from IBC-110 coal, as well as, construction of the apparatus for catalytic tests of SO{sub 2} reduction with methane. It was found that Darco TRS supported catalysts have larger surface area than the pure activated carbon, whereas the impregnation of Norit ROZ-3 did not significantly change the BET surface area. Also, the synthesis of activated carbon support from IBC-110 is in progress.

  7. Apollo 16 rocks - Petrology and classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilshire, H. G.; Stuart-Alexander, D. E.; Jackson, E. D.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 16 rocks are classified in three broad intergradational groups: (1) crystalline rocks, subdivided into igneous rocks and metaclastic rocks, (2) glass, and (3) breccias, which are subdivided into five groups on the basis of clast and matrix colors. Most of the rocks were derived by impact brecciation of an anorthosite-norite suite but may represent ejecta from more than one major basin. First-cycle breccias are believed to have consisted of clasts of crushed anorthosite-norite in a fine-grained partly fused matrix with a chemical composition similar to that of the clasts. Most of the other recognized breccia types could have been produced by rebrecciation of first-cycle breccias.

  8. Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1987-01-01

    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters.

  9. New observations on the quartz monzodiorite-granite suite. [in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, U. B.; Holmberg, B. B.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Martinez, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    Five new fragments of quartz monzodiorite (QMD) were identified in particles from soil 15403, which was collected from the boulder sampled as rock 15405, an impact-melt breccia containing clasts of KREEP basalt, QMD, granite, and a more primitive alkali norite. Petrographic and geochemical studies of the fragments show considerable variation in modal proportions and bulk composition. This heterogeneity is due to unrepresentative sampling in small fragments of coarse-grained rocks. Variations in the proportions of accessory minerals have marked effects on incompatible-trace-element concentrations and ratios. Semiquantitative calculations support the derivation of QMD from 60-percent fractional crystallization of a KREEP basalt magma as suggested by Hess (1989). Apollo 15 KREEP basalt cannot be the actual parent magma because the evolved rocks predate volcanic KREEP basalts. It is suggested that ancient KREEP basalt magmas have crystallized as plutons, with alkali norite clasts offering the only direct evidence of this precursor.

  10. Supercritical adsorption testing of porous silicon, activated carbon, and zeolite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Brendan

    The supercritical adsorption of methane gas on porous silicon, activated carbon, and zeolite materials was studied. An apparatus that utilizes the volumetric adsorption measurement technique was designed and constructed to conduct the experiments. Activated carbon materials consisted of Norit RX3 Extra, Zorflex FM30K woven activated carbon cloth, and Zorflex FM10 knitted activated carbon cloth. Zeolite materials consisted of 3A, 4A, 5A, and 13X zeolites. Porous silicon materials consisted of stain etched and electrochemically etched porous films, and stain etched porous powder. All adsorption tests were conducted at room temperature (approximately 298 K) and pressures up to approximately 5 MPa. Overall, the Norit RX3 Extra granulated activated carbon produced the highest excess adsorption and effective storage capacities. Effective storage and delivery capacities of 109 and 90 stpmlml were obtained at a pressure of 3.5 MPa and a temperature of approximately 298 K.

  11. Origin of lunar feldspathic rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Grove, T. L.; Longhi, J.; Stolper, E. M.; Hays, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Melting experiments and petrographic studies of lunar feldspathic rocks reveal possible genetic relationships among several compositionally and mineralogically distinct groups of lunar rocks and soil fragments. Dry, low PO2 partial melting of crustal anorthositic norites of the anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) suite produces liquids of the KREEP-Fra Mauro basalt type; dry, low PO2 partial melting of pink spinel troctolite (PST) produces liquids of the 'very high alumina basalt' or microtroctolite type. Both ANT and PST are probable components of the primitive terra crust. If crystal fractionation in a cooling basaltic liquid could have produced such a crust, it would also produce a mafic interior capable of yielding mare basalts by later remelting at depth.

  12. Geochemistry of lunar crustal rocks from breccia 67016 and the composition of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Marc D.; Taylor, Stuart R.

    1992-01-01

    The geochemistry of anorthositic clasts from an Apollo 16 breccia 67016 is studied in order to investigate the role of these rock types in lunar crustal evolution. The samples have aluminous, alkali-poor compositions and varied FeO and MgO contents. Three compositional groups are recognized. One group is poor in mafic constituents with low abundances of lithophile trace elements typical of lunar anorthosites, while the other two groups are more mafic and are distinguished from each other by FeO/MgO ratios greater than one in the case of ferroan noritic and less than one in the case of magnesian troctolitic. These mafic-enriched varieties have considerably higher lithophile element concentrations, at levels similar to that of the bulk lunar crust. The ferroan noritic clasts may represent a fundamental type of igneous rock in the lunar crust which has not been widely recognized.

  13. Time and duration of lunar highlands crust formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    Due to remaining uncertainties in model parameters and assumptions in the calculation of model ages, it is not yet possible to resolve the precise dating and duration of lunar crust-mantle differentiation phenomena. Norites 78236 and 73255,27,45 were examined utilizing the Sm-Nd radiometric system. The systematics of 78236 show post-crystallization disturbance but indicate a crystallization date 4.34 AE ago. An isochron is defined by the 73255,27,45 data, with a crystallization date of 4.23 AE. The initial Nd isotopic composition of both norites is within uncertainty limits for a 'chondritic' reference reservoir at the time of their respective crystallizations. The implications for lunar crustal formation persisting over a time span of nearly 350 million years are discussed.

  14. Time and duration of lunar highlands crust formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1981-02-01

    Due to remaining uncertainties in model parameters and assumptions in the calculation of model ages, it is not yet possible to resolve the precise dating and duration of lunar crust-mantle differentiation phenomena. Norites 78236 and 73255,27,45 were examined utilizing the Sm-Nd radiometric system. The systematics of 78236 show post-crystallization disturbance but indicate a crystallization date 4.34 AE ago. An isochron is defined by the 73255,27,45 data, with a crystallization date of 4.23 AE. The initial Nd isotopic composition of both norites is within uncertainty limits for a 'chondritic' reference reservoir at the time of their respective crystallizations. The implications for lunar crustal formation persisting over a time span of nearly 350 million years are discussed.

  15. Pristine nonmare rocks and the nature of the lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, P. H.; Wasson, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the interdisciplinary study of the nonmare lunar rocks based on trace element, major element, and isotopic data plus petrographic evidence can succeed in amassing a large suite of demonstrably pristine rocks, and that the relative numbers of these rocks are not in accord with statistics amassed on soil fragments and glasses. The term 'pristine' is taken to mean rocks with primary compositions (albeit not necessarily textures) produced by lunar endogenous igneous processes. Melt rocks and crystalline matrix breccias produced by impact processes are excluded. A petrographic synonym for pristine would be 'unremelted, monomict'. It is found that anorthositic norites and noritic anorthosites were rare as primary nonmare rocks. Mechanical mixing appears to have been the dominant petrogenetic process on the highlands.

  16. Petrology, geochemistry and geochronology of the Chilka Lake igneous complex, Orissa state, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Amitabha; Bhanumathi, L.; Balasubrahmanyan, M. N.

    1981-04-01

    The Chilka Lake igneous complex of Orissa, the largest known anortosite massif of the Indian Shield, occurs in a catazonal environment of high-grade metamorphics of the Eastern Ghats Precambrian Orogenic Province. The syntectonic massif consists of the anorthositic Balugaon dome, leuconoritic Rambha lobe and quartz-mangeritic Kallikota cover. A completely gradational suite comprising anorthosite-leuconorite-norite-minor jotunite (the anorthositic suite) constitutes most of the complex. The subordinate of suite of acid rocks spatially associated with this is of a broad quartz-mangeritic lithology with minor granitic rocks (the acidic suite). Geochemical evolution of the complex in the sequence anorthosite-leuconorite-norite-jotunite-acidic rocks shows moderate iron enrichment in the noritic-jotunitic stage and is marked by an overall decrease in Al 2O 3, CaO, MgO, Ni/Co, Sr/Ba, K/Rb and increase in SiO 2, K 2O, V/Ni, K/Ba and Rb/Sr. Such progressive variation in geochemical parameters appears (i) essentially gradual and frequently overlapping in rock members of the intergradational anorthositic suite and (ii) rather abrupt across transition zones between the anorthositic suite and the acidic suite due to near absence of intervening intermediate lithologies. RbSr whole rock isochron studies indicate that the complex was emplaced ca. 1400 Ma ago. The initial 87Sr/ 68Sr (0.70661) implies limited hybridisation of the parent magma prior to emplacement. A critical appraisal of all the available evidence suggests that (i) the anorthositic suite of rocks form a perfectly consanguinous and comagmatic assemblage and (ii) the spatially associated acidic suite emerged through a convergence of magmatic and metasomatic processes (the latter brought about by contact anatexis of the host rocks). The complex as well as the host metamorphics are intruded by an atectonic suite of noritic dykes emplaced ca 850 Ma ago.

  17. Petrology of 60035 - Evolution of a polymict ANT breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive analysis of the lunar rock sample 60035 with optical microscopy and electron microprobe methods show it to be a polymict ANT breccia partly coated with glass, containing abundant clasts which have troctolitic/noritic anorthosite compositions. At least two episodes of crushing and mixing were involved in the petrogenesis of 60035, and annealing and mineral equilibration have not been extensive since the formation of the breccia.

  18. Petrology of gabbroic xenoliths in 1960 Kilauea basalt: crystalline remnants of prior (1955) magmatism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fodor, R.V.; Moore, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The 1960 Kapoho lavas of Kilauea's east rift zone contain 1-10 cm xenoliths of olivine gabbro, olivine gabbro-norite, and gabbro norite. Textures are poikilitic (ol+sp+cpx in pl) and intergranular (cpx+pl??ol??opx). Poikilitic xenoliths, which we interpret as cumulates, have the most primitive mineral compositions, Fo82.5, cpx Mg# 86.5, and An80.5. Many granular xenoliths (ol and noritic gabbro) contain abundant vesicular glass that gives them intersertal, hyaloophitic, and overall 'open' textures to suggest that they represent 'mush' and 'crust' of a magma crystallization environment. Their phase compositions are more evolved (Fo80-70, cpx Mg# 82-75, and An73-63) than those of the poikilitic xenoliths. Associated glass is basaltic, but evolved (MgO 5 wt%; TiO2 3.7-5.8 wt%). The gabbroic xenolith mineral compositions fit existing fractional crystallization models that relate the origins of various Kilauea lavas to one another. FeO/MgO crystal-liquid partitioning is consistent with the poikilitic ol-gabbro assemblage forming as a crystallization product from Kilauea summit magma with ???8 wt% MgO that was parental to evolved lavas on the east rift zone. For example, least squares calculations link summit magmas to early 1955 rift-zone lavas (???5 wt% MgO) through ???28-34% crystallization of the ol+sp+cpx+pl that comprise the poikilitic ol-gabbros. The other ol-gabbro assemblages and the olivine gabbro-norite assemblages crystallized from evolved liquids, such as represented by the early 1955 and late 1955 lavas (???6.5 wt% MgO) of the east rift zone. The eruption of 1960 Kapoho magmas, then, scoured the rift-zone reservoir system to entrain portions of cumulate and solidification zones that had coated reservoir margins during crystallization of prior east rift-zone magmas. ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Apollo 17, Station 6 boulder sample 76255 - Absolute petrology of breccia matrix and igneous clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J. L.; Phinney, W. C.; Simonds, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    The matrix of 76255 is the finest-grained, most clast-laden, impact-melt polymict breccia sampled from the Station 6 boulder. The paper speculates on how the matrix of 76255 fits into and enhances existing thermal models of breccia lithification. Emphasis is on the detailed petrology of five lithic clasts, two of which display mineralogical and textural affinities to mare basalts, while three, a gabbro, a norite, and a troctolite are considered primitive plutonic rocks.

  20. Characterization of crust formation on a parent body of achondrites and the moon by pyroxene crystallography and chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, M.; Ishii, T.; Reid, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Single crystal X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe techniques were used to study lunar crustal pyroxenes in a cataclastic norite, a pyroxene-rich clast, and anorthosite lunar samples, and also in meteorites including diogenites, eucrites, and the Yamoto (1) howardite. The crystallographic and chemical characteristics of pyroxenes in these materials are compared and are discussed in terms of the lower stability limit of pigeonite. A mechanical mixing model of howardite is proposed.

  1. A summary of the petrology and geochemistry of pristine highlands rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Ryder, G.

    1979-01-01

    The petrology and geochemistry of pristine lunar highlands rock samples consisting of ferroan anorthosites, norites, troctolites, spinel troctolites/dunite/lherzolite, and KREEP, are described. In addition, petrographic and chemical evidence is presented which shows that low-siderophile rocks are the result of endogenous igneous activity and not impact melt differentiation. For example, these rocks contain Fe-metal as a late-crystallizing phase, and have W/La ratios higher than polymict breccias.

  2. U-Pb ages and geochemistry of mafic dyke swarms from the Uauá Block, São Francisco Craton, Brazil: LIPs remnants relevant for Late Archaean break-up of a supercraton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, E. P.; Silveira, E. M.; Söderlund, U.; Ernst, R. E.

    2013-08-01

    The São Francisco Craton (SFC) is an Archaean craton that hosts a significant number of mafic intrusions. Previous attempts to date the igneous emplacement of these rocks are limited to a few dates of poor precision. Here, two dyke swarms from the Uauá Block in the northeastern portion of the craton were dated using U-Pb on baddeleyite (ID-TIMS) and zircon (SIMS). The older dyke swarm trends mainly N-S to NW-SE (but also NE) and comprises norite dykes, whereas the younger dykes are tholeiite and trend NE-SW. The ages of 2726.2 ± 3.2 and 2623.8 ± 7.0 Ma date dykes of noritic and tholeiitic compositions, respectively. The older age matches the ages of several Archaean-Large Igneous Provinces (tholeiitic-komatiite greenstone belts and continental flood basalts) worldwide and represents part of a feeder system, but the younger age is similar to Andean style continental margin magmatism in the São Francisco and Zimbabwe cratons. The two dyke swarms are tholeiitic in composition but the noritic dykes are more enriched in both compatible and incompatible elements and have higher (La/Yb)N ratios than the tholeiite dykes. The norite dykes are interpreted as low degrees of melting from enriched refractory mantle sources, whereas the tholeiite dykes represent high degrees of partial melting of more depleted mantle sources; the two mafic dyke swarms may be related to each other by progressive extension of the continental lithosphere. It is suggested that the Uauá Block with its dyke swarms is a small piece of Archaean crust dispersed after the break-up of a major Archaean supercraton.

  3. Lunar zirkelite - A uranium-bearing phase.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busche, F. D.; Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Kurat, G.

    1972-01-01

    Zirkelite (simplified CaZrTiO5) containing 7-17 wt % oxides of trivalent elements (largely yttrium and the rare earths) and minor amounts of U, Th, and Pb is described from an Apollo 12 feldspathic peridotite (12036,9) and two KREEP-type norite lithic fragments separated from Apollo 14 loose fines (14163,39 and 14257,3). Quantitative electron microprobe analyses indicate that this lunar phase conforms more closely to the zirkelite formula than the zirconolite formula.

  4. Petrographic and petrological study of lunar rock materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    Samples returned from Apollo 14 (14171, 14305, 14319), Apollo 15 (15255), Apollo 16 (61175, 67455), and Apollo 17 (77215) were studied optically and selected polished sections by SEM/Microprobe. Splits and separates from 77215, 67455, 61175 and 15255 were prepared; 77215 and 67455 were analyzed for major, minor and LIL trace elements. The data indicate that 77215, a noritic breccia clast found in the Station7 boulder, is a norite cumulate similar to and probably derived from the same body as 78235. The Apollo 17 boulders are found to be part of the same melt sheet, which was formed by a major impact event, possibly Serenitatis, about 4 B. Y. ago. The Apollo 14 and 16 breccias are polymict, their clast populations indicating quite different provenance. The Apollo 14 breccias are possibly the result of multiple impacts, while the other breccias studied appear to have been formed by single impacts. ANT suite clasts included in 61175 are, for the most part, granulites resulting from subsolidus recrystallization of norites, anorthosites or gabbros. This metamorphism appears to have occurred prior to the impact event forming 61175.

  5. Surface mineralogy and stratigraphy of the lunar South Pole-Aitken basin determined from Clementine UV/VIS and NIR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, A. M.; Foing, B. H.; Davies, G. R.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-08-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, located on the lunar far side, is one of the oldest and largest recognised impact structures in the solar system. The basin is a proposed site for future sample return missions and human bases due to the unique geological environment and its potential for preservation of water ice in areas of near-permanent shadow. Here, we report surface mineralogy maps of the central and northern parts of the SPA basin, based on Clementine UV/VIS and NIR spectral data. Clementine LIDAR data and SMART-1 AMIE images provide additional geomorphological and stratigraphic information. A noritic mineralogical composition is identified as the deepest stratigraphic unit exposed on the basin floor. Norite is found in nearly all central peaks and in large topographical structures that have punched through an upper, often basaltic or gabbroic layer, including the Leibnitz and Apollo sub-basins. The thin layer of gabbroic/basaltic composition is distributed over large parts of the SPA basin floor and presumably overlays the noritic basement of apparent lower-crustal origin. Our data do not confirm the presence of olivine-rich material in the SPA basin, including at Olivine Hill, suggesting the mantle material was not excavated during the basin-forming impact.

  6. Heterogeneous Os isotope compositions in the Kalatongke sulfide deposit, NW China: the role of crustal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jian-Feng; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Lightfoot, Peter C.; Qu, Wenjun

    2012-10-01

    Re-Os isotope compositions of mantle-derived magmas are highly sensitive to crustal contamination because the crust and mantle have very different Os isotope compositions. Crustal contamination may trigger S saturation and thus the formation of magmatic Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposits. The ˜287-Ma Kalatongke norite intrusion of NW China are hosted in carboniferous tuffaceous rocks and contain both disseminated and massive sulfide mineralization. The Re-Os isotope compositions in the intrusion are highly variable. Norite and massive sulfide ores have γ Os values ranging from +59 to +160 and a Re-Os isochron age of 239 ± 51 Ma, whereas disseminated sulfide ores have γ Os values from +117 to +198 and a Re-Os isochron age of 349 ± 34 Ma. The variability of Os isotope compositions can be explained as the emplacement of two distinct magma pulses. Massive sulfide ores and barren norite in the intrusion formed from the same magma pulse, whereas the disseminated sulfide ores with more radiogenic Os isotopes formed from another magma pulse which underwent different degrees of crustal contamination. Re-Os isotopes may not be suitable for dating sulfide-bearing intrusions that underwent variable degrees of crustal contamination to form magmatic sulfide deposits.

  7. Study the properties of activated carbon and oxyhydroxide aluminum as sorbents for removal humic substances from natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyan, L. N.; Machekhina, K. I.; Gryaznova, E. N.

    2016-02-01

    The present work relates to the problem of high-quality drinking water supply using processes of adsorption on activated carbon and aluminum oxyhydroxide for removal humic- type organic substances. Also the paper reports on sorbtion properties of the activeted carbon Norit SA UF and oxyhydroxide aluminum for removal humic substances. It was found out that the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon to organic substances is equal to 0.25 mg/mg and aluminum oxyhydroxide is equal to 0.3 mg/mg. It is shown that the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon Norit SA UF to iron (III) ions is equal to 0.0045 mg/mg and to silicon ions is equal to 0.024 mg/mg. Consequently, the aluminum oxyhydroxide has better adsorption characteristics in comparison with the activated carbon for removal of humic substances, iron and silicon ions. It is associated with the fact that activated carbon has a large adsorption surface, and this is due to its porous structure, but not all molecules can enter into these pores. Therefore, the fibrous structure of aluminum oxyhydroxide promotes better sorption capacity. The presented results suggest that activated carbon Norit SA UF and aluminum oxyhydroxide can be used as sorbents for removal humic substances or other organic substances from groundwater and natural waters.

  8. Development of a New Ferrous Aluminosilicate Refractory Material for Investment Casting of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chen; Jones, Sam; Blackburn, Stuart

    2012-12-01

    Investment casting is a time-consuming, labour intensive process, which produces complex, high value-added components for a variety of specialised industries. Current environmental and economic pressures have resulted in a need for the industry to improve current casting quality, reduce manufacturing costs and explore new markets for the process. Alumino-silicate based refractories are commonly used as both filler and stucco materials for ceramic shell production. A new ceramic material, norite, is now being produced based on ferrous aluminosilicate chemistry, having many potential advantages when used for the production of shell molds for casting aluminum alloy. This paper details the results of a direct comparison made between the properties of a ceramic shell system produced with norite refractories and a typical standard refractory shell system commonly used in casting industry. A range of mechanical and physical properties of the systems was measured, and a full-scale industrial casting trial was also carried out. The unique properties of the norite shell system make it a promising alternative for casting aluminum based alloys in the investment foundry.

  9. The diorite at West Warren, south-central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pomeroy, John S.

    1974-01-01

    Follated, syntectonic, concordant intrusive bodies of mostly diorite and meladiorite with less abundant quartz diorite and norite have been mapped in the West Warren area of south-central Massachusetts. The rocks of the pluton range from a medium colored phase of diorite and quartz diorite to a dark colored phase of meladiorite and norite. Major minerals In the dioritic rocks are calcic andesine, green hornblende, brown biotite, and hypersthene. Igneous textures are dominant, and retrograde or deuteric effects are generally minor. Silica and alumina contents of the dioritic rocks are somewhat higher than for average diorites; conversely, the oxides of iron, magnesium, and calcium are generally lower. Normative quartz, albite, and anorthite are higher and orthoclase is lower in the samples than In the average diorite. Sizeable plutons of diorite-norite are uncommon in central Massachusetts. The West Warren body, roughly 26 km2 (10 square miles) in area, bears little petrochemical relation to adjacent rock units. The pluton can be construed as belonging to a belt of intrusive mafic rocks which stretches from southeastern New York to coastal Maine.

  10. Some Remarks on Terrestrial and Lunar Anorthosite Textures and Their Petrogenetic Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Miguel-Arribas, A.

    1994-07-01

    The significance of textural analysis in anorthosite research has been emphasized by some petrologists. Textural features of anorthositic rocks can provide important information about their petrogenesis and subsequent evolution. In this work, preliminary results on a petrographic study of terrestrial anorthositic rocks from Canada, SW Angola and Greenland are presented, and discussed in a comparative context with their lunar analogs. Terrestrial anorthositic masses show evidence of anorogenic emplacements. These emplacements are estimated to have occurred at depths of at least 7 km and, possibly, up to 27 km. Geological and geophysical evidences suggest that large slabs of norite-gabbro composition are associated with tectonic thrusts. On the other hand, their ^87Sr/^86Sr ratios are generally lower than 0.703, in agreement with being derived from a noritic mantle source. The noritic intrusions interlayered in granitic gneisses are highly deformed and recrystallized in their Archean and Proterozoic occurrences. These intrusions have undergone extensive petrologic changes resulting in the progressive transformation of primitive norites into anorthositic norites, gabbroic norites, gabbroic anorthosites and white anorthosites. Thus, under high dynamic pressure conditions in large tectonic thrusts, gabbroic norites may be transformed into black, coarse-grained anorthosites. These anorthosites, in turn, may evolve into white, fine-grained granulitic anorthosites at higher levels of the crust, under lower-pressure, regional metamorphism. Despite the high degree of recrystallization experienced by some of these rocks, some relicts of fold structures are preserved. These observations suggest that most terrestrial anorthosites have not formed by processes of magmatic differentiation (e.g., crystal settling and segregation), but during long, retrograde metamorphic conditions producing deformation, cataclasis, grain comminution and recrystallization throughout several orogenic

  11. Geochemistry of Mine Waste and Mill Tailings, Meadow Deposits, Streambed Sediment, and General Hydrology and Water Quality for the Frohner Meadows Area, Upper Lump Gulch, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Terry L.; Cannon, Michael R.; Fey, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Frohner Meadows, an area of low-topographic gradient subalpine ponds and wetlands in glaciated terrane near the headwaters of Lump Gulch (a tributary of Prickly Pear Creek), is located about 15 miles west of the town of Clancy, Montana, in the Helena National Forest. Mining and ore treatment of lead-zinc-silver veins in granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith over the last 120 years from two sites (Frohner mine and the Nellie Grant mine) has resulted in accumulations of mine waste and mill tailings that have been distributed downslope and downstream by anthropogenic and natural processes. This report presents the results of an investigation of the geochemistry of the wetlands, streams, and unconsolidated-sediment deposits and the hydrology, hydrogeology, and water quality of the area affected by these sources of ore-related metals. Ground water sampled from most shallow wells in the meadow system contained high concentrations of arsenic, exceeding the Montana numeric water-quality standard for human health. Transport of cadmium and zinc in ground water is indicated at one site near Nellie Grant Creek based on water-quality data from one well near the creek. Mill tailings deposited in upper Frohner Meadow contribute large arsenic loads to Frohner Meadows Creek; Nellie Grant Creek contributes large arsenic, cadmium, and zinc loads to upper Frohner Meadows. Concentrations of total-recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in most surface-water sites downstream from the Nellie Grant mine area exceeded Montana aquatic-life standards. Nearly all samples of surface water and ground water had neutral to slightly alkaline pH values. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed sediment in the entire meadow below the mine waste and mill tailings accumulations are highly enriched relative to regional watershed-background concentrations and exceed consensus-based, probable-effects concentrations for streambed sediment at most sites. Cadmium, copper, and

  12. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the City of North Las Vegas (Downtown) and the Motor Speedway

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2007-12-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey on December 11-12, 2007, with the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. The survey covered 19.4 square miles (9.2 square miles over the downtown area of the City of North Las Vegas and 10.2 square miles over the Las Vegas Motor Speedway [LVMS]). The flight lines over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1 and 2. A total of four 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 ft of flight line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system-REDAR V using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data in the form of gamma energy spectra were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes sources. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of City of North Las Vegas and LVMS security along with the gross counts-based exposure rate and man-made counts maps.

  13. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU Number 453: Area 9 Landfill, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-14

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 9 Landfill, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 453/Corrective Action (CAS) 09-55-001-0952, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Area 9 Landfill is located northwest of Area 9 on the TTR. The landfill cells associated with CAU 453 were excavated to receive waste generated from the daily operations conducted at Area 9 and from range cleanup which occurred after test activities.

  14. Pyroclastic Deposits in the Floor-fractured Crater Alphonsus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Donaldson-Hanna, Kerri L.; Pieters, Carle M.; Moriarty, Daniel P.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Bennett, Kristen A.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Paige, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Alphonsus, the 118 km diameter floor-fractured crater, is located immediately east of Mare Nubium. Eleven pyroclastic deposits have been identified on the crater's floor. Early telescopic spectra suggest that the floor of Alphonsus is noritic, and that the pyroclastic deposits contain mixtures of floor material and a juvenile component including basaltic glass. Head and Wilson contend that Nubium lavas intruded the breccia zone beneath Alphonsus, forming dikes and fractures on the crater floor. In this model, the magma ascended to the level of the mare but cooled underground, and a portion broke thru to the surface in vulcanian (explosive) eruptions. Alternatively, the erupted material could be from a source unrelated to the mare, in the style of regional pyroclastic deposits. High-resolution images and spectroscopy from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), Diviner Lunar Radiometer, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) provide data to test these formation models. Spectra from M3 confirm that the crater floor is primarily composed of noritic material, and that the Nubium lavas are basaltic. Spectra from the three largest pyroclastic deposits in Alphonsus are consistent with a minor low- Ca pyroxene component in a glass-rich matrix. The centers of the 2 micron absorption bands have wavelengths too short to be of the same origin as the Nubium basalts. Diviner Christiansen feature (CF) values were used to estimate FeO abundances for the crater floor, Nubium soil, and pyroclastic deposits. The estimated abundance for the crater floor (7.5 +/- 1.4 wt.%) is within the range of FeO values for Apollo norite samples. However, the estimated FeO abundance for Nubium soil (13.4 +/- 1.4 wt.%) is lower than those measured in most mare samples. The difference may reflect contamination of the mare soil by highland ejecta. The Diviner-derived FeO abundance for the western pyroclastic deposit is 13.8 +/- 3.3 wt.%. This is lower than the values for mare soil

  15. JV Task 119 - Effects of Aging on Treated Activated Carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin Olson; Lucinda Hamre; John Pavlish; Blaise Mibeck

    2009-03-25

    . As measured by the 50% breakthrough time, no changes in capacity were observed for Norit LH samples stored frozen and likely none for Norit LH samples stored under high humidity conditions. The major aging effects on capacity for the EERC brominated sample were seen as a decrease in capacity during the first week of storage under high humidity conditions. Storage of the Norit LH and the EERC 5% brominated samples under low humidity conditions resulted in slightly improved capacities. Storage of the 15% brominated sample under high humidity conditions also improved the capacity. Surface analysis using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed some migration of bromine to and from the surface occurred during storage, although no net loss of bromine was observed. The migration to the surface in the case of the 15% brominated carbon correlates with the increased capacity observed for this sample. The XPS elemental speciation data for the EERC brominated carbons showed a trend toward more bromide being formed at the expense of covalent bromine during storage. This was especially great for the 15% and the 5% stored in low humidity. The Norit LH samples did not show this increase in bromide concentration. This is consistent with the lack of change in capacity for the Norit LH during storage. The carbon speciation data showed generally more oxidization of carbon surfaces with storage, especially formation of carboxylate groups. The least increase in carboxylate groups was seen for the Norit LH stored under low humidity, which correlates with its increased capacity. In conclusion, the observed changes in surface chemistry can be related to the minimal changes in capacity observed, but the factors operate in different directions, so the relationships are complex. High-quality x-ray absorption fine structure spectra were obtained for most of the samples. Significant changes were observed in the x-ray absorption near edge structure and extended x-ray absorption fine

  16. The great lunar hot spot and the composition and origin of the Apollo mafic (``LKFM'') impact-melt breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    2000-02-01

    Thorium-rich, mafic impact-melt breccias from the Apollo 14-17 missions, that is, those breccias identified with the composition known as ``LKFM,'' are regarded largely as products of basin-forming impacts that penetrated the feldspathic crust and sampled underlying mafic material and magma-ocean residuum carrying the compositional signature of KREEP (potassium, rare earth elements, phosphorous). Despite considerable compositional variation among such breccias, compositions of all of them correspond to mixtures of only four components: (1) a norite with composition generally similar to that of Apollo 15 basalt (mean abundance: 58% range: ~30-95%), (2) Fo~90 dunite (mean: 13%, range: 1-27%), (3) feldspathic upper crust (mean: 29%, range: 4-50%), and FeNi metal (0.1-1.7%). Petrographic evidence has shown that much of the feldspathic component, but none of the KREEP component, is clastic. This observation and the high proportion of KREEP norite component in the breccias suggest that the melt zone of the impact or impacts forming the breccias contained little feldspathic material but consisted predominantly of material with the average composition of KREEP norite. The dunite component probably derives ultimately from the upper mantle. These conclusions support the hypothesis that the breccias were not formed in typical feldspathic crust but instead by one or more impacts into what is designated here ``the great lunar hot spot,'' that is, the anomalous Th-rich terrane in the Imbrium-Procellarum area identified by the Apollo and Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometers. The LKFM composition is a special product of the great lunar hot spot and is not the average composition of the lower crust in typical feldspathic highlands. Similarly, Mg-suite and alkali-suite plutonic rocks of the Apollo collection are likely all differentiation products of the hot spot, not of plutons that might occur in typical feldspathic crust.

  17. A ferroan region of the lunar highlands as recorded in meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 (MAC88104/5) are paired meteorites of noritic anorthosite composition from the lunar highlands. MAC88105 is a breccia composed mainly of melt-breccia clasts in a fine-grained, fragmental, and partly glassy matrix. The most abundant melt lithologies are feldspathic and are similar in composition to the bulk meteorite. Other melt lithologies include feldspathic melt rocks, mafic melt breccias, and a rare melt breccia relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Subordinate lithic clasts are granulitic breccias and ferroan (relatively low Mg/(Mg + Fe)) igneous lithologies, including troctolitic anorthosite, anorthositic norite, gabbronorite, and anorthosite. Igneous clasts having mafic mineral compositions more magnesian than Fo{sub 55} and En{sub 60} were not observed. Rare fragments of glass spheres and shards as well as glass clasts indicate that the meteorite was derived from an immature regolith. The bulk composition of MAC88105 is characterized by a molar Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio of 0.62, at the extreme low end of the range for meteorites from the lunar highlands. Its low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and feldspathic bulk composition (29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), suggests that it, like the other lunar meteorites, formed at a site far removed from the areas sampled by the Apollo missions. Similarities in mineral compositions among the different lithologies of the breccia and the distribution of mineral fragments suggest that most components of the meteorite were derived from a crustal section dominated by material with a noritic anorthosite composition and an affinity of the ferroan suite of plutonic rocks.

  18. Some petrological aspects of Imbrium stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions are given of the petrochemistry of two Apennine Front breccias, both ejected to the surface during excavation of Spur Crater. The first clast type is breccia number 15445, a spinel pyroxenite whose mineralogy and petrochemistry are consistent with the original rock type being a garnet pyroxenite. The second rock, breccia 15459, is plutonic norite, in which coarsely exsolved inverted pigeonite is associated with anorthitic plagioclase. Application of mineral geothermometers indicates crystallization of these rocks below 1100 C; hence their textures probably developed largely by solid state recrystallization during impact-metamorphism.

  19. Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: Petrography, geochemistry and geochronology; impact-induced hydrothermal base metal mineralization; nickel-and platinum group element -enriched quartz norite in the latest jurassic morokweng impact structure, south Africa; extraterrestrial helium trapped in fullerenes in the sudbury; synthetic aperture radar characteristics of a glacially modified meltsheet; the chicxulub seismic experiment; chemical compositions of chicxulub impact breccias; experimental investigation of the chemistry of vaporization of targets in relation to the chicxulub impact; artificial ozone hole generation following a large meteoroid impact into an oceanic site; three dimensional modeling of impactite bodies of popigai impact crater, Russia.

  20. Uranium in NIMROC standard igneous rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, M. W.; Herndon, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for analysis of the uranium in multiple samples of each of six igneous-rock standards (dunite, granite, lujavrite, norite, pyroxenite, and syenite) prepared as geochemical reference standards for elemental and isotopic compositions. Powdered rock samples were examined by measuring delayed neutron emission after irradiation with a flux of the order of 10 to the 13th power neutrons/sq cm per sec in a nuclear reactor. The measurements are shown to compare quite favorably with previous uranium determinations for other standard rock samples.

  1. Workshop on Pristine Highlands Rocks and the early History of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J. (Editor); Ryder, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Oxide composition of the Moon, evidence for an initially totally molten Moon, geophysical contraints on lunar composition, random sampling of a layered intrusion, lunar highland rocks, early evolution of the Moon, mineralogy and petrology of the pristine rocks, relationship of the pristine nonmore rocks to the highlands soils and breccias, ferroan anorthositic norite, early lunar igneous history, compositional variation in ferroan anosthosites, a lunar magma ocean, deposits of lunar pristine rocks, lunar and planetary compositions and early fractionation in the solar nebula, Moon composition models, petrogenesis in a Moon with a chondritic refractory lithophile pattern, a terrestrial analog of lunar ilmenite bearing camulates, and the lunar magma ocean are summarized.

  2. Importance of Micropore-Mesopore Interfaces in Carbon Dioxide Capture by Carbon-Based Materials.

    PubMed

    Durá, Gema; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Castro-Osma, José A; Shuttleworth, Peter S; Quek, Sophie C Z; Clark, James H; North, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Mesoporous carbonaceous materials (Starbons®) derived from low-value/waste bio-resources separate CO2 from CO2 /N2 mixtures. Compared to Norit activated charcoal (AC), Starbons® have much lower microporosities (8-32 % versus 73 %) yet adsorb up to 65 % more CO2 . The presence of interconnected micropores and mesopores is responsible for the enhanced CO2 adsorption. The Starbons® also showed three-four times higher selectivity for CO2 adsorption rather than N2 adsorption compared to AC. PMID:27336368

  3. Mineralogy and petrology of complex breccia 14063,14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Breccia 14063,14 is a complex, probably pre-Imbrian, unmetamorphosed breccia dominated almost entirely by mineral clasts. Electron-probe and microscope examination showed at least four distinct lithologies in a centimeter-sized thin-section. Examination of each lithology showed or suggested the following contributing rock types or mineralogies: (1) dunite with minor chromite, very high-Mg ilmenite and bronzite; (2) spinel troctolite with olivine and Mg-Al spinel; (3) high-Ti mare-like basalt with high-Mg ilmenite and coarse pyroxene; (4) low-KREEP noritic breccia; (5) anorthosite; (6) very Ni-rich Fe metal.

  4. The Sudbury-Serenitatis analogy and 'so-called' pristine nonmare rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    The Serenitatis Basin is the one lunar basin from which we confidently identify a suite of samples as pieces of the impact melt sheet: the distinctive Apollo 17 noritic breccias. Recent studies of the Sudbury Complex indicate that its 'irruptive' is almost entirely of impact-melt origin, making it the closest terrestrial analog to the Serenitatis melt sheet. Any attempt to model the evolution of the Moon's crust should be compatible with the relatively well-understood Sudbury Complex. However, the Sudbury-Moon analogy might be a misleading oversimplification, if applied too rigidly. The cause of evolutionary differences between the Serenitatis impact melt and the Sudbury impact melt is discussed.

  5. Crystallization Age and Impact Resetting of Ancient Lunar Crust from the Descartes Terrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar ferroan anorthosites (FANs) are relics of an ancient, primary feldspathic crust that is widely believed to have crystallized from a global magma ocean. Compositions and ages of FANs provide fundamental information about the origin and magmatic evolution of the Moon, while the petrology and thermal history of lunar FANs illustrate the structure and impact history of the lunar crust. Here we report petrologic, geochemical, and isotopic (Nd-Sr-Ar) studies of a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from lunar breccia 67215 to improve our understanding of the composition, age, and thermal history of the Moon.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010

    SciTech Connect

    C. Wills, ed.

    2011-09-13

    This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2010 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  7. Novel catalysts for methane activation. Quarterly report No. 6, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S,; Wu, H.J.; Malhotra, R.; Wilson, R.B.

    1994-05-24

    Fullerenes are a recently discovered allotrope of carbon that have been found to possess unusual properties, some of which may be ideal for methane activation. This project is designed to evaluate these carbon based materials for conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. The project is divided into three technical tasks. Task 1 deals with the synthesis and characterization of the fullerenes and fullerene soots, Task 2 with the testing of the catalysts, and Task 3 with the evaluation of the results and technical reporting requirements. The results and accomplishments for this quarter are as follows: A fullerene soot (obtained from Ulvick Labs) and an extracted soot (obtained from MER) were treated with carbon dioxide to obtain high surface area soots of greater than 600 m{sup 2}/g; A palladium-C{sub 60} complex was synthesized and characterized by a surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) instrument; Fullerene soot and Norit-A carbon were tested as catalysts for methane activation and the order of reactivity was found to be Soot > Norit-A > no catalyst; Increases in surface area of the soot did not significantly alter the methane conversion activity; Hydrogen and helium were tested as diluents, with helium causing an increase in selectivity towards C{sub 2} hydrocarbons for the fullerene soot catalyzed reactions; and The MER extracted soot was found to be more reactive towards methane conversion, but less selective towards C{sub 2} hydrocarbons than the Ulvick fullerene soot.

  8. Anatomy of a deep crustal volcanic conduit system; The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex, Seiland Igneous Province, Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Thomas B.; Larsen, Rune B.; Anker-Rasch, Lars; Grannes, Kim Rune; Iljina, Markku; McEnroe, Suzanne; Nikolaisen, Even; Schanche, Mona; Øen, Endre

    2016-05-01

    The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex, Seiland Igneous Province represents a lower crustal magma chamber (25-30 km depth) that likely records a deep conduit system for mantle derived melts ascending through the continental crust. It consists of cumulates of dunite, wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxene as well as subordinate lherzolite and websterites, intruded into gabbro-norite and metasediment gneisses. Field, petrographic and geochemical data show that the intrusion developed through fractional crystallization and interactions between new batches of magma and partially solidified cumulates. This resulted in a 'reverse fractionation sequence' whereby cumulates became progressively more MgO and olivine rich with time. Contamination by partial melting of the gabbro-norite is evident in the marginal zones, but is limited in the central parts of the intrusion. Interrupted crystallization sequences of olivine → olivine + clinopyroxene and the absence of significant amounts of more evolved melts, suggests that large volumes of melt passed through the system to shallower levels in the crust leaving behind the cumulate sequences observed at Reinfjord. Therefore, the Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex represents a deep crustal conduit system, through which mantle derived melts passed. The parent melts are likely to have formed from partial melting of mantle with residual garnet and clinopyroxene.

  9. Spectral and photogeologic mapping of Schrödinger Basin and implications for post-South Pole-Aitken impact deep subsurface stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Kring, David A.; Nahm, Amanda L.; Pieters, Carlé M.

    2013-03-01

    Schrödinger Basin provides a window into the stratigraphy of the lunar crust adjacent to the South Pole-Aitken Basin region that we have probed with Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), and crater-scaling relationships. The composition of materials that make up the basin wall, impact melt, and peak ring provide a cross-section of the lunar crust, which reveals products of the lunar magma ocean, subsequent magmatism, and reworking of those components into a megaregolith. Large hectometer- to kilometer-size areas of anorthite-rich material (anorthosite), low-Ca pyroxene material (a noritic unit), and olivine-rich material (troctolite or dunite) are exposed, with a few areas of intermediate composition. The Schrödinger impact excavated ∼20 km into an orthopyroxene + plagioclase (noritic) lunar crust, which is exposed in the basin walls, rim, and proximal ejecta, and dominates the composition of materials that make up the basin floor. Substantially later in lunar history, two spatially and chronologically isolated volcanic eruptions occurred on the basin floor. Two large craters east of Schrödinger excavated a compositionally gabbroic subsurface unit that was not tapped by Schrödinger. This indicates a compositional crustal facies change, which may be from SPA ejecta, but could reflect heterogeneity in the original lunar crust.

  10. Petrology and comparative thermal and mechanical histories of clasts in breccia 62236.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nord, G.L., Jr.; Wandless, M.-V.

    1983-01-01

    This breccia contains large lithic fragments of troctolite, norite and anorthosite. The mafic phases olivine, inverted pigeonite and augite fill interstitial areas between large plagioclases and appear to be cumulate phases with extensive adcumulus growth. Pyroxene homogeneity indicates that cation exchange during cooling was limited to approx 1 mm. Primary augite and pigeonite both contain 30 mu m-wide lamellae of the other along '001'. Pigeonite inverted to orthopyroxene without retaining any crystallographic orientation and subsequently exsolved fine lamellae of augite of (100). TEM profiles show an increase of approx 5% wollastonite in augite within 0.5 mu m of the interface, suggesting that short- range cation exchange continued to T = or < 500oC. The entire sample has undergone heterogeneous shock deformation. Shock melting of the troctolite clast suggests P of 200-300 kbar, and basal twinning in augite from the norite clasts suggests P of 50-300 kbar. The present evidence indicates that 62236 contains parts of a slowly cooled microlayered adcumulate that has been heterogeneously shocked several times and combined into breccia.-P.Br.

  11. MAC88105 - A regolith breccia from the lunar highlands: Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C. ); Kurat, G.; Branstaetter, F. )

    1991-11-01

    The new large lunar meteorite MAC88105 is a dense breccia, with lithic and mineral clasts and fragments set into a welded matrix. It is a regolith breccia which shows some recrystallization and evidence for a late shock event during which anorthositic glass veins were formed. Shock effects (most probably due to impact ejection from the moon) are present throughout the sample and require a shock pressure of about 25-30 GPa, in agreement with observations made on other lunar meteorites. The presence of devitrified glass (spheres and shards) supports a regolith origin. Most common are meta-meltbreccias consisting of abundant anorthitic plagioclase clasts and a dense, fine-grained matrix. Some fine-grained hornfelsic to granulitic metabreccias are also present. Lithic clast compositions are predominantly anorthositic noritic (or noritic anorthositic), and anorthositic troctolitic. The bulk comparison of MAC88105 is different from that of the lunar meteorites and suggests a different source, which is supported by cosmic-ray and noble gas data. At this time it seems likely that about four individual impact events have been responsible for delivering the seven highland meteorites.

  12. Chemical composition of crystalline rock fragments from Luna 16 and Luna 20 fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimbalnikova, A.; Palivcova, M.; Frana, J.; Mastalka, A.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical composition (bulk, rare earth, and trace elements) of the Luna 16 mare regolith and luna 20 highland regolith is discussed. The rock samples considered are 14 basaltic rock fragments (Luna 16) and 13 rock fragments of the ANT suite (Luna 20). On the basis of bulk composition, two types of basaltic rocks have been differentiated and defined in the Luna 16 regolith: mare basalts (fundamental crystalline rocks of Mare Fecunditatis) and high-alumina basalts. The bulk analyses of rock fragments of the ANT suite also enabled distinction of two rock types: anorthositic norites and troctolites and/or spinal-troctolites (the most abundant crystalline rocks of the highland region, the landing site of luna 20), and anorthosites. The chemical compositions of Luna 16 and Luna 20 regolith samples are compared. Differences in the chemistry of the Luna 16 mare regolith and that of mare basalts are discussed. The chemical affinity between the Luna 20 highland regolith and (a) anorthositic norites and (b) troctolites and/or spinel-troctolites has been ascertained.

  13. Petrology and geochemistry of the Eastern Loma de Cabrera Batholith, Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Cribb, J.W.; Lewis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Eastern Loma de Cabrera Batholith, located in the NW Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, is a heterogeneous intrusive complex composed of a zoned ultramafic-mafic core surrounded by tonalite and diorite. The batholith intrudes metasbasaltic rocks of the Duarte Complex of early Cretaceous age. The ultramafic-mafic core consists of peridotite, olivine-pyroxenite, pyroxenite, and augite-hypersthene gabbro-norite. Pyroxenites and gabbro-norites exhibit large scale interlayering and small scale layering involving a regular variation in the proportions of ortho- and clinopyroxene. Tonalities and diorites are mafic to leucocratic, some being porphyritic. Petrographic types include hornblende, hornblende-pyroxene, hornblende-biotite, and muscovite-biotite types. Aplites are abundant. Intrusive relations suggest that ultramafic-mafic complex is the oldest intrusive phase, and was partially amphibolitized during later intrusion of the felsic rocks. Ultramafic-mafic rocks contain 43-54% SiO/sub 2/ and MgO ranges from 8-45%. Trace and REE in these rocks are relatively depleted. Tonalitic rocks range in SiO/sub 2/ from 53-76%, with K/sub 2/O varying from 0.15-2.9%. In addition, they are LREE enriched. A small Eu anomaly is best explained by fractionation of plagioclase and hornblende. Trends shown by Rb-Sr data suggest that fractional crystallization of hornblende and plagioclase, that is high level fractionation, is the important factor in controlling chemical variation in the tonalites.

  14. Spectral Reflectance Studies of the Orientale Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Lucey, P.; Bell, J. F.; Spudis, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Twelve near-infrared spectra were obtained at the Mauna Kea Observatory 2.2-m telescopy using the Planetary Geosciences Division indium antimonide spectrometer. These include spectra obtained for two fresh surfaces on the inner Rook ring, two fresh craters in the outer Rook Mts., and two inner Rook ring, two fresh craters in the outer Rook Mts., and two fresh 11-km. craters (Eichstadt G and H) which are located between the outer Rook ring and the Cordillera ring and exposed material from within the knobby facies of the Montes Rook Formation. In addition, spectra were collected for portions of the Maunder Formation. Special attention was paid to the spectra collected for six immature features within the Cordillers ring. Analyses of the 1-micron band positions and shapes as well as continuum slopes indicate that the spectra for craters in the knobby facies and in the outer Rook Mts., while differing in detail, exhibit many common spectral characteristics. These spectra represent relatively fresh highlands rocks dominated by abundant Fe-bearing plagioclase feldspar and Ca-poor orthopyroxene. Compositions ranging between noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite are indicated.

  15. Chemical mixing model studies of lunar orbital geochemical data - Apollo 16 and 17 highlands compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Hawke, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical mixing model studies of lunar geochemical data for the central and Taurus-Littrow lunar highlands were performed utilizing pristine highland rock types as end member compositions. The central highlands show considerable diversity in composition; anorthosite is the principal rock type in the Apollo 16/Descartes region, while norite predominates in the highlands west of the landing site. This change in crustal composition is coincident with a major color boundary seen in earth-based multispectral data and probably represents the presence of distinct geochemical provinces within the central highlands. The Taurus-Littrow highlands are dominated by norite; anorthosite is far less abundant than in the central highlands. This suggests that the impact target for the Serenitatis basin was different than that of the Nectaris basin and further strengthens the hypothesis that the lunar highlands are petrologically heterogeneous on a regional basis. It is suggested that the lunar highlands should be viewed in terms of geochemical provinces that have undergone distinct and complex igneous and impact histories.

  16. Comparative study of the adsorption of acetaminophen on activated carbons in simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Rey-Mafull, Carlos A; Tacoronte, Juan E; Garcia, Raquel; Tobella, Jorge; Llópiz, Julio C; Iglesias, Alberto; Hotza, Dachamir

    2014-01-01

    Samples of commercial activated carbons (AC) obtained from different sources: Norit E Supra USP, Norit B Test EUR, and ML (Baracoa, Cuba) were investigated. The adsorption of acetaminophen, Co = 2500 mg/L, occured in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) at pH 1.2 in contact with activated carbon for 4 h at 310 K in water bath with stirring. Residual acetaminophen was monitored by UV visible. The results were converted to scale adsorption isotherms using alternative models: Langmuir TI and TII, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) and Temkin. Linearized forms of the characteristic parameters were obtained in each case. The models that best fit the experimental data were Langmuir TI and Temkin with R(2) ≥0.98. The regression best fits followed the sequence: Langmuir TI = Temkin > DR > LangmuirTII > Freundlich. The microporosity determined by adsorption of CO2 at 273 K with a single term DR regression presented R(2) > 0.98. The adsorption of acetaminophen may occur in specific sites and also in the basal region. It was determined that the adsorption process of acetaminophen on AC in SGF is spontaneous (ΔG <0) and exothermic (-ΔHads.). Moreover, the area occupied by the acetaminophen molecule was calculated with a relative error from 7.8 to 50%. PMID:24570846

  17. Geology and composition of the Orientale Basin impact melt sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Martin, Dayl J. P.; Kramer, Georgiana

    2014-01-01

    Orientale Basin is one of the largest (930 km diameter) and youngest (~3.8 Ga) impact craters on the Moon. As the basin is only partly flooded by mare lava, its floor materials expose a major portion of the basin impact melt sheet, which some previous work has suggested might have undergone igneous differentiation. To test this idea, we remapped the geology of the Orientale Basin using images and topography from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, mineralogical information from the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper, and elemental concentration maps from Clementine multispectral imaging and Lunar Prospector gamma ray data. The Maunder Formation (impact melt sheet of the basin) is uniform in chemical composition (equivalent to "anorthositic norite") in at least the upper 2 km of the deposit. The deepest sampling of the basin melt sheet (maximum depths of ~3-5 km by the crater Maunder, 55 km in diameter) shows a variety of lithologies, but these rock types (anorthosite, anorthositic norite melt rocks, mare basalt, and gabbro) are not those predicted by the differentiation model. We conclude that no differentiation of the Orientale Basin melt sheet has occurred and that such a process is not evident from new remote sensing data for the Moon or in the Apollo lunar samples.

  18. Petrology and comparative thermal and mechanical histories of clasts in breccia 62236

    SciTech Connect

    Nord, G.L. Jr.; Wandless, M.

    1983-02-15

    Lunar breccia 62236 contains large lithic fragments of troctolite, norite, and anorthosite. The mafic phases, olivine, inverted pigeonite, and augite, fill interstitial areas between larger plagioclases and appear to be cumulate phases with extensive adcumulus growth. Pyroxene compositional homogeneity indicates that cation exchange during cooling was limited to an area of about 1 mm. Primary augite and pigeonite both contain 30 ..mu..m-wide lamellae of the other along '001'. Pigeonite inverted to orthopyroxene without retaining any crystallographic orientation and subsequently exsolved fine lamellae of augite on (100). Profiles across orthopyroxene-augite interfaces obtained in the analytical transmission electron microscope show an increase of approx.5% wollastonite in augite within 0.5 ..mu..m of the interface, suggesting that short-range cation exchange continued to temperatures below 500 /sup 0/C. The entire sample has undergone heterogeneous shock deformation. Shock melting of the troctolitic clast suggests pressures of 200-300 kb and well-developed basal twinning in augite from the norite clasts suggest pressures of 50-300 kbars. The present evidence indicates that 62236 contains parts of a slowly cooled microlayered accumulate that has been heterogeneously shocked several times and combined into the present breccia.

  19. Rock types of South Pole-Aitken basin and extent of basaltic volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieters, C.M.; Head, J. W., III; Gaddis, L.; Jolliff, B.; Duke, M.

    2001-01-01

    The enormous pre-Nectarian South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin represents a geophysically and compositionally unique region on the Moon. We present and analyze the mineralogical diversity across this basin and discuss the implications for basin evolution. Rock types are derived from Clementine multispectral data based on diagnostic characteristics of ferrous absorptions in fresh materials. Individual areas are characterized as noritic (dominated by low-Ca pyroxene), gabbroic/basaltic (dominated by high-Ca pyroxene), feldspathic (<3-6% FeO), and olivine-gabbro (dominated by high-Ca pyroxene and olivine). The anorthositic crust has effectively been removed from the interior of the basin. The style of volcanism within the basin extends over several 100 Myr and includes mare basalt and pyroclastic deposits. Several areas of ancient (pre-Orientale) volcanism, or cryptomaria, have also been identified. The nonmare mafic lithology that occurs across the basin is shown to be noritic in composition and is pervasive laterally and vertically. We interpret this to represent impact melt/breccia deposits derived from the lower crust. A few localized areas are identified within the basin that contain more diverse lithologies (gabbro, olivine-gabbro), some of which may represent material from the deepest part of the lower crust and perhaps uppermost mantle involved in the SPA event. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages for the Stillwater Complex and its associated sills and dikes, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: identification of a parent magma?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Premo, W.R.; Helz, R.T.; Zientek, M.L.; Langston, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Seven analyses from two samples of the Lower Banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, yielded a U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of 2705??4 Ma. A more precise age of 2704??1 Ma is obtained if we regress only five of seven analyses. In either case, the age is in very good agreement with the previously reported Sm-Nd mineral isochron age of 2701??8 Ma for a gabbro from the Lower Banded series. Noncumulate mafic sills and dikes that immediately underlie the Stillwater Complex are separated into five compositional groups. U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 gabbronorite (2711??1 Ma) and a group 3 mafic norite (2703??10Ma) are comparable to previously reported U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 diabase (2713??3 Ma) and a group 4 high-Ti norite (2712??3 Ma). Mineral separates from group 2 yielded a four-point Pb-Pb internal isochron age of 2704??25 Ma, and separates from group 6 yielded a Sm-Nd internal isochron age of 2706??64 Ma. These results indicate that groups 1 and 4 of the associated sills and dikes are perhaps slightly older than the complex and that groups 2,3, and 6 may be coeval with it, supporting the idea that these three groups are the best candidates for a Stillwater parent magma. -from Authors

  1. Lunar Meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 and the Iron Concentration of the Lunar Highlands Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.

    1996-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 is a clast-rich, glassy-matrix regolith breccia of ferroan, highly aluminous bulk composition. It is similar in composition to other feldspathic lunar meteorites but differs in having higher concentrations of siderophile elements and incompatible trace elements. Based on electron microprobe analyses of the fusion crust, glassy matrix, and clasts, and instrumental neutron activation analysis of breccia fragments, QUE 93069 is dominated by nonmare components of ferroan, noritic- anorthosite bulk composition. Thin section QUE 93069,31 also contains a large, impact-melted, partially devitrified clast of magnesian, anorthositic-norite composition. The enrichment in Fe, Sc, and Cr and lower Mg/Fe ratio of lunar meteorites Yamato 791197 and Yamato 82192/3 compared to other feldspathic lunar meteorites can be attributed to a small proportion (5-10%) of low-Ti mare basalt. It is likely that the non- mare components of Yamato 82192/3 are similar to and occur in similar abundance to those of Yamato 86032, with which it is paired. There is a significant difference between the average FeO concentration of the lunar highlands surface as inferred from the feldspathic lunar meteorites (mean: approx. 5.0%; range: 4.3-6.1 %) and a recent estimate based on data from the Clementine mission (3.6%).

  2. Bi-cycles petrographic association in middle part of East Pana PGE layers deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavin, Alex; Veksler, Ilya; Gorbunov, Artem

    2016-04-01

    The PGE mineralization in the East Pana layered gabbroic intrusion forms three discrete layers at different stratigraphic levels, which are traditionally labeled as zones A, B and C. In order to investigate possible relationships of mineralization with magmatic layering we sampled a 120 m long drill core section across zone B in the middle part of the intrusion and carried out detailed petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the samples. The ore zone is located in medial part of the of East's Pana deposite. The samples represent mainly from a layered sequence of gabbro and gabbro-norite. This zone is composed of interlayers of gabbroic sequences and gabbro-norite of various color, with different structures and different relationship of rock-forming minerals of Ol-Opx-Cpx-Pl. We studied one of key's drill-hole section of ore zone, in which is located two ore horizons. Fundamental feature layered intrusions are presence in cross-section cycles includes of stable petrographic association. In section of ore zone it is possible to select two most contrast petrographic types. Whole-rock analyses and petrographic observations reveal two units of modal layering comprising, from bottom to top, melanocratic gabbro grading upwards into mesocratic gabbro and gabbro-norite overlain by pegmatoidal, gabbroic rock with has sharp footwall and hanging wall contacts.There is also an olivine-bearing gabbro at the bottom of the lower unit. The ore horizons are located in same gabbro-norite type rock. The ore horizons are located in same gabbro-norite type part. The second upper ore zone located in more differential species types. There is the common trend of system evolution of well distinguished on triangle of Ol-Pl-Di, Ol-Pl-Q and other. However composition of the rocks in the two parts of our section show us similar, but independent trends. For example on diagram differentiation of rocks composition, with normative content of anorthite on the X axis, trends of

  3. Geological and geochemical analysis of stratigraphic units in the South Pole - Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, A.; Bexkens, F.; Foing, B.; Koschny, D.; Davies, G.; van Westrenen, W.

    2009-04-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin, located on the Lunar far side, is one of the oldest and largest recognized impact structure in the solar system. This PreNectarian basin (>3.9 Ga) measures 2500 km in diameter with depths up to 13 km. A large mafic province was formed by the impact that effectively removed the upper crust [1]. Hence, deep-seated lower crustal and possibly even mantle materials are exposed in the severely modified Basin interior, providing the unique opportunity to probe and study the composition and structure of the Lunar interior. Consequently, the SPA Basin is a frequently proposed site for future sample return missions and detailed multispectral studies will required to aid landing site selection [2]. Previous studies on the multispectral dataset of Clementine (1994) by Pieters and Tompkins [1,3] revealed fresh mafic compositions of both low-Ca pyroxene or high-Ca pyroxene dominated rocks, referred to as norites and gabbros respectively. Some regions contained spectral features of olivine (troctolite), such as in Olivine Hill, which could suggest the presence of mantle derived deposits tapped during SPA impact. Using an algorithm developed by Pieters et al. [1] we have produced images for three subregions, covering the central and northern part of the SPA Basin. The algorithm is based on three diagnostic features in the UV/VIS spectrum of Clementine's 11 band multispectral dataset. The parameters are assigned to an RGB composite and allow distinction between mature soils, anorthosite (blue), norite (pink) and gabbro/troctolite compositions (green). Furthermore, we have used Clementine's Near Infrared database to produce a NIR band ratio image (2000 nm/1250 nm), as a parameter to distinguish between olivine and pyroxene-rich materials where we aim to detect traces of excavated mantle material (modified from LeMoeulic et al. [4]). Regretfully, we found that the NIR ratio method does not confirm olivine-rich material exposed in Olivine Hill as it

  4. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2008-06-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with

  5. Corrective action decision document for the Roller Coaster Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit Number 404)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-26

    The North Disposal Trench, located north of the eastern most lagoon, was installed in 1963 to receive solid waste and construction debris from the Operation Roller Coaster man camp. Subsequent to Operation Roller Coaster, the trench continued to receive construction debris and range cleanup debris (including ordnance) from Sandia National Laboratories and other operators. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities (VCA Spill Area) at an area associated with the North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Site (CAS). Remediation activities at this site were conducted in 1995. A corrective action investigation was conducted in September of 1996 following the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP); the detailed results of that investigation are presented in Appendix A. The Roller Coaster Lagoons and North Disposal Trench are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), a part of the Nellis Air Force Range, which is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air.

  6. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 427: Area 3 septic waste system numbers 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-19

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Compound, specifically Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 427, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit Work Plan, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada divides investigative activities at TTR into Source Groups. The Septic Tanks and Lagoons Group consists of seven CAUs. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is one of three septic waste system CAUs in TTR Area 3. Corrective Action Unit Numbers 405 and 428 will be investigated at a future data. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is comprised of Septic Waste Systems Number 2 and 6 with respective CAS Numbers 03-05-002-SW02 and 03-05-002-SW06.

  7. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  8. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP.

  9. An aerial radiological survey of Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site, Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site from January 27 to February 7,1982. Parallel lines were flown at an altitude of 100 feet (30 meters) above ground level with line spacing intervals of 200 feet (61 meters) over a 170-square-mile (440-square-kilometer) area. This covered both Frenchman Flat and the area of the Nellis Range Complex where a fallout deposition plume had exited the Nevada Test Site to the east. The aerial data obtained were reduced to a man-made radiation contour map and overlaid on a U.S. Geological Survey map. The survey detected the presence of fission and activation products. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. [Wooden chests for the midwife's equipment].

    PubMed

    Carlén-Nilsson, C

    1993-01-01

    In the museum of medical history in Lund there are several wooden chests containing partly identical instruments apparently belonging to a midwife. The instruments dated from before 1900, e.g. lancets and horn cups for blood-letting, a pewter enema syringe, a wooden stethoscope, a "tobacco pipe" and glass bottles. The use of the tobacco pipe was first puzzling, but it appeared to be a breast reliver. What do we know about the date of the chests? One chest has belonged to Kjersti Nilsdotter, a midwife educated in Lund 1872-1873. Her certificate was in the chest. From Ronnie Hunt, Minnesota we have got information about another chest of the same type. That belonged to Nelly Gustafsson, a midwife educated in Lund probably about 1870. She emigrated to USA and was a practising midwife in Lindstrom, Minnesota from about 1900. PMID:11639439

  11. Using a multi-agent evidential reasoning network as the objective function for an evolutionary algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Lindahl, Eric; Barker, Joseph

    2007-04-01

    A culturally diverse group of people are now participating in military multinational coalition operations (e.g., combined air operations center, training exercises such as Red Flag at Nellis AFB, NATO AWACS), as well as in extreme environments. Human biases and routines, capabilities, and limitations strongly influence overall system performance; whether during operations or simulations using models of humans. Many missions and environments challenge human capabilities (e.g., combat stress, waiting, fatigue from long duty hours or tour of duty). This paper presents a team selection algorithm based on an evolutionary algorithm. The main difference between this and the standard EA is that a new form of objective function is used that incorporates the beliefs and uncertainties of the data. Preliminary results show that this selection algorithm will be very beneficial for very large data sets with multiple constraints and uncertainties. This algorithm will be utilized in a military unit selection tool.

  12. Design, development, fabrication, and safety-of-flight testing of a panoramic night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Timothy W.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    1999-07-01

    A novel approach to significantly increasing the field of view (FOV) of night vision goggles (NVGs) has been developed. This approach uses four image intensifier tubes instead of the usual two to produce a 100 degree wide FOV. A conceptual demonstrator device was fabricated in November 1995 and limited flight evaluations were performed. Further development of this approach continues with eleven advanced technology demonstrators delivered in March 1999 that feature five different design configurations. Some of the units will be earmarked for ejection seat equipped aircraft due to their low profile design allowing the goggle to be retained safely during and after ejection. Other deliverables will be more traditional in design approach and lends itself to transport and helicopter aircraft as well as ground personnel. Extensive safety-of-flight testing has been accomplished as a precursor to the F-15C operational utility evaluation flight testing at Nellis AFB that began in March 1999.

  13. NV/YMP RADIOLOGICAL CONTROL MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE; BECHTEL NEVADA

    2004-11-01

    This manual contains the radiological control requirements to be used for all radiological activities conducted by programs under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and the Yucca Mountain Office of Repository Development (YMORD). Compliance with these requirements will ensure compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835), Occupational Radiation Protection. Programs covered by this manual are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS); Nellis Air Force Base and North Las Vegas, Nevada; Santa Barbara and Pleasanton, California; and at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. In addition, field work by NNSA/NSO at other locations is also covered by this manual.

  14. Chemical data and variation diagrams of igneous rocks from the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley Caldera Complex, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinlivan, W.D.; Byers, F.M.

    1977-01-01

    Silica variation diagrams presented here are based on 162 chemical analyses of tuffs, lavas, and intrusives, representative of volcanic centers of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex and cogenetic rocks of the Silent Canyon ca1dera. Most of the volcanic units sampled are shown on the U.S. Geological Survey geologic map of the Timber Mountain caldera area (I-891) and are described in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 919. Early effusives of the complex, although slightly altered, are probably chemically, and petrographically, more like the calc-alkalic Fraction Tuff (Miocene) of the northern Nellis Air Force Base Bombing and Gunnery Range to the north, whereas effusives of later Miocene age, such as the Paintbrush and Timber Mountain Tuffs, are alkali-calcic.

  15. Helmet-mounted tracker and display (HMT/D) interfaces: developing a standardized helmet-vehicle interface (HVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocian, Dean F.

    1998-08-01

    The successful integration of technology and human factors meets its ultimate challenge in the area of military performance. Nowhere are the stakes so high and the competition so rigorous as in the arena of combat. This paper documents the attempt to define, develop, and test a 'standardized' interface for helmet-mounted tracker and displays as these systems begin to phase into the military inventory as standard equipment for USAF and USN fighter aircraft. The design that has been evolved is based upon active use and refinement in an environment that is as close to combat conditions, as resources permit. Many of the design ideas and lessons-learned covered in this paper came either directly or indirectly from pilots and support personnel of the USAF 422 Test and Evaluation Squadron located at Nellis AFB, NV.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Halpha measurements in Abell 2465 (Wegner+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, G. A.; Chu, D. S.; Hwang, H. S.

    2015-07-01

    The wavelength of the Hα line at the redshift of Abell 2465 is near 817nm in a clear spectral region between the many telluric emission lines. A custom narrow-band filter for observing Hα was obtained from the Andover Corp. It has a peak transmission at 817.7nm (m817) and a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 8.77nm. The wide filter was a Gunn i (ig) filter with nearly the same central wavelength of 820nm and a FWHM of 185nm, and was manufactured by Custom Scientific. Hα observations of Abell 2465 were obtained 2012 September 19-23 using the 2.4m Hiltner telescope at the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak. The 'Nellie' CCD was used. (1 data file).

  17. Tonopah Test Range closure sites revegetation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    This document is a revegetation plan for long-term stabilization (revegetation) of land disturbed by activities associated with the closure of a Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill. Both sites are on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) located in south-central Nevada. This document contains general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during the revegetation of these sites. The revegetation procedures proposed have been developed over several years of research and include the results of reclamation trials at Area 11 and Area 19 on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and more recently at the Double Tracks (Nellis Air Force Range) reclamation demonstration plots. In addition, the results of reclamation efforts and concurrent research efforts at the Yucca Mountain Project have been considered in the preparation of this revegetation plan.

  18. Atmospheric channel characterization for ORCA testing at NTTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, L. C.; Phillips, R. L.; Crabbs, R.; Wayne, D.; Leclerc, T.; Sauer, P.

    2010-02-01

    The DARPA Optical RF Communications Adjunct (ORCA) program was created to bring high data rate networking to the warfighter via airborne platforms. Recent testing of the ORCA system was conducted by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) at the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) at the Nellis Air Force Range near Tonopah, NV. The University of Central Florida (UCF) conducted a parallel test to measure path-averaged values of the refractiveindex structure parameter, the inner scale of turbulence, and the outer scale of turbulence along the ORCA propagation path from an airborne platform to the ground at Antelope Peak. In addition, weather instrumentation was set up at ground level on Antelope Peak to measure local conditions on the mountain top. This paper presents background information on expected atmospheric conditions for the channel, models that were used by UCF for the measurements, path-averaged values of the three atmospheric parameters, and a Cn2 profile model as a function of altitude.

  19. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  20. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed

    2012-09-12

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.' Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2011 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  1. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Las Vegas Strip and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr

    2009-02-01

    As proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of the Las Vegas Strip and adjacent areas on December 29, 2008. This survey was one of the bi-annual surveys carried in support of the city of Las Vegas Police Department (LVPD) before significant events on the Las Vegas Strip: e.g., the annual New Year’s Eve and July Fourth celebrations. The AMS operation and appropriate law enforcement agencies selected this area as an appropriate urban location to exercise AMS capability for mapping environmental radiation and searching for man-made radioactive sources. The surveys covered approximately 11 square miles. Each survey required a 2.5-hour-long flight, performed at an altitude of 300 ft above ground level (AGL) at a line spacing of 600 ft. Water line and test line flights are conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to determine the non-terrestrial background contributed by aircraft, radon, and cosmic activity, and to determine the altitude-dependent air mass correction. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2" x 4" x 16" sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Gamma energy spectral data were collected second-by-second over the survey area. This spectral data allows the system to distinguish between natural terrestrial background contributions and man-made radioisotope contributions. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific man-made radioactive isotopes. Data geo-locations were determined with a Real-Time Differential Global Positioning System (RDGPS).

  2. Oxidative stress and lung pathology following geogenic dust exposure.

    PubMed

    Leetham, M; DeWitt, J; Buck, B; Goossens, D; Teng, Y; Pollard, J; McLaurin, B; Gerads, R; Keil, D

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate markers of systemic oxidative stress and lung histopathology following subacute exposure to geogenic dust with varying heavy metal content collected from a natural setting prone to wind erosion and used heavily for off-road vehicle recreation. Adult female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to several concentrations of dust collected from seven different types of surfaces at the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area in Clark County, Nevada, designated here as CBN 1-7. Dust representing each of the seven surface types, with an average median diameter of 4.2 μm, was selected and administered via oropharyngeal aspiration to mice at concentrations from 0.01 to 100 mg of dust kg(-1) of body weight. Exposures were given four times spaced a week apart over a 28 day period to mimic a month of weekend exposures. Lung pathology was evaluated while plasma markers of oxidative stress included levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and total glutathione. Overall, results of these assays to evaluate markers of oxidative stress indicate that no single CBN surface type was able to consistently induce markers of systemic oxidative stress at a particular dose or in a dose-response manner. All surface types were able to induce some level of lung inflammation, typically at the highest exposure levels. These data suggest that dust from the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area may present a potential health risk, but additional studies are necessary to characterize the full extent of health risks to humans. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26922875

  3. Serenitatis: The Oldest, Largest Impact Basin Sampled in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Serenitatis Basin was recognized in the early 1960s as a multiring impact basin. Poikilitic impact melt breccias collected on the Apollo 17 mission, generally inferred to be Serenitatis impact melt, precisely define its age as 3.893 +/- 0.009 Ga. On the topographic map produced from Clementine data, the basin has a well-defined, circular structure corresponding closely with mare fill. In the review by , this circular structure has a diameter of 620 km (Taurus ring). The main rim is deemed to have a diameter of 920 km (Vitruvius ring). Thus Serenitatis is both the oldest and the largest basin in the solar system to which we can confidently assign samples. The central flooded part of the Serenitatis Basin displays a mascon gravity anomaly. Gravity and topographic studies by Neumann, correcting for the mascon, indicate that the crust was thinned to about 30 km compared to a surrounding thickness of about 55 km. The rim has a slightly thickened crust. The Apollo 17 landing site lies between the Taurus and the Vitruvius rings. Remote studies show that the Taurus highlands differ in chemical composition from those around the Crisium and Nectaris Basins. They are consistently lower in alumina and higher in Fe and radioactive elements: the highlands are the noritic, rather than the anorthosite, stereotype of the ancient highlands. Tracks show that many of the poikilitic impact melt breccias rolled from high in the massifs, possibly from ledges. They vary in grain size and texture. Larger boulders display sharp contacts between texturally different units, which differ slightly big significantly in composition. They have about 18% Al2O3 and incompatible elements of about 100x chondrites. The breccias contain lithic clasts. Feldspathic granulitic breccias are the most common, but these do not form any significant component of the melt composition itself. Other lithic components are mainly plutonic igneous rocks such as norite and troctolite. Ferroan anorthosites and mare

  4. Thermal Forensics of Zircons from the Mesoproterozoic Sudbury Impact Structure (ontario, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, D.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) forms the central part of the Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.85 Ga) Sudbury impact structure and comprises three lithological units: norite (bottom), quartz gabbro, and granophyre (top). To determine the precise timing of the impact and the subsequent thermal behavior of the crust to this impact, an experimental approach was formulated to directly assess the associated impact energies by exploiting the crystallo-chemical response of zircon (Zr(SiO4)). The differential (slow) diffusional response of constituent elements (e.g. U, Th, Pb, REEs, Ti) in zircon at different temperatures and time-scales of the thermal pulse associated with impact makes this mineral an ideal recorder of the timing and condition of impact energies. Because titanium concentration in zircon is a function of temperature, we can also use this relationship a useful thermometer to probe time vs. temperature during the impact and its aftermath. Here, we report our studies of individual zircon grains extracted from SIC norite and granophyre drill core samples via standard heavy-mineral techniques (no zircons were found in the quartz gabbro unit). Grains were both hand-picked under an optical microscope and cast in epoxy, or entire heavy-mineral aliquots were cast without bias that arises from hand-picking. Electron imaging was used to identify individual zircons; many of the norite zircons displayed sets of planar deformation features (PDFs) attributable to shock wave deformation from impact, but none of the granophyre zircons displayed such structures. The largest and least altered grains from the sample aliquot we prepared were removed from their mounts and recast in epoxy with standard zircon AS-3 in anticipation of titanium thermometry and uranium-lead geochronology by high-resolution ion microprobe in depth-profile mode. Depth profiling reveals relationships between zircon growth time and the geochemical environment during crystallization and cooling after impact. We

  5. Field and Microstructure Study of Transpressive Jogdadi shear zone near Ambaji, Aravalli- Delhi Mobile Belt, NW India and its tectonic implication on the exhumation of granulites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sudheer Kumar; Biswal, Tapas Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Aravalli- Delhi mobile belt is situated in the northwestern part of Indian shield. It comprises tectono- magmatic histories from Archean to Neoproterozoic age. It possesses three tectono- magmatic metamorphic belts namely Bhilwara Supergroup (3000 Ma), Aravalli Supergorup (1800 Ma) and Delhi Supergroup (1100 -750Ma). The Delhi Supergroup is divided in two parts North Delhi and South Delhi; North Delhi (1100 Ma to 850 Ma) is older than South Delhi (850 Ma to 750 Ma). The study area falls in the South Delhi terrane; BKSK granulites are the major unit in this terrane. BKSK granulites comprise gabbro- norite-basic granulite, pelitic granulite, calcareous granulite and occur within the surrounding of low grade rocks as meta- rhyolite, quartzite, mica schist and amphibolites. The high grade and low grade terranes share a sheared margin. Granulites have undergone three phases of folding, intruded by three phases of granites and traversed by many shear zones. One of the shear zones is Jogdadi shear zone which consists of granitic mylonites and other sheared rocks. Jogdadi shear zone carries the evidence of both ductile as well as brittle shearing. It strikes NW- SE; the mylonitic foliation dip moderately to SW or NE and stretching lineations are oblique towards SE. The shear zone is folded and gabbro- norite - basic granulite occurs at the core. One limb of fold passes over coarse grained granite while other limb occurs over gabbro- norite- basic granulite. Presence of mylonitic foliation, asymmetric folding, S-C fabrics, porphyroclasts, mica fishes and book shelf- gliding are indicative of ductile deformation. Most of the porphyroclasts are sigmoidal and delta types but there are also some theta and phi type porphyroclasts. Book shelf-gliding structures are at low angle to the C plane. The shear zone successively shows protomylonite, mylonite and ultramylonites from margin to the centre. As the mylonitization increases recrystallized quartz grains appear. Porphyroclasts

  6. Quasi-static versus dynamic triggering of fault slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.

    2013-12-01

    The quasi-static triggering of fault slip has long been recognized as a mechanism of earthquakes. The dynamic triggering of fault slip is associated with earthquake aftershocks and man-made geological hazards, such as rock collapse in underground excavations and induced seismicity in geothermal productions. The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the differences between quasi-static and dynamic triggering of fault slip. A direct-shear configuration (Fig. 1) is developed to simulate fault slip, which consists of an incident norite plate (1000 × 120 × 30 mm) and a transverse norite plate (500 × 80 × 30 mm). A quartz sand layer is sandwiched between the incident and transverse plates to simulate a granular fault zone. A servo-controlled quasi-static loading system induces the quasi-static triggering of fault slip, and a dynamic loading system containing two parallel compressed springs instantaneously launches a striker norite plate (100 × 120 × 30 mm) to induce an incident P-wave (a half-wavelength of 750 mm). The P-wave propagates in the incident plate and causes the dynamic triggering of fault slip. The dynamic triggering of fault slip is designed to be solely induced by the P-wave before wave reflection at the plate end. Both quasi-static and dynamic triggering induce non-uniform shear stress distribution along the fault zone. There is a shear stress at the trailing edge, which controls the fault slip, and a rebound stress at the leading edge, which is caused by a small moment. The fault slip is triggered when the maximum shear stress reaches a critical value at the trailing edge and is accompanied by shear stress drop. The quasi-static triggering of fault slip is unrecoverable and includes a main slip and a few short slips before and after the main slip. The dynamic triggering of fault slip can be partially recovered after the P-wave and consists of a few unrecovered slips. The duration of the dynamic triggering of fault slip is a few

  7. The origin of water in the primitive Moon as revealed by the lunar highlands samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; McCubbin, Francis M.; Franchi, Ian A.; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.

    2014-03-01

    The recent discoveries of hydrogen (H) bearing species on the lunar surface and in samples derived from the lunar interior have necessitated a paradigm shift in our understanding of the water inventory of the Moon, which was previously considered to be a ‘bone-dry’ planetary body. Most sample-based studies have focused on assessing the water contents of the younger mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses, which are partial-melting products of the lunar mantle. In contrast, little attention has been paid to the inventory and source(s) of water in the lunar highlands rocks which are some of the oldest and most pristine materials available for laboratory investigations, and that have the potential to reveal the original history of water in the Earth-Moon system. Here, we report in-situ measurements of hydroxyl (OH) content and H isotopic composition of the mineral apatite from four lunar highlands samples (two norites, a troctolite, and a granite clast) collected during the Apollo missions. Apart from troctolite in which the measured OH contents in apatite are close to our analytical detection limit and its H isotopic composition appears to be severely compromised by secondary processes, we have measured up to ˜2200 ppm OH in the granite clast with a weighted average δD of ˜ -105±130‰, and up to ˜3400 ppm OH in the two norites (77215 and 78235) with weighted average δD values of -281±49‰ and -27±98‰, respectively. The apatites in the granite clast and the norites are characterised by higher OH contents than have been reported so far for highlands samples, and have H isotopic compositions similar to those of terrestrial materials and some carbonaceous chondrites, providing one of the strongest pieces of evidence yet for a common origin for water in the Earth-Moon system. In addition, the presence of water, of terrestrial affinity, in some samples of the earliest-formed lunar crust suggests that either primordial terrestrial water survived the aftermath

  8. New data for paleoprotherozoic PGE-bearing anorthosite of Kandalaksha massif (Baltic shield): U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steshenko, Ekaterina; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this researches were to study the isotope U-Pb age of zircon and rutile and Sm-Nd (rock forming and sulphide minerals) on Kandalaksha anorthosite massif due to study of polimetamorphic history. In marginal zone firstly have been obtained the presence of sulphide mineralization with PGE (Chashchin, Petrov , 2013). Kandalaksha massif is located in the N-E part of Baltic shield and consists of three parts. Marginal zone (mesocratic metanorite) lies at the base of the massif. Main zone is composed of leucocratic metagabbro. The upper zone is alteration of mataanorthosite and leucocratic metagabbro. All rocks were subjected to granulate polymetamorphism. Two fractions of single grains from anorthosite of the massif gave precise U-Pb age, which is equal to 2450± 3 Ma. Leucocratic gabbro-norite were dated by U-Pb method, with age up to 2230 ± 10 Ma. This age reflects the time of granulite metamorphism according to data of (Mitrofanov, Nirovich, 2003). Two fractions of rutile have been analyzed by U-Pb method and reflect age of 1700 ± 10 Ma. It is known that the closure temperature of U-Pb system rutile is 400-450 ° C (Mezger et.al., 1989), thus cooling processes of massif rocks to these temperatures was about 1.7 Ga. These data reflect one of the stages of metamorphic alteration of the massif. Three stages of metamorphism are distinguished by Sm-Nd method. Isotope Sm-Nd dating on Cpx-WR line gives the age of 2311 Ma which suggested of high pressure granulite metamorphism. Moreover Cpx-Pl line reflect the age 1908 Ma of low pressure granulite metamorphism. Also two-points (Grt-Rt) Sm-Nd isochrone yield the age 1687 Ma of the last metamorphic alterations in Kandalaksha anorthosite massif. Model Sm-Nd age of the leucocratic gabbro-norite is 2796 Ma with positive ɛNd (+0.32). It means that the source of gabbro-norite was mantle reservoir. All investigations are devoted to memory of academician PAS F. MItrofanov which was a leader of scientific school for

  9. Partial characterization of GTP-binding proteins in Neurospora

    SciTech Connect

    Hasunuma, K.; Miyamoto-Shinohara, Y.; Furukawa, K.

    1987-08-14

    Six fractions of GTP-binding proteins separated by gel filtration of a mycelial extract containing membrane components of Neurospora crassa were partially characterized. (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S bound to GTP-binding protein was assayed by repeated treatments with a Norit solution and centrifugation. The binding of (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S to GTP-binding proteins was competitively prevented in the presence of 0.1 to 1 mM GTP but not in the presence of ATP. These GTP-binding proteins fractionated by the gel column had Km values of 20, 7, 4, 4, 80 and 2 nM. All six fractions of these GTP-binding proteins showed the capacity to be ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin.

  10. Distribution and geologic history of materials excavated by the lunar crater Bullialdus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Pieters, Carle M.; Mustard, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The crater Bullialdus is a 61 km, Eratosthenian-age impact crater located on the western edge of Mare Nubium. Previous analysis of the spatial distribution of materials in the area using nine telescopic near-infrared spectra suggested a possible three-layer structure prior to the impact event: two shallow gabbroic layers and one deeper noritic layer (from a potential depth of 5.5 km). The initial interpretation of this stratigraphy was that Bullialdus may have tapped a layered mafic pluton, such as have been invoked to explain the existence of Mg-suite rocks. High-spatial resolution CCD images of Bullialdus were analyzed to better map the spatial distribution of the observed lithologies, and to assess the plausibility of the pluton interpretation.

  11. Rock 67015 - A feldspathic fragmental breccia with KREEP-rich melt clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, U. B.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    The feldspathic fragmental breccia (FFB) 67015, from the rim of North Ray Crater, contains a wider range of clast lithologies than have previously been described for FFBs. The present petrological and chemical study reveals two components of major importance: a dark, vesicular, KREEP-rich melt rock of very high alumina basalt composition common at the Apollo 16 site, and a large clast of medium-grained ferroan anorthositic norite which composition falls among the most magnesian members of the ferroan anorthosite suite of pristine cumulate rocks. This latter material constitutes a previously missing member of certain mixing models, which were designed to account for the North Ray Crater melt rocks and bulk breccias.

  12. Moon - Possible nature of the body that produced the Imbrian Basin, from the composition of Apollo 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathy, R.; Laul, J. C.; Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1972-01-01

    Soils from the Apollo 14 site contain nearly three times as much meteoritic material as soils from the Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Luna 16 sites. Part of this material consists of the ubiquitous micrometeorite component, of primitive (carbonaceous-chondrite-like) composition. The remainder, seen most conspicuously in coarse glass and norite fragments, has a decidedly fractionated composition, with volatile elements less than one-tenth as abundant as siderophiles. This material seems to be debris of the Cyprus-sized planetesimal that produced the Imbrian Basin. Compositionally this planetesimal has no exact counterpart among known meteorite classes, though group IVA irons come close. It also resembles the initial composition of the earth as postulated by the two-component model. Apparently the Imbrian planetesimal was an earth satellite swept up by the moon during tidal recession or capture, or an asteroid deflected by Mars into terrestrial space.

  13. Longwave thermal infrared spectral variability in individual rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Balick, Lee K; Gillespie, Alan; French, Andrew; Danilina, Iryna

    2008-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging spectrometer measuring in the longwave thermal infrared (7.6-11.6 {micro}m) with a spatial resolution less than 4 mm was used in the field to observe the variability of emissivity spectra within individual rocks. The rocks were obtained commercially, were on the order of 20 cm in size and were selected to have distinct spectral features: they include alabaster (gypsum), soapstone (steatite with talc), obsidian (volcanic glass), norite (plagioclase and orthopyroxene), and 'jasper' (silica with iron oxides). The advantages of using an imaging spectrometer to spectrally characterize these rocks are apparent. Large spectral variations were observed within individual rocks that may be attributed to roughness, surface geometry, and compositional variation. Non-imaging spectrometers would normally miss these variations as would small samples used in laboratory measurements, spatially averaged spectra can miss the optimum spectra for identification materials and spatially localized components of the rock can be obscured.

  14. Petrology of Apollo 15 black-and-white rocks 15445 and 15455 - Fragments of the Imbrium impact melt sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Bower, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes two macroscopically similar black-and-white rocks, 15445 and 15455, which were collected from the rim of Spur Crater on the Apennine Front. The two Apollo 15 rocks are very similar in chemistry and clast population, but the matrix of 15455 is finer grained than that of 15445. The 15445 sample contains a lithic clast assemblage of plutonic/metamorphic spinel troctolite, troctolite, norite, and anorthosite, and its fine-grained vesicular black coherent matrix consists of a melt-bonded aggregate of small mineral clasts which are mainly olivine, plagioclase, and pink spinel. The two rocks are distinct from any other large samples from the Apollo 15 site. It is suggested that the rocks are samples of an impact melt sheet which forms a bedrock unit of the Apennine Front, and that this melt sheet did not form in a local small-scale event but was produced during the Imbrium impact event.

  15. Shock metamorphic effects in lunar microcraters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaal, R. B.; Hoerz, F.; Gibbons, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed petrographic descriptions and results of electron microprobe analyses are presented for impact glasses as well as shocked and unshocked minerals associated with individual lunar microcraters (diameters of 0.4 to 4.4 mm). Rocks of four typical lunar lithologies are studied: anorthosite, anorthositic norite, ophitic basalt, and polymict breccia. Textures, mineralogies, and chemical compositions are examined along a radial traverse through each microcrater; i.e., across the impact glasses lining the crater wall, the shock-metamorphosed zone immediately underlying the glass liner, and the unshocked host rock. The microcraters are discussed in a sequence of increasing mineralogical complexity of the host rock (from anorthosite to polymict breccia) in order to distinguish shock effects among mineral types. The shock metamorphic features observed are found to be comparable to those reported in shocked basalt from Lonar Crater, India, and are categorized into five shock-intensity classes with pressures experimentally calibrated.

  16. Remote sensing studies of the terrain northwest of Humorum basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Peterson, Chris A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Taylor, G. J.; Blewett, David T.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Coombs, Cassandra R.; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    We have used near-infrared reflectance spectra and Earth-based radar data to investigate the composition and origin of the various geologic units northwest of Humorum basin as well as the stratigraphy of the Humorum preimpact target site. The results of our spectral analysis indicate that at least a portion of the inner, mare-bounding ring is composed of pure anorthosite. Other highlands units in the region are dominated by noritic anorthosite. The anorthosites on the inner ring may have been derived from a layer of anorthosite that exists at depth beneath a more pyroxene-rich unit. Both Gassendi G and F craters expose mare material from beneath a highlands-rich surface unit that was emplaced as a result of the Letronne, Gassendi, and other impact events. This ancient basalt unit was emplaced after the formation of Humorum basin but prior to the Orientale impact.

  17. The Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Anorthosite on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Spudis, P. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Lucey, P. G.; Peterson, C. A.

    1993-07-01

    Introduction: A major unresolved question is whether there is an enrichment in plagioclase in the lunar crust. If a magma ocean once existed on the Moon, an anorthositic crust should have been formed by plagioclase floatation. Therefore, it is important to determine the distribution and modes of occurrence of anorthosite on the lunar surface. We have been conducting remote sensing studies of impact deposits to investigate the composition and stratigraphy of the lunar crust [1-4]. Numerous deposits of pure anorthosite (plagioclase >90%) have been identified, and an interesting pattern has emerged. Distribution and Modes of Occurrence: Orientale Basin region. With the exception of the Inner Rook massifs, all the highlands units associated with the Orientale basin appear to be composed of either noritic anorthosite or anorthositic norite. Our spectral data indicate that the Inner Rook ring of the Orientale basin is a mountain range composed of pure anorthosite [1,2]. Grimaldi Basin region. Spectra obtained for the inner ring of Grimaldi indicate that this feature is composed, at least in part, of pure anorthosite [2]. Another anorthosite deposit has been identified just inside the outer Grimaldi ring. This material was excavated from beneath the basin floor material by subsequent impacts. Humorum Basin region. At least a portion of the mare-bounding ring of Humorum is composed of anorthosite [2,4]. However, the entire ring is not composed of anorthosite, and to date, no anorthosites have been identified on the outer Humorum rings. Nectaris Basin region. While noritic anorthosites and anorthositic norites are the dominant rock types in the region, anorthosite deposits have been identified [3]. Anorthosite occurs in two areas on the east wall of Kant crater, which is located on a platform massif of the main Nectaris basin ring, in two areas within Cyrillus A and in Bohnenberger F. In addition, Pieters [5] found additional anorthosite deposits in the central peaks of

  18. Impact melt differentiation in the South Pole-Aitken basin: Some observations and speculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, William M.; Head, James W.

    2014-02-01

    The stratigraphy of the South-Pole Aitken basin (SPA) interior is consistent with that of a massive impact melt sheet that differentiated to form cumulates. Spectroscopic and geophysical constraints on the stratigraphy of SPA suggest a ~12.5 km thick layer of norite above ultramafic pyroxenite and dunite layers. A similar stratigraphy is produced from differentiation by crystal settling of a ~50 km thick impact melt sheet (lunar impact melt sheets >10 km thick likely undergo differentiation by crystal settling) formed by an oblique impact (and thus containing ~20 vol. % crustal material). We propose that impact melt differentiation can account for geophysical (nonzero crustal thickness) and geochemical (~2 ppm Th) anomalies in SPA.

  19. Mössbauer study of two different aged rock types in the Vredefort structure, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Brink, M. C.; Bisschoff, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    The Vredefort Structure in South Africa was recently inscribed into the list of World Heritage sites as the oldest and largest recognised impact structure on earth. Due to upliftment of more than 30 km of the Archaean basement core and subsequent exposure of the deeply eroded central portion of the crater a unique opportunity exists to study rocks of the crust, especially those that have undergone recrystallization due to various thermal metamorphic events over time. Two rock types occurring in the central uplifted part of the impact structure were studied. One was a typical Archaean iron formation of sedimentary origin. The other rock studied, adjacent to this much older rock, is a homogeneous, medium grained recrystallized norite of immediately pre- or post-impact age, indicating a possible mafic igneous activity related to impact. Microscopy, XRD and Mössbauer analyses were performed on both samples.

  20. Adsorbent comparisons for anesthetic gas capture in hospital air emissions.

    PubMed

    Mehrata, Mina; Moralejo, Carol; Anderson, William A

    2016-08-23

    For the development of emission control strategies, activated carbon, zeolite, molecular sieves, and a silica gel were tested for adsorption of the newer anesthetic gases isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane from air. The activated carbon Norit GCA 48 was selected for the best performance, and adsorption isotherms at room temperature were developed for the three anesthetics. Equilibrium capacities for this carbon were in the range of 500 to 1,000 mg g(-1) for these anesthetics at partial pressures ranging from 5 to 45 Torr, with the most volatile compound (desflurane) showing the least favorable adsorption. Activated carbons are therefore suggested for use as effective adsorbents in emission control of these anesthetic gases from hospitals. PMID:27222158

  1. Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of ANT-suite rocks from the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1977-01-01

    Anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) rocks are the oldest and most abundant rocks of the lunar surface, and comprise about 90% of the suite of the lunar highlands. Consideration is given to the mineralogy, petrology, bulk chemistry, and origin of ANT-suite rocks. Problems associated in classifying and labeling lunar highland rocks because of textural complexities occurring from impact modifications are discussed. The mineralogy of ANT-suite rocks, dominated by plagioclase, olivine and pyrozene, and containing various minor minerals, is outlined. The petrology of ANT-suite rocks is reviewed along with the major element bulk composition of these rocks, noting that they are extremely depleted in K2O and P2O5. Various models describing the origin of ANT-suite rocks are summarized, and it is suggested that this origin involves a parental liquid of high-alumina basalt with low Fe/Fe+Mg.

  2. Some thoughts on the origin of lunar ANT-KREEP and mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakita, H.; Laul, J. C.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that a series of ANT (anorthosite-norite-troctolite)-KREEP type rocks and the source material for mare basalts sampled by Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 may have been derived from a common magmatic differentiation. This differentiation is studied on the basis of a model which proposes that, in the early history of the moon, extensive melting occurred in the outer lunar shell and a magma layer of 100-200 km was formed. The presence of a residual liquid which has not yet been sampled is suspected between high-K KREEP and the Apollo 11 basalt materials. This residual liquid would have a FeO/MgO ratio greater than one and would be significantly enriched in apatite, zircon, K-feldspar, and ilmenite minerals.

  3. Research of the acoustic influence on residual magnetization of rocks containing magnetite from the various geological structures of the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirova, Anzhela

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study is influence of acoustic waves on the magnetization of rocks of Kola Peninsula under different experimental parameters. The results and further research in this field are of interest in the development of problems of nonlinear geophysics, as well as address some issues in materials science. To study the acoustic influence on the residual magnetization of rocks we used the samples of magnetite-calcite rocks with a high content of magnetite from the Kovdor massif, and weakly magnetic rocks: (a) ultramafic rock of the Kola composite terrane; (b) gabbro-norite from layered intrusions of Pana; c) metagabbro-norite of the Belomorsky mobile belt. The samples previously demagnetized by the time-variable magnetic field, subjected to three cycles of ultrasonic influence with increasing time of influence and further measurement of the residual magnetization. The dependence of the residual magnetization of the magnetite-calcite rock from the time of testing is determined. As a result of multiple influences on the samples of gabbro-norit, ultramafic rock and metagabbro-norit was obtained a weak change of the vector of the residual magnetization. Thus the study of the residual magnetization of the samples with different content of ferromagnetic mineral found a significant difference in the nature of the magnetic response of rocks. So the high magnetic magnetite-calcite rock from the Kovdor massif detects a significant increase of the magnetization from the first seconds of the ultrasound influence. The magnetic response of other rocks to external influence is weaker. The dependence of the residual magnetization of these rocks from the time of influence either not observed or observed on the last cycle of the experiment in terms of a significant increase of time of the acoustic influence. Magnetic properties of rocks associated with the ferromagnetic minerals. These minerals are usually dispersed in the form of small grains in total dia - and paramagnetic

  4. Petrogenesis of gabbronorite at Yakobi and northwest Chichagof Islands, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Himmelberg, G.R.; Loney, R.A.; Nabelek, P.I.

    1987-01-01

    Irregular bodies up to 55 km in outcrop of gabbronorite occur within a 40-43 m.y. composite pluton consisting largely of tonalite. The gabbronorites include rocks ranging from hornblende pyroxenite to quartz-bearing norite and gabbronorite and, are the host rocks for a magmatic Ni-Co sulphide deposit consisting mainly of pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite. The tonalite pluton ranges from hornblende diorite to biotite granodiorite, the contacts between the different rock types being gradational. The field, petrographic and chemical data, including trace-element abundances, of the gabbronorites and tonalite pluton are compatible with an origin by either: 1) fractional crystallization of a tholeiitic magma with subsequent assimilation by tonalite that was simultaneously undergoing fractional crystallization, or 2) fractional crystallization of a quartz diorite magma yielding the range of gabbronorite and tonalite plutons. -L.C.H.

  5. Trace geochemistry of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar samples from the Apollo 16 and 17 flights which were analyzed include soil, igneous rock, anorthositic gabbro, orange soil, subfloor basalt, and norite breccia. Up to 57 elements including majors, minors, rare earths and other trace elements were determined in the lunar samples. The analytical techniques used were spark source mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The latter was done either instrumentally or with group radiochemical separations. The differences in abundances of the elements in lunar soils at the various sites are discussed. With regard to the major elements only Si is about the same at all the sites. A detailed analysis which was performed on a sample of the Allende meteorite is summarized.

  6. Experimental petrology and origin of rocks from the Descartes Highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Longhi, J.; Grove, T. L.; Stolper, E.; Hays, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Petrographic studies of Apollo 16 samples indicate that rocks 62295 and 68415 are crystallization products of highly aluminous melts. 60025 is a shocked, crushed and partially annealed plagioclase cumulate. 60315 is a recrystallized noritic breccia of disputed origin. 60335 is a feldspathic basalt filled with xenoliths and xenocrysts of anorthosite, breccia, and anorthite. The Fe/(Fe+Mg) of plagioclase appears to be a relative crystallization index. Low pressure melting experiments with controlled Po2 indicate that the igneous samples crystallized at oxygen fugacities well below the Fe/FeO buffer. Crystallization experiments at various pressures suggest that the 62295 and 68415 compositions were produced by partial or complete melting of lunar crustal materials, and not by partial melting of the deep lunar interior.

  7. Origin of PGE-depleted Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization in the Triassic Hongqiling No.7 orthopyroxenite intrusion, Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Wei, Bo

    2014-05-01

    The ~216 Ma Hongqiling No.7 intrusion is located in the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China. It hosts the second largest magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in China. The intrusion crops out in an area of ~0.013 km2 on the surface. It intruded gneisses and marbles of the Paleozoic Hulan Formation. The intrusion is mainly composed of orthopyroxenite (~95 vol.%), with minor harzburgite and norite. Over 90 vol.% of the intrusion contains disseminated, net-textured or massive sulfides. The bulk sulfide ores (recalculated to 100% sulfide) have low average PGE concentrations (5.6 ppb Os, 3.1 ppb Ir, 4.7 ppb Ru, 2.2 ppb Rh, 31 ppb Pt and 11 ppb Pd) and high Cu/Pd ratios (3×105 to 3×107), consistent with the compositions of sulfide liquids segregated from PGE-depleted magma. Olivine composition (Fo

  8. Sorption of cobalt on activated carbons from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Paajanen, A.; Lehto, J.; Santapakka, T.; Morneau, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The efficiencies of 15 commercially available activated carbons were tested for the separation of trace cobalt ({sup 60}Co) in buffer solutions at pH 5.0, 6.7, and 9.1. On the basis of the results four carbon products, Diahope-006, Eurocarb TN5, Hydraffin DG47, and Norit ROW Supra, were selected for further study. These carbons represented varying (low, medium and high) cobalt removal efficiencies and were prepared of three typical raw materials: peat, coconut shell, or coal. Study was made of the effects on sorption efficiencies of factors of interest in metal/radionuclide-bearing waste effluents. These factors were pH, sodium ions, borate, and citrate.

  9. Getting rid of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Reisch, M.S.

    2008-11-24

    Anticipating a US rule on mercury removal from coal flue gas, technology providers jockey for position. By 2013, if the federal rule imposing regulation of mercury emissions which have begun or are about to begin in 20 eastern states goes nationwide, mercury control will be big business. For the near term, utilities are adopting activated carbon to control mercury emissions. McIlvaine Co. projects the US market for activated carbon will jump from 10 million lb in 2010 to 350 million by 2013. Norit and Calgon Carbon are already increasing production of activated carbon (mainly from coal) and ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is building a new plant. Albermarle is developing a process to treat activated carbon with bromine; Corning has developed a sulfur impregnated activated carbon filtration brick. New catalysts are being developed to improve the oxidation of mercury for removal from flue gas. 2 photos.

  10. Survey of lunar plutonic and granulitic lithic fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickel, C. E.; Warner, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A catalog of lunar plutonic rocks and granulitic impactites belonging to the ANT suite has been compiled. The coarser-grained, plutonic rocks in the compilation are probably pristine; they belong to two groups, Mg-rich plutonic rocks and anorthosites, with a preponderance of the latter type. The granulitic impactites, however, have bulk and mineral compositions that fall between the two groups defined by the pristine nonmare samples of Warren and Wasson (1977). Thus the granulitic impactites may have originated by metamorphism of mixed impactites in early breccia sheets. The catalog, representative of the lunar crust before the end of heavy bombardment, suggests a crust with over 78 vol. % plagioclase and about equal proportions of material with noritic and troctolitic affinity.

  11. Impact melt breccias at the Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1992-01-01

    Impact melt breccias are by far the most common highland rock type collected on the Apollo 17 mission. They tend to be fine grained, with virtually no clast-free impact melt rocks having been identified. All the highland boulders sampled are impact melt breccia, with the possible exception of one South Massif boulder that might have a friable matrix (but nonetheless consists dominantly of impact melt) and a shocked igneous norite boulder from the North Massif. The impact melt breccias were originally described as metaclastic, but their melt origin became apparent as work progressed. Chemical compositions appear to allow natural groupings of the impact melt breccias. Various groupings of the impact melt breccias are discussed.

  12. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 16th, Houston, TX, March 11-15, 1985, Proceedings. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference presents papers on the criteria, data and implications of pristine lunar glasses, lunar granulities and their precursor anorthositic norites of the early lunar crust, characterization and evidence for early formation in the megaregolith of Apollo 16 regolith breccias, and anorthosite assimilation and the origin of the Mg/Fe-related bimodality of pristine moon rocks in support of the magmasphere hypothesis. Other topics include the mineralogy of Yamato 791073 with reference to crystal fractionation of the howardite parent body, the geology and geomorphology of the Venus surface as revealed by the radar images obtained by Veneras 15 and 16, tidal dissipation in a viscoelastic planet, and cosmogenic neutron-capture-produced nuclides in stony meteorites. Also considered are the first results of hydrous alteration of amorphous silicate smokes, elemental analysis of a comet nucleus by passive gamma ray spectrometry from a penetrator, and uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice.

  13. Lithic fragments, glasses and chondrules from Luna 16 fines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Prinz, M.; Green, J. A.; Kurat, G.

    1972-01-01

    Electron probe determination of the bulk compositions of igneous and microbreccia lithic fragments, glasses and chondrules from Luna 16 fines and of the compositions of minerals in basaltic lithic fragments. It is found that the Luna 16 fines have a composition more similar to that of Apollo 11 than to those of Apollo 12 and 14 materials. The compositions of lithic fragments, glasses and chondrules from Luna 16 core tube layers A and D are similar. The glasses are compositional analogs of the lithic fragments and are produced largely from igneous rocks. The Luna 16 chondrules have an anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic composition. Evidence for the presence of ferric iron and water-bearing minerals in the Luna 16 material is not obtained. The occurrence of a great variety of igneous rocks in the material confirms an earlier conclusion that large-scale melting or partial melting to a considerable depth and an extensive igneous differentiation must have occurred on the moon.

  14. Permian magmatic sequences of the Bilihe gold deposit in central Inner Mongolia, China: Petrogenesis and tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunhua; Nie, Fengjun

    2015-08-01

    The Bilihe gold deposit is located in the eastern section of the Ondor Sum-Yanji Suture at the southern margin of the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt (XMOB) and the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC), central Inner Mongolia. The magmatic rocks in the ore district are generally high-K calc-alkaline, enriched in LREE, Zr, and Hf, and depleted in HREE, Nb, Ta, and P. The magmatic evolution sequences are norite gabbro → granodiorite porphyry → granite or norite gabbro → andesite → dacite porphyry → granodiorite, which show a trend of decreasing TiO2, FeO, MgO, CaO, and P2O5 with increasing SiO2. In the Bilihe ore district, hydrothermal processes were coeval with granitic magmatism for a period of ~ 17 Myr (272-255 Ma). The ages of the granite, granodiorite porphyry, granodiorite, and dacite porphyry are 271.5-264.1 Ma, 269.8-255.8 Ma, 268.3 Ma, and 268.6-259.4 Ma, respectively. The magmatic rocks contain magmatic, hydrothermal, and magmatic-hydrothermal zircons. The magmatic zircons have δCe > 4, La < 3 ppm, and SmN/LaN > 2.5; the hydrothermal zircons have δCe < 4, La > 3 ppm, and SmN/LaN < 2.5. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios of granodiorite are 12.7-14.99 and 40.2-46.56, respectively. The Zr/Hf ratios successively increase in the sequence of granite (27.4-29.02) → granodiorite porphyry (29.19-32.18) → dacite porphyry (33.54-38.5) → norite gabbro (36.75-38.37), and their Nb/Ta ratios are 9.09-12.38. Zircons in granodiorite yield ε Hf (t) values of - 0.29 to - 56 (n = 13) and 2.07-7.62 (n = 5), and they give a Hf two-stage model age (tDM2) of 807-4765 Ma. The ε Hf (t) values of the zircons in granite, granodiorite porphyry, and dacite porphyry are - 0.46 to 8.03, 3.17 to 10.32, and - 0.78 to 6.58, respectively, and their Hf tDM2 ages are 787-1324 Ma, 638-1091 Ma, and 868-1343 Ma, respectively. Dehydration partial melting of subducted oceanic crust resulted in the formation of dacite porphyry; partial melting of depleted mantle resulted in

  15. Platinum potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs in the western part of the Dambuka ore district (Upper Amur Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.; Moiseenko, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    New data on the Pt potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs of the Khani-Maya, Uldegit, and Dzhalta complexes in the western part of the Dambuka ore district are discussed. The Khani-Maya Complex is represented by metamorphosed gabbro, gabbronorites, gabbro anorthosites, subordinate pyroxenites, hornblendites, and peridotites. The Uldegit Complex is composed of pyroxenites, hornblendites, gabbro, gabbronorites, norites, troctolites, peridotites, dunites, actinolite-tremolites, serpentinites, anthophyllites, and tremolite-plagioclase rocks. The Dzhalta Complex is formed of peridotites, gabbro, eclogitized gabbro, hornblendites, cortlandites, and pyroxenites. All these complexes differ from each other by the concentrations of Ni, Cu, Co, Au, and platinoids depending on the composition of the constituting rocks and the presence of sulfide minerals.

  16. Method, instruments, and results of the determination of elements contained in Venusian rock by the Vega-2 interplanetary probe

    SciTech Connect

    Surkov, Y.A.; Dudin, A.D.; Kharyukova, V.P.; Manvelyan, O.S.; Moskaleva, L.P.; Shcheglov, O.P.

    1986-04-01

    With an x-ray fluorescent spectrometer installed in the lander of the Vega-2 interplanetary station, elements contained in Venusian rock were determined for the northern part of Terra Aphroditae. The composition proved to be most similar to that of rocks of the anorthosite-norite-troctolite (ANT) group which constitute the basis of the moon's continental crust. The determination of the abundance of basic rock-forming elements from Mg to Fe, and also of some heavier rare elements, was carried out by x-ray-radiometry with the use of instruments installed in the lander. The measuring element included three radioisotope sources (one source of plutonium-238 and two sources of iron-55), four gas-discharge proportional counters, and soil collectors in which was placed the rock material to be analyzed.

  17. The LHT (Lunar Highlands Type) Regolith Simulant Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, Douglas; Wilson, Steve; Weinstein, Michael; Rickman, Douglas; Lowers, Heather; Meeker, Gregory; Schrader, Christian; McLemore, Carole; Fikes, John

    2008-01-01

    Three NU-LHT (NASA/USGS-Lunar Highlands Type) regolith simulants have been produced to date: NU-LHT-1M, -ID, and -2M. A fourth simulant is currently in production: NU-LHT-3C. The "M" (medium) designation indicates a simulant with a grain size of <1 mm, "D" (dust) a simulant with a grain size of <36 microns, and "C" (coarse) a simulant with a 10 cm maximum particle size. The composition of these simulants is based on a NASA average Apollo 16 regolith chemical composition, However, the mixing model used to create our simulants is based on cationic nonnative mineral proportions derived from the target chemical composition to approximate lunar modal mineralogy rather than chemical composition per se. Accordingly, the amount of plagioclase, pyroxenes, olivine, and trace minerals in the simulant crystalline fraction approximates that of the lunar regolith. We also added synthetic agglutinate in amounts approximate for low-medium regolith maturity. A pure glass fraction was also added to simulate other types of lunar glasses present in the regolith. In addition, the 3C simulant will include synthetic impact melt breccia clasts for the >1 cm particles. The bulk raw materials used to create these simulants include clinopyroxene-norite, anorthosite, hartzburgite and noritic mill waste from the Stillwater Mine, Nye, MT, and olivine from the Twin Sisters dunite, WA. Added trace minerals include beach sand ilmenite, chromite, synthetic p-tricaicium phosphate (whitiockite), gem grade fluor-apatite, and pyrite. The agglutinate, glasses, and synthetic breccia were designed and prepared at an industrial plasma melting facility in Boulder, CO, using Stillwater mill waste feedstock for the melt. These simulants do not include nanophase-feO. The M and C simulant grain size distribution (down to 0.4 microns) approximates that of Apollo 16 regolith and the regolith in general.

  18. KREEPy Bullialdus Crater: Probing the Links Between Mineralogy, Thorium, and Lunar Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, R. L.; Lawrence, D. J.; Hagerty, J. J.; Cahill, J.

    2011-12-01

    The central peak of Bullialdus Crater has long been recognized as being dominated by a strong noritic signature (e.g., 1,2,3). Results of spectral fits to the central peak of Bullialdus suggest a relatively high Mg# in the low-Ca pyroxenes (4), within the range of values observed for Mg-suite lunar samples (e.g., 5). Centered at -20.7°, 337.5° in Mare Nubium, Bullialdus Crater lies within the high-thorium Procellarum KREEP Terrane (e.g., 6). In fact, based on orbital gamma-ray data, Bullialdus is the location of a clear Thorium enhancement, which is important because Th commonly serves as a proxy for detecting KREEP-rich materials on the lunar surface (7). In addition to providing a window into the complex petrology of the lunar crust, Bullialdus Crater may also provide insight into the distribution of native lunar volatiles. Multiple lunar data sets have demonstrated that some lunar surface materials exhibit a 2.8 - 3.0 μm absorption band, indicative of a hydroxyl or water component (e.g., 8, 9,10). An increasing number of studies are also revealing that the lunar mantle may have contained more water than originally assumed (11, 12, 13) and some of this increased water may be related to KREEP materials (14). Observations of the central peak of Bullialdus Crater indicate that the pyroxenes exhibit a distinctive 2.8 μm band that is significantly stronger than the immediate surroundings, possibly indicating the presence of a hydroxyl component. We will present the association of hydroxyl absorptions at and around Bullialdus Crater with the thorium anomalies and explore whether the hydroxyl observed in the Bullialdus central peak is likely to be solar-wind implanted hydrogen or native, bound hydroxyl within the norites.

  19. The Moon: Determining Minerals and their Abundances with Mid-IR Spectral Deconvolution II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Richard W.; Donaldson Hanna, K.; Sprague, A. L.; Grosse, F. A.; Boop, T. S.; Warell, J.; Boccafola, K.

    2007-10-01

    We determine the mineral compositions and abundances at three locations on the lunar surface using an established spectral deconvolution algorithm (Ramsey 1996, Ph.D. Dissertation, ASU; Ramsey and Christiansen 1998, JGR 103, 577-596) for mid-infrared spectral libraries of mineral separates of varying grain sizes. Spectral measurements of the lunar surface were obtained at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, HI with Boston University's Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI). Our chosen locations, Aristarchus, Grimaldi and Mersenius C, have been previously observed in the VIS near-IR from ground-based telescopes and spacecraft (Zisk et al. 1977, The Moon 17, 59-99; Hawke et al. 1993, GRL 20, 419-422; McEwen et al. 1994, Science 266, 1858-1862; Peterson et al. 1995, 22, 3055-3058; Warell et al. 2006, Icarus 180, 281-291), however there are no sample returns for analysis. Surface mineral deconvolutions of the Grimaldi Basin infill are suggestive of anorthosite, labradorite, orthopyroxene, olivine, garnet and phosphate. Peterson et al. (1995) indicated the infill of Grimaldi Basin has a noritic anorthosite or anorthositic norite composition. Our spectral deconvolution supports these results. Modeling of other lunar locations is underway. We have also successfully modeled laboratory spectra of HED meteorites, Vesta, and Mercury (see meteorites and mercurian abstracts this meeting). These results demonstrate the spectral deconvolution method to be robust for making mineral identifications on remotely observed objects, in particular main-belt asteroids, the Moon, and Mercury. This work was funded by NSF AST406796.

  20. Xenoliths of mafic/ultramafic igneous rocks as carriers of information on lower crust beneath Złotoryja - Jawor volcanic complex (SW Poland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajek, Michał; Matusiak-Malek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Lipa, Danuta; Ntaflos, Theodors

    2016-04-01

    The Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks in Lower Silesia (SW Poland) are known for their mantle peridotite xenoliths. However, the mafic and ultramafic xenoliths with cumulative textures and of composition of olivine- or hornblende clinopyroxenite, clinopyroxenite, websterite, norite and gabbro occur in some of the lavas (6 sites) of the Złotoryja-Jawor volcanic complex. The xenoliths are anhydrous, only in Wilcza Góra minor amount of amphibole occurs. The Mg# of clinopyroxene varies from 0.54 (Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka clinopyroxenite) to 0.89 (Góra Świątek clinopyroxenite). Forsterite content in olivine varies from 64% (Winna Góra gabbro) to 86% (Wilcza Góra hornblende clinopyroxenite). Anortite content in plagioclase in nortite and gabbros is 33-56%. The Mg# in amphibole is 0.43 to 0.76. Clinopyroxene trace element composition is typically LREE enriched, but in Wilcza Góra norite and Mnisza Góra clinopyroxenite it is LREE-depleted. The calculated pressures of clinopyroxene crystallization (calculated by the algorithm of Nimis and Ulmer, 1998, CMP, 1998, 122-135, assuming all Fe to be 2+) is from 0.45 to 0.96 GPa pointing to crystallization of the pyroxenitic rocks in lower crust or at crust/mantle boundary. Theoretical melts in equilibrium with clinopyroxene enriched in LREE resemble the alkaline lavas from the area and we suggest they are cognate with host magmas. We explain variations in composition of mafic xenoliths from Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Grodziec to be a result of magma fractionation. Xenoliths containing clinopyroxene impoverished in LREE may represent lithologies inherited from Variscan oceanic crust. Megacrysts of clinopyroxene present in some of the localities cannot result from disintegration of mafic xenoliths This study was possible thanks to project NCN UMO-2014/15/B/ST10/00095 of Polish National Centre for Science.

  1. U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages for the Stillwater Complex and its associated sills and dikes, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: Identification of a parent magma

    SciTech Connect

    Premo, W.R. ); Helz, R.T. ); Zientek, M.L. ); Langston, R.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Seven analyses from two samples of the Lower Banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, yielded a U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of 2,705 {plus minus}4 Ma. A more precise age of 2,704 {plus minus}1 Ma is obtained if the authors regress only five of seven analyses. In either case, the age is in very good agreement with the previously reported Sm-Nd mineral isochron age of 2,701 {plus minus}8 Ma for a gabbro from the Lower Banded series. Noncumulate mafic sills and dikes that immediately underlie the Stillwater Complex are separated into five compositional groups. U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 gabbronorite (2,711 {plus minus}1 Ma) and a group 3 mafic norite (2,703 {plus minus}10 Ma) are comparable to previously reported U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 diabase (2,713 {plus minus}3 Ma) and a group 4 high-Ti norite (2,712 {plus minus}3 Ma). Although group 2 high-Mg gabbronorite and group 6 olivine gabbro have not yet yielded significant amounts of zircon, baddeleyite, or sphene, mineral separates from group 2 yielded a four-point Pb-Pb internal isochron age of 2,704 {plus minus}25 Ma, and separates from group 6 yielded a Sm-Nd internal isochron age of 2,706 {plus minus}64 Ma, indicating that these groups are at least contemporaneous with intrusion of the Stillwater Complex. These results indicate that groups 1 and 4 of the associated sills and dikes are perhaps slightly older than the complex and that groups 2, 3, and 6 may be coeval with it, supporting the idea that these three groups are the best candidates for a Stillwater parent magma, a conclusion previously presented on the basis of detailed mineralogic and geochemical evidence.

  2. Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Some remarks on terrestrial and lunar anorthosite textures and their petrogenetic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, A. San Miguel

    1994-07-01

    The significance of textural analysis in anorthosite research has been emphasized by some petrologists. Textural features of anorthositic rocks can provide important information about their petrogenesis and subsequent evolution. In this work, preliminary results on a petrographic study of terrestrial anorthositic rocks from Canada, Southwestern Angola, and Greenland are presented and discussed in a comparative context with their lunar analogs. Terrestrial anorthositic masses show evidence of anorogenic emplacements. Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that large slabs of norite-gabbro composition are associated with tectonic thrusts. On the other hand, their Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios are generally lower than 0.703, in agreement with being derived from a noritic mantle source. Observations suggest that most terrestrial anorthosites have not formed by processes of magmatic differentiation but during long, retrograde metamorphic conditions producing deformation, cataclasis, grain comminution, and recrystallization throughout several orogenic episodes. Due to the lack of information on field relations among pristine lunar anorthosites, it is difficult to make direct comparisons with their terrestrial analogs about their modes of emplacement. However, their textural resemblance suggests that they were formed by similar processes. Tectonic activity may have favored the intrusion of anorthositic masses in the lunar protocrust in a way similar to the terrestrial case. Thus, a large diveristy of pressure and temperature regimes can be envisioned to occur at different emplacement locations. As magma crystallization proceeds, new intruding bodies may collide with previously formed crustal materials and may thus facilitate recrystallization and granulation of precursor igneous suites. These conditions are not unlike those achieved upon continental collisions in the terrestrial examples, and therefore a similar evolution of such akin rock types can be expected.

  4. Rare earth element geochemistry of an anorthosite-diorite suite, Namaqua mobile belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradie, J. A.; Schoch, A. E.

    1988-03-01

    A swarm of small dyke-like plutons, ranging in composition from anorthosite through diorite and norite, to hypersthenite and glimmerite, occurs in the western part of the Namaqua mobile belt, South Africa. Known as the Koperberg Suite, these rocks host important magmatic sulphide deposits. Zircon ages of approximately 1100 Ma suggest that the suite was emplaced after the peak of the regional high-grade metamorphism, dated at 1200 Ma. A postulated comagmatic origin for the various rock types is confirmed by the REE distributions of anorthosite, leucodiorite, diorite, hypersthenite and glimmerite. The Koperberg Suite resembles the well-known massif anorthosite complexes, typified by the Adirondack Suite, in most properties except for the dispersed mode of occurrence. It is now shown that the similarity also holds for the REE spectra. Thus, the predominant anorthosite and leucodiorite of the Koperberg Suite are comparable to similar rocks of the Adirondacks and the Burwash area, Ontario, albeit more enriched in LREE. More mafic rock types such as norite, mica-diorite and glimmerite are substantially enriched in LREE compared to mafic differentiates of massif anorthosites. Apatite is abundant in the mafic rocks and stores large proportions of the lanthanides. The occurrence of apatite- and mica-rich assemblages indicates source magmas enriched in K, REE and P. A few intrusives exhibit excessively enriched REE patterns which are attributed to late hydrothermal alteration or metasomatism. The REE data for syenite and two-pyroxene assemblages from the Copper District argue against a genetic relationship to the Koperberg Suite in spite of close spatial association.

  5. The Composition of the Lunar Crust as Revealed by the Study of Impact Basin Rings using the Kaguya Multiband Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, M.; Lucey, P. G.; Gaddis, L. R.; Miljkovic, K.

    2015-12-01

    Impact basins excavate material from below the lunar surface and expose it on their peak rings. Peak rings can thus be used as probes to study the composition of the lunar crust with depth, which can in turn be compared to models of the formation of the lunar crust. Global surveys conducted to find exposures of nearly pure minerals have found rare lithologies such as norites, troctolites, and anorthosites associated with many basins rings [Yamamoto et al., 2010; 2012, Nakamura et al., 2012], but the abundance of these lithologies relative to the rings as a whole was not determined. Taking a comprehensive approach, Cheek et al. [2013] found that every immature exposure in the inner rook ring of the Orientale basin consists of anorthosite, suggesting that a massive layer of anorthosite is present at the Orientale target site. In this study, we take the approach of Cheek et al. [2013] and examine all the immature exposures in the rings of 14 impact basins. We use Multiband Imager (415-1550 nm) data and radiative transfer modeling to quantify the abundance of the four major lunar minerals in the inner ring of these basins, and determine the dominant lithologies exposed by the rings. We identify the inner ring of these basins using GRAIL crustal thickness data, and derived the mineralogy at a spatial resolution of 80 meters per pixel. Our preliminary results indicate that the dominant lithology in the inner ring of 12 of the 14 basins is anorthosite, with modal plagioclase content ranging between 92-94 wt%, suggesting that a massive layer of anorthosite is widespread under the lunar surface. The dominant lithologies in the other two basins are noritic and gabbroic anorthosites. The other lithologies present in the 14 basins will be investigated next, and the depth of excavation of each of these basin rings as well as the crustal thickness at these sites will be used to determine the composition of the crust with depth.

  6. A young solidification age for the lunar magma ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Amy M.; Borg, Lars E.

    2014-09-01

    The time at which the lunar magma ocean solidified can be determined from the Lu-Hf isotope systematics of lunar rocks derived from magma sources that formed during crystallization of the lunar magma ocean. The final magma ocean crystallization product, termed urKREEP, is enriched in incompatible elements including K, REE and P. We have determined the initial Hf isotopic compositions of four samples, two KREEP basalts and two Mg-suite norites. The incompatible trace element compositions of these samples are controlled by an urKREEP component, and therefore the initial Hf isotopic compositions of these samples represent the Hf isotopic evolution of urKREEP. In order to correct the effects of neutron irradiation on the Hf isotopic compositions of these samples, we have developed a model that uses the stable Hf and Sm isotopic compositions measured on an irradiated sample to determine and correct for the thermal and epithermal neutron fluence that has modified the Hf isotopic composition of the sample. We use our corrected results to calculate a 176Lu-176Hf urKREEP model age of 4353 ± 37 Ma and the 176Lu/177Hf of urKREEP to be 0.0153 ± 0.0033. The Lu-Hf model age is concordant with the re-calculated Sm-Nd urKREEP model age of 4389 ± 45 Ma, and we take the average of these ages, 4368 ± 29 Ma, to represent the time at which urKREEP formed. This age is concordant with the age of the most reliably dated ferroan noritic anorthosite as well as 142Nd model ages for the formation or re-equilibration of mare basalt sources. Taken together, these ages indicate that the Moon experienced a widespread, large-scale magmatic event around 4370 Ma, most plausibly attributed to solidification of the lunar magma ocean.

  7. Petrological and geochemical studies of ultramafic-mafic rocks from the North Puruliya Shear Zone (eastern India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Aditi; Ray, Arijit

    2015-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic rocks occur within a linear belt, trending nearly E-W along North Puruliya Shear Zone of the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC). These rocks are classified as gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite, dolerite, diorite, olivine-websterite and lherzolite. Mafic rocks (Group 1) often occur in association with ultramafic variants (Group 2) and sometimes in isolation. A genetic link has been established between these mafic and ultramafic rocks using disposition of ultramafic and mafic rocks in the outcrop, systematic variation in modal mineralogy, co-linearity of plots in biaxial chemical variation diagram. Chemical composition of biotite and clinopyroxene reveal calc-alkaline nature and arc signature in these mafic-ultramafic rocks and whole rock geochemical characters indicate similarity with arc magma in subduction zone setting. The high values of Mg no. (47-81) and Al 2 O 3 (5.5-17.9) of mafic rocks indicate primitive, aluminous nature of the parental melt and presence of amphibole and biotite indicate its hydrous nature. The parent mafic melt evolved through fractionation of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The crystal cumulates gave rise to the ultramafic rocks and the associated mafic rocks formed from residual melt. Crustal contamination played an important role in magmatic evolution as evident from variation in abundance of Rb in different lithomembers. Mafic-ultramafic rocks of the present study have been compared with intra-cratonic layered complexes, mafic-ultramafic rocks of high grade terrain, Alaskan type ultramafic-mafic complex and ophiolites. It is observed that the ultramafic-mafic rocks of present study have similarity with Alaskan type complex.

  8. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology of the ultramafic and mafic rocks emplaced within the anatectic series of the Variscan Pyrenees: The example of the Gavarnie-Heas dome (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilzi, Mohammad A.; Grégoire, Michel; Bosse, Valérie; Benoît, Mathieu; Driouch, Youssef; de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Debat, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The origin and evolution of ultramafic (UM), mafic (M) and intermediate rocks emplaced within the metamorphic and anatectic series of the middle crust of the Variscan segment of the Pyrenees are defined in the light of new isotopic data U-Pb zircon ages, and Sr, Nd isotopic ratios. In the Gavarnie-Heas dome (central Pyrenees), ultramafic, mafic and intermediate rocks form three massifs several kilometers in size emplaced within the anatectic series: (i) the Gloriettes massif, which mostly consists of norites with enclaves of ultramafic rocks; (ii) the Troumouse massif, which comprises intermediate rocks (gabbro-diorite and diorite) with norite enclaves, and (iii) the Aguila massif, which consists of intermediate rocks with hornblendite enclaves. U-Pb zircon geochronology (first data for these rock types in the Axial Zone of the Pyrenees) revealed an age of 294 Ma for the diorite crystallization and correlatively for the crystallization of the anatectic granite. This new radiometric age allows us to suggest that the Variscan orogeny continued at least until the Early Permian and spread over around 30 Ma. The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of all UM and M samples plot within the field of the continental crust. Two scenarios can explain the genesis and the emplacement of the components of the magmatic suite: i) evolution of mantle melts and contamination (AFC); ii) evolution of melts originating from a heterogeneous source (mantle + crust) at the local or regional scale. The strong crustal affinity of all UM and M rock types from Gavarnie-Heas leads us to favor the second scenario.

  9. Early Jurassic subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean in NE China: Petrologic and geochemical evidence from the Tumen mafic intrusive complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feng; Li, Hongxia; Fan, Weiming; Li, Jingyan; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Miwei; Xu, Wenliang

    2015-05-01

    Subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Oceanic Plate is widely considered to have caused extensive Mesozoic magmatism, lithospheric deformation and mineralization in East Asia. However, it is still unclear when this subduction began. Here we report an Early Jurassic (~ 187 Ma) mafic intrusive complex (including olivine norite, gabbro, and diorite) from the Tumen area in NE China. The olivine norite contains a mineral assemblage of olivine, pyroxene, Ca-plagioclase, and hornblende that crystallized in a water-saturated parental magma. The rocks in the complex show variable degrees of plagioclase and ferromagnesian mineral accumulation as reflected by positive Sr and Eu anomalies in primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element patterns. Mass-balance calculations indicate that the parental magma was calc-alkaline with arc-type trace element features (i.e., large ion incompatible and light rare earth element enrichment and Nb-Ta depletion). It also had Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7042 to 0.7044, εNd(t) = + 2.5 to + 3.5 and εHf(t) = + 8.4 to + 10.5) similar to those of modern arc basalts. The parental magma was likely derived from 5 to 20% melting of a mantle wedge metasomatized by an addition of 3-4% hydrous sediment melt from the subducting Paleo-Pacific Oceanic slab. The Tumen mafic intrusive complex, together with other contemporaneous mafic intrusions, I-type granitoids, and felsic lavas, constitutes an Early Jurassic N-S-trending arc magmatic belt that was formed by westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean.

  10. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, P.; Halevy, I.

    2013-12-23

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8–9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1" × 1", 2" × 4" × 4", 2" × 4" ×16", and an “up-looking” 2" × 4" × 4". The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2" diameter × 2" long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the NNSS. A 4-person Israeli team from the IAEC NRCN supported the activity together with 11

  11. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, Cathy

    2013-09-11

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2012 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2012 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NFO is

  12. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of Area 18 - Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons

    2009-07-31

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of Area 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the purpose of mapping man-made radiation deposited as a result of the Johnnie Boy and Little Feller I tests. The survey area centered over the Johnnie Boy ground zero but also included the ground zero and deposition area of the Little Feller I test, approximately 7,000 feet (2133 meters) southeast of the Johnnie Boy site. The survey was conducted in one flight. The completed survey covered a total of 4.0 square miles. The flight lines (with the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figure 1. One 2.5-hour-long flight was performed at an altitude of 100 ft above ground level (AGL) with 200 foot flight-line spacing. A test-line flight was conducted near the Desert Rock Airstrip to ensure quality control of the data. The test line is not shown in Figure 1. However, Figure 1 does include the flight lines for a ''perimeter'' flight. The path traced by the helicopter flying over distinct roads within the survey area can be used to overlay the survey data on a base map or image. The flight survey lines were flown in an east-west orientation perpendicular to the deposition patterns for both sites. This technique provides better spatial resolution when contouring the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected every second over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man

  13. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  14. Crystal accumulation in a 4.2 Ga lunar impact melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M. D.; Taylor, L. A.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    The ages of lunar impact basins and the role of fractional crystallization in producing compositional heterogeneity of lunar melt sheets are long-standing problems with significant implications for solar system dynamics and the petrologic evolution of the lunar crust. Here we document the formation of a basin-scale impact on the Moon at 4.20 ± 0.07 Ga based on the 147Sm-143Nd isochron age of a magnesian, noritic anorthosite melt rock from lunar breccia 67955. Major element compositions of plagioclase and mafic silicates in the melt rock imply a substantial component of primary Mg-suite cumulates or related lithologies in the pre-impact crustal stratigraphy. Trace element compositions of the plagioclase, including diagnostic ratios such as Sr/Ba, are also mostly similar to those in plagioclase from Mg-suite cumulates, with a small number of grains trending toward compositions observed in ferroan anorthosites. Mineral-melt distribution coefficients applied to trace element compositions of the 67955 plagioclase and pyroxene predict parental melt compositions that contrast strongly with the bulk rock. Compared to the whole rock, parental melts calculated from the plagioclase are enriched in REE (ΣREELa-Yb = 131-885, average 619 ppm vs. 39.8 ppm) and they have more fractionated REE patterns (La/Ybn = 1.2-9.8, average 4.9 vs. 1.5) with deep negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.09-0.40 vs. 1.36). Trace element data for the pyroxenes also imply incompatible-element enriched parental melts. Subsolidus equilibration between the plagioclase and the pyroxene apparently rotated the REE patterns, but the conclusion that the parental melt was highly enriched in REE relative to the whole rock appears robust. Quantitative modeling shows that fractional crystallization of the 67955 whole rock composition cannot reproduce the range of Ba, Sr, Ti, and La concentrations measured in the 67955 plagioclase. Rather, the models require an initial melt composition that was strongly enriched

  15. Cambro-Ordovician Granites in the Araçuaí Belt, in Brazil: snapshots from a late orogenic collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Campos, Cristina P.; Mendes, Júlio Cesar; de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; Ludka, Isabel P.

    2014-05-01

    Along the Brazilian Coast, surrounding the São Francisco Craton and adjacent mobile belts, deep segments of a Neoproterozoic orogen (Araçuaí-West Congo) generated over 120 Ma of successive magmatic episodes of granitic magmatism. The c.630-585 Ma calc-alkaline magmatic arc consists of metatonalite to metagranodiorite, with metadioritic to noritic facies and enclaves. During the syn-collisional and crustal thickening stage (c. 585 to 560 Ma) S-type metagranites have been built by dehydration melting of a diverse package of sediments. Around 545-525 Ma late orogenic crustal remelting formed mostly non-foliated garnet-cordierite leucogranites. In the post-orogenic stage (c. 510-480 Ma) inversely zoned calc-alkaline to alkaline plutons intruded previous units. This work will focus on the youngest post-orogenic magmatism. It will present the state of the art by reviewing structural measurements, detailed mapping of flow patterns and additional geochemical and isotopic data. The architecture of around 10 plutons, ranging from c. 20 to 200 km2 in surface area, unravels deep mushroom- to funnel-like magma chambers and/or conduits. Available data point towards different compositional domains, which are interfingered in complex concentric layers, so that, each pluton depicts a unique internal flow pattern. In the silica-richer structures concentric fragmented or folded layers of granite, in a hybrid K-gabbroic/dioritic matrix, contrast with predominantly homogeneous K-basaltic to gabbroic regions. These may be separated by magmatic shear zones where mixing is enhanced, also resulting in hybrid compositions. Sharp and pillow-like contacts between granitic and K-basaltic rocks locally depict a frozen-in situation of different intrusive episodes. In the silica-poorer plutonic bodies gradational contacts are more frequent and may be the result of convection enhanced diffusion. For all plutons, however, mostly sub-vertical internal contacts between most- and least

  16. The Effect of Variable Greenschist Alteration on the Offset Zone of the Lac Des Iles Pd Deposit, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The recently discovered Offset zone of the Mine Block Intrusion of the Lac des Iles Complex hosts Pd deposits with unusually high Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios in rocks that range from relatively unaltered mineralized norite to chlorite-actinolite-talc schist. Questions remain as to the degree the deposit is magmatic or has been upgraded by later fluid activity. Quantitative assessment of the effect of progressive alteration using mineral modes was done using total silicate H2O as a monitor of reaction progress (ξ = moles H2O added to form alteration minerals). Major mineral modal variations define three reaction regions: (1) ξ = 0.00 - 0.03, characterized by epidote/clinozoisite formation and some amphibole, (2) ξ = 0.03 - 0.23, characterized by precipitation of chlorite, amphibole, quartz muscovite/sericite and calcite after plagioclase + pyroxene and (3) ξ = 0.23 - 0.28, characterized by the production of talc after earlier formed amphibole. Epidote occurs as an incongruent product from the destruction of plagioclase that is itself lost as the reaction proceeds. Pyroxene is altered at about twice the rate of plagioclase, resulting in pyroxene-rich protoliths to be more altered than those relatively enriched in plagioclase. Major elements variations largely reflect variations in the plagioclase/pyroxene ratio of the protolith but suggest mainly a loss of Na with reaction progress. Base metal sulfides chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and pentlandite show decreasing abundance with reaction progress, dissolving incongruently to pyrite and magnetite as intermediate reaction products. Millerite is overall low but increase slightly. A more limited data set on the platinum-group minerals suggests that PGE-arsenides increase whereas PGE-sulfides and PGE-Bi-tellurides decrease with reaction progress. Assuming ore element concentrations in the protolith were constant and similar to relatively fresh norites, Pd increases modestly, by 5%, whereas Pt decreases by about 65% in the most

  17. The Lac Des Iles Palladium Deposit, Ontario, Canada part I. The effect of variable alteration on the Offset Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, Alan; Djon, Lionnel; Tchalikian, Arnaud; Corkery, John

    2014-06-01

    The recently discovered Offset Zone of the Mine Block Intrusion of the Lac des Iles Complex hosts palladium mineralization with unusually high Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios in rocks that range from relatively unaltered norite to amphibolites and chlorite-actinolite-talc schist. Quantitative assessment of the effect of progressive alteration using mineral modes was done using total silicate H2O as a monitor of reaction progress ( ξ = moles H2O added to form alteration minerals per 100 g of rock). Major mineral modal variations define three reaction regions: (1) ξ = 0.00-0.03, characterized by epidote/clinozoisite formation and some amphibole; (2) ξ = 0.03-0.23, characterized by formation of chlorite, amphibole, quartz muscovite/sericite, and calcite after plagioclase + pyroxene; and (3) ξ = 0.23-0.28, characterized by the formation of talc after earlier formed amphibole. Epidote occurs as an incongruent product from the destruction of plagioclase that is itself lost as the reaction proceeds. Pyroxene is altered at about twice the rate of plagioclase, resulting in pyroxene-rich protoliths to be more altered than those relatively enriched in plagioclase. Major elements variations largely reflect variations in the plagioclase/pyroxene ratio of the protolith, but compositional trends suggest a loss of Na with reaction progress. The base metal sulfides chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and pentlandite show decreasing abundance with reaction progress, forming pyrite (± magnetite) as an intermediate reaction product that also is lost as the reaction proceeds. Millerite is overall low but increases slightly. A more limited data set on the platinum-group minerals suggests that platinum-group element (PGE)-arsenides increase whereas PGE-sulfides and PGE-Bi-tellurides decrease with reaction progress. Assuming ore element concentrations in the protolith were constant and similar to relatively fresh norites, Pd increases modestly, by 5 %, whereas Pt decreases by about 65 % in the most

  18. Ancient selenophysical structure over the Grimaldi cater: Constraints from GRAIL gravity and LOLA topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    The Grimaldi impact crater is located near the western limb of the moon and lies to the southwest of the Oceanus Procellarum. A clearly visible positive gravity anomaly exists in its low-lying inner wall, implying a subsurface mass concentration beneath the crater. Exploration of this crater could extend our meaningful and fundamental understanding of giant impact processes as well as the structure of mare basins/craters. Limited by the low-resolution of previous gravity field models, it was once impossible to explore the structure beneath Grimaldi. The recent high-resolution gravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission (GRAIL) make it possible to break through this barrier. Prior to our investigation of the selenophysical structure of the Grimaldi crater, we developed a flexure model that includes surface and subsurface loads. An admittance analysis was performed by combining high-resolution gravity data with the high-resolution topography data obtained from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). Within 1σ _{STD} error constraints, we estimated the best-fit parameters over the crater Grimaldi as well as two other locations in its neighborhood. All the predicted admittance spectra closely matched their corresponding observations, indicating the feasibility of our model. The large load ratio (˜ 2.0) found at the Grimaldi crater site is an indirect mirror of the dominant subsurface load, consistent with its large positive gravity anomaly in its low-lying floor. All the locations observed have a crustal thickness around the minimum value (34 km) found in the recent highland crust; while the crustal density (2820 kg/m ^{3}) of Grimaldi lies between the densities of anorthosite and norite, implying that a possible ancient anorthositic highland crust existed around Grimaldi. It also suggests a mixed crust from the anorthositic upper and noritic lower crusts, revealing an excavated upper crust during the cratering impact process. All the

  19. Constraints on formation and evolution of the lunar crust from feldspathic granulitic breccias NWA 3163 and 4881

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Claire L.; Brandon, Alan D.; Fernandes, Vera A.; Peslier, Anne H.; Fritz, Jörg; Lapen, Thomas; Shafer, John T.; Butcher, Alan R.; Irving, Anthony J.

    2016-08-01

    Lunar granulitic meteorites provide new constraints on the composition and evolution of the lunar crust as they are potentially derived from outside the Apollo and Luna landing sites. Northwest Africa (NWA) 3163, the focus of this study, and its paired stones NWA 4881 and NWA 4483, are shocked granulitic noritic anorthosites. They are petrographically and compositionally distinct from the Apollo granulites and noritic anorthosites. Northwest Africa 3163 is REE-depleted by an order of magnitude compared to Apollo granulites and is one of the most trace element depleted lunar samples studied to date. New in-situ mineral compositional data and Rb-Sr, Ar-Ar isotopic systematics are used to evaluate the petrogenetic history of NWA 3163 (and its paired stones) within the context of early lunar evolution and the bulk composition of the lunar highlands crust. The NWA 3163 protolith was the likely product of reworked lunar crust with a previous history of heavy REE depletion. The bulk feldspathic and pyroxene-rich fragments have 87Sr/86Sr that are indistinguishable and average 0.699282 ± 0.000007 (2σ). A calculated source model Sr TRD age of 4.340 ± 0.057 Ga is consistent with (1) the recently determined young FAS (Ferroan Anorthosite) age of 4.360 ± 0.003 Ga for FAS 60025, (2) 142Nd model ages for the closure of the Sm-Nd system for the mantle source reservoirs of the Apollo mare basalts (4.355-4.314 Ga) and (3) a prominent age peak in the Apollo lunar zircon record (c. 4.345 Ga). These ages are ∼100 Myr younger than predicted timescales for complete LMO crystallization (∼10 Myrs after Moon formation, Elkins-Tanton et al., 2011). This supports a later, major event during lunar evolution associated with crustal reworking due to magma ocean cumulate overturn, serial magmatism, or a large impact event leading to localized or global crustal melting and/or exhumation. The Ar-Ar isotopic systematics on aliquots of paired stone NWA 4881 are consistent with an impact event

  20. Geology and petrology of enormous volumes of impact melt on the Moon: A case study of the Orientale basin impact melt sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, William M.; Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel; Hess, Paul C.

    2013-04-01

    Lunar basin-forming impacts produce enormous volumes (>105 km3) of impact melt. All known basin-forming impacts combined may produce ˜108 km3 of impact melt, ˜1/20th the volume of the lunar crust. Despite their volumetric importance, the geology and petrology of massive deposits of impact melt on the Moon have been little studied, in part because most basin impact melt deposits are old and have been obscured or buried by subsequent impact cratering and mare infill. We investigate the geology and model the petrology of fresh massive impact melt deposits in the relatively young 930 km diameter Orientale basin. Models of impact melt production combined with geologic analyses based on new LOLA topographic data suggest that most of the impact melt (˜2/3) produced by the Orientale-forming impact occurs in a ˜15 km thick impact melt sheet (better described as an impact melt sea) ˜350 km in diameter with a volume of ˜106 km3. We anticipate that the Orientale melt sea has undergone large-scale igneous differentiation, since terrestrial impact melt sheets (such as Manicouagan, Sudbury, and Morokweng) less than a tenth of the thickness and a hundredth of the volume of the Orientale melt sea have differentiated. We develop a model for the cumulate stratigraphy of the solidified Orientale impact melt sea. A modeled cumulate stratigraphy (occurring below a quench crust and anorthositic fallback breccia) with an ˜8 km thick layer of norite overlying a ˜4 km layer of pyroxenite and a basal ˜2 km thick layer of dunite produced by equilibrium crystallization of a homogenized melt sea, consistent with vigorous convection in that melt sea, is supported by remotely-sensed norite excavated by the central peak of Maunder crater from ˜4 km depth. Generally, we predict that very large basin-forming impacts, including the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin-forming impact, produce melt seas with a cumulate stratigraphy similar to that of the Orientale melt sea. Impact melt

  1. Adhesion Between Volcanic Glass and Spacecraft Materials in an Airless Body Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkebile, Stephen; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Gaier, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The successful exploration of airless bodies, such as the Earth s moon, many smaller moons of the outer planets (including those of Mars) and asteroids, will depend on the development and implementation of effective dust mitigation strategies. The ultrahigh vacuum environment (UHV) on the surfaces of these bodies, coupled with constant ion and photon bombardment from the Sun and micrometeorite impacts (space weathering), makes dust adhesion to critical spacecraft systems a severe problem. As a result, the performance of thermal control surfaces, photovoltaics and mechanical systems can be seriously degraded even to the point of failure. The severe dust adhesion experienced in these environments is thought to be primarily due to two physical mechanisms, electrostatic attraction and high surface energies, but the dominant of these has yet to be determined. The experiments presented here aim to address which of these two mechanisms is dominant by quantifying the adhesion between common spacecraft materials (polycarbonate, FEP and PTFE Teflon, (DuPont) Ti-6-4) and a synthetic noritic volcanic glass, as a function of surface cleanliness and triboelectric charge transfer in a UHV environment. Adhesion force has been measured between pins of spacecraft materials and a plate of synthetic volcanic glass by determining the pull-off force with a torsion balance. Although no significant adhesion is observed directly as a result of high surface energies, the adhesion due to induced electrostatic charge is observed to increase with spacecraft material cleanliness, in some cases by over a factor of 10, although the increase is dependent on the particular material pair. The knowledge gained by these studies is envisioned to aid the development of new dust mitigation strategies and improve existing strategies by helping to identify and characterize mechanisms of glass to spacecraft adhesion for norite volcanic glass particles. Furthermore, the experience of the Apollo missions

  2. The tectonic evolution of the Kohistan-Karakoram collision belt along the Karakoram Highway transect, north Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, M. P.; Khan, M. Asif; Fraser, J. E.; Gough, S. J.; Jan, M. Qasim

    1999-12-01

    The Kohistan arc terrane comprises an intra-oceanic island arc of Cretaceous age separating the Indian plate to the south from the Karakoram (Asian) plate to the north within the Indus suture zone of north Pakistan. The intra-oceanic arc volcanics (Chalt, Dras Group) were built on a foundation of dominantly mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-related amphibolites of the Kamila Group. The subarc magma chamber is represented by multiple intrusions of a huge gabbro-norite complex (Chilas complex), which includes some ultramafic assemblages of residual mantle harzburgite and dunite, layered cumulates, and hornblendites cut by late stage dikes of hornblende + plagioclase pegmatites. The Chilas complex norites intrude the Gilgit metasediments of lower amphibolite and greenschist facies in northern Kohistan, which also form xenolithic roof pendants within the top of the Chilas complex. Along the southern margin of Kohistan, Jijal and Sapat complex ultramafics (dunites, harzburgites and websterites) form remnant suprasubduction zone ophiolitic mantle rocks along the hanging wall of the Main Mantle Thrust, the Cretaceous obduction plane along which Kohistan was emplaced onto Indian plate rocks. Garnet granulites of the Jijal complex, formed at 12-14 kbars, represent original magmatic lower crustal rocks subducted to depths of at least 45 km and metamorphosed during high-pressure and high-temperature subduction of earlier arc-related rocks. Obduction of the Sapat ophiolite and Kohistan arc occurred between ˜75 and 55 Ma. The closure of the Shyok suture zone separating Kohistan from the Karakoram plate must have occurred prior to 75 Ma, the age of the Jutal basic dikes which crosscut the closure-related fabrics, mainly late north directed backthrusting in the lower Hunza valley. Andean-type granitoid (gabbrodiorite-granodiorite-granite) emplacement along the Kohistan-Ladakh batholith ended at the time of India-Asia collision, ˜ 60-50 Myr ago. Postcollisional crustal thickening

  3. Role of magmatic and fluid concentrating in formation of platinum mineralization in the Lower Zone and Platreef as follows from composition of phlogopite, cumulus silicates, and sulfide melt, the northern limb of Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovskaya, M. A.; Kinnaird, J. A.; Udachina, L. V.; Distler, V. V.; Kuz'min, D. V.

    2014-11-01

    As follows from the results of new geological exploration, the thick sequence of primitive cumulates of the Lower Zone underlies Platreef in separate magmatic depressions of the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex. In the Turfspruit area, the Lower Zone is separated from the overlying Platreef by an interval of contact metasedimentary rocks with sills of fine-grained norite and plagioclase orthopyroxenite of the Marginal Zone. The magmatic stratigraphy of Platreef in Turfspruit and its western plunge, where it is slightly contaminated with sedimentary rocks, is close to the section of Critical Zone in the Bushveld. The Lower Zone and Platreef contain sulfide mineralization enriched in PGE in particular units-reefs-throughout the section. The main reef can be correlated with the Merensky Reef. The objective of this study was to estimate the relationships between fluid and magmatic PGE concentrating in the reefs localized in the upper part of Platreef near its unconformable contact with the Main Zone. It is shown that Ni partitioning between cumulus olivine and orthopyroxene, on the one hand, and coexisting sulfide liquid, on the other, indicates their equilibrium crystallization in the Lower Zone and Platreef at close redox conditions. The composition of sulfide liquid was recalculated as sulfide tenor on the basis of bulk Ni, Cu, and S concentrations in rock. In contrast, Ni partitioning between phlogopite and sulfide melt does not provide evidence in favor of their equilibrium crystallization, although Mg # of phlogopite from the intercumulus assemblage is correlated with Mg # of cumulus mineral throughout the section. The results of phlogopite microprobing throughout the section show that the highest F and Cl contents are characteristic of highly evolved rocks, including both the PGE-bearing plagioclase pyroxenite from reefs and barren norite from the Marginal Zone. We have arrived at the conclusion that enrichment in volatile components is the attendant rather

  4. Low-Sulfide PGE ores in paleoproterozoic Monchegorsk pluton and massifs of its southern framing, Kola Peninsula, Russia: Geological characteristic and isotopic geochronological evidence of polychronous ore-magmatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashchin, V. V.; Bayanova, T. B.; Mitrofanov, F. P.; Serov, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    New U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic geochronological data are reported for rocks of the Monchegorsk pluton and massifs of its southern framing, which contain low-sulfide PGE ores. U-Pb zircon ages have been determined for orthopyroxenite (2506 ± 3 Ma) and mineralized norite (2503 ± 8 Ma) from critical units of Monchepluton at the Nyud-II deposit, metaplagioclasite (2496 ± 4 Ma) from PGE-bearing reef at the Vurechuaivench deposit, and host metagabbronorite (2504.3 ± 2.2. Ma); the latter is the youngest in Monchepluton. In the southern framing of Monchepluton, the following new datings are now available: U-Pb zircon ages of mineralized metanorite from the lower marginal zone (2504 ± 1 Ma) and metagabbro from the upper zone (2478 ± 20 Ma) of the South Sopcha PGE deposit, as well as metanorite from the Lake Moroshkovoe massif (2463.1 ± 2.7 Ma). The Sm-Nd isochron (rock-forming minerals, sulfides, whole-rock samples) age of orthopyroxenite from the Nyud-II deposit (2497 ± 36 Ma) is close to results obtained using the U-Pb method. The age of harzburgite from PGE-bearing 330 horizon reef of the Sopcha massif related to Monchepluton is 2451 ± 64 Ma at initial ɛNd =-6.0. The latter value agrees with geological data indicating that this reef was formed due to the injection of an additional portion of high-temperature ultramafic magma, which experienced significant crustal contamination. The results of Sm-Nd isotopic geochronological study of ore-bearing metaplagioclasite from PGE reef of the Vurechuaivench deposit (2410 ± 58 Ma at ɛNd =-2.4) provide evidence for the appreciable effect of metamorphic and hydrothermal metasomatic alterations on PGE ore formation. The Sm-Nd age of mineralized norite from the Nyud-II deposit is 1940 ± 32 Ma at initial ɛNd =-7.8. This estimate reflects the influence of the Svecofennian metamorphism on the Monchepluton ore-magmatic system, which resulted in the rearrangement of the Sm-Nd system and its incomplete closure. Thus, the new

  5. Some things we can infer about the Moon from the Composition of the Apollo 16 Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of the regolith of Cayley plains as sampled at the Apollo 16 lunar landing site are reviewed and new compositional data are presented for samples of less than 1 mm fines ('soils') and 1-2 mm regolith particles. As a means of determining which of the many primary (igneous) and secondary (crystalline breccias) lithologic components that have been identified in the soil are volumetrically important and providing an estimate of their relative abundances, more than 3 x 10(exp 6) combinations of components representing nearly every lithology that has been observed in the Apollo 16 regolith were systematically tested to determine which combinations best account for the composition of the soils. Conclusions drawn from the modeling include the following. At the site, mature soil from the Cayley plains consists of 64.5% +/- 2.7% components representing 'prebasin' materials: anorthosites, feldspathic breccias, and a small amount (2.6% +/- 1.5% of total soil) of nonmare, mafic plutonic rocks, mostly gabbronorites. On average, these components are highly feldspathic, with average concentrations of 3l-32% Al2O3 and 2-3% FeO and a molar Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio of O.68. The remaining 36% of the regolith is syn- and postbasin material: 28.8% +/- 2.4% mafic impact-melt breccias (MIMBS, i.e., 'LKFM' and 'VHA basalts') created at the time of basin formation, 6.0% +/- 1.4% mare-derived material (impact and volcanic glass, crystalline basalt) with an average TiO2 concentration of 2.4%, and 1% postbasin meteoritic material. The MIMBs are the principal (80-90%) carrier of incompatible trace elements (rare earths, Th, etc.) and the carrier of about one-half of the siderophile elements and elements associated with mafic mineral phases (Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Sc). Most (71 %) of the Fe in the present regolith derives from syn- and postbasin sources (MIMBS, mare-derived material, and meteorites). Thus, although the bulk composition of the Apollo 16 regolith is nominally that of noritic

  6. Mafic and felsic igneous rocks at Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, Violaine; Cousin, Agnès; Mangold, Nicolas; Toplis, Michael; Fabre, Cécile; Forni, Olivier; Payré, Valérie; Gasnault, Olivier; Ollila, Anne; Rapin, William; Fisk, Martin; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Lasue, Jérémie; Newsom, Horton; Lanza, Nina

    2015-04-01

    The Curiosity rover landed at Gale, an early Hesperian age crater formed within Noachian terrains on Mars. The rover encountered a great variety of igneous rocks to the west of the Yellow Knife Bay sedimentary unit (from sol 13 to 800) which are float rocks or clasts in conglomerates. Textural and compositional analyses using MastCam and ChemCam Remote micro Imager (RMI) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with a ˜300-500 µm laser spot lead to the recognition of 53 massive (non layered) igneous targets, both intrusive and effusive, ranging from mafic rocks where feldspars form less than 50% of the rock to felsic samples where feldspar is the dominant mineral. From morphology, color, grain size, patina and chemistry, at least 5 different groups of rocks have been identified: (1) a basaltic class with shiny aspect, conchoidal frature, no visible grains (less than 0.2mm) in a dark matrix with a few mm sized light-toned crystals (21 targets) (2) a porphyritic trachyandesite class with light-toned, bladed and polygonal crystals 1-20 mm in length set in a dark gray mesostasis (11 targets); (3) light toned trachytes with no visible grains sometimes vesiculated or forming flat targets (6 targets); (4) microgabbro-norite (grain size < 1mm) and gabbro-norite (grain size >1 mm) showing dark and light toned crystals in similar proportion ( 8 targets); (5) light-toned diorite/granodiorite showing coarse granular (>4 mm) texture either pristine or blocky, strongly weathered rocks (9 rock targets). Overall, these rocks comprise 2 distinct geochemical series: (i) an alkali-suite: basanite, gabbro trachy-andesite and trachyte) including porphyritic and aphyric members; (ii) quartz-normative intrusives close to granodioritic composition. The former looks like felsic clasts recently described in two SNC meteorites (NWA 7034 and 7533), the first Noachian breccia sampling the martian regolith. It is geochemically consistent with differentiation of liquids produced by low

  7. Temperature trends and Urban Heat Island intensity mapping of the Las Vegas valley area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Adam Leland

    Modified urban climate regions that are warmer than rural areas at night are referred to as Urban Heat Islands or UHI. Islands of warmer air over a city can be 12 degrees Celsius greater than the surrounding cooler air. The exponential growth in Las Vegas for the last two decades provides an opportunity to detect gradual temperature changes influenced by an increasing presence of urban materials. This thesis compares ground based thermometric observations and satellite based remote sensing temperature observations to identify temperature trends and UHI areas caused by urban development. Analysis of temperature trends between 2000 and 2010 at ground weather stations has revealed a general cooling trend in the Las Vegas region. Results show that urban development accompanied by increased vegetation has a cooling effect in arid climates. Analysis of long term temperature trends at McCarran and Nellis weather stations show 2.4 K and 1.2 K rise in temperature over the last 60 years. The ground weather station temperature data is related to the land surface temperature images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper to estimate and evaluate urban heat island intensity for Las Vegas. Results show that spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover. UHI are mainly observed at the airport and in the industrial areas. This research provides useful insight into the temporal behavior of the Las Vegas area.

  8. Update on the Stockpile Monitor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, T.; Harry, H.H.

    1999-04-01

    In 1991 the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) launched a program to develop a comprehensive database of warhead storage conditions. Because of the extended lifetimes expected of the Stockpile, it became desirable to obtain as much detailed information on the storage environments as possible. Temperature and relative humidity at various facilities capable of storing and/or handling nuclear weapons were used as monitoring locations. The Stockpile Monitor Program (SMP) was implemented in a variety of locations as illustrated in a figure. Probably the most useful data come from the most extreme conditions monitored. The hottest outside temperatures and relative humidities come from Barksdale, while some of the lowest relative humidity values come from Nellis, which continue to be monitored. The coldest conditions come from Grand Forks, Griffiss, and KI Sawyer, none of which are presently being monitored. For this reason, the authors would like to begin monitoring Minot, ND. The outside extreme temperatures are ameliorated by the structures to a significant degree. For example, the hottest outside temperature (120 F) is contrasted by the corresponding cooler inside temperature (85 F), and the coldest outside temperature ({minus}35 F) is contrasted by the corresponding warmer inside temperature (+25 F). These data have become useful for calculations related to stockpile-to-target sequence (STS) and other analyses. SMP information has been provided to a number of outside agencies.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Under ground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-05-20

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Underground Discharge Points (UDPs) included in both CAU 406 and CAU 429. The CAUs are located in Area 3 and Area 9 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  10. Monitoring of a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus population on the Frazier Islands, Wilkes Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creuwels, J.C.S.; Stark, J.S.; Woehler, Eric J.; Van Franeker, J. A.; Ribic, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1956, Southern Giant Petrels on the Frazier Islands, East Antarctica, have been counted with different census techniques, sometimes varying within seasons and among islands, which hindered analysis of the data. Protective measures for the islands from 1986 onwards have increased the need for reliable long-term census data, but reduced the ways to collect these data. Published and unpublished data were re-examined, and population trends were reconstructed based on two relatively standardised techniques: the number of active chicks (AC) and the number of apparently occupied nests (AON) around hatching. AC-values from Nelly Island from 1959 to 1998 indicate substantial periodic fluctuations, but no consistent long-term change. Since the late 1970s, AC-values on the other two islands and AON-values suggest that the breeding population may have grown by 35%. This recent growth, however, is within the extent of periodic fluctuations observed in Southern Giant Petrel population that is stable over the long term. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  11. Corrective action decision document second gas station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403). Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes}. The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-03 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (3 5 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service.

  12. NTS (Nevada Test Site) Mesa recharge study FY 1989: Letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B F; Mihevc, T M

    1990-03-01

    Pahute Mesa is a large geomorphic feature that is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and a portion of the Nellis Air Force Range. The identification of radionuclide migration at the U20n site has resulted in an increased interest in the hydrology of Pahute Mesa. An important aspect of groundwater studies is to estimate groundwater recharge from precipitation. Although some meteorological data have been collected on Pahute Mesa, they are not sufficient for making these recharge estimates. The elevation of Pahute Mesa that lies within the boundaries of the NTS ranges from under 6,000 feet to over 7,000 feet. Accompanying these elevation changes is a variety of plant communities. Vegetation in areas of low elevation is dominated by sagebrush and pinyon/juniper at the higher elevation. Communities of Gambel oak are interspersed with pinyon/juniper. Varying plant communities on Pahute Mesa are indicative of the nonuniformity of precipitation and soil types. To understand the mechanisms that lead to recharge, it is necessary to know the spatial as well as temporal variation in precipitation. At the same time, the conditions in the soil need to be monitored to determine if the precipitation is, in fact, infiltrating to the critical depth needed to attain groundwater recharge. These areas of study are covered in this report. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Housekeeping Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 119: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-26

    The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was entered into by the State of Nevada, US Department of Energy, and US Department of Defense to identify sites of potential historical contamination and implement corrective actions based on public health and environmental considerations. The facilities subject to this agreement include the Nevada Test Site (NTS), parts of the Tonopah Test Range, parts to the Nellis Air Force Range, the Central Nevada Test Area, and the Project Shoal Area. Corrective Action Sites (CASs) are areas potentially requiring corrective actions and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal, or release sites. Based on geography, technical similarity, agency responsibility, or other appropriate reasons, CASs are grouped together into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for the purpose of determining appropriate corrective actions. This report contains the Closure Verification Forms for cleanup activities that were performed at 19 CASs with in CAU 119 on the NTS. The form for each CAS provides the location, directions to the site, general description, and photographs of the site before and after cleanup activities. Activities included verification of the prior removal of both aboveground and underground gas/oil storage tanks, gas sampling tanks, pressure fuel tanks, tank stands, trailers, debris, and other material. Based on these former activities, no further action is required at these CASs.

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Sites quality assurance project plan: Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) describes the measures that shall be taken to ensure that the environmental data collected during characterization and closure activities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are meaningful, valid, defensible, and can be used to achieve project objectives. These activities are conducted by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Nevada Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Nevada ER Project consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The RCRA Industrial Sites subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada ER Project. Currently, this QAPjP is limited to the seven RCRA Industrial Sites identified within this document that are to be closed under an interim status and pertains to all field-investigation, analytical-laboratory, and data-review activities in support of these closures. The information presented here supplements the RCRA Industrial Sites Project Management Plan and is to be used in conjunction with the site-specific subproject sampling and analysis plans.

  15. Housekeeping Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 463: Areas 2, 3, 9, and 25 Housekeeping Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-11-24

    The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was entered into by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy, and U.S. Department of Defense to identify sites of potential historical contamination and implement corrective actions based on public health and environmental considerations. The facilities subject to this agreement include the Nevada Test Site (NTS), parts of the Tonopah Test Range, parts of the Nellis Air Force Range, the Central Nevada Test Area, and the Project Shoal Area. Corrective Action Sites (CASs) are areas potentially requiring corrective actions and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal, or release sites. Based on geography, technical similarity, agency responsibility, or other appropriate reasons, CASs are grouped together into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for the purposes of determining corrective actions. This report contains the Closure Verification Forms for cleanup activities that were performed at 13 CASs within CAU 463 on the NTS. The Housekeeping Closure Verification Form for each CAS provides the location, directions to the site, general description, and photographs of the site before and after cleanup activities. Housekeeping activities at these sites included removal of debris (e.g., wooden pallets, metal, glass, and trash) and other material. In addition, these forms confirm prior removal of other contaminated materials such as metal drums or buckets, transformers, lead bricks, batteries, and gas cylinders. Based on these activities, no further action is required at these CASs.

  16. Double tracks test site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  17. Equation of state measurements of shocked ammonia gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, John; Dattelbaum, Dana; Goodwin, Peter; Coe, Joshua; Garcia, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Ammonia is one of the constituents of the fluid product mixture arising from explosives detonation. Few shock compression experiments have been performed on NH3 in either the gas or condensed phase. Earlier work by Dick (J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4053) and Mitchell, et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 76, 6273) examined the shock compressibility of liquid NH3. Nellis, et al. (Science 240, 781) also performed experiments on liquid mixtures of NH3 with water and isopropanol (a ``synthetic Uranus'') to develop an equation of state (EOS) for the outer planets. Here, we present the results from a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on NH3 gas at elevated initial density. PDV and VISAR optical diagnostics were used to directly measure shock velocities and particle velocities in the shocked gas, used in quantifying the principal Hugoniot locus, and pressure and density of the shocked gas. Emission was measured using both 5-color pyrometry and streak spectroscopy, from which we estimated the temperature of the shocked gas. The pressure and density measurements were in good agreement with results from simulations using the SESAME EOS for NH3, however the measured temperatures were found to be consistently lower than in the simulations, and lower than shocked atomic gas species such as Ar.

  18. Geologic Map of the Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' quadrangle lies within an arid, sparsely populated part of Lincoln and Nye Counties, southeastern Nevada. Much of the area is public land that includes the Desert National Wildlife Range, the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and the Nellis Air Force Base. The topography, typical of much of the Basin and Range Province, consists of north-south-trending ranges and intervening broad alluvial valleys. Elevations range from about 1,000 to 2,900 m. At the regional scale, the Pahranagat Range quadrangle lies within the Mesozoic and early Tertiary Sevier Fold-and-Thrust Belt and the Cenozoic Basin and Range Province. The quadrangle is underlain by a Proterozoic to Permian miogeoclinal section, a nonmarine clastic and volcanic section of middle Oligocene or older to late Miocene age, and alluvial deposits of late Cenozoic age. The structural features that are exposed reflect relatively shallow crustal deformation. Mesozoic deformation is dominated by thrust faults and asymmetric or open folds. Cenozoic deformation is dominated by faults that dip more than 45i and dominostyle tilted blocks. At least three major tectonic events have affected the area: Mesozoic (Sevier) folding and thrust faulting, pre-middle Oligocene extensional deformation, and late Cenozoic (mainly late Miocene to Holocene) extensional deformation. Continued tectonic activity is expressed in the Pahranagat Range area by seismicity and faults having scarps that cut alluvial deposits.

  19. Distribution, life history, management, and current status of Astragalus beatleyae on the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, K.W.; Wills, C.A.; Ostler, W.K.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O`Farrell, T.P.

    1992-11-01

    A beatleyae is a small milk vetch found in south-central Nevada on portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nellis Air Force Range. This species has been classified as a Category 1 candidate species for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act because of its limited range and threats from human activities, primarily activities conducted by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV). The status of A. beatleyae was last evaluated over 13 years ago (Rhoads et al., 1979, Beatley, 1978). Since then, numerous conservation measures have been taken by DOE/NV and additional information on the status of this population has been obtained. Field surveys have been conducted to locate new populations of A. beatleyae. Because of this work, the known range of this species has been expanded approximately 300%. DOE/NV has established. a conservation agreement with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and developed a Species Management Plan. This report is a presentation of the results of that population monitoring study. Also included in this report are a review of other field investigations and conservation measures taken by DOE/NV, a review of the current threats to A. beatleyae, and a reassessment of the status of this species under the Endangered Species Act.

  20. Distribution, life history, management, and current status of Astragalus beatleyae on the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, K.W.; Wills, C.A.; Ostler, W.K.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1992-11-01

    A beatleyae is a small milk vetch found in south-central Nevada on portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nellis Air Force Range. This species has been classified as a Category 1 candidate species for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act because of its limited range and threats from human activities, primarily activities conducted by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV). The status of A. beatleyae was last evaluated over 13 years ago (Rhoads et al., 1979, Beatley, 1978). Since then, numerous conservation measures have been taken by DOE/NV and additional information on the status of this population has been obtained. Field surveys have been conducted to locate new populations of A. beatleyae. Because of this work, the known range of this species has been expanded approximately 300%. DOE/NV has established. a conservation agreement with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and developed a Species Management Plan. This report is a presentation of the results of that population monitoring study. Also included in this report are a review of other field investigations and conservation measures taken by DOE/NV, a review of the current threats to A. beatleyae, and a reassessment of the status of this species under the Endangered Species Act.

  1. Clean slate corrective action investigation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Clean Slate sites discussed in this report are situated in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), north of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the northwest portion of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) which is approximately 390 kilometers (km) (240 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These sites were the locations for three of the four Operation Roller Coaster experiments. These experiments evaluated the dispersal of plutonium in the environment from the chemical explosion of a plutonium-bearing device. Although it was not a nuclear explosion, Operation Roller Coaster created some surface contamination which is now the subject of a corrective action strategy being implemented by the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) activities will be conducted at three of the Operation Roller Coaster sites. These are Clean Slate 1 (CS-1), Clean Slate 2 (CS-2), and Clean Slate 3 (CS-3) sites, which are located on the TTR. The document that provides or references all of the specific information relative to the various investigative processes is called the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). This CAIP has been prepared for the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) by IT Corporation (IT).

  2. DOUBLE TRACKS Test Site interim corrective action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The DOUBLE TRACKS site is located on Range 71 north of the Nellis Air Force Range, northwest of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). DOUBLE TRACKS was the first of four experiments that constituted Operation ROLLER COASTER. On May 15, 1963, weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium were dispersed using 54 kilograms of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. The explosion occurred in the open, 0.3 m above the steel plate. No fission yield was detected from the test, and the total amount of plutonium deposited on the ground surface was estimated to be between 980 and 1,600 grams. The test device was composed primarily of uranium-238 and plutonium-239. The mass ratio of uranium to plutonium was 4.35. The objective of the corrective action is to reduce the potential risk to human health and the environment and to demonstrate technically viable and cost-effective excavation, transportation, and disposal. To achieve these objectives, Bechtel Nevada (BN) will remove soil with a total transuranic activity greater then 200 pCI/g, containerize the soil in ``supersacks,`` transport the filled ``supersacks`` to the NTS, and dispose of them in the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site. During this interim corrective action, BN will also conduct a limited demonstration of an alternative method for excavation of radioactive near-surface soil contamination.

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. F. Grossman

    2000-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km{sup 2} (1,375 mi{sup 2}), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Black; Yvonne Townsend

    1999-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  5. Double Tracks revegetation and monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This document is a reclamation plan for short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with interim clean-up of radionuclide-contaminated surface soil at the Double Tracks site. This document has been prepared to provide general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during restoration of the cleanup site. Reclamation demonstration plots were established near the site in the fall of 1994 to evaluate the performance of several native species and to evaluate different irrigation strategies. Results of the study at Double Tracks, as well as the results from numerous studies conducted at other sites (Area 11 and Area 19 of the Nevada Test Site), have been summarized and incorporated into this final reclamation plan for the interim cleanup of the Double Tracks site, located northwest of the Nevada Test Site on the Nellis Air Force Range. Surface soils at Double Tracks were contaminated as a result of the detonation of a device containing plutonium and depleted uranium using chemical explosives. The total amount of Pu deposited on the site was between 980 and 1,600 grams and was scattered downwind south of the detonation site. Short-term stabilization consists of the application of a chemical soil stabilizer that is applied immediately following excavation of the contaminated soils to minimize Pu resuspension. Long-term stabilization is accomplished by the establishment of a permanent vegetation.

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of microbes in selected soils at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Angerer, J.P.; Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.; Hall, P.F.

    1993-12-31

    Large areas encompassing almost 800 hectares on the Nevada Test Site, Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range are contaminated with plutonium. Decontamination of plutonium from these sites may involve removal of plants and almost 370,000 cubic meters of soil. The soil may be subjected to a series of processes to remove plutonium. After decontamination, the soils will be returned to the site and revegetated. There is a paucity of information on the spatial and temporal distribution of microbes in soils of the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts. Therefore, this study was initiated to determine the biomass and diversity of microbes in soils prior to decontamination. Soils were collected to a depth of 10 cm along each of five randomly located 30-m transects at each of four sites. To ascertain spatial differences, soils were collected from beneath major shrubs and from associated interspaces. Soils were collected every three to four months to determine temporal (seasonal) differences in microbial parameters. Soils from beneath shrubs generally had greater active fungi and bacteria, and greater non-amended respiration than soils from interspaces. Temporal variability also was found; total and active fungi, and non-amended respiration were correlated with soil moisture at the time of sampling. Information from this study will aid in determining the effects of plutonium decontamination on soil microorganisms, and what measures, if any, will be required to restore microbial populations during revegetation of these sites.

  7. Characteristics and migration patterns of mule deer on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.R.; Cooper, J.

    1985-04-01

    When NTS deer migrate, the majority of the animals stay within the confines of the NTS or the Nellis Bombing Range, and present little potential for radiation transport off the NTS. Also, the few deer that leave the NTS area do so during the winter when they cannot legally be hunted in Nevada. The one exception from the apparent migration pattern was a buck that was followed by telemetry until the end of April, when the animal could no longer be located, and was harvested the following fall in the Kawich Peak area about 120.9 km (75 mi.) northwest of the study area. The makeup of the deer herds on the NTS is quite different from that of deer in offsite areas. The large buck population indicates that an aged pristine herd exists on the NTS. In general, it should be noted that the deer populations are tied to the available water sources, although a vast area of excellent deer range is present but unavailable to the deer because of the lack of available water sources. This range condition has been maintained because of the periodic changes of available water due to construction activity, therefore resulting in a browsing rest rotation system. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Shock-Compressed Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, J. D.; Bickham, S. R.; Holian, B. L.; Collins, L. A.

    1999-06-01

    We have used tight-binding molecular dynamics to simulate shock waves in liquid hydocarbons. The equations of motion in supercells containing as many as 1024 methane and 576 benzene molecules (8192 and 17,280 valence electrons, respectively) are integrated using an O(N) electronic structure algorithm(S. Goedecker and L. Columbo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73), 122 (1994); A.F. Voter, J.D. Kress and R.N. Silver, Phys. Rev. B 53, 12733 (1996) implemented on a massively parallel computer. In the non-equilibrium shock compression simulation, uniaxial contracting periodic boundary conditions were employed, with both ends of an elongated supercell moving inward at a constant (piston) velocity. The velocities of the shock waves created in this manner are compared to gas gun experimentsfootnote W. J. Nellis et al., J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3055 (1981). Analysis of the medium between the piston and shock front indicates that methane is decomposed into molecular hydrogen and carbon residue, while shocked benzene forms a mixture of hydrocarbons and molecular hydrogen. The dynamics of these chemical transformations will be discussed.

  9. Roll Utilization of an F-100A Airplane During Service Operational Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matranga, Gene J.

    1959-01-01

    As a means of evaluating the roll utilization of a fighter airplane capable of supersonic speeds, an instrumented North American F-100A fighter airplane was flown by U.S. Air Force pilots at Nellis Air Force Base, NV, during 20 hours of service operational flying. Mach numbers up to 1.22 and altitudes up to 50,000 feet were realized in this investigation. Results of the study showed that except for high g barrel rolls performed as evasive maneuvers and rolls performed in acrobatic flying, rolling was utilized primarily as a means of changing heading. Acrobatic and air combat maneuvering produced the largest bank angles (1,200 deg), roll velocities (3.3 radians/sec), rolling accelerations (8 radians/sq sec) and sideslip angles (10.8 deg). Full aileron deflections were utilized on numerous occasions. Although high rolling velocities and accelerations also were experienced during several air-to-air gunnery missions, generally, air-to-air gunnery and air-to-ground gunnery and bombing required only two-thirds of maximum aileron deflection. The air-to-air gunnery and air combat maneuvers initiated from supersonic speeds utilized up to two-thirds aileron deflection and bank angles of less than 18 deg and resulted in rolling velocities and accelerations of 2 radians per second and 4.6 radians/sq sec, respectively. Rolling maneuvers were often initiated from high levels of normal acceleration, but from levels of negative normal acceleration only once.

  10. Las Vegas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of Las Vegas, NV was acquired on August, 2000 and covers an area 42 km (25 miles) wide and 30 km (18 miles) long. The image displays three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. McCarran International Airport to the south and Nellis Air Force Base to the NE are the two major airports visible. Golf courses appear as bright red areas of worms. The first settlement in Las Vegas (which is Spanish for The Meadows) was recorded back in the early 1850s when the Mormon church, headed by Brigham Young, sent a mission of 30 men to construct a fort and teach agriculture to the Indians. Las Vegas became a city in 1905 when the railroad announced this city was to be a major division point. Prior to legalized gambling in 1931, Las Vegas was developing as an agricultural area. Las Vegas' fame as a resort area became prominent after World War II. The image is located at 36.1 degrees north latitude and 115.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Environmental assessment for double tracks test site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), with appropriate approvals from the U.S. Air Force (USAF), proposes to conduct environmental restoration operations at the Double Tracks test site located on the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in Nye County, Nevada. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental consequences of four alternative actions for conducting the restoration operation and of the no action alternative. The EA also identifies mitigation measures, where appropriate, designed to protect natural and cultural resources and reduce impacts to human health and safety. The environmental restoration operation at the Double Tracks test site would serve two primary objectives. First, the proposed work would evaluate the effectiveness of future restoration operations involving contamination over larger areas. The project would implement remediation technology options and evaluate how these technologies could be applied to the larger areas of contaminated soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), and the NAFR. Second, the remediation would provide for the removal of plutonium contamination down to or below a predetermined level which would require cleanup of 1 hectare (ha) (2.5 acres), for the most likely case, or up to 3.0 ha (7.4 acres) of contaminated soil, for the upper bounding case.

  12. Anorthositic oceanic crust in the Archean Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoutz, E.; Dawson, J. B.; Hoernes, S.; Spettel, B.; Waenke, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrapure minerals separated from eclogite inclusions in kimberlites were analyzed for Sm, Nd, Sr, and oxygen isotopes and for major and trace elements. Clinopyroxene (cpx) and garnet (gnt) are the only primary mineral phases in these rocks, and mineral phases and their alteration products. The WR sub calc. is the reconstructed bulk composition excluding all the contamination influences. Two groups of eclogites: are distinguished: (1) type A Noritic-anorthositic eclogites; and (2) type B Ti-ferrogabbroic eclogites. The oxygen isotopes are primary mantle-derived features of these rocks and are not caused by posteruption processes, as they were measured on unaltered, clean mineral separates and show a correlation with REE pattern and Sr and Nd isotopes. It is suggested that the variation of the oxygen isotopes are caused by crustal-level fluid-rock interaction at relatively low temperature. It is shown that oxygen isotopes variation in MORB basalts caused by the hydrothermal system are in the same range as the observed oxygen isotope variation in eclogites. A model to explain the new set of data is proposed. It is thought that some of these eclogites might be emplaced into the upper lithosphere or lower crust at the time corresponding to their internal isochron age. The calculated WR composition was used to estimate model ages for these rocks.

  13. The nature of the meteoritic components of Apollo 16 soil, as inferred from correlations of iron, cobalt, iridium, and gold with nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1987-01-01

    The Apollo 16 soil concentrations of Ni, Fe, Co, Ir, and Au were studied to determine the correlations with Ni. The correlations obtained indicate that the variation in the siderophile element concentrations in Apollo 16 soils result from the variation in the concentration of a Fe-Ni metal (with the mean composition of 5.6 pct Ni and 0.36 pct Co) that contributes about 0.4-0.5 pct to a typical soil from Apollo 16. It is shown that the siderophile elements of the 'ancient meteorite component' of Anders et al. (1973) and Hertogen et al. (1977) are located in the grains of Fe-Ni metal that in turn are contained in noritic impact melt breccias produced about 3.9 Ga ago. The ancient Fe-Ni is different from the metal of ordinary chondrites by having lower Ni/Co, Ir/Ni, and Ir/Au ratios. It is shown that Ni in the Apollo 16 soil is contributed approximately equally by the 'ancient meteorite component' and the 'micrometeorite component' (dominated by carbonaceous chondrites); however, most of the variation in Ni concentration results from the variation of the ancient Fe-Ni metal among samples of Apollo 16 soil.

  14. Metal-organic frameworks for oxygen storage.

    PubMed

    DeCoste, Jared B; Weston, Mitchell H; Fuller, Patrick E; Tovar, Trenton M; Peterson, Gregory W; LeVan, M Douglas; Farha, Omar K

    2014-12-15

    We present a systematic study of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for the storage of oxygen. The study starts with grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations on a suite of 10,000 MOFs for the adsorption of oxygen. From these data, the MOFs were down selected to the prime candidates of HKUST-1 (Cu-BTC) and NU-125, both with coordinatively unsaturated Cu sites. Oxygen isotherms up to 30 bar were measured at multiple temperatures to determine the isosteric heat of adsorption for oxygen on each MOF by fitting to a Toth isotherm model. High pressure (up to 140 bar) oxygen isotherms were measured for HKUST-1 and NU-125 to determine the working capacity of each MOF. Compared to the zeolite NaX and Norit activated carbon, NU-125 has an increased excess capacity for oxygen of 237% and 98%, respectively. These materials could ultimately prove useful for oxygen storage in medical, military, and aerospace applications. PMID:25319881

  15. Classification of Regolith Materials from Lunar Prospector Data Reveals a Magnesium-Rich Highland Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Lawrence, D. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.

    2002-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector (LP) mission returned the first global elemental maps of major elements O, Si, Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, and Ca. The maps were submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive in June of 2002. Maps are provided for all of the elements at 5 spatial resolution, corresponding to 1790 equal area pixels. This resolution is sufficient to investigate large-scale compositional variations within major lunar terranes. Further work is underway to develop 2 and 0.5 maps for a subset of these elements, which will reduce the effects of instrumental mixing and will enable more meaningful comparisons to the sample collection. We believe that we have discovered a highland province that may contain an abundance of Mg-rich troctolitic or noritic materials. We are investigating several possibilities for the origin of this province, one of which is the exceptional abundance of late-stage Mgsuite intrusions at a high level in the lunar crust. We will use the entire Lunar Prospector elemental data set to investigate candidate hypotheses.

  16. Petrology and Sm-Nd dating of the Genina Gharbia Alaskan-type complex (Egypt): Insights into deep levels of Neoproterozoic island arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmy, Hassan M.; Abd El-Rahman, Yasser M.; Yoshikawa, Masako; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Arai, Shoji; Tamura, Akihiro; Kagami, Hiroo

    2014-06-01

    The deep levels of Neoproterozoic island arcs are poorly known due to limited accessibility. The Genina Gharbia Alaskan-type complex (south Eastern Desert, Egypt) is the remains of a magma chamber that crystallized at the base (crust-mantle boundary) of a mature Neoproterozoic island arc. The rock assemblage comprises hornblende-bearing harzburgite, lherzolite, pyroxenite, norite and gabbro. All lithologies show cumulus texture with evidence of extensive cumulus mineral-melt interactions. Clinopyroxenes from all lithologies have similar rare earth element (REE) patterns with slight medium-rare earth element (MREE) enrichment. Hornblendes are slightly enriched in MREE and light rare earth elements (LREE). Island arc signatures are indicated by high contents of large ion-lithophile elements and low concentration of high field-strength elements. Positive initial εNd (+ 5.7 to + 7.0) and Nd model ages (963 ± 81 Ma) are consistent with the Genina Gharbia magma being extracted from a depleted mantle source. Modeling of estimated parental magma indicates 10% partial melting of a 90% depleted mantle source with a 10% (MORB + sediments)-derived fluid, commencing in the spinel stability field (< 85 km). Relative to Phanerozoic arcs, the Neoproterozoic arcs were more hydrous, had low oxidation states and probably lasted shorter time to build-up. The hydrous nature of the sub-Arabian-Nubian Shield mantle and the long-life of the arcs are among reasons responsible for the vast crustal growth during the Pan-African Orogeny throughout the Gondwana.

  17. Geochronological U-PB zircon dating of two ore-bearing magma pulses: stratifrom and non-stratiform bodies in the Fedorov deposit (Kola Peninsula).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitkina, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Kola Peninsula is one of the unique geological provinces both in Russia and in the world, where platinum and palladium deposits have been discovered. The highest level of noble metal concentration has been found in the ore of the Fedorov-Pana massif. Presently, the several deposits within the Fedorov block contain first hundreds of tons of estimated platinum metal resources, allowing us to ascribe the intrusion to the class of large deposits (Mitrofanov, 2005). The Fedorov-Pana massif is situated in the central part of the Kola Peninsula and is one of 14 major Early Proterozoic layered massifs of the Northern belt occurring at the border between Early Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary rift sequences and Achean basement gneisses (Zagorodny, Radchenko, 1983; Bayanova, 2004). The isotope-geochronological data corroborate the geological-petrological conclusions made on the basis of prospecting works on the polyphase history of the Fedorov-Pana massif. At present, the following ages have been defined for the different stages of the massif evolution: 2526 - 2516 Ma (Nitkina, 2006) - pyroxenite and gabbro of the Fedorov magma chamber; 2501 - 2496- 2485 Ma (Bayanova, 2004; Nitkina, 2006) - gabbro-norite and gabbro of the main phase of the West-Pana block magma chamber and early disseminated platinum-metal mineralization and relatively rich Cu-Ni sulphide mineralization in the basal part of the massif; ca. 2470 Ma (Bayanova, 2004) - pegmatoid gabbro-anothosite and, probably, fluid-associated rich platinum-metal ores of the Lower Layered Horizon (Malaya Pana deposit); ca. 2450 Ma (Bayanova, 2004) - anorthositic injections and, probably, local lens-like rich Pt-Pd accumulations of the Upper layered Horizon. The Fedorov deposit represents the western part of the massif with the exposed area of about 45 km2 and occurs as a lopolith-like body (Shissel et al., 2002; Mitrofanov, 2005; Mitrofanov et al., 2005). The stratigraphy of the deposit consists of the following zones: 50

  18. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-01-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  19. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Automation Recognition oF Crater-Like Structures in Terrestrial and Plantary Images; Condensation from Cluster-IDP Enriched Vapor Inside the Snow Line: Implications for Mercury, Asteroids, and Enstatite Chondrites; Tomographic Location of Potential Melt-Bearing Phenocrysts in Lunar Glass Spherules; Source and Evolution of Vapor Due to Impacts into Layered Carbonates and Silicates; Noble Gases and I-Xe Ages of the Zag Meteorite; The MArs Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) for the 209 Mars Science Laboratory; The Sedimentary Rocks of Meridiani Planum, in Context; Three-System Isotopic of Lunar Norite 78238: Rb-Sr Results; Constraints on the Role of Curium-247 as a Source of Fission Xenon in the Early Solar System; New Features in the ADS Abstract Service; Cassini RADAR's First Look at Titan; Volcanism and Volatile Recycling on Venus from Lithospheric Delamination; The Fate of Water in the Martian Magma Ocean and the Formation of an Early Atmosphere; Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer Water-Equivalent Hydrogen: Comparison with Glacial; Landforms on Tharsis; Using Models of Permanent Shadow to Constrain Lunar Polar Water Ice Abundances; Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method; Petrological and Geochemical Consideration on the Tuserkanite Meteorite; and Mineralogy of Asteroids from Observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  20. Notes on Lithology, Mineralogy, and Production for Lunar Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Stoeser, D. B.; Benzel, W. M.; Schrader, C. M.; Edmunson, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    The creation of lunar simulants requires a very broad range of specialized knowledge and information. This document covers several topic areas relevant to lithology, mineralogy, and processing of feedstock materials that are necessary components of the NASA lunar simulant effort. The naming schemes used for both terrestrial and lunar igneous rocks are discussed. The conflict between the International Union of Geological Sciences standard and lunar geology is noted. The rock types known as impactites are introduced. The discussion of lithology is followed by a brief synopsis of pyroxene, plagioclase, and olivine, which are the major mineral constituents of the lunar crust. The remainder of the text addresses processing of materials, particularly the need for separation of feedstock minerals. To illustrate this need, the text includes descriptions of two norite feedstocks for lunar simulants: the Stillwater Complex in Montana, United States, and the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. Magnetic mineral separations, completed by Hazen Research, Inc. and Eriez Manufacturing Co. for the simulant task, are discussed.

  1. Biosorption of model pollutants in liquid phase on raw and modified rice husks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, L.; Fierro, V.; Braghiroli, F.; Amaral, G.; Celzard, A.

    2013-03-01

    We studied the application of rice husk (RH) as a biosorbent and we demonstrated that it can be employed for the treatment of dyeing wastewater streams. RH was obtained from Nile Delta (Egypt) and it was used as received, or after a chemical treatment using HNO3 or NaOH, or after conversion into activated carbon (RH-AC) using H3PO4 as activating agent. A commercial activated carbon GAC 830 provided by NORIT was also tested for comparison purposes. These materials were evaluated by adsorption of methylene blue (MB) with an initial concentration of 20 ppm in an aqueous solution at 30°C. The results showed that alkali-treated and RH-AC were the best sorbents. They got a nearly complete MB removal from water and they had better performance than GAC 830. Therefore, the use of RH for pollutant removal makes this method an environment-friendly option and an economically feasible alternative to treat industrial effluents.

  2. A model of early lunar differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of anorthosites and the scarcity of complementary mafic rocks in the lunar crust suggest a body of melt with depth of the order of the depth of the crust itself (about 60 km). This depth is consistent with geophysical and geochemical models which call for a depth of melting of the order of 200-500 km. The major and minor element compositions of the ancient pristine rocks require complex igneous processes if the moon accreted homogeneously and has chondritic interelement ratios among the refractory elements. Anorthosites crystallized from magmas that had assimilated plagioclase and a light REE-enriched component. KREEP as well as most of the troctolites and norites formed from relatively primitive magmas that were mixed with a LIL-enriched, Sc-Ti depleted component. Assimilation and mixing processes inferred for pristine rocks are consistent with crystallization from a convecting magma ocean which initially developed a floating anorthosite crust with a plagioclase-saturated boundary layer beneath it, transitional in temperature and composition to the main body of the magma beneath it.

  3. Apennine Front revisited - Diversity of Apollo 15 highland rock types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Marvin, Ursula B.; Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

    1988-01-01

    The Apollo 15 landing site is geologically the most complex of the Apollo sites, situated at a mare-highland interface within the rings of two of the last major basin-forming impacts. Few of the Apollo 15 samples are ancient highland rocks derived from the early differentiation of the moon, or impact melts from major basin impacts. Most of the samples are regolith breccias containing abundant clasts of younger volcanic mare and KREEP basalts. The early geologic evolution of the region can be understood only by examining the small fragments of highland rocks found in regolith breccias and soils. Geochemical and petrologic studies of clasts and matrices of three impact melt breccias and four regolith breccias are presented. Twelve igneous and metamorphic rocks show extreme diversity and include a new type of ferroan norite. Twenty-five samples of highland impact melt are divided into groups based on composition. These impact melts form nearly a continuum over more than an order of magnitude in REE concentrations. This continuum may result from both major basin impacts and younger local events. Highland rocks from the Apennine Front include most of the highland rock types found at all of the other sites. An extreme diversity of highland rocks is a fundamental characteristic of the Apennine Front and is a natural result of its complex geologic evolution.

  4. On the age of KREEP. [in lunar highland rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palme, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is noted that the variable Rb-Sr model ages of lunar highland rocks containing a significant amount of KREEP basalt may be best explained by some fractionation of Rb from Sr during metamorphism 3.9 billion years ago, but the uniformity of the KREEP-type trace-element pattern in different highland samples indicates that elements such as the rare earth were hardly fractionated at all during the metamorphic event. Data are presented which show that the Rb/Sr fractionation 3.9 billion years ago was due to Rb mobilization alone in most cases and that this fractionation can be accounted for by coupling of Rb to other, less volatile incompatible elements. Variations of Rb in lunar highland rocks are analyzed, a correction method is applied for the Rb/Sr fractionation, and results are evaluated separately for Apollo 16 VHA and KREEP basalts, Apollo 17 noritic breccias, Apollo 14 KREEP breccias, Apollo 15 KREEP basalts, and Apollo 15-KREEP-enriched breccias. Evidence for volatilization of alkalis from glasses of impact origin is summarized, and an apparent correlation is discussed between meteoritic component (as given by the Ir/Au ratio) and rock type (as given by the U or Rb content) for many lunar highland samples.

  5. Ag-doped carbon aerogels for removing halide ions in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Polo, M; Rivera-Utrilla, J; Salhi, E; von Gunten, U

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the efficiency of silver(Ag)-doped carbon aerogels for the removal of bromide (Br(-)) and iodide (I(-)) from drinking waters. Textural characterization of Ag-doped aerogels showed that an increase in the Ag dose added during the preparation process produced: (i) a reduction in the surface area (S(BET)) and (ii) an increase in mesopore (V(2)) and macropore (V(3)) volumes. Chemical characterization of the materials revealed an acidic surface (pH of point of zero charge, pH(PZC)=4.5, O(surface)=20%). The oxidation state of Ag was +1 and the surface concentration of this element ranged from 4% to 10%. The adsorption capacity (X(m)) and affinity of adsorbent (BX(m)) increased with a reduction in the radius of the halogenide. Furthermore, an increase in the adsorption capacity was observed with higher Ag concentrations on the aerogel surface. The high adsorption capacity of the aerogel may be due to the presence of Ag(I) on its surface, with the formation of the corresponding Ag halides. Our observations indicate that the halogenides adsorption on commercial activated carbon (Sorbo-Norit) is much lower than that of the Ag-doped carbon aerogels. The presence of chloride and natural organic matter (NOM) in the medium reduced the adsorption capacity of Br(-) and I(-) on Ag carbon aerogels. PMID:16970974

  6. The Lac Des Iles Palladium Deposit, Ontario, Canada. Part II. Halogen variations in apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schisa, Paul; Boudreau, Alan; Djon, Lionnel; Tchalikian, Arnaud; Corkery, John

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of apatite from the Mine Block Intrusion (MBI) of the Lac des Iles Igneous Complex shows two pronounced trends in the halogens. Apatite from relatively fresh norite and melanorites from the Pd-sulfide zone contain up to 57 mol% chlorapatite endmember with significant hydroxyapatite component. In contrast, in altered rock (amphibolite and greenschist assemblages) the chlorapatite component is typically less than 10 mol% with wide variation in the F- and OH-endmember components. The latter trend is attributed to Cl loss to degassing and alteration, whereas the former is attributed to Cl enrichment in the ore-bearing rocks. It is suggested that the relatively H2O-rich and intermediate Cl content of the early igneous fluids degassed from the deeper levels of the MBI can explain the high Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios of the deposit. A model is presented in which disseminated Pd-rich sulfides are initially introduced by a high-temperature magmatic fluid that also influenced crystallization to produce the gross modal variations of the igneous host rock. This high-temperature mineralization event was subsequently modified by the influx of late igneous and country fluids at amphibolite to greenschist conditions.

  7. Halogen Variations in Apatite of the Lac Des Iles Palladium Deposit, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of apatite from the Mine Block Intrusion (MBI) of the Lac des Iles Igneous Complex show two pronounced trends in the halogens. Apatite from relatively fresh norite and melanorites from the Pd-sulfide zone contain up to 57 mole % chlorapatite endmember with significant hydroxyapatite component. In contrast, in altered rock (amphibolite and greenschist assemblages) and in the more evolved barren rocks the chlorapatite component is typically less than 10 mole % with wide variation in the F- and OH-endmember components. The latter trend is attributed to Cl loss to degassing and alteration whereas the former is attributed to Cl-enrichment in the ore-bearing rocks. It is suggested that the relatively H2O-rich and intermediate Cl content of the early igneous fluids degassed from the deeper levels of the MBI can explain the high Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios of the deposit. A model is presented in which disseminated Pd-rich sulfide are initially introduced by a high temperature magmatic fluid that also influenced crystallization to produce the gross modal variations of the igneous host rock. This high temperature mineralization event was subsequently modified by the influx of late igneous and country fluids at amphibolite to greenschist conditions.

  8. The Alphonsus region - A geologic and remote-sensing perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, C. R.; Hawke, B. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Owensby, P. D.; Zisk, S. H.

    1990-01-01

    A number of interesting questions exist concerning the composition and origin of a number of geologic units in the west-central highlands crater Alphonsus. This paper utilizes a variety of newly obtained remote sensing data to address these questions and improve the current understanding of the geologic history of the Alphonsus region. Near-infrared and UV/VIS reflectance spectra were obtained and analyzed for many of the geologic features, the results of which are presented here. Spectra collected for pyroclastic debris associated with three endogenic dark halo crater complexes on the floor of Alphonsus indicate a basaltic assemblage rich in olivine. These pyroclastic deposits exhibit generally low returns on the depolarized 3.8 cm radar image. An exogenic dark halo crater was identified on the interior of Alphonsus and appears to be composed of a mixture of pyroclastic debris and highlands material. The light plains deposits and other highland units in the Alphonsus region generally exhibit a noritic compostion. However, the Alphonsus central peak is composed of pure anorthosite. This composition is unique within the region.

  9. Remote Sensing Studies of Anorthosite Deposits on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Taylor, G. J.; Lucey, P. G.; Peterson, C. A.; Blewett, D. T.; Spudis, P. D.

    1995-09-01

    Introduction: In recent years, we have been conducting a variety of remote sensing studies of lunar basin and crater deposits in order to determine the composition of surface units and to investigate the stratigraphy of the lunar crust [1-6]. Special attention has been given to determining the distribution and modes of occurrence of pure anorthosite (plagioclase >90%) in order to answer the critical question of whether or not the lunar crust is enriched in plagioclase. In previous studies, we have utilized telescopic near-infrared spectra to determine the lithology of relatively small areas (2-10 km) of the lunar surface. Now, high resolution multispectral images are available from the Galileo and Clementine missions. We are currently utilizing a variety of techniques to extract compositional information from these new data sets. Chief among these is the production of FeO abundance maps from Clementine and Galileo multispectral images using the method presented by Lucey et al. [7]. Distribution and Modes of Occurrence: Orientale Basin region. With the exception of the Inner Rook massifs, all the highland units associated with the Orientale Basin appear to be composed of either noritic anorthosite or anorthositic norite. Our spectral data indicate that the Inner Rook ring is composed of pure anorthosite [1,2]. Relatively low (<4%) FeO values are exhibited by most portions of this mountain range. Grimaldi Basin region. Spectra obtained for the inner ring of Grimaldi indicate that portions of this ring are composed of pure anorthosite. Low FeO values are also displayed by segments of the inner ring. Other highlands units in the Grimaldi region are composed of more mafic material [2,5]. Humorum Basin region. At least a portion of the inner ring of Humorum is composed of anorthosite [2,6]. However, Galileo and Clementine data demonstrate that the entire ring is not composed of anorthosite, and no anorthosites have yet been identified on the outer Humorum rings. Nectaris

  10. Effects of fractional crystallization and cumulus processes on mineral composition trends of some lunar and terrestrial rock series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J.

    1982-01-01

    A plot of Mg of mafic minerals versus An of plagioclase in cumulate rocks from various lunar and terrestrial rock series shows each series to have a distinct curvilinear trend. The slopes of these trends vary from nearly vertical in the case of lunar anorthosites and Mg-norites to nearly horizontal in the case of gabbros from the mid-Atlantic ridge. Calculations based upon known major element partitioning between mafic minerals, plagioclase and subalkaline basaltic liquids indicate that fractional crystallization coupled with cotectic accumulation of mafic minerals and plagioclase will produce mineral composition trends on the Mg versus An diagram with slopes greater than 1 for cases where An is approximately greater than Mg. Furthermore, fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas with alkali concentrations approaching zero will produce near vertical Mg versus An trends. Therefore, the steep slopes of the lunar rock series are consistent with relatively simple fractionation processes. The relatively flat slope of mineral compositions from gabbros collected from the mid-Atlantic ridge at 26 deg N is inconsistent with simple fractionation processes, and calculations show that periodic refilling of a fractionating magma chamber with picritic magma cannot simply explain this flat slope either.

  11. Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of the Schiller-Schickard Region of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewett, David T.; Hawke, B. Ray; Lucey, Paul G.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Jaumann, Ralf; Spudis, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectra, multispectral images, and photogeologic data for the Schiller-Schickard (SS) region were obtained and analyzed in order to determine the composition and origin of a variety of geologic units. These include light plains deposits, Orientale-related deposits, mare units, and dark-haloed impact craters (DHCs). Spectral data indicate that the pre-Orientale highland surface was dominated by noritic anorthosite. Near-IR spectra show that DHCs in the region have excavated ancient (greater than 3.8 Ga) mare basalts from beneath highland-bearing material emplaced by the Orientale impact. Ancient mare basalts were widespread in the SS region prior to the Orientale event, and their distribution appears to have been controlled by the presence of several old impact basins, including the Schiller-Zucchius basin and a basin previously unrecognized. Both near-IR spectra and multispectral images indicate that light plains and other Orientale-related units in the SS region contain major amounts of local, pre-Orientale mare basalt. The amounts of local material in these deposits approach, but seldom exceed, the maximum values predicted by the local mixing hypothesis of Oberbeck and co-workers.

  12. Compositional diversity of near-, far-side transitory zone around Naonobu, Webb and Sinus Successus craters: Inferences from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Rishikesh; Ramakrishnan, D.; Singh, K. D.

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data for studying compositional variation in the near-, far-side transition zone of the lunar surface. For this purpose, the radiance values of the M3 data were corrected for illumination and emission related effects and converted to apparent reflectance. Dimensionality of the calibrated reflectance image cube was reduced using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and endmembers were extracted by using Pixel Purity Index (PPI) algorithm. The selected endmembers were linearly unmixed and resolved for mineralogy using United States Geological Survey (USGS) library spectra of minerals. These mineralogically resolved endmembers were used to map the compositional variability within, and outside craters using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm. Cross validation for certain litho types was attempted using band ratios like Optical Maturity (OMAT), Color Ratio Composite and Integrated Band Depth ratio (IBD). The identified lithologies for highland and basin areas match well with published works and strongly support depth related magmatic differentiation. Prevalence of pigeonite-basalt, pigeonite-norite and pyroxenite in crater peaks and floors are unique to the investigated area and are attributed to local, lateral compositional variability in magma composition due to pressure, temperature, and rate of cooling.

  13. Age and origin of the Cortlandt Complex, New York: Implications from Sm-Nd data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domenick, M.A.; Basu, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    Sm-Nd systematics for nine whole-rock samples of hornblende norites, pyroxenites and a lamprophyre from various parts of the Cortlandt Complex were analyzed. Six of these samples from the central and eastern parts of the complex give an isochron age of 430??34 (2 ??) Ma with an e{open}Nd value of -2.9??0.5, and the other three samples from the western part, including the lamprophyre, define a similar age of 394??33 (2 ??) Ma but with a distinctly different e{open}Nd value of -1.4??0.4. The two different initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios corresponding to these e{open}-values are interpreted to reflect continental crustal contamination of the lamprophyric parental liquid prior to final emplacement and crystal fractionation to produce the different rock types of the complex. The intrusion age of 430 Ma for the complex clearly post-dates the major metamorphic event of the Taconic orogeny. The Nd-isotopic data also suggest a relationship between the Cortlandt Complex and a belt of lamprophyric dike rocks to the west, known as the Beemerville trend, which cuts across the metamorphic trends of the Taconic (Ratcliffe 1981). ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Ion microprobe mass analysis of plagioclase from 'non-mare' lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C., Jr.; Anderson, D. H.; Bradley, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    The ion microprobe was used to measure the composition and distribution of trace elements in lunar plagioclase, and these analyses are used as criteria in determining the possible origins of some nonmare lunar samples. The Apollo 16 samples with metaclastic texture and high-bulk trace-element contents contain plagioclase clasts with extremely low trace-element contents. These plagioclase inclusions represent unequilibrated relicts of anorthositic, noritic, or troctolitic rocks that have been intermixed as a rock flour into the KREEP-rich matrix of these samples. All of the plagioclase-rich inclusions which were analyzed in the KREEP-rich Apollo 14 breccias were found to be rich in trace elements. This does not seem to be consistent with the interpretation that the Apollo 14 samples represent a pre-Imbrium regolith, because such an ancient regolith should have contained many plagioclase clasts with low trace-element contents more typical of plagioclase from the pre-Imbrium crust. Ion-microprobe analyses for Ba and Sr in large plagioclase phenocrysts in 14310 and 68415 are consistent with the bulk compositions of these rocks and with the known distribution coefficients for these elements. The distribution coefficient for Li (basaltic liquid/plagioclase) was measured to be about 2.

  15. Chronology and complexity of early lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasch, E. J.; Ryder, G.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1989-01-01

    The petrology and chronology of early lunar crust is examined using the least equivocal of the available petrographic and age data on lunar rock samples, and the possible processes which produced the lunar crust are discussed. The results suggest that the lunar anorthositic crust was formed by about 120 Ma after the primary accretion of the moon at 4.56 Ga. At least some members of the diverse Mg-suites of rocks, such as norites, troctolites, and dunites, crystallized within a very few 100s of Ma after 4.56 Ga. A trace-element-rich material (KREEP) was formed by about 4.3 Ga ago, and this residue was subsequently reworked in melting and impact processes such that most samples which contain it have ages around 3.9-4.0 Ga. The findings also suggest that the onset of ferrous mare basalt volcanism began about 4.33 Ga, much earlier than was once assumed, and was still in process before the end of the most intense period of bombardment (3.9-4.0 Ga ago).

  16. Adsorption of methylene blue and Congo red from aqueous solution by activated carbon and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Szlachta, M; Wójtowicz, P

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the adsorption removal of dyes by powdered activated carbon (PAC, Norit) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, Chinese Academy of Science) from an aqueous solution. Methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) were selected as model compounds. The adsorbents tested have a high surface area (PAC 835 m(2)/g, MWCNTs 358 m(2)/g) and a well-developed porous structure which enabled the effective treatment of dye-contaminated waters and wastewaters. To evaluate the capacity of PAC and MWCNTs to adsorb dyes, a series of batch adsorption experiments was performed. Both adsorbents exhibited a high adsorptive capacity for MB and CR, and equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model, with the maximum adsorption capacity up to 400 mg/g for MB and 500 mg/g for CR. The separation factor, RL, revealed the favorable nature of the adsorption process under experimental conditions. The kinetics of adsorption was studied at various initial dye concentrations and solution temperatures. The pseudo-second-order model was used for determining the adsorption kinetics of MB and CR. The data obtained show that adsorption of both dyes was rapid in the initial stage and followed by slower processing to reach the plateau. The uptake of dyes increased with contact time, irrespective of their initial concentration and solution temperature. However, changes in the solution temperature did not significantly influence dye removal. PMID:24292474

  17. Radioactivity of the moon and planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkov, Iu. A.

    The major results of studies of the radioactivity of the moon and terrestrial planets are reviewed. Measurements of the cosmogenic and natural radioactivity of the moon and Mars were obtained from planetary orbiter measurements, and those of Venus by in situ measurements, in addition to measurements of lunar samples brought back to earth. For the case of the moon, the Western maria on the near side are found to be the most radioactive areas, with highlands on both sides of the moon exhibiting lower radioactivity than the maria and lunar radioactivity levels in general less than those of the earth, which is correlated with different chemical compositions of the two bodies. The potassium, uranium and thorium contents of the landing sites of Veneras 8, 9 and 10 are shown to differ from each other, but be similar to those of terrestrial basalts, which they also resemble in density. Gamma-radiation and X-ray fluorescence measurements of Mars indicate the content of natural radioelements to be similar to that of the eruptive rocks of the earth crust, with Martian rocks of volcanic formations similar to terrestrial and lunar basalts, and those of the ancient terra formations more closely resembling the anorthosite-norite-troctolite association of the lunar highlands. It is pointed out that natural radioelements contents of all the bodies examined indicate a single chemical differentiation process, while cosmogenic radiation contents can aid in determining cosmic ray intensities as well as the sequences of geological events.

  18. The Heldburg Phonolite, Central Germany: Reactions between phonolite and xenocrysts from the upper mantle and lower crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Thomas B.; Milke, Ralf; Pandey, Sanjay; Jahnke, Hannes

    2013-12-01

    The Heldburg Phonolite, Central Germany contains abundant fragments of xenolithic material most commonly seen as single xenocrysts of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as larger poly-mineralic micro-xenoliths. The xenocryst and micro-xenolith compositions indicate two cumulate source rocks; a spinel-bearing lherzolite and a pyroxene rich gabbro-norite. Disequilibrium between the host melt and xenocrysts lead to the formation of phlogopite-diopside double rims on olivine and either amphibole-phlogopite or amphibole-diopside double rims on orthopyroxene. The rim assemblages and infiltration of melt into some micro-xenoliths suggest that the xenolithic material was sampled by the phonolite directly from their source rocks. The idea that the phonolite originated from the upper mantle is supported by thermobarometry of amphibole and clinopyroxene phenocrysts. The reaction rims therefore provide small-scale analogues of a metasomatic event involving an evolved alkali enriched melt and upper mantle and lower crust wall rocks. Chemical zoning within the rims and the inheritance of compositional features from their hosts indicates rapid rim growth rates with slow diffusion rates of components through the rims. Residence times for the xenocrysts in the melt are in the order of several months to a year.

  19. Magma mixing and mingling on Deer, Niblack, and Etolin Islands, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lindline, J.; Crawford, W.A.; Crawford, M.L. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Intimately associated 20 m.a. hornblende-biotite granites and olivine gabbro norites occur on Etolin, Niblack and Deer Islands, southwest of Wrangell, Alaska. The field relationships suggest multiple injections of mafic and felsic phases within this igneous complex. Ellipsoidal to angular mafic magmatic enclaves occur in the granite, ranging in number from sparse to tightly packed swarms. Slightly curved decimeter sized rafts of fine grained mafic enclaves comprise a frozen fountain of mafic magma in the felsic host. Course-grained felsic dikes containing gabbroic zenoliths and ubiquitous fine-grained mafic pillows exhibiting sharp and sutured chilled borders intrude the layered gabbro. Synplutonic northeast trending fine-grained mafic and fine-grained felsic dikes mutually cross-cut the felsic pillow-bearing dikes. The granite consists of green hornblende, dark brown biotite, plagioclase and quartz. The mafic mineral assemblage changes from olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase in the gabbro through intermediate-grained phases containing altered clinopyroxene, brown hornblende, red-brown biotite, plagioclase and quartz. The increase in proportion of hydrous mafic minerals from the gabbro to the fine-grained mafic enclaves and changes in pleochroic colors of biotite and hornblende from the intermediate-grained phases to the fine-grained mafic enclaves suggest chemical interaction between the mafic enclaves and their felsic host.

  20. Geochemistry of grain-size fractions of soils from the Taurus-Littrow valley floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a study in which high-precision instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine the abundances of seven rare-earth and nine other elements in two grain-size fractions (90 to 150 microns and less than 20 microns) of eight soils from the Taurus-Littrow Valley floor and one Apollo 11 bulk-soil fraction with grain sizes of less than 1 mm. Compositional differences between the two size fractions of two valley-floor soils are examined, and mixing of soil components is investigated. It is found that a five-component mixing model describes very adequately the chemical composition of bulk soils with grain sizes of less than 1 mm as mixtures of local Apollo 17 rock types (basalt, anorthositic gabbro, noritic breccia), orange glass, and meteorites, but does not describe well the chemical compositions of the other two size fractions. A ten-component model is used to show that the compositions of those two size fractions can be well represented as mixtures of the five components if the mineralogy and chemical composition of the basalt component are allowed to vary in the size fractions.

  1. Probing the Depths of Space Weathering: A Cross-sectional View of Lunar Rock 76015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.; Keller, L. P.; Stroud, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    The term "space weathering" refers to the cumulative effects of several processes operating at the surface of any solar system body not protected by a thick atmosphere. These processes include cosmic and solar ray irradiation, solar wind implantation and sputtering, as well as melting and vaporization due to micrometeorite bombardment. Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. Rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain and thus record a longer history of exposure. By studying the weathering products which have built up on a rock surface, we can gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative importance of various weathering components. The weathered coating, or patina, of the lunar rock 76015 has been previously studied using SEM and TEM. It is a noritic breccia with both "glazed" (smooth glassy) and "classic" (microcratered and pancake-bearing) patina coatings. Previous TEM work on 76015 relied on ultramicrotomy to prepare cross sections of the patina coating, but these sections were limited by the "chatter" and loss of material in these brittle samples. Here we have used a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument to prepare cross sections in which the delicate stratigraphy of the patina coating is beautifully preserved.

  2. Luna 20 soil - Abundance and composition of phases in the 45-125 micron fraction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Warner, J. L.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Glass compositions in the Luna 20 soil indicate a minor contribution of mare rocks and a major contribution of highly feldspathic highland material. Glasses with the composition of highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro or norite) predominate in a range of highly aluminous glasses. The analyses of minerals in the soil show that the highland rocks have a unique assemblage of minerals that can readily be distinguished from the mineral assemblages of either mare or KREEP basalts. The soils are characterized by abundant anorthitic, low-Fe plagioclase. Highly magnesian orthopyroxenes, pigeonites, and augites are the most prominent pyroxenes. Unlike mare basalt pyroxenes, clinopyroxenes with intermediate Ca values are not abundant, but extreme iron enrichment toward pyroxferroite does occur. Olivines are more abundant than at other sites and are Mg-rich, low in Ca and Cr. Spinels with compositions approaching MgAl2O4 predominate over pleonastes and chromites. Ilmenite and metal are present but not abundant. The mineral compositions are consistent with derivation from a suite of highly feldspathic rocks in which highland basalt compositions predominate.

  3. Composition of the Cayley Formation at Apollo 16 as inferred from impact melt splashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Horz, Friedrich; See, Thomas H.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of major and trace elements and magnetic properties of 50 impact melt splashes (IMSs) from the Apollo 16 landing site are analzyed to determine the composition of their meteoritic component. MgO-Sc and Ca-Sc variation diagrams and least-squares mixing models are utilized to analyze the IMS, soil, and rock data. Consideration is given to progenitor lithologies of the IMS, the number of impact events represented by the IMS, and the heterogeneity of impact melts from single events. It is observed that the IMSs are composed of either a mixture of anorthosite and low-Sc impact melt rocks or anorthositic norite. It is determined that the surface Cayley layer is composed of TiO2, MgO, Sc, and La concentrations of 0.69, and 7.1 wt pct and 10.5 and 21.2 microg/g, respectively and 0.38 and 5.9 wt pct and 6.1 and 11.8 microg/g, respectively, for the subsurface Cayley layer. The Descartes Formation composition is estimated as TiO2, MgO, Sc, and La concentrations of 0.25, and 3.5 wt pct and 7.7 and 2.2 microg/g, respectively.

  4. Novel catalysts for methane activation. Final progress report, September 30, 1992--April 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Du, Y.; Wu, H.J.; Malhotra, R.; Wilson, R.B.

    1996-06-11

    This final report summarizes the results of our research under Contract No. DE-AC22-92PC92112, Novel Catalysts for Methane Activation. In this research we prepared and tested fullerene soots for converting methane into higher hydrocarbons. We conducted the methane conversions using dehydrocoupling conditions, primarily in the temperature regimes of 600{degrees}-1000{degrees}C and atmospheric pressures. The research was divided into three sections. The first section focused on comparing fullerene soots with other forms of carbon such as acetylene black and Norit-A. We found that the fullerene soot was indeed more reactive than the other forms of carbon. However, due to its high reactivity, it was not selective. The second section focused on the effect of metals on the reactivity of the soots, including both transition metals and alkali metals. We found that potassium could enhance the selectivities of fullerene soot to higher hydrocarbons, but the effect was unique to fullerene soot and did not improve the performance of other forms of carbon. The third part focused on the use of co-feeds for methane activation to enhance the selectivities and lower the temperature threshold of methane activation.

  5. Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy of pyroxene-bearing rocks: New constraints for understanding planetary surface compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompilio, Loredana; Sgavetti, Maria; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe

    Laboratory visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of solid rock slabs, mineral separates and systematic mixtures were simultaneously investigated. We apply an empirical approach to evaluate spectra, in order to achieve qualitative and quantitative information. We use cumulates (mostly norites, leuconorites, melanorites and anorthosites) belonging to the Bjerkreim-Sokndal Layered Intrusion, a sequence of genetically related rocks with simple textures. Laboratory spectra are measured on slightly polished rock slabs in the 350- to 2500-nm interval and directional-hemispherical reflectance geometry. Composition is determined using traditional techniques other than reflectance spectroscopy. We find that: (1) band minima measured on rock spectra are strongly influenced by the concurrent effects due to modal abundance of the spectroscopically active mineral and mineral chemistry; (2) band depths can be used for semiquantitative analyses, limited to the set of rocks investigated; (3) the spectral parameters derived from powdered pyroxene are in agreement with previously published calibrations; (4) the mineral mixture systematics can be reasonably considered as linear, when pyroxene is mixed with neutral components; and (5) the empirical evaluation of solid rock surface spectra needs further insights to give a great improvement to planetary researches. In addition, genetic sequences of rocks should be investigated in detail to help the geological interpretation of planetary evolution. Therefore more laboratory and analytical studies are required in order to understand the influence of composition and petrographic textures on the spectral analysis.

  6. Sm-Nd Isotopic Systematics of Troctolite 76335

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Borg, L. E.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of lunar Mg-suite troctolite 76335 was undertaken to further establish the early chronology of lunar magmatism. Because the Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of similar sample 76535 yielded an age of 4570 +/- 70 Ma [2, lambda = 1.402 x 10(exp -11)], 76335 was expected to yield an old age. In contrast, the Sm-Nd and K-Ar ages of 76535 indicate that the sample is approximately 4260 Ma old, one of the youngest ages obtained for a Mg-suite rock. This study establishes the age of 76335 and discusses the constraints placed on its petrogenesis by its Sm-Nd isotope systematics. The Sm-Nd isotopic system of lunar Mg-suite troctolite 76335 indicates an age of 4278 +/- 60 Ma with an initial epsilon (sup 143)(sub Nd) value of 0.06 +/- 0.39. These values are consistent with the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of similar sample 76535. Thus, it appears that a robust Sm-Nd age can be determined from a highly brecciated lunar sample. The Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of troctolites 76335 and 76535 appear to be different from those dominating the Mg-suite norites and KREEP basalts. Further analysis of the Mg-suite must be completed to reveal the isotopic relationships of these early lunar rocks.

  7. Butanol production in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation with in situ product recovery by adsorption.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuang; Liu, Fangfang; Xu, Mengmeng; Tang, I-Ching; Zhao, Jingbo; Bai, Fengwu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-11-01

    Activated carbon Norit ROW 0.8, zeolite CBV901, and polymeric resins Dowex Optipore L-493 and SD-2 with high specific loadings and partition coefficients were studied for n-butanol adsorption. Adsorption isotherms were found to follow Langmuir model, which can be used to estimate the amount of butanol adsorbed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. In serum-bottle fermentation with in situ adsorption, activated carbon showed the best performance with 21.9g/L of butanol production. When operated in a fermentor, free- and immobilized-cell fermentations with adsorption produced 31.6g/L and 54.6g/L butanol with productivities of 0.30g/L·h and 0.45g/L·h, respectively. Thermal desorption produced a condensate containing ∼167g/L butanol, which resulted in a highly concentrated butanol solution of ∼640g/L after spontaneous phase separation. This in situ product recovery process with activated carbon is energy efficient and can be easily integrated with ABE fermentation for n-butanol production. PMID:27484672

  8. Adsorption of halogenated hydrocarbons from aqueous solutions by wetted and nonwetted hydrophobic and hydrophilic sorbents: Equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Rexwinkel, G.; Heesink, B.B.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1999-12-01

    Single-solute adsorption equilibria of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, trans-1,2-dichloroethene, chloroform, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and dichloromethane dissolved in water have been measured, using both wetted and nonwetted hydrophobic Amberlite XAD-4 resin at 20 C. The results could be described by means of Freundlich isotherms indicating the heterogeneity of the Amberlite XAD-4 surface. Wetted and nonwetted Amberlite XAD-4 showed identical adsorption capacities. The influence of the ionic strength on the adsorption capacity of Amberlite XAD-4 for 1,1,1-trichloroethane has been measured by adding KCI to the aqueous solution. The apparent adsorption capacity was found to increase with salt concentration due to the salting-out effect. Adsorption equilibria of dichloromethane, which is generally regarded as a key component with regard to water treatment demands, have also been measured using several other synthetic resins, as well as activated carbon. The order of increasing adsorption capacity was found to be Amberlite XAD-7 {le} Amberlite XAD-4 {approximately} Dowex XUS 43493.00 {le} Norit ROW 0.8 SUPRA {le} Ambersorb XE-572 {le} Ambersorb XE-563.

  9. Experimental Study on Wave Propagation Across a Rock Joint with Rough Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Li, J. C.; Cai, M. F.; Zou, Y.; Zhao, J.

    2015-11-01

    Joints are an important mechanical feature of rock masses. Their effect on wave propagation is significant in characterizing dynamic behaviors of discontinuous rock masses. An experimental study on wave propagation across artificial rock joint was carried out to reveal the relation between the transmission coefficient and the contact situation of the joint surface. The modified split Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus was used in this study while all the bars and specimens were norite cored from the same site. One surface of the specimens with a number of notches was adopted to simulate the artificial rough joint. Two strain gauges were mounted on each pressure bar at a specific spacing. The incident, reflected and transmitted waves across the joints were obtained using a wave separation method. Comparisons of the transmission coefficients were made under two different conditions: with the same joint thickness but different contact area ratios, and with the same contact area ratio but different joint thicknesses. The results show the effects of contact area ratio and thickness of joints on wave transmission.

  10. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  11. A survey of lunar rock types and comparison of the crusts of earth and moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The principal known types of lunar rocks are briefly reviewed, and their chemical relationships discussed. In the suite of low-KREEP highland rocks, Fe/(Fe + Mg) in the normative mafic minerals increases and the albite content of normative plagio-clase decreases as the total amount of normative plagioclase increases, the opposite of the trend predicted by the Bowen reaction principle. The distribution of compositions of rocks from terrestrial layered mafic intrusives is substantially different: here the analyses fall in several discrete clusters (anorthositic rocks, norites, granophyres and ferrogabbros, ultramafics), and the chemical trends noted above are not reproduced. It is suggested that the observed trends in lunar highland rocks could be produced by crystal fractionation in a deep global surface magma system if (1) plagiociase tended to float, upon crystallization, and (2) the magma was kept agitated and well mixed (probably by thermal convection) until crystallization was far advanced and relatively little residual liquid was left. After the crustal system solidified, but before extensive cooling had developed a thick, strong lithosphere, mantle convection was able to draw portions of the lunar anorthositic crust down into the mantle.

  12. SNO Data: Results from Experiments at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) was built 6800 feet under ground, in INCO's Creighton mine near Sudbury, Ontario. SNO is a heavy-water Cherenkov detector that is designed to detect neutrinos produced by fusion reactions in the sun. It uses 1000 tonnes of heavy water, on loan from Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), contained in a 12 meter diameter acrylic vessel. Neutrinos react with the heavy water (D2O) to produce flashes of light called Cherenkov radiation. This light is then detected by an array of 9600 photomultiplier tubes mounted on a geodesic support structure surrounding the heavy water vessel. The detector is immersed in light (normal) water within a 30 meter barrel-shaped cavity (the size of a 10 story building!) excavated from Norite rock. Located in the deepest part of the mine, the overburden of rock shields the detector from cosmic rays. The detector laboratory is extremely clean to reduce background signals from radioactive elements present in the mine dust which would otherwise hide the very weak signal from neutrinos. (From http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/]

    The SNO website provides access to various datasets. See also the SNO Image Catalog at http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/sno/images/ and computer-generated images of SNO events at http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/sno/events/ and the list of published papers.

  13. The UG2 Merensky Reef interval of the Bushveld Complex northwest of Pretoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, W. D.; Bowen, M. P.

    1996-07-01

    Northwest of Pretoria, the UG2 Merensky Reef interval overlies a Critical Zone Lower Zone sequence that contains numerous large blocks of floor material. Nevertheless, individual layers can be correlated with equivalent units at Crocodile River mine, the Rustenburg, Impala, Union, and Amandelbult sections. Concentrations of platinum-group elements in two borehole intersections of the UG2 chromitite are 4 ppm over 1.2 m and 2.4 ppm over 2.2 m. Therefore, bulk PGE levels appear to be only moderately lower than those at Western Platinum mine. This renders models explaining PGE enrichment by upward percolating melt or fluids problematic. The Merensky Reef, although containing sulphides, is only weakly mineralized with PGE (0.6 ppm). The UG2 pyroxenite is separated from the UG2 chromitite by a 15 m noritic layer. The introduction of feldspathic cumulates between two units that elsewhere directly overly each other may be explained by the more evolved composition of resident magma in those parts of the chamber distally located with regard to a major feeder zone at Union Section. It also suggests that the UG2 unit is a multiple rather than a single cyclic unit.

  14. Origins of Large Peridotite Bodies within Mesoarchean Orthogneisses in SW Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilas, K.; Kelemen, P. B.; Bernstein, S.

    2015-12-01

    Peridotite bodies with sizes up to 500 x 1000 m are found within Mesoarchaean orthogneisses in the Fiskefjord region of SW Greenland. Here we present field observations, bulk-rock major, trace, and platinum-group element data, and mineral chemistry for some these peridotites. The largest of these (known as Seqi), has previously been mined for industrial grade olivine. Seqi is mainly dunitic, consisting of highly fosteritic olivine with a median Mg# of 92.6. It also hosts extensive layers of chromitite (up to 30 cm wide), which are always associated with interstitial orthopyroxene. The other peridotite bodies are generally thinner (<100 m thick, but up to 2000 m long) and are associated with coarse norite and orthopyroxenite with obvious cumulate textures. Amphibolite of tholeiitic basaltic composition is intercalated with these thinner peridotite bodies and suggests that they represent metamorphosed layered igneous complexes. Based on field observations, the latter predate the Mesoarchaean regional TTG-type orthogneisses dated at ca. 3000 Ma. We interpret the peridotites of the Fiskefjord region to have formed as ultramafic cumulates derived from Archean high-Mg magmas. The Seqi dunites contain hydrous minerals such as amphibole and phlogopite, and have U-shaped bulk-rock trace element patterns with elevated Th. This may support the currently accepted subduction zone model for the formation of the Archean crust in this region.

  15. Adsorptive removal of nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) antiscalant from membrane concentrates by iron-coated waste filtration sand.

    PubMed

    Boels, L; Tervahauta, T; Witkamp, G J

    2010-10-15

    Iron-coated waste filtration sand was investigated as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from membrane concentrates. The adsorption of this phosphonate-based antiscalant on this material was measured and compared with two commercially available anion exchange resins and activated carbon. Comprehensive adsorption experiments were conducted in several synthetic concentrate solutions and in a concentrate collected from a full scale nano-filtration brackish water desalination plant. The effect of pH, ionic strength and the presence of competitive anions on the equilibrium adsorption were investigated. The results showed that, in contrast to the anion exchange resins, the adsorption on coated filtration sand is not suppressed at increasing ionic strength and is much less affected by the competitive anions carbonate and sulphate. The adsorption decreased slightly when the pH was raised from 7.0 to 8.0. The adsorption isotherms in the real nano-filtration concentrate, measured in the concentration interval of 5-50 mg dm(-1) NTMP, showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of coated filtration sand was 4.06 mg g(-1). The adsorption capacity per unit mass of the adsorbents at low NTMP concentration (12.5 mg dm(-3)) followed the decreasing order Amberlite IRA-410>coated filtration sand>Amberlite IRA-900>Norit SAE Super. This demonstrates that the use of iron-coated waste filtration sand offers a promising means for the removal of NTMP from membrane concentrates. PMID:20667427

  16. The petrology of high-Mg dikes from the Beartooth Mountains, Montana - A search for the parent magma of the Stillwater Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J.; Wooden, J. L.; Coppinger, K. D.

    1983-01-01

    Six geochemically distinct groups of Precambrian high-Mg dikes have been examined to determine if any could have been a sample of or closely related to the parent magma of the Stillwater Complex. Only two groups have sufficiently magnesian olivine and orthopyroxene, but neither of these has sufficiently calcic plagioclase. In terms of major elements there appear to be only two distinct magma types: one has a high orthopyroxene component and is petrographically similar to noritic dikes and sills near the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe and the Bushveld Complex of South Africa; the other is similar to primitive tholeiites with higher plagioclase and diopside components than the first. All of the groups are enriched in light-REE and have unusually high K2O concentrations. Model calculations indicate that crustal contamination of fractionating komatiitic magmas is consistent with the major and trace element characteristics of the first magma type. Less extensive contamination of komatiitic magmas may produce the parental magmas of the large layered intrusions.

  17. Lunar central peak mineralogy and iron content using the Kaguya Multiband Imager: Reassessment of the compositional structure of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, Myriam; Lucey, Paul G.; Song, Eugenie; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Ryder and Wood (1977) suggested that the lunar crust becomes more mafic with depth because the impact melts associated with the large Imbrium and Serenitatis basins are more mafic than the surface composition of the Moon. In this study, we reexamine the hypothesis that the crust becomes more mafic with depth; we analyze the composition of crater central peaks by using recent remote sensing data and combining the best practices of previous studies. We compute the mineralogy for 34 central peaks using (1) nine-band visible and near-infrared data from the Kaguya Multiband Imager, (2) an improved version of Hapke's radiative transfer model validated with spectra of lunar soils with well-known modal mineralogy, and (3) new crustal thickness models from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory data to examine the variation in composition with depth. We find that there is no increase in mafic mineral abundances with proximity to the crust/mantle boundary or with depth from the current lunar surface and, therefore, that the crust does not become more mafic with depth. We find that anorthosite with very low mafic abundance ("purest anorthosite" or PAN) is a minority constituent in these peaks, and there is no clear evidence of a distinct PAN-rich layer in the middle crust as previously proposed. The composition of most of the central peaks we analyze is more mafic than classically defined anorthosites with an average noritic anorthosite composition similar to that of the lunar surface.

  18. Seventh Foray - Whitlockite-rich lithologies, a diopside-bearing troctolitic anorthosite, ferroan anorthosites, and KREEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, P. H.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Shirley, D. N.; Wasson, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Seventeen nonmare samples, most of them pristine, are characterized, and implications of the new data are discussed. Five pristine samples are from Apollo 14, near the center of the KREEP-rich zone in the moon's western hemisphere. Three of them are alkali anorthosites rich in Ca-phosphate (whitlockite), which apparently crystallized from magmas with REE contents roughly 6 x those of high-K KREEP. The alkali anorthosites probably formed from Mg-rich magmas that assimilated large amounts of urKREEP, but some might have formed by metasomatism of ferroan anorthosite by urKREEP. The gabbronorite/norite classification scheme is not well suited to western hemisphere lithologies, probably due mainly to the overriding effects of longitude-petrochemistry correlations. A diopside-bearing Mg-rich lithology indicates that a low degree of melting was not a prerequisite for producing gabbroic (high-Ca pyroxene-rich) Mg-rich magmas, and suggests that some source regions of Mg-rich magmas were relatively Ca-rich. Several pristine KREEP fragments from Apollo 15 station 2 are texturally and compositionally much like other pristine KREEP, and thus reinforce the evidence that KREEP is highly uniform. The pristine anorthosites, on the other hand, demonstrate further that lunar anorthosites are diverse.

  19. Adsorption of ciprofloxacin on surface-modified carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Carabineiro, S A C; Thavorn-Amornsri, T; Pereira, M F R; Figueiredo, J L

    2011-10-01

    The adsorption capacity of ciprofloxacin (CPX) was determined on three types of carbon-based materials: activated carbon (commercial sample), carbon nanotubes (commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes) and carbon xerogel (prepared by the resorcinol/formaldehyde approach at pH 6.0). These materials were used as received/prepared and functionalised through oxidation with nitric acid. The oxidised materials were then heat treated under inert atmosphere (N2) at different temperatures (between 350 and 900°C). The obtained samples were characterised by adsorption of N2 at -196 °C, determination of the point of zero charge and by temperature programmed desorption. High adsorption capacities ranging from approximately 60 to 300 mgCPxgC(-1) were obtained (for oxidised carbon xerogel, and oxidised thermally treated activated carbon Norit ROX 8.0, respectively). In general, it was found that the nitric acid treatment of samples has a detrimental effect in adsorption capacity, whereas thermal treatments, especially at 900 °C after oxidation, enhance adsorption performance. This is due to the positive effect of the surface basicity. The kinetic curves obtained were fitted using 1st or 2nd order models, and the Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to describe the equilibrium isotherms obtained. The 2nd order and the Langmuir models, respectively, were shown to present the best fittings. PMID:21733541

  20. The life and times of Big Bertha - Lunar breccia 14321

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, A. R.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Weill, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    The assembly and metamorphic history of polymict breccia 14321 are reconstructed. The earliest formed fragmental component of 14321 (microbreccia-1) is dominated by KREEP-rich norite, extruded and subsequently brecciated and lithified in an ejecta blanket at approximately 1000 C in the general region of Mare Imbrium after the Serenitatis impact but prior to the Imbrium impact. This early microbreccia component and lesser amounts of mare-type basalt, microgranite, rhyolite glass, anorthosite and olivine microbreccia were assembled at the Apollo 14 site as part of the Fra Mauro ejecta blanket from the Imbrium impact. The resulting microbreccia-3 incorporates all the lithic types above and accretionary lapilli structures (microbreccia-2) in a dark matrix annealed at approximately 700 C. A later impact on the Fra Mauro excavated and mutually abraded microbreccia-3 and a local, 14321-type, basalt which were assembled into polymict breccia 14321. Final placement of 14321 at its sampling location was accomplished during the minor Cone Crater impact event.

  1. The History of the APS Shock Compression of Condensed Matter Topical Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jerry W.

    2001-06-01

    To provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock-compressed condensed matter, a group of APS members worked within the Society to make this technical field an active part of APS. Individual papers were given at APS meetings starting in the 1950’s and then later whole sessions were organized starting at the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA where George Duvall and Dennis Hayes were co-chairs. Most all early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1985 were official APS meetings. In 1984, after consulting with a number of people in the shock wave field, Robert Graham circulated a petition to form an APS topical group. He obtained signatures from a balanced cross-section of the community. William Havens, the executive secretary of APS, informed Robert Graham by letter on November 28, 1984 that the APS Council had officially accepted the formation of this topical group at its October 28, 1984 meeting. The first election occurred July 23, 1985 where Robert Graham was elected chairman, William Nellis vice-chairman, and Jerry Forbes secretary/treasurer. The topical group remains viable today by holding a topical conference in odd numbered years and shock wave sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years A major benefit of being an official unit of APS is the allotment of APS fellows every year. The APS shock compression award established in 1987, has also provided broad recognition of many major scientific accomplishments in this field.

  2. Effects of wind erosion, off-road vehicular activity, atmospheric conditions and the proximity of a metropolitan area on PM10 characteristics in a recreational site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    PM10 concentrations were measured at Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), Nevada, USA. NDRA is a desert area located 6 km northeast of the metropolitan area of Las Vegas. Three sources contribute to the dust at the site: local wind erosion, off-road vehicular activity and dust production in the city of Las Vegas. PM10 concentrations were measured during one complete year and stored as 20-min averages. Grain-size distribution was also determined from sediment collected in sediment traps. PM10 concentrations at NDRA are greater, and dust is finer in April-September as compared to October-March. Concentrations are also higher during the day than at night. The diurnal pattern of PM10 concentration at NDRA is characterized by a maximum in the early afternoon and a minimum in the morning. In all months except June-August, a secondary peak in concentration occurs around midnight. The higher concentrations during the day hours are not explained by local wind erosion, by meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability or ventilation, or by the supply of dust from the Las Vegas metropolis. The diurnal pattern of PM10 concentration in NDRA also differs from that observed at other rural sites in the Las Vegas Valley and in the city itself. The aberrations in the PM10 pattern at NDRA are caused by intense off-road vehicular driving in this area. Although dust from NDRA is blowing towards Las Vegas from late autumn to early spring and also during most of the nights, no quantitative data is currently available to determine the impact NDRA-emitted dust may have on the PM10 concentrations in the city.

  3. Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1997-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUS) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (FFACO, 1996). As per the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figures 1-1 and 1-2). Corrective Action Unit No. 423 is comprised of only one CAS (No. 03-02-002-0308), which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest as shown on Figure 1-3.

  5. Corrective action investigation plan for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Corrective Action Unit 407, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. CAUs consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 407, the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA) which is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range Complex, is approximately 255 km (140 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU No. 407 is comprised of only one CAS (TA-23-001-TARC). The RCRSA was used during May and June 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The surface and subsurface soils are likely to have been impacted by plutonium and other contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) associated with decontamination activities at this site. The purpose of the corrective action investigation described in this CAIP is to: identify the presence and nature of COPCs; determine the vertical and lateral extent of COPCs; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the CAS.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Radiological Control Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers’ Council

    2012-03-26

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, 'Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,' Revision 1 issued in February 2010. Brief Description of Revision: A complete revision to reflect a recent change in name for the NTS; changes in name for some tenant organizations; and to update references to current DOE policies, orders, and guidance documents. Article 237.2 was deleted. Appendix 3B was updated. Article 411.2 was modified. Article 422 was re-written to reflect the wording of DOE O 458.1. Article 431.6.d was modified. The glossary was updated. This manual contains the radiological control requirements to be used for all radiological activities conducted by programs under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Compliance with these requirements will ensure compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection.' Programs covered by this manual are located at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); Nellis Air Force Base and North Las Vegas, Nevada; Santa Barbara and Livermore, California; and Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. In addition, fieldwork by NNSA/NSO at other locations is covered by this manual. Current activities at NNSS include operating low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal facilities for United States defense-generated waste, assembly and execution of subcritical experiments, assembly/disassembly of special experiments, the storage and use of special nuclear materials, performing criticality experiments, emergency responder training, surface cleanup and site characterization of contaminated land areas, environmental activity by the University system, and nonnuclear test operations, such as controlled spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center. Currently, the major potential for occupational radiation exposure is associated with the burial of

  7. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers.

    PubMed

    Poovaiah, B W; Xia, M; Liu, Z; Wang, W; Yang, T; Sathyanarayanan, P V; Franceschi, V R

    1999-08-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther. PMID:10436217

  8. Institute of Geophyics and Planetary Physics. Annual report for FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F.J.

    1995-09-29

    The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) is a Multicampus Research Unit of the University of California (UC). IGPP was founded in 1946 at UC Los Angeles with a charter to further research in the earth and planetary sciences and in related fields. The Institute now has branches at UC campuses in Los Angeles, San Diego, Riverside, and Irvine and at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. The University-wide IGPP has played an important role in establishing interdisciplinary research in the earth and planetary sciences. For example, IGPP was instrumental in founding the fields of physical oceanography and space physics, which at the time fell between the cracks of established university departments. Because of its multicampus orientation, IGPP has sponsored important interinstitutional consortia in the earth and planetary sciences. Each of the six branches has a somewhat different intellectual emphasis as a result of the interplay between strengths of campus departments and Laboratory programs. The IGPP branch at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was approved by the Regents of the University of California in 1982. IGPP-LLNL emphasizes research in seismology, geochemistry, cosmochemistry, high-pressure sciences, and astrophysics. It provides a venue for studying the fundamental aspects of these fields, thereby complementing LLNL programs that pursue applications of these disciplines in national security and energy research. IGPP-LLNL is directed by Charles Alcock and is structured around three research centers. The Center for Geosciences, headed by George Zandt and Frederick Ryerson, focuses on research in geophysics and geochemistry. The Center for High-Pressure Sciences, headed by William Nellis, sponsors research on the properties of planetary materials and on the synthesis and preparation of new materials using high-pressure processing.

  9. Sensor fusion methodology for remote detection of buried land mines

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.

    1990-04-01

    We are investigation a sensor fusion methodology for remote detection of buried land mines. Our primary approach is sensor intrafusion. Our dual-channel passive IR methodology decouples true (corrected) surface temperature variations of 0.2{degree}C from spatially dependent surface emissivity noise. It produces surface temperature maps showing patterns of conducted heat from buried objects which heat and cool differently from their surroundings. Our methodology exploits Planck's radiation law. It produces separate maps of surface emissivity variations which allow us to reduce false alarms. Our secondary approach is sensor interfusion using other methodologies. For example, an active IR CO{sub 2} laser reflectance channel helps distinguish surface targets unrelated to buried land mines at night when photographic methods are ineffective. Also, the interfusion of ground penetrating radar provides depth information for confirming the site of buried objects. Together with EG G in Las Vegas, we flew a mission at Nellis AFB using the Daedalus dual-channel (5 and 10 micron) IR scanner mounted on a helicopter platform at an elevation of 60 m above the desert sand. We detected surface temperature patterns associated with buried (inert) land mines covered by as much as 10 cm of dry sand. The respective spatial, spectral, thermal, emissivity and temporal signatures associated with buried targets differed from those associated with surface vegetation, rocks and manmade objects. Our results were consistent with predictions based on the annual Temperature Wave Model.They were confirmed by field measurements. The dual-channel sensor fusion methodology is expected to enhance the capabilities of the military and industrial community for standoff mine detection. Other important potential applications are open skies, drug traffic control and environmental restoration at waste burial sites. 11 figs.

  10. Surviving coral bleaching events: porites growth anomalies on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Cantin, Neal E; Lough, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Mass coral bleaching affected large parts of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in 1998 and 2002. In this study, we assessed if signatures of these major thermal stress events were recorded in the growth characteristics of massive Porites colonies. In 2005 a suite of short (<50 cm) cores were collected from apparently healthy, surviving Porites colonies, from reefs in the central GBR (18-19°S) that have documented observations of widespread bleaching. Sites included inshore (Nelly Bay, Pandora Reef), annually affected by freshwater flood events, midshelf (Rib Reef), only occasionally affected by freshwater floods and offshore (Myrmidon Reef) locations primarily exposed to open ocean conditions. Annual growth characteristics (extension, density and calcification) were measured in 144 cores from 79 coral colonies and analysed over the common 24-year period, 1980-2003. Visual examination of the annual density bands revealed growth hiatuses associated with the bleaching years in the form of abrupt decreases in annual linear extension rates, high density stress bands and partial mortality. The 1998 mass-bleaching event reduced Porites calcification by 13 and 18% on the two inshore locations for 4 years, followed by recovery to baseline calcification rates in 2002. Evidence of partial mortality was apparent in 10% of the offshore colonies in 2002; however no significant effects of the bleaching events were evident in the calcification rates at the mid shelf and offshore sites. These results highlight the spatial variation of mass bleaching events and that all reef locations within the GBR were not equally stressed by the 1998 and 2002 mass bleaching events, as some models tend to suggest, which enabled recovery of calcification on the GBR within 4 years. The dynamics in annual calcification rates and recovery displayed here should be used to improve model outputs that project how coral calcification will respond to ongoing warming of the tropical oceans. PMID:24586377

  11. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance for Geothermal Resource Evaluation Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Thomas R. Wood; Joel Renner

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to report on the evaluation of geothermal resource potential on and around three different United States (U. S.) Air Force Bases (AFBs): Nellis AFB and Air Force Range (AFR) in the State of Nevada (see maps 1 and 5), Holloman AFB in the State of New Mexico (see map 2), and Mountain Home AFB in the State of Idaho (see map 3). All three sites are located in semi-arid parts of the western U. S. The U. S. Air Force, through its Air Combat Command (ACC) located at Langley AFB in the State of Virginia, asked the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) for technical assistance to conduct technical and feasibility evaluations for the potential to identify viable geothermal resources on or around three different AFBs. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is supporting FEMP in providing technical assistance to a number of different Federal Agencies. For this report, the three different AFBs are considered one project because they all deal with potential geothermal resource evaluations. The three AFBs will be evaluated primarily for their opportunity to develop a geothermal resource of high enough quality grade (i.e., temperature, productivity, depth, etc.) to consider the possibility for generation of electricity through a power plant. Secondarily, if the resource for the three AFBs is found to be not sufficient enough for electricity generation, then they will be described in enough detail to allow the base energy managers to evaluate if the resource is suitable for direct heating or cooling. Site visits and meetings by INL personnel with the staff at each AFB were held in late FY-2009 and FY-2010. This report provides a technical evaluation of the opportunities and challenges for developing geothermal resources on and around the AFBs. An extensive amount of literature and geographic information was evaluated as a part of this assessment. Resource potential maps were developed for each of the AFBs.

  12. Surface and Airborne Arsenic Concentrations in a Recreational Site near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 7058 μg g-1 in topsoil and bedrock, and more than 0.03 μg m-3 in air on a 2-week basis, were measured in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a very popular off-road area near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. The elevated arsenic concentrations in the topsoil and bedrock are correlated to outcrops of yellow sandstone belonging to the Muddy Creek Formation (≈ 10 to 4 Ma) and to faults crossing the area. Mineralized fluids moved to the surface through the faults and deposited the arsenic. A technique was developed to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations from the arsenic content in the topsoil. The technique was tested by comparing calculated with measured concentrations at 34 locations in the NDRA, for 3 periods of 2 weeks each. We then applied it to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations for more than 500 locations all over the NDRA. The highest airborne arsenic concentrations occur over sand dunes and other zones with a surficial layer of aeolian sand. Ironically these areas show the lowest levels of arsenic in the topsoil. However, they are highly susceptible to wind erosion and emit very large amounts of sand and dust during episodes of strong winds, thereby also emitting much arsenic. Elsewhere in the NDRA, in areas not or only very slightly affected by wind erosion, airborne arsenic levels equal the background level for airborne arsenic in the USA, approximately 0.0004 μg m-3. The results of this study are important because the NDRA is visited by more than 300,000 people annually. PMID:25897667

  13. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs) are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1A, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NTSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2009 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL)-Nellis. It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  14. Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process.

  15. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikoloch, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  16. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, B. J.; Metcalf, R. V.; Berry, D.; McLaurin, B.; Kent, D.; Januch, J.; Goossens, D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrous actinolite, winchite, magnesioriebeckite, richterite, magnesiohornblende, and erionite have been found in rock, soil, and dust in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The areas containing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) include urban areas (e.g. Boulder City) and rural areas where people routinely enjoy outdoor activities including horseback riding, running, hiking, bicycling, and off-road-vehicle (ORV) recreation. A recent study showing mesothelioma in young people and women suggests some form of environmental exposure. Rock, soil, dust and clothing were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); additional rock samples were analyzed using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); additional soil samples were analyzed using PLM (polarizing light microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using the Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator preparation method. Winds have transported and mixed the Ca-amphiboles, which are primarily from Nevada, with the Na-amphiboles that are primarily from northwestern Arizona. Erionite, which has not previously been reported in this area, was a common soil component found in 5 of 6 samples. The erionite source has not yet been determined. Winds have transported the amphibole and erionite particles into the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area - an ORV recreation area located 35 km north of Boulder City that otherwise would not be geologically predicted to contain fibrous amphiboles. In Boulder City, wind directions are primarily bimodal N-NE and S-SW with the strongest winds in the spring coming from the S-SW. The arid climate in this part of the Mojave Desert greatly increases the potential for wind erosion and human exposures. These results suggest that the entire Las Vegas Basin has, at times, received these particles through wind transport. Because the most likely human exposure pathway is through inhalation of dust, the Las Vegas

  17. Clean Slate 2 Revegetation and Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    David Anderson

    1998-02-01

    This document is a reclamation plan for short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with interim clean-up of radionuclide-contaminated surface soil at Clean Slate 2 located northwest of the Nevada Test Site on the Nellis Air Force Range. Surface soils at Clean Slate 2 were contaminated as a result of the detonation of a device containing plutonium and depleted uranium using chemical explosives. Excavation of contaminated soils at Clean Slate 2 will follow procedures similar to those used during the cleanup of the Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1 sites. A maximum of approximately 33 cm (12 in) of the surface soils will be excavated and removed from the site. Near ground zero, where contamination levels are highest, approximately 2 m (7 ft) of soil may be removed. The maximum area to be excavated is estimated to be 18.4 hectares (45.4) acres. In addition to the disturbance associated with soil excavation, approximately 2.0 hectares (5.0) acres will be disturbed by the construction of staging areas and placement of support facilities. Short term stabilization consists of an application of a chemical soil stabilizer and long-term stabilizations involves the establishment of a permanent vegetative cover using selective native plant species, site preparation techniques, increasing organic matter and water holding capacity, irrigation to ensure seed germination and plant establishment. The cleanup site will be monitored to ensure success of revegetation and resuspension of soil particles is within established limits.

  18. Exploring for hydrocarbons in geothermally and hydrothermally complex areas -- a southern Nevada example

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, A.G.; Repetski, J.E.; Grow, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Time-based isograd maps using conodont color alteration indices (CAI) have been compiled and interpreted for a large area in southern Nevada that includes Yucca Mountain, the Nevada Test Site, and the Nellis Air Force Bombing and Gunnery Range. These maps were produced to evaluate the controversy about possible important mineral and (or) energy resources near Yucca Mountain, the potential burial site for high-level nuclear waste. The hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain area has been likened to that of the Railroad and Pine Valley areas, 200 km to the northeast where 35 million barrels of oil have been produced from Paleozoic and lower Tertiary strata. In 1991, two companies with no previous drilling experience in Nevada drilled three oil exploration wells within 20 km of Yucca Mountain and within or close to the Timber Mountain caldera system. No shows of oil or gas were found in these wells. The deepest well was drilled to 5,000 feet and penetrated 2,200 feet of upper Tertiary valley-fill deposits and volcanic rocks overlying an overturned sequence of Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician rocks having conodonts with CAI values of 5. Our new conodont sampling, however, has targeted some thermally favorable areas for hydrocarbons east of Yucca mountain, but their maturation history suggests that the potential for oil is substantially lower than in the Railroad and Pine Valley areas. Cambrian through Triassic rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain have experienced temperatures too high for oil to be preserved, except for a narrow zone (20 x 100 km) northeast of Yucca Mountain, where Mississippian through Triassic rocks are just within the upper limit of the oil generating window. Most of this zone, however, lies on Federal lands that are, for now, inaccessible for a variety of security and environmental reasons.

  19. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  20. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  1. Methodology for calculating guideline concentrations for safety shot sites

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Residual plutonium (Pu), with trace quantities of depleted uranium (DU) or weapons grade uranium (WU), exists in surficial soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR), and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as the result of the above-ground testing of nuclear weapons and special experiments involving the detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The special experiments (referred to as safety shots) involving plutonium-bearing devices were conducted to study the behavior of Pu as it was being explosively compressed; ensure that the accidental detonation of the chemical explosive in a production weapon would not result in criticality; evaluate the ability of personnel to manage large-scale Pu dispersal accidents; and develop criteria for transportation and storage of nuclear weapons. These sites do not pose a health threat to either workers or the general public because they are under active institutional control. The DOE is committed to remediating the safety shot sites so that radiation exposure to the public, both now and in the future, will be maintained within the established limits and be as low as reasonably achievable. Remediation requires calculation of a guideline concentration for the Pu, U, and their decay products that are present in the surface soil. This document presents the methodology for calculating guideline concentrations of weapons grade plutonium, weapons grade uranium, and depleted uranium in surface soils at the safety shot sites. Emphasis is placed on obtaining site-specific data for use in calculating dose to potential residents from the residual soil contamination.

  2. The Effect of an Electrically Conducting Lower Mantle on Dynamo Generated Planetary Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilim, R.; Stanley, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the lower mantles of Earth[1], Mercury[2], and large terrestrial exoplanets[3, 4] may be good conductors of electricity. This raises questions about the effect of an electrically conducting lower mantle on magnetic field generation in these planets. A core dynamo generated magnetic field can interact with an electrically conducting mantle in two ways. First, magnetic fields lines can be be frozen into the solid mantle. The flows in the core can then stretch the magnetic field lines at the core mantle boundary increasing their strength. Second, any field observed at the surface will be attenuated due to the screening effect, which preferentially attenuates the components of the magnetic field that vary quickest in time. We use a numerical dynamo model to investigate the effect of a conducting mantle on dynamo generated planetary magnetic fields. [1] Ohta, K., Cohen, R. E., Hirose, K., Haule, K., Shimizu, K., and Ohishi, Y. (2012). Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for Pressure-Induced Metallization in FeO with Rocksalt-Type Structure. PRL, 108, 026403 [2] Smith, D. E., Zuber, M. T., Phillips, R. J., Solomon, S. C., Hauck, S. A. II, Lemoine, F. G., Mazarico, E., Neumann, G.A., Peale, S.J., Margot, J.L., Johnson C.L., Torrence, M.H., Perry, M.E., Rowlands D.D., Goossens, S., Head, J.W., Taylor, A.H. (2012). Gravity Field and Internal Structure of Mercury from MESSENGER. Science [3] Nellis, W. J. (2011). Metallic liquid hydrogen and likely Al2O3 metallic glass. The European Physical Journal Special Topics, 196, 121-130 [4] Tsuchiya, T. (2011). Prediction of a hexagonal SiO2 phase affecting stabilities of MgSiO3 and CaSiO3 at multimegabar pressures. PNAS, 108, 1252-1255

  3. Sound velocities in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite shocked to 18 GPa: Orientational order dependence and elastic instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Marcel; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    Previous reports of rapid phase transformation above 18 GPa [Erskine and Nellis, Nature 349, 317 (1991)] and large elastic waves below 18 GPa [Lucas et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 093515 (2013)] for shock-compressed ZYB-grade highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), but not for less oriented ZYH-grade HOPG, indicated a link between the orientational order dependence of the HOPG response above and below the phase transformation stress. To gain insight into this link and into the mechanical response of HOPG shocked to peak stresses approaching the phase transformation onset, the compressibility of ZYB- and ZYH-grade HOPG in the shocked state was examined using front surface impact experiments. Particle velocity histories and sound velocities were measured for peak stresses reaching 18 GPa. Although the locus of the measured peak stress-particle velocity states is indistinguishable for the two grades of HOPG, the measured sound velocities in the peak state reveal significant differences between the two grades. Specifically (1) the measured sound velocities are somewhat higher for ZYH-grade HOPG compared with ZYB-grade HOPG; (2) the measured sound velocities for ZYH-grade HOPG increase smoothly with compression, whereas those for ZYB-grade HOPG exhibit a significant reduction in the compression dependence from 12 GPa to 17 GPa and an abrupt increase from 17 GPa to 18 GPa; and (3) the longitudinal moduli, determined from the measured sound velocities, are smaller than the calculated bulk moduli for ZYB-grade HOPG shocked to peak stresses above 15 GPa, indicating the onset of an elastic instability. The present findings demonstrate that the softening of the longitudinal modulus (or elastic instability) presented here is linked to the large elastic waves and the rapid phase transformation reported previously—all observed only for shocked ZYB-grade HOPG. The elastic instability in shocked ZYB-grade HOPG is likely a precursor to the rapid phase transformation observed

  4. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  5. Melt-rock reaction an melt impregnation in oceanic peridotites: insights from the Ligurian-Piemontese ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    saturation of the rising melts and further extension led to formation of plagioclase-facies shear zones and porous flow percolation under plagioclase-facies conditions. Melt-peridotite interaction (olivine corrosion and ortopyroxene + plagioclase precipitation) and melt interstitial crystallization (impregnation) enriched in gabbro-noritic components the lithospheric peridotites that were widely impregnated when the conductive heat loss prevailed on percolation heating and the depleted melts stagnated in the upper lithospheric mantle. Sometime pockets of melts formed strongly depleted gabbro-norite intrusions (Ross & Elthon, 1993; Piccardo & Guarnieri, 2011). The early depleted MORB-type melts were completely entrapped into the shallow mantle lithosphere and refertilized it. Later plagioclase-facies shear zones were frequently infiltrated by aggregated MORB-type melts and transformed by reactive percolation to dunite channels, sometimes 10-100-meters wide. These high porosity channels are considered the fastest way to deliver oceanic MORB to shallow levels. These melts form the gabbroic intrusions and the basaltic extrusions of the oceanic crustal rocks of Jurassic Ligurian Tethys.

  6. Topographic-Compositional Relationships within the South Pole Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, P. G.; Holtzmann, J.; Blewett, D. T.; Taylor, G. J.; Hawke, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken (SPA) Basin is an immense structure that dominates the geology of much of the farside of the Moon. Its floor is composed mostly of impact deposits, though it also has numerous relatively small regions of mare basalt. The basin floor exhibits a lower albedo and higher mafic mineral abundance than the surrounding highlands [ I ]. The origin of this mafic anomaly is a major question in lunar geology. Hypotheses for the presence of the mafic anomaly were briefly reviewed in [2] and include mare deposits mixed and obscured by basin or crater ejecta (cryptomaria), a large impact melt sheet that may have differentiated, exposed lower crustal material, and a significant component of excavated mantle. A study of mineralogy as revealed in Clementine UV-VIS imagery for limited portions of the basin found a predominantly low-Capyroxene (noritic) character [2], ruling out cryptomaria as an important contributor to the mafic enhancement. A few small cryptomaria, revealed by dark-halo impact craters and light plains units with high-FeO contents, have been found in SPA; however, it appears that extensive cryptomaria are lacking in this basin. The uniformly noritic lithology within SPA led to favor exposed lower crust or a homogenized melt sheet as the explanation for the mafic anomaly. Models of basin formation predict that a basin the size of SPA should have excavated through the entire lunar crust (assuming nonoblique impact), potentially exposing or mixing a large component of material from the mantle. Comparison of SPA floor FeO and Ti02 (derived from Clementine UV-VIS observations) and also Th (from Lunar Prospector) with model-mantle chemistries appears to be consistent with a mixture of approximately equal proportions of lower-crust and mantle material. In the present study, we examine the relationship between the basin's topography and composition in order to provide further insight on the origin of the basin floor material. Data: Clementine UV

  7. JV Task 122 - Assessment of Mercury Control Options for the San Miguel Electric Cooperative Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas Lentz; Brandon Pavlish; John Kay; Michael Jones

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, testing has been under way at electric coal-fired power plants to find viable and economical mercury control strategies to meet pending regulations. San Miguel Electric Cooperative (SMEC) engaged the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) through a request for proposal (RFP) to perform research tests to evaluate sorbent-based technologies at its coal-fired San Miguel Generating Station to identify possible technology options that could be used by SMEC to meet the mercury reduction requirements of future U.S. federal standards. The goal of the testing was to target a mercury removal of {ge}90%. The EERC has successfully field-tested several sorbent-based technologies in previous projects that offer promise and potential to achieve a target removal of {ge}90%. Based on these field test results, yet recognizing that fuel type and plant operating conditions affect mercury capture significantly, the EERC proposed research tests to evaluate potential sorbent-based technologies provided by Norit Americas and the EERC that could potentially meet SMEC's mercury control objectives. Over the period of May through mid-June 2008, the EERC tested injection of both treated and nontreated activated carbon (AC) provided by Norit Americas and sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) provided by the EERC. Tests were performed at San Miguel Unit 1 (450 MW) and included injection at the inlet of the air heater (AH) (temperature of 720 F). The test coal was a Texas lignite fuel with an average moisture content of 31.19%, an ash content of 26.6%, a heating value of 5,094 Btu/lb, a sulfur content of 2.7%, and a mercury concentration of 0.182 ppm, all reported on an as-received basis. Pilot-scale testing results identified DARCO{reg_sign} Hg-LH, SEA2 + DARCO{reg_sign} Hg, and the ChemMod sorbents as technologies with the potential to achieve the target mercury removal of {ge}90% at the full-scale test. Mercury concentrations were tracked with continuous mercury

  8. Evolved mare basalt magmatism, high Mg/Fe feldspathic crust, chondritic impactors, and the petrogenesis of Antarctic lunar breccia meteorites Meteorite Hills 01210 and Pecora Escarpment 02007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Floss, Christine; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Anand, Mahesh; Patchen, Allan D.

    2006-12-01

    Antarctic lunar meteorites Meteorite Hills 01210 and Pecora Escarpment 02007 are breccias that come from different regolith lithologies on the Moon. MET 01210 is composed predominantly of fractionated low-Ti basaltic material and is classified as an immature, predominantly basaltic glassy matrix regolith breccia. PCA 02007 is a predominantly feldspathic regolith breccia consisting of metamorphosed feldspathic, noritic, troctolitic and noritic-anorthosite clasts, agglutinate and impact-glasses, as well as a number of basaltic clasts with mare and possible non-mare affinities. The basalt clasts in MET 01210 have undergone 'Fenner' trend enrichments in iron and may also have witnessed late-stage crystallization of zircon or a zirconium-rich mineral. Some of the features of MET 01210 are similar to other basaltic lunar breccia meteorites (e.g., Northwest Africa 773; Elephant Moraine 87521/96008; Yamato 793274/981031), but it is not paired with them. The presence of metamorphic anorthositic clasts as well as agglutinates indicates a small regolith component. Similarities with previously discovered evolved (e.g., LaPaz Icefield 02205; Northwest Africa 032) and ferroan (e.g., Asuka 881757; Yamato 793169) basaltic lunar meteorites suggest a similar mare source region for MET 01210. Despite lack of evidence for pairing, PCA 02007 shares many features with other feldspathic regolith breccias (e.g., Yamato 791197, Queen Alexandra Range 94281), including a high Mg/Fe whole-rock composition, glass spherules, agglutinate fragments and a diverse clast inventory spanning the range of ferroan anorthosite and high magnesium suite rocks. Some of the basalt fragments in this sample are fractionated and have an igneous origin. However, the majority of the basalt fragments are impact melt clasts. PCA 02007 supports previous studies of feldspathic lunar meteorites that have suggested an aluminous crust for the Moon, with compositions more similar to magnesium granulite breccias than

  9. Archean greenstone-tonalite duality: Thermochemical mantle convection models or plate tectonics in the early Earth global dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrich, Robert; Polat, Ali

    2006-03-01

    were intruded by voluminous norites from the Neoarchean through Proterozoic; norites are accounted for by melting of subduction metasomatized Archean continental lithospheric mantle (CLM). Deep CLM defines Archean cratons; it extends to ˜ 350 km, includes the diamond facies, and xenoliths signify a composition of the buoyant, refractory, residue of plume melting, a natural consequence of imbricated plateau-arc crust. Voluminous tonalites of Archean greenstone-granitoid terranes show a secular trend of increasing Mg#, Cr, Ni consistent with slab melts hybridizing with thicker mantle wedge as subduction angle steepens. Strike-slip faults of 1000 km scale; diachronous accretion of distinct tectonostratigraphic terranes; and broad Cordilleran-type orogens featuring multiple sutures, and oceanward migration of arcs, in the Archean Superior and Yilgarn cratons, are in common with the Altaid and Phanerozoic Cordilleran orogens. There is increasing geological evidence of the supercontinent cycle operating back to ˜ 2.7 Ga: Kenorland or Ur ˜ 2.7-2.4 Ga; Columbia ˜ 1.6-1.4 Ga; Rodinia ˜ 1100-750 Ma; and Pangea ˜ 230 Ma. High-resolution seismic reflection profiling of Archean terranes reveals a prevalence of low angle structures, and evidence for paleo-subduction zones. Collectively, the geological-geochemical-seismic records endorse the operation of plate tectonics since the early Archean.

  10. Lithologic Distribution and Geologic History of the Apollo 17 Site: The Record in Soils and Small Rock Particles from the Highland Massifs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1996-01-01

    Through analysis by instrumental neutron activation (INAA) of 789 individual lithic fragments from the 2 mm-4 mm grain-size fractions of five Apollo 17 soil samples (72443, 72503, 73243, 76283, and 76503) and petrographic examination of a subset, we have determined the diversity and proportions of rock types recorded within soils from the highland massifs. The distribution of rock types at the site, as recorded by lithic fragments in the soils, is an alternative to the distribution inferred from the limited number of large rock samples. The compositions and proportions of 2 mm-4 mm fragments provide a bridge between compositions of less than 1 mm fines and types and proportions of rocks observed in large collected breccias and their clasts. The 2 mm-4 mm fraction of soil from South Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-2 samples 72443 and 72503, consists of 71% noritic impact-melt breccia, 7% Incompatible-Trace-Element-(ITE)-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias), 19% agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% high-Ti mare basalt, and 2% others (very-low-Ti (VLT) basalt, monzogabbro breccia, and metal). In contrast, the 2 mm - 4 mm fraction of a soil from the North Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-6 sample 76503, has a greater proportion of ITE-poor highland rock types and mare-basalt fragments: it consists of 29% ITE-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias and troctolitic anorthosite), 25% impact-melt breccia, 13% high-Ti mare basalt, 31 % agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% orange glass and related breccia, and 1% others. Based on a comparison of mass- weighted mean compositions of the lithic fragments with compositions of soil fines from all Apollo 17 highland stations, differences between the station-2 and station-6 samples are representative of differences between available samples from the two massifs. From the distribution of different rock types and their

  11. Assessment of chemical element migration in soil-plant complex of Urov endemic localities of East Transbaikalia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim V., Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Sabsbakhor, Khushvakhtova; Aklexander, Degtyarev; Sergey, Tyutikov; Victor, Berezkin; Elena, Karpova

    2014-05-01

    The comparative evaluation of the levels of biologically active chemical elements and their migration in the soil-plant complex of two Urov endemic locations in East Transbaikalia (Zolinsky and Uryumkansky) and background areas (Western Baikal region and the western area of the Trans-Baikal region) was conducted. The predominant soil-forming rocks in East Transbaikalia are weathering products of Proterozoic carbonated granitoids PR2. The surface rocks consist from granite, granodiorite, diorite quartz diorite, gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite and other. Soils - mountain and cryogenic meadow forests, mountain permafrost taiga podzolised, meadow alluvial, peaty meadow [2]. The paludification of narrow valleys and thermokarst phenomena are typical in Urov endemic localities. It reflects on the spotted of soil and differentiation of chemical composition of soils and plants. Most of the chemical elements in soils were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence, and trace elements in soils and plants - by atomic absorption spectrometry. The selenium content was measured by spectrofluorimetric method [3]. The research processed by methods of variation statistics. It was found that the soils of two locations of the Urov subregion of the biosphere were more enriched with iron, barium, calcium, uranium, thorium, phosphorus, and to a lesser extent strontium compared to background soils. The ratio of Ca: P was significantly higher in the soil of background areas, and Ca: Sr, on the contrary, in endemic soils. In assessing the migration of trace elements in soil-plant complex by means of the total content of trace elements and biological absorption coefficient found a marked accumulation by plants manganese, chromium, arsenic and weak plants accumulation of cobalt and nickel. Soil landscape is not much different in content of selenium, but its migration in plants was reduced in places of spread of Urov disease [1]. The concentrators of cadmium (leaves of different species of willow

  12. Reconstructing the Jurassic Talkeetna Intra-oceanic Arc of Alaska Using Thermobarometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, B. R.; Mehl, L.; Kelemen, P. B.; Rioux, M.; Greene, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Talkeetna arc is one of two intra-oceanic arcs where the entire section from the upper mantle tectonite through the sediments capping the volcanic carapace is well exposed. The objective of this study is to reconstruct the vertical section of the Talkeetna arc by determining the (re) crystallization pressures at various structural levels. This information is crucial if the Talkeetna arc is to be exploited as an archetypal cross section for purposes as diverse as understanding the evolution of the Earth's crust, assessing rates and mechanisms of arc growth, and understanding the tectonic history arcs in general. The base of the arc crust exposed at Bernard and Scarp Mtns includes rare gabbro(norites) with metamorphic garnets-mineral assemblages excellent for thermobarometry. Broad core-to-rim garnet zoning toward lower Mg#, pyroxenes with near-rim, steep increases in Mg# and Al2O3, and unzoned plagioclase document cooling following core crystallization at ~900- 1025 °C and 0.9-1.0 GPa. Hornblende gabbros with magmatic garnet exposed in the Klanelneechena klippe indicate significantly lower P-T of ~700-835°C, 0.69- 0.77 GPa. Hornblende gabbro (norites) that comprise the bulk of the arc were studied in the Tazlina, Barnette, Scarp, and Pippin Ridge sections. Differences in mineral composition indicate qualitatively that the Tazlina, Barnette, and Scarp sections crystallized at successively greater depths. Temperature was calculated using hbl- plg [Holland and Blundy, 1994] and cpx-opx [QUILF; Andersen et al., 1993] net- transfer equilibria, and P was constrained using high δV/δS equilibria among plg, amph, opx, and cpx. Poorly known amphibole and pyroxene Tschermak-component activity models yield large uncertainties for P, but relative P differences can be anchored to the better-determined garnet gabbro P's, revealing that the rocks from the Barnette Creek section crystallized at ~0.40-0.55 GPa and the Tazlina and Pippin sections formed at ~0.25-0.35 GPa. Al

  13. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic and ultramafic cumulates occurring as xenoliths in volcanic rocks from Polish part of Central European Volcanic Province.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajek, Michał; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2015-04-01

    Mafic xenoliths coexisting with the peridotitic ones in rocks from Polish part of Cenozoic European Volcanic Province have been scarcely examined. (Bakun-Czubarow and Białowolska, 2003, Mineralogical Society of Poland- Spec. Pap. and references therein; Matusiak, 2006, Min. Polonica- Spec. Pap.; Puziewicz et al., 2011, JoP). In this study we present new results on mafic and ultramafic xenolithic rocks from the Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra, Góra Świątek, Mnisia Górka and Grodziec volcanic rocks in the Złotoryja-Jawor Volcanic Complex. The studied xenoliths are either plagioclase-free (clinopyroxenite, websterite) or plagioclase-bearing (anorthosite, gabbro, olivine-bearing gabbro and norite). Both the types may occur in the same volcanic rock. The cumulative xenoliths are smaller than peridotitic ones, blackish and show clear cumulative, coarse grained textures. Beside the rock-forming phases, the xenoliths occasionally contain spinel, sulfides and amphibole. Usually clinopyroxene grains occurring in gabbros are strongly corroded or disintegrated, while other phases are well-preserved. Contacts between xenolith and host volcanic rock are usually sharp with subhedral crystals of clinopyroxene growing at the xenolith surface. The mineral grains are usually zoned and chemical equilibrium between phases is scarce. Clinopyroxene in plagioclase-free rocks has composition of diopside with occasionally elevated Al, Ti and Cr contents. It's mg# varies from 0.89 to 0.79. It is slightly to moderately enriched in LREE; the REE patterns are concave, and the normalized values vary significantly between localities. It shows negative Sr anomaly, depth of Ti anomaly is variable. Orthopyroxene is Al-rich enstatite with mg# varying from 0.85 down to 0.75. Orthopyroxene in websterites is LREE depleted and show strong positive Ti and Zr-Hf anomalies. Opaques are ilmenite - Ti-magnetite solid solution and/or sulfides Clinopyroxene forming plagioclase-bearing rocks also has composition

  14. Petrological and seismic studies of the lithosphere in the earthquake swarm region Vogtland/NW Bohemia, central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, W. H.; Kämpf, H.; Seifert, W.; Dulski, P.

    2007-01-01

    New petrological and geochemical data of upper mantle and lower crustal xenoliths from a Quaternary tephra deposit in Mýtina, Czech Republic, are discussed in the frame of previous geophysical results (receiver functions, reflection seismology) of the western Eger/Ohře Rift area. The Vogtland/NW Bohemia region is well known for intraplate earthquake swarms, which are usually associated with volcanic activity. As previously reported, 3He/ 4He data of CO 2 emissions in mofettes and mineral-water springs point at ongoing magmatic processes in this area. Using teleseismic P receiver functions, an approximately 40-km-wide Moho updoming (from 31 to 27 km) and indications for a seismic discontinuity at 50 to 60 km depth were observed beneath the active CO 2-degassing field. The studied xenolith suite probes a lithospheric profile within the structural and gas geochemical anomaly field of the western Eger Rift. With regard to texture, composition, p- T estimates and origin, five xenolith groups can be discriminated. Upper crustal xenoliths (quartzites, phyllites, mica schists) resemble crystalline country rocks at surface. One noritic xenolith (6 kbar, 800 °C) could represent a sample of the lower crust. Clinopyroxenites and hornblendites probably represent cumulates of the nephelinitic magma or fragments of magmatic veins. Porous wehrlites and one hornblende peridotite xenolith reflect a metasomatied upper mantle. Megacrysts of Ti-rich amphibole, olivine, clinopyroxene, and phlogopite could be fragments of pegmatitic veins or high-pressure phenocrysts. Most of the ultramafic nodules (xenoliths and megacrysts) formed at pressures between 6 and 11 kbar (22 to 38 km depth), at temperatures well above regional geotherms of the Bohemian Massif calculated from surface heat flow studies. Orthopyroxene-bearing spinel-lherzolite xenoliths were not observed. Our petrographical, geochemical, and thermobarometric results indicate a lithospheric mantle strongly altered by magmatic

  15. Screening of carbonaceous nanoporous materials for capture of nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Neimark, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    A strategy for combined experimental and computational screening of candidate carbonaceous materials for capturing highly volatile nerve agents at ambient temperature using physisorption. Based on theoretical calculations of Henry constants and zero-coverage adsorption enthalpies for sarin and DMMP (its common stimulant) adsorbed in model slit-shaped carbon pores at 298 K, we found the following. Slit-shaped carbon pores with pore width ~0.5 nm are optimal for agent adsorption due to strong confinement of adsorbed molecules. Agent adsorption enthalpy at zero coverage computed for optimal pore width is very high and reaches ~83 kJ mol(-1). Widening of pore width above ~1 nm results in a significant decrease of the Henry constant and zero-coverage adsorption enthalpy (~44 kJ mol(-1)). Polydispersity of studied candidate carbonaceous materials strongly affects adsorption capacity for DMMP under the operating conditions. The optimal carbonaceous adsorbent, pitch-based P7 activated carbon fiber, adsorbed ~100 μg g(-1) DMMP at 0.03 μg m(-3). Commercial Norit activated carbon adsorbed only ~20 μg g(-1) DMMP at 0.03 μg m(-3). Surprisingly, a small shift of the pore size distribution towards wider micropores has a great impact on agent adsorption. Because the adsorption enthalpies computed at zero coverage weakly dependent on pore size, the heat released during agent adsorption is similar for all studied candidate adsorbents (i.e.~55-60 kJ mol(-1)). PMID:23165364

  16. Effect of the adsorbate (Bromacil) equilibrium concentration in water on its adsorption on powdered activated carbon. Part 2: Kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Al Mardini, Fadi; Legube, Bernard

    2009-10-30

    The application of several monosolute equilibrium models has previously shown that Bromacil adsorption on SA-UF (Norit) powdered activated carbon (PAC) is probably effective on two types of sites. High reactivity sites were found to be 10-20 less present in a carbon surface than lower reactivity sites, according to the q(m) values calculated by isotherm models. The aims of this work were trying, primarily, to identify the kinetic-determinant stage of the sorption of Bromacil at a wide range of initial pesticide concentrations (approximately 5 to approximately 500 microg L(-1) at pH 7.8), and secondly, to specify the rate constants and other useful design parameters for the application in water treatment. It was therefore not possible to specify a priori whether the diffusion or surface reaction is the key step. It shows that many of the tested models which describe the stage of distribution or the surface reaction are correctly applied. However, the diffusivity values (D and D(0)) were found to be constant only constants for some specific experimental concentrations. The HSDM model of surface diffusion in pores was also applied but the values of the diffusion coefficient of surface (D(s)) were widely scattered and reduce significantly with the initial concentration or the equilibrium concentration in Bromacil. The model of surface reaction of pseudo-second order fitted particularly well and led to constant values which are independent of the equilibrium concentration, except for the low concentrations where the constants become significantly more important. This last observation confirms perfectly the hypothesis based on two types of sites as concluded by the equilibrium data (part 1). PMID:19560269

  17. Novel catalysts for methane activation. Quarterly report No. 7, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Wu, H.J.; Malhotra, R.; Wilson, R.B.

    1994-09-01

    Fullerenes are a recently discovered allotrope of carbon that have been found to possess unusual properties, some of which may be ideal for methane activation. This project is designed to evaluate these carbon based materials for conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. The project is divided into three technical tasks. Task 1 deals with the synthesis and characterization of the fullerenes and fullerene soots, Task 2 with the testing of the catalysts, and Task 3 with the evaluation of the results and technical reporting requirements. The results and accomplishments for this quarter are summarized below; soots were prepared either by extraction in toluene or sublimation of the lower fullerenes (such as C{sub 60}/C{sub 70}); a fullerene soot was prepared by adding C{sub 60} to an extracted soot; fullerene soot was doped with platinum and nickel by incipient wetness techniques, and a nickel fullerene complex was synthesized using organometallic techniques; soot from three manufactures were tested for methane activation and found to exhibit small but notable differences in reactivity; increasing the surface area of soots by partial oxidation with C0{sub 2} did not cause significant changes in the reactivities; the effect of the extraction and sublimation of C{sub 60}/C{sub 70} was determined to be minor; the effect of added C{sub 60} to an extracted MER soot was determined to be beneficial; acetylene black was tested and found to have higher activity and lower selectivity than a Norit-A carbon; and nickel and platinum doped soots were found to be more active than the undoped soots.

  18. Magmatic complexity on early Mars as seen through a combination of orbital, in-situ and meteorite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, Violaine; Toplis, Michael J.; Beck, Pierre; Mangold, Nicolas; Wiens, Roger; Pinet, Patrick; Cousin, Agnes; Maurice, Sylvestre; LeDeit, Laetitia; Hewins, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Quantin, Cathy; Forni, Olivier; Newsom, Horton; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wray, James; Bridges, Nathan; Payré, Valérie; Rapin, William; Le Mouélic, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    Until recently, Mars was considered a basalt-covered world, but this vision is evolving thanks to new orbital, in situ and meteorite observations, in particular of rocks of the ancient Noachian period. In this contribution we summarise newly recognised compositional and mineralogical differences between older and more recent rocks, and explore the geodynamic implications of these new findings. For example the MSL rover has discovered abundant felsic rocks close to the landing site coming from the wall of Gale crater ranging from alkali basalt to trachyte. In addition, the recently discovered Martian regolith breccia NWA 7034 (and paired samples) contain many coarse-grained noritic-monzonitic clasts demonstrably Noachian in age, and even some clasts that plot in the mugearite field. Olivine is also conspicuously lacking in these ancient samples, in contrast to later Hesperian rocks. The alkali-suite requires low-degree melting of the Martian mantle at low pressure, whereas the later Hesperian magmatism would appear to be produced by higher mantle temperatures. Various scenarios are proposed to explain these observations, including different styles of magmatic activity (i.e. passive upwelling vs. hotspots). A second petrological suite of increasing interest involves quartzo-feldspathic materials that were first inferred from orbit, in local patches in the southern highlands and in the lower units of Valles Marineris. However, identification of felsic rocks from orbit is limited by the low detectability of feldspar in the near infrared. On the other hand, the MSL rover has described the texture, mineralogy and composition of felsic rocks in Gale crater that are granodiorite-like samples akin to terrestrial TTG (Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite suites). These observations, and the low average density of the highlands crust, suggest the early formation of 'continental' crust on Mars, although the details of the geodynamic scenario and the importance of volatiles in

  19. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility versus lattice- and shape-preferred orientation in the Lac Tio hemo-ilmenite ore body (Grenville province, Quebec)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolle, Olivier; Charlier, Bernard; Bascou, Jérôme; Diot, Hervé; McEnroe, Suzanne A.

    2014-08-01

    The Lac Tio hemo-ilmenite ore body crops out in the outer portion of the 1.06 Ga Lac Allard anorthosite, a member of the Havre-Saint-Pierre anorthosite suite from the Grenville province of North America. It is made up of ilmenitite (commonly with more than 95% hemo-ilmenite) associated with noritic lithologies and anorthosite. The present study compares the magnetic fabric of the ore body, as deduced from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements, with the crystallographic and shape fabrics, obtained from lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) and shape-preferred orientation (SPO) measurements made using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and 3D image analysis, respectively. Room-temperature hysteresis measurements, thermomagnetic curves and values of the bulk magnetic susceptibility reveal a magnetic mineralogy dominated by a mixed contribution of hemo-ilmenite and magnetite. The hemo-ilmenite grains display a LPO characterized by a strong preferred orientation of the basal (0001) plane of ilmenite along which hematite was exsolved. This LPO and the magnetic fabric fit well (angle between the crystallographic c-axis and the axis of minimum susceptibility ≤ ca. 15° for most samples), and the latter is thus strongly influenced by the hemo-ilmenite magneto-crystalline anisotropy. A magnetite SPO, concordant with the hemo-ilmenite LPO, may also influence and even dominate the magnetic fabric. The rock shape fabric is coaxial with the magnetic fabric that can thus be used to perform detailed structural mapping. Interpretation of the magnetic fabric and field structural data suggests that the Lac Tio ore body would be a sag point at the margin of the Lac Allard anorthosite, deformed by ballooning during the final stage of diapiric emplacement of the anorthosite body.

  20. Felsic Igneous Rocks at Gale Crater : a Comparison with Lithic Clasts in NWA 7533

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, V.; Wiens, R. C.; Toplis, M. J.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Fabre, C.

    2014-12-01

    Curiosity rover landed at Gale, an early Hesperian age crater formed within Noachian rocks. In Hummocky plain, more than half of the igneous floats rocks are highly alkaline rocks (Stolper et al. doi: 101126/science.12239463, Schmidt et al. doi: 10.1002/2013JE004481) and feldspar-bearing rocks (Sautter et al. doi: 10.1002/2013JE00447). ChemCam observations at sub-millimeter scale show that these samples contain a significant feldspar component, either associated with LCP in gabbroic texture or with augite in effusive rocks defining an alkaline K-feldspar-bearing suite: basanite, trachy-andesite with porphyritic texture and syenitic rock with apahnitic texture. This series likely resulted from differentiation of liquids produced by low degrees of partial melting of primitive mantle. These rocks are float rocks or occurred as clast in conglomerate suggesting a provenance from Gale crater rim. NWA 7533 is the first Noachian breccia sampling the southern hemisphere Martian regolith. It is a polymict breccia with leucocratic clasts including zircon with 4.4 Ga ages Humayun et al., doi :10.1038/nature). The alkali basaltic evolved clasts contain two feldspars (alkali and plagioclase) and modal recombination gives a basaltic trachy-andesite, gabbroic, trachy-andesite and mugearite clast (Agee et al. doi: 10.1126/science. 1228858). Noritic clasts contain andesine, LCP, and Cr-magnetite. The monzonitic/mugearitic-evolved clasts are composed of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, augite, Ti-Magnetite, Cl-apatite and zircon. These clasts would represent products of Martian crust emplaced at 4.5 Ga and re-melted at 4.4 Ga (Humayun et al., doi :10.1038/nature). The leucocratic clasts of the Noachian SNC breccia will be compared with evolved lithology encountered at Gale crater and products of Noachian magmatism will be discussed.

  1. Remote sensing studies of the northeastern portion of the lunar nearside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Blewett, D. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Taylor, G. J.; Peterson, C. A.; Bell, J. F.; Robinson, M. S.; Bell, J. F., III; Coombs, C. R.; Jaumann, R.

    1993-01-01

    During the Galileo spacecraft encounter with the Earth-Moon system in December, 1992, a variety of spectral data and imagery were obtained for the eastern limb region as well as much of the lunar nearside. In order to support this encounter, we have been collecting near-infrared spectra and other remote sensing data for that portion of the northeastern nearside (NEM region) for which the highest resolution Galileo data were obtained. Analysis of spectra obtained for highlands units in the NEN region indicates that most surface units are dominated by anorthositic norite. To date, no pure anorthosites have been identified in the region. Several dark-haloed impact craters have exposed mare material from beneath highlands-rich surface units. Hence, ancient mare volcanism occurred in at least a portion of the NEN region. Endogenic dark-haloed craters in the region are the source of localized dark mantle deposits (LDMD) of pyroclastic origin and at least two compositional groups are present. The Galileo spacecraft obtained very high-resolution remote sensing data for the northeastern part of the nearside of the Moon. In order to prepare for and support this encounter, we have collected and analyzed a variety of spectral data for the NEN region. Numerous unanswered questions exist for this region. These include: (1) the composition and stratigraphy of the local highlands crust, (2) the nature and mode of formation of regional light plains, (3) the composition of localized pyroclastic deposits, and (4) the distribution of possible cryptomare in the region. The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary results of our analyzes of remote sensing data of remote sensing data obtained for the NEN region.

  2. New lunar meteorite Northwest Africa 2996: A window into farside lithologies and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Treiman, Allan H.; Joy, Katherine H.

    2013-02-01

    The Northwest Africa (NWA) 2996 meteorite is a lunar regolith breccia with a "mingled" bulk composition and slightly elevated incompatible element content. NWA 2996 is dominated by clasts of coarse-grained noritic and troctolitic anorthosite containing calcic plagioclase (An#~98) and magnesian mafic minerals (Mg#~75), distinguishing it from Apollo ferroan anorthosites and magnesian-suite rocks. This meteorite lacks basalt, and owes its mingled composition to a significant proportion of coarse-grained mafic clasts. One group of mafic clasts has pyroxenes similar to anorthosites, but contains more sodic plagioclase (An#~94) distinguishing it as a separate lithology. Another group contains Mg-rich, very low-titanium pyroxenes, and could represent an intrusion parental to regional basalts. Other clasts include granophyric K-feldspar, disaggregated phosphate-bearing quartz monzodiorites, and alkali-suite fragments (An#~65). These evolved lithics are a minor component, but contain minerals rich in incompatible elements. Several anorthosite clasts contain clusters of apatite, suggesting that the anorthosites either assimilated evolved rocks or were metasomatized by a liquid rich in incompatible elements. We used Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer remote sensing data to show that NWA 2996 is most similar to regoliths in and around the South Pole Aitken (SPA) basin, peripheral regions of eastern mare, Nectaris, Crisium, and southern areas of Mare Humorum. However, the mineralogy of NWA 2996 is distinctive compared with Apollo and Luna mission samples, and is likely consistent with an origin near the SPA basin: anorthosite clasts could represent local crustal material, mafic clasts could represent intrusions beneath basalt flows, and apatite-bearing rocks could carry the SPA KREEP signature.

  3. 19F Magic angle spinning NMR reporter molecules: empirical measures of surface shielding, polarisability and H-bonding.

    PubMed

    Budarin, Vitaliy L; Clark, James H; Deswarte, Fabien E I; Mueller, Karl T; Tavener, Stewart J

    2007-06-14

    Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) (19)F NMR spectra have been obtained and chemical shifts measured for 37 molecules in the gas phase and adsorbed on the surfaces of six common materials: octadecyl- and octyl-functionalised chromatography silicas, Kieselgel 100 silica, Brockmann neutral alumina, Norit activated charcoal and 3-(1-piperidino)propyl functionalised silica. From these six surfaces, octadecyl-silica is selected as a non-polar reference to which the others are compared. The change in chemical shift of a fluorine nucleus within a molecule on adsorption to a surface from the gas phase, Deltadelta(gas)(surface), is described by the empirical relationship: Deltadelta(gas)(surface) = delta(s) + (alpha(s)+pi(s))/alpha(r) (Deltadelta(gas)(reference) - delta(r)) + delta(HBA) + delta(HBD), where delta(s) and delta(r) are constants that describe the chemical shift induced by the electromagnetic field of the surface under investigation and reference surface, alpha(s) and alpha(r) are the relative surface polarisability for the surface and reference, pi(s) is an additional contribution to the surface polarisabilities due to its ability to interact with aromatic molecules, and delta(HBA) and delta(HBD) are measurements of the hydrogen acceptor and donor properties of the surface. These empirical parameters are measured for the surfaces under study. Silica and alumina are found to undergo specific interactions with aromatic reporter molecules and both accept and donate H-bonds. Activated charcoal was found to have an extreme effect on shielding but no specific interactions with the adsorbed molecules. 3-(1-Piperidino)propyl functionalised silica exhibits H-bond acceptor ability, but does not donate H-bonds. PMID:17487325

  4. Thorium abundances of basalt ponds in South Pole-Aitken basin: Insights into the composition and evolution of the far side lunar mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagerty, J.J.; Lawrence, D.J.; Hawke, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Imbrian-aged basalt ponds, located on the floor of South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, are used to provide constraints on the composition and evolution of the far side lunar mantle. We use forward modeling of the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer thorium data, to suggest that at least five different and distinct portions of the far side lunar mantle contain little or no thorium as of the Imbrian Period. We also use spatial correlations between local thorium enhancements and nonmare material on top of the basalt ponds to support previous assertions that lower crustal materials exposed in SPA basin have elevated thorium abundances, consistent with noritic to gabbronoritic lithologies. We suggest that the lower crust on the far side of the Moon experienced multiple intrusions of thorium-rich basaltic magmas, prior to the formation of SPA basin. The fact that many of the ponds on the lunar far side have elevated titanium abundances indicates that the far side of the Moon experienced extensive fractional crystallization that likely led to the formation of a KREEP-like component. However, because the Imbrian-aged basalts contain no signs of elevated thorium, we propose that the SPA impact event triggered the transport of a KREEP-like component from the lunar far side and concentrated it on the nearside of the Moon. Because of the correlation between basaltic ponds and basins within SPA, we suggest that Imbrian-aged basaltic volcanism on the far side of the Moon was driven by basin-induced decompressional melting. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} with methane over molybdenum catalyst. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltowski, T.

    1995-12-31

    One of the primary concerns in coal utilization is the emission of sulfur compounds, especially SO{sub 2}. This project deals with catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} with methane using molybdenum sulfide catalyst supported on different activated carbons: Darco TRS, Norit ROZ-3, and an activated carbon prepared from Illinois coal IBC-110. The work conducted during this quarter has concentrated on continuation of the synthesis of activated carbon derived from Illinois coal IBC-110, modification and improvement of the apparatus for the catalyst testing, ESCA (XPS) analysis of the catalyst (10% MoS{sub 2} on Darco TRS activated carbon), and experiments in the temperature range of 450{degree}C--600{degree}C for the S0{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} ratio equal 1:1. XPS study confirmed that Mo is present in the form of Mo+4 and S in the form of S-2. The catalytic experiments of SO{sub 2} reduction with CH{sub 4} showed that for both Darco TRS and ROZ-3 supports, S0{sub 2} conversion increases with the temperature. Also, the catalyst having 20% loading of MoS{sub 2} on Darco TRS support shows the highest S0{sub 2} conversion over 10% or 15% loadings on Darco TRS. In contrast, for the ROZ-3 support, the catalyst having a 15% loading shows the highest activity. Additionally, it was observed that conversions of S0{sub 2} at 600{degree}C for both supports are comparable to each other when catalysts with 20% loadings are used; at lower temperatures, the activities are quite different with the conversions being higher for Darco TRS support.

  6. Is the central Piedmont suture a low-angle normal fault

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, A.J. )

    1991-11-01

    In the crystalline southern Appalachians, the Carolina arc terrane is in fault contact with the Piedmont terrace along a seismically reflective surface dipping toward the hinterland and called the central Piedmont suture. The central Piedmont suture may be interpreted as a thrust, but existing data also support a Silurian-Devonian, normal-slip origin: (1) There are lower grade rocks in the hanging wall than in the footwall. (2) A normal-fault solution allows simultaneous metamorphism of the Piedmont terrane and Carolina terrane, prior to their juxtaposition along the central Piedmont suture. (3) Mineral ages in the Piedmont terrane are older in the west than in the east, consistent with an eastward-progressive unroofing. (4) Along the western edge of the Carolina terrane, a linear belt of Devonian subalkalic to alkalic granitoids and gabbro-norites with low initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios may represent mantle-derived magmas along the axis of rifting that are contemporary with major crustal extension. The westernmost Piedmont terrane includes the Chauga belt. The Chauga belt comprises metavolcanic and metaplutonic units similar in rock type and age to those of the western Carolina terrane. Chauga belt rocks are interpreted to be the westernmost exposures of the Carolina terrane, translated west on the lower plate by extension. The Piedmont and Carolina terranes may thus compose a single lithotectonic element. The Piedmont terrane would represent the basement on which the arc was constructed; the terrane was uplifted during extension along a major low-angle normal fault, recognized today as the central Piedmont suture.

  7. The uplift magnetisation record in the central scandinavian caledonides: results from basic igneous complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, J. D. A.; Poppleton, T. J.; Mason, R.; Griffiths, A. J.

    1990-11-01

    To identify the palaeomagnetic record acquired during slow post-orogenic uplift and cooling in the central part of the Scandinavian Caledonides we have investigated four separated synorogenic basic complexes in the Middle and Upper Allochthons. A shallow N-S axis of magnetisation is common to three of these bodies and therefore postdates all major tectonism. It is defined in the Møsjoen Gabbro ( D/I = 7°/3°, N = 23 samples, α 95 = 5.0° ), in the Sulitjelma Gabbro ( D/I=20°/-9°, N = 22 samples, α 95 = 6.6° )and the Råna norite ( D/I = 9°/-16°, N=19 samples, α 95 = 7.9° ). No vestige of this uplift remanence is recognised in the Lyngen Ophiolite, where a characteristic remanence of D/I = 65°/43° ( N = 19 samples, α 95 = 10.6° ) is recorded. The possibility that the N-S shallow axis of magnetisation is of mid-Carboniferous age, is considered and rejected. Instead it is attributed to the interval of post-tectonic cooling of the Caledonian nappe pile between synorogenic events dated ca.. 420 Ma and the uplift to surface levels defined by later Devonian events. It corresponds closely to an axis of magnetisation extensively represented within the metamorphic Caledonides and Scotland and believed to record a post-tectonic thermochemical event. Subordinate components record Mesozoic overprinting events and relict Caledonian magnetisations which have escaped replacement during this thermo-tectonic event. The latter collectively imply a rapid movement from high to low palaeolatitudes in Late Ordovician and Early Silurian times.

  8. Adhesion in a Vacuum Environment and its Implications for Dust Mitigation Techniques on Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkebile, Stephen; Gaier, James R.

    2012-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, the adhesion of dust to critical spacecraft systems was a greater problem than anticipated and resulted in functional degradation of thermal control surfaces, spacesuit seals, and other spacecraft components. Notably, Earth-based simulation efforts did not predict the magnitude and effects of dust adhesion in the lunar environment. Forty years later, we understand that the ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment, coupled with micrometeorite impacts and constant ion and photon bombardment from the sun result in atomically clean and high surface energy dust particles and spacecraft surfaces. However, both the dominant mechanism of adhesion in airless environments and the conditions for high fidelity simulation tests have still to be determined. The experiments presented in here aim to aid in the development of dust mitigation techniques for airless bodies (e.g., lunar surface, asteroids, moons of outer planets). The approach taken consists of (a) quantifying the adhesion between common polymer and metallic spacecraft materials and a synthetic noritic volcanic glass, as a function of surface cleanliness and of triboelectric charge transfer in a UHV environment, and (b) determining parameters for high fidelity tests through investigation of adhesion dependence on vacuum environment and sample treatment. Adhesion force has been measured between pins of spacecraft materials and a plate of synthetic volcanic glass by determining the pull-off force with a torsion balance. Although no significant adhesion is generally observed directly as a result of high surface energies, the adhesion due to induced electrostatic charge is observed to increase with spacecraft material cleanliness, in some cases by over a factor of 10. Furthermore, electrostatically-induced adhesion is found to decrease rapidly above pressures of 10-6 torr. It is concluded that high-fidelity tests should be conducted in high to ultrahigh vacuum and include an ionized surface cleaning

  9. Comprehensive Pb-Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic, trace element, and mineralogical characterization of mafic to ultramafic rock reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourny, Anaïs.; Weis, Dominique; Scoates, James S.

    2016-03-01

    Controlling the accuracy and precision of geochemical analyses requires the use of characterized reference materials with matrices similar to those of the unknown samples being analyzed. We report a comprehensive Pb-Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic and trace element concentration data set, combined with quantitative phase analysis by XRD Rietveld refinement, for a wide range of mafic to ultramafic rock reference materials analyzed at the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research, University of British Columbia. The samples include a pyroxenite (NIM-P), five basalts (BHVO-2, BIR-1a, JB-3, BE-N, GSR-3), a diabase (W-2), a dolerite (DNC-1), a norite (NIM-N), and an anorthosite (AN-G); results from a leucogabbro (Stillwater) are also reported. Individual isotopic ratios determined by MC-ICP-MS and TIMS, and multielement analyses by HR-ICP-MS are reported with 4-12 complete analytical duplicates for each sample. The basaltic reference materials have coherent Sr and Nd isotopic ratios with external precision below 50 ppm (2SD) and below 100 ppm for Hf isotopes (except BIR-1a). For Pb isotopic reproducibility, several of the basalts (JB-3, BHVO-2) require acid leaching prior to dissolution. The plutonic reference materials also have coherent Sr and Nd isotopic ratios (<50 ppm), however, obtaining good reproducibility for Pb and Hf isotopic ratios is more challenging for NIM-P, NIM-N, and AN-G due to a variety of factors, including postcrystallization Pb mobility and the presence of accessory zircon. Collectively, these results form a comprehensive new database that can be used by the geochemical community for evaluating the radiogenic isotope and trace element compositions of volcanic and plutonic mafic-ultramafic rocks.

  10. TIR Spectroscopy: Looking for Igneous Rocks on the Surface of Mercury.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, S.; Maturilli, A.; Carli, C.; Helbert, J.; D'Amore, M.; Nestola, F.; Zorzi, F.; Hiesinger, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recent MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) findings, corroborated by petrologic modeling, reviewed the surface composition of Mercury as mainly constituted by low-Fe and Mg-rich basalts. This interpretation dismisses the previously assessed widespread presence of more felsic materials - as on the Moon's surface - leaving open the question of the crust petrogenesis of Mercury. Assessing the presence of a differentiated crust on the surface of Mercury is among the intrinsic objectives of the next ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury. The ESA Mercury Planetary Orbiter will carry the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (MERTIS, 7-14 µm), which will map the surface mineralogical composition of the planet. The interpretation of spectra collected along a wide range of daily surface temperatures is complicated by the relocation of the band minima depending on the temperature (e.g., Helbert et al. 2013). In addition, the simultaneous presence of different minerals, each one with its characteristic thermal expansion coefficient, results in a more difficult interpretation of the spectra. In this work we examine the spectral variations of linear mixtures of plagioclase and pyroxenes that most likely could be present in the differentiated igneous crust of Mercury, in addition to the T-dependent spectral variations of the single constituents. Furthermore we show how two different thermal expansion coefficients combined in the same sample reveal in a thermal infrared spectrum. To this aim we measure high-T emissivity - up to 725K - of natural binary compositions (e.g., anorthosite, gabbro, norite) and their single-phase components, whose chemistries are provided by microprobe analyses. Besides spectroscopy, all the provided samples are analyzed before and after the heat-treatment using X-Ray Diffraction, in order to verify any possible variation due to the annealing.

  11. Geochemistry of the Kalatongke Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposit, NW China: implications for the formation of magmatic sulfide mineralization in a postcollisional environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xie-Yan; Li, Xiang-Ren

    2009-04-01

    The Kalatongke (also spelt as Karatungk) Ni-Cu-(platinum-group element, PGE) sulfide deposit, containing 33 Mt sulfide ore with a grade of 0.8 wt.% Ni and 1.3 wt.% Cu, is located in the Eastern Junggar terrane, Northern Xinjiang, NW China. The largest sulfide ore body, which occupies more than 50 vol.% of the intrusion Y1, is dominantly comprised of disseminated sulfide with a massive sulfide inner zone. Economic disseminated sulfides also occur at the base of the intrusions Y2 and Y3. The main host rock types are norite in the lower part and diorite in the upper part of each intrusion. Enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and depletion in heavy rare earth elements relative to mid-ocean ridge basalt indicate that the mafic intrusions were produced from magmas derived from a metasomatized garnet lherzolite mantle. The average grades of the disseminated ores are 0.6 wt.% Ni and 1.1 wt.% Cu, whereas those of the massive ores are 2 wt.% Ni and 8 wt.% Cu. The PGE contents of the disseminated ores (14-69 ppb Pt and 78-162 ppb Pd) are lower than those of the massive ores (120-505 ppb Pt and 30-827 ppb Pd). However, on the basis of 100% sulfide, PGE contents of the massive sulfides are lower than those of the disseminated sulfides. Very high Cu/Pd ratios (>4.5 × 104) indicate that the Kalatongke sulfides segregated from PGE-depleted magma produced by prior sulfide saturation and separation. A negative correlation between the Cu/Pd ratio and the Pd content in 100% sulfide indicates that the PGE content of the sulfide is controlled by both the PGE concentrations in the parental silicate magma and the ratio of the amount of silicate to sulfide magma. The negative correlations between Ir and Pd indicate that the massive sulfides experienced fractionation.

  12. Remote remanence estimation (RRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, David A.; McKenzie, K. Blair; White, Tony S.

    2014-09-01

    The remote determination of magnetic remanence in rocks is a method that has largely been ignored because of the ambiguity associated with the estimation of both the Koenigsberger ratio and remanent magnetisation direction. Our research shows that the resultant magnetisation direction can be derived directly through inversion of magnetic data for an isolated magnetic anomaly from a compact magnetic source. The resultant magnetisation direction is a property of the target magnetic rocks and a robust inversion parameter. The departure angle of the resultant magnetisation vector from that of the inducing magnetic field is an important indicator of the existence of remanent magnetisation and the inversion process can detect departures that are not easily detected by visual inspection. This departure angle is called the apparent resultant rotation angle or ARRA. The induced field vector, remanent magnetisation vector and resultant magnetisation vector lie on the plane of a great circle. We find the intersection of the transformed polar wander vector trace with the great circle plane to obtain one or more possible solutions for the remanent magnetisation vector. Geological deduction will normally allow us to reduce the ambiguity for multiple solutions to obtain the most likely remanent magnetisation direction. Once the remanent magnetisation direction is established, it is then possible to determine the Koenigsberger ratio and magnetic susceptibility for the target. We illustrate the methodology using survey data over the Black Hill Norite which also has extensive palaeomagnetic data available for comparison with the inversion results. We then apply the remote remanence estimation (RRE) method to a systematic study of a large number of intrusive pipes in the Thomson Orogen, New South Wales. The corrected magnetic susceptibility and remanence properties, spatial distribution and underlying uncertainties are evaluated for their potential use by diamond explorers. The

  13. Single Silicate Crystal Paleointensity Analyses of the ca. 2.575 Ga Great Dyke of Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T.; Tarduno, J. A.; Hofmann, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent considerations of core thermal conductivity suggest a relatively young (less than 1 billion-year-old) age for the inner core, excluding compositional convection associated with inner core growth as a driving mechanism for an Archean geodynamo. These reconsiderations provide further motivation for studying the nature of the field when core convection was predominantly related to core mantle boundary heat flow. Here we examine the ca. 2.575 Ga Great Dyke of Zimbabwe. We rely on deep drill core samples, eliminating the otherwise pervasive effects of lightning seen in surface samples. We apply single silicate crystal paleointensity (SCP) techniques (Tarduno et al., Rev. Geophys., 2006) on feldspars separated from orthopyroxene gabbros (norites). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses indicate the presence of rare sub-micron equant to slightly elongate magnetic inclusions in the feldspars. The magnetite/titanomagnetite needles commonly observed in feldspars of slowly cooled igneous rocks are rarely observed in crystals from our Great Dyke gabbro samples. Selection criteria of crystals for analyses required feldspar crystals to be free of visible multi-domain inclusions. Natural remanent magnetic intensities of ca. 1 mm-sized feldspar crystal are relatively weak (approximately 1-2 x 10-8 emu), but well within the measurement range of the University of Rochester small bore ultra-high moment resolution 2G DC SQUID magnetometer. Preliminary total thermal demagnetization experiments suggest paleofield values within 50% of those of the present-day, similar to other results that imply a relatively strong magnetic field during the late Archean. Results from Thellier analyses will be used to test this interpretation.

  14. Thermal diffusion of the lunar magma ocean and the formation of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Wang, S.

    2010-12-01

    The magma ocean hypothesis is consistent with several lines of evidence including planet formation, core-mantle differentiation and geochemical observations, and it is proved as an inevitable stage in the early evolution of planets. The magma ocean is assumed to be homogeneous in previous models during solidification or crystallization[1]. Based on the recent advance and our new data in experimental igneous petrology[2], we question this assumption and propose that an gabbrotic melt, from which the anorthositic lunar crust crystallized, can be produced by thermal diffusion, rather than by magma fractionation. This novel model can provide explanations for the absence of the advection in lunar magma ocean[3] and the old age of the anorthositic lunar crust[4-5]. 1. Solomatov, V., Magma Oceans and Primordial Mantle Differentiation, in Treatise on Geophysics, S. Gerald, Editor. 2007, Elsevier: Amsterdam. p. 91-119. 2. Huang, F., et al., Chemical and isotopic fractionation of wet andesite in a temperature gradient: Experiments and models suggesting a new mechanism of magma differentiation. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 2009. 73(3): p. 729-749. 3. Turcotte, D.L. and L.H. Kellogg, Implications of isotope data for the origin of the Moon, in Origin of the Moon, W.K. Hartmann, R.J. Phillips, and G.J. Taylor, Editors. 1986, Lunar and Planet. Inst.: Houston, TX. p. 311-329. 4. Alibert, C., M.D. Norman, and M.T. McCulloch, An ancient Sm-Nd age for a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from lunar breccia 67016. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 1994. 58(13): p. 2921-2926. 5. Touboul, M., et al., Tungsten isotopes in ferroan anorthosites: Implications for the age of the Moon and lifetime of its magma ocean. Icarus, 2009. 199(2): p. 245-249.

  15. Stability Characteristics of "Aerobic" Acetyl-CoA Synthetase of Yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satyanarayana, T.; Klein, Harold P.

    1976-01-01

    During the purification of the "aerobic" acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain LK2Gl2, it was noted that stronge at 4 C resulted in the loss of enzyme activity within 24 hr. Similar losses were observed during column chromatography. Addition of boiled extracts from either aerobic or anerobic cells completely prevents this. The stabilizing factor (SF) in these extracts is non-dialyzable and organic in nature. SF is excluded on G-25 and G-50 Sephadex columns and is slightly retarded on G-75 columns. On G-100 columns, SF elutes as a peak exactly coincident with that of cytochrome c, indicating a molecular weight of 13,000. SF activity was not destroyed by Pronase treatment, was adsorbed onto Norite, and absorbed in the UV with a single maximum at 260 nm. The action of SF could be replaced by a number of nucleotides. At 0.01 M, the order of effectiveness was: ATP>ADP>AMP>GTP>CTP>/=UTP>XTP. Even at 2 x 10(exp -4) M, ATP and ADP, but not AMP, cyclic AMP, adenosine or adenine, were effective in stabilizing this ACS. The mechanism of stabilization by ATP and AMP appears to be the same, since AMP competitively inhibited the ACS with respect to ATP in in vitro assays, while ADP gave a mixed type of inhibition, thus indicating a different mechanism. ACS from nonaerobic cells is also unstable in the absence of SF but, unlike aerobic ACS, is not affected by ATP or other nucleotides.

  16. Zircon U-Pb And Biotite 40Ar/39Ar Ages Of Kohistan Lower Crustal Tonalite And Their Implications For The History Of Continental Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Williams, I. S.; Hyodo, H.; Miyazaki, K.; Sano, S.; Kausar, A. B.

    2002-12-01

    The Kohistan block in northern Pakistan exposes a crustal cross section through an ancient oceanic island arc, comprising garnet pyroxenite, garnet granulite, banded amphibolite, norite gabbro, metasediment and metavolcanics. The Dasu Tonalite intrudes the lower crustal Kamila Amphibolite. The tonalite is foliated and folded concordantly with the host amphibolite, indicating syn-tectonic intrusion, and contains abundant magmatic epidotes, indicating high-P crystallization. The Dasu Tonalite is extremely poor in K2O (0.6-0.9 wt.% for SiO2 64-70%) and has a low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7037-0.7038, similar to the associated lower crustal amphibolite and granulite), consistent with juvenile granitic magma free of contamination by recycled upper crust. The Dasu Tonalite gave SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of 97.6+/-1.0 Ma and 98.0+/-1.1 Ma on two samples, and biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages of 69.7+/-0.7 Ma and 69.7+/-0.9 Ma. The euhedral shape and lack of overgrowth or resorption features in CL images of the zircons suggest a simple magmatic history starting at ca. 98 Ma with no evidence for a later major thermal event. The large discrepancy between the U-Pb and Ar-Ar ages might record the deep crustal residence time of the Dasu Tonalite. The tonalite magma was probably generated and crystallized at ca. 98 Ma, then remained in the lower crust at a temperature of about 700C (which is given by geothermometry of the intercalating Kamila amphibolite), cooling down to ca.300C at 69.7Ma. 69.7Ma is a cooling age during the process of exhumation of the Kohistan arc caused by the Indian collision.

  17. The Markoye Shear Zone in NE Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.; Marquis, Pascal

    2009-12-01

    Birimian supracrustal sequences in NE Burkina Faso are dominated by meta-volcaniclastic greywacke, intercalated meta-conglomerate, siltstone and shale. The sequences where subjected to two phases of deformation and contact metamorphosed to hornblende-hornfels facies during emplacement of pyroxenite-gabbro-norite (Yacouba Mafic complex), granodiorite-tonalite (Tin Taradat granodiorite-tonalite) and dolerite dykes. Structural studies indicated that the NE-trending, first-order crustal-scale Markoye Shear Zone (MSZ; Markoye Fault of [Jeambrun, M., Delfour, J., Gravost, M., 1970. Carte géologique de L'Oudalan. Bureau De Recherches Geologiques et Miniéres, Burkina Faso.]) has undergone at least two phases of reactivation concomitant to two phases of regional deformation. The first phase of deformation, D1, resulted in the formation of NNW-NW trending folds and thrusts during dextral-reverse displacement on the MSZ. The deformation is termed the Tangaean Event and predates the Eburnean Orogeny. D2 phase involved a period of SE-NW crustal shortening and sinistral-reverse displacement on the MSZ, and is correlated to the Eburnean Orogeny ˜2.1 Ga. Deformation in D2 is characterised by NE-trending regional folds (F2) and a pervasive NE-trending foliation (S2-C to S2). Within the MSZ, deformation is characterised by NNE-trending zones of mylonite that are bordered in the hangingwall and footwall by pseudotachylite veins. Buck quartz-carbonate veins and quartz cataclasite veins crosscut the mylonite zones and are, in turn, crosscut by quartz-chlorite-(muscovite) shears that formed during reactivation of the MSZ late in D2. Several generations of veins are recognised at the Essakane main deposit (EMZ): Arsenopyrite-pyrite-gold mineralization in quartz veins formed in D1 during metasomatic alteration of the host rocks; Vein-stockwork gold mineralization is interpreted to have formed late in D2.

  18. The use of waste mussel shells for the adsorption of dyes and heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Chrysi A.; Krey, Grigorios; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Kallaniotis, Argyris

    2016-04-01

    Mussel culture is very important sector of the Greek agricultural economy. The majority of mussel culture activities take place in the area of Central Macedonia, Greece, 60% of total mussel production in Greece producing almost 12 tons of waste mussels shells on a daily basis. Currently there is no legislation concerning the disposal of mussel shells. In the present study the waste shells were used for the removal of dyes and heavy metals from aqueous solutions while powdered mussel shells were added in activated sludge processes for the removal of hexavalent chromium. Mussel shells were cleaned, dried and then crushed in order to form a powder. Powdered mussels shells were used in standard adsorption experiments for the removal of methylene blue and methyl red as well as for the removal of Cr (VI), Cd and Cu. Moreover the powdered mussel shells were added in laboratory scale activated sludge reactors treating synthetic wastewater with hexavalent chromium, in order investigate the effects in activated sludge processes and their potential attribution to the removal of hexavalent chromium. Adsorption experiments indicated almost 100% color removal, while adsorption was directly proportional to the amount of powdered mussel shells added in each case. The isotherms calculated for the case of methylene blue indicated similar adsorption capacity and properties to those of the commercially available activated carbon SAE 2, Norit. High removal efficiencies were observed for the metals, especially in the case of chromium and copper. The addition of powdered mussel shells in the activated sludge processes enhanced the removal of chromium and phosphorus, while enabled the formation of heavier activated sludge flocs and thus enhanced the settling properties of the activated sludge.

  19. Differentiation in the cumulates from a Mauna Loa, Hawaii magma chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Schwindinger, K.R.; Anderson, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The interstitial glass in cognate nodules from Mauna Loa, has by chemical diffusion or convective fluid transport, remained in equilibrium with the overlying magma. The glass bearing nodules were collected from Damona Cone on the southwest rift zone of Mauna Loas. The nodules have approximately 15% olivine, 40% orthopyroxene plus clinopyroxene (3-20%), and 85% plagioclase plus vescicular glass (2-25%). Olivine norites have anhedral olivine mantled with anhedral orthopyroxene, subhedral to euhedral pyroxene, anhedral plagioclase, and 20 to 25% glass. Olivine gabbros have anhedral olivine, subequant, anhedral to subhedral pyroxene and plagioclase and less than 10% glass. The bulk composition of greater than 15%, MgO, with the textures, indicate the nodules are an accumulative origin. Thus these nodules are partially solidified pieces of crystal/liquid accumulative mush. The compositions of the olivines are Fa 18 to 25 mole percent, of the plagioclases are An 70 to 80 mole percent. The composition of the orthopyroxene is En76 Fs19 Wo5, and of the clinopyroxene is En50 Fall Wo30. The composition of the interstitial glasses is: SiO2 52.54, TiO2 2.04, Al2O3 14.39, FeO 11.47, MgO 7.15, CaO 10.28, Na20 1.42, K2O 0.39, P2O5 0.21. The low Na2O is from two nodules that may have experienced high temperature alteration. The uniformity of the glass composition, in contrast to its large variation in the mode, suggests the interstitial liquid in the mush has remained in equilibrium with some large reservoir of MgO rich liquid, such as the magma above the mush. Two possible mechanisms of cation exchange between the magma and the interstitial liquid of the mush are chemical diffusion and convective fluid transport.

  20. Geophysical Properties of Hard Rock for Investigation of Stress Fields in Deep Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbo, M.; Young, R. P.; Schmitt, D. R.; Milkereit, B.

    2014-12-01

    A complication in geophysical monitoring of deep mines is the high-stress dependency of the physical properties of hard rocks. In-mine observations show anisotropic variability of the in situ P- and S-wave velocities and resistivity of the hard rocks that are likely related to stress field changes. As part of a comprehensive study in a deep, highly stressed mine located in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, data from in situ monitoring of the seismicity, conductivity, stress, and stress dependent physical properties has been obtain. In-laboratory experiments are also being performed on borehole cores from the Sudbury mines. These experiments will measure the Norite borehole core's properties including elastic modulus, bulk modulus, P- and S-wave velocities, and density. Hydraulic fracturing has been successfully implemented in industries such as oil and gas and enhanced geothermal systems, and is currently being investigated as a potential method for preconditioning in mining. However, further research is required to quantify how hydraulic fractures propagate through hard, unfractured rock as well as naturally fractured rock typically found in mines. These in laboratory experiments will contribute to a hydraulic fracturing project evaluating the feasibility and effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing as a method of de-stressing hard rock mines. A tri-axial deformation cell equipped with 18 Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors will be used to bring the borehole cores to a tri-axial state of stress. The cores will then be injected with fluid until the the hydraulic fracture has propagated to the edge of the core, while AE waveforms will be digitized continuously at 10 MHz and 12-bit resolution for the duration of each experiment. These laboratory hydraulic fracture experiments will contribute to understanding how parameters including stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and viscosity, affect the fracturing process.

  1. Origin of the giant Allard Lake ilmenite ore deposit (Canada) by fractional crystallization, multiple magma pulses and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Malpas, Simon; de Marneffe, Cédric; Duchesne, Jean-Clair; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline; Bolle, Olivier

    2010-06-01

    The late-Proterozoic Allard Lake ilmenite deposit is located in the Havre-Saint-Pierre anorthosite complex, part of the allochtonous polycyclic belt of the Grenville Province. Presently the world's largest Fe-Ti oxide deposit, it had a pre-mining amount in excess of 200 Mt at grades over 60 wt.% hemo-ilmenite. The main ore body is a funnel-shaped intrusion, measuring 1.03 × 1.10 km and 100-300 m-thick. Two smaller bodies are separated by faults and anorthosite. The ore is an ilmenite-rich norite (or ilmenitite) made up of hemo-ilmenite (Hem 22.6-29.4, 66.2 wt.% on average), andesine plagioclase (An 45-50), aluminous spinel and locally orthopyroxene. Whole-rock chemical compositions are controlled by the proportions of ilmenite and plagioclase ± orthopyroxene which supports the cumulate origin of the deposit. Ore-forming processes are further constrained by normal and reverse fractionation trends of Cr concentration in cumulus ilmenite that reveal multiple magma emplacements and alternating periods of fractional crystallization and magma mixing. Mixing of magmas produced hybrids located in the stability field of ilmenite resulted in periodic crystallization of ilmenite alone. The unsystematic differentiation trends in the Allard Lake deposit, arising from a succession of magma pulses, hybridisation, and the fractionation of hemo-ilmenite alone or together with plagioclase suggest that the deposit formed within a magma conduit. This dynamic emplacement mechanism associated with continuous gravity driven accumulation of Fe-Ti oxides and possibly plagioclase buoyancy in a fractionating ferrobasalt explains the huge concentration of hemo-ilmenite. The occurrence of sapphirine associated with aluminous spinel and high-alumina orthopyroxene (7.6-9.1 wt.% Al 2O 3) lacking exsolved plagioclase supports the involvement of a metamorphic overprint during the synchronous Ottawan orogeny, which is also responsible for strong textural equilibration and external granule of

  2. Lunar ferroan anorthosite petrogenesis: clues from trace element distributions in FAN subgroups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Floss, C.; James, O.B.; McGee, J.J.; Crozaz, G.

    1998-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) and selected other trace elements were measured in plagioclase and pyroxene from nine samples of the lunar ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite of rocks. Samples were selected from each of four FAN subgroups previously defined by James et al. (1989). Plagioclase compositions are homogeneous within each sample, but high- and low-Ca pyroxenes from lithic clasts typically have different REE abundances from their counterparts in the surrounding granulated matrices. Measured plagioclase/low-Ca pyroxene concentration ratios for the REE have steeper patterns than experimentally determined plagioclase/low-Ca pyroxene partition coefficients in most samples. Textural and trace element evidence suggest that, although subsolidus equilibration may be responsible for some of the discrepancy, plagioclase compositions in most samples have been largely unaffected by intermineral redistribution of the REE. The REE systematics of plagioclase from the four subgroups are broadly consistent with their deviation through crystallization from a single evolving magma. However, samples from some of the subgroups exhibit a decoupling of plagioclase and pyroxene compositions that probably reflects the complexities inherent in crystallization from a large-scale magmatic system. For example, two anorthosites with very magnesian mafic minerals have highly evolved trace element compositions; major element compositions in plagioclase also do not reflect the evolutionary sequence recorded by their REE compositions. Finally, a noritic anorthosite breccia with relatively ferroan mafic minerals contains several clasts with high and variable REE and other trace element abundances. Although plagioclase REE compositions are consistent with their derivation from a magma with a KREEPy trace element signature, very shallow REE patterns in the pyroxenes suggest the addition of a component enriched in the light REE.

  3. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of mafic sills in the 1.1 Ga Umkondo large igneous province, southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullen, D. S.; Hall, R. P.; Hanson, R. E.

    2012-06-01

    The detailed petrogenesis of mafic sills occurring throughout southern Africa provides strong support for the development of an Umkondo large igneous province on the eastern margin of the Kalahari craton at 1.1 Ga. The sills are most extensively developed in the Waterberg and Middelburg basins in northern South Africa and south-eastern Botswana. They are typical fractionated continental tholeiites with subophitic to ophitic dolerites, gabbros and gabbro-norites, and largely basaltic andesite in composition. The vast majority of the sample set defines one major geochemical subgroup, here referred to as the Mesoproterozoic Post-Waterberg sills A (MPWA sills), which is characteristically LREE enriched with relatively unfractionated HREEs, and with normalised incompatible element profiles similar to modern island arc andesites. A small number from the sample set define a minor subgroup (MPWB sills), which has so far only been recognised in the Middelburg basin, South Africa and which is characterized by fractionated HREEs. Both the major and trace element geochemical signatures of the MPWA sills are indistinguishable from the type Umkondo sills and less common lavas documented from Eastern Zimbabwe and mafic sills on the Grunehogna craton in present day Eastern Antarctica. This provides strong supporting evidence for an Umkondo large igneous province developed on the Kalahari craton at 1.1 Ga. Despite crustal-type Sr-Nd isotopic signatures in the MPWA sills, bulk contamination by the continental crust is ruled out in favour of derivation from a primitive mantle-like asthenospheric source with a contribution from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle modified by a previous subduction event. The smaller MPWB magma type could represent a smaller degree melt at greater depth from a modified MORB-like source, although the relationship between the two subgroups remains unclear.

  4. Europium mass balance in polymict samples and implications for plutonic rocks of the lunar crust

    SciTech Connect

    Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. )

    1988-07-01

    From correlations of SM concentration and Sm/Eu ratio with Th concentration for a large number of polymict samples from various locations in the lunar highlands and the value of 0.91 {mu}g/g for the mean Th concentration of the highlands surface crust obtained by the orbiting gamma-ray experiments. The authors estimate the mean concentrations of Sm and Eu in the lunar surface crust to be between 2 and 3 {mu}g/g Sm and 0.7 and 1.2 {mu}g/g Eu. The compositional trends indicate that there is no significant enrichment or depletion of Eu, on the average, compared to Sm relative to chondritic abundances, i.e., there is no significant Eu anomaly in average upper crust. Although rich in plagioclase ({approximately}70%), the upper crust does not offer evidence for a gross vertical separation of plagioclase from the final liquid from which it crystallized. This and the chondritic ratio of Eu/Al in average highlands material imply that the net effect of the processes that led to formation of the lunar crust was to put most of the Al and incompatible elements in the crust. Among plutonic rocks, only plagioclase in rocks from the magnesian suite can supply the excess Eu in the polymict rocks. Owing to the intermediate value of the mean Mg/Fe ratio of the crust, a significant fraction of the mafic rocks of the lunar highlands must have lower Mg/Fe ratios than the norites and troctolites of the magnesian-suite of plutonic rocks. A large fraction of the plagioclase in the lunar crust is associated not with ferroan anorthosite, but with more mafic rocks. There is little evidence in the Eu data that the lunar crust ever consisted of a thick shell of nearly pure plagioclase, as envisioned in some formulations of the magma ocean model of its formation.

  5. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of the lunar Mg-suite: the age of the lunar crust and its relation to the time of Moon formation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Richard W.; Borg, Lars E.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Boyet, Maud

    2014-01-01

    New Rb-Sr, 146,147Sm-142,143Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses of Mg-suite lunar crustal rocks 67667, 76335, 77215 and 78238, including an internal isochron for norite 77215, were undertaken to better define the time and duration of lunar crust formation and the history of the source materials of the Mg-suite. Isochron ages determined in this study for 77215 are: Rb-Sr=4450±270 Ma, 147Sm-143Nd=4283±23 Ma and Lu-Hf=4421±68 Ma. The data define an initial 146Sm/144Sm ratio of 0.00193±0.00092 corresponding to ages between 4348 and 4413 Ma depending on the half-life and initial abundance used for 146Sm. The initial Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of all samples indicate a source region with slight enrichment in the incompatible elements in accord with previous suggestions that the Mg-suite crustal rocks contain a component of KREEP. The Sm/Nd—142Nd/144Nd correlation shown by both ferroan anorthosite and Mg-suite rocks is coincident with the trend defined by mare and KREEP basalts, the slope of which corresponds to ages between 4.35 and 4.45 Ga. These data, along with similar ages for various early Earth differentiation events, are in accord with the model of lunar formation via giant impact into Earth at ca 4.4 Ga. PMID:25114305

  6. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of the lunar Mg-suite: the age of the lunar crust and its relation to the time of Moon formation.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Richard W; Borg, Lars E; Gaffney, Amy M; Boyet, Maud

    2014-09-13

    New Rb-Sr, (146,147)Sm-(142,143)Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses of Mg-suite lunar crustal rocks 67667, 76335, 77215 and 78238, including an internal isochron for norite 77215, were undertaken to better define the time and duration of lunar crust formation and the history of the source materials of the Mg-suite. Isochron ages determined in this study for 77215 are: Rb-Sr=4450±270 Ma, (147)Sm-(143)Nd=4283±23 Ma and Lu-Hf=4421±68 Ma. The data define an initial (146)Sm/(144)Sm ratio of 0.00193±0.00092 corresponding to ages between 4348 and 4413 Ma depending on the half-life and initial abundance used for (146)Sm. The initial Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of all samples indicate a source region with slight enrichment in the incompatible elements in accord with previous suggestions that the Mg-suite crustal rocks contain a component of KREEP. The Sm/Nd-(142)Nd/(144)Nd correlation shown by both ferroan anorthosite and Mg-suite rocks is coincident with the trend defined by mare and KREEP basalts, the slope of which corresponds to ages between 4.35 and 4.45 Ga. These data, along with similar ages for various early Earth differentiation events, are in accord with the model of lunar formation via giant impact into Earth at ca 4.4 Ga. PMID:25114305

  7. Thermal Properties of Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Ray, Chandra; Rickman, Doug; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Various high temperature chemical processes have been developed to extract oxygen and metals from lunar regolith. These processes are tested using terrestrial analogues of the regolith. But all practical terrestrial analogs contain H2O and/or OH-, the presence of which has substantial impact on important system behaviors. We have undertaken studies of lunar regolith simulants to determine the limits of the simulants to validate key components for human survivability during sustained presence on the Moon. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) yields information on phase transitions and melting temperatures. Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis provides information on evolved gas species and their evolution temperature profiles. The DTA and TGA studies included JSC-1A fine (Johnson Space Center Mare Type 1A simulant), NU-LHT-2M (National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-- United States Geological Survey (USGS)--Lunar Highlands Type 2M simulant) and its proposed feedstocks: anorthosite; dunite; high quality (HQ) glass and the norite from which HQ glass is produced. As an example, the DTA and TGA profiles for anorthosite follow. The DTA indicates exothermic transitions at 355 and 490 C and endothermic transitions at 970 and 1235 C. Below the 355 C transition, water is lost accounting for approximately 0.1 percent mass loss. Just above 490 C a second type of water is lost, presumably bound in lattices of secondary minerals along with other volatile oxides. Limited TGA-FTIR data is available at the time of this writing. For JSC-1A fine, the TGA-FTIR indicates at least two kinds of water are evolved in the 100 to 500 and the 700 to 900 C ranges. Evolution of carbon dioxide types occurs in the 250 to 545, 545 to 705, and 705 to 985 C ranges. Geologically, the results are consistent with the evolution of "water" in its several forms, CO2 from break down of secondary carbonates and magmatic, dissolved gas and glass

  8. The Composition of the Prebasin Crust in the Central Highlands of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1996-03-01

    The Apollo 16 regolith consists of a large amount of material derived from the prebasin crust, i.e., (1) plutonic ferroan anorthosite and brecciated derivatives (>90% plagioclase), (2) a variety of noritic anor-thosites (plutonic, feldspathic fragmental breccias [FFBs], granulitic breccias [GrBs], feldspathic impact-melt breccias), and (3) a minor amount of gabbronorites of highland affinity. However, the site is sufficiently close to nearside mare basins that the regolith also contains a substantial fraction of basin ejecta as well as some mare-derived materials (MDMs) delivered to the site by volcanism and impacts since filling of the basins with mare basalt. These syn- and postbasin products include (4) mafic impact-melt breccias [MIMBs, i.e., "LKFM" and "VHA"], (5) MDMS, i.e., glasses and some crystalline mare basalt, and (6) meteoritic material (largely from micrometeorites) accumulated in the regolith since basin for-ma-tion ~3.9 Ga ago. The MIMBs, which are rich in incompatible trace elements, were formed during the time of basin formation by impacts large enough to penetrate the outer feldspathic crust and melt mafic underlying material, although not all of the several known varieties at the Apollo 16 site may actually have been formed by impacts that produced basins. The Central Highlands, as sampled by the Apollo 16 mission, differs from highlands regions distant from mare basins in its high abundance of mafic syn- and postbasin material. For example, some feldspathic lunar meteorites (ALHA81005, Yamato-86032, MAC 88104/5, QUE93069) contain virtually no MDMSor MIMBs.

  9. An Assessment of the Value of Full Tensor Gradient Gravity Data for Determining 3-D Structure in an Integrated Geophysical Interpretation of the Styldrift Region, Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coomber, S. J.; Webb, S. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Bushveld Complex (2 060 2 054 Ma) is the largest known layered mafic intrusion in the world, at 7-9 km thick and covering approximately 65 000 km2, and is mined for its high grades of PGEs and chromium. Styldrift lies in a structurally complex region (due to the intrusion of the Pilanesburg, approximately 1 300 Ma) where dykes, faults, potholes and Iron-Rich Ultramafic Pegmatoids (IRUPs) present a problem to mining activities. Interpretation of 3-D seismic data, constrained by drill-holes, has produced a 3-D geological model in gOcad, which will assist in mine design and planning. A 1 km2 grid over the 3-D geological model has had high resolution ground gravity and ground magnetic data collected over it. Values of the vertical gravitational component were used to calculate the Full Tensor Gradient (FTG) gravity components, by first constructing the equivalent layer. Airborne FTG gravity data have been flown over the area, which may be compared to the calculated ground data, to test the accuracy of the FTG calculation. Aeromagnetic data over the region may also be compared to the ground data. The calculated FTG gravity data and magnetic data were used to run inversions (steepest descent and UBC algorithms) on the 3-D geological model. Highly reliable inversions of the FTG gravity data adjusted the lithological contacts of the 3-D geological model, constrained by seismic and borehole data, as well as densities of norites and anorthosites in the model, constrained by down-hole density measurements. A second 1 km2 grid, in close proximity to the first grid but with no corresponding seismic data, also had gravity and magnetic data (both ground and airborne) collected over it. A simple 3-D geological model was constructed, with lithological contacts and densities constrained by borehole data. Inversions of the calculated FTG gravity and magnetic data, and extending geological trends of the first geological model, lead to improvements in this geological model.

  10. Melt Extraction Zones in Shallow Arc Plutons: Insights from Fisher Lake Orbicules and Comb Layers, Northern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, A. J.; Muntener, O.

    2015-12-01

    Identifying the processes behind magma flow structures and complex sheeted zones within otherwise near-homogeneous shallow plutons is fundamental in order to understand the mechanisms of melt transport, magma differentiation, crustal recycling and growth of mid-upper crustal plutons. The Cretaceous gabbro-diorite pluton of Fisher Lake, Northern Sierra Nevada (USA), contains multiple m-sized orbicule and magma-breccia bodies as well as orbicule- and comb layer-bearing dikes. Olivine-bearing norites, hornblende diorites and gabbros which have crystallized at low pressure (2kbar) from hydrous basaltic-andesite melts form texturally diverse orbicule cores which act as nuclei for comb layers. Rising hydrous mafic melts remobilizing low pressure cumulates and/or crystal mushes are injected at the contact between cooling plutons prior to the initiation of comb layer growth. Multiple generations of melt injections are attested by the presence of magma-breccia bodies which incorporate fractured, disaggregated fragments of pre-existing orbicule and comb layer bodies. The cumulate signature of the orbicule-bearing matrix indicates that interstitial melt was extracted towards shallower depth. Though orbicule and comb layer bodies have been variously ascribed to melt migration within cooling plutons, magma mixing or fluid flow, we propose an alternative interpretation where these m-scale features represent localized subvertical channels formed during the extraction of multiple batches of hydrous melts within a volcanic plumbing system or shallow plutonic feeder zone. These features thus preserve unique evidence of upper-crustal melt migration processes during the transfer of hydrous mafic melts towards shallower depth. Geochemical gradients between decompressing liquids and crystallizing cumulates are the main driving force for crystallization. We will illustrate examples of this process on the basis of field observations, textural data, whole rock and mineral geochemistry.

  11. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested. PMID:17544578

  12. Assimilation by Lunar Mare Basalts: Melting of Crustal Material and Dissolution of Anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnila, A. B.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss techniques for calculating the amount of crustal assimilation possible in lunar magma chambers and dikes based on thermal energy balances, kinetic rates, and simple fluid mechanical constraints. Assuming parent magmas of picritic compositions, we demonstrate the limits on the capacity of such magmas to melt and dissolve wall rock of anorthitic, troctolitic, noritic, and KREEP (quartz monzodiorite) compositions. Significant melting of the plagioclase-rich crustal lithologies requires turbulent convection in the assimilating magma and an efficient method of mixing in the relatively buoyant and viscous new melt. Even when this occurs, the major element chemistry of the picritic magmas will change by less than 1-2 wt %. Diffusion coefficients measured for Al2O3 from an iron-free basalt and an orange glass composition are 10(exp -12) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1340 C and 10(exp -11) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1390 C. These rates are too slow to allow dissolution of plagioclase to significantly affect magma compositions. Picritic magmas can melt significant quantities of KREEP, which suggests that their trace element chemistry may still be affected by assimilation processes; however, mixing viscous melts of KREEP composition with the fluid picritic magmas could be prohibitively difficult. We conclude that only a small part of the total major element chemical variation in the mare basalt and volcanic glass collection is due to assimilation/fractional crystallization processes near the lunar surface. Instead, most of the chemical variation in the lunar basalts and volcanic glasses must result from assimilation at deeper levels or from having distinct source regions in a heterogeneous lunar mantle.

  13. Assimilation by lunar mare basalts: Melting of crustal material and dissolution of anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnila, A. B.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss techniques for calculating the amount of crustal assimilation possible in lunar magma chambers and dikes based on thermal energy balances, kinetic rates, and simple fluid mechanical constraints. Assuming parent magmas of picritic compositions, we demonstrate the limits on the capacity of such magmas to melt and dissolve wall rock of anorthitic, troctolitic, noritic, and KREEP (quartz monzodiorite) compositions. Significant melting of the plagioclase-rich crustal lithologies requires turbulent convection in the assimilating magma and an efficient method of mixing in the relatively buoyant and viscous new melt. Even when this occurs, the major element chemistry of the picritic magmas will change by less than 1-2 wt %. Diffusion coefficients measured for Al2O3 from an iron-free basalt and an orange glass composition are 10(exp -12) sq m/s at 1340 C and 10(exp -11) sq m/s at 1390 C. These rates are too slow to allow dissolution of plagioclase to significantly affect magma compositions. Picritic magmas can melt significant quantities of KREEP, which suggests that their trace element chemistry may still be affected by assimilation processes; however, mixing viscous melts of KREEP composition with the fluid picritic magmas could be prohibitively difficult. We conclude that only a small part of the total major element chemical variation in the mare basalt and volcanic glass collection is due to assimilation/fractional crystallization processes near the lunar surface. Instead, most of the chemical variation in the lunar basalts and volcanic glasses must result from assimilation at deeper levels or from having distinct source regions in a heterogeneous lunar mantle.

  14. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D. Durham

    2005-03-17

    Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest

  15. Crash hit frequency analysis of aircraft overflights of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Device Assembly Facility (DAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C. Y.; Sanzo, D. L.; Sharirli, M.

    1998-12-16

    Aircraft crashes are an element of external events required to be analyzed and documented in Facility Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) and Nuclear Explosive Safety Studies (NESS). Aircraft crashes into DOE facilities are of concern due to effects related to impact and fire that can potentially lead to penetration of the facility, disruption of operations, and the potential of release of radioactive and/or hazardous materials subsequent to the aircraft impact. Recent changes in the control of the airspace were not considered in previous safety studies of aircraft flights over the NTS [Refs. 4,5,6]. The Airspace changes have warranted review of the effects of the issued MOU on the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) Authorization Basis Documents [Refs. 4,5], the underlying analysis assumptions, and results relevant to aircraft crash. This report documents the review and analysis of aircraft crash hit frequency on the DAF within NTS. It focuses on the impact of airspace changes based on the MOU. The frequency of an aircraft crashing and hitting the DAF is in the 1 E-7 to E-8 range. While this is considered to be acceptably small, it should not be considered an upper bound. This conclusion should not be interpreted to mean that no further work need be done. The results of the analysis are highly dependent on the assumptions made and the available data. There is considerable uncertainty in the number of overflights which are taking place over the NTS and restricted airspace R-4808N. To reduce this uncertainty, additional follow-on work should be done to activate the monitor in the CP at NTS which is to receive information from the Nellis Range control station, to monitor the level of air activity in R-4808N and to recalculate the aircraft crash hit frequency on the DAF when better overflight estimates are obtained. Finally, to reduce the human error component, the process by which the DOE notifies the USAF of �no-fly� periods for R-4808N during which SNM is present in the

  16. Crash hit frequency analysis of aircraft overflights of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Device Assembly Facility (DAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C. Y.; Sanzo, D. L.; Sharirli, M.

    1998-07-09

    Aircraft crashes are an element of external events required to be analyzed and documented in Facility Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) and Nuclear Explosive Safety Studies (NESS). Aircraft crashes into DOE facilities are of concern due to effects related to impact and fire that can potentially lead to penetration of the facility, disruption of operations, and the potential of release of radioactive and/or hazardous materials subsequent to the aircraft impact. Recent changes in the control of the airspace were not considered in previous safety studies of aircraft flights over the NTS [Refs. 4,5,6]. The Airspace changes have warranted review of the effects of the issued MOU on the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) Authorization Basis Documents [Refs. 4,5], the underlying analysis assumptions, and results relevant to aircraft crash. This report documents the review and analysis of aircraft crash hit frequency on the DAF within NTS. It focuses on the impact of airspace changes based on the MOU. The frequency of an aircraft crashing and hitting the DAF is in the 1 E-7 to E-8 range. While this is considered to be acceptably small, it should not be considered an upper bound. This conclusion should not be interpreted to mean that no further work need be done. The results of the analysis are highly dependent on the assumptions made and the available data. There is considerable uncertainty in the number of overflights which are taking place over the NTS and restricted airspace R-4808N. To reduce this uncertainty, additional follow-on work should be done to activate the monitor in the CP at NTS which is to receive information from the Nellis Range control station, to monitor the level of air activity in R-4808N and to recalculate the aircraft crash hit frequency on the DAF when better overflight estimates are obtained. Finally, to reduce the human error component, the process by which the DOE notifies the USAF of "no-fly" periods for R-4808N during which SNM is present in the DAF

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on

  18. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  19. Testing the Li-Torr-Chiao Conjecture: A Novel HFGW Detector?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    In 1992 and 1993, Li and Torr claimed to show that gravitational waves propagate inside a bulk superconductor with phase velocity ˜300 times lower than the free-space value. The present author pointed out that this implies a Fresnel reflection coefficient of almost 100%. Harris and Kowitt have independently claimed that the Li and Torr result is not credible, in which case these conclusions are not correct. However, more recently, Chiao, Wegter-McNelly and Minter have published a calculation taking a completely different approach that appears to repeat the prediction that a superconductor will efficiently reflect HFGW. Their argument concerns a superconductor layer that may even be significantly thinner than the London penetration depth. Their final conclusion, although completely different in derivation and concept, is essentially the same as that of the present author if it were assumed that Li and Torr were correct. Because of the controversy surrounding this result, it is subsequently referred to herein as the Li-Torr-Chiao conjecture. If the Li-Torr-Chiao conjecture were true, superconductors would exhibit by far the greatest interaction known between HFGW and matter. Therefore, it seems timely to examine further consequences of that interaction and whether it could be exploited. The present paper estimates the likely response of a high-Q mechanical resonator coated with a thin superconductor layer. Regardless of the veracity of the Li-Torr-Chiao conjecture, the resonator will be subjected to a periodic force, analogous to electromagnetic radiation pressure. If the Li-Torr-Chiao conjecture is untrue, this force originates from the GW impedance mismatch between vacuum and resonator, which is minimal. However, if the Li-Torr-Chiao conjecture is correct, the magnitude of this force is increased very significantly. Measuring the amplitude of the induced mechanical vibrations indicates the power of the incident HFGW. If the resonator is a piezoelectric device then

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted uranium

  1. [Romanticism in German medicine in the light of home historiography of 1802-1945].

    PubMed

    Plonka-Syroka, B

    1998-01-01

    The German non-materialist medicine of the first half of the 19th century is presently a subject of advanced historical studies, carried out in Europe and USA. Until the mid-20th century, however, it was only the German authors who produced literature dedicated to the above-mentioned medicine. The purpose of this study is to present to the Polish reader the main trends in the German medical historiography that have been taking up the subject for 150 years. The historians of German medicine distinguished trends in the post-war period as the studies of the history of their native medical historiography developed. A Polish historian taking up the task of characterizing of the main methodological trends in German medical historiography is faced with the necessity to take position on the findings of German authors who took up the above-mentioned subject earlier. In my studies I worked mainly on the findings of the following authors: Nelly Tsouyopoulos, Urban Wiesing and Hans-Uwe Lammel. They served me as a guide to the old historical-medical literature that I managed to reach in the libraries of Dresden and Leipzig. Some of the German studies (H. Haeser, J. Petersen) were translated to Polish language and in those cases I leaned on the Polish translators. In this study I discuss the following methodological trends in historiography of German medicine of the 1st half of the 19th century: eclectic trends, philosophical trends, positivistic trends, neo-romantic trends, and social-cultural trends. I also present the analysis of theories of the most important representatives of the trends. Thanks to this I could reconstruct the process of shaping of the discussed epoch image in the light of various concepts of its description. As a result different characteristics of the epoch were grasped although the factography level they referred to was common. This study outlines also further developoment of the historiography of the discussed subject in the second half of the 20th

  2. High velocity flyer plates launched by magnetic pressure on pulsed power generator CQ-4 and applied in shock Hugoniot experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuping; Wang, Guiji; Zhao, Jianheng; Tan, Fuli; Luo, Binqiang; Sun, Chengwei

    2014-05-01

    ) copper on CQ-4. The experimental results agree well with previous experiment's data given by Mcqueen and Marsh [J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1253 (1960)] and Mitchell and Nellis [J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3363 (1981)], and the experimental uncertainty of shock wave velocity is less than 2.4%. PMID:24880418

  3. Low-sulfide PGE ore in the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashchin, V. V.; Petrov, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    The internal structure of the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite massif is considered, including localization of low-sulfide PGE mineralization and its mineralogy. The Volchetundra massif 24 km long and 0.5-4.0 km wide occupies the middle part of the Main Range complex, which extends for 75 km in the nearly meridional direction. The main and marginal zones are distinguished in the massif. The marginal zone 20-400 m wide extends along the entire eastern contact of the massif and is primarily composed of mediumgrained meso- and leucocratic norite, gabbronorite, plagioclasite, and less fequent orthopyroxenite. The main zone consists of coarse-grained leucogabbro and gabbronorite with an anorthosite zone in the axial part of the massif. The PGE mineralization of the Volchetundra massif is distinctly subdivided into two types substantially differing in localization, mineralogy, geochemistry, and economic importance. Mineralization of the first type is localized in the marginal zone and characterized by the highest resource potential. Mineralization hosted in the main zone belongs to the second type. The PGE ore of marginal zone is spatially and genetically related to the pyrite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite sulfide mineralization (1-5%) in the form of fine inequigranular interstitial disseminations, and less frequent larger grains and pockets localized within two ore zones each up to 2 km in extent. The thickness of separate mineralized layers varies from 0.5 to 3.0 m and up to 45 m in bulges. The average Pt + Pd grade is 1.37 gpt at Pd/Pt = 3.1. The mineralization of the second type has been penetrated by boreholes. Separate intersections do not correlate with one another and are limited in extent both along the strike and down the dip. The PGE mineralization is related to finely dispersed pentlandite-pyrite-pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite sulfides, sulfide emulsions, and less abundant stringer-disseminated sulfide ore. The orebodies vary from 2 to 7 m in thickness. The

  4. Remanent and induced magnetic anomalies over a layered intrusion: Effects from crystal fractionation and magma recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, Suzanne A.; Brown, Laurie L.; Robinson, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The Bjerkreim-Sokndal (BKS) norite - quartz mangerite layered intrusion is part of the early Neoproterozoic Rogaland Anorthosite Province intruded into the Fennoscandian shield in south Norway at ~ 930 Ma. The BKS is exposed over an area of 230 km 2 with a thickness of ~ 7000 m and is of economic interest for ilmenite, magnetite and apatite deposits. From the point of view of magnetic minerals, in the course of fractional crystallization and magma evolution, the ilmenite becomes less Fe 3+-rich reflected by a change from ilmenite with hematite exsolution to nearly pure ilmenite. Magnetite starts to crystallize relatively late in the intrusive history, but its crystallization is interrupted by influxes of more primitive magma. The variations in aeromagnetic and ground-magnetic anomalies measured over the BKS can be explained in terms of the measured magnetic properties of NRM, susceptibility, and hysteresis presented here, and in terms of mineralogy. Early layers in the intrusion contain hemo-ilmenite. As the magma evolved and magnetite started to crystallize, this caused a distinct change over the layering from remanence-controlled negative anomalies to induced positive anomalies. When new, more primitive magma was injected into the system, hemo-ilmenite returned as the major oxide and the resulting magnetic anomalies are again negative. The most dramatic change in the magnetic signature is in the upper part of the intrusion in MCU IVe, where magnetite became a well established cumulate phase as indicated by susceptibility, but its induced magnetization is overcome by large NRMs associated either with hemo-ilmenite, or with hemo-ilmenite and magnetite exsolved from pyroxenes. The average natural remanent magnetizations change from ~ 3 A/m in MCU IVd, to 15 A/m in MCU IVe, and back to 2 A/m in the overlying MCU IVf, producing a strong negative remanent anomaly that has been followed along strike for at least 20 km by ground-magnetic measurements. The highly varied

  5. Remanent and Induced Magnetic Anomalies over the Bjerkreim-Sokndal Layered Intrusion: Effects from Crystal Fractionation and Magma Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, S. A.; Brown, L. L.; Robinson, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Bjerkreim-Sokndal (BKS) norite-quartz mangerite layered intrusion is part of the early Neoproterozoic Rogaland Anorthosite Province intruded into the Fennoscandian shield in south Norway at ~930 Ma. The BKS is exposed over an area of 230 km2 with a thickness of ~7000m and is of economic interest for hemo-ilmenite, magnetite and apatite deposits. From the point of view of magnetic minerals, in the course of fractional crystallization and magma evolution, the ilmenite becomes less Fe3+-rich reflected by a change from ilmenite with hematite exsolution to nearly pure ilmenite. Magnetite starts to crystallize relatively late in the intrusive history, but its crystallization is interrupted by influxes of more primitive magma containing hemo-ilmenite. The variations in aeromagnetic and ground-magnetic anomalies measured over the BKS can be explained in terms of the magnetic properties of NRM, susceptibility, and hysteresis. Magnetic properties are correlated with the oxide mineralogy and mineral chemistry. Early layers in the intrusion contain hemo-ilmenite. As the magma evolved and magnetite started to crystallize, this caused a distinct change over the layering from remanence-controlled negative anomalies to induced positive anomalies. When new, more primitive magma was injected into the system, hemo-ilmenite returned as the major oxide and the resulting magnetic anomalies are again negative. The most dramatic change in the magnetic signature is in the upper part of the intrusion in MCU IVe, where magnetite became a well established cumulate phase as indicated by susceptibility, but its induced magnetization is overcome by large NRM's associated either with hemo-ilmenite or with hemo-ilmenite and magnetite exsolved from pyroxenes. The average natural remanent magnetizations change from ~3 A/m in MCU IVd, to 15 A/m in MCU IVe, and back to 2 A/m in the overlying MCU IVf, producing a strong negative remanent anomaly that has been followed along strike for at least 20

  6. The Petrology and Geochemistry of Feldspathic Granulitic Breccia NWA 3163: Implications for the Lunar Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLeod, C. L.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen, T. J.; Shafer, J. T.; Peslier, A. H.; Irvine, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Lunar meteorites are crucial to understand the Moon s geological history because, being samples of the lunar crust that have been ejected by random impact events, they potentially originate from areas outside the small regions of the lunar surface sampled by the Apollo and Luna missions. The Apollo and Luna sample sites are contained within the Procellarum KREEP Terrain (PKT, Jolliff et al., 2000), where KREEP refers to potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus-rich lithologies. The KREEP-rich rocks in the PKT are thought to be derived from late-stage residual liquids after approx.95-99% crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO). These are understood to represent late-stage liquids which were enriched in incompatible trace elements (ITE) relative to older rocks (Snyder et al., 1992). As a consequence, the PKT is a significant reservoir for Th and KREEP. However, the majority of the lunar surface is likely to be significantly more depleted in ITE (84%, Jolliff et al., 2000). Lunar meteorites that are low in KREEP and Th may thus sample regions distinct from the PKT and are therefore a valuable source of information regarding the composition of KREEP-poor lunar crust. Northwest Africa (NWA) 3163 is a thermally metamorphosed ferroan, feldspathic, granulitic breccia composed of igneous clasts with a bulk anorthositic, noritic bulk composition. It is relatively mafic (approx.5.8 wt.% FeO; approx.5 wt.% MgO) and has some of the lowest concentrations of ITEs (17ppm Ba) compared to the feldspathic lunar meteorite (FLM) and Apollo sample suites (Hudgins et al., 2011). Localized plagioclase melting and incipient melting of mafic minerals require localized peak shock pressures in excess of 45 GPa (Chen and El Goresy, 2000; Hiesinger and Head, 2006). NWA 3163, and paired samples NWA 4481 and 4883, have previously been interpreted to represent an annealed micro-breccia which was produced by burial metamorphism at depth in the ancient lunar crust (Fernandes et al., 2009

  7. Chemical and petrological heterogenity of lithospheric mantle beneath N Patagonia (Argentina) - case study of Cerro Chenque xenoliths.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozdrowska, Dominika; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Puziewicz, Jacek; Bjerg, Ernesto

    2015-04-01

    Mantle-xenoliths-bearing, back-arc Pliocene - Quaternary alkali basalts occur in N Patagonia, Argentina (Bjerg et al., 2005, J. of S. Am. Sci.). The Cerro Chenque (Rio Negro province) trachybasaltic lavas carry small (up to 10 cm in diameter) xenoliths of anhydrous, spinel bearing harzburgites, dunites and less abundant clino- , orthopyroxenites, websterites. The xenolith suite comprises also gabbros and norites, which are not discussed in this study. All the phases forming xenoliths are rich in Mg (Fo=90.5-93.5%; mg#Opx=0.90-0.94; mg#Cpx=0.91-0.95). Composition of spinel is extremely variable (mg#=0.65-0.85; cr#=0.00-0.70). Three types (A, B, C) of REE patterns occur in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene: (1) type A (harzburgites and orthopyroxenites) is U-shaped in both the pyroxenes, REE contents vary significantly (e.g. La=~0.5 primitive mantle values (PM), ~5 PM, and ~50PM); (2) type B (dunites and harzburgites) clinopyroxene has flat HREE and is continuously enriched in LREE up to 10x PM, orthopyroxene is U-shaped; (3) type C (harzburgites) clinopyroxene is convex upward, La=5-7PM), orthopyroxene is continuously depleted in LREE. Clinopyroxene of all the types is poor in Ti, while normalized content of other trace elements is strongly variable. Trace element compositions of Cerro Chenque xenolithc clinopyroxene cover whole compositional range of mantle-derived clinopyroxene from Rio Negro province presented by Bjerg et al., 2005 (op.cit.). In xenoliths where clino- and orthopyroxene are in equilibrium, the calculated temperatures are always around 1000°C (Brey and Köhler,1990, JoP). No spinel-clinopyroxene symplectites suggesting peridotite provenance from garnet stability field were observed. Strong variations in rock-type and chemical composition of minerals forming Cerro Chenque xenoliths suggest complicated structure of upper mantle beneath N Patagonia. At present stage of study we suggest that Earth's lithospheric mantle in this region: - suffered from

  8. Spatial distribution of ~ 1950-1800 Ma metamorphic events in the North China Craton: Implications for tectonic subdivision of the craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Wang, Xinping; Windley, Brian F.; Guo, Jinghui; Zhai, Mingguo; Li, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Great progress has been made in the last twenty years in understanding the unification of the North China Craton. According to a prevailing model it developed by amalgamation of four sub-blocks by three spatially and temporally separate orogenic belts: the first at ~ 1950 Ma formed the Western Block, the second at ~ 1900 Ma created the Eastern Block, and the third at ~ 1850 Ma unified the Eastern and Western Blocks. However, new data show that the 1950 Ma orogen was affected by granulite facies reequilibration at 1800 Ma, and parts of the 1850 Ma orogen have evidence of metamorphism at 1950-1900 Ma. New zircon U-Pb ages enable the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic events to be statistically sub-divided into four: at ~ 1955 Ma (M1),~1920 Ma (M2), ~ 1885 Ma (M3) and ~ 1850 Ma (M4). The M1-2 events always appear together, mainly in two belt areas including the Helanshan-Qianlishan, northern Ordos, Yinshan, Liangcheng, Huai'an, Lushan, Jiaobei and Liaodong regions; whereas the M3-4 events are distributed over larger areas and were superimposed on the M1-2 activities. This age distribution is inconsistent with previous models of three separate orogens. It should also be noted that the igneous rocks contemporary with the regional (ultra-)high-temperature/high-pressure granulite facies metamorphisms (M1-2) were previously described as arc-related series, i.e., the gabbro-norites, I-/S-type granites and trimodal volcanics. Based on the spatial distribution of the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic events (M1-4), and of the coeval igneous rocks, we speculate that the assembly of the NCC was created by one orogen, which formed between the Eastern and Western Cratons in two tectonic stages: two marginal arcs, the Korean and Xuwujia, developed against both eastern sides of the two sub-cratons, and were both accreted and deformed at 1965-1900 Ma (M1-2). Subsequently the amalgamation of the two sub-cratons resulted in metamorphism on the western side of the Eastern Craton, and in

  9. 900 Ma Pole from the Bjerkreim-Sokndal Layered Intrusion, Rogaland Igneous Complex, Norway: Where Was Baltica in the Early Neoproterozoic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. L.; McEnroe, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The southern Norwegian Rogaland Igneous Complex (RIC) intruded into post-Sveconorwegian granulite facies crust between 930 and 920 Ma. It includes three massif anorthosites, several small leuconorite bodies and the ~7km thick norite-quartz mangerite layered Bjerkreim-Sokndal (BKS) intrusion. The intrusion consists of five rhythmic mega-units created by repeated magma influxes capped by a transition zone and a thick sequence of more evolved mangerites and quartz mangerites. Over 70 paleomagnetic sites have been collected in the BKS, sampling all the mega-cyclic subunits and overlying mangerites. Remanence within the BKS is held in hemo-ilmenite-only rocks (lower parts of the mega-cyclic units), mixed hemo-ilmenite and magnetite rocks (upper parts of the lower mega-cyclic units) and magnetite only rocks in the upper highest mega-cyclic unit and overlying mangerites. Due to the different oxides present magnetic susceptibility varies over four orders of magnitude with a bimodal distribution (mean susceptibility of 6.4 x 10-3 SI for hemo-ilmenite rocks, and 8.9 x 10-2 SI for magnetite rocks). NRM values do not show a strong bimodal distribution as many of the rocks lacking magnetite have hemo-ilmenite with strong lamellar magnetism; average NRM for the entire suite is 8.83 A/m. All sites within the cyclic part of the intrusion have stable remanence and produce well-clustered site means. Samples from the upper mangerite rocks, dominated by MD magnetite, are often unstable and not all sites provide acceptable data. Mean directions for 66 sites spanning the entire intrusion are I = -73.7°, D = 303.7°, with α95 = 3.6° and k = 24. The resulting pole position is at 36.1°S and 217.5°E, with a paleolatitude for this part of Baltica of 59.7°S. Examination of the magnetic mineralogy combined with geochronology for RIC rocks yields an age of magnetization of ~900 Ma. Metamorphic country rocks yield similar directions at least 10 km from the contact, confirming the presence

  10. Supra-subduction zone tectonic setting of the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite, northwestern Pakistan: Insights from geochemistry and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakar, Mohammad Ishaq; Kerr, Andrew C.; Mahmood, Khalid; Collins, Alan S.; Khan, Mehrab; McDonald, Iain

    2014-08-01

    The geology of the Muslim Bagh area comprises the Indian passive continental margin and suture zone, which is overlain by the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite, Bagh Complex and a Flysch Zone of marine-fluvial successions. The Muslim Bagh Ophiolite has a nearly-complete ophiolite stratigraphy. The mantle sequence of foliated peridotite is mainly harzburgite with minor dunite and contains podiform chromite deposits that grade upwards into transition zone dunite. The mantle rocks (harzburgite/dunite) resulted from large degrees of partial melting of lherzolite and have also been affected by melt-peridotite reaction. The Muslim Bagh crustal section has a cyclic succession of ultramafic-mafic cumulate with dunite at the base, that grades into wehrlite/pyroxenite with gabbros (olivine gabbro, norite and hornblende gabbro) at the top. The sheeted dykes are immature in nature and are rooted in crustal gabbros. The dykes are mainly metamorphosed dolerites, with minor intrusions of plagiogranites. The configuration of the crustal section indicates that the crustal rocks were formed over variable time periods, in pulses, by a low magma supply rate. The whole rock geochemistry of the gabbros, sheeted dykes and the mafic dyke swarm suggests that they formed in a supra-subduction zone tectonic setting in Neo-Tethys during the Late Cretaceous. The dykes of the mafic swarm crosscut both the ophiolite and the metamorphic sole rocks and have a less-marked subduction signature than the other mafic rocks. These dykes were possibly emplaced off-axis and can be interpreted to have been generated in the spinel peridotite stability zone i.e., < 50-60 km, and to have risen through a slab window. The Bagh Complex is an assemblage of Triassic-Cretaceous igneous and sedimentary rocks, containing tholeiitic, N-MORB-like basalts and alkali basalts with OIB-type signatures. Nb-Ta depletion in both basalt types suggests possible contamination from continental fragments incorporated into the opening Tethyan

  11. Recrystallized Impact Glasses of the Onaping Formation and the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Sudbury Structure, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Weiser, T.; Brockmeyer, P.

    1996-01-01

    The origin of the Sudbury Structure and of the associated heterolithic breccias of the Onaping Formation and the Sudbury Igneous Complex have been controversial. While an impact origin of the structure has gained wide acceptance over the last 15 years, the origin of the recrystallized Onaping Formation glasses and of the igneous complex is still being debated. Recently the interpretation of the breccias of the Onaping Formation as suevitic fall-back impact breccias has been challenged. The igneous complex is interpreted either as a differentiated impact melt sheet or as a combination of an upper impact melt represented by the granophyre, and a lower, impact-triggered magmatic body consisting of the norite-sublayer formations. The Onaping Formation contains glasses as fluidal and nonfluidal fragments of various shapes and sizes. They are recrystallized, and our research indicates that they are petrographically heterogeneous and span a wide range of chemical compositions. These characteristics are not known from glasses of volcanic deposits. This suggests an origin by shock vitrification, an interpretation consistent with their association with numerous and varied country rock clasts that exhibit microscopic shock metamorphic features. The recrystallized glass fragments represent individual solid-state and liquid-state vitrified rocks or relatively small melt pods. The basal member lies beneath the Gray and Black members of the Onaping Formation and, where not metamorphic, has an igneous matrix. Igneous-textured melt bodies occur in the upper two members and above the Basal Member. A comparison of the chemical compositions of recrystallized glasses and of the matrices of the Basal Member and the melt bodies with the components and the bulk composition of the igneous complex is inconclusive as to the origin of the igneous complex. Basal Member matrix and Melt Bodies, on average, are chemically similar to the granophyre of the Sudbury Igneous Complex, suggesting that

  12. Deformation-driven differentiation during in-situ crystallization of the Iguilid mafic intrusion (West African craton)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Julien; Diot, Hervé; Lo, Khalidou

    2015-04-01

    The 2.7 Ga Iguilid mafic body is a small (9x2 km) magmatic intrusion with preserved igneous textures and not affected by metamorphism and deformation. It intrudes the metamorphic Archean basement of the Amsaga domain in the West African craton in Mauritania. The dominant lithology is a gabbronorite with subordinate gabbros and norites. We investigated 45 oriented samples for fabric analysis, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and geochemical analyses to explore the link between chemical differentiation and emplacement of the plutonic body. According to the limited variations in modal proportions and in major element compositions within the intrusion, the Iguilid pluton crystallized via an in-situ mechanism where solidification fronts progressively thickens from the rim to the core of the cooling intrusion and where the trace-element composition is controlled by the amount of interstitial liquid (containing most incompatible trace-elements) preserved between cumulus minerals before total solidification. An in-situ crystallization process alone normally does not produce chemical differentiation but the mafic cumulates at Iguilid have been deformed during their crystallization (i.e. when melt was still present). The vertical foliations and the randomly oriented lineations argue for horizontal flattening as the main deformation mechanism. We estimated the amount of trapped interstitial liquid preserved between the network of cumulate minerals with geochemical modelling in 12 samples and found that it is negatively correlated to the anisotropy degree determined by fabric analysis. The rocks located close to the margins of the intrusion were not deformed, probably because the degree of crystallization and, hence, the viscosity of the mush was too high. The most deformed rocks with the lowest trapped interstitial liquid content are found in the center of the intrusion where the crystal mushes were rich enough in melt to record significant strain. Deformation leaded to

  13. Origin of Aristarchus Olivine Deposits Based on M3, WAC, and Diviner Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, S. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Isaacson, P.; Jolliff, B. L.; Besse, S.; Staid, M.; Pieters, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Aristarchus region contains geologically diverse deposits and the Aristarchus impact crater, located on the SE margin of the plateau near the contact between plateau materials and western Procellarum basalts, has exposed materials with variable compositions. Of particular interest is the origin of olivine-bearing deposits that occur on the SE portion of the crater rim and ejecta in association with impact melt [1]. NW portions of the rim and ejecta expose plateau materials and are spectrally dominated by pyroxene in the VNIR. Spectra of the NW rim and ejecta are consistent with a noritic composition and with the inferred origin of the plateau as uplifted upper crust [2,3,4]. Therefore, it is unlikely that the olivine- bearing materials, which exhibit a strong 1 micron olivine absorption and only minor pyroxene contributions, are derived from plateau materials similar to those exposed in the NW portion of the crater. Potential sources of the olivine-bearing material excavated by the impact include western Procellarum basalts or buried material associated with the Marius Hills volcanic complex. Alternatively, the olivine-bearing deposits could be derived from a shallow pluton that is not represented by other surface exposures or could have formed as re-crystallized impact melt. Both the western Procellarum basalts [5,6] and some units associated with the Marius Hills [7] are olivine-bearing. In order to differentiate between these hypotheses, we are integrating spectral data in the UV/VIS (LRO WAC), VIS/NIR (Chandrayaan-1 M3), and TIR (LRO Diviner) to further characterize the assemblages of minerals that occur in association with the olivine-bearing deposits in Aristarchus crater, western Procellarum, and units within the Marius Hills volcanic complex. [1] Mustard et al., 2011, JGR 116. [2] McEwen et al., 1994, Science 266. [3] Lucey et al., 1986, LPSC 16. [4] Chevrel et al., 2009, Icarus 199. [5] Staid and Pieters 2001, JGR. [6] Staid et al., 2011, JGR 116. [7

  14. Lunar meteorite Yamato-983885: Noble gases, nitrogen and cosmic ray exposure history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Ramakant R.

    2015-11-01

    Noble gases and nitrogen have been in lunar meteorite from antartcica: the polymict regolith breccias, Yamato-983885 (hereafter Y-983885). Y-983885 has highest concentration of trapped noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) among all the lunar meteorites and returned lunar samples. Noble gases and nitrogen abundances measured in two samples of the lunar meteorite Y-983885. The concentration of trapped noble gases in Y-983885 (A) are, 20Ne=3.69×10-3, 36Ar=12.6×10-4, 84kr=8.57×10-7 and 132Xe=1.63×10-7 ccSTP/g. The cosmic-ray exposure ages for Y-983885 are thus calculated to be T21 (A)=1592±232 Ma and T21 (B)=574±85 Ma for 2π geometry (using production rates as per Hohenberg et al., 1978 and bulk composition). The exposure ages of samples A and B differ, indicating that they have undergone different exposure scenarios on the lunar surface. The different irradiation ages (T21 (A)=1592±232 Ma and T21 (B)=574±85 Ma) indicates that the regolith material which constitutes the meteorite Y-983885 resided at different shielding depths on lunar surface before agglomeration into the final meteorite. Exposure ages calculated using end member compositon like norite, basalt, tractolite (1947 to 1365 and 711 to 455 for A and B respectively) indicates clearly that the two samples A and B has undergone different exposure on Moon. The 20Ne/22Ne ratio of 13.60±0.01 in temperature step 400 °C of Y-983885 (A) demonstrate a clear retention of solar wind signature in this meteorite. The presence of high contents of trapped solar wind gases indicates that Y-983885 consists of mature lunar regolith material. Variable amounts of solar gases as well as cosmogenic noble gases indicate that Y-983885 (A and B) is compacted from several fragments that were exposed at the surface and/or at various depths in the regolith, before becoming part of Y-983885.

  15. Geophysical Character and Geochemical Evolution of the Mesoproterozoic Figueira Branca Intrusive Suite, SW Amazon Craton (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louro, Vinicius; Cawood, Peter; Mantovani, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The Jauru Terrain hosts the Figueira Branca Intrusive Suite (FBS) in the SW of the Amazon Craton (Brazil). The FBS is a series of 1425 Ma layered mafic intrusions, previously interpreted as anorogenic. The FBS area is located in foreland to the Santa Helena orogen, formed by the subduction of the Rio Alegre Terrain under the Jauru Terrain. Potential field methods (magnetic and gravity), gamma-ray spectrometry, geochemical and isotope data were used to characterize and to model the extent of FBS magmatism, the distribution of faults and shear zones in the area, to evaluate affinities of the magmatic activity, and the relation between the FBS and the Santa Helena orogen. The geophysical methods identified three anomalies corresponding with FBS outcrops. A fourth anomaly with significantly higher amplitude was observed to the north of the three anomalies. From south to north, the anomalies were named Indiavaí, Azteca, Figueira Branca and Jauru. These anomalies were modeled and indicated a northwest-southeast trend, parallel to regional shear zones. The gamma-ray data enabled the collection of 50 samples from the FBS rocks, the Alto Jauru group that hosts the FBS, from nearby intrusive suites, and the Rio Alegre Terrain. The 30 freshest samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for oxides and some trace elements, 20 by ICP-MS for Rare-Earth Elements and 10 for Nd-Sr isotope analyses. The FBS samples were gabbros and gabbro-norites with Nb/Yb-Th/Yb and TiO2/Yb-Nb/Yb ratios indicating varying degrees of crustal interaction. The TiO2/Yb-Nb/Yb data suggested a subduction related component and the ɛNd-ɛSr indicated a juvenile source. Samples from coeval adjacent intermediate magma suites displayed similar characteristics, which suggest derivation from a bimodal source probably related with the subduction of the Rio Alegre Terrain. We interpreted the tectonic setting of the FBS as a result of a roll-back of the subducted slab, which resulted in rejuvenation of the

  16. The Amphiolite Layers In The Cumulate Gabbros, (Northern-Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkan, Mutlu; Faruk Çelik, Ömer; Altıntaş, İsmail Emir; Sherlock, Sarah; Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Marzoli, Andrea; Ulianov, Alexey; Melih Çörtük, Rahmi; Topuz, Gültekin

    2016-04-01

    The Early-Middle Jurassic SSZ type dismembered ophiolite sequence, which is remnants of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, crop out in the accretionary complex around Tokat-Çamlıbel region (Northern Turkey). The main lithology of the ophiolite sequence are cumulate gabbros, isotropic gabbros and basalts. The amphibolite layers, which their thickness are up to 2 m, are observed in the cumulate gabbros. In this study, we aim to discuss a possible formation mechanism of the amphibolitic rocks in the cumulate gabbros, based on the field, mineralogical, geochemical and geochronological data. The cumulate gabbros (olivine-gabbro, gabbro-norite and gabbro) have generally well developed magmatic layers and they show cumulate texture. They are cross cut by pegmatite gabbros, dolerites and plagiogranite dikes. In terms of the mechanism of formation, the amphibolite layers in the cumulate gabbros are different from dolerite, pegmatite gabbro and plagiogranite dikes crosscutting the cumulate gabbros. Although the cumulate gabbros, the mafic and felsic dikes have not undergone any metamorphism (except the hydrothermal metamorphism), the amphibolite layers show well developed foliation and banded structure. Moreover, field and petrographic observations showed that the amphibolitic rocks were highly subjected to shearing. The amphibolitic rocks are mainly composed of magnesio-hornblende + plagioclase (andesine), ± biotite and opaque minerals and they exhibit nematoblastic texture. The amphibolite layers in the cumulate gabbros are crosscut by the plagiogranite dikes. The plagiogranites consist mainly of quartz, plagioclase, biotite and opaque minerals and they show granular texture. Undulose extinction and sub-grain formation in quartz minerals indicate to the presence of deformation phase affecting the plagiogranite dikes. LA-ICP-MS dating on zircon from plagiogranite dikes which is cross-cutting of the amphibolite layers, yielded Middle Jurassic ages. 40Ar/39Ar dating of

  17. Processes involved in the formation of magnesian-suite plutonic rocks from the highlands of the Earth's Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1995-01-01

    The earliest evolution of the Moon likely included the formation of a magma ocean and the subsequent development of anorthositic flotation cumulates. This primary anorthositic crust was then intruded by mafic magmas which crystallized to form the lunar highlands magnesian suite. The present study is a compilation of petrologic, mineral-chemical, and geochemical information on all pristine magnesian-suite plutonic rocks and the interpretation of this data in light of 18 'new' samples. Of these 18 clasts taken from Apollo 14 breccias, 12 are probably pristine and include four dunites, two norites, four troctolites, and two anorthosites. Radiogenic isotopic whole rock data also are reported for one of the 'probably pristine' anorthositic troctolites, sample 14303,347. The relatively low Rb content and high Sm and Nd abundances of 14303,347 suggest that this cumulate rock was derived from a parental magma which had these chemical characteristics. Trace element, isotopic, and mineral-chemical data are used to interpret the total highlands magnesian suite as crustal precipitates of a primitive KREEP (possessing a K-, rare earth element (REE)-, and P-enriched chemical signature) basalt magma. This KREEP basalt was created by the mixing of ascending ultramafic melts from the lunar interior with urKREEP (the late, K-, REE-, and P-enriched residuum of the lunar magma ocean). A few samples of the magnesian suite with extremely elevated large-ion lithophile elements (5-10x other magnesian-suite rocks) cannot be explained by this model or any other model of autometasomatism, equilibrium crystallization, or 'local melt-pocket equilibrium' without recourse to an extremely large-ion lithophile element-enriched parent liquid. It is difficult to generate parental liquids which are 2-4 x higher in the REE than average lunar KREEP, unless the liquids are the basic complement of a liquid-liquid pair, i.e., the so-called 'REEP-fraction,' from the silicate liquid immiscibility of ur

  18. The ADESORB Process for Economical Production of Sorbents for Mercury Removal from Coal Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Stewart

    2008-03-12

    The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) currently manages the largest research program in the country for controlling coal-based mercury emissions. NETL has shown through various field test programs that the determination of cost-effective mercury control strategies is complex and highly coal- and plant-specific. However, one particular technology has the potential for widespread application: the injection of activated carbon upstream of either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter baghouse. This technology has potential application to the control of mercury emissions on all coal-fired power plants, even those with wet and dry scrubbers. This is a low capital cost technology in which the largest cost element is the cost of sorbents. Therefore, the obvious solutions for reducing the costs of mercury control must focus on either reducing the amount of sorbent needed or decreasing the cost of sorbent production. NETL has researched the economics and performance of novel sorbents and determined that there are alternatives to the commercial standard (NORIT DARCO{reg_sign} Hg) and that this is an area where significant technical improvements can still be made. In addition, a key barrier to the application of sorbent injection technology to the power industry is the availability of activated carbon production. Currently, about 450 million pounds ($250 million per year) of activated carbon is produced and used in the U.S. each year - primarily for purification of drinking water, food, and beverages. If activated carbon technology were to be applied to all 1,100 power plants, EPA and DOE estimate that it would require an additional $1-$2 billion per year, which would require increasing current capacity by a factor of two to eight. A new facility to produce activated carbon would cost approximately $250 million, would increase current U.S. production by nearly 25%, and could take four to five years to build. This means that there could be

  19. Formation of the Archean crust of the ancient Vodlozero domain (Baltic shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arestova, N. A.; Chekulaev, V. P.; Lobach-Zhuchenko, S. B.; Kucherovskii, G. A.

    2015-03-01

    The available geological, petrological, and isotopic data on Archean rocks of the Baltic shield are used to analyze the formation of the crust of the ancient Vodlozero domain. This made it possible to reveal the succession of endogenic processes in different parts of the domain and correlate them between each other. Several stages of magmatic processes reflecting changes in magma-generation environments are definable in the crust formation. The earliest stages of magmatism (3.24 and 3.13-3.15 Ga) are mostly represented by rocks of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite association. The next stage of endogenic activity (3020-2900 Ma) was marked by the formation of volcanics of the komatiite-basalt and andesite-dacite associations constituting greenstone belts in marginal parts of the Vodlozero domain and basic dikes accompanied by layered pyroxenite-norite-diorite intrusion in its central part. These basic bodies crossing earlier tonalities were formed in extension settings related to the formation of the mantle plume, which is confirmed by the rock composition. This stage culminated in the formation of trondhjemites at margins of greenstone structure. The next stage of endogenic activity commenced at 2890-2840 Ma by the emplacement of high-magnesian gabbro and diorite dikes in the western margin of the domain, where they cross rocks of the tonalitetrondhjemite association. This stage was marked by the formation of intermediate-acid subvolcanic bodies and dikes as well as basite intrusions including the layered and differentiated Semch intrusion, the largest one in the Vodlozero domain. The stage culminated at approximately 2850 Ma in the emplacement of tonalities of the limited distribution being represented by the Shilos massif in the north of the domain and Shal'skii massif on the eastern shore of Lake Onega. The important stage in the geological history of the Vodlozero domain is the formation of the intracratonic Matkalakhta greenstone belt at approximately 2

  20. Osmium isotope and highly siderophile element systematics of the lunar crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, J.M.D.; Walker, R.J.; James, O.B.; Puchtel, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    Coupled 187Os/188Os and highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re) abundance data are reported for pristine lunar crustal rocks 60025, 62255, 65315 (ferroan anorthosites, FAN) and 76535, 78235, 77215 and a norite clast in 15455 (magnesian-suite rocks, MGS). Osmium isotopes permit more refined discrimination than previously possible of samples that have been contaminated by meteoritic additions and the new results show that some rocks, previously identified as pristine, contain meteorite-derived HSE. Low HSE abundances in FAN and MGS rocks are consistent with derivation from a strongly HSE-depleted lunar mantle. At the time of formation, the lunar floatation crust, represented by FAN, had 1.4 ?? 0.3 pg g- 1 Os, 1.5 ?? 0.6 pg g- 1 Ir, 6.8 ?? 2.7 pg g- 1 Ru, 16 ?? 15 pg g- 1 Pt, 33 ?? 30 pg g- 1 Pd and 0.29 ?? 0.10 pg g- 1 Re (??? 0.00002 ?? CI) and Re/Os ratios that were modestly elevated (187Re/188Os = 0.6 to 1.7) relative to CI chondrites. MGS samples are, on average, characterised by more elevated HSE abundances (??? 0.00007 ?? CI) compared with FAN. This either reflects contrasting mantle-source HSE characteristics of FAN and MGS rocks, or different mantle-crust HSE fractionation behaviour during production of these lithologies. Previous studies of lunar impact-melt rocks have identified possible elevated Ru and Pd in lunar crustal target rocks. The new results provide no supporting evidence for such enrichments. If maximum estimates for HSE in the lunar mantle are compared with FAN and MGS averages, crust-mantle concentration ratios (D-values) must be ??? 0.3. Such D-values are broadly similar to those estimated for partitioning between the terrestrial crust and upper mantle, with the notable exception of Re. Given the presumably completely different mode of origin for the primary lunar floatation crust and tertiary terrestrial continental crust, the potential similarities in crust-mantle HSE partitioning for the Earth and Moon are somewhat

  1. JV Task 107- Pilot-Scale Emission Control Technology Testing for Constellation Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Stephen Sollom; John Kay

    2007-06-30

    An Indonesian, Colombian, and Russian coal were tested in the Energy & Environmental Research Center's combustion test facility for their performance and an evaluation of mercury release and capture with selected additives in both electrostatic precipitator and baghouse configurations. Sorbents included the carbon-based materials NORIT DARCO Hg, Sorbent Technologies B-PAC and B-PAC LC, STI Rejects provided by Constellation Energy, and Envergex e-Sorb, along with ChemMod's high-temperature additive. Each coal was evaluated over several days and compared. Ash-fouling tests were conducted, and mercury levels were monitored using continuous mercury monitors (CMMs). The Ontario Hydro mercury sampling method was also utilized. The Indonesian coal had the lowest ash content, lowest sulfur content, and lowest energy content of the three coals tested. The Colombian coal had the highest mercury content and did contain a significant level of selenium which can interfere with the ability of a CMM to monitor mercury in the gas stream. All sorbents displayed very favorable results. In most cases, mercury removal greater than 86% could be obtained. The Indonesian coal displayed the best mercury removal with sorbent addition. A maximum removal of 97% was measured with this coal using Envergex's carbon-based sorbent at a rate of 4 lb/Macf across an electrostatic precipitator. The high ash and selenium content of the Colombian coal caused it to be a problematic fuel, and ash plugging of the test furnace was a real concern. Problems with the baghouse module led to limited testing. Results indicated that native capture across the baghouse for each coal type was significant enough not to warrant sorbent addition necessary. The fouling potential was the lowest for the Indonesian coal. Low sulfur content contributes to the poor potential for fouling, as witnessed by the lack of deposits during testing. The Russian and Colombian coals had a much higher potential for fouling primarily

  2. Lunar impact basins: New data for the western limb and far side (Orientale and South Pole-Aitken basins) from the first Galileo flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott; Mustard, John F.; Pieters, Carle M.; Neukum, Gerhard; McEwen, Alfred; Greeley, Ronald; Nagel, Engelbert; Belton, Michael J. S.

    1993-09-01

    volcanic fill (cryptomare), similar to that seen in ancient basins such as Smythii and Australe. These results show that although basin-forming events are an important factor in producing lateral heterogeneities in crustal composition, and in modifying preexisting deposits (such as cryptomaria), the majority of material in even the largest basins was excavated from mixed crustal layer of anorthosite, basin ejecta, and cryptomaria deposits (generally corresponding to the megaregolith), an upper crustal layer of anorthosite, and a lower more noritic layer. Many of the basic questions remaining from this study could be addressed by global high-resolution geochemical and mineralogical data obtained by polar orbiting spacecraft.

  3. Chemical Mineralogy, Geochemical Characterization and Petrography of the Cambumbia Stock, Northern Andes, South America, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas Lequerica, Salvador; María Jaramillo Mejía, José; Concha Perdomo, Ana Elena; Jimenez Quintero, Camilo

    2013-04-01

    The Cambumbia Stock is located on the western flank of the Central Cordillera of the northern Andes, South America. The goals of this study were to characterize the mineral chemistry, the geochemical composition and the petrography of the Cambumbia igneous body and to establish its petrogenesis. We collected 41 samples, selected 28 for thin section petrographic analysis, 14 for whole rock elementary chemical determination by ICP-MS and 4 for chemical mineralogy by LA-ICP(JEOL JXA-8200). Petrographically the samples were classified as 30 % hornblende-gabbro, 30% pyroxene-gabbros, 10% diorites, 10% olivine-gabbro, 7% gabbronorites, 7% tonalities and 3% norite, 3% wehrlite, the rock varies from medium to coarse hipidiomorfic and holocristaline texture, with local microporfiritic texture. Spot elemental chemical analysis of the some minerals in 4 samples show the range of the major elemental composition is plagioclase (labradorite), clinopyroxene (augite), horblende (magnesiohornblende), olivine (fayalite())Chemical mineralogy shows the variety of minerals in this rock, essential minerals correspond to bytownite, augite, magnesio-honblende, fallaite and titanite. We conclude base on the SiO2 Vs Total Alkalis graph that the samples correspond to the sub-alkaline series with low K content, mainly in the calc-alkaline series. By using the SiO2 vs TiO2, Th/Yb vs Ta/Yb and Zr/117-Th-Nb/16 diagrams it was determined that these rocks were generated in two geotectonic environments: one type MOR (extension) and other island arc (subduction, compression). Recently, a U/Pb age was obtained by the Universidad de Caldas in zircon in 2009 (not published data), yielded an age of 233.41 ± 3.4 Ma (Carnian - Upper Triassic). Petrographic geochemical and geochronology comparisons between the rocks of Cambumbia Stock and Diorite and Gabbro El Pueblito (located about 25 km to the north-west) and with U/Pb age 231 ± 8 may postulate a possible genetic link between them. These ages are

  4. Pyroxenite and granulite xenoliths from beneath the Scottish Northern Highlands Terrane: evidence for lower-crust/upper-mantle relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, B. G. J.; Aspen, P.; Hinton, R. W.

    2001-08-01

    Xenolith suites from Permian host rocks in Orkney and the extreme NE of the Scottish mainland (Duncansby Ness) are described and compared to those from elsewhere in the Northern Highlands Terrane. Those from the Tingwall dyke, Orkney, comprise roughly equal proportions of ultramafic rocks (wehrlites, clinopyroxenites, websterites, hornblendites) and mafic to felsic rocks (gabbroic, noritic and dioritic granulites, with subordinate tonalites and trondhjemites). Those from Duncansby (45 km to the south) are dominantly olivine-poor ultramafic rocks (clinopyroxenites, pargasite pyroxenites, biotite-pyroxenites), together with granulites grading from gabbroic through to tonalites and trondhjemites. Most of the granulites are meta-igneous, comprising plagioclase and one- or two-pyroxene species with equilibration temperatures of 810-710 °C, and are regarded as samples of the lower crust. Absence of garnet and olivine, together with the association of relatively sodic plagioclase and aluminous pyroxenes, is consistent with derivation from depths corresponding to 5-10 kbar. Positive Eu anomalies in the granulites imply that most originated as plagioclase-rich cumulates from basaltic magmas. Scarce peraluminous quartzo-feldspathic xenoliths, such as a garnet-sillimanite-bearing sample from Duncansby, are regarded as metasedimentary in origin. Pyroxenes (and biotites) in the ultramafic xenoliths tend to have higher mg numbers than those of the granulites, reflecting higher temperatures of formation. Whereas the pyroxene-rich ultramafic rocks may be partly interleaved with the granulites in the lower crust, it is concluded that they also constitute a zone of substantial thickness at or around Moho level, separating the granulites from underlying peridotites, and that they originated as cumulates cognate to the granulites. They have, however, been variably metasomatised with formation of amphibole. This zone may constitute a density trap at which melt fractions, rich in K, Fe

  5. Composition of the crust in the Grenville and Appalachian Provinces of North America inferred from VP/VS ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musacchio, G.; Mooney, W.D.; Luetgert, J.H.; Christensen, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    We use the ratios between P and S wave velocities (VP/VS), derived from seismic refraction data, to infer the composition of the crust in the Grenville and the Appalachian Provinces of North America. The crust exhibits VP/VS increasing with depth from 1.64 to 1.84; there is a clear distinction between the Grenville Province (average VP/VS=1.81) and the Appalachian Province (average VP/VS=1.73) which persists at all depths. The boundary between these provinces is east dipping extending for 100 km east of the Champlain thrust. In the Appalachian Province the increase in VP/VS ratios with depth from 1.67 to 1.74 ?? 0.02 may reflect a normal decrease of silica content in the continental crust. In the Grenville Province beneath the Central Granulite Terrane, an anomalous VP/VS ratio of 1.82 ?? 0.02 is observed extending to a depth of 10 km; this correlates with the abundance of Ca-plagioclase in the Marcy Anorthosite. At greater depth (15-20 km), where seismic lamination and high electrical conductivity is observed, VP/VS is 1-84 ?? 0.02 and correlates with the Tahawus Complex, a layered mafic intrusion. Within the 25-km-thick lower crust of the Grenville Province the VP/VS is 1-84 ?? 0.02 and P-velocity is 7.0 ?? 0.1 km/s, which are typical for plagioclase-bearing rocks (gabbro-norite). The high VP/VS ratio in the Grenville Province has not been reported in crust of any other age. Since the Grenville Province contains 75% of the world's known anorthosites, high VP/VS ratio is related to high plagioclase. We suggest that the composition of the Grenville lower crust was significantly modified by the emplacement of the anorthosites in the mid-Proterozoic. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. U-Pb isotopic systematics of ferroan anorthosite 60025

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, W. R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary U-Pb isotopic data from separates of ferroan anorthosite 60025 confirm its antiquity at approximately 4.42 Ga. Three Pb-Pb isochron ages involving different sets of mineral separates vary by only 20 million years, but indicate derivation of the sets from isotopically distinct magma sources. If this anorthosite was a monomict cumulate product formed during the Moon's early primary differentiation stage, then residual liquids of crystallizing magmas were evolving isotopically, even at the cm-scale, over the duration of the crystallization period. Another explanation is that this sample is simply a polymict breccia and that the Pb isotopic results are a result of subsequent mechanical mixing of mineral assemblages from various cumulate piles formed coevally at approximately 4.42 Ga from isotopically distinct magma sources. In our ongoing search for early lunar Pb isotopic compositions, we have analyzed Apollo 16 anorthosites 67075 and 62337 and Apollo 17 high-Mg suite cumulates (troctolite 76535, norite 78235, and dunite 72415). The U-Pb isotopic systematics have been better behaved in the high-Mg suite rocks than in the anorthosites that have shown evidence of mineral assemblages of mixed parentage. Our aim in analyzing anorthosite 60025 was to avoid or minimize this problem as it had been considered essentially monomict, although recent work has shown that not only is 60025 polymict, but shows textual evidence of at least two episodes of deformation. Of five splits studied by James, Lindstrom and McGee, the four mineral splits appeared monomict, whereas the whole-rock split was considered polymict. Previous isotopic work indicate that this anorthosite was quite primitive, a claim that was apparently confirmed by the U-Pb isotopic age of 4.51 +/- .01 Ga on three plagioclase separates. However, a Sm-Nd internal isochron age of 4.44 +/- 0.02 Ga was determined using plagioclase, olivine, and mafic mineral separates, creating some doubt about the anorthosite

  7. 916 Ma Pole for southwestern Baltica: palaeomagnetism of the Bjerkreim-Sokndal layered intrusion, Rogaland Igneous Complex, southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laurie L.; McEnroe, Suzanne A.

    2015-10-01

    The Rogaland Igneous Complex (RIC) in southern Norway intruded into post-Sveconorwegian granulite facies crust ˜930 Ma. It includes three massif anorthosites, several small leuconorite bodies and the ˜7 km thick norite-quartz mangerite layered Bjerkreim-Sokndal (BKS) intrusion. The intrusion consists of five rhythmic megaunits created by repeated magma influxes topped by a transition zone and more evolved mangerites and quartz mangerites. Over 70 palaeomagnetic sites have been collected in the BKS, sampling all the megacyclic subunits and overlying mangerites. Remanence within the BKS is held in hemo-ilmenite-only rocks (lower parts of the megacyclic units), mixed hemo-ilmenite and magnetite rocks (upper parts of the lower megacyclic units) and magnetite only rocks in the upper highest megacyclic unit and overlying mangerites. Due to the different oxides present magnetic susceptibility varies over four orders of magnitude with a bimodal distribution (mean susceptibility of 6.4 × 10-3 SI for hemo-ilmenite rocks, and 8.7 × 10-2 SI for magnetite rocks). NRM values do not show a strong bimodal distribution as many of the rocks lacking magnetite have hemo-ilmenite with strong lamellar magnetism; average NRM for the entire suite is 8.83 A m-1. All sites within the cyclic part of the intrusion have stable remanence and produce well-clustered site means. Samples from the upper mangerite rocks, dominated by MD magnetite, are commonly unstable and not all sites provide acceptable data. Mean directions for 66 sites spanning the entire intrusion are I = -73.5°, D = 303.4°, with α95 = 3.7° and k = 24. The resulting pole position is at 35.9°S and 217.9°E, with a palaeolatitude for this part of Baltica of -59.4°. Examination of the magnetic mineralogy combined with geochronology for RIC rocks and cooling rates for the region yields an age of magnetization of 916 Ma. Metamorphic country rocks yield similar directions at least 10 km from the contact, confirming the

  8. New U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope data of the age of formation and metamorphic alteration of the Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa gabbro-anorthosite complex (Baltic Shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steshenko, Ekaterina; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel; Chashchin, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research was to study the isotope U-Pb age of zircon and rutile and Sm-Nd (rock forming and sulphide minerals) in Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa gabbro-anorthosite complex. Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa gabbro-anorthosite complex is located in the N-E part of Baltic shield and consists of three parts. Marginal zone (mesocratic metanorite) lies at the base of the massif. Main zone is composed of leucocratic metagabbro. The upper zone is alteration of mataanorthosite and leucocratic metagabbro. All rocks were subjected to granulate metamorphism. New U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic and geochronological data for the rocks of the Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa Paleoproterozoic gabbro-anorthosite complex is presented. For the first time single zircon grains from metagabbros of Kolvitsa massif were dated 2448±5 Ma, using U-Pb method with an artificial 205Pb tracer. Sm-Nd isotopic age of the metamorphic minerals apatite, garnet and sulphide WR Kolvitsa array is 1985 ± 17 Ma, which is interpreted granulite metamorphism. Two fractions of single zircons from anorthosite of the Kandalaksha massif gave U-Pb age 2450± 3 Ma. Leucocratic gabbro-norite (Kandalaksha massif) were dated by U-Pb on single zircon, with age up to 2230±10 Ma. This age reflects the time of granulite metamorphism according to data of [1]. Two fractions of rutile from anorthosite of the Kandalaksha massif have been analyzed by U-Pb method and reflect age of 1700 ± 10 Ma. It is known that the closure temperature of U-Pb system rutile 400-450 ° C [2], thus cooling of the massif to these temperatures was about 1.7 Ga. These data suggested two stages of metamorphic transformations of the massif. Sm-Nd research Kandalaksha massif reflected the age of the high-temperature metasomatic transformations -1887 ± 37 Ma. Time of regional fluid processing - 1692 ± 71 Ma. A model Sm-Nd age metagabbros Kolvitsa massif is 3.3 Ga with a negative value ɛNd = -4.6, which corresponds to the most likely primary enriched mantle reservoir of

  9. Seismic evidence for a mantle source for mid-Proterozoic anorthosites and implications for models of crustal growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musacchio, G.; Mooney, W.D.

    2002-01-01

    Voluminous anorthosite intrusions are common in mid-Proterozoic crust. Historically, two end-member models have been proposed for the origin of these anorthosites. In the first model anorthosites derive from fractionation of a mantle source leaving a residue of metagabbro in the lower crust; in the second model anorthosites are the product of partial melting of the lower crust with residual pyroxene and high-grade minerals (i.e. a pyroxenitic and/or metapelitic lower crust). Although a general consensus has developed that the first model provides the best fit to petrological and geochemical constraints, the sparse evidence for mafic and ultramafic counterparts to the anorthosites leaves the issue still unresolved. We use the absolute P-wave velocity and the ratio between P- and S-wave velocities (VP/VS) to infer the composition of the lower crust beneath the Marcy Anorthosite (New York State, USA). Seismic refraction data reveal a lower crust 20 km thick, where VP and VP/VS range from top to bottom between 7.0 km s-1 and 7.2 ?? 0.1 and 1.84 km s-1 and 1.81 ?? 0.02, respectively. Laboratory measurements on rock samples indicate that these seismic properties are typical of plagioclase-rich rocks. Magmatic underplating of basaltic melts is a mechanism to form plagioclase-rich bulk composition for the Grenville crust. At the bottom of the lower crust, increase of P-wave velocity, slight decrease of VP/VS ratios and the presence of a low-reflective seismic Moho are additional observations supporting crust-mantle interactions related to magmatic underplating. High P-wave velocity (8.6 km s-1) in the upper mantle may indicate that the ultramafic portion (e.g. pyroxenites) of the underplated magma has become eclogite. High average P-wave velocity (6.7 km s-1) and VP/VS (1.81), and the exceptional abundance of anorthosites-norites-troctolites among the rocks exposed at the surface, indicate that the Grenville Proterozoic crust may have a unique plagioclase-rich bulk

  10. Origin of rhythmic anorthositic-pyroxenitic layering in the Damiao anorthosite complex, China: Implications for late-stage fractional crystallization and genesis of Fe-Ti oxide ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li-Xing; Li, Hou-Min; Li, Yong-Zhan; Yao, Tong; Yang, Xiu-Qing; Chen, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The ∼1.7 Ga Damiao anorthosite complex (DAC) in the North China Craton contains abundant Ti-magnetite-dominated ore deposits. Both the Fe-Ti-P-rich silicate rocks and massive Fe-Ti-(P) ores occur as discordant late-stage dikes cross-cutting early-stage anorthosites with irregular but sharp boundaries. Field and petrographic observations indicate that some late-stage dikes are composed of unique oxide-apatite gabbronorites (OAGNs), whereas others comprise well-developed alternating late-stage anorthosites and Fe-Ti-P-rich pyroxenites defining rhythmic layers. Massive Fe-Ti-(P) ores are closely related to the Fe-Ti-P-rich pyroxenites. Plagioclase and whole-rock compositions of different rock types were analyzed to constrain the late-stage magma evolution and genesis of the Fe-Ti oxide ores. The similar mineralogical assemblages, REE and HFSE patterns suggest that the different rock types formed by differentiation from a common parental magma. Early-stage anorthosites are characterized by positive Eu anomalies and low REE contents, whereas the late-stage dike-like rocks display no significant Eu anomalies and high REE contents. Plagioclase compositions in the late-stage rocks show a decrease of An contents when compared to that of the early-stage rocks. Based on field relations, petrography and well-defined linear compositional trends, the sequence of crystallization is inferred as: early-stage anorthosites + leuconorites + norites, OAGNs, late-stage anorthosites + Fe-Ti-P-rich pyroxenites + massive Fe-Ti-(P) ores, and massive Fe-Ti-(P) ores. The OAGNs which underwent relatively rapid crystallization represent an early phase during the residual magma evolution after anorthosite separation, whereas the rhythmic layers formed by slow but extensive fractional crystallization of interstitial melt. High solubility of phosphorous played an important role in the formation of rhythmic layering. Massive Fe-Ti-(P) ores crystallized and segregated directly from the magma of Fe

  11. Thermal Properties of Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth; Ray, Chandra; Rickman, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Various high temperature chemical processes have been developed to extract oxygen and metals from lunar regolith. These processes are tested using terrestrial analogues of the regolith. But all practical terrestrial analogs contain H2O and/or OH(-), the presence of which has substantial impact on important system behaviors. We have undertaken studies of lunar regolith simulants to determine the limits of the simulants to validate key components for human survivability during sustained presence on the moon. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) yields information on phase transitions and melting temperatures. Themo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) with mass spectrometric (MS) determination of evolved gas species yields chemical information on various oxygenated volatiles (water, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and phosphorus oxides) and their evolution temperature profiles. The DTA and TGAMS studies included JSC-1A fine, NU-LHT-2M and its proposed feed stocks: anorthosite; dunite; HQ (high quality) glass and the norite from which HQ glass is produced. Fig 1 is a data profile for anorthosite. The DTA (Fig 1a) indicates exothermic transitions at 355 and 490 C and endothermic transitions at 970 and 1235 C. Below the 355 C transition, water (Molecular Weight, MW, 18 in Fig 1c) is lost accounting for approximately 0.1% mass loss due to water removal (Fig 1b). Just above 490 C a second type of water is lost, presumably bound in lattices of secondary minerals. Between 490 and the 970 transition other volatile oxides are lost including those of hydrogen (third water type), carbon (MW = 44), sulfur (MW = 64 and 80), nitrogen (MW 30 and 46) and possibly phosphorus (MW = 79, 95 or 142). Peaks at MW = 35 and 19 may be attributable to loss of chlorine and fluorine respectively. Negative peaks in the NO (MW = 30) and oxygen (MW = 32) MS profiles may indicate the production of NO2 (MW = 46). Because so many compounds are volatilized in this temperature range quantification

  12. Thermal Properties of Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth; Ray, Chandra; Rickman, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Various high temperature chemical processes have been developed to extract oxygen and metals from lunar regolith. These processes are tested using terrestrial analogues of the regolith. But all practical terrestrial analogs contain H2O and/or OH-, the presence of which has substantial impact on important system behaviors. We have undertaken studies of lunar regolith simulants to determine the limits of the simulants to validate key components for human survivability during sustained presence on the moon. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) yields information on phase transitions and melting temperatures. Themo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) with mass spectrometric (MS) determination of evolved gas species yields chemical information on various oxygenated volatiles (water, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and phosphorus oxides) and their evolution temperature profiles. The DTA and TGAMS studies included JSC-1A fine, NU-LHT-2M and its proposed feed stocks: anorthosite; dunite; HQ (high quality) glass and the norite from which HQ glass is produced. Fig 1 is a data profile for anorthosite. The DTA (Fig 1a) indicates exothermic transitions at 355 and 490 C and endothermic transitions at 970 and 1235 C. Below the 355 C transition, water (Molecular Weight, MW, 18 in Fig 1c) is lost accounting for approximately 0.1% mass loss due to water removal (Fig 1b). Just above 490 C a second type of water is lost, presumably bound in lattices of secondary minerals. Between 490 and the 970 transition other volatile oxides are lost including those of hydrogen (third water type), carbon (MW = 44), sulfur (MW = 64 and 80), nitrogen (MW 30 and 46) and possibly phosphorus (MW = 79, 95 or 142). Peaks at MW = 35 and 19 may be attributable to loss of chlorine and fluorine respectively. Negative peaks in the NO (MW = 30) and oxygen (MW = 32) MS profiles may indicate the production of NO2 (MW = 46). Because so many compounds are volatilized in this temperature range quantification of

  13. New paradigm for layered paleoproterozoic PGE intrusions of the Fennoscandian Shield: duration and multistage magmatic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Felix; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Layered mafic-ultramafic paleoproterozoic PGE intrusions are widespread in the N-E part of Fennoscandian Shield and belongs to two belt: North (Kola) and South (Finland and Karelia). Precise isotope-geochemical data using U-Pb (on zircon and baddeleyite) and Sm-Nd (rock-forming and sulfides minerals), systematic reflect long magmatic activity (with 2.53, 2.50, 2.45, 2.40 pulses) and duration of mantle event from 2.53 to 2.40 Ga. The Kola belt barren phases were dated in Fedorovo-Pansky massifs with 2.53 Ga for orthopyroxenites and olivine gabbro based on U-Pb (on zircon) and Sm-Nd (rock-forming minerals) data. Main PGE-bearing phases of gabbronorite (Mt. Generalskaya) norite (Monchepluton) and gabbronorite (Fedorovo-Pansky) massif have yielded 2.50 Ga on U-Pb and Sm-Nd dating. The second PGE-bearing phases with 2.45 Ga belong to anorthosite of Mt. Generalskaya, Fedorovo-Pansky and Monchetundra massifs. The same ages have layered PGE-bearing intrusions of Finland - Koitelainen, Penikat et. set. and Oulanga group in Karelia (Bayanova et al., 2009). The final mafic magmatic activity connected with dykes of Imandra lopolith with 2.40 Ga. Isotope geochemical ɛNd - ISr indicators for layered intrusions (more than 70 analyses) reflect enriched mantle EM-1 type reservoir with ISr values from 0.703-0.704. Isotope 3He/4He data for accessory minerals (ilmenite, magnetite et. set.) have significant lower and upper mantle contribution. The model Sm-Nd ages of protolith lies in 3.2-2.9 Ga and primary magma source as fertile according to (Arndt, 2010). The geological and isotope-geochemistry data for layered paleoproterozoic PGE-intrusions permit considered Fennoscandian Shield with Superior and Wyoming as a big magmatic LIP, which related with breakup of oldest Kenorland Sypercontitent. We thank to G. Wasserburg for 205 Pb artificial spike, J. Ludden for 91500 and Temora standards, F. Corfu, V. Todt and U. Poller for assistance in the establishing of the U-Pb method for single

  14. U-Pb isotopic results for single shocked and polycrystalline zircons record 550-65.5-Ma ages for a K-T target site and 2700-1850-Ma ages for the Sudbury impact event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    2711 Ma. Data for three single zircons from this rock, which record a progressive increase in shock features, are displaced 24, 36, and 45 percent along a Pb-loss line toward the 1850 +/- 1 Ma minimum age for the impact as defined by the age of the norite. Southeast of the structure three shocked grains from the Murray granite record a primary age of 2468 Ma and are displaced 24, 41, and 56 percent toward the 1853 +/- 4 Ma even as defined by coexisting titanite.

  15. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

  16. Concentration of PGE in the Earth's Crust with Special Reference to the Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naldrett, Tony; Kinnaird, Judith; Wilson, Allan; Chunnett, Gordon

    , and type (iii) for 9%. The Merensky Reef (32% of total resources) is a PGE-enriched horizon that contains 1 -3 thin seams of chromite, and an average of 1-3 wt% sulfide, across the mining width. The sulfides are thought to have been the principal collectors for the PGE. The Reef resulted from two or more influxes of hot, sulfide-bearing, mafic magma that gave rise to the horizon. The thickness of the ultramafic cumulates (mainly orthopyroxenite, but including peridotite in some areas) resulting from these influxes varies from 50 cm to several meters, although mining is usually focused on a zone that is rarely greater than 1 m in thickness. The genesis of the Reef is still debated, some arguing that the PGE have been concentrated from below by ascending hydrothermal fluids, and others arguing that they have been carried from above by sulfides settling from the magma, giving rise to the Merensky pyroxenites. What is clear is that the pyroxenite, norite, and anorthosite overlying the Reef are composed of minerals derived from two magma types, one rich in MgO (˜12 wt%) and Cr and poor in Al 2O 3 (˜12 wt%) and the other with the composition of a typical tholeiite. The UG-2 chromitite accounts for 58% of the economic resources, and comprises of a chromitite seam 60 cm-1 m thick (sometimes divided by an internal parting of pyroxenite) and 1-3 overlying thinner seams of chromite. The sulfide content of UG-2 is significantly lower than that in the Merensky Reef, ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 wt%, although the sulfides are thought to have played a role in the concentration of at least some of the PGE. There are up to 13 chromitite horizons below that of the UG-2, and all contain PGE, although the total PGE contents and the (Pt + Pd)/(Ru + Ir + Os) ratios are much lower than those of UG-2. High 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios found within the pyroxenite "partings" within UG-2 suggest that mixing with melted roof rocks may have played a role in causing both chromitite and sulfide to form. The

  17. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D. Durham

    2004-10-01

    PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its

  18. Combined 40Ar/39Ar and Fission-Track study of the Freetown Layered Igneous Complex, Freetown, Sierra Leone, West Africa: Implications for the Initial Break-up of Pangea to form the Central Atlantic Ocean and Insight into the Post-rift Evolution of the Sie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, Ibrahim; Wijbrans, Jan; Andriessen, Paul; Beunk, Frank; Strasser-King, Victor; Fode, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Sierra Leone lies within the south-western part of the West African Craton and comprises two major Archaean structural divisions: a low-grade granite-greenstone terrane characterised by N-S striking structures and a NW-SE striking highly metamorphosed belt of strained rocks that form the coastal margin of the craton. Intruded into the belt is the Freetown Layered Igneous Complex (FLIC), a tholeiitic magamtic body emplaced prior to or during the break-up of Pangea to form the Central Atlantic Ocean and, forming today the high ground of the coastal outline of Sierra Leone which is one of the most distinctive features on the West African coast. The break-up of Pangaea to form the Central Atlantic and its passive margins began in the Early Jurassic. Geo-tectonically, the break-up was particularly characterised by the formation of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), covering once-contiguous parts of North America, Europe, Africa and South America. The FLIC forming part of the heart of CAMP is the largest single layered igneous intrusive yet known on either side of the Central Atlantic, measuring on surface, 65 x 14 x 7 km. Geophysical investigations indicate that the intrusion extends offshore to a depth of about 20 km. Geologically the Complex is a rhythmically layered elongated ultramafic-mafic lopolith divisible into 4 major zones each comprising repeated sequences of troctolitic, gabbroic and anorthositic rocks. An idealised unit of layering is from base upwards: dunite, troctolite, olivine-gabbro, leuco-gabbro, gabbro-norite and anorthosite cumulates. 40Ar-39Ar age spectra and 40Ar/36Ar versus 39Ar/36Ar isochron plots obtained by stepwise-heating experiments on plagioclases, biotites and amphiboles from troctolites, olivine-gabbros, gabbro-norites and anorthosites of the four zones yield plateau and isochron ages that seem to depict the cooling history of the Complex after emplacement. The biotites and some of the plagioclases and amphiboles give very

  19. Combined 40Ar/39Ar and Fission-Track study of the Freetown Layered Igneous Complex, Freetown, Sierra Leone, West Africa: Implications for the Initial Break-up of Pangea to form the Central Atlantic Ocean and Insight into the Post-rift Evolution of the Sie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, Ibrahim; Wijbrans, Jan; Andriessen, Paul; Beunk, Frank; Strasser-King, Victor; Fode, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Sierra Leone lies within the south-western part of the West African Craton and comprises two major Archaean structural divisions: a low-grade granite-greenstone terrane characterised by N-S striking structures and a NW-SE striking highly metamorphosed belt of strained rocks that form the coastal margin of the craton. Intruded into the belt is the Freetown Layered Igneous Complex (FLIC), a tholeiitic magamtic body emplaced prior to or during the break-up of Pangea to form the Central Atlantic Ocean and, forming today the high ground of the coastal outline of Sierra Leone which is one of the most distinctive features on the West African coast. The break-up of Pangaea to form the Central Atlantic and its passive margins began in the Early Jurassic. Geo-tectonically, the break-up was particularly characterised by the formation of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), covering once-contiguous parts of North America, Europe, Africa and South America. The FLIC forming part of the heart of CAMP is the largest single layered igneous intrusive yet known on either side of the Central Atlantic, measuring on surface, 65 x 14 x 7 km. Geophysical investigations indicate that the intrusion extends offshore to a depth of about 20 km. Geologically the Complex is a rhythmically layered elongated ultramafic-mafic lopolith divisible into 4 major zones each comprising repeated sequences of troctolitic, gabbroic and anorthositic rocks. An idealised unit of layering is from base upwards: dunite, troctolite, olivine-gabbro, leuco-gabbro, gabbro-norite and anorthosite cumulates. 40Ar-39Ar age spectra and 40Ar/36Ar versus 39Ar/36Ar isochron plots obtained by stepwise-heating experiments on plagioclases, biotites and amphiboles from troctolites, olivine-gabbros, gabbro-norites and anorthosites of the four zones yield plateau and isochron ages that seem to depict the cooling history of the Complex after emplacement. The biotites and some of the plagioclases and amphiboles give very

  20. Obituary: Thomas Julian Ahrens (1936-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Asimow, Paul

    2011-12-01

    exemplified by the ultrasonic wave-velocity measurements of his Ph.D. research at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (geophysics Ph.D. in 1962, following a B.S. in geology and geophysics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1957, and M.S. in geophysics from Caltech in 1958). He served in the U.S. Army (1959-60) and was employed at Stanford Research Institute (1962-67), where he conducted shock wave experiments, before joining the faculty at Caltech in 1967. With such a broad background, Tom combined condensed-matter physics, continuum mechanics, petrology and seismology, for instance in characterizing polymorphic phase transformations in Earth's mantle (1967 J. Geophys. Res. Paper with Y. Syono); using shock wave measurements to interpret seismological data on Earth's deep interior (1969 Rev. Geophysics paper with D. L. Anderson and A. E. Ringwood); modeling geodynamic effects of phase-transition kinetics (1975 Rev. Geophysics paper with G. Shubert); characterizing the effects of gravity and crustal strength on crater formation (1981 Rev. Geophysics paper with J. D. O'Keefe); and quantifying impact erosion of terrestrial planetary atmospheres (1993 Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences). The span of his science was also reflected in collaborations with - among others - Paul D. Asimow, George R. Rossman and Edward M. Stolper at Caltech, as well as Arthur C. Mitchell and William J. Nellis at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. His accomplishments included conducting the first shock-wave experiments on lunar samples and solid hydrogen; measuring the first absorption spectra of minerals under shock loading; discovering major phase changes in CaO, FeO, KAlSi3O8, and KFeS2; measuring shock temperatures in silicates, metals, and oxides; conducting the first planetary cratering calculations for mass of melted and vaporized material, and mass and energy of ejecta as a function of planetary escape velocity; experimentally documenting shock vaporization on volatile

  1. Radiological and Environmental Monitoring at the Clean Slate I and III Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, With Emphasis on the Implications for Off-site Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Etyemezian, Vic; McCurdy, Greg; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]) implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in the dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero (GZ). Three tests—Clean Slate I, II, and III—were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat. The fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. The Desert Research Institute (DRI) installed two monitoring stations in 2008, Station 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Center (ROC) and Station 401 at Clean Slate III. Station 402 was installed at Clean Slate I in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The monitoring activity was implemented to determine if radionuclide contamination in the soil at the Clean Slate sites was being transported beyond the contamination area boundaries. Some of the data collected also permits comparison of radiological exposure at the TTR monitoring stations to conditions observed at Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations around the NTTR. Annual average gross alpha values from the TTR monitoring stations are higher than values from the surrounding CEMP stations. Annual average gross beta values from the TTR monitoring stations are generally lower than values observed for the surrounding CEMP stations. This may be due to use of sample filters with larger pore space because when glass-fiber filters began to be used at TTR Station 400, gross beta values increased. Gamma spectroscopy typically identified only naturally

  2. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a

  4. Primary Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns by Lifestyle Counseling: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Luoto, Riitta; Kinnunen, Tarja I.; Aittasalo, Minna; Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Ojala, Katriina; Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Lamberg, Satu; Vasankari, Tommi; Komulainen, Tanja; Tulokas, Sirkku

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to examine whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or newborns' high birthweight can be prevented by lifestyle counseling in pregnant women at high risk of GDM. Method and Findings We conducted a cluster-randomized trial, the NELLI study, in 14 municipalities in Finland, where 2,271 women were screened by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 8–12 wk gestation. Euglycemic (n = 399) women with at least one GDM risk factor (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2, glucose intolerance or newborn's macrosomia (≥4,500 g) in any earlier pregnancy, family history of diabetes, age ≥40 y) were included. The intervention included individual intensified counseling on physical activity and diet and weight gain at five antenatal visits. Primary outcomes were incidence of GDM as assessed by OGTT (maternal outcome) and newborns' birthweight adjusted for gestational age (neonatal outcome). Secondary outcomes were maternal weight gain and the need for insulin treatment during pregnancy. Adherence to the intervention was evaluated on the basis of changes in physical activity (weekly metabolic equivalent task (MET) minutes) and diet (intake of total fat, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, saccharose, and fiber). Multilevel analyses took into account cluster, maternity clinic, and nurse level influences in addition to age, education, parity, and prepregnancy BMI. 15.8% (34/216) of women in the intervention group and 12.4% (22/179) in the usual care group developed GDM (absolute effect size 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–2.62, p = 0.36). Neonatal birthweight was lower in the intervention than in the usual care group (absolute effect size −133 g, 95% CI −231 to −35, p = 0.008) as was proportion of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns (26/216, 12.1% versus 34/179, 19.7%, p = 0.042). Women in the intervention group increased their intake of dietary fiber (adjusted coefficient 1.83, 95% CI 0.30–3.25, p = 0

  5. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    SciTech Connect

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any balance

  6. Exploration: New Treasures in the Old World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Dhingra, D.; Cheek, L.; Prissel, T. C.; Jackson, C.; Parman, S. W.; Taylor, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The last decade has seen a renewed effort in the exploration of the Moon by modern spacecraft sent from Japan, China, India, and the US. These missions have resulted in remarkable discoveries and have inspired a new understanding of the early solar system shared by the Earth and the Moon. Although invaluable samples were brought to Earth from the Apollo and Luna landing sites more than four decades ago, the modern orbital measurements have demonstrated that key components of crustal compositions were missed. Small exposures of one lithology in particular, a Mg-rich 'pink' spinel anorthosite (PSA) has been confirmed at several sites around the globe, implying that its origin is linked to wide-spread crustal-evolution processes. We now believe this new lithology is deep-seated in origin [1] and possibly associated with early (Mg-suite) magma interactions with the primordial anorthositic crust [2]. In addition to the higher water (and sulfur) contents now recognized for the lunar interior [3], the recognition of PSA reopens a question as to whether ancient lunar processes may have concentrated valuable minerals/resources in small zones of the crust, as often occurs for layered magmatic complexes on Earth. We ask the question 'Where on the Moon should humans/robots go to obtain samples to address such wide-ranging science/exploration issues?' We focus on four areas with discrete outcrops of Mg-spinel lithology exposed from depth, and rank them in terms of science/exploration potential (1 - 4), and in terms of ease of access (A - D). THOMSON CRATER in SPA (1D): Multiple Mg-spinel exposures are found around Thomson (diameter 117 km); pure crystalline plagioclase and norite occur nearby. Thomson is within Ingenii (diameter 318 km), both of which are mare filled, facilitating access to the crater walls. Ingenii also contains enigmatic ';swirls' and magnetic anomalies, as well as a small mascon. Stratigraphic relations imply deep crust from the inner ring of SPA basin at

  7. The Kalatongke magmatic Ni-Cu deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China: product of slab window magmatism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Zhang, Mingjie; Fu, Piaoer; Qian, Zhuangzhi; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    The Permian Kalatongke Ni-Cu deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt are among the most important Ni-Cu deposits in northern Xinjiang, western China. The deposits are hosted by three small mafic intrusions comprising mainly norite and diorite. Its tectonic context, petrogenesis, and ore genesis have been highly contested. In this paper, we present a new model involving slab window magmatism for the Kalatongke intrusions. The origin of the associated sulfide ores is explained in the context of this new model. Minor amounts of olivine in the intrusions have Fo contents varying between 71 and 81.5 mol%, which are similar to the predicted values for olivine crystallizing from coeval basalts in the region. Analytic modeling based on major element concentrations suggests that the parental magma of the Kalatongke intrusions and the coeval basalts represent fractionated liquids produced by ˜15% of olivine crystallization from a primary magma, itself produced by 7-8% partial melting of depleted mantle peridotite. Positive ɛ Nd values (+4 to +10) and significant negative Nb anomalies for both intrusive and extrusive rocks can be explained by the mixing of magma derived from depleted mantle with 6-18% of a partial melt derived from the lower part of a juvenile arc crust with a composition similar to coeval A-type granites in the region, plus up to 10% contamination with the upper continental crust. Our model suggests that a slab window was created due to slab break-off during a transition from oceanic subduction to arc-arc or arc-continent collision in the region in the Early Permian. Decompression melting in the upwelling oceanic asthenosphere produced the primary magma. When this magma ascended to pond in the lower parts of a juvenile arc crust, it underwent olivine crystallization and at the same time triggered partial melting of the arc crust. Mixing between these two magmas followed by contamination with the upper crust after the magma ascended to higher crustal

  8. Feldspathic clasts in Yamato-86032: Remnants of the lunar crust with implications for its formation and impact history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyquist, L.; Bogard, D.; Yamaguchi, A.; Shih, C.-Y.; Karouji, Y.; Ebihara, M.; Reese, Y.; Garrison, D.; McKay, G.; Takeda, H.

    2006-12-01

    Low concentrations of Th and Fe in the Yamato (Y)-86032 bulk meteorite support earlier suggestions that Y-86032 comes from a region of the moon far distant from the Procellarum KREEP Terrain (PKT), probably from the lunar farside. 39Ar- 40Ar, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Sm-isotopic studies characterize the chronology of Y-86032 and its precursors in the mega regolith. One of the rock types present in a light gray breccia lithology is an anorthosite characterized by plagioclase with An ˜93, i.e., more sodic than lunar FANs, but with very low 87Rb/ 86Sr and 87Sr/ 86Sr similar to those of FANs. (FAN stands for Ferroan Anorthosite). This "An93 anorthosite" has Nd-isotopic systematics similar to those of nearside norites. A FAN-like "An97 anorthosite" is present in a second light-colored feldspathic breccia clast and has a more negative ɛNd value consistent with residence in a LREE-enriched environment as would be provided by an early plagioclase flotation crust on the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO). This result contrasts with generally positive values of ɛNd for Apollo 16 FANs suggesting the possibility of assymetric development of the LMO. Other possible explanations for the dichotomy in ɛNd values are advanced in the text. The Y-86032 protolith formed at least 4.43 ± 0.03 Ga ago as determined from a Sm-Nd isochron for mineral fragments from the breccia clast composed predominantly of An93 anorthosite and a second clast of more varied composition. We interpret the mineral fragments as being predominatly from a cogenetic rock suite. An 39Ar- 40Ar age of 4.36-4.41 ± 0.035 Ga for a third clast composed predominantly of An97 anorthosite supports an old age for the protolith. Initial 143Nd/ 144Nd in that clast was -0.64 ± 0.13 ɛ-units below 143Nd/ 144Nd in reservoirs having chondritic Sm/Nd ratios, consistent with prior fractionation of mafic cumulates from the LMO. A maximum in the 39Ar- 40Ar age spectrum of 4.23 ± 0.03 Ga for a second sample of the same feldspathic breccia clast

  9. Relationship between Famatinian Arc Magmatism and Recent Mafic Volcanism in Northwest Argentina: Implications for Lithospheric Composition and Evolution Beneath the Puna Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, S.; Schoenbohm, L.; Ducea, M.

    2008-12-01

    isotopic values through crustal assimilation or AFC processes while maintaining a basalt major element composition and high Ni and Cr concentrations. Therefore, we propose the mafic magmas are sourced from a SCLM that, in accord with the LIL and LRE element concentrations, has been metasomatized during dehydration and possibly melting of a subducting oceanic plate. The young volcanics have isotopic values nearly identical to those of Early Ordovician Famatinian gabbros and norites. We suggest the most primitive Puna volcanic and Famatinian samples originated from the same SCLM source region. This implies at least a thin portion of the SCLM has remained intact beneath NW Argentina for the last ~485 million years. Resultantly, the SCLM was likely thinned to its present thickness sometime between the Early Ordovician and the Late Miocene. Thinning may have occurred by long term mantle wedge processes. Steady shortening and thickening of the continental crust and gradual removal of the SCLM by convection is envisioned here. The occurrence of discrete, intermittent delamination events is not favored because removal and then regeneration of the SCLM would not have allowed for preservation of the Famatinian isotopic signature.

  10. Argon-40/Argon-39 Age Spectra of Apollo 17 Highlands Breccia Samples by Laser Step Heating and the Age of the Serenitatis Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalrymple, G. Brent; Ryder, Graham

    1996-01-01

    material is responsible for the dispersion of ages. In any case the aphanitic melts do not appear to be Serenitatis products. Our age for the Serenitatis impact shows, on the basis of the isotopic age evidence alone, that Serenitatis is greater than 20-25 Ma and probably greatr than 55-60 Ma older than Imbrium (less than or equal to 3870 Ma and probably less than or equal to 3836 Ma (Dalrymple and Ryder, 19931). Noritic granulite sample 78527 has a plateau age of 4146 +/- 17 Ma, representing a minimum age for cooling of this sample in the early lunar crust. So far there is no convincing evidence in the lunar melt rock record for basin-forming impacts significantly older than 3.9 Ga.

  11. The Role of Spinel Minerals in Lunar Magma Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Staid, M.; Isaacson, P.; Petro, N. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), a NASA guest instrument on Chandrayaan-1, India’s first mission to the Moon, was designed to map the surface mineralogy of the Moon using reflected solar radiation at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, which contain highly diagnostic absorptions due to minerals. The M3 spectrometer has discovered several new and unexpected aspects of the geology and petrology of the Moon, some involving specific oxide phases. Spinel minerals, with the general formula, AB2O4, present clues as to the oxygen fugacity, the nature of magmatic systems, and their evolution, particularly during the early stages of crystallization. On the Moon, with its total lack of Fe3+ and minerals such as magnetite, observed spinels range between spinel, MgAl2O4; hercynite, FeAl2O4; Chromite, FeCr2O4; and ulvöspinel, Fe(FeTi)2O4. They manifest themselves in three distinctly different igneous rock types: highlands rocks of anorthosites/troctolites, gabbro-norites; mare basalts with various TiO2 contents; and basaltic pyroclastic volcanic glasses. Although spinels occur as minor minerals in the Apollo collection, unique rock types dominated by Mg-spinel (with olivine and pyroxene abundances below detection limits, assumed to be ~5%) have been identified by M3 on the Moon. Because the spinel-bearing rocks detected by M3 have no signature of a significant olivine component, they must be dominated by plagioclase and spinel. Pink Mg-spinels typically occur as a minor phase in troctolites (plagioclase + olivine), a highland rock formed after the initial Ferroan Anorthosite (FAN) crust, presumably by serial magmatism deep within the crust, with intrusion upward. FANs were formed by floatation of plagioclase in the lunar magma ocean (LMO), whereas spinels would sink due to their much higher density. Thus, a plagioclase-rich rock type with a strong Mg-spinel spectral signature would have to be part of later highland intrusives. The excess Mg-spinel could be the product of

  12. Skaergaard vs Sudbury: Solidification Times and Crystal Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.; Mittal, T.; Currier, R. M.; Jordon, E.

    2010-12-01

    , like Sudbury, as originally noted by Irvine (CanJES, 1970). The Skaergaard solidification time is thus almost identical to Sudbury yet typical plagioclase crystal sizes for the gabbroic rocks are much larger. Preliminary measurements of Crystal Size Distributions from suites of rocks collected by G. Brandeis and A. R. McBirney show that the CSD slopes and intercepts are much smaller than for Sudbury. On the Zieg-Marsh universal intercept-slope tradeoff diagram the samples typically plot far from Sudbury in the region of deep interiors of much larger plutons, like Kiglapait (Higgins, 2002, CMP). This holds even for samples from fairly close to the margins. Part of this difference could be due to a slower growth rate for Sudbury plagioclase in the slightly more silicic noritic melt, but this may have been at least partially offset by the much thicker solidification front at Sudbury due to the unusually hot contact temperature from the excessive initial superheat. A more fundamental explanation may be simply that many of the initial Skaergaard crystals, unlike at Sudbury, were large to begin with and were emplaced as crystal-laden slurries. .

  13. Early differentiation of the silicate Earth : new constraints from isotopic investigation of rocks from the lunar highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyet, M.; Carlson, R.; Borg, L.; Connelly, J.; Horan, M.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic similarity in O, Mo, W, Si, and Fe between lunar and terrestrial samples suggests that the two planetary bodies were equilibrated in the energetic aftermath of the giant impact that gave birth to the Moon [1]. Coupled 142Nd-143Nd isotope systematics of lunar samples including both low-Ti and high-Ti mare basalts along with KREEP basalts have been used to constrain the age of crystallization of the lunar interior [2-5]. These studies show that the Sm-Nd system in the lunar mantle closed in the interval of 180-250 Ma after the beginning of solar system formation, depending on the model considered for lunar mantle differentiation (1 or 2 stage-model and initial lunar Sm/Nd ratio). Does this age represent the age of Moon formation? A prolonged lunar magma ocean (LMO) might be expected given the insulating effect of the thick plagioclase crust, so closure of the Sm-Nd system in the lunar mantle, particularly in a late stage LMO component like KREEP, might substantially post-date lunar formation. We have recently determined a new age of 4360±3 Ma for the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) 60025 using the 207Pb-206Pb, 147Sm-143Nd and 146Sm-142Nd isotope systems [6]. This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques, strongly suggesting that this age indicates the time at which the sample crystallized. In order to pursue the question of whether Moon formation occurred over 100 Ma after solar system formation, we have investigated a number of lunar rocks sampling the highland crust from both the FAN and the Mg-suite groups. Internal Sm-Nd isochron on the norite 77215 yields an age of 4296±20 Ma, in agreement with the young age determined on 60025. We will show that our new data obtained on the 146Sm-142Nd systematics of the lunar crust support the scenario of a relative young age for the Moon. Thus, these results offer a unique opportunity to better constrain the composition of the terrestrial

  14. Geology of the Anlauf and Drain Quadrangles, Douglas and Lane Counties, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Linn

    1963-01-01

    currents. About 500 feet of sandstone and siltstone assigned to the Spencer formation of late Eocene age unconformably overlies the Tyee formation. The Spencer formation, better exposed in the east-central part of the Coast Ranges, contains marine fossils but also has thin impure coal beds, indicative of strand-line accumulation. The sandstone in the Spencer formation is very similar to that in the Tyee formation, from which it was probably derived. The Fisher formation contains about 5,500 feet of nonmarine pyroclastic and volcanic rocks that are related to the volcanic rock sequences of the western Cascade Range. The formation is characterized by a wide variety of rock types, including conglomerate, tuffaceous sandstone and siltstone, vitric and crystal tuff, waterlaid and mudflow breccia, and andesitic lava flows. These rocks gen- erally occur in lenticular beds that have little stratigraphic significance. The rocks apparently accumulated on a plain slightly above sea level that was subjected alternately to fiooding by running water and to desiccation. Fossil leaves from the lowermost part of the Fisher formation are of late Eocene age; the upper part of the formation is of early, and possibly niiddle, Oligocene age. A few exposures of olivine basalt were mapped in the extreme northern part of the Anlauf quadrangle. The flows, more extensively exposed to the north, overlie the Fisher formation, and, therefore, are tentatively considered to be post-Oligocene in age. All these stratigraphic units, but principally the Fisher formation, are cut by dikes, sills, and stocklike bodies of 'porphyritic basalt, diabase, and norite. Contemporaneously with the emplacement of most of these rocks, in late Miocene (?) time, hydrothermal solutions locailly altered the sedimentary and extrusive igneous racks and deposited cinnabar and other sulfide minerals, carbonates, and silica. Three parallel nartheastward-trending

  15. Identification of New Lithic Clasts in Lunar Breccia 14305 by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Carpenter, Paul K.; Jolliff, Bradley L.

    2014-01-01

    From 1969 to 1972, Apollo astronauts collected 382 kg of rocks, soils, and core samples from six locations on the surface of the Moon. The samples were initially characterized, largely by binocular examination, in a custom-built facility at Johnson Space Center (JSC), and the samples have been curated at JSC ever since. Despite over 40 years of study, demand for samples remains high (500 subsamples per year are allocated to scientists around the world), particularly for plutonic (e.g., anorthosites, norites, etc.) and evolved (e.g., granites, KREEP basalts) lithologies. The reason for the prolonged interest is that as new scientists and new techniques examine the samples, our understanding of how the Moon, Earth, and other inner Solar System bodies formed and evolved continues to grow. Scientists continually clamor for new samples to test their emerging hypotheses. Although all of the large Apollo samples that are igneous rocks have been classified, many Apollo samples are complex polymict breccias that have previously yielded large (cm-sized) igneous clasts. In this work we present the initial efforts to use the non-destructive techniques of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and micro x-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) to identify large lithic clasts in Apollo 14 polymict breccia sample 14305. The sample in this study is 14305,483, a 150 g slab of regolith breccia 14305 measuring 10x6x2 cm (Figure 1a). The sample was scanned at the University of Texas High-Resolution X-ray CT Facility on an Xradia MicroXCT scanner. Two adjacent overlapping volumes were acquired at 49.2 micrometer resolution and stitched together, resulting in 1766 slices. Each volume was acquired at 100 kV accelerating voltage and 98 mA beam current with a 1 mm CaF2 filter, with 2161 views gathered over 360deg at 3 seconds acquisition time per view. Micro-XRF analyses were done at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri on an EDAX Orbis PC micro-XRF instrument. Multiple scans were made at 40 k

  16. Snapshots from deep magma chambers: decoding field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Campos, Cristina P.

    2014-05-01

    During the post-orogenic stage of a Neoproterozoic orogen (Araçuaí-West Congo), inversely zoned calc-alkaline to alkaline plutonic structures intruded previous geologic units. Structural measurements, mapping of flow patterns and additional geochemical and isotopic data point towards different compositional domains which have been generated during a time span between 20 to 30 Ma. The result from decades of mapping revealed the architecture of ca. 10 large plutons in more détail. This work will focus on the dynamics of magmatic interaction for six different plutons ranging from c.20 to 200 km2 in outcropping area. Conclusions are based on already published and new unpublished data aiming the state of the art. In the silica-richer structures concentric fragmented and folded layers of granite in a K-basaltic matrix contrast with predominant more homogeneous K-basaltic to gabbroic regions. These may be separated by stretched filament regions (magmatic shear zones) where mixing has been enhanced resulting in hybrid compositions. Locally sharp and pillow-like contacts between granitic and K-basaltic rocks depict a frozen-in situation of different intrusive episodes. In the silica-poorer plutonic bodies gradational contacts are more frequent and may be the result of convection enhanced diffusion. For all plutons, however, mostly sub-vertical internal contacts between most- and least-differentiated rocks suggest generation from predominat large magma bodies of variable composition which crystallized while crossing the middle to lower crust (< 25 km depth). They have been catch in the act on their way up. Accordingly mushroom- to funnel-like magma-chambers and/or conduits could register snapshots of the interaction dynamics between granitic and noritic/dioritic or syeno-monzonitic and gabbroic magmas. Different compositional domains within different plutons suggest distinct kinematics. Nevertheless all studied plutons provide outstanding evidence for mixing, not only

  17. Electrochemical effects of magmatic crystallisation: cyclic units of the Bushveld Igneous Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Ilya V.; Reid, David L.; Dulski, Peter; Keiding, Jakob K.; Trumbull, Robert B.

    2013-04-01

    The Upper Critical Zone (UCZ) of the Bushveld Igneous Complex displays spectacular layering in the form of cyclic units comprising a basal chromitite layer overlain by a sequence of silicate cumulates in the order, from the bottom to the top, pyroxentite-norite-anorthosite. Electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of chromite and silicate cumulate minerals in the cyclic units between the UG2 chromitite and the Merensky reef revealed variations in major and trace element compositions that are difficult to reconcile with existing models of cumulate mineral-melt evolution. The anomalies in mineral chemistry are best developed at sharp contacts of chromitites with adjacent anorthosite and pyroxenitic cumulates. At the contacts, major element characteristics of chromite composition change abruptly from high and stable Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) and Fe2+/Fe3+ typical for cumulus chromitites to variable and generally low values in chromite crystals disseminated in silicate cumulates. Chromites from different types of cumulates also differ in Sc, V, Ni and Zn contents. The abrupt changes in chromite composition mark the contacts regardless of the thickness of the chromitite layer and estimated mass proportions of chromite to intercumulus liquid. Chemical variations, which defy a simple explanation, are also observed in plagioclase. In addition to previously revealed inconsistency between chemical trends of cumulus plagioclase and orthopyroxene in the UCZ cyclic units our study demonstrates that intercumulus, poikilitic plagioclase cementing chromitite layers has anomalously low Li, K, Rb concentrations and K/La values. Summarising previous studies and the new trace element data we propose a model of post-cumulus re-crystallisation leading to consolidation of a modally layered crystal-liquid mush into a sequence of nearly monomineral layers of chromitites, pyroxenites and anorthosites, which defines the cyclic units. The crucial element of the model is the establishment of

  18. Cerro Uturuncu SW Bolivia: Preliminary Observations from Field work, Geochemistry and Petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelfelder, G.; Feeley, T.

    2010-12-01

    Cerro Uturuncu is a potentially active composite cone volcano located in the back-arc of the Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) in SW Bolivia. It is composed primarily of porphyritic andesitic to dacitic lavas ranging in SiO2 contents from 61-67 wt.%. Currently, a minimum of 85 separate flows and domes have been identified with the possibility of up to 30 more. InSAR observations between 1992 and 2006, show current states of unrest with active deformation being most intense at 1-2 cm/yr located around the summit of Uturuncu. This deformation is hypothesized to be attributed to upward movement of magma from the Altiplano-Puna magmatic body located at a depth of 17-20 km. Previously determined 39Ar/40Ar ages place the most active period between 870-271 ka. Lava flows and domes contain phenocrysts of zoned plagioclase, orthopyroxene, biotite and rare quartz. Dacitic flows and domes contain silicic andesite inclusions, mircrogranitic inclusions, crustal xenoliths and norite nodules. Pyroclastic material was not observed suggesting that Uturuncu primarily erupted effusively. Three preliminary observations can be drawn from new major and trace element data. First, two distinct suites of magmas with different trace elements signatures are identified. One suite has low Nb, low Nd and low Sr (12.2-14.8 Nb ppm; 214-253 Sr ppm; 34-38 Nd ppm); the other has high Nb, high Nd and high Sr (16-34 Nb ppm; 46-67 Nd ppm; 308-498 Sr ppm). This second suite is the most dominant containing 60 of the identified flows and domes. Second, the ranges in major element compositions suggest that crustal assimilation and magma mixing were important processes in the evolution of the system. This evidence includes consistent decreases in MgO (3.63-1.18 wt.%) and CaO (5.05-3.27 wt.%) and erratic and variable increases in K2O (3.40-4.05 wt.%) and Na2O (2.03-2.73 wt.%) with increasing SiO2. Third, major and trace element data suggest Uturuncu is atypical compared to other volcanic systems in the

  19. Chromite deposits of the north-central Zambales Range, Luzon, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rossman, D.L.

    1970-01-01

    Peridotite and gabbro form an intrusive complex which is exposed over an area about 35 km wide and 150 km long in the center of the Zambales Range of western Luzon. The Zambales Complex is remarkable for its total known resources, mined and still remaining, of about 15 million metric tons of chromite ore. Twenty percent of Free World production was obtained from this area between 1950 and the end of 1964; in 1960 production reached a high of 606,103 metric tons of refractory-grade ore, mostly from the Coto mine near Masinloc, and 128,426 metric tons of metallurgical ore from the Acoje mine. The United States imports 80 to 90 percent of its refractory-grade chromite from the Philippines, and its basic refractory technology has been designed upon the chemical and physical characteristics of Coto high-alumina chromite ore. Continuation of this pattern will depend upon discovery of additional ore reserves to replace those depleted by mining. The Zambales Ultramafic Complex is of the alpine type in which lenticular or podiform deposits of chromite lie in peridotite or dunite, mostly near Contacts with gabbroic rocks. Layered structures, foliation, and lineation commonly are well developed and transect boundaries between major rock units, including chromite deposits, at any angle. Accordingly, these structures cannot be used as guides in exploration and mining as they are used in stratiform complexes such as the Bushveld, where chromite layers extend for many miles. Probably 90 percent of the known deposits in the Zambales Complex are located in two belts in its northern part. One zone containing high-aluminua refractory-grade deposits extends northeast from the Coto mine and Chromite Reservation No. I along a peridotite contact with olivine gabbro, and another of high-chromium metallurgical grade chromite extends south through the Zambales and Acoje properties, and swings westward around the south side of Mount Lanai along a peridotite contact with norite. The textures

  20. The Palaeoproterozoic accretionary crustal growth: implications from new age data on the crystalline basement in Lithuania, NW Belarus and N Poland (the East European Craton)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, G.; Bogdanova, S.; Taran, L.; Wiszniewska, J.

    2012-04-01

    widespread c. 1.80-1.76 Ga metamorphism and tholeiitic magmatism related to post-collisional extension constrain the maximum age of the final accretion of the terranes. It is evidenced by numerous 1.80-1.79 Ga gabbro-noritic, dioritic and granitic intrusions in NE Poland and elsewhere in Lithuania and Belarus (Claesson, 2001; Vejelyte, 2011). The later reworking at c. 1.70-1.45 Ga and c. 1.60-1.45 Ga AMCG magmatism affected the already accreted craton. Evolutionary, a 1.90-1.87 Ga continental margin was established in present-day E Lithuania and NW Belarus, while younger volcanic arcs were still forming to the west and south at 1.86-1.84 Ga. They had been subsequently accreted to the c. 1.89 Ga continental margin in the time span of 1.84-1.80 Ga, and a new continental margin emerged. After the youngest c. 1.83-1.80 Ga island arcs were docked, the ocean was closed and the crust was finally cratonized. The younger 1.70-1.45 Ga events were intracratonic reflections of active geological processes further west. This is a contribution to the project "Precambrian rock provinces and active tectonic boundaries across the Baltic Sea and in adjacent areas" of the Visby Programme (the Swedish Institute), Lithuanian Science Council grant MIP-034/2011 and SYNTHESYS project SE-TAF-1535

  1. Constraints on the depths of origin of peak rings on the Moon from Moon Mineralogy Mapper data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, David M. H.; Head, James W.

    2015-09-01

    likely shallower than this if the lower crust is comprised of noritic materials. The maximum depth of melting for peak-ring basins extends far into the mantle and is therefore not a valid proxy for estimating the depth of origin of materials forming peak rings. We find that our estimates of the depths of origin of peak-ring materials are consistent with current models of peak-ring formation, including predictions by hydrocode simulations and conceptual models emphasizing the role of interior impact melting and centro-symmetric collapse of the walls of the transient cavity. Firmer constraints on the depths of origin of peak rings on the Moon await an improved understanding of the crustal compositional structure, particularly that of the lower crust, and improved model predictions on the sampling depths and shock pressures experienced by uplifted peak-ring materials.

  2. Lithological Variation with Depth and Decoupling of Maturity Parameters in Apollo 16 Regolith Core 68001/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Morris, Richard V.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Schwarz, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Using FerroMagnetic Resonance (FMR) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), we have determined the maturity (surface exposure) parameter I(sub s)/FeO and concentrations of twenty- five chemical elements on samples taken every half centimeter down the 61-cm length of the 68001/2 regolith core (double drive tube) collected at station 8 on the Apollo 16 mission to the Moon. Contrary to premission expectations, no ejecta or other influence from South Ray crater is evident in the core, although a small inflection in the I(sub s)/FeO profile at 3 cm depth may be related the South Ray crater impact. Regolith maturity generally decreases with depth, as in several previously studied cores. We recognize five compositionally distinct units in the core, which we designate A through E, although all are similar in composition to each other and to other soils from the Cayley plains at the Apollo 16 site. Unit A (0-33 cm) is mature to submature throughout (I(sub s)/FeO: 89-34 units) and is indistinguishable in composition from surface soils collected at station 8. Unit B (33-37 cm) is enriched slightly in a component of anorthositic norite composition. Unit D (42-53 cm) is compositionally equivalent to 80 wt% Unit-A soil plus 20 wt% Apollo-16-type dimict breccia consisting of subequal parts anorthosite and impact-melt breccia. Compared to Unit A, Unit E (53-61 cm) contains a small proportion (up to 4%) of some component compositionally similar to Apollo 14 sample 14321. Unit C (37-42 cm) is unusual. For lithophile and siderophile elements, it is similar to Units A and D. However, I(sub s)/FeO is low throughout the unit (less than 30 units) and in a bluish-gray zone at 41 cm depth I(sub s)/FeO drops to 1.6 units, the lowest value that we have observed in several hundred Apollo 16 soil samples. Samples from the bluish-gray zone also have low Zn concentrations, less than 10 micro g/g, compared to 20-30 micro g/g for the rest of the core. Although both values are

  3. The Complex Stratigraphy of the Highland Crust in the Serenitatis Region of the Moon Inferred from Mineral Fragment Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Norman, Marc D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    rocks do not contribute significantly to the fragment population. Nor do ferroan anorthosites contribute more than a tiny part of even the plagiociase fragment population. A few mineral fragments that are consistent with the cryptic low-K Fra Mauro chemical component were found, and these appear to be from gabbroic sources. The mineral fragment populations cannot be mixed in their observed proportions to produce the whole rock composition, because the fragments are more refractory and deficient in Ti, P, and alkalis. A preferential contribution to the melt from a rock similar to sodic ferrogabbro can partly resolve the discrepancy. The population of mineral fragments requires a very diverse population of igenous rocks that are not all related to each other, demonstrating the existence of a complex crust built of numerous separate igneous plutons. Many of these plutons may have crystallized at shallow depths. The chemical composition of the melt breccias, in combination with the mineral fragment data and an understanding of the cratering process, suggests that the deepest crust sampled by the Serenitatis impace (not necessarily the deepest crust) was basaltic in composition, including KREEP and gabbroic rocks like sodic ferrogabbro, and lacking abundant olivine-rich material. These were overlain by Mg-suite rocks of varied types, including norites and troctolites that supplied most of the olivine mineral fragments. Granulities, which are metamorphosed and more feldspathic breccias, were abundant near the surface. Remote sensing indicates that the entire Serenitatis region lacks ferroan anorthosite, consistent with the results of our study.

  4. Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Landreth, Ronald

    2001-09-21

    -term test. All of the B-PAC, sorbents had similar mercury performance, achieving about 70%, 80% and 90% mercury removal due to sorbent at injection rates of 2, 4 and 6 lb/MMacf, respectively. It took 50% more of the Norit Hg LH sorbent to achieve 80% mercury removal than with the B-PAC, sorbents. The impact of C-PAC on the properties of concrete was investigated by Lafarge (the fly ash seller at Crawford), by Albemarle Environmental f/k/a Sorbent Technologies, and by Headwaters Resources, a project partner. The properties evaluated include the concrete air content, air stability, air distribution, setting time, and strength. C-PAC does not appear to deleteriously affect any of the important properties of concrete. It may even improve some properties. The finding that C-PAC does provide high levels of mercury removal without impacting the fly ash cement properties is a milestone in this project. At Crawford 7, the opacity would increase 3% to 5% over a period of hours from the time that the boiler first reached high load until the boiler load was reduced at night. For the parametric test, the opacity dropped when the C-PAC was turned on or when the injection rate was increased. As the long-term test progressed, the opacity for each successive period when at full load was lower than the previous one, so that at the end of the test the opacity at full load was averaging about 8% below that before the injection began. The finding that a gas-phase brominated mercury sorbent such as B-PAC or C-PAC can positively impact ESP performance is another milestone for this project. Midwest Generation Will County Unit 3 is equipped with a hot-side ESP and, thus, the injection temperature was about 700{degree}F. The high temperature version of C-PAC was used in the trial since it was desired to maintain the fly ash for sale for cement use. The duration of the testing at the Will County Station was reduced from that originally planned, due to a reduction in DOE funding. The biggest changes

  5. Obituary: Thomas Julian Ahrens (1936-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Asimow, Paul

    2011-12-01

    exemplified by the ultrasonic wave-velocity measurements of his Ph.D. research at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (geophysics Ph.D. in 1962, following a B.S. in geology and geophysics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1957, and M.S. in geophysics from Caltech in 1958). He served in the U.S. Army (1959-60) and was employed at Stanford Research Institute (1962-67), where he conducted shock wave experiments, before joining the faculty at Caltech in 1967. With such a broad background, Tom combined condensed-matter physics, continuum mechanics, petrology and seismology, for instance in characterizing polymorphic phase transformations in Earth's mantle (1967 J. Geophys. Res. Paper with Y. Syono); using shock wave measurements to interpret seismological data on Earth's deep interior (1969 Rev. Geophysics paper with D. L. Anderson and A. E. Ringwood); modeling geodynamic effects of phase-transition kinetics (1975 Rev. Geophysics paper with G. Shubert); characterizing the effects of gravity and crustal strength on crater formation (1981 Rev. Geophysics paper with J. D. O'Keefe); and quantifying impact erosion of terrestrial planetary atmospheres (1993 Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences). The span of his science was also reflected in collaborations with - among others - Paul D. Asimow, George R. Rossman and Edward M. Stolper at Caltech, as well as Arthur C. Mitchell and William J. Nellis at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. His accomplishments included conducting the first shock-wave experiments on lunar samples and solid hydrogen; measuring the first absorption spectra of minerals under shock loading; discovering major phase changes in CaO, FeO, KAlSi3O8, and KFeS2; measuring shock temperatures in silicates, metals, and oxides; conducting the first planetary cratering calculations for mass of melted and vaporized material, and mass and energy of ejecta as a function of planetary escape velocity; experimentally documenting shock vaporization on volatile

  6. The Chineysky layered massif (Siberia, Russia) and Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex: resemblance and difference features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongalskiy, B.; Krivolutskaya, N.

    2009-04-01

    : 1) consecutive introduction of magmas of different composition; 2) stratification of different nature; 3) differently grade rhythmicity. The Chineysky massif is thought to have been produced by successive emplacement of magmas, which formed four rock groups. These are the pyroxenite of the first group, titanomagnetite gabbronorites and leucogabbro of the second group, gabbronorites of the third group, and lamprophyres of the fourth group The trace-element patterns of various rocks and the results of simulations by the COMAGMAT-3.5 computer program led us to believe that all four rock groups of the massif were generated by the successive emplacements of several portions of the initial magma, which was a complicatedly differentiated suspension of olivine, plagioclase, and magnetite crystals in ferroabsaltic melt at a temperature of approximately 1130°л. The gravitational separation of these phases in the melt before its emplacement into the chamber and during the subsequent emplacement of various portions of the initial magma into the modern chamber predetermined the heterogeneity of the massif (its block structure). As a result, the bulk of the Chineysky massif is composed of compositionally principally different rocks of the second and third groups, with the predominance of intratelluric plagioclase and magnetite crystals in the former case (gabbronorite and leucogabbro series in the western and southeastern blocks) and orthopyroxene in the latter one (norite series, central block). The rocks of the third group were generated later. The crystallization sequences of minerals modeled for the Chineysky massif can be classed into two major types [2]: (a) "high-Al", which is typical of the "leucogabbro" compositions and characterized by the occurrence of a magnetite-plagioclase cotectic, and (b) "high-Mg", which is typical of the noriteseries and is characterized by the early appearance of olivine on the liquidus or the concurrent crystallization of this mineral with

  7. Lunar Meteorites and Implications for Compositional Remote Sensing of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    unreasonable viewpoint, is that such data offer no constraint. For example, if one were to cut up the Apollo 17 landing site (which was selected for its diversity) into softball-sized pieces, some of those pieces (e.g., sample 70135) would be crystalline mare basalts like Y 793169 whereas others (e.g., sample 73131 would be feldspathic regolith breccias like MAC 88104/ 88105. However, nature is not so devious. Warren argues that LMs come from craters of only a few kilometers in diameter. If so, even though CRE data allow, for example, that ALHA 81005 and Y 791197) were launched simultaneously from the same crater, the probability is nevertheless low because the two meteorites are compositionally and mineralogically distinct. Thus, within the allowed range (5-11) for the number of locations represented by the LMs, values at the high end of the range are probably more likely. Mare Meteorites: Three LMs consist almost entirely of mare basalt. Two, Y 793169 and Asuka 881757, are unbrecciated, low-Ti, crystalline rocks that are compositionally and mineralogically similar (but not identical) to each other; they probably derive from a single lunar-mare location. The third, EET 87521/96008, is a fragmental breccia consisting predominantly of VLT mare basalt. Thus, these LMs probably represent only two lunar mare locations. The basaltic LMs have mineral and bulk compositions distinct from Apollo mare basalts. The petrography of Calcalong Creek has not been described in detail, but compositionally it is unique in that it corresponds to a mixture (breccia) of about one-half feldspathic material (i.e., the mean composition of the feldspathic lunar meteorites, below), one-fourth KREEP norite, one-fourth VLT mare basalt (like EET 87521), and 1% CI chondrite. With 4 micro g/g Th and correspondingly high concentrations of other incompatible elements, it is the only lunar meteorite that is likely to have come from within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT). Yamato 793274 and QUE 94281 are

  8. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    -based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

  9. Tectonic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol greenstone belt in NE Burkina Faso and Niger, West African craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Oudalan-Gorouol Greenstone Belt (OGGB) forms part of the Palaeoproterozoic as the Baoulé-Mossi domain of the West African Craton (WAC) and hosts gold deposits at Essakane, Gossey, Korizena, and Falagountou in NE Burkina Faso, and Kossa goldfield in Niger. The Birimian supracrustal sequences in the OGGB are dominated by meta-volcanoclastic greywacke intercalated meta-conglomerate, siltstone and shale, carbonate (dolomite) and volcanic units pillow basalts). The belt is surrounded by plutonic rocks including granite, TTG suite granitoids and granite gneiss. The sequences where subjected to two phases of deformation, and several phases of contact metamorphosed to hornblende-hornfels facies during emplacement of pyroxenite-gabbro-norite, granodiorite-tonalite and gabbro dykes and porphyritic sills. The OGGB is bounded and/or crosscut by several major NNE to NE-trending shear zones including the steeply east-dipping Markoye Shear Zone (western margin of the OGGB), Tin Takanet-Bellekcire Shear Zone, Dori Shear Zone, Kargouna Shear Zone, Takabougou Shear Zone, and Bom Kodjelé Shear Zone (transects the centre of the OGGB). The structures were readily identified using LANDSAT, Aster, aeromagnetic and RTP magnetic data, with follow-up strategic mapping, highlighting the value of interpreting geophysical and remotely sensed data in regional mapping in Burkina Faso and Niger. Structural studies completed in 2007 adjacent to the Essakane gold mine indicated that the NE-trending, first-order crustal-scale Markoye Shear Zone (MSZ) has undergone at least two phases of reactivation concomitant to two phases of regional deformation (Tshibubudze et al., 2009). The first phase of deformation, D1, resulted in the formation of NNW-NW trending folds and thrusts during dextral-reverse displacement on the MSZ. The deformation predates the Eburnean Orogeny is termed the Tangaean Event (meaning low hills in the Moré language of Burkina Faso) and is tentatively dated at ca. 2170

  10. Simulating the Formation of Lunar Floor-Fracture Craters Using Elastoviscoplastic Relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dombard, A. J.; Gillis, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    summation of the elastic, creep, and plastic strains. In relaxation phenomena in general, the system takes advantage of any means possible to eliminate deviatoric stresses by relaxing away the topography. Previous analyses have only modeled the viscous response. Comparatively, the elastic response in our model can augment the relaxation, to a point. This effect decreases as the elastic response becomes stiffer; indeed, in the limit of infinite elastic Young's modulus (and with no plasticity), the solution converges on the purely viscous solution. Igneous rocks common to the lunar near-surface have Young's modulii in the range of 10-100 GPa. To maximize relaxation, we use a Young's modulus of 10 GPa. (There is negligible sensitivity to the other elastic modulus, the Poisson's ratio; we use 0.25.) For the viscous response, we use a flow law for steady-state creep in thoroughly dried Columbia diabase, because the high plagioclase (about 70 vol%) and orthopyroxene (about 17 vol%) content is similar to the composition of the lunar highland crust as described by remote sensing and sample studies: noritic anorthosite. This flow law is highly non-Newtonian, i.e., the viscosity is highly stress dependent. That, and the variability with temperature, stands in strong contrast to previous examinations of lunar floor-fracture crater relaxation. To model discrete, brittle faulting, we assume "Byerlee's rule," a standard geodynamical technique. We implement this "rule" with an-angle of internal friction of about 40 deg, and a higher-than-normal cohesion of about 3.2 MPa (to approximate the breaking of unfractured rock). The actual behavior of geologic materials is more complex than in our rheological model, so the uncertainties in the plasticity do not represent the state-of-the-art error. Additional information is contained in the original.

  11. High-resolution mapping of elemental abundances of the lunar regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhler, Christian; Berezhnoy, Alexey; Evans, Richard

    comparably large deviations from the three-endmember plane in Al-Fe-Mg space of 1 wt percent and more. These anomalous basalts have low ages of 1.7-2.8 Ga [7]. They are characterised by secondary absorption features near 1100 nm and high 2000/1500 spectral ratios, indicating a high olivine content. Anomalous material in lunar craters is generally interpreted as being excavated during crater formation from the lower lunar crust or upper mantle (cf. e.g. [8]). For the highland crater Tycho, our method reveals mafic units in the northern crater wall and in the central peaks and Mg-rich rock in the southwestern crater wall and distributed throughout the crater floor. This material is interpreted in [9] as anorthositic gabbro with a low Fe content and a mafic mineral assemblage dominated by high-Ca pyroxene. Our petrographic map of Copernicus shows the central peaks as small regions composed of the mare basalt endmember (interpreted as gabbroic material) with admixed troctolite (western peak) and mainly troctolite (eastern peak), respectively [8]. For the central peaks of the crater Bullialdus, our technique clearly reveals the Mg-rich rock component, which is interpreted as norite in [10]. We present very high resolution petrographic maps derived from newly released Selene multi-spectral data of the central peaks of Copernicus and Bullialdus. For the pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) on the floor of Alphonsus, our technique indicates high Mg/Al ratios between 1.4 (eastern LPDs) and 2.5 (western LPD) [11]. The secondary absorption near 1100 nm and the high 2000/1500 ratio suggest the presence of a major olivine component. As a general result, we show that our regression-based elemental abundance estimation method allows the detection of the main lunar terrain classes and rock types on small spatial scales based on multispectral imagery in the visible and near-infrared domain. [1] Lucey et al. (2000), JGR 105(E8), 20297-20306. [2] Wühler et al. (2009), EPSC 2009, 263. [3] Evans et al

  12. Tectonic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol greenstone belt in NE Burkina Faso and Niger, West African craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Oudalan-Gorouol Greenstone Belt (OGGB) forms part of the Palaeoproterozoic as the Baoulé-Mossi domain of the West African Craton (WAC) and hosts gold deposits at Essakane, Gossey, Korizena, and Falagountou in NE Burkina Faso, and Kossa goldfield in Niger. The Birimian supracrustal sequences in the OGGB are dominated by meta-volcanoclastic greywacke intercalated meta-conglomerate, siltstone and shale, carbonate (dolomite) and volcanic units pillow basalts). The belt is surrounded by plutonic rocks including granite, TTG suite granitoids and granite gneiss. The sequences where subjected to two phases of deformation, and several phases of contact metamorphosed to hornblende-hornfels facies during emplacement of pyroxenite-gabbro-norite, granodiorite-tonalite and gabbro dykes and porphyritic sills. The OGGB is bounded and/or crosscut by several major NNE to NE-trending shear zones including the steeply east-dipping Markoye Shear Zone (western margin of the OGGB), Tin Takanet-Bellekcire Shear Zone, Dori Shear Zone, Kargouna Shear Zone, Takabougou Shear Zone, and Bom Kodjelé Shear Zone (transects the centre of the OGGB). The structures were readily identified using LANDSAT, Aster, aeromagnetic and RTP magnetic data, with follow-up strategic mapping, highlighting the value of interpreting geophysical and remotely sensed data in regional mapping in Burkina Faso and Niger. Structural studies completed in 2007 adjacent to the Essakane gold mine indicated that the NE-trending, first-order crustal-scale Markoye Shear Zone (MSZ) has undergone at least two phases of reactivation concomitant to two phases of regional deformation (Tshibubudze et al., 2009). The first phase of deformation, D1, resulted in the formation of NNW-NW trending folds and thrusts during dextral-reverse displacement on the MSZ. The deformation predates the Eburnean Orogeny is termed the Tangaean Event (meaning low hills in the Moré language of Burkina Faso) and is tentatively dated at ca. 2170

  13. Lunar Meteorites and Implications for Compositional Remote Sensing of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    unreasonable viewpoint, is that such data offer no constraint. For example, if one were to cut up the Apollo 17 landing site (which was selected for its diversity) into softball-sized pieces, some of those pieces (e.g., sample 70135) would be crystalline mare basalts like Y 793169 whereas others (e.g., sample 73131 would be feldspathic regolith breccias like MAC 88104/ 88105. However, nature is not so devious. Warren argues that LMs come from craters of only a few kilometers in diameter. If so, even though CRE data allow, for example, that ALHA 81005 and Y 791197) were launched simultaneously from the same crater, the probability is nevertheless low because the two meteorites are compositionally and mineralogically distinct. Thus, within the allowed range (5-11) for the number of locations represented by the LMs, values at the high end of the range are probably more likely. Mare Meteorites: Three LMs consist almost entirely of mare basalt. Two, Y 793169 and Asuka 881757, are unbrecciated, low-Ti, crystalline rocks that are compositionally and mineralogically similar (but not identical) to each other; they probably derive from a single lunar-mare location. The third, EET 87521/96008, is a fragmental breccia consisting predominantly of VLT mare basalt. Thus, these LMs probably represent only two lunar mare locations. The basaltic LMs have mineral and bulk compositions distinct from Apollo mare basalts. The petrography of Calcalong Creek has not been described in detail, but compositionally it is unique in that it corresponds to a mixture (breccia) of about one-half feldspathic material (i.e., the mean composition of the feldspathic lunar meteorites, below), one-fourth KREEP norite, one-fourth VLT mare basalt (like EET 87521), and 1% CI chondrite. With 4 micro g/g Th and correspondingly high concentrations of other incompatible elements, it is the only lunar meteorite that is likely to have come from within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT). Yamato 793274 and QUE 94281 are

  14. Lunar Meteorites and Implications for Compositional Remote Sensing of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    unreasonable viewpoint, is that such data offer no constraint. For example, if one were to cut up the Apollo 17 landing site (which was selected for its diversity) into softball-sized pieces, some of those pieces (e.g., sample 70135) would be crystalline mare basalts like Y 793169 whereas others (e.g., sample 73131 would be feldspathic regolith breccias like MAC 88104/ 88105. However, nature is not so devious. Warren argues that LMs come from craters of only a few kilometers in diameter. If so, even though CRE data allow, for example, that ALHA 81005 and Y 791197) were launched simultaneously from the same crater, the probability is nevertheless low because the two meteorites are compositionally and mineralogically distinct. Thus, within the allowed range (5-11) for the number of locations represented by the LMs, values at the high end of the range are probably more likely. Mare Meteorites: Three LMs consist almost entirely of mare basalt. Two, Y 793169 and Asuka 881757, are unbrecciated, low-Ti, crystalline rocks that are compositionally and mineralogically similar (but not identical) to each other; they probably derive from a single lunar-mare location. The third, EET 87521/96008, is a fragmental breccia consisting predominantly of VLT mare basalt. Thus, these LMs probably represent only two lunar mare locations. The basaltic LMs have mineral and bulk compositions distinct from Apollo mare basalts. The petrography of Calcalong Creek has not been described in detail, but compositionally it is unique in that it corresponds to a mixture (breccia) of about one-half feldspathic material (i.e., the mean composition of the feldspathic lunar meteorites, below), one-fourth KREEP norite, one-fourth VLT mare basalt (like EET 87521), and 1% CI chondrite. With 4 micro g/g Th and correspondingly high concentrations of other incompatible elements, it is the only lunar meteorite that is likely to have come from within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT). Yamato 793274 and QUE 94281 are

  15. Compositional Variation in Apollo 16 Impact-Melt Breccias and Inferences for the Geology and Bombardment History of the Central Highlands of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1994-01-01

    feldspathic fragmental breccias from North Ray crater (group 2NR) is compositionally distinct from the melt lithology ofdimict breccias from the Cayley plains (group 2DB) in having higher concentrations of Sc, Cr, and heavy rare earth elements and lower concentrations of siderophile elements. The distinct siderophile-element signature (high absolute abundances, low Ir/Au ratio) suggest that the four groups ofmafic melt breccia are all somehow related. Ratios ofsome lithophile elements also suggest that they are more closely related to each other than then, are to melt breccias from other Apoll sites. However, none of the breccia compositions can be related to any of the others by any simple process of igneous fractionation or mixing involving common lunar materials. Thus, the origin of the four groups of mafic melt breccia is enigmatic. If they were produced in only one or two impacts, then a mechanism exists for generating regimes of impact-melt breccia in a single impact that are substantially different from each other in composition. For various reasons, including the problem of delivering large volumes of four different types of melt to the Apollo 16 site, it is unlikely that any of these breccias were produced in basin-forming impacts. If they were produced in as many as four crater-forming impacts, then the unusual siderophile-element signature is difficult to explain. Possible explanations are (1) the four groups of melt breccia all contain metal from a single, earlier impact, (2) they were each formed by related metal-rich meteoroids, or (3) some common postimpact process has resulted in metal of similar composition in each of four melt pools. Within a compositional group, most intrasample and intersample variation in lithophile element concentrations is caused by differences among samples in the proportion of a component of normative anorthosite or noritic anorthosite. In most cases, this compositional variation probably reflects variation in clast abundance. For

  16. Geology of the Zambales ophiolite, Luzon, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rossman, D.L.; Castanada, G.C.; Bacuta, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    . Commonly the dunite contains disseminated sulfide minerals and at the Acoje Mines, platinum-group elements. A compositional layering within the gabbro is in places cumulate in the lower part of the unit but may have formed by nucleation higher up on the relatively steep sides of the magma chamber. A widespread gneissic banding in the gabbro forms large mappable structures which are many times more complex than is the disposition of the major rock units. These structures are believed to be the result of extensive slumping in the magma chamber. The structure produced by the cumulate layering merges with the gneissic banding, commonly without discernible change in attitude. This tectonic layered structure crosses the gabbro-peridotite boundary at any angle without seeming to disturb the original rock distribution. At greater depths below the boundary (ca. 800 m), the harzburgite contains low dipping banding, which probably reflects the result of differential movement within the mantle. Chromite occurs almost exclusively in a zone that generally lies no more than 200-300 m below the gabbro-peridotite boundary. Refractory-grade chromite is found in this zone below the olivine gabbro in the Goto block and as low-grade metallurgical grade chromite below norite in the Acoje block. At Acoje Mines the chromite is present in layers in dunite, which the writer interprets as being distributed in a zone along the gently dipping (ca. 25??) gabbro-peridotite boundary. The steeply dipping (ca. 60-80 ?? ) individual layers lie en echelon along the boundary at an angle (ca. 50 ?? ) to the contact. At Coto the chromite forms large discontinuous masses in the lowest dunite and in the uppermost harzburgite. Except for the chromite present as layers at Acoje, the regional tectonic layering crosses the chromite deposits without structural deviation. The chromite deposits and associated peridotite may be cumulate in origin, but have been modified to such an extent that cumulate textures are gener

  17. Surfing a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    and how these supermassive black holes formed and why almost every massive galaxy appears to contain one. The formation of central black holes and that of their host galaxies themselves increasingly appear to be just one problem and the same. Indeed, one of the outstanding challenges for the VLT to solve in the next few years. There is also little doubt that coming interferometric observations with instruments at the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) will also result in another giant leap within this exciting field of research. Andreas Eckart is optimistic: "Perhaps it will even be possible with X-ray and radio observations in the next few years to directly demonstrate the existence of the event horizon." More information The information presented in this Press Release is based on a research article ("Seeing a Star Orbit around the Supermassive Black Hole at the centre of the Milky Way" by Rainer Schödel et al.) that appears in the research journal "Nature" on October 17, 2002. Notes [1]: This press release is issued in coordination between ESO and the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching, Germany. A German version is available at http://www.mpg.de/pri02/pri0287.htm. [2]: The team consists of Rainer Schödel, Thomas Ott, Reinhard Genzel, Reiner Hofmann and Matt Lehnert (Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Andreas Eckart and Nelly Mouawad (Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Cologne, Germany), Tal Alexander (The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel), Mark J. Reid (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., USA), Rainer Lenzen and Markus Hartung (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany), François Lacombe, Daniel Rouan, Eric Gendron and Gérard Rousset (Observatoire de Paris - Section de Meudon, France), Anne-Marie Lagrange (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Observatoire de Grenoble, France), Wolfgang Brandner, Nancy