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Sample records for neocortical fastspiking gabaergic

  1. The early fetal development of human neocortical GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaberi, Nahidh; Lindsay, Susan; Sarma, Subrot; Bayatti, Nadhim; Clowry, Gavin J

    2015-03-01

    GABAergic interneurons are crucial to controlling the excitability and responsiveness of cortical circuitry. Their developmental origin may differ between rodents and human. We have demonstrated the expression of 12 GABAergic interneuron-associated genes in samples from human neocortex by quantitative rtPCR from 8 to 12 postconceptional weeks (PCW) and shown a significant anterior to posterior expression gradient, confirmed by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry for GAD1 and 2, DLX1, 2, and 5, ASCL1, OLIG2, and CALB2. Following cortical plate (CP) formation from 8 to 9 PCW, a proportion of cells were strongly stained for all these markers in the CP and presubplate. ASCL1 and DLX2 maintained high expression in the proliferative zones and showed extensive immunofluorescent double-labeling with the cell division marker Ki-67. CALB2-positive cells increased steadily in the SVZ/VZ from 10 PCW but were not double-labeled with Ki-67. Expression of GABAergic genes was generally higher in the dorsal pallium than in the ganglionic eminences, with lower expression in the intervening ventral pallium. It is widely accepted that the cortical proliferative zones may generate CALB2-positive interneurons from mid-gestation; we now show that the anterior neocortical proliferative layers especially may be a rich source of interneurons in the early neocortex. PMID:24047602

  2. Genetics and Function of Neocortical GABAergic Interneurons in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, E.

    2011-01-01

    A dysfunction of cortical and limbic GABAergic circuits has been postulated to contribute to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, including schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy. In the current paper, I summarize the characteristics that underlie the great diversity of cortical GABAergic interneurons and explore how the multiple roles of these cells in developing and mature circuits might contribute to the aforementioned disorders. Furthermore, I review the tightly controlled genetic cascades that determine the fate of cortical interneurons and summarize how the dysfunction of genes important for the generation, specification, maturation, and function of cortical interneurons might contribute to these disorders. PMID:21876820

  3. Differential expression of metabotropic glutamate and GABA receptors at neocortical glutamatergic and GABAergic axon terminals

    PubMed Central

    Bragina, Luca; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Bassi, Silvia; Milanese, Marco; Bonanno, Giambattista; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (Glu) receptors (mGluRs) and GABAB receptors are highly expressed at presynaptic sites. To verify the possibility that the two classes of metabotropic receptors contribute to axon terminals heterogeneity, we studied the localization of mGluR1α, mGluR5, mGluR2/3, mGluR7, and GABAB1 in VGLUT1-, VGLUT2-, and VGAT- positive terminals in the cerebral cortex of adult rats. VGLUT1-positive puncta expressed mGluR1α (∼5%), mGluR5 (∼6%), mGluR2/3 (∼22%), mGluR7 (∼17%), and GABAB1 (∼40%); VGLUT2-positive terminals expressed mGluR1α (∼10%), mGluR5 (∼11%), mGluR2/3 (∼20%), mGluR7 (∼28%), and GABAB1 (∼25%); whereas VGAT-positive puncta expressed mGluR1α (∼27%), mGluR5 (∼24%), mGluR2/3 (∼38%), mGluR7 (∼31%), and GABAB1 (∼19%). Control experiments ruled out the possibility that postsynaptic mGluRs and GABAB1 might have significantly biased our results. We also performed functional assays in synaptosomal preparations, and showed that all agonists modify Glu and GABA levels, which return to baseline upon exposure to antagonists. Overall, these findings indicate that mGluR1α, mGluR5, mGluR2/3, mGluR7, and GABAB1 expression differ significantly between glutamatergic and GABAergic axon terminals, and that the robust expression of heteroreceptors may contribute to the homeostatic regulation of the balance between excitation and inhibition. PMID:26388733

  4. Postnatal development of GABAergic interneurons in the neocortical subplate of mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, G-J; Ma, J; Yu, Y-C; Fu, Y

    2016-05-13

    The subplate (SP) plays important roles in developmental and functional events in the neocortex, such as thalamocortical and corticofugal projection, cortical oscillation generation and corticocortical connectivity. Although accumulated evidence indicates that SP interneurons are crucial for SP function, the molecular composition of SP interneurons as well as their developmental profile and distribution remain largely unclear. In this study, we systematically investigated dynamic development of SP thickness and chemical marker expression in SP interneurons in distinct cortical regions during the first postnatal month. We found that, although the relative area of the SP in the cerebral cortex significantly declined with postnatal development, the absolute thickness did not change markedly. We also found that somatostatin (SOM), the ionotropic serotonin receptor 3A (5HT3AR), and parvalbumin (PV) reliably identify three distinct non-overlapping subpopulations of SP interneurons. The SOM group, which represents ∼30% of total SP interneurons, expresses neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and calbindin (CB) and colocalizes entirely with neuropeptide Y (NPY). The 5HT3AR group, which accounts for ∼60% of the total interneuronal population, expresses calretinin (CR) and GABA-A receptor subunit delta (GABAARδ). The PV group accounts for ∼10% of total SP interneurons and coexpressed GABAARδ. Moreover, distinct interneuron subtypes show characteristic temporal and spatial distribution in the SP. nNOS(+) interneurons in the SP increase from the anterior motor cortex to posterior visual cortex, while CR(+) and CB(+) interneurons the opposite. Interestedly, the majority of GABAARδ(+) neurons in SP are non-GABAergic neurons in contrast to other cortical layers. These findings clarify and extend our understanding of SP interneurons in the developing cerebral cortex and will underpin further study of SP function. PMID:26892297

  5. Computational modeling of distinct neocortical oscillations driven by cell-type selective optogenetic drive: separable resonant circuits controlled by low-threshold spiking and fast-spiking interneurons.

    PubMed

    Vierling-Claassen, Dorea; Cardin, Jessica A; Moore, Christopher I; Jones, Stephanie R

    2010-01-01

    Selective optogenetic drive of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons (INs) leads to enhanced local field potential (LFP) power across the traditional "gamma" frequency band (20-80 Hz; Cardin et al., 2009). In contrast, drive to regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal cells enhances power at lower frequencies, with a peak at 8 Hz. The first result is consistent with previous computational studies emphasizing the role of FS and the time constant of GABA(A) synaptic inhibition in gamma rhythmicity. However, the same theoretical models do not typically predict low-frequency LFP enhancement with RS drive. To develop hypotheses as to how the same network can support these contrasting behaviors, we constructed a biophysically principled network model of primary somatosensory neocortex containing FS, RS, and low-threshold spiking (LTS) INs. Cells were modeled with detailed cell anatomy and physiology, multiple dendritic compartments, and included active somatic and dendritic ionic currents. Consistent with prior studies, the model demonstrated gamma resonance during FS drive, dependent on the time constant of GABA(A) inhibition induced by synchronous FS activity. Lower-frequency enhancement during RS drive was replicated only on inclusion of an inhibitory LTS population, whose activation was critically dependent on RS synchrony and evoked longer-lasting inhibition. Our results predict that differential recruitment of FS and LTS inhibitory populations is essential to the observed cortical dynamics and may provide a means for amplifying the natural expression of distinct oscillations in normal cortical processing. PMID:21152338

  6. Computational Modeling of Distinct Neocortical Oscillations Driven by Cell-Type Selective Optogenetic Drive: Separable Resonant Circuits Controlled by Low-Threshold Spiking and Fast-Spiking Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Vierling-Claassen, Dorea; Cardin, Jessica A.; Moore, Christopher I.; Jones, Stephanie R.

    2010-01-01

    Selective optogenetic drive of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons (INs) leads to enhanced local field potential (LFP) power across the traditional “gamma” frequency band (20–80 Hz; Cardin et al., 2009). In contrast, drive to regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal cells enhances power at lower frequencies, with a peak at 8 Hz. The first result is consistent with previous computational studies emphasizing the role of FS and the time constant of GABAA synaptic inhibition in gamma rhythmicity. However, the same theoretical models do not typically predict low-frequency LFP enhancement with RS drive. To develop hypotheses as to how the same network can support these contrasting behaviors, we constructed a biophysically principled network model of primary somatosensory neocortex containing FS, RS, and low-threshold spiking (LTS) INs. Cells were modeled with detailed cell anatomy and physiology, multiple dendritic compartments, and included active somatic and dendritic ionic currents. Consistent with prior studies, the model demonstrated gamma resonance during FS drive, dependent on the time constant of GABAA inhibition induced by synchronous FS activity. Lower-frequency enhancement during RS drive was replicated only on inclusion of an inhibitory LTS population, whose activation was critically dependent on RS synchrony and evoked longer-lasting inhibition. Our results predict that differential recruitment of FS and LTS inhibitory populations is essential to the observed cortical dynamics and may provide a means for amplifying the natural expression of distinct oscillations in normal cortical processing. PMID:21152338

  7. Intermittent Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters Electrical Properties of Fast-Spiking Neocortical Interneurons in an Age-Dependent Fashion.

    PubMed

    Hoppenrath, Kathrin; Härtig, Wolfgang; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of human cortical excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be in part related to changed activity of inhibitory systems. Our own studies showed that intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied via rTMS to rat cortex primarily affects the parvalbumin-expressing (PV) fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), evident via a strongly reduced PV expression. We further found the iTBS effect on PV to be age-dependent since no reduction in PV could be induced before the perineuronal nets (PNNs) of FSIs start to grow around postnatal day (PD) 30. To elucidate possible iTBS-induced changes in the electrical properties of FSIs and cortical network activity during cortical critical period, we performed ex vivo-in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from pre-labeled FSIs in the current study. FSIs of verum iTBS-treated rats displayed a higher excitability than sham-treated controls at PD29-38, evident as higher rates of induced action potential firing at low current injections (100-200 pA) and a more depolarized resting membrane potential. This effect was absent in younger (PD26-28) and older animals (PD40-62). Slices of verum iTBS-treated rats further showed higher rates of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Based on these and previous findings we conclude that FSIs are particularly sensitive to TBS during early cortical development, when FSIs show an activity-driven step of maturation which is paralleled by intense growth of the PNNs and subsequent closure of the cortical critical period. Although to be proven further, rTMS may be a possible early intervention to compensate for hypo-activity related mal-development of cortical neuronal circuits. PMID:27065812

  8. Intermittent Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters Electrical Properties of Fast-Spiking Neocortical Interneurons in an Age-Dependent Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenrath, Kathrin; Härtig, Wolfgang; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of human cortical excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be in part related to changed activity of inhibitory systems. Our own studies showed that intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied via rTMS to rat cortex primarily affects the parvalbumin-expressing (PV) fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), evident via a strongly reduced PV expression. We further found the iTBS effect on PV to be age-dependent since no reduction in PV could be induced before the perineuronal nets (PNNs) of FSIs start to grow around postnatal day (PD) 30. To elucidate possible iTBS-induced changes in the electrical properties of FSIs and cortical network activity during cortical critical period, we performed ex vivo—in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from pre-labeled FSIs in the current study. FSIs of verum iTBS-treated rats displayed a higher excitability than sham-treated controls at PD29–38, evident as higher rates of induced action potential firing at low current injections (100–200 pA) and a more depolarized resting membrane potential. This effect was absent in younger (PD26–28) and older animals (PD40–62). Slices of verum iTBS-treated rats further showed higher rates of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Based on these and previous findings we conclude that FSIs are particularly sensitive to TBS during early cortical development, when FSIs show an activity-driven step of maturation which is paralleled by intense growth of the PNNs and subsequent closure of the cortical critical period. Although to be proven further, rTMS may be a possible early intervention to compensate for hypo-activity related mal-development of cortical neuronal circuits. PMID:27065812

  9. Postnatal down-regulation of the GABAA receptor γ2 subunit in neocortical NG2 cells accompanies synaptic-to-extrasynaptic switch in the GABAergic transmission mode.

    PubMed

    Balia, Maddalena; Vélez-Fort, Mateo; Passlick, Stefan; Schäfer, Christoph; Audinat, Etienne; Steinhäuser, Christian; Seifert, Gerald; Angulo, María Cecilia

    2015-04-01

    NG2 cells, a main pool of glial progenitors, express γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptors (GABA(A)Rs), the functional and molecular properties of which are largely unknown. We recently reported that transmission between GABAergic interneurons and NG2 cells drastically changes during development of the somatosensory cortex, switching from synaptic to extrasynaptic communication. Since synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A)Rs of neurons differ in their subunit composition, we hypothesize that GABA(A)Rs of NG2 cells undergo molecular changes during cortical development accompanying the switch of transmission modes. Single-cell RT-PCR and the effects of zolpidem and α5IA on evoked GABAergic currents reveal the predominance of functional α1- and α5-containing GABA(A)Rs at interneuron-NG2 cell synapses in the second postnatal week, while the α5 expression declines later in development when responses are exclusively extrasynaptic. Importantly, pharmacological and molecular analyses demonstrate that γ2, a subunit contributing to the clustering of GABA(A)Rs at postsynaptic sites in neurons, is down-regulated in NG2 cells in a cell type-specific manner in concomitance with the decline of synaptic activity and the switch of transmission mode. In keeping with the synaptic nature of γ2 in neurons, the down-regulation of this subunit is an important molecular hallmark of the change of transmission modes between interneurons and NG2 cells during development. PMID:24217990

  10. Fast-spiking interneurons have an initial orientation bias that is lost with vision

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlman, Sandra J.; Tring, Elaine; Trachtenberg, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    We find that following eye opening fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in mice have well-defined orientation tuning preferences and that subsequent visual experience broadens this tuning. Broad inhibitory tuning is not required for the developmental sharpening of excitatory tuning, but does precede binocular matching of orientation tuning. We propose that the experience-dependent broadening of inhibition is a novel candidate for opening the critical period. PMID:21750548

  11. Firing regulation of fast-spiking interneurons by autaptic inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Daqing; Chen, Mingming; Perc, Matjaž; Wu, Shengdun; Xia, Chuan; Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-05-01

    Fast-spiking (FS) interneurons in the brain are self-innervated by powerful inhibitory GABAergic autaptic connections. By computational modelling, we investigate how autaptic inhibition regulates the firing response of such interneurons. Our results indicate that autaptic inhibition both boosts the current threshold for action potential generation and modulates the input-output gain of FS interneurons. The autaptic transmission delay is identified as a key parameter that controls the firing patterns and determines multistability regions of FS interneurons. Furthermore, we observe that neuronal noise influences the firing regulation of FS interneurons by autaptic inhibition and extends their dynamic range for encoding inputs. Importantly, autaptic inhibition modulates noise-induced irregular firing of FS interneurons, such that coherent firing appears at an optimal autaptic inhibition level. Our results reveal the functional roles of autaptic inhibition in taming the firing dynamics of FS interneurons.

  12. Gamma-range synchronization of fast-spiking interneurons can enhance detection of tactile stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Siegle, Joshua H.; Pritchett, Dominique L.; Moore, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the sensory impact of repeated synchronization of fast-spiking interneurons (FS), an activity pattern thought to underlie neocortical gamma oscillations. We optogenetically drove “FS-gamma” while mice detected naturalistic vibrissal stimuli and found enhanced detection of less salient stimuli and impaired detection of more salient ones. Prior studies have predicted that the benefit of FS-gamma is generated when sensory neocortical excitation arrives in a specific temporal window 20-25 ms after FS synchronization. To systematically test this prediction, we aligned periodic tactile and optogenetic stimulation. We found that the detection of less salient stimuli was improved only when peripheral drive led to the arrival of excitation 20-25 ms after synchronization and that other temporal alignments either had no effects or impaired detection. These results provide causal evidence that FS-gamma can enhance processing of less salient stimuli, those that benefit from the allocation of attention. PMID:25151266

  13. Glutamatergic or GABAergic neuron-specific, long-term expression in neocortical neurons from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors containing the phosphate-activated glutaminase, vesicular glutamate transporter-1, or glutamic acid decarboxylase promoter

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Morten; Kong, Lingxin; Zhang, Guo-rong; Liu, Meng; Wang, Xiaodan; Szabo, Gabor; Curthoys, Norman P.; Geller, Alfred I.

    2009-01-01

    Many potential uses of direct gene transfer into neurons require restricting expression to one of the two major types of forebrain neurons, glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons. Thus, it is desirable to develop virus vectors that contain either a glutamatergic or GABAergic neuron-specific promoter. The brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG), the product of the GLS1 gene, produces the majority of the glutamate for release as neurotransmitter, and is a marker for glutamatergic neurons. A PAG promoter was partially characterized using a cultured kidney cell line. The three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are expressed in distinct populations of neurons, and VGLUT1 is the predominant VGLUT in the neocortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) produces GABA; the two molecular forms of the enzyme, GAD65 and GAD67, are expressed in distinct, but largely overlapping, groups of neurons, and GAD67 is the predominant form in the neocortex. In transgenic mice, an ∼9 kb fragment of the GAD67 promoter supports expression in most classes of GABAergic neurons. Here, we constructed plasmid (amplicon) Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vectors that placed the Lac Z gene under the regulation of putative PAG, VGLUT1, or GAD67 promoters. Helper virus-free vector stocks were delivered into postrhinal cortex, and the rats were sacrificed 4 days or 2 months later. The PAG or VGLUT1 promoters supported ∼90 % glutamatergic neuron-specific expression. The GAD67 promoter supported ∼90 % GABAergic neuron-specific expression. Long-term expression was observed using each promoter. Principles for obtaining long-term expression from HSV-1 vectors, based on these and other results, are discussed. Long-term glutamatergic or GABAergic neuron-specific expression may benefit specific experiments on learning or specific gene therapy approaches. Of note, promoter analyses might identify regulatory elements that determine a glutamatergic or GABAergic

  14. Hippocampal Theta Modulation of Neocortical Spike Times and Gamma Rhythm: A Biophysical Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Spaak, Eelke; Zeitler, Magteld; Gielen, Stan

    2012-01-01

    The hippocampal theta and neocortical gamma rhythms are two prominent examples of oscillatory neuronal activity. The hippocampus has often been hypothesized to influence neocortical networks by its theta rhythm, and, recently, evidence for such a direct influence has been found. We examined a possible mechanism for this influence by means of a biophysical model study using conductance-based model neurons. We found, in agreement with previous studies, that networks of fast-spiking GABA -ergic interneurons, coupled with shunting inhibition, synchronize their spike activity at a gamma frequency and are able to impose this rhythm on a network of pyramidal cells to which they are coupled. When our model was supplied with hippocampal theta-modulated input fibres, the theta rhythm biased the spike timings of both the fast-spiking and pyramidal cells. Furthermore, both the amplitude and frequency of local field potential gamma oscillations were influenced by the phase of the theta rhythm. We show that the fast-spiking cells, not pyramidal cells, are essential for this latter phenomenon, thus highlighting their crucial role in the interplay between hippocampus and neocortex. PMID:23056213

  15. GABAergic Interneurons in the Neocortex: From Cellular Properties to Circuits.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Robin; Lee, Soohyun; Rudy, Bernardo

    2016-07-20

    Cortical networks are composed of glutamatergic excitatory projection neurons and local GABAergic inhibitory interneurons that gate signal flow and sculpt network dynamics. Although they represent a minority of the total neocortical neuronal population, GABAergic interneurons are highly heterogeneous, forming functional classes based on their morphological, electrophysiological, and molecular features, as well as connectivity and in vivo patterns of activity. Here we review our current understanding of neocortical interneuron diversity and the properties that distinguish cell types. We then discuss how the involvement of multiple cell types, each with a specific set of cellular properties, plays a crucial role in diversifying and increasing the computational power of a relatively small number of simple circuit motifs forming cortical networks. We illustrate how recent advances in the field have shed light onto the mechanisms by which GABAergic inhibition contributes to network operations. PMID:27477017

  16. Perineuronal Nets Enhance the Excitability of Fast-Spiking Neurons.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Timothy S

    2016-01-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized complexes of extracellular matrix molecules that surround the somata of fast-spiking neurons throughout the vertebrate brain. PNNs are particularly prevalent throughout the auditory brainstem, which transmits signals with high speed and precision. It is unknown whether PNNs contribute to the fast-spiking ability of the neurons they surround. Whole-cell recordings were made from medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) principal neurons in acute brain slices from postnatal day 21 (P21) to P27 mice. PNNs were degraded by incubating slices in chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) and were compared to slices that were treated with a control enzyme (penicillinase). ChABC treatment did not affect the ability of MNTB neurons to fire at up to 1000 Hz when driven by current pulses. However, f-I (frequency-intensity) curves constructed by injecting Gaussian white noise currents superimposed on DC current steps showed that ChABC treatment reduced the gain of spike output. An increase in spike threshold may have contributed to this effect, which is consistent with the observation that spikes in ChABC-treated cells were delayed relative to control-treated cells. In addition, parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking cortical neurons in >P70 slices that were treated with ChABC also had reduced excitability and gain. The development of PNNs around somata of fast-spiking neurons may be essential for fast and precise sensory transmission and synaptic inhibition in the brain. PMID:27570824

  17. Perineuronal Nets Enhance the Excitability of Fast-Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized complexes of extracellular matrix molecules that surround the somata of fast-spiking neurons throughout the vertebrate brain. PNNs are particularly prevalent throughout the auditory brainstem, which transmits signals with high speed and precision. It is unknown whether PNNs contribute to the fast-spiking ability of the neurons they surround. Whole-cell recordings were made from medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) principal neurons in acute brain slices from postnatal day 21 (P21) to P27 mice. PNNs were degraded by incubating slices in chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) and were compared to slices that were treated with a control enzyme (penicillinase). ChABC treatment did not affect the ability of MNTB neurons to fire at up to 1000 Hz when driven by current pulses. However, f–I (frequency–intensity) curves constructed by injecting Gaussian white noise currents superimposed on DC current steps showed that ChABC treatment reduced the gain of spike output. An increase in spike threshold may have contributed to this effect, which is consistent with the observation that spikes in ChABC-treated cells were delayed relative to control-treated cells. In addition, parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking cortical neurons in >P70 slices that were treated with ChABC also had reduced excitability and gain. The development of PNNs around somata of fast-spiking neurons may be essential for fast and precise sensory transmission and synaptic inhibition in the brain. PMID:27570824

  18. Dynamics of action potential firing in electrically connected striatal fast-spiking interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Giovanni; Nieus, Thierry R.; Maggi, Silvia; Taverna, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) play a central role in organizing the output of striatal neural circuits, yet functional interactions between these cells are still largely unknown. Here we investigated the interplay of action potential (AP) firing between electrically connected pairs of identified FSIs in mouse striatal slices. In addition to a loose coordination of firing activity mediated by membrane potential coupling, gap junctions (GJ) induced a frequency-dependent inhibition of spike discharge in coupled cells. At relatively low firing rates (2–20 Hz), some APs were tightly synchronized whereas others were inhibited. However, burst firing at intermediate frequencies (25–60 Hz) mostly induced spike inhibition, while at frequencies >50–60 Hz FSI pairs tended to synchronize. Spike silencing occurred even in the absence of GABAergic synapses or persisted after a complete block of GABAA receptors. Pharmacological suppression of presynaptic spike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) caused postsynaptic spikelets to become more prone to trigger spikes at near-threshold potentials, leading to a mostly synchronous firing activity. The complex pattern of functional coordination mediated by GJ endows FSIs with peculiar dynamic properties that may be critical in controlling striatal-dependent behavior. PMID:24294191

  19. Characteristics of fast-spiking neurons in the striatum of behaving monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Hori, Yukiko; Pan, Xiaochuan; Matsuzaki, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Kae; Samejima, Kazuyuki; Shidara, Munetaka; Kimura, Minoru; Sakagami, Masamichi; Minamimoto, Takafumi

    2016-04-01

    Inhibitory interneurons are the fundamental constituents of neural circuits that organize network outputs. The striatum as part of the basal ganglia is involved in reward-directed behaviors. However, the role of the inhibitory interneurons in this process remains unclear, especially in behaving monkeys. We recorded the striatal single neuron activity while monkeys performed reward-directed hand or eye movements. Presumed parvalbumin-containing GABAergic interneurons (fast-spiking neurons, FSNs) were identified based on narrow spike shapes in three independent experiments, though they were a small population (4.2%, 42/997). We found that FSNs are characterized by high-frequency and less-bursty discharges, which are distinct from the basic firing properties of the presumed projection neurons (phasically active neurons, PANs). Besides, the encoded information regarding actions and outcomes was similar between FSNs and PANs in terms of proportion of neurons, but the discharge selectivity was higher in PANs than that of FSNs. The coding of actions and outcomes in FSNs and PANs was consistently observed under various behavioral contexts in distinct parts of the striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, and anterior striatum). Our results suggest that FSNs may enhance the discharge selectivity of postsynaptic output neurons (PANs) in encoding crucial variables for a reward-directed behavior. PMID:26477717

  20. Dopamine modulation of GABAergic function enables network stability and input selectivity for sustaining working memory in a computational model of the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Lew, Sergio E; Tseng, Kuei Y

    2014-12-01

    Dopamine modulation of GABAergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to be critical for sustaining cognitive processes such as working memory and decision-making. Here, we developed a neurocomputational model of the PFC that includes physiological features of the facilitatory action of dopamine on fast-spiking interneurons to assess how a GABAergic dysregulation impacts on the prefrontal network stability and working memory. We found that a particular non-linear relationship between dopamine transmission and GABA function is required to enable input selectivity in the PFC for the formation and retention of working memory. Either degradation of the dopamine signal or the GABAergic function is sufficient to elicit hyperexcitability in pyramidal neurons and working memory impairments. The simulations also revealed an inverted U-shape relationship between working memory and dopamine, a function that is maintained even at high levels of GABA degradation. In fact, the working memory deficits resulting from reduced GABAergic transmission can be rescued by increasing dopamine tone and vice versa. We also examined the role of this dopamine-GABA interaction for the termination of working memory and found that the extent of GABAergic excitation needed to reset the PFC network begins to occur when the activity of fast-spiking interneurons surpasses 40 Hz. Together, these results indicate that the capability of the PFC to sustain working memory and network stability depends on a robust interplay of compensatory mechanisms between dopamine tone and the activity of local GABAergic interneurons. PMID:24975022

  1. Synchronization of Firing in Cortical Fast-Spiking Interneurons at Gamma Frequencies: A Phase-Resetting Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsumoto, Kunichika; Tateno, Takashi; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Robinson, Hugh P. C.

    2010-01-01

    Fast-spiking (FS) cells in the neocortex are interconnected both by inhibitory chemical synapses and by electrical synapses, or gap-junctions. Synchronized firing of FS neurons is important in the generation of gamma oscillations, at frequencies between 30 and 80 Hz. To understand how these synaptic interactions control synchronization, artificial synaptic conductances were injected in FS cells, and the synaptic phase-resetting function (SPRF), describing how the compound synaptic input perturbs the phase of gamma-frequency spiking as a function of the phase at which it is applied, was measured. GABAergic and gap junctional conductances made distinct contributions to the SPRF, which had a surprisingly simple piecewise linear form, with a sharp midcycle break between phase delay and advance. Analysis of the SPRF showed how the intrinsic biophysical properties of FS neurons and their interconnections allow entrainment of firing over a wide gamma frequency band, whose upper and lower frequency limits are controlled by electrical synapses and GABAergic inhibition respectively. PMID:20941393

  2. Rapid Developmental Maturation of Neocortical FS Cell Intrinsic Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyo-Young; Kruglikov, Ilya; Tremblay, Robin; Lazarenko, Roman M.

    2011-01-01

    Fast-spiking (FS) cells are a prominent subtype of neocortical γ-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons that mediate feed-forward inhibition and the temporal sculpting of information transfer in neural circuits, maintain excitation/inhibition balance, and contribute to network oscillations. FS cell dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of disorders such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. Mature FS cells exhibit coordinated molecular and cellular specializations that facilitate rapid responsiveness, including brief spikes and sustained high-frequency discharge. We show that these features appear during the second and third postnatal weeks driven by upregulation of K+ channel subunits of the Kv3 subfamily. The low membrane resistance and fast time constant characteristic of FS cells also appears during this time, driven by expression of a K+ leak current mediated by Kir2 subfamily inward rectifier K+ channels and TASK subfamily 2-pore K+ channels. Blockade of this leak produces dramatic depolarization of FS cells suggesting the possibility for potent neuromodulation. Finally, the frequency of FS cell membrane potential oscillations increases during development and is markedly slower in TASK-1/3 knockout mice, suggesting that TASK channels regulate FS cell rhythmogenesis. Our findings imply that some of the effects of acidosis and/or anesthetics on brain function may be due to blockade of TASK channels in FS cells. PMID:20705896

  3. A Transient Translaminar GABAergic Interneuron Circuit Connects Thalamocortical Recipient Layers in Neonatal Somatosensory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Marques-Smith, Andre; Lyngholm, Daniel; Kaufmann, Anna-Kristin; Stacey, Jacqueline A; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Becker, Esther B E; Wilson, Michael C; Molnár, Zoltán; Butt, Simon J B

    2016-02-01

    GABAergic activity is thought to influence developing neocortical sensory circuits. Yet the late postnatal maturation of local layer (L)4 circuits suggests alternate sources of GABAergic control in nascent thalamocortical networks. We show that a population of L5b, somatostatin (SST)-positive interneuron receives early thalamic synaptic input and, using laser-scanning photostimulation, identify an early transient circuit between these cells and L4 spiny stellates (SSNs) that disappears by the end of the L4 critical period. Sensory perturbation disrupts the transition to a local GABAergic circuit, suggesting a link between translaminar and local control of SSNs. Conditional silencing of SST+ interneurons or conversely biasing the circuit toward local inhibition by overexpression of neuregulin-1 type 1 results in an absence of early L5b GABAergic input in mutants and delayed thalamic innervation of SSNs. These data identify a role for L5b SST+ interneurons in the control of SSNs in the early postnatal neocortex. PMID:26844833

  4. Revisiting the Lamotrigine-Mediated Effect on Hippocampal GABAergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Yin; Liu, Yu-Chao; Lee, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Yen-Chu; Wang, Mong-Lien; Yang, Yi-Ping; Chang, Kaung-Yi; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Lamotrigine (LTG) is generally considered as a voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel blocker. However, recent studies suggest that LTG can also serve as a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel enhancer and can increase the excitability of GABAergic interneurons (INs). Perisomatic inhibitory INs, predominantly fast-spiking basket cells (BCs), powerfully inhibit granule cells (GCs) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Notably, BCs express abundant Nav channels and HCN channels, both of which are able to support sustained action potential generation. Using whole-cell recording in rat hippocampal slices, we investigated the net LTG effect on BC output. We showed that bath application of LTG significantly decreased the amplitude of evoked compound inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in GCs. In contrast, simultaneous paired recordings from BCs to GCs showed that LTG had no effect on both the amplitude and the paired-pulse ratio of the unitary IPSCs, suggesting that LTG did not affect GABA release, though it suppressed cell excitability. In line with this, LTG decreased spontaneous IPSC (sIPSC) frequency, but not miniature IPSC frequency. When re-examining the LTG effect on GABAergic transmission in the cornus ammonis region 1 (CA1) area, we found that LTG markedly inhibits both the excitability of dendrite-targeting INs in the stratum oriens and the concurrent sIPSCs recorded on their targeting pyramidal cells (PCs) without significant hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) enhancement. In summary, LTG has no effect on augmenting Ih in GABAergic INs and does not promote GABAergic inhibitory output. The antiepileptic effect of LTG is likely through Nav channel inhibition and the suppression of global neuronal network activity. PMID:27455251

  5. GABA Regulates the Multidirectional Tangential Migration of GABAergic Interneurons in Living Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Miho; Uchida, Taku; Ishibashi, Hitoshi; Wake, Hiroaki; Nemoto, Tomomi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Fukuda, Atsuo; Nabekura, Junichi

    2011-01-01

    Cortical GABAergic interneurons originate from ganglionic eminences and tangentially migrate into the cortical plate at early developmental stages. To elucidate the characteristics of this migration of GABAergic interneurons in living animals, we established an experimental design specialized for in vivo time-lapse imaging of the neocortex of neonate mice with two-photon laser-scanning microscopy. In vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VGAT)-Venus transgenic mice from birth (P0) through P3, we observed multidirectional tangential migration of genetically-defined GABAergic interneurons in the neocortical marginal zone. The properties of this migration, such as the motility rate (distance/hr), the direction moved, and the proportion of migrating neurons to stationary neurons, did not change through P0 to P3, although the density of GABAergic neurons at the marginal zone decreased with age. Thus, the characteristics of the tangential motility of individual GABAergic neurons remained constant in development. Pharmacological block of GABAA receptors and of the Na+-K+-Cl− cotransporters, and chelating intracellular Ca2+, all significantly reduced the motility rate in vivo. The motility rate and GABA content within the cortex of neonatal VGAT-Venus transgenic mice were significantly greater than those of GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, suggesting that extracellular GABA concentration could facilitate the multidirectional tangential migration. Indeed, diazepam applied to GAD67-GFP mice increased the motility rate substantially. In an in vitro neocortical slice preparation, we confirmed that GABA induced a NKCC sensitive depolarization of GABAergic interneurons in VGAT-Venus mice at P0-P3. Thus, activation of GABAAR by ambient GABA depolarizes GABAergic interneurons, leading to an acceleration of their multidirectional motility in vivo. PMID:22180776

  6. GABA transporters control GABAergic neurotransmission in the mouse subplate.

    PubMed

    Unichenko, P; Kirischuk, S; Luhmann, H J

    2015-09-24

    The subplate is a transient layer between the cortical plate and intermediate zone in the developing cortex. Thalamo-cortical axons form temporary synapses on subplate neurons (SPns) before invading the cortical plate. Neuronal activity within the subplate is of critical importance for the development of neocortical circuits and architecture. Although both glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs on SPns were reported, short-term plasticity of GABAergic transmission has not been investigated yet. GABAergic postsynaptic currents (GPSCs) were recorded from SPns in coronal neocortical slices prepared from postnatal day 3-4 mice using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Evoked GPSCs (eGPSCs) elicited by electrical paired-pulse stimulation demonstrated paired-pulse depression at all interstimulus intervals tested. Baclofen, a specific GABAB receptor (GABABR) agonist, reduced eGPSC amplitudes and increased paired-pulse ratio (PPR), suggesting presynaptic location of functional GABABRs. Baclofen-induced effects were alleviated by (2S)-3-[[(1S)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino-2-hydroxypropyl](phenylmethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP55845), a selective GABABR blocker. Moreover, CGP55845 increased eGPSC amplitudes and decreased PPR even under control conditions, indicating that GABABRs are tonically activated by ambient GABA. Because extracellular GABA concentration is mainly regulated by GABA transporters (GATs), we asked whether GATs release GABA. 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenylmethylene)amino]oxy]ethyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (NNC-711) (10μM), a selective GAT-1 blocker, increased eGPSC decay time, decreased eGPSC amplitudes and PPR. The two last effects but not the first one were blocked by CGP55845, indicating that GAT-1 blockade causes an elevation of extracellular GABA concentration and in turn activation of extrasynaptic GABAARs and presynaptic GABABRs. 1-[2-[tris(4-methoxyphenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-(S)-3-piperidinecarboxylic acid (SNAP-5114), a specific GAT-2/3 blocker, failed

  7. Optogenetic stimulation reveals distinct modulatory properties of thalamostriatal vs corticostriatal glutamatergic inputs to fast-spiking interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Ponterio, Giulia; Mandolesi, Georgia; Bonsi, Paola; Pisani, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Parvalbumin-containing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) exert a powerful feed-forward GABAergic inhibition on striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), playing a critical role in timing striatal output. However, how glutamatergic inputs modulate their firing activity is still unexplored. Here, by means of a combined optogenetic and electrophysiological approach, we provide evidence for a differential modulation of cortico- vs thalamo-striatal synaptic inputs to FSIs in transgenic mice carrying light-gated ion channels channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in glutamatergic fibers. Corticostriatal synapses show a postsynaptic facilitation, whereas thalamostriatal synapses present a postsynaptic depression. Moreover, thalamostriatal synapses exhibit more prominent AMPA-mediated currents than corticostriatal synapses, and an increased release probability. Furthermore, during current-evoked firing activity, simultaneous corticostriatal stimulation increases bursting activity. Conversely, thalamostriatal fiber activation shifts the canonical burst-pause activity to a more prolonged, regular firing pattern. However, this change in firing pattern was accompanied by a significant rise in the frequency of membrane potential oscillations. Notably, the responses to thalamic stimulation were fully abolished by blocking metabotropic glutamate 1 (mGlu1) receptor subtype, whereas both acetylcholine and dopamine receptor antagonists were ineffective. Our findings demonstrate that cortical and thalamic glutamatergic input differently modulate FSIs firing activity through specific intrinsic and synaptic properties, exerting a powerful influence on striatal outputs. PMID:26572101

  8. LAYER I NEOCORTICAL ECTOPIA: CELLULAR ORGANIZATION AND LOCAL CORTICAL CIRCUITRY

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Lisa Ann

    2011-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) are associated with neurological disorders and cognitive impairments in humans. Molecular layer ectopia, clusters of misplaced cells in layer I of the neocortex, have been identified in patients with developmental dyslexia and psychomotor retardation. Mouse models of this developmental disorder display behavioral impairments and increased seizure susceptibility. Although there is a correlation between cortical malformations and neurological dysfunction, little is known about the morphological and physiological properties of cells within cortical malformations. In the present study we used electrophysiological and immunocytochemical analyses to examine the distribution of neuronal and non-neuronal cell types within and surrounding layer I neocortical ectopia in NXSMD/EiJ mice. We show that cells within ectopia have membrane properties of both pyramidal and a variety of nonpyramidal cell types, including fast-spiking cells. Immunocytochemical analysis for different interneuronal subtypes demonstrates that ectopia contain nonpyramidal cells immunoreactive for calbindin-D28K (CALB), parvalbumin (PARV), and calretinin (CR). Ectopia also contain astrocytes, positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells positive for NG2 proteoglycan (NG2). Lastly, we provide electrophysiological and morphological evidence to demonstrate that cells within ectopia receive input from cells within layers I, upper and deeper II/III, and V and provide outputs to cells within deep layer II/III and layer V, but not layers I and upper II/III. These results indicate that ectopia contain cells of different lineages with diverse morphological and physiological properties, and appear to cause disruptions in local cortical circuitry. PMID:21256119

  9. Heterogeneity of phasic cholinergic signaling in neocortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Gulledge, Allan T; Park, Susanna B; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Stuart, Greg J

    2007-03-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter critical for normal cognition. Here we demonstrate heterogeneity of cholinergic signaling in neocortical neurons in the rat prefrontal, somatosensory, and visual cortex. Focal ACh application (100 muM) inhibited layer 5 pyramidal neurons in all cortical areas via activation of an apamin-sensitive SK-type calcium-activated potassium conductance. Cholinergic inhibition was most robust in prefrontal layer 5 neurons, where it relies on the same signal transduction mechanism (M1-like receptors, IP(3)-dependent calcium release, and SK-channels) as exists in somatosensory pyramidal neurons. Pyramidal neurons in layer 2/3 were less responsive to ACh, but substantial apamin-sensitive inhibitory responses occurred in deep layer 3 neurons of the visual cortex. ACh was only inhibitory when presented near the somata of layer 5 pyramidal neurons, where repetitive ACh applications generated discrete inhibitory events at frequencies of up to approximately 0.5 Hz. Fast-spiking (FS) nonpyramidal neurons in all cortical areas were unresponsive to ACh. When applied to non-FS interneurons in layers 2/3 and 5, ACh generated mecamylamine-sensitive nicotinic responses (38% of cells), apamin-insensitive hyperpolarizing responses, with or without initial nicotinic depolarization (7% of neurons), or no response at all (55% of cells). Responses in interneurons were similar across cortical layers and regions but were correlated with cellular physiology and the expression of biochemical markers associated with different classes of nonpyramidal neurons. Finally, ACh generated nicotinic responses in all layer 1 neurons tested. These data demonstrate that phasic cholinergic input can directly inhibit projection neurons throughout the cortex while sculpting intracortical processing, especially in superficial layers. PMID:17122323

  10. [Neurons with Different Neurotransmitters in Embryonic Neocortical Allografts in the Rat Sciatic Nerve].

    PubMed

    Petrova, E S

    2016-01-01

    Different subsets of interneurons in the Wistar rat neocortex and in neocortical transplants developing in a damaged nerve were identified by the following immunohistochemical markers: glutamate decarboxylase (GAD 67) for GABAergic nerve cells, NO-synthase (NOS) for NO-ergic neurons, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) for cholinergic cells, and tyrosine hydroxylase for catecholaminergic structures. Twenty-eight days after surgery, individual GAD 67-ir, NO-ir, ChAT-ir, and very rarely TH-ir cells were detected in the graft. It was shown that the number of GAD 67-ir neurons per unit area in the grafts was less than in the rat neocortex P20. PMID:27396173

  11. NEOBASE: databasing the neocortical microcircuit.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Asif Jan; Markram, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Mammals adapt to a rapidly changing world because of the sophisticated perceptual and cognitive function enabled by the neocortex. The neocortex, which has expanded to constitute nearly 80% of the human brain seems to have arisen from repeated duplication of a stereotypical template of neurons and synaptic circuits with subtle specializations in different brain regions and species. Determining the design and function of this microcircuitry is therefore of paramount importance to understanding normal and abnormal higher brain function. Recent advances in recording synaptically-coupled neurons has allowed rapid dissection of the neocortical microcircuitry thus yielding a massive amount of quantitative anatomical, electrical and gene expression data on the neurons and the synaptic circuits that connect the neurons. Due to the availability of the above mentioned data, it has now become imperative to database the neurons of the microcircuit and their synaptic connections. The NEOBASE project, aims to archive the neocortical microcircuit data in a manner that facilitates development of advanced data mining applications, statistical and bioinformatics analyses tools, custom microcircuit builders, and visualization and simulation applications. The database architecture is based on ROOT, a software environment that allows the construction of an object oriented database with numerous relational capabilities. The proposed architecture allows construction of a database that closely mimics the architecture of the real microcircuit, which facilitates the interface with virtually any application, allows for data format evolution, and aims for full interoperability with other databases. NEOBASE will provide an important resource and research tool for studying the microcircuit basis of normal and abnormal neocortical function. The database will be available to local as well as remote users using Grid based tools and technologies. PMID:15923726

  12. Stimulation of α1-adrenoceptors facilitates GABAergic transmission onto pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Luo, F; Tang, H; Cheng, Z-Y

    2015-08-01

    Whereas activation of α1-adrenoceptors (α1-ARs) modulates glutamatergic transmission, the roles of α1-ARs in GABAergic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are elusive. Here, we examined the effects of the α1-AR agonist phenylephrine (Phe) on GABAergic transmission onto pyramidal neurons in the deep layers of the mPFC. We found that bath application of Phe dose-dependently increased the amplitude of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs). Phe increased the frequency but not the amplitude of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). Ca(2+) influx through T-type voltage-gated calcium channels is required for Phe-induced increases in GABA release. Phe increases GABA release probability and the number of releasable vesicles. Phe depolarizes the fast-spiking (FS) interneurons without effects on the firing rate of action potentials (APs) of interneurons. Phe-induced depolarization is independent of extracellular Na(+), Ca(2+) and T-type calcium channels, but requires inward rectifier K(+) channels (Kirs). The present study demonstrates that Phe enhances GABAergic transmission onto mPFC pyramidal neurons through inhibiting interneurons Kirs, which further depolarizes interneurons leading to increase in Ca(2+) influx via T-type calcium channels. Our results may provide a cellular and molecular mechanism that helps explain α1-AR-induced PFC dysfunction. PMID:25943480

  13. Functional properties and short-term dynamics of unidirectional and reciprocal synaptic connections between layer 2/3 pyramidal cells and fast-spiking interneurons in juvenile rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zaitsev, A.V.; Lewis, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between inhibitory fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and excitatory pyramidal neurons contribute to the fundamental properties of cortical networks. An important role for FS interneurons in mediating rapid inhibition in local sensory and motor cortex microcircuits and processing thalamic inputs to the cortex has been shown in multiple reports; however, studies in the prefrontal cortex, a key neocortical region supporting working memory, are less numerous. In the present work, connections between layer 2/3 pyramidal cells and FS interneurons were studied with paired whole-cell recordings in acute neocortical slices of the medial prefrontal cortex from juvenile rats. The connection rate between FS interneurons and pyramidal neurons was about 40% in each direction with 16% of pairs connected reciprocally. Excitatory and inhibitory connections had a high efficacy and a low neurotransmission failure rate. Sustained presynaptic activity decreased the amplitude of responses and increased the failure rate more in excitatory connections than in inhibitory connections. In the reciprocal connections between the FS and pyramidal neurons, inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission was more efficient and had a lower failure rate than in the unidirectional connections; the differences increased during the train stimulation. These results suggest the presence of distinct preferential subnetworks between FS interneurons and pyramidal cells in the rat prefrontal cortex that might be specific for this cortical area. PMID:23834038

  14. Mechanisms of Firing Patterns in Fast-Spiking Cortical Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, David; Donner, Karnit; Shacham, Liron; Shlosberg, Dan; Amitai, Yael; Hansel, David

    2007-01-01

    Cortical fast-spiking (FS) interneurons display highly variable electrophysiological properties. Their spike responses to step currents occur almost immediately following the step onset or after a substantial delay, during which subthreshold oscillations are frequently observed. Their firing patterns include high-frequency tonic firing and rhythmic or irregular bursting (stuttering). What is the origin of this variability? In the present paper, we hypothesize that it emerges naturally if one assumes a continuous distribution of properties in a small set of active channels. To test this hypothesis, we construct a minimal, single-compartment conductance-based model of FS cells that includes transient Na+, delayed-rectifier K+, and slowly inactivating d-type K+ conductances. The model is analyzed using nonlinear dynamical system theory. For small Na+ window current, the neuron exhibits high-frequency tonic firing. At current threshold, the spike response is almost instantaneous for small d-current conductance, gd, and it is delayed for larger gd. As gd further increases, the neuron stutters. Noise substantially reduces the delay duration and induces subthreshold oscillations. In contrast, when the Na+ window current is large, the neuron always fires tonically. Near threshold, the firing rates are low, and the delay to firing is only weakly sensitive to noise; subthreshold oscillations are not observed. We propose that the variability in the response of cortical FS neurons is a consequence of heterogeneities in their gd and in the strength of their Na+ window current. We predict the existence of two types of firing patterns in FS neurons, differing in the sensitivity of the delay duration to noise, in the minimal firing rate of the tonic discharge, and in the existence of subthreshold oscillations. We report experimental results from intracellular recordings supporting this prediction. PMID:17696606

  15. Cortical GABAergic excitation contributes to epileptic activities around human glioma

    PubMed Central

    Pallud, Johan; Varlet, Pascale; Cresto, Noemie; Baulac, Michel; Duyckaerts, Charles; Kourdougli, Nazim; Chazal, Geneviève; Devaux, Bertrand; Rivera, Claudio; Miles, Richard; Capelle, Laurent; Huberfeld, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Diffuse brain gliomas induce seizures in a majority of patients. As in most epileptic disorders, excitatory glutamatergic mechanisms are involved in the generation of epileptic activities in the neocortex surrounding gliomas. However, chloride homeostasis is known to be perturbed in glial tumor cells. Thus the contribution of GABAergic mechanisms which depend on intracellular chloride and which are defective or pro-epileptic in other structural epilepsies merits closer study. Objective We studied in neocortical slices from the peritumoral security margin resected around human brain gliomas, the occurrence, networks, cells and signaling basis of epileptic activities. Results Postoperative glioma tissue from 69% of patients spontaneously generated interictal-like discharges. These events were synchronized, with a high frequency oscillation signature, in superficial layers of neocortex around glioma areas with tumor infiltration. Interictal-like events depended on both glutamatergic transmission and on depolarizing GABAergic signaling. About 65% of pyramidal cells were depolarized by GABA released by interneurons. This effect was related to perturbations in Chloride homeostasis, due to changes in expression of chloride co-transporters: KCC2 was reduced and expression of NKCC1 increased. Ictal-like activities were initiated by convulsant stimuli exclusively in these epileptogenic areas. Conclusions Epileptic activities are sustained by excitatory effects of GABA in the peritumoral human neocortex, as in temporal lobe epilepsies. Glutamate and GABA signaling are involved in oncogenesis and chloride homeostasis is perturbed. These same factors, induce an imbalance between synaptic excitatory and inhibition underly epileptic discharges in tumor patients. PMID:25009229

  16. Taurine activates GABAergic networks in the neocortex of immature mice

    PubMed Central

    Sava, Bogdan A.; Chen, Rongqing; Sun, Haiyan; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that taurine is the main endogenous neurotransmitter acting on glycine receptors, the implications of glycine receptor-mediated taurine actions on immature neocortical networks have not been addressed yet. To investigate the influence of taurine on the excitability of neuronal networks in the immature neocortex, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from visually identified pyramidal neurons and interneurons in coronal slices from C57Bl/6 and GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice (postnatal days 2–4). In 46% of the pyramidal neurons bath-application of taurine at concentrations ≥ 300 μM significantly enhanced the frequency of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) by 744.3 ± 93.8% (n = 120 cells). This taurine-induced increase of PSC frequency was abolished by 0.2 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX), 1 μM strychnine or 3 μM gabazine, but was unaffected by the glutamatergic antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and (±) R(-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), suggesting that taurine specifically activates GABAergic network activity projecting to pyramidal neurons. Cell-attached recordings revealed that taurine enhanced the frequency of action potentials (APs) in pyramidal neurons, indicating an excitatory action of the GABAergic PSCs. In order to identify the presynaptic targets of taurine we demonstrate that bath application of taurine induced in GAD67-GFP labeled interneurons an inward current that is mainly mediated by glycine receptors and can generate APs in these cells. We conclude from these results that taurine can enhance network excitability in the immature neocortex by selectively activating GABAergic interneurons via interactions with glycine receptors. PMID:24550782

  17. The neocortical circuit: themes and variations

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kenneth D.; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Similarities in neocortical circuit organization across areas and species suggest a common strategy to process diverse types of information, including sensation from diverse modalities, motor control, and higher cognitive processes. Cortical neurons belong to a small number of major classes. The properties of these classes are remarkably similar between areas, including their local and long-range connectivity, developmental history, gene expression, intrinsic physiology, and in vivo activity patterns. Each class contains multiple subclasses; for a rapidly growing number of these, conserved patterns of input and output connections are also becoming evident. The ensemble of circuit connections constitutes a basic circuit pattern that appears to be repeated across neocortical areas, with area- and species-specific modifications. Such “serially homologous” organization may adapt individual neocortical regions to the type of information each must process. PMID:25622573

  18. A Transient Translaminar GABAergic Interneuron Circuit Connects Thalamocortical Recipient Layers in Neonatal Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Smith, Andre; Lyngholm, Daniel; Kaufmann, Anna-Kristin; Stacey, Jacqueline A.; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Becker, Esther B.E.; Wilson, Michael C.; Molnár, Zoltán; Butt, Simon J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary GABAergic activity is thought to influence developing neocortical sensory circuits. Yet the late postnatal maturation of local layer (L)4 circuits suggests alternate sources of GABAergic control in nascent thalamocortical networks. We show that a population of L5b, somatostatin (SST)-positive interneuron receives early thalamic synaptic input and, using laser-scanning photostimulation, identify an early transient circuit between these cells and L4 spiny stellates (SSNs) that disappears by the end of the L4 critical period. Sensory perturbation disrupts the transition to a local GABAergic circuit, suggesting a link between translaminar and local control of SSNs. Conditional silencing of SST+ interneurons or conversely biasing the circuit toward local inhibition by overexpression of neuregulin-1 type 1 results in an absence of early L5b GABAergic input in mutants and delayed thalamic innervation of SSNs. These data identify a role for L5b SST+ interneurons in the control of SSNs in the early postnatal neocortex. PMID:26844833

  19. Neocortical calretinin neurons in primates: increase in proportion and microcircuitry structure

    PubMed Central

    Džaja, Domagoj; Hladnik, Ana; Bičanić, Ivana; Baković, Marija; Petanjek, Zdravko

    2014-01-01

    In this article we first point at the expansion of associative cortical areas in primates, as well as at the intrinsic changes in the structure of the cortical column. There is a huge increase in proportion of glutamatergic cortical projecting neurons located in the upper cortical layers (II/III). Inside this group, a novel class of associative neurons becomes recognized for its growing necessity in both inter-areal and intra-areal columnar integration. Equally important to the changes in glutamatergic population, we found that literature data suggest a 50% increase in the proportion of neocortical GABAergic neurons between primates and rodents. This seems to be a result of increase in proportion of calretinin interneurons in layers II/III, population which in associative areas represents 15% of all neurons forming those layers. Evaluating data about functional properties of their connectivity we hypothesize that such an increase in proportion of calretinin interneurons might lead to supra-linear growth in memory capacity of the associative neocortical network. An open question is whether there are some new calretinin interneuron subtypes, which might substantially change micro-circuitry structure of the primate cerebral cortex. PMID:25309344

  20. An in vitro model of human neocortical development using pluripotent stem cells: cocaine-induced cytoarchitectural alterations

    PubMed Central

    Kindberg, Abigail A.; Bendriem, Raphael M.; Spivak, Charles E.; Chen, Jia; Handreck, Annelie; Lupica, Carl R.; Liu, Jinny; Freed, William J.; Lee, Chun-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Neocortical development involves ordered specification of forebrain cortical progenitors to various neuronal subtypes, ultimately forming the layered cortical structure. Modeling of this process using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) would enable mechanistic studies of human neocortical development, while providing new avenues for exploration of developmental neocortical abnormalities. Here, we show that preserving hPSCs aggregates – allowing embryoid body formation – while adding basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) during neuroepithelial development generates neural rosettes showing dorsal forebrain identity, including Mash1+ dorsal telencephalic GABAergic progenitors. Structures that mirrored the organization of the cerebral cortex formed after rosettes were seeded and cultured for 3 weeks in the presence of FGF18, BDNF and NT3. Neurons migrated along radial glia scaffolding, with deep-layer CTIP2+ cortical neurons appearing after 1 week and upper-layer SATB2+ cortical neurons forming during the second and third weeks. At the end of differentiation, these structures contained both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, with glutamatergic neurons being most abundant. Thus, this differentiation protocol generated an hPSC-based model that exhibits temporal patterning and a neuronal subtype ratio similar to that of the developing human neocortex. This model was used to examine the effects of cocaine during neocorticogenesis. Cocaine caused premature neuronal differentiation and enhanced neurogenesis of various cortical neuronal subtypes. These cocaine-induced changes were inhibited by the cytochrome P450 inhibitor cimetidine. This in vitro model enables mechanistic studies of neocorticogenesis, and can be used to examine the mechanisms through which cocaine alters the development of the human neocortex. PMID:25288682

  1. An in vitro model of human neocortical development using pluripotent stem cells: cocaine-induced cytoarchitectural alterations.

    PubMed

    Kindberg, Abigail A; Bendriem, Raphael M; Spivak, Charles E; Chen, Jia; Handreck, Annelie; Lupica, Carl R; Liu, Jinny; Freed, William J; Lee, Chun-Ting

    2014-12-01

    Neocortical development involves ordered specification of forebrain cortical progenitors to various neuronal subtypes, ultimately forming the layered cortical structure. Modeling of this process using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) would enable mechanistic studies of human neocortical development, while providing new avenues for exploration of developmental neocortical abnormalities. Here, we show that preserving hPSCs aggregates - allowing embryoid body formation - while adding basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) during neuroepithelial development generates neural rosettes showing dorsal forebrain identity, including Mash1(+) dorsal telencephalic GABAergic progenitors. Structures that mirrored the organization of the cerebral cortex formed after rosettes were seeded and cultured for 3 weeks in the presence of FGF18, BDNF and NT3. Neurons migrated along radial glia scaffolding, with deep-layer CTIP2(+) cortical neurons appearing after 1 week and upper-layer SATB2(+) cortical neurons forming during the second and third weeks. At the end of differentiation, these structures contained both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, with glutamatergic neurons being most abundant. Thus, this differentiation protocol generated an hPSC-based model that exhibits temporal patterning and a neuronal subtype ratio similar to that of the developing human neocortex. This model was used to examine the effects of cocaine during neocorticogenesis. Cocaine caused premature neuronal differentiation and enhanced neurogenesis of various cortical neuronal subtypes. These cocaine-induced changes were inhibited by the cytochrome P450 inhibitor cimetidine. This in vitro model enables mechanistic studies of neocorticogenesis, and can be used to examine the mechanisms through which cocaine alters the development of the human neocortex. PMID:25288682

  2. Distinct Defects in Synaptic Differentiation of Neocortical Neurons in Response to Prenatal Valproate Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Yoko; Behr, Katharina; Iijima, Takatoshi; Biemans, Barbara; Bischofberger, Josef; Scheiffele, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in social interactions and stereotyped behaviors. Valproic acid (VPA) is frequently used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorders. When taken during pregnancy, VPA increases the risk of the unborn child to develop an ASD. In rodents, in utero VPA exposure can precipitate behavioral phenotypes related to ASD in the offspring. Therefore, such rodent models may allow for identification of synaptic pathophysiology underlying ASD risk. Here, we systematically probed alterations in synaptic proteins that might contribute to autism-related behavior in the offspring of in utero VPA-exposed mice. Moreover, we tested whether direct VPA exposure of cultured neocortical neurons may recapitulate the molecular alterations seen in vivo. VPA-exposed neurons in culture exhibit a significant increase in the number of glutamatergic synapses accompanied by a significant decrease in the number of GABAergic synapses. This shift in excitatory/inhibitory balance results in substantially increased spontaneous activity in neuronal networks arising from VPA-exposed neurons. Pharmacological experiments demonstrate that the alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic proteins and structures are largely caused by inhibition of histone deacetylases. Therefore, our study highlights an epigenetic mechanism underlying the synaptic pathophysiology in this ASD model. PMID:27264355

  3. Distinct Defects in Synaptic Differentiation of Neocortical Neurons in Response to Prenatal Valproate Exposure.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Yoko; Behr, Katharina; Iijima, Takatoshi; Biemans, Barbara; Bischofberger, Josef; Scheiffele, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in social interactions and stereotyped behaviors. Valproic acid (VPA) is frequently used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorders. When taken during pregnancy, VPA increases the risk of the unborn child to develop an ASD. In rodents, in utero VPA exposure can precipitate behavioral phenotypes related to ASD in the offspring. Therefore, such rodent models may allow for identification of synaptic pathophysiology underlying ASD risk. Here, we systematically probed alterations in synaptic proteins that might contribute to autism-related behavior in the offspring of in utero VPA-exposed mice. Moreover, we tested whether direct VPA exposure of cultured neocortical neurons may recapitulate the molecular alterations seen in vivo. VPA-exposed neurons in culture exhibit a significant increase in the number of glutamatergic synapses accompanied by a significant decrease in the number of GABAergic synapses. This shift in excitatory/inhibitory balance results in substantially increased spontaneous activity in neuronal networks arising from VPA-exposed neurons. Pharmacological experiments demonstrate that the alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic proteins and structures are largely caused by inhibition of histone deacetylases. Therefore, our study highlights an epigenetic mechanism underlying the synaptic pathophysiology in this ASD model. PMID:27264355

  4. Accumulation of GABAergic Neurons, Causing a Focal Ambient GABA Gradient, and Downregulation of KCC2 Are Induced During Microgyrus Formation in a Mouse Model of Polymicrogyria

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianying; Kumada, Tatsuro; Morishima, Toshitaka; Iwata, Satomi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Yoshida, Sachiko; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    Although focal cortical malformations are considered neuronal migration disorders, their formation mechanisms remain unknown. We addressed how the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system affects the GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal migration underlying such malformations. A focal freeze-lesion (FFL) of the postnatal day zero (P0) glutamic acid decarboxylase–green fluorescent protein knock-in mouse neocortex produced a 3- or 4-layered microgyrus at P7. GABAergic interneurons accumulated around the necrosis including the superficial region during microgyrus formation at P4, whereas E17.5-born, Cux1-positive pyramidal neurons outlined the GABAergic neurons and were absent from the superficial layer, forming cell-dense areas in layer 2 of the P7 microgyrus. GABA imaging showed that an extracellular GABA level temporally increased in the GABAergic neuron-positive area, including the necrotic center, at P4. The expression of the Cl– transporter KCC2 was downregulated in the microgyrus-forming GABAergic and E17.5-born glutamatergic neurons at P4; these cells may need a high intracellular Cl– concentration to induce depolarizing GABA effects. Bicuculline decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations in these microgyrus-forming cells. Thus, neonatal FFL causes specific neuronal accumulation, preceded by an increase in ambient GABA during microgyrus formation. This GABA increase induces GABAA receptor-mediated Ca2+ oscillation in KCC2-downregulated microgyrus-forming cells, as seen in migrating cells during early neocortical development. PMID:23246779

  5. Extracellular Ca2+ fluctuations in vivo affect afterhyperpolarization potential and modify firing patterns of neocortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Boucetta, Sofiane; Crochet, Sylvain; Chauvette, Sylvain; Seigneur, Josée; Timofeev, Igor

    2013-07-01

    Neocortical neurons can be classified in four major electrophysiological types according to their pattern of discharge: regular-spiking (RS), intrinsically-bursting (IB), fast-rhythmic-bursting (FRB), and fast-spiking (FS). Previously, we have shown that these firing patterns are not fixed and can change as a function of membrane potential and states of vigilance. Other studies have reported that extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]o) fluctuates as a function of the phase of the cortical slow oscillation. In the present study we investigated how spontaneous and induced changes in [Ca(2+)]o affect the properties of action potentials (APs) and firing patterns in cortical neurons in vivo. Intracellular recordings were performed in cats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine during spontaneous [Ca(2+)]o fluctuation and while changing [Ca(2+)]o with reverse microdialysis. When [Ca(2+)]o fluctuated spontaneously according to the phase of the slow oscillation, we found an increase of the firing threshold and a decrease of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude during the depolarizing (active, up) phase of the slow oscillation and some neurons also changed their firing pattern as compared with the hyperpolarizing (silent, down) phase. Induced changes in [Ca(2+)]o significantly affected the AP properties in all neurons. The AHP amplitude was increased in high calcium conditions and decreased in low calcium conditions, in particular the earliest components. Modulation of spike AHP resulted in notable modulation of intrinsic firing pattern and some RS neurons revealed burst firing when [Ca(2+)]o was decreased. We also found an increase in AHP amplitude in high [Ca(2+)]o with in vitro preparation. We suggest that during spontaneous network oscillations in vivo, the dynamic changes of firing patterns depend partially on fluctuations of the [Ca(2+)]o. PMID:23262121

  6. Quantification of neocortical ratios in stem primates.

    PubMed

    Long, Adam; Bloch, Jonathan I; Silcox, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Extant euprimates (=crown primates) have a characteristically expanded neocortical region of the brain relative to that of other mammals, but the timing of that expansion in their evolutionary history is poorly resolved. Examination of anatomical landmarks on fossil endocasts of Eocene euprimates suggests that significant neocortical expansion relative to contemporaneous mammals was already underway. Here, we provide quantitative estimates of neocorticalization in stem primates (plesiadapiforms) relevant to the question of whether relative neocortical expansion was uniquely characteristic of the crown primate radiation. Ratios of neocortex to endocast surface areas were calculated for plesiadapiforms using measurements from virtual endocasts of the paromomyid Ignacius graybullianus (early Eocene, Wyoming) and the microsyopid Microsyops annectens (middle Eocene, Wyoming). These data are similar to a published estimate for the plesiadapid, Plesiadapis tricuspidens, but contrast with those calculated for early Tertiary euprimates in being within the 95% confidence intervals for archaic mammals generally. Interpretation of these values is complicated by the paucity of sampled endocasts for older stem primates and euarchontogliran outgroups, as well as by a combination of effects related to temporal trends, allometry, and taxon-unique specializations. Regardless, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that a shift in brain organization occurred in the first euprimates, likely in association with elaborations to the visual system. PMID:25693873

  7. High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Generation in Neocortical Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Greg A.; Parish, Landi; Cranstoun, Stephen D.; Jonas, Rachel; Baltuch, Gordon; Litt, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Neocortical seizures are often poorly localized, explosive and widespread at onset, making them poorly amenable to epilepsy surgery in the absence of associated focal brain lesions. We describe, for the first time in an unselected group of patients with neocortical epilepsy, the finding that high-frequency (60--100 Hz) epileptiform oscillations…

  8. Independent controls for neocortical neuron production and histogenetic cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verney, C.; Takahashi, T.; Bhide, P. G.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the proportion of cells eliminated by histogenetic cell death during the first 2 postnatal weeks in areas 1, 3 and 40 of the mouse parietal neocortex. For each layer and for the subcortical white matter in each neocortical area, the number of dying cells per mm(2) was calculated and the proportionate cell death for each day of the 2-week interval was estimated. The data show that cell death proceeds essentially uniformly across the neocortical areas and layers and that it does not follow either the spatiotemporal gradient of cell cycle progression in the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium of the cerebral wall, the source of neocortical neurons, or the 'inside-out' neocortical neuronogenetic sequence. Therefore, we infer that the control mechanisms of neocortical histogenetic cell death are independent of mechanisms controlling neuronogenesis or neuronal migration but may be associated with the ingrowth, expansion and a system-wide matching of neuronal connectivity. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Distribution and Intrinsic Membrane Properties of Basal Forebrain GABAergic and Parvalbumin Neurons in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, James T.; Yang, Chun; Franciosi, Serena; Winston, Stuart; Abarr, Kathleen K.; Rigby, Matthew S.; Yanagawa, Yuchio; McCarley, Robert W.; Brown, Ritchie E.

    2013-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) strongly regulates cortical activation, sleep homeostasis, and attention. Many BF neurons involved in these processes are GABAergic, including a subpopulation of projection neurons containing the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). However, technical difficulties in identification have prevented a precise mapping of the distribution of GABAergic and GABA/PV+ neurons in the mouse or a determination of their intrinsic membrane properties. Here we used mice expressing fluorescent proteins in GABAergic (GAD67-GFP knock-in mice) or PV+ neurons (PV-Tomato mice) to study these neurons. Immunohistochemical staining for GABA in GAD67-GFP mice confirmed that GFP selectively labeled BF GABAergic neurons. GFP+ neurons and fibers were distributed throughout the BF, with the highest density in the magnocellular preoptic area (MCPO). Immunohistochemistry for PV indicated that the majority of PV+ neurons in the BF were large (>20 μm) or medium-sized (15–20 μm) GFP+ neurons. Most medium and large-sized BF GFP+ neurons, including those retrogradely labeled from the neocortex, were fast-firing and spontaneously active in vitro. They exhibited prominent hyperpolarization-activated inward currents and subthreshold “spikelets,” suggestive of electrical coupling. PV+ neurons recorded in PV-Tomato mice had similar properties but had significantly narrower action potentials and a higher maximal firing frequency. Another population of smaller GFP+ neurons had properties similar to striatal projection neurons. The fast firing and electrical coupling of BF GABA/PV+ neurons, together with their projections to cortical interneurons and the thalamic reticular nucleus, suggest a strong and synchronous control of the neocortical fast rhythms typical of wakefulness and REM sleep. PMID:23254904

  10. In vitro recordings of human neocortical oscillations.

    PubMed

    Florez, C M; McGinn, R J; Lukankin, V; Marwa, I; Sugumar, S; Dian, J; Hazrati, L N; Carlen, P L; Zhang, L; Valiante, T A

    2015-03-01

    Electrophysiological oscillations are thought to create temporal windows of communication between brain regions. We show here that human cortical slices maintained in vitro can generate oscillations similar to those observed in vivo. We have characterized these oscillations using local field potential and whole-cell recordings obtained from neocortical slices acquired during epilepsy surgery. We confirmed that such neocortical slices maintain the necessary cellular and circuitry components, and in particular inhibitory mechanisms, to manifest oscillatory activity when exposed to glutamatergic and cholinergic agonists. The generation of oscillations was dependent on intact synaptic activity and muscarinic receptors. Such oscillations differed in electrographic and pharmacological properties from epileptiform activity. Two types of activity, theta oscillations and high gamma activity, uniquely characterized this model-activity not typically observed in animal cortical slices. We observed theta oscillations to be synchronous across cortical laminae suggesting a novel role of theta as a substrate for interlaminar communication. As well, we observed cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between theta phase and high gamma amplitude similar to that observed in vivo. The high gamma "bursts" generated by such CFC varied in their frequency content, suggesting that this variability may underlie the broadband nature of high gamma activity. PMID:24046077

  11. Focal cooling rapidly terminates experimental neocortical seizures.

    PubMed

    Yang, X F; Rothman, S M

    2001-06-01

    The efficacy of surgical resection for epilepsy is considerably lower for neocortical epilepsy than for temporal lobe epilepsy. We have explored focal cooling with a thermoelectric (Peltier) device as a potential therapy for neocortical epilepsy. After creating a cranial window in anesthetized rats, we induced seizures by injecting artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a potassium channel blocker. Within 30 minutes of 4-AP injection, animals developed recurrent seizures (duration 85.7 +/- 26.2 seconds; n = 10 rats) that persisted for 2 hours. When a small Peltier device cooled the exposed cortical surface to 20-25 degrees C at seizure onset, the seizure duration was reduced to 8.4 +/- 5.0 seconds (n = 10 rats; p < 0.001). When the Peltier device was placed close to the cortical surface, but not allowed to make physical contact, there was no effect on seizure duration (104.3 +/- 20.7 seconds; p > 0.05 compared to control). Interestingly, the duration of uncooled seizures was reduced after we allowed the cortex to rewarm from prior cooling. Histological examination of the cortex after cooling has shown no evidence of acute or delayed neuronal injury, and blood pressure and temperature remained stable. It may be possible to use Peltier devices for cortical mapping or, when seizure detection algorithms improve, for chronic seizure control. PMID:11409423

  12. A Comparative Perspective on Minicolumns and Inhibitory GABAergic Interneurons in the Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Raghanti, Mary Ann; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Butti, Camilla; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2009-01-01

    Neocortical columns are functional and morphological units whose architecture may have been under selective evolutionary pressure in different mammalian lineages in response to encephalization and specializations of cognitive abilities. Inhibitory interneurons make a substantial contribution to the morphology and distribution of minicolumns within the cortex. In this context, we review differences in minicolumns and GABAergic interneurons among species and discuss possible implications for signaling among and within minicolumns. Furthermore, we discuss how abnormalities of both minicolumn disposition and inhibitory interneurons might be associated with neuropathological processes, such as Alzheimer's disease, autism, and schizophrenia. Specifically, we explore the possibility that phylogenetic variability in calcium-binding protein-expressing interneuron subtypes is directly related to differences in minicolumn morphology among species and might contribute to neuropathological susceptibility in humans. PMID:20161991

  13. Cl− uptake promoting depolarizing GABA actions in immature rat neocortical neurones is mediated by NKCC1

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Junko; Okabe, Akihito; Toyoda, Hiroki; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2004-01-01

    GABA is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature brain, but during early postnatal development the elevated [Cl−]i in immature neocortical neurones causes GABAA receptor activation to be depolarizing. The molecular mechanisms underlying this intracellular Cl− accumulation remain controversial. Therefore, the GABA reversal potential (EGABA) or [Cl−]i in early postnatal rat neocortical neurones was measured by the gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp method, and the relative expression levels of the cation−Cl− cotransporter mRNAs (in the same cells) were examined by semiquantitative single-cell multiplex RT-PCR to look for statistical correlations with [Cl−]i. The mRNA expression levels were positively (the Cl− accumulating Na+,K+−2Cl− cotransporter NKCC1) or negatively (the Cl− extruding K+−Cl− cotransporter KCC2) correlated with [Cl−]i. NKCC1 mRNA expression was high in early postnatal days, but decreased during postnatal development, whereas KCC2 mRNA expression displayed the opposite pattern. [Cl−]i and NKCC1 mRNA expression were each higher in cortical plate (CP) neurones than in the presumably older layer V/VI pyramidal neurones in a given slice. The pharmacological effects of bumetanide on EGABA were consistent with the different expression levels of NKCC1 mRNA. These data suggest that NKCC1 may play a pivotal role in the generation of GABA-mediated depolarization in immature CP cells, while KCC2 promotes the later maturation of GABAergic inhibition in the rat neocortex. PMID:15090604

  14. GABAergic Interneurons are Required for Generation of Slow CA1 Oscillation in Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lidan; Liu, Yu-Zhang; Yang, Yan; Xue, Xiaolin; Wang, Zhiru

    2016-08-01

    Neuronal oscillations are fundamental to hippocampal function. It has been shown that GABAergic interneurons make an important contribution to hippocampal oscillations, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Here, using whole-cell recording in the complete hippocampal formation isolated from rats at postnatal days 14-18, we showed that GABAA receptor-mediated activity enhanced the generation of slow CA1 oscillations. In vitro, slow oscillations (0.5-1.5 Hz) were generated in CA1 neurons, and they consisted primarily of excitatory rather than inhibitory membrane-potential changes. These oscillations were greatly reduced by blocking GABAA receptor-mediated activity with bicuculline and were enhanced by increasing such activity with midazolam, suggesting that interneurons are required for oscillation generation. Consistently, CA1 fast-spiking interneurons were found to generate action potentials usually preceding those in CA1 pyramidal cells. These findings indicate a GABAA receptor-based mechanism for the generation of the slow CA1 oscillation in the hippocampus. PMID:27439706

  15. Early GABAergic circuitry in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kirischuk, Sergei; Sinning, Anne; Kilb, Werner

    2014-06-01

    In the cerebral cortex GABAergic signaling plays an important role in regulating early developmental processes, for example, neurogenesis, migration and differentiation. Transient cell populations, namely Cajal-Retzius in the marginal zone and thalamic input receiving subplate neurons, are integrated as active elements in transitory GABAergic circuits. Although immature pyramidal neurons receive GABAergic synaptic inputs already at fetal stages, they are integrated into functional GABAergic circuits only several days later. In consequence, GABAergic synaptic transmission has only a minor influence on spontaneous network activity during early corticogenesis. Concurrent with the gradual developmental shift of GABA action from excitatory to inhibitory and the maturation of cortical synaptic connections, GABA becomes more important in synchronizing neuronal network activity. PMID:24434608

  16. Bistable behaviour in a neocortical neurone model.

    PubMed

    Delord, B; Klaassen, A J; Burnod, Y; Costalat, R; Guigon, E

    1997-03-01

    Intracellular recordings have shown that neocortical pyramidal neurones have an intrinsic capacity for regenerative firing. The cellular mechanism of this firing was investigated by computer simulations of a model neurone endowed with standard action potential and persistent sodium (gNaP) conductances. The firing mode of the neurone was determined as a function of leakage and NaP maximal conductances (gl and gNaP). The neurone had two stable states of activity (bistable) over wide range of gl and gNaP, one at the resting potential and the other in a regenerative firing mode, that could be triggered by a transient input. This model points to a cellular mechanism that may contribute to the generation and maintenance of long-lasting sustained neuronal discharges in the cerebral cortex. PMID:9141084

  17. Memory disorders following focal neocortical damage.

    PubMed

    De Renzi, E

    1982-06-25

    Two aspects of memory defects following circumscribed neocortical lesionare considered. First, the selective impairment involving one category of stimuli (e.g. faces, colours) or a specific mnestic ability (spatial orientation). The deficit affects "new" as well as "old" memories and suggests that engrams are located in discrete cortical areas. The second issue concerns the relation of the hemispheric side of lesion to memory of non-verbal visual material, as a function of the differential utilization of the visual and verbal code in carrying out the task. Short-term memory tests are performed poorly by aphasics. In long-term memory tests, the performance depends on the nature of the task; in the early stages of paired-associate learning aphasics are impaired, on recurring figure recognition no hemispheric difference emerges, on sequential memory right brain-damaged patients have the poorest scores. PMID:6125977

  18. EPSP depression following neocortical seizures in cat.

    PubMed

    Nita, Dragos A; Cissé, Youssouf; Timofeev, Igor

    2008-04-01

    To study the possible mechanism(s) underlying unresponsiveness following neocortical seizures, we recorded excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) of cortical neurons evoked by ipsilateral cortical stimulation before and after spontaneous or elicited seizures. Regular-spiking neurons (n = 32) were intracellularly recorded in association area five of cats under ketamine-xylazine or barbiturate anesthesia. Compared with control responses, cortically evoked EPSPs were characterized by decreased amplitude after electrographic seizures. Synaptic responses and intrinsic properties were measured by applying extracellular electrical stimuli followed by intracellular hyperpolarizing current pulses. The input resistance decreased during seizures but quickly recovered to control level after the paroxysms, whereas the amplitude of evoked EPSPs remained lower following seizures, generally for 2-12 min, suggesting that the decreased EPSPs were not due to an alteration of intrinsic response. Data demonstrate a long-lasting decreased synaptic responsiveness following generalized spike-wave seizures slowly recovering in time. PMID:18031546

  19. Cholinergic inhibition of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Gulledge, Allan T; Stuart, Greg J

    2005-11-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a central neurotransmitter critical for normal cognitive function. Here we show that transient muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation directly inhibits neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons. Using whole-cell and cell-attached recordings from neurons in slices of rat somatosensory cortex, we demonstrate that transient activation of M1-type muscarinic receptors induces calcium release from IP3-sensitive intracellular calcium stores and subsequent activation of an apamin-sensitive, SK-type calcium-activated potassium conductance. ACh-induced hyperpolarizing responses were blocked by atropine and pirenzepine but not by methoctramine or GABA receptor antagonists (picrotoxin, SR 95531 [2-(3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyridazinium bromide], and CGP 55845 [(2S)-3-[[(15)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino-2-hydroxypropyl](phenylmethyl)phosphinic acid]). Responses were associated with a 31 +/- 5% increase in membrane conductance, had a reversal potential of -93 +/- 1 mV, and were eliminated after internal calcium chelation with BAPTA, blockade of IP3 receptors, or extracellular application of cadmium but not by sodium channel blockade with tetrodotoxin. Calcium-imaging experiments demonstrated that ACh-induced hyperpolarizing, but not depolarizing, responses were correlated with large increases in intracellular calcium. Surprisingly, transient increases in muscarinic receptor activation were capable of generating hyperpolarizing responses even during periods of tonic muscarinic activation sufficient to depolarize neurons to action potential threshold. Furthermore, eserine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor similar to those used therapeutically in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, disproportionately enhanced the excitatory actions of acetylcholine while reducing the ability of acetylcholine to generate inhibitory responses during repeated applications of ACh. These data demonstrate that acetylcholine can directly inhibit the

  20. Wilson-Cowan Equations for Neocortical Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Jack D; Neuman, Jeremy; van Drongelen, Wim

    2016-12-01

    In 1972-1973 Wilson and Cowan introduced a mathematical model of the population dynamics of synaptically coupled excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the neocortex. The model dealt only with the mean numbers of activated and quiescent excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and said nothing about fluctuations and correlations of such activity. However, in 1997 Ohira and Cowan, and then in 2007-2009 Buice and Cowan introduced Markov models of such activity that included fluctuation and correlation effects. Here we show how both models can be used to provide a quantitative account of the population dynamics of neocortical activity.We first describe how the Markov models account for many recent measurements of the resting or spontaneous activity of the neocortex. In particular we show that the power spectrum of large-scale neocortical activity has a Brownian motion baseline, and that the statistical structure of the random bursts of spiking activity found near the resting state indicates that such a state can be represented as a percolation process on a random graph, called directed percolation.Other data indicate that resting cortex exhibits pair correlations between neighboring populations of cells, the amplitudes of which decay slowly with distance, whereas stimulated cortex exhibits pair correlations which decay rapidly with distance. Here we show how the Markov model can account for the behavior of the pair correlations.Finally we show how the 1972-1973 Wilson-Cowan equations can account for recent data which indicates that there are at least two distinct modes of cortical responses to stimuli. In mode 1 a low intensity stimulus triggers a wave that propagates at a velocity of about 0.3 m/s, with an amplitude that decays exponentially. In mode 2 a high intensity stimulus triggers a larger response that remains local and does not propagate to neighboring regions. PMID:26728012

  1. Seizure-induced alterations in fast-spiking basket cell GABA currents modulate frequency and coherence of gamma oscillation in network simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Proddutur, Archana; Yu, Jiandong; Elgammal, Fatima S.; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi

    2013-12-15

    Gamma frequency oscillations have been proposed to contribute to memory formation and retrieval. Fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) are known to underlie development of gamma oscillations. Fast, high amplitude GABA synapses and gap junctions have been suggested to contribute to gamma oscillations in FS-BC networks. Recently, we identified that, apart from GABAergic synapses, FS-BCs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus have GABAergic currents mediated by extrasynaptic receptors. Our experimental studies demonstrated two specific changes in FS-BC GABA currents following experimental seizures [Yu et al., J. Neurophysiol. 109, 1746 (2013)]: increase in the magnitude of extrasynaptic (tonic) GABA currents and a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (E{sub GABA}). Here, we use homogeneous networks of a biophysically based model of FS-BCs to examine how the presence of extrasynaptic GABA conductance (g{sub GABA-extra}) and experimentally identified, seizure-induced changes in g{sub GABA-extra} and E{sub GABA} influence network activity. Networks of FS-BCs interconnected by fast GABAergic synapses developed synchronous firing in the dentate gamma frequency range (40–100 Hz). Systematic investigation revealed that the biologically realistic range of 30 to 40 connections between FS-BCs resulted in greater coherence in the gamma frequency range when networks were activated by Poisson-distributed dendritic synaptic inputs rather than by homogeneous somatic current injections, which were balanced for FS-BC firing frequency in unconnected networks. Distance-dependent conduction delay enhanced coherence in networks with 30–40 FS-BC interconnections while inclusion of gap junctional conductance had a modest effect on coherence. In networks activated by somatic current injections resulting in heterogeneous FS-BC firing, increasing g{sub GABA-extra} reduced the frequency and coherence of FS-BC firing when E{sub GABA} was shunting (−74 mV), but failed to alter average

  2. Seizure-induced alterations in fast-spiking basket cell GABA currents modulate frequency and coherence of gamma oscillation in network simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proddutur, Archana; Yu, Jiandong; Elgammal, Fatima S.; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi

    2013-12-01

    Gamma frequency oscillations have been proposed to contribute to memory formation and retrieval. Fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) are known to underlie development of gamma oscillations. Fast, high amplitude GABA synapses and gap junctions have been suggested to contribute to gamma oscillations in FS-BC networks. Recently, we identified that, apart from GABAergic synapses, FS-BCs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus have GABAergic currents mediated by extrasynaptic receptors. Our experimental studies demonstrated two specific changes in FS-BC GABA currents following experimental seizures [Yu et al., J. Neurophysiol. 109, 1746 (2013)]: increase in the magnitude of extrasynaptic (tonic) GABA currents and a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (EGABA). Here, we use homogeneous networks of a biophysically based model of FS-BCs to examine how the presence of extrasynaptic GABA conductance (gGABA-extra) and experimentally identified, seizure-induced changes in gGABA-extra and EGABA influence network activity. Networks of FS-BCs interconnected by fast GABAergic synapses developed synchronous firing in the dentate gamma frequency range (40-100 Hz). Systematic investigation revealed that the biologically realistic range of 30 to 40 connections between FS-BCs resulted in greater coherence in the gamma frequency range when networks were activated by Poisson-distributed dendritic synaptic inputs rather than by homogeneous somatic current injections, which were balanced for FS-BC firing frequency in unconnected networks. Distance-dependent conduction delay enhanced coherence in networks with 30-40 FS-BC interconnections while inclusion of gap junctional conductance had a modest effect on coherence. In networks activated by somatic current injections resulting in heterogeneous FS-BC firing, increasing gGABA-extra reduced the frequency and coherence of FS-BC firing when EGABA was shunting (-74 mV), but failed to alter average FS-BC frequency when EGABA was depolarizing

  3. Tuning of fast-spiking interneuron properties by an activity-dependent transcriptional switch*

    PubMed Central

    Dehorter, Nathalie; Ciceri, Gabriele; Bartolini, Giorgia; Lim, Lynette; del Pino, Isabel; Marín, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The function of neural circuits depends on the generation of specific classes of neurons. Neural identity is typically established near the time when neurons exit the cell cycle to become postmitotic cells, and it is generally accepted that, once the identity of a neuron has been established, its fate is maintained throughout life. Here, we show that network activity dynamically modulates the properties of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons through the postmitotic expression of the transcriptional regulator Er81. In the adult cortex, Er81 protein levels define a spectrum of FS basket cells with different properties, whose relative proportions are, however, continuously adjusted in response to neuronal activity. Our findings therefore suggest that interneuron properties are malleable in the adult cortex, at least to a certain extent. PMID:26359400

  4. 532 nm Low-Power Laser Irradiation Facilitates the Migration of GABAergic Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in Mouse Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzaki, Yumi; Shin, Hyeryun; Kawai, Hideki D.; Yamanoha, Banri; Kogure, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Accumulating evidence has shown that low-power laser irradiation (LLI) affects cell proliferation and survival, but little is known about LLI effects on neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). Here we investigate whether transcranial 532 nm LLI affects NSPCs in adult murine neocortex and in neurospheres from embryonic mice. Study Design/Materials and Methods We applied 532 nm LLI (Nd:YVO4, CW, 60 mW) on neocortical surface via cranium in adult mice and on cultured cells from embryonic mouse brains in vitro to investigate the proliferation and migration of NSPCs and Akt expression using immunohistochemical assays and Western blotting techniques. Results In vivo experiments demonstrated that 532 nm LLI significantly facilitated the migration of GABAergic NSPCs that were induced to proliferate in layer 1 by mild ischemia. In vitro experiments using GABAergic NSPCs derived from embryonic day 14 ganglionic eminence demonstrated that 532 nm LLI for 60 min promoted the migration of GAD67-immunopositive NSPCs with a significant increase of Akt expression. Meanwhile, the LLI induced proliferation, but not migration, of NSPCs that give rise to excitatory neurons. Conclusion It is concluded that 532 nm LLI promoted the migration of GABAergic NSPCs into deeper layers of the neocortex in vivo by elevating Akt expression. PMID:25919297

  5. Thalamic WNT3 Secretion Spatiotemporally Regulates the Neocortical Ribosome Signature and mRNA Translation to Specify Neocortical Cell Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Kraushar, Matthew L.; Viljetic, Barbara; Wijeratne, H. R. Sagara; Thompson, Kevin; Jiao, Xinfu; Pike, Jack W.; Medvedeva, Vera; Groszer, Matthias; Kiledjian, Megerditch; Hart, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Neocortical development requires tightly controlled spatiotemporal gene expression. However, the mechanisms regulating ribosomal complexes and the timed specificity of neocortical mRNA translation are poorly understood. We show that active mRNA translation complexes (polysomes) contain ribosomal protein subsets that undergo dynamic spatiotemporal rearrangements during mouse neocortical development. Ribosomal protein specificity within polysome complexes is regulated by the arrival of in-growing thalamic axons, which secrete the morphogen Wingless-related MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site 3 (WNT3). Thalamic WNT3 release during midneurogenesis promotes a change in the levels of Ribosomal protein L7 in polysomes, thereby regulating neocortical translation machinery specificity. Furthermore, we present an RNA sequencing dataset analyzing mRNAs that dynamically associate with polysome complexes as neocortical development progresses, and thus may be regulated spatiotemporally at the level of translation. Thalamic WNT3 regulates neocortical translation of two such mRNAs, Foxp2 and Apc, to promote FOXP2 expression while inhibiting APC expression, thereby driving neocortical neuronal differentiation and suppressing oligodendrocyte maturation, respectively. This mechanism may enable targeted and rapid spatiotemporal control of ribosome composition and selective mRNA translation in complex developing systems like the neocortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neocortex is a highly complex circuit generating the most evolutionarily advanced complex cognitive and sensorimotor functions. An intricate progression of molecular and cellular steps during neocortical development determines its structure and function. Our goal is to study the steps regulating spatiotemporal specificity of mRNA translation that govern neocortical development. In this work, we show that the timed secretion of Wingless-related MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site 3 (WNT3) by

  6. Mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity modulates neocortical excitability

    PubMed Central

    Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed; Kannurpatti, Sridhar S

    2013-01-01

    Local calcium (Ca2+) changes regulate central nervous system metabolism and communication integrated by subcellular processes including mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Mitochondria take up Ca2+ through the calcium uniporter (mCU) aided by cytoplasmic microdomains of high Ca2+. Known only in vitro, the in vivo impact of mCU activity may reveal Ca2+-mediated roles of mitochondria in brain signaling and metabolism. From in vitro studies of mitochondrial Ca2+ sequestration and cycling in various cell types of the central nervous system, we evaluated ranges of spontaneous and activity-induced Ca2+ distributions in multiple subcellular compartments in vivo. We hypothesized that inhibiting (or enhancing) mCU activity would attenuate (or augment) cortical neuronal activity as well as activity-induced hemodynamic responses in an overall cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca2+-dependent manner. Spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activities were measured by extracellular electrophysiology complemented with dynamic mapping of blood oxygen level dependence and cerebral blood flow. Calcium uniporter activity was inhibited and enhanced pharmacologically, and its impact on the multimodal measures were analyzed in an integrated manner. Ru360, an mCU inhibitor, reduced all stimulus-evoked responses, whereas Kaempferol, an mCU enhancer, augmented all evoked responses. Collectively, the results confirm aforementioned hypotheses and support the Ca2+ uptake-mediated integrative role of in vivo mitochondria on neocortical activity. PMID:23591650

  7. Zbtb20 promotes astrocytogenesis during neocortical development

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Motoshi; Ogata, Toru; Sawada, Yasuhiro; Gotoh, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent neural precursor cells (NPCs) generate astrocytes at late stages of mammalian neocortical development. Many signalling pathways that regulate astrocytogenesis directly induce the expression of GFAP, a marker of terminally differentiated astrocytes. However, astrocyte specification occurs before GFAP expression and essential factors for the specification step have remained elusive. Here we show that Zbtb20 regulates astrocyte specification in the mouse neocortex. Zbtb20 is highly expressed in late-stage NPCs and their astrocytic progeny. Overexpression and knockdown of Zbtb20 promote and suppress astrocytogenesis, respectively, although Zbtb20 does not directly activate the Gfap promoter. Astrocyte induction by Zbtb20 is suppressed by knockdown of Sox9 or NFIA. Furthermore, in the astrocyte lineage, Zbtb20 directly represses the expression of Brn2, which encodes a protein necessary for upper-layer neuron specification. Zbtb20 is thus a key determinant of astrocytogenesis, in which it collaborates with Sox9 and NFIA, and acts in part through direct repression of Brn2 expression. PMID:27000654

  8. In vivo imaging of neocortical epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Theodore

    2003-03-01

    Epilepsy is a disease affecting 1-2Electrical recordings from chronic animal models and human neocortical epileptic foci indicate that the population of neurons underlying each interictal epileptiform discharge varies over time. The spatial relationship between interictal events and the ictal onset zone, thought to be the critical area of epileptogenesis, is not well understood and critical to the surgical treatment of epilepsy. Electrophysiological recording methods, although currently the "gold standard", are inadequate to address these questions based on restrictions due to volume conduction or sampling limitations, many of which can be overcome with optical recording techniques. In vivo optical recording of intrinsic signals can be used to generate high-resolution, real-time maps of the population of neurons participating in an epileptiform event. The goal of our laboratory is to examine the shifting spatio-temporal dynamics of the epileptogenic aggregate in both acute and chronic experimental models of in vivo rodent epilepsy. In particular we are interested in the precise relationship between the optical signal and the interictal and ictal epileptiform events using well-established acute and chronic in vivo rodent models. Optical epilepsy maps recorded at various wavelengths are correlated with maps derived from electrophysiological recordings from multiple surface electrodes.

  9. Prolonged myelination in human neocortical evolution

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Daniel J.; Duka, Tetyana; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Baze, Wallace B.; McArthur, Mark J.; Fobbs, Archibald J.; Sousa, André M. M.; Šestan, Nenad; Wildman, Derek E.; Lipovich, Leonard; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2012-01-01

    Nerve myelination facilitates saltatory action potential conduction and exhibits spatiotemporal variation during development associated with the acquisition of behavioral and cognitive maturity. Although human cognitive development is unique, it is not known whether the ontogenetic progression of myelination in the human neocortex is evolutionarily exceptional. In this study, we quantified myelinated axon fiber length density and the expression of myelin-related proteins throughout postnatal life in the somatosensory (areas 3b/3a/1/2), motor (area 4), frontopolar (prefrontal area 10), and visual (areas 17/18) neocortex of chimpanzees (N = 20) and humans (N = 33). Our examination revealed that neocortical myelination is developmentally protracted in humans compared with chimpanzees. In chimpanzees, the density of myelinated axons increased steadily until adult-like levels were achieved at approximately the time of sexual maturity. In contrast, humans displayed slower myelination during childhood, characterized by a delayed period of maturation that extended beyond late adolescence. This comparative research contributes evidence crucial to understanding the evolution of human cognition and behavior, which arises from the unfolding of nervous system development within the context of an enriched cultural environment. Perturbations of normal developmental processes and the decreased expression of myelin-related molecules have been related to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Thus, these species differences suggest that the human-specific shift in the timing of cortical maturation during adolescence may have implications for vulnerability to certain psychiatric disorders. PMID:23012402

  10. An Adaptive Threshold in Mammalian Neocortical Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kalinka, Alex T.; Tomancak, Pavel; Huttner, Wieland B.

    2014-01-01

    Expansion of the neocortex is a hallmark of human evolution. However, determining which adaptive mechanisms facilitated its expansion remains an open question. Here we show, using the gyrencephaly index (GI) and other physiological and life-history data for 102 mammalian species, that gyrencephaly is an ancestral mammalian trait. We find that variation in GI does not evolve linearly across species, but that mammals constitute two principal groups above and below a GI threshold value of 1.5, approximately equal to 109 neurons, which may be characterized by distinct constellations of physiological and life-history traits. By integrating data on neurogenic period, neuroepithelial founder pool size, cell-cycle length, progenitor-type abundances, and cortical neuron number into discrete mathematical models, we identify symmetric proliferative divisions of basal progenitors in the subventricular zone of the developing neocortex as evolutionarily necessary for generating a 14-fold increase in daily prenatal neuron production, traversal of the GI threshold, and thus establishment of two principal groups. We conclude that, despite considerable neuroanatomical differences, changes in the length of the neurogenic period alone, rather than any novel neurogenic progenitor lineage, are sufficient to explain differences in neuron number and neocortical size between species within the same principal group. PMID:25405475

  11. Prolonged myelination in human neocortical evolution.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel J; Duka, Tetyana; Stimpson, Cheryl D; Schapiro, Steven J; Baze, Wallace B; McArthur, Mark J; Fobbs, Archibald J; Sousa, André M M; Sestan, Nenad; Wildman, Derek E; Lipovich, Leonard; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C

    2012-10-01

    Nerve myelination facilitates saltatory action potential conduction and exhibits spatiotemporal variation during development associated with the acquisition of behavioral and cognitive maturity. Although human cognitive development is unique, it is not known whether the ontogenetic progression of myelination in the human neocortex is evolutionarily exceptional. In this study, we quantified myelinated axon fiber length density and the expression of myelin-related proteins throughout postnatal life in the somatosensory (areas 3b/3a/1/2), motor (area 4), frontopolar (prefrontal area 10), and visual (areas 17/18) neocortex of chimpanzees (N = 20) and humans (N = 33). Our examination revealed that neocortical myelination is developmentally protracted in humans compared with chimpanzees. In chimpanzees, the density of myelinated axons increased steadily until adult-like levels were achieved at approximately the time of sexual maturity. In contrast, humans displayed slower myelination during childhood, characterized by a delayed period of maturation that extended beyond late adolescence. This comparative research contributes evidence crucial to understanding the evolution of human cognition and behavior, which arises from the unfolding of nervous system development within the context of an enriched cultural environment. Perturbations of normal developmental processes and the decreased expression of myelin-related molecules have been related to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Thus, these species differences suggest that the human-specific shift in the timing of cortical maturation during adolescence may have implications for vulnerability to certain psychiatric disorders. PMID:23012402

  12. Interareal oscillatory synchronization in top-down neocortical processing.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Steven L; Richter, Craig G

    2015-04-01

    Top-down processing in the neocortex underlies important cognitive functions such as predictive coding and attentional set. We review evidence indicating that top-down neocortical processes are carried by interareal synchrony, particularly in the beta frequency band. We hypothesize that top-down neocortical signals in the beta band convey behavioral context to low-level sensory neurons. We further speculate that large-scale distributed networks, self-organized at the highest hierarchical levels, are the source of top-down signals in the neocortex. PMID:25217807

  13. Neocortical GABA release at high intracellular sodium and low extracellular calcium: an anti-seizure mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rassner, Michael P; Moser, Andreas; Follo, Marie; Joseph, Kevin; van Velthoven-Wurster, Vera; Feuerstein, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    In epilepsy, the GABA and glutamate balance may be disrupted and a transient decrease in extracellular calcium occurs before and during a seizure. Flow Cytometry based fluorescence activated particle sorting experiments quantified synaptosomes from human neocortical tissue, from both epileptic and non-epileptic patients (27.7% vs. 36.9% GABAergic synaptosomes, respectively). Transporter-mediated release of GABA in human and rat neocortical synaptosomes was measured using the superfusion technique for the measurement of endogenous GABA. GABA release was evoked by either a sodium channel activator or a sodium/potassium-ATPase inhibitor when exocytosis was possible or prevented, and when the sodium/calcium exchanger was active or inhibited. The transporter-mediated release of GABA is because of elevated intracellular sodium. A reduction in the extracellular calcium increased this release (in both non-epileptic and epileptic, except Rasmussen encephalitis, synaptosomes). The inverse was seen during calcium doubling. In humans, GABA release was not affected by exocytosis inhibition, that is, it was solely transporter-mediated. However, in rat synaptosomes, an increase in GABA release at zero calcium was only exhibited when the exocytosis was prevented. The absence of calcium amplified the sodium/calcium exchanger activity, leading to elevated intracellular sodium, which, together with the stimulation-evoked intracellular sodium increment, enhanced GABA transporter reversal. Sodium/calcium exchange inhibitors diminished GABA release. Thus, an important seizure-induced extracellular calcium reduction might trigger a transporter- and sodium/calcium exchanger-related anti-seizure mechanism by augmenting transporter-mediated GABA release, a mechanism absent in rats. Uniquely, the additional increase in GABA release because of calcium-withdrawal dwindled during the course of illness in Rasmussen encephalitis. Seizures cause high Na(+) influx through action potentials. A

  14. Impaired fast-spiking interneuron function in a genetic mouse model of depression.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Jonas-Frederic; Strüber, Michael; Bartos, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic neuronal activity provides a frame for information coding by co-active cell assemblies. Abnormal brain rhythms are considered as potential pathophysiological mechanisms causing mental disease, but the underlying network defects are largely unknown. We find that mice expressing truncated Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1), which mirror a high-prevalence genotype for human psychiatric illness, show depression-related behavior. Theta and low-gamma synchrony in the prelimbic cortex (PrlC) is impaired in Disc1 mice and inversely correlated with the extent of behavioural despair. While weak theta activity is driven by the hippocampus, disturbance of low-gamma oscillations is caused by local defects of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FS-INs). The number of FS-INs is reduced, they receive fewer excitatory inputs, and form fewer release sites on targets. Computational analysis indicates that weak excitatory input and inhibitory output of FS-INs may lead to impaired gamma oscillations. Our data link network defects with a gene mutation underlying depression in humans. PMID:25735038

  15. Impaired fast-spiking interneuron function in a genetic mouse model of depression

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Jonas-Frederic; Strüber, Michael; Bartos, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic neuronal activity provides a frame for information coding by co-active cell assemblies. Abnormal brain rhythms are considered as potential pathophysiological mechanisms causing mental disease, but the underlying network defects are largely unknown. We find that mice expressing truncated Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1), which mirror a high-prevalence genotype for human psychiatric illness, show depression-related behavior. Theta and low-gamma synchrony in the prelimbic cortex (PrlC) is impaired in Disc1 mice and inversely correlated with the extent of behavioural despair. While weak theta activity is driven by the hippocampus, disturbance of low-gamma oscillations is caused by local defects of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FS-INs). The number of FS-INs is reduced, they receive fewer excitatory inputs, and form fewer release sites on targets. Computational analysis indicates that weak excitatory input and inhibitory output of FS-INs may lead to impaired gamma oscillations. Our data link network defects with a gene mutation underlying depression in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04979.001 PMID:25735038

  16. Immunocytochemical heterogeneity of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic interneurons in layers II and III of the mouse cingulate cortex: A combined immunofluorescence/design-based stereologic study.

    PubMed

    Riedemann, Therese; Schmitz, Christoph; Sutor, Bernd

    2016-08-01

    Many neurological diseases including major depression and schizophrenia manifest as dysfunction of the GABAergic system within the cingulate cortex. However, relatively little is known about the properties of GABAergic interneurons in the cingulate cortex. Therefore, we investigated the neurochemical properties of GABAergic interneurons in the cingulate cortex of FVB-Tg(GadGFP)45704Swn/J mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subset of GABAergic interneurons (GFP-expressing inhibitory interneurons [GINs]) by means of immunocytochemical and design-based stereologic techniques. We found that GINs represent around 12% of all GABAergic interneurons in the cingulate cortex. In contrast to other neocortical areas, GINs were only found in cortical layers II and III. More than 98% of GINs coexpressed the neuropeptide somatostatin (SOM), but only 50% of all SOM + neurons were GINs. By analyzing the expression of calretinin (CR), calbindin (CB), parvalbumin, and various neuropeptides, we identified several distinct GIN subgroups. In particular, we observed coexpression of SOM with CR and CB. In addition, we found neuropeptide Y expression almost exclusively in those GINs that coexpressed SOM and CR. Thus, with respect to the expression of calcium-binding proteins and neuropeptides, GINs are surprisingly heterogeneous in the mouse cingulate cortex, and the minority of GINs express only one marker protein or peptide. Furthermore, our observation of overlap between the SOM + and CR + interneuron population was in contrast to earlier findings of non-overlapping SOM + and CR + interneuron populations in the human cortex. This might indicate that findings in mouse models of neuropsychiatric diseases may not be directly transferred to human patients. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2281-2299, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26669716

  17. [Intern(euron)al affairs : The role of specific neocortical interneuron classes in the interaction between acetylcholine and GABAergic anesthetics].

    PubMed

    Liebig, L; Grasshoff, C; Hentschke, H

    2016-08-01

    Acetylcholine is a neuromodulator which is released throughout the central nervous system and plays an essential role in consciousness and cognitive processes including attention and learning. Due to its 'activating' effect on the neuronal and behavioral level its interaction with anesthetics has long been of interest to anesthesiologists. It is widely held that a reduction of the release of acetylcholine by general anesthetics constitutes part of the anesthetic effect. This notion is backed by numerous human and animal studies, but is also in seeming contradiction to findings that acetylcholine activates specific classes of inhibitory neurons: if acetylcholine excites elements within the neuronal network responsible for the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), its withdrawal should diminish, not enhance, the effect of anesthetics.Focusing on cortical circuits, we present an overview of recent advances in cellular neurophysiology, particularly the interactions between inhibitory neuron classes, which provide insights on the interaction between acetylcholine and GABA. PMID:27380048

  18. GABAergic signalling in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Barragan, A; Weidner, J M; Jin, Z; Korpi, E R; Birnir, B

    2015-04-01

    The GABAergic system is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter system in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates. Signalling of the transmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) via GABA type A receptor channels or G-protein-coupled type B receptors is implicated in multiple CNS functions. Recent findings have implicated the GABAergic system in immune cell functions, inflammatory conditions and diseases in peripheral tissues. Interestingly, the specific effects may vary between immune cell types, with stage of activation and be altered by infectious agents. GABA/GABA-A receptor-mediated immunomodulatory functions have been unveiled in immune cells, being present in T lymphocytes and regulating the migration of Toxoplasma-infected dendritic cells. The GABAergic system may also play a role in the regulation of brain resident immune cells, the microglial cells. Activation of microglia appears to regulate the function of GABAergic neurotransmission in neighbouring neurones through changes induced by secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The neurotransmitter-driven immunomodulation is a new but rapidly growing field of science. Herein, we review the present knowledge of the GABA signalling in immune cells of the periphery and the CNS and raise questions for future research. PMID:25677654

  19. Topographic Hub Maps of the Human Structural Neocortical Network

    PubMed Central

    Nijhuis, Emil H. J.; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie; Norris, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Hubs within the neocortical structural network determined by graph theoretical analysis play a crucial role in brain function. We mapped neocortical hubs topographically, using a sample population of 63 young adults. Subjects were imaged with high resolution structural and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Multiple network configurations were then constructed per subject, using random parcellations to define the nodes and using fibre tractography to determine the connectivity between the nodes. The networks were analysed with graph theoretical measures. Our results give reference maps of hub distribution measured with betweenness centrality and node degree. The loci of the hubs correspond with key areas from known overlapping cognitive networks. Several hubs were asymmetrically organized across hemispheres. Furthermore, females have hubs with higher betweenness centrality and males have hubs with higher node degree. Female networks have higher small-world indices. PMID:23935801

  20. GABAergic networks jump-start focal seizures.

    PubMed

    de Curtis, Marco; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Abnormally enhanced glutamatergic excitation is commonly believed to mark the onset of a focal seizure. This notion, however, is not supported by firm evidence, and it will be challenged here. A general reduction of unit firing has been indeed observed in association with low-voltage fast activity at the onset of seizures recorded during presurgical intracranial monitoring in patients with focal, drug-resistant epilepsies. Moreover, focal seizures in animal models start with increased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneuronal activity that silences principal cells. In vitro studies have shown that synchronous activation of GABAA receptors occurs at seizure onset and causes sizeable elevations in extracellular potassium, thus facilitating neuronal recruitment and seizure progression. A paradoxical involvement of GABAergic networks is required for the initiation of focal seizures characterized by low-voltage fast activity, which represents the most common seizure-onset pattern in focal epilepsies. PMID:27061793

  1. GABAergic interneurons form transient layer-specific circuits in early postnatal neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Anastasiades, Paul G.; Marques-Smith, Andre; Lyngholm, Daniel; Lickiss, Tom; Raffiq, Sayda; Kätzel, Dennis; Miesenböck, Gero; Butt, Simon J. B.

    2016-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons play key roles in cortical circuits, yet little is known about their early connectivity. Here we use glutamate uncaging and a novel optogenetic strategy to track changes in the afferent and efferent synaptic connections of developing neocortical interneuron subtypes. We find that Nkx2-1-derived interneurons possess functional synaptic connections before emerging pyramidal cell networks. Subsequent interneuron circuit maturation is both subtype and layer dependent. Glutamatergic input onto fast spiking (FS), but not somatostatin-positive, non-FS interneurons increases over development. Interneurons of both subtype located in layers (L) 4 and 5b engage in transient circuits that disappear after the somatosensory critical period. These include a pathway mediated by L5b somatostatin-positive interneurons that specifically targets L4 during the first postnatal week. The innervation patterns of immature cortical interneuron circuits are thus neither static nor progressively strengthened but follow a layer-specific choreography of transient connections that differ from those of the adult brain. PMID:26843463

  2. Neocortical malformation as consequence of nonadaptive regulation of neuronogenetic sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caviness, V. S. Jr; Takahashi, T.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    Variations in the structure of the neocortex induced by single gene mutations may be extreme or subtle. They differ from variations in neocortical structure encountered across and within species in that these "normal" structural variations are adaptive (both structurally and behaviorally), whereas those associated with disorders of development are not. Here we propose that they also differ in principle in that they represent disruptions of molecular mechanisms that are not normally regulatory to variations in the histogenetic sequence. We propose an algorithm for the operation of the neuronogenetic sequence in relation to the overall neocortical histogenetic sequence and highlight the restriction point of the G1 phase of the cell cycle as the master regulatory control point for normal coordinate structural variation across species and importantly within species. From considerations based on the anatomic evidence from neocortical malformation in humans, we illustrate in principle how this overall sequence appears to be disrupted by molecular biological linkages operating principally outside the control mechanisms responsible for the normal structural variation of the neocortex. MRDD Research Reviews 6:22-33, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. GABAergic synapses: their plasticity and role in sensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Griffen, Trevor C.; Maffei, Arianna

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian neocortex is composed of a variety of cell types organized in a highly interconnected circuit. GABAergic neurons account for only about 20% of cortical neurons. However, they show widespread connectivity and a high degree of diversity in morphology, location, electrophysiological properties and gene expression. In addition, distinct populations of inhibitory neurons have different sensory response properties, capacities for plasticity and sensitivities to changes in sensory experience. In this review we summarize experimental evidence regarding the properties of GABAergic neurons in primary sensory cortex. We will discuss how distinct GABAergic neurons and different forms of GABAergic inhibitory plasticity may contribute to shaping sensory cortical circuit activity and function. PMID:24723851

  4. The GABAergic Deficit Hypothesis of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Luscher, Bernhard; Shen, Qiuying; Sahir, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to an association between major depressive disorders (MDDs) and diverse types of GABAergic deficits. Here we summarize clinical and preclinical evidence supporting a central and causal role of GABAergic deficits in the etiology of depressive disorders. Studies of depressed patients indicate that MDDs are accompanied by reduced brain concentration of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as well as alterations in the subunit composition of the principal receptors (GABAA receptors) mediating GABAergic inhibition. In addition, there is abundant evidence that GABA plays a prominent role in the brain control of stress, the most important vulnerability factor in mood disorders. Furthermore, preclinical evidence suggests that currently used antidepressant drugs designed to alter monoaminergic transmission as well as non-pharmacologic therapies may ultimately act to counteract GABAergic deficits. In particular, GABAergic transmission plays an important role in the control of hippocampal neurogenesis and neural maturation, which are now established as cellular substrates of most if not all antidepressant therapies. Lastly, comparatively modest deficits in GABAergic transmission in GABAA-receptor-deficient mice are sufficient to cause behavioral, cognitive, neuroanatomical, and neuroendocrine phenotypes as well as antidepressant drug response characteristics expected of an animal model of MDD. The GABAergic hypothesis of MDD suggests that alterations in GABAergic transmission represent fundamentally important aspects of the etiological sequelae of major depressive disorders that are reversed by monoaminergic antidepressant drug action. PMID:21079608

  5. Endogenous zinc depresses GABAergic transmission via T-type Ca2+ channels and broadens the time window for integration of glutamatergic inputs in dentate granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Grauert, Antonia; Engel, Dominique; Ruiz, Arnaud J

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Zinc actions on synaptic transmission span the modulation of neurotransmitter receptors, transporters, activation of intracellular cascades and alterations in gene expression. Whether and how zinc affects inhibitory synaptic signalling in the dentate gyrus remains largely unexplored. We found that mono- and di-synaptic GABAergic inputs onto dentate granule cells were reversibly depressed by exogenous zinc application and enhanced by zinc chelation. Blocking T-type Ca2+ channels prevented the effect of zinc chelation. When recording from dentate fast-spiking interneurones, zinc chelation facilitated T-type Ca2+ currents, increased action potential half-width and decreased spike threshold. It also increased the offset of the input–output relation in a manner consistent with enhanced excitability. In granule cells, chelation of zinc reduced the time window for the integration of glutamatergic inputs originating from perforant path synapses, resulting in reduced spike transfer. Thus, zinc-mediated modulation of dentate interneurone excitability and GABA release regulates information flow to local targets and hippocampal networks. PMID:24081159

  6. Molecular analysis of neocortical layer structure in the ferret

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Joanna J.; Mallik, Atul K.; Dugas-Ford, Jennifer; Ragsdale, Clifton W.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular markers that distinguish specific layers of rodent neocortex are increasingly employed to study cortical development and the physiology of cortical circuits. The extent to which these markers represent general features of neocortical cell type identity across mammals is, however, unknown. To assess the conservation of layer markers more broadly, we isolated orthologs for fifteen layer-enriched genes in the ferret, a carnivore with a large, gyrencephalic brain, and analyzed their patterns of neocortical gene expression. Our major findings are: (1) Many but not all layer markers tested show similar patterns of layer-specific gene expression between mouse and ferret cortex, supporting the view that layer-specific cell type identity is conserved at a molecular level across mammalian superorders; (2) Our panel of deep layer markers (ER81/ETV1, SULF2, PCP4, FEZF2/ZNF312, CACNA1H, KCNN2/SK2, SYT6, FOXP2, CTGF) provides molecular evidence that the specific stratifications of layer 5 and 6 into 5a, 5b, 6a and 6b are also conserved between rodents and carnivores. (3) Variations in layer-specific gene expression are more pronounced across areas of ferret cortex than between homologous areas of mouse and ferret cortex; (4) This variation of area gene expression was clearest with the superficial layer markers studied (SERPINE2, MDGA1, CUX1, UNC5D, RORB/NR1F2, EAG2/KCNH5). Most dramatically, the layer 4 markers RORB and EAG2 disclosed a molecular sublamination to ferret visual cortex and demonstrated a molecular dissociation among the so-called agranular areas of the neocortex. Our findings establish molecular markers as a powerful complement to cytoarchitecture for neocortical layer and cell-type comparisons across mammals. PMID:20575059

  7. Microscale spatiotemporal dynamics during neocortical propagation of human focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Fabien B; Eskandar, Emad N; Cosgrove, G Rees; Madsen, Joseph R; Blum, Andrew S; Potter, N Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R; Cash, Sydney S; Truccolo, Wilson

    2015-11-15

    Some of the most clinically consequential aspects of focal epilepsy, e.g. loss of consciousness, arise from the generalization or propagation of seizures through local and large-scale neocortical networks. Yet, the dynamics of such neocortical propagation remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the microdynamics of focal seizure propagation in neocortical patches (4×4 mm) recorded via high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs) implanted in people with pharmacologically resistant epilepsy. Our main findings are threefold: (1) a newly developed stage segmentation method, applied to local field potentials (LFPs) and multiunit activity (MUA), revealed a succession of discrete seizure stages, each lasting several seconds. These different stages showed characteristic evolutions in overall activity and spatial patterns, which were relatively consistent across seizures within each of the 5 patients studied. Interestingly, segmented seizure stages based on LFPs or MUA showed a dissociation of their spatiotemporal dynamics, likely reflecting different contributions of non-local synaptic inputs and local network activity. (2) As previously reported, some of the seizures showed a peak in MUA that happened several seconds after local seizure onset and slowly propagated across the MEA. However, other seizures had a more complex structure characterized by, for example, several MUA peaks, more consistent with the succession of discrete stages than the slow propagation of a simple wavefront of increased MUA. In both cases, nevertheless, seizures characterized by spike-wave discharges (SWDs, ~2-3 Hz) eventually evolved into patterns of phase-locked MUA and LFPs. (3) Individual SWDs or gamma oscillation cycles (25-60 Hz), characteristic of two different types of recorded seizures, tended to propagate with varying degrees of directionality, directions of propagation and speeds, depending on the identified seizure stage. However, no clear relationship was observed between the MUA

  8. Frequency-Dependent Gating of Hippocampal-Neocortical Interactions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Andrea; Morris, Richard G M; Canals, Santiago

    2016-05-01

    How and where hippocampal-neocortical interactions required for memory formation take place is a major issue of current research. Using a combined in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging/electrophysiology approach, we have investigated whether specific frequencies of CA3 neuronal activation, inducing different forms of short-term plasticity at CA1 synapses, contribute to differential activity propagation in brain-wide networks connected to the hippocampus. We report that localized activation of CA3 neurons in dorsal hippocampus produced activity propagation within the hippocampal formation, including the subiculum and entorhinal cortex, which increased monotonically with frequency to a maximum at 20-40 Hz. However, robust extrahippocampal propagation was seen specifically at theta-beta frequencies (10-20 Hz), reaching a network of midline neocortical and mesolimbic structures. Activation in those regions correlated with a frequency-dependent facilitation of spiking activity recorded in CA1. These results provide a mechanistic link between the dynamic properties of short-term plasticity in the efferent synapses of CA3 neurons in CA1 and activity propagation in brain-wide networks, and identify polysynaptic information channels segregated in the frequency domain. PMID:25761637

  9. Genetic dissection of GABAergic neural circuits in mouse neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Diverse and flexible cortical functions rely on the ability of neural circuits to perform multiple types of neuronal computations. GABAergic inhibitory interneurons significantly contribute to this task by regulating the balance of activity, synaptic integration, spiking, synchrony, and oscillation in a neural ensemble. GABAergic interneurons display a high degree of cellular diversity in morphology, physiology, connectivity, and gene expression. A considerable number of subtypes of GABAergic interneurons diversify modes of cortical inhibition, enabling various types of information processing in the cortex. Thus, comprehensively understanding fate specification, circuit assembly, and physiological function of GABAergic interneurons is a key to elucidate the principles of cortical wiring and function. Recent advances in genetically encoded molecular tools have made a breakthrough to systematically study cortical circuitry at the molecular, cellular, circuit, and whole animal levels. However, the biggest obstacle to fully applying the power of these to analysis of GABAergic circuits was that there were no efficient and reliable methods to express them in subtypes of GABAergic interneurons. Here, I first summarize cortical interneuron diversity and current understanding of mechanisms, by which distinct classes of GABAergic interneurons are generated. I then review recent development in genetically encoded molecular tools for neural circuit research, and genetic targeting of GABAergic interneuron subtypes, particularly focusing on our recent effort to develop and characterize Cre/CreER knockin lines. Finally, I highlight recent success in genetic targeting of chandelier cells, the most unique and distinct GABAergic interneuron subtype, and discuss what kind of questions need to be addressed to understand development and function of cortical inhibitory circuits. PMID:24478631

  10. GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijie; Benitez, Sergio G; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Kruse, Martin; Seo, Jong Bae; Koh, Duk-Su; Muñoz, Estela M; Hille, Bertil

    2016-08-01

    Pinealocytes secrete melatonin at night in response to norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve terminals in the pineal gland. The gland also contains many other neurotransmitters whose cellular disposition, activity, and relevance to pineal function are not understood. Here, we clarify sources and demonstrate cellular actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the gland and electrical recording from pinealocytes. GABAergic cells and nerve fibers, defined as containing GABA and the synthetic GAD67, were identified. The cells represent a subset of interstitial cells while the nerve fibers were distinct from the sympathetic innervation. The GABAA receptor subunit α1 was visualized in close proximity of both GABAergic and sympathetic nerve fibers as well as fine extensions among pinealocytes and blood vessels. The GABAB 1 receptor subunit was localized in the interstitial compartment but not in pinealocytes. Electrophysiology of isolated pinealocytes revealed that GABA and muscimol elicit strong inward chloride currents sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxin, clear evidence for functional GABAA receptors on the surface membrane. Applications of elevated potassium solution or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine depolarized the pinealocyte membrane potential enough to open voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to intracellular calcium elevations. GABA repolarized the membrane and shut off such calcium rises. In 48-72-h cultured intact glands, GABA application neither triggered melatonin secretion by itself nor affected norepinephrine-induced secretion. Thus, strong elements of GABA signaling are present in pineal glands that make large electrical responses in pinealocytes, but physiological roles need to be found. PMID:27019076

  11. Redistribution of synaptic efficacy between neocortical pyramidal neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markram, Henry; Tsodyks, Misha

    1996-08-01

    EXPERiENCE-dependent potentiation and depression of synaptic strength has been proposed to subserve learning and memory by changing the gain of signals conveyed between neurons1,2. Here we examine synaptic plasticity between individual neocortical layer-5 pyramidal neurons. We show that an increase in the synaptic response, induced by pairing action-potential activity in pre- and postsynaptic neurons, was only observed when synaptic input occurred at low frequencies. This frequency-dependent increase in synaptic responses arises because of a redistribution of the available synaptic efficacy and not because of an increase in the efficacy. Redistribution of synaptic efficacy could represent a mechanism to change the content, rather than the gain, of signals conveyed between neurons.

  12. Optical neural stimulation modeling on degenerative neocortical neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, M.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Salas-García, I.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases usually appear at advanced age. Medical advances make people live longer and as a consequence, the number of neurodegenerative diseases continuously grows. There is still no cure for these diseases, but several brain stimulation techniques have been proposed to improve patients' condition. One of them is Optical Neural Stimulation (ONS), which is based on the application of optical radiation over specific brain regions. The outer cerebral zones can be noninvasively stimulated, without the common drawbacks associated to surgical procedures. This work focuses on the analysis of ONS effects in stimulated neurons to determine their influence in neuronal activity. For this purpose a neural network model has been employed. The results show the neural network behavior when the stimulation is provided by means of different optical radiation sources and constitute a first approach to adjust the optical light source parameters to stimulate specific neocortical areas.

  13. Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions - Dynamics of synaptic modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, L.

    1983-01-01

    A recent study has demonstrated that several scales of neocortical interactions can be consistently analyzed with the use of methods of modern nonlinear nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The formation, stability, and interaction of spatial-temporal patterns of columnar firings are explicitly calculated, to test hypothesized mechanisms relating to information processing. In this context, most probable patterns of columnar firings are associated with chemical and electrical synaptic modifications. It is stressed that synaptic modifications and shifts in most-probable firing patterns are highly nonlinear and interactive sets of phenomena. A detailed scenario of information processing is calculated of columnar coding of external stimuli, short-term storage via hysteresis, and long-term storage via synaptic modification.

  14. Emx1 Is Required for Neocortical Area Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, Adam M.; O’Leary, Dennis D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing appropriate area patterning in the neocortex is a critical developmental event, and transcription factors whose expression is graded across the developing neural axes have been implicated in this process. While previous reports suggested that the transcription factor Emx1 does not contribute to neocortical area patterning, those studies were performed at perinatal ages prior to the emergence of primary areas. We therefore examined two different Emx1 deletion mouse lines once primary areas possess mature features. Following the deletion of Emx1, the frontal and motor areas were expanded while the primary visual area was reduced, and overall the areas shifted posterio-medially. This patterning phenotype was consistent between the two Emx1 deletion strategies. The present study demonstrates that Emx1 is an area patterning transcription factor and is required for the specification of the primary visual area. PMID:26901526

  15. GABAergic dysfunction in pediatric neuro-developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Hicks, Constance L.

    2013-01-01

    The GABAergic system is central to the development and functional maturation of the nervous system. Emerging evidence support the role of GABAergic dysfunction in neuro-developmental disorders. This review presents the molecules and mechanisms that underlie GABA system dysfunction in several neuro-developmental disorders presenting in childhood. The impact on synaptic plasticity, neuronal circuit function and behavior, followed by targeted treatment strategies are discussed. PMID:24391546

  16. GABAergic circuit dysfunction in the Drosophila Fragile X syndrome model

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Cheryl L.; Pereira, Daniel; Broadie, Kendal

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of FMR1 gene function, is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. The FMR1 protein (FMRP) translational regulator mediates activity-dependent control of synapses. In addition to the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) hyperexcitation FXS theory, the GABA theory postulates that hypoinhibition is causative for disease state symptoms. Here, we use the Drosophila FXS model to assay central brain GABAergic circuitry, especially within the Mushroom Body (MB) learning center. All 3 GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunits are reportedly downregulated in dfmr1 null brains. We demonstrate parallel downregulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting GABA synthesis enzyme, although GABAergic cell numbers appear unaffected. Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker (MARCM) single-cell clonal studies show that dfmr1 null GABAergic neurons innervating the MB calyx display altered architectural development, with early underdevelopment followed by later overelaboration. In addition, a new class of extra-calyx terminating GABAergic neurons is shown to include MB intrinsic α/β Kenyon Cells (KCs), revealing a novel level of MB inhibitory regulation. Functionally, dfmr1 null GABAergic neurons exhibit elevated calcium signaling and altered kinetics in response to acute depolarization. To test the role of these GABAergic changes, we attempted to pharmacologically restore GABAergic signaling and assay effects on the compromised MB-dependent olfactory learning in dfmr1 mutants, but found no improvement. Our results show that GABAergic circuit structure and function are impaired in the FXS disease state, but that correction of hypoinhibition alone is not sufficient to rescue a behavioral learning impairment. PMID:24423648

  17. Influence of Pyrethroid Insecticides on Sodium and Calcium Influx in Neocortical Neurons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Using murine neocortical neurons in primary culture, we have compared the ability of 11 structurally diverse pyrethroid insecticides to evoke Na+ ...

  18. GABAergic control of depression-related brain states

    PubMed Central

    Luscher, Bernhard; Fuchs, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The GABAergic deficit hypothesis of major depressive disorders posits that reduced GABA concentration in brain, impaired function of GABAergic interneurons, altered expression and function of GABAA receptors, and changes in GABAergic transmission dictated by altered chloride homeostasis can contribute to the etiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Conversely, the hypothesis posits that the efficacy of currently used antidepressants is determined by their ability to enhance GABAergic neurotransmission. We here provide an update for corresponding evidence from studies of patients and preclinical animal models of depression. In addition, we propose an explanation for the continued lack of genetic evidence that explains the considerable heritability of MDD. Lastly, we discuss how alterations in GABAergic transmission are integral to other hypotheses of MDD that emphasize (i) the role of monoaminergic deficits, (ii) stress-based etiologies, (iii) neurotrophic deficits, and (iv) the neurotoxic and neural circuit-impairing consequences of chronic excesses of glutamate. We propose that altered GABAergic transmission serves as a common denominator of MDD that can account for all these other hypotheses and that plays a causal and common role in diverse mechanistic etiologies of depressive brain states and in the mechanism of action of current antidepressant drug therapies. PMID:25637439

  19. GABAergic control of depression-related brain states.

    PubMed

    Luscher, Bernhard; Fuchs, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The GABAergic deficit hypothesis of major depressive disorders (MDDs) posits that reduced γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in brain, impaired function of GABAergic interneurons, altered expression and function of GABA(A) receptors, and changes in GABAergic transmission dictated by altered chloride homeostasis can contribute to the etiology of MDD. Conversely, the hypothesis posits that the efficacy of currently used antidepressants is determined by their ability to enhance GABAergic neurotransmission. We here provide an update for corresponding evidence from studies of patients and preclinical animal models of depression. In addition, we propose an explanation for the continued lack of genetic evidence that explains the considerable heritability of MDD. Lastly, we discuss how alterations in GABAergic transmission are integral to other hypotheses of MDD that emphasize (i) the role of monoaminergic deficits, (ii) stress-based etiologies, (iii) neurotrophic deficits, and (iv) the neurotoxic and neural circuit-impairing consequences of chronic excesses of glutamate. We propose that altered GABAergic transmission serves as a common denominator of MDD that can account for all these other hypotheses and that plays a causal and common role in diverse mechanistic etiologies of depressive brain states and in the mechanism of action of current antidepressant drug therapies. PMID:25637439

  20. Development of the GABAergic system from birth to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kilb, Werner

    2012-12-01

    The neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid), acting via inotropic GABA(A) and metabotropic GABA(B) receptors, plays an essential role in a variety of distinct neuronal processes, including regulation of neuronal excitability, determination of temporal aspects of spike trains, control of the size and propagation of neuronal assemblies, generation of oscillatory activity, and neuronal plasticity. Although the developmental switch between excitatory and inhibitory GABA(A) receptor-mediated responses is widely appreciated, the fact that the postnatal maturation of the GABAergic system lasts until late adolescence is not so persuasively promoted. This review summarizes recent knowledge of the maturation of various aspects of the GABAergic systems, like functional expression of GABA synthesizing/degrading enzymes and transporters, density of GABAergic synapses, GABAergic projection patterns, GABA receptor subunit composition, and properties of GABAergic interneurons, with an emphasis on the late developmental alterations. In addition, some aspects of the development of mental capabilities during adolescence and their relation the delayed maturation of the GABAergic system are presented. PMID:21952258

  1. Fast gamma oscillations are generated intrinsically in CA1 without the involvement of fast-spiking basket cells.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael T; McBain, Chris J

    2015-02-25

    Information processing in neuronal networks relies on the precise synchronization of ensembles of neurons, coordinated by the diverse family of inhibitory interneurons. Cortical interneurons can be usefully parsed by embryonic origin, with the vast majority arising from either the caudal or medial ganglionic eminences (CGE and MGE). Here, we examine the activity of hippocampal interneurons during gamma oscillations in mouse CA1, using an in vitro model where brief epochs of rhythmic activity were evoked by local application of kainate. We found that this CA1 KA-evoked gamma oscillation was faster than that in CA3 and, crucially, did not appear to require the involvement of fast-spiking basket cells. In contrast to CA3, we also found that optogenetic inhibition of pyramidal cells in CA1 did not significantly affect the power of the oscillation, suggesting that excitation may not be essential for gamma genesis in this region. We found that MGE-derived interneurons were generally more active than CGE interneurons during CA1 gamma, although a group of CGE-derived interneurons, putative trilaminar cells, were strongly phase-locked with gamma oscillations and, together with MGE-derived axo-axonic and bistratified cells, provide attractive candidates for being the driver of this locally generated, predominantly interneuron-driven model of gamma oscillations. PMID:25716860

  2. Fast Gamma Oscillations Are Generated Intrinsically in CA1 without the Involvement of Fast-Spiking Basket Cells

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Information processing in neuronal networks relies on the precise synchronization of ensembles of neurons, coordinated by the diverse family of inhibitory interneurons. Cortical interneurons can be usefully parsed by embryonic origin, with the vast majority arising from either the caudal or medial ganglionic eminences (CGE and MGE). Here, we examine the activity of hippocampal interneurons during gamma oscillations in mouse CA1, using an in vitro model where brief epochs of rhythmic activity were evoked by local application of kainate. We found that this CA1 KA-evoked gamma oscillation was faster than that in CA3 and, crucially, did not appear to require the involvement of fast-spiking basket cells. In contrast to CA3, we also found that optogenetic inhibition of pyramidal cells in CA1 did not significantly affect the power of the oscillation, suggesting that excitation may not be essential for gamma genesis in this region. We found that MGE-derived interneurons were generally more active than CGE interneurons during CA1 gamma, although a group of CGE-derived interneurons, putative trilaminar cells, were strongly phase-locked with gamma oscillations and, together with MGE-derived axo-axonic and bistratified cells, provide attractive candidates for being the driver of this locally generated, predominantly interneuron-driven model of gamma oscillations. PMID:25716860

  3. Reduced GABAergic Action in the Autistic Brain.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Caroline E; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-01-11

    An imbalance between excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission has been posited as a central characteristic of the neurobiology of autism [1], inspired in part by the striking prevalence of seizures among individuals with the disorder [2]. Evidence supporting this hypothesis has specifically implicated the signaling pathway of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in this putative imbalance: GABA receptor genes have been associated with autism in linkage and copy number variation studies [3-7], fewer GABA receptor subunits have been observed in the post-mortem tissue of autistic individuals [8, 9], and GABAergic signaling is disrupted across heterogeneous mouse models of autism [10]. Yet, empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis in humans is lacking, leaving a gulf between animal and human studies of the condition. Here, we present a direct link between GABA signaling and autistic perceptual symptomatology. We first demonstrate a robust, replicated autistic deficit in binocular rivalry [11], a basic visual function that is thought to rely on the balance of excitation/inhibition in visual cortex [12-15]. Then, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we demonstrate a tight linkage between binocular rivalry dynamics in typical participants and both GABA and glutamate levels in the visual cortex. Finally, we show that the link between GABA and binocular rivalry dynamics is completely and specifically absent in autism. These results suggest a disruption in inhibitory signaling in the autistic brain and forge a translational path between animal and human models of the condition. PMID:26711497

  4. Distribution of GABAergic cells in the inferior colliculus that project to the thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Mellott, Jeffrey G.; Foster, Nichole L.; Nakamoto, Kyle T.; Motts, Susan D.; Schofield, Brett R.

    2014-01-01

    A GABAergic component has been identified in the projection from the inferior colliculus (IC) to the medial geniculate body (MG) in cats and rats. We sought to determine if this GABAergic pathway exists in guinea pig, a species widely used in auditory research. The guinea pig IC contains GABAergic cells, but their relative abundance in the IC and their relative contributions to tectothalamic projections are unknown. We identified GABAergic cells with immunochemistry for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and determined that ~21% of IC neurons are GABAergic. We then combined retrograde tracing with GAD immunohistochemistry to identify the GABAergic tectothalamic projection. Large injections of Fast Blue, red fluorescent beads or FluoroGold were deposited to include all subdivisions of the MG. The results demonstrate a GABAergic pathway from each IC subdivision to the ipsilateral MG. GABAergic cells constitute ~22% of this ipsilateral pathway. In addition, each subdivision of the IC had a GABAergic projection to the contralateral MG. Measured by number of tectothalamic cells, the contralateral projection is about 10% of the size of the ipsilateral projection. GABAergic cells constitute about 20% of the contralateral projection. In summary, the results demonstrate a tectothalamic projection in guinea pigs that originates in part from GABAergic cells that project ipsilaterally or contralaterally to the MG. The results show similarities to both rats and cats, and carry implications for the role of GABAergic tectothalamic projections vis-à-vis the presence (in cats) or near absence (in rats and guinea pigs) of GABAergic interneurons in the MG. PMID:24744703

  5. Nigral inhibition of GABAergic neurons in mouse superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Katsuyuki; Isa, Kaoru; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Isa, Tadashi

    2008-10-22

    The current dominant concept for the control of saccadic eye movements by the basal ganglia is that release from tonic GABAergic inhibition by the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) triggers burst firings of intermediate gray layer (SGI) neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) to allow saccade initiation. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that SNr cells inhibit excitatory projection neurons in the SGI. Here we show that nigrotectal fibers are connected to local GABAergic neurons in the SGI with a similar frequency to non-GABAergic neurons. This was accomplished by applying neuroanatomical tracing and slice electrophysiological experiments in GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice, in which GABAergic neurons specifically express GFP. We also found that GABA(A), but not GABA(B), receptors subserve nigrotectal transmission. The present results revealed a novel aspect on the role of the basal ganglia in the control of saccades, e.g., the SNr not only regulates burst initiation but also modulates the spatiotemporal properties of premotor neurons via connections to local GABAergic neurons in the SC. PMID:18945914

  6. Control of REM sleep by ventral medulla GABAergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Weber, Franz; Chung, Shinjae; Beier, Kevin T; Xu, Min; Luo, Liqun; Dan, Yang

    2015-10-15

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a distinct brain state characterized by activated electroencephalogram and complete skeletal muscle paralysis, and is associated with vivid dreams. Transection studies by Jouvet first demonstrated that the brainstem is both necessary and sufficient for REM sleep generation, and the neural circuits in the pons have since been studied extensively. The medulla also contains neurons that are active during REM sleep, but whether they play a causal role in REM sleep generation remains unclear. Here we show that a GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric-acid-releasing) pathway originating from the ventral medulla powerfully promotes REM sleep in mice. Optogenetic activation of ventral medulla GABAergic neurons rapidly and reliably initiated REM sleep episodes and prolonged their durations, whereas inactivating these neurons had the opposite effects. Optrode recordings from channelrhodopsin-2-tagged ventral medulla GABAergic neurons showed that they were most active during REM sleep (REMmax), and during wakefulness they were preferentially active during eating and grooming. Furthermore, dual retrograde tracing showed that the rostral projections to the pons and midbrain and caudal projections to the spinal cord originate from separate ventral medulla neuron populations. Activating the rostral GABAergic projections was sufficient for both the induction and maintenance of REM sleep, which are probably mediated in part by inhibition of REM-suppressing GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey. These results identify a key component of the pontomedullary network controlling REM sleep. The capability to induce REM sleep on command may offer a powerful tool for investigating its functions. PMID:26444238

  7. Enhanced high-frequency membrane potential fluctuations control spike output in striatal fast-spiking interneurones in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Jan M; Pitcher, Toni L; Savanthrapadian, Shakuntala; Wickens, Jeffery R; Oswald, Manfred J; Reynolds, John N J

    2011-09-01

    Fast-spiking interneurones (FSIs) constitute a prominent part of the inhibitory microcircuitry of the striatum; however, little is known about their recruitment by synaptic inputs in vivo. Here, we report that, in contrast to cholinergic interneurones (CINs), FSIs (n = 9) recorded in urethane-anaesthetized rats exhibit Down-to-Up state transitions very similar to spiny projection neurones (SPNs). Compared to SPNs, the FSI Up state membrane potential was noisier and power spectra exhibited significantly larger power at frequencies in the gamma range (55-95 Hz). The membrane potential exhibited short and steep trajectories preceding spontaneous spike discharge, suggesting that fast input components controlled spike output in FSIs. Spontaneous spike data contained a high proportion (43.6 ± 32.8%) of small inter-spike intervals (ISIs) of <30 ms, setting FSIs clearly apart from SPNs and CINs. Cortical-evoked inputs had slower dynamics in SPNs than FSIs, and repetitive stimulation entrained SPN spike output only if the stimulation was delivered at an intermediate frequency (20 Hz), but not at a high frequency (100 Hz). Pharmacological induction of an activated ECoG state, known to promote rapid FSI spiking, mildly increased the power (by 43 ± 55%, n = 13) at gamma frequencies in the membrane potential of SPNs, but resulted in few small ISIs (<30 ms; 4.3 ± 6.4%, n = 8). The gamma frequency content did not change in CINs (n = 8). These results indicate that FSIs are uniquely responsive to high-frequency input sequences. By controlling the spike output of SPNs, FSIs could serve gating of top-down signals and long-range synchronisation of gamma-oscillations during behaviour. PMID:21746788

  8. Long-range population dynamics of anatomically defined neocortical networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jerry L; Voigt, Fabian F; Javadzadeh, Mitra; Krueppel, Roland; Helmchen, Fritjof

    2016-01-01

    The coordination of activity across neocortical areas is essential for mammalian brain function. Understanding this process requires simultaneous functional measurements across the cortex. In order to dissociate direct cortico-cortical interactions from other sources of neuronal correlations, it is furthermore desirable to target cross-areal recordings to neuronal subpopulations that anatomically project between areas. Here, we combined anatomical tracers with a novel multi-area two-photon microscope to perform simultaneous calcium imaging across mouse primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory whisker cortex during texture discrimination behavior, specifically identifying feedforward and feedback neurons. We find that coordination of S1-S2 activity increases during motor behaviors such as goal-directed whisking and licking. This effect was not specific to identified feedforward and feedback neurons. However, these mutually projecting neurons especially participated in inter-areal coordination when motor behavior was paired with whisker-texture touches, suggesting that direct S1-S2 interactions are sensory-dependent. Our results demonstrate specific functional coordination of anatomically-identified projection neurons across sensory cortices. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14679.001 PMID:27218452

  9. Hippocampal-neocortical interaction: a hierarchy of associativity.

    PubMed

    Lavenex, P; Amaral, D G

    2000-01-01

    The structures forming the medial temporal lobe appear to be necessary for the establishment of long-term declarative memory. In particular, they may be involved in the "consolidation" of information in higher-order associational cortices, perhaps through feedback projections. This review highlights the fact that the medial temporal lobe is organized as a hierarchy of associational networks. Indeed, associational connections within the perirhinal, parahippocampal, and entorhinal cortices enables a significant amount of integration of unimodal and polymodal inputs, so that only highly integrated information reaches the remainder of the hippocampal formation. The feedback efferent projections from the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices to the neocortex largely reciprocate the afferent projections from the neocortex to these areas. There are, however, noticeable differences in the degree of reciprocity of connections between the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices and certain areas of the neocortex, in particular in the frontal and temporal lobes. These observations are particularly important for models of hippocampal-neocortical interaction and long-term storage of information in the neocortex. Furthermore, recent functional studies suggest that the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices are more than interfaces for communication between the neocortex and the hippocampal formation. These structures participate actively in memory processes, but the precise role they play in the service of memory or other cognitive functions is currently unclear. PMID:10985281

  10. Neocortical Expansion: An Attempt toward Relating Phylogeny and Ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Killackey, H P

    1990-01-01

    The neocortex is the most characteristic feature of the human brain. On gross inspection, its convoluted surfaces can be seen to have overgrown and covered most other brain structures. In the functional sphere, it is to the neocortex that we attribute those behaviors assumed to be most uniquely human such as cognition and linguistic behavior. This essay is an attempt to understand how this structure expanded during the course of mammalian evolution. At present, any attempt must be more speculative than definitive, but it is offered in the hope that it will generate more discussion on a topic that is central to all neurobiology, as well as a number of allied disciplines. I will proceed by outlining current views on the evolution of the brain, briefly review the organization of the somatosensory cortex in several mammalian forms, and then discuss in some detail ontogenetic mechanisms that may have some bearing on neocortical phylogeny. The primary proposition put forth is that the mammalian neocortex is relatively unspecified by strict genetic means, and that this allowed the neocortex to expand and adapt to a variety of circumstances during the course of phylogeny. PMID:23964719

  11. Long-range population dynamics of anatomically defined neocortical networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jerry L; Voigt, Fabian F; Javadzadeh, Mitra; Krueppel, Roland; Helmchen, Fritjof

    2016-01-01

    The coordination of activity across neocortical areas is essential for mammalian brain function. Understanding this process requires simultaneous functional measurements across the cortex. In order to dissociate direct cortico-cortical interactions from other sources of neuronal correlations, it is furthermore desirable to target cross-areal recordings to neuronal subpopulations that anatomically project between areas. Here, we combined anatomical tracers with a novel multi-area two-photon microscope to perform simultaneous calcium imaging across mouse primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory whisker cortex during texture discrimination behavior, specifically identifying feedforward and feedback neurons. We find that coordination of S1-S2 activity increases during motor behaviors such as goal-directed whisking and licking. This effect was not specific to identified feedforward and feedback neurons. However, these mutually projecting neurons especially participated in inter-areal coordination when motor behavior was paired with whisker-texture touches, suggesting that direct S1-S2 interactions are sensory-dependent. Our results demonstrate specific functional coordination of anatomically-identified projection neurons across sensory cortices. PMID:27218452

  12. YAP stabilizes SMAD1 and promotes BMP2-induced neocortical astrocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhihui; Hu, Jinxia; Pan, Jinxiu; Wang, Ying; Hu, Guoqing; Zhou, Jiliang; Mei, Lin; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    ‪YAP (yes-associated protein), a key transcriptional co-factor that is negatively regulated by the Hippo pathway, is crucial for the development and size control of multiple organs, including the liver. However, its role in the brain remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence for YAP regulation of mouse neocortical astrocytic differentiation and proliferation. YAP was undetectable in neurons, but selectively expressed in neural stem cells (NSCs) and astrocytes. YAP in NSCs was required for neocortical astrocytic differentiation, with no apparent role in self-renewal or neural differentiation. However, YAP in astrocytes was necessary for astrocytic proliferation. Yap (Yap1) knockout, Yap(nestin) conditional knockout and Yap(GFAP) conditional knockout mice displayed fewer neocortical astrocytes and impaired astrocytic proliferation and, consequently, death of neocortical neurons. Mechanistically, YAP was activated by BMP2, and the active/nuclear YAP was crucial for BMP2 induction and stabilization of SMAD1 and astrocytic differentiation. Expression of SMAD1 in YAP-deficient NSCs partially rescued the astrocytic differentiation deficit in response to BMP2. Taken together, these results identify a novel function of YAP in neocortical astrocytic differentiation and proliferation, and reveal a BMP2-YAP-SMAD1 pathway underlying astrocytic differentiation in the developing mouse neocortex. PMID:27381227

  13. GABAergic processes within the median preoptic nucleus promote NREM sleep.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Luciana; Chase, Michael H; Torterolo, Pablo

    2012-06-15

    GABAergic mechanisms in the preoptic region of the hypothalamus (POA) have been implicated in the generation and maintenance of NREM (quiet) sleep. We recently reported that neurons in the median peptic nucleus (MnPN) in the POA of the cat are selectively activated during NREM sleep. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that NREM sleep is controlled by GABAergic mechanisms within the MnPN. Consequently, adult cats were utilized to determine GABA immunorreactivity within the MnPN and to examine the effects on sleep of the microinjection of a GABA(A) agonist (muscimol) and a GABA(A) antagonist (bicuculline) into this area. GABAergic neurons were present throughout the MnPN. Compared with control microinjections, after the application of muscimol, the time spent in NREM sleep (59.8±7.5 min) and REM sleep (6.9±4.7 min) decreased compared with control microinjections (103.8±5.2 and 20.2±4.3 min, respectively; P<0.005). In contrast, bicuculline microinjections increased only NREM sleep time (103.0±23.0 vs 77.7±23.7 min; P<0.05). These results demonstrate that GABAergic processes within the MnPN are involved in the generation and maintenance of sleep, especially NREM sleep. PMID:22483998

  14. GABAergic inhibition shapes interictal dynamics in awake epileptic mice.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Sarah Feldt; Villette, Vincent; Tressard, Thomas; Malvache, Arnaud; Reichinnek, Susanne; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Cossart, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures and brief, synchronous bursts called interictal spikes that are present in-between seizures and observed as transient events in EEG signals. While GABAergic transmission is known to play an important role in shaping healthy brain activity, the role of inhibition in these pathological epileptic dynamics remains unclear. Examining the microcircuits that participate in interictal spikes is thus an important first step towards addressing this issue, as the function of these transient synchronizations in either promoting or prohibiting seizures is currently under debate. To identify the microcircuits recruited in spontaneous interictal spikes in the absence of any proconvulsive drug or anaesthetic agent, we combine a chronic model of epilepsy with in vivo two-photon calcium imaging and multiunit extracellular recordings to map cellular recruitment within large populations of CA1 neurons in mice free to run on a self-paced treadmill. We show that GABAergic neurons, as opposed to their glutamatergic counterparts, are preferentially recruited during spontaneous interictal activity in the CA1 region of the epileptic mouse hippocampus. Although the specific cellular dynamics of interictal spikes are found to be highly variable, they are consistently associated with the activation of GABAergic neurons, resulting in a perisomatic inhibitory restraint that reduces neuronal spiking in the principal cell layer. Given the role of GABAergic neurons in shaping brain activity during normal cognitive function, their aberrant unbalanced recruitment during these transient events could have important downstream effects with clinical implications. PMID:26280596

  15. Implications of GABAergic Neurotransmission in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanfang; Sun, Hao; Chen, Zhicai; Xu, Huaxi; Bu, Guojun; Zheng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized pathologically by the deposition of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated tau. Regardless of the pathological hallmarks, synaptic dysfunction is widely accepted as a causal event in AD. Of the two major types of synapses in the central nervous system (CNS): glutamatergic and GABAergic, which provide excitatory and inhibitory outputs respectively, abundant data implicate an impaired glutamatergic system during disease progression. However, emerging evidence supports the notion that disrupted default neuronal network underlies impaired memory, and that alterations of GABAergic circuits, either plays a primary role or as a compensatory response to excitotoxicity, may also contribute to AD by disrupting the overall network function. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the involvement of Aβ, tau and apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), the major genetic risk factor in late-onset AD (LOAD), in GABAergic neurotransmission and the potential of modulating the GABAergic function as AD therapy. PMID:26941642

  16. Immunological GABAergic interactions and therapeutic applications in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, Gérald J; Glinka, Yelena; Wang, Qinghua

    2015-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. However, it is also produced in other sites; notably by pancreatic β cells and immune cells. The function of GABA in the immune system is at an early stage of study, but it exerts inhibitory effects that are relevant to autoimmune diseases. The study of GABAergic interactions in the immune system has centered on three main aspects: 1) the expression of GABA and the relevant GABAergic molecular machinery; 2) the in vitro response of immune cells; and 3) therapeutic applications in autoimmune diseases. T cells and macrophages can produce GABA, and express all the components necessary for a GABAergic response. There are two types of GABA receptors, but lymphocytes appear to express only type A (GABAAR); a ligand-gated chloride channel. Other immune cells may also express the type B receptor (GABABR); a G-protein coupled receptor. Activation of GABA receptors on T cells and macrophages inhibits responses such as production of inflammatory cytokines. In T cells, GABA blocks the activation-induced calcium signal, and it also inhibits NF-κB activation. In preclinical models, therapeutic application of GABA, or GABAergic (agonistic) drugs, protects against type 1 diabetes (T1D), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and contact dermatitis. In addition, GABA exerts anti-apoptotic and proliferative effects on islet β cells, which may be applicable to islet transplantation. Autoimmunity against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65; synthesizes GABA) occurs in T1D. Antigen therapy of T1D with GAD65 or proinsulin in mice has protective effects, which are markedly enhanced by combined GABA therapy. Clinically, autoantibodies against GAD65 and/or GABA receptors play a pathogenic role in several neurological conditions, including stiff person syndrome (SPS), some forms of encephalitis, and autoimmune epilepsy. GABAergic drugs are widely used in

  17. More sensitivity of cortical GABAergic neurons than glutamatergic neurons in response to acidosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Li, Fang; Wang, Chunyan; Su, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-25

    Acidosis impairs brain functions. Neuron-specific mechanisms underlying acidosis-induced brain dysfunction remain elusive. We studied the sensitivity of cortical GABAergic neurons and glutamatergic neurons to acidosis by whole-cell recording in brain slices. The acidification to the neurons was induced by perfusing artificial cerebral spinal fluid with lower pH. This acidification impairs excitability and synaptic transmission in the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Acidosis impairs spiking capacity in the GABAergic neurons more than in the glutamatergic neurons. Acidosis also strengthens glutamatergic synaptic transmission and attenuates GABAergic synaptic transmission on the GABAergic neurons more than the glutamatergic neurons, which results in the functional impairment of these GABAergic neurons. This acidosis-induced dysfunction predominantly in the cortical GABAergic neurons drives the homeostasis of neuronal networks toward overexcitation and exacerbates neuronal impairment. PMID:27116702

  18. Neuregulin 1 promotes excitatory synapse development specifically in GABAergic interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Annie K.; Chen, Yongjun; Wen, Lei; Yin, Dong-Min; Shen, Chengyong; Tao, Yanmei; Liu, Xihui; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor ErbB4 are both susceptibility genes of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of their malfunction. Although ErbB4 is enriched in GABAergic interneurons, the role of NRG1 in excitatory synapse formation in these neurons remains poorly understood. We showed that NRG1 increased both the number and size of PSD-95 puncta and the frequency and amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in GABAergic interneurons, indicating that NRG1 stimulates the formation of new synapses and strengthens existing synapses. In contrast, NRG1 treatment had no effect on either the number or size of excitatory synapses in glutamatergic neurons, suggesting its synaptogenic effect is specific to GABAergic interneurons. Ecto-ErbB4 treatment diminished both the number and size of excitatory synapses, suggesting that endogenous NRG1 may be critical for basal synapse formation. NRG1 could stimulate the stability of PSD-95 in the manner that requires tyrosine kinase activity of ErbB4. Finally, deletion of ErbB4 in parvalbumin-positive interneurons led to reduced frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs, providing in vivo evidence that ErbB4 is important in excitatory synaptogenesis in interneurons. Taken together, our findings suggested a novel synaptogenic role of NRG1 in excitatory synapse development, possibly via stabilizing PSD-95, and this effect is specific to GABAergic interneurons. In light of the association of the genes of both NRG1 and ErbB4 with schizophrenia and dysfunction of GABAergic system in this disorder, these results provide insight into its potential pathological mechanism. PMID:21209185

  19. Control of REM Sleep by Ventral Medulla GABAergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Franz; Chung, Shinjae; Beier, Kevin T.; Luo, Liqun; Dan, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a distinct brain state characterized by activated electroencephalogram (EEG) and complete skeletal muscle paralysis, and it is associated with vivid dreams1-3. Transection studies by Jouvet first demonstrated that the brainstem is both necessary and sufficient for REM sleep generation2, and the neural circuits in the pons have since been studied extensively4-8. The medulla also contains neurons that are active during REM sleep9-13, but whether they play a causal role in REM sleep generation remains unclear. Here we show that a GABAergic pathway originating from the ventral medulla (vM) powerfully promotes REM sleep. Optogenetic activation of vM GABAergic neurons rapidly and reliably initiated REM sleep episodes and prolonged their durations, whereas inactivating these neurons had the opposite effects. Optrode recordings from channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-tagged vM GABAergic neurons showed that they were most active during REM sleep (REM-max), and during wakefulness they were preferentially active during eating and grooming. Furthermore, dual retrograde tracing showed that the rostral projections to the pons and midbrain and caudal projections to the spinal cord originate from separate vM neuron populations. Activating the rostral GABAergic projections was sufficient for both the induction and maintenance of REM sleep, which are likely mediated in part by inhibition of REM-suppressing GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). These results identify a key component of the pontomedullary network controlling REM sleep. The capability to induce REM sleep on command may offer a powerful tool for investigating its functions. PMID:26444238

  20. Fluoxetine disrupts motivation and GABAergic signaling in adolescent female hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shannonhouse, John L; DuBois, Dustin W; Fincher, Annette S; Vela, Alejandra M; Henry, Morgan M; Wellman, Paul J; Frye, Gerald D; Morgan, Caurnel

    2016-08-01

    Initial antidepressant treatment can paradoxically worsen symptoms in depressed adolescents by undetermined mechanisms. Interestingly, antidepressants modulate GABAA receptors, which mediate paradoxical effects of other therapeutic drugs, particularly in females. Although the neuroanatomic site of action for this paradox is unknown, elevated GABAA receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens can disrupt motivation. We assessed fluoxetine's effects on motivated behaviors in pubescent female hamsters - anhedonia in the reward investigational preference (RIP) test as well as anxiety in the anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test. We also assessed accumbal signaling by RT-PCR and electrophysiology. Fluoxetine initially worsened motivated behaviors at puberty, relative to adulthood. It also failed to improve these behaviors as pubescent hamsters transitioned into adulthood. Low accumbal mRNA levels of multiple GABAA receptor subunits and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, GAD67, assessed by RT-PCR, suggested low GABAergic tone at puberty. Nonetheless, rapid fluoxetine-induced reductions of α5GABAA receptor and BDNF mRNA levels at puberty were consistent with age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine and disruption of the motivational state. Whole-cell patch clamping of accumbal slices also suggested low GABAergic tone by the low amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) at puberty. It also confirmed age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine. Specifically, fluoxetine potentiated mIPSC amplitude and frequency at puberty, but attenuated the amplitude during adulthood. These results implicate GABAergic tone and GABAA receptor plasticity in adverse motivational responses and resistance to fluoxetine during adolescence. PMID:27068049

  1. Postnatal maturation of GABAergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, David E; Ryan, Steven J; Hazra, Rimi; Guo, Ji-Dong; Rainnie, Donald G

    2013-08-01

    Many psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and autism spectrum disorders, have early ages of onset and high incidence in juveniles. To better treat and prevent these disorders, it is important to first understand normal development of brain circuits that process emotion. Healthy and maladaptive emotional processing involve the basolateral amygdala (BLA), dysfunction of which has been implicated in numerous psychiatric disorders. Normal function of the adult BLA relies on a fine balance of glutamatergic excitation and GABAergic inhibition. Elsewhere in the brain GABAergic transmission changes throughout development, but little is known about the maturation of GABAergic transmission in the BLA. Here we used whole cell patch-clamp recording and single-cell RT-PCR to study GABAergic transmission in rat BLA principal neurons at postnatal day (P)7, P14, P21, P28, and P35. GABAA currents exhibited a significant twofold reduction in rise time and nearly 25% reduction in decay time constant between P7 and P28. This corresponded with a shift in expression of GABAA receptor subunit mRNA from the α2- to the α1-subunit. The reversal potential for GABAA receptors transitioned from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing with age, from around -55 mV at P7 to -70 mV by P21. There was a corresponding shift in expression of opposing chloride pumps that influence the reversal, from NKCC1 to KCC2. Finally, we observed short-term depression of GABAA postsynaptic currents in immature neurons that was significantly and gradually abolished by P28. These findings reveal that in the developing BLA GABAergic transmission is highly dynamic, reaching maturity at the end of the first postnatal month. PMID:23719209

  2. Fluoxetine impairs GABAergic signaling in hippocampal slices from neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Caiati, Maddalena D.; Cherubini, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Fluoxetine (Prozac), an antidepressant known to selectively inhibit serotonin reuptake, is widely used to treat mood disorders in women suffering from depression during pregnancy and postpartum period. Several lines of evidence suggest that this drug, which crosses the human placenta and is secreted into milk during lactation, exerts its action not only by interfering with serotoninergic but also with GABAergic transmission. GABA is known to play a crucial role in the construction of neuronal circuits early in postnatal development. The immature hippocampus is characterized by an early type of network activity, the so-called Giant Depolarizing Potentials (GDPs), generated by the synergistic action of glutamate and GABA, both depolarizing and excitatory. Here we tested the hypothesis that fluoxetine may interfere with GABAergic signaling during the first postnatal week, thus producing harmful effects on brain development. At micromolar concentrations fluoxetine severely depressed GDPs frequency (IC50 22 μM) in a reversible manner and independently of its action on serotonin reuptake. This effect was dependent on a reduced GABAergic (but not glutamatergic) drive to principal cells most probably from parvalbumin-positive fast spiking neurons. Cholecystokinin-positive GABAergic interneurons were not involved since the effects of the drug persisted when cannabinoid receptors were occluded with WIN55,212-2, a CB1/CB2 receptor agonist. Fluoxetine effects on GABAergic transmission were associated with a reduced firing rate of both principal cells and interneurons further suggesting that changes in network excitability account for GDPs disruption. This may have critical consequences on the functional organization and stabilization of neuronal circuits early in postnatal development. PMID:23641199

  3. Functional and effective hippocampal-neocortical connectivity during construction and elaboration of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cornelia; St-Laurent, Marie; Ty, Ambrose; Valiante, Taufik A; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2015-05-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) provides the opportunity to study interactions among brain areas that support the search for a specific episodic memory (construction), and the later experience of mentally reliving it (elaboration). While the hippocampus supports both construction and elaboration, it is unclear how hippocampal-neocortical connectivity differs between these stages, and how this connectivity involves the anterior and posterior segments of the hippocampus, as these have been considered to support the retrieval of general concepts and recollection processes, respectively. We acquired fMRI data in 18 healthy participants during an AM retrieval task in which participants were asked to access a specific AM (construction) and then to recollect it by recovering as many episodic details as possible (elaboration). Using multivariate analytic techniques, we examined changes in functional and effective connectivity of hippocampal-neocortical interactions during these phases of AM retrieval. We found that the left anterior hippocampus interacted with frontal areas during construction and bilateral posterior hippocampi with visual perceptual areas during elaboration, indicating key roles for both hippocampi in coordinating transient neocortical networks at both AM stages. Our findings demonstrate the importance of direct interrogation of hippocampal-neocortical interactions to better illuminate the neural dynamics underlying complex cognitive tasks such as AM retrieval. PMID:24275829

  4. Locally Applied Valproate Enhances Survival in Rats after Neocortical Treatment with Tetanus Toxin and Cobalt Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias; Hebel, Jonas M.; Rassner, Michael P.; Freiman, Thomas M.; Feuerstein, Thomas J.; Zentner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. In neocortical epilepsies not satisfactorily responsive to systemic antiepileptic drug therapy, local application of antiepileptic agents onto the epileptic focus may enhance treatment efficacy and tolerability. We describe the effects of focally applied valproate (VPA) in a newly emerging rat model of neocortical epilepsy induced by tetanus toxin (TeT) plus cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Methods. In rats, VPA (n = 5) or sodium chloride (NaCl) (n = 5) containing polycaprolactone (PCL) implants were applied onto the right motor cortex treated before with a triple injection of 75 ng TeT plus 15 mg CoCl2. Video-EEG monitoring was performed with intracortical depth electrodes. Results. All rats randomized to the NaCl group died within one week after surgery. In contrast, the rats treated with local VPA survived significantly longer (P < 0.01). In both groups, witnessed deaths occurred in the context of seizures. At least 3/4 of the rats surviving the first postoperative day developed neocortical epilepsy with recurrent spontaneous seizures. Conclusions. The novel TeT/CoCl2 approach targets at a new model of neocortical epilepsy in rats and allows the investigation of local epilepsy therapy strategies. In this vehicle-controlled study, local application of VPA significantly enhanced survival in rats, possibly by focal antiepileptic or antiepileptogenic mechanisms. PMID:24151604

  5. Experience-Dependent Regulation of Presynaptic NMDARs Enhances Neurotransmitter Release at Neocortical Synapses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Wen, Jing A.; Parekh, Puja K.; Barth, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory experience can selectively alter excitatory synaptic strength at neocortical synapses. The rapid increase in synaptic strength induced by selective whisker stimulation (single-row experience/SRE, where all but one row of whiskers has been removed from the mouse face) is due, at least in part, to the trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs)…

  6. Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions: A scaling paradigm applied to electroencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingber, Lester

    1991-09-01

    A series of papers has developed a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI), deriving aggregate behavior of experimentally observed columns of neurons from statistical electrical-chemical properties of synaptic interactions. While not useful to yield insights at the single-neuron level, SMNI has demonstrated its capability in describing large-scale properties of short-term memory and electroencephalographic (EEG) systematics. The necessity of including nonlinear and stochastic structures in this development has been stressed. In this paper, a more stringent test is placed on SMNI: The algebraic and numerical algorithms previously developed in this and similar systems are brought to bear to fit large sets of EEG and evoked-potential data being collected to investigate genetic predispositions to alcoholism and to extract brain ``signatures'' of short-term memory. Using the numerical algorithm of very fast simulated reannealing, it is demonstrated that SMNI can indeed fit these data within experimentally observed ranges of its underlying neuronal-synaptic parameters, and the quantitative modeling results are used to examine physical neocortical mechanisms to discriminate high-risk and low-risk populations genetically predisposed to alcoholism. Since this study is a control to span relatively long time epochs, similar to earlier attempts to establish such correlations, this discrimination is inconclusive because of other neuronal activity which can mask such effects. However, the SMNI model is shown to be consistent with EEG data during selective attention tasks and with neocortical mechanisms describing short-term memory previously published using this approach. This paper explicitly identifies similar nonlinear stochastic mechanisms of interaction at the microscopic-neuronal, mesoscopic-columnar, and macroscopic-regional scales of neocortical interactions. These results give strong quantitative support for an accurate intuitive picture, portraying

  7. Temporal progression of evoked field potentials in neocortical slices after unilateral hypoxia-ischemia in perinatal rats: Correlation with cortical epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kadam, S D; Dudek, F E

    2016-03-01

    Infarcts of the neonatal cerebral cortex can lead to progressive epilepsy, which is characterized by time-dependent increases in seizure frequency after the infarct and by shifts in seizure-onset zones from focal to multi-focal. Using a rat model of unilateral perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (PHI), where long-term seizure monitoring had previously demonstrated progressive epilepsy, evoked field potentials (EFPs) were recorded in layers II/III of coronal neocortical slices to analyze the underlying time-dependent, network-level alterations ipsilateral vs. contralateral to the infarct. At 3weeks after PHI, EFPs ipsilateral to the infarct were normal in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF); however, after blocking GABAA receptors with bicuculline methiodide (BMI, 30μM), the slices with an infarct were more hyperexcitable than slices without an infarct. At 3weeks, contralateral PHI slices had responses indistinguishable from controls. Six months after PHI in normal ACSF, both ipsi- and contralateral slices from rats with cortical infarcts showed prolonged afterdischarges, which were only slightly augmented in BMI. These data suggest that the early changes after PHI are localized to the ipsilateral infarcted cortex and masked by GABA-mediated inhibition; however, after 6months, progressive epileptogenesis results in generation of robust bilateral hyperexcitability. Because these afterdischarges were only slightly prolonged by BMI, a time-dependent reduction of GABAergic transmission is hypothesized to contribute to the pronounced hyperexcitability at 6months. These changes in the EFPs coincide with the seizure semiology of the epilepsy and therefore offer an opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying this form of progressive pediatric epilepsy. PMID:26724579

  8. Modeling the Gabaergic Action of Etomidate on the Thalamocortical System

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, Jason A.; Esser, Steven K.; Amzica, Florin; Hill, Sean; Antognini, Joseph F.

    2008-01-01

    Background We have used a computational model of the thalamocortical system to investigate the effects of a GABAergic anesthetic (etomidate) on cerebral cortical and thalamic neuronal function. We examined the effects of phasic and tonic inhibition, as well as the relative importance of anesthetic action in the thalamus and cortex. Methods The amount of phasic GABAergic inhibition was adjusted in the model to simulate etomidate concentrations of between 0.25 and 2 μM, with the concentration range producing unconsciousness assumed to be between 0.25-0.5 μM. In addition, we modeled tonic inhibition separately, and then phasic and tonic inhibition together. We also introduced phasic and tonic inhibition into the cerebral cortex and thalamus separately to determine the relative importance of each of these structures to anesthetic-induced depression of the thalamocortical system. Results Phasic inhibition decreased cortical neuronal firing by 11-18% in the 0.25-0.5 μM range and by 38% at 2 μM. Tonic inhibition produced similar depression (11-21%) in the 0.25-0.5 μM range but 65% depression at 2 μM; phasic and tonic inhibition combined produced the most inhibition (76% depression at 2 μM). When the thalamus and cortex were separately subjected to phasic and tonic inhibition, cortical firing rates decreased less compared to when both structures were targeted. In the 0.25-0.5 μM range, cortical firing rate was minimally affected when etomidate action was simulated in the thalamus only. Conclusions This computational model of the thalamocortical system indicated that tonic GABAergic inhibition appears to be more important than phasic GABAergic inhibition (especially at larger etomidate concentrations), although both combined had the most effect on cerebral cortical firing rates. Furthermore, etomidate action in the thalamus, by itself, does not likely explain etomidate-induced unconsciousness. PMID:19095844

  9. Feedforward and Feedback inhibition in Neostriatal GABAergic Spiny Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, James M.; Wilson, Charles J.; Koós, Tibor

    2008-01-01

    There are two distinct inhibitory GABAergic circuits in the neostriatum. The feedforward circuit consists of a relatively small population of GABAergic interneurons that receives excitatory input from the neocortex and exerts monosynaptic inhibition onto striatal spiny projection neurons. The feedback circuit comprises the numerous spiny projection neurons and their interconnections via local axon collaterals. This network has long been assumed to provide the majority of striatal GABAergic inhibition and to sharpen and shape striatal output through lateral inhibition, producing increased activity in the most strongly excited spiny cells at the expense of their less strongly excited neighbors. Recent results, mostly from recording experiments of synaptically connected pairs of neurons, have revealed that the two GABAergic circuits differ markedly in terms of the total number of synapses made by each, the strength of the postsynaptic response detected at the soma, the extent of presynaptic convergence and divergence and the net effect of the activation of each circuit on the postsynaptic activity of the spiny neuron. These data have revealed that the feedforward inhibition is powerful and widespread, with spiking in a single interneuron being capable of significantly delaying or even blocking the generation of spikes in a large number of postsynaptic spiny neurons. In contrast, the postsynaptic effects of spiking in a single presynaptic spiny neuron on postsynaptic spiny neurons are weak when measured at the soma, and unable to significantly affect spike timing or generation. Further, reciprocity of synaptic connections between spiny neurons is only rarely observed. These results suggest that the bulk of the fast inhibition that has the strongest effects on spiny neuron spike timing comes from the feedforward interneuronal system whereas the axon collateral feedback system acts principally at the dendrites to control local excitability as well as the overall level of

  10. Identification of a direct GABAergic pallidocortical pathway in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael C.; Ferrari, Loris; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Foland-Ross, Lara C.; Qiu, Mei-Hong; Gotlib, Ian H.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Arrigoni, Elda; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia, interacting with the cortex, play a critical role in a range of behaviors. Output from the basal ganglia to the cortex is thought to relay through the thalamus, yet an intriguing alternative is that the basal ganglia may directly project to, and communicate with, the cortex. We explored an efferent projection from the globus pallidus externa (GPe), a key hub in the basal ganglia system, to the cortex of rats and mice. Anterograde and retrograde tracing revealed projections to the frontal premotor cortex, especially the deep projecting layers, originating from GPe neurons that receive axonal inputs from the dorsal striatum. Cre-dependent anterograde tracing in GPe Vgat-ires-cre mice confirmed that the pallidocortical projection is GABAergic, and in vitro optogenetic stimulation in the cortex of these projections produced a fast inhibitory postsynaptic current in targeted cells that was abolished by bicucculine. The pallidocortical projections targeted GABAergic interneurons and, to a lesser extent, pyramidal neurons. This GABAergic pallidocortical pathway directly links the basal ganglia and cortex and may play a key role in behavior and cognition in normal and disease states. PMID:25581560

  11. Shaping inhibition: activity dependent structural plasticity of GABAergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Carmen E.; Méndez, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory transmission through the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shapes network activity in the mammalian cerebral cortex by filtering synaptic incoming information and dictating the activity of principal cells. The incredibly diverse population of cortical neurons that use GABA as neurotransmitter shows an equally diverse range of mechanisms that regulate changes in the strength of GABAergic synaptic transmission and allow them to dynamically follow and command the activity of neuronal ensembles. Similarly to glutamatergic synaptic transmission, activity-dependent functional changes in inhibitory neurotransmission are accompanied by alterations in GABAergic synapse structure that range from morphological reorganization of postsynaptic density to de novo formation and elimination of inhibitory contacts. Here we review several aspects of structural plasticity of inhibitory synapses, including its induction by different forms of neuronal activity, behavioral and sensory experience and the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. We discuss the functional consequences of GABAergic synapse structural plasticity for information processing and memory formation in view of the heterogenous nature of the structural plasticity phenomena affecting inhibitory synapses impinging on somatic and dendritic compartments of cortical and hippocampal neurons. PMID:25386117

  12. Alteration of GABAergic Neurotransmission by Pulsed Infrared Laser Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Kao, Chris; Gallagher, Martin J.; Jansen, E. Duco; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Konrad, Peter E.; Macdonald, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Transient electrical impulses are conventionally used to elicit physiological responses in excitable tissues. While electrical stimulation has many advantages, it requires an electrode-tissue interface, exhibits relatively low spatial selectivity and always produces a “stimulus artifact”. Recently, it has been shown that pulsed, low-energy infrared laser light can evoke nerve, muscle and sensory responses similar to those induced by traditional electrical stimulation in a contact-free, damage-free, artifact-free and spatially selective manner. However, the effect of transient infrared laser light on neurotransmission in the CNS is still largely unknown. Here, we tested the effect of infrared laser light on GABAergic neurotransmission. We recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) from cultured rat cortical neurons prior to and after infrared laser stimulation. Using transient infrared laser light, we either stimulated the neuronal soma that had axonal projections to the recorded neuron or directly stimulated the axons that projected to the recorded neuron. Optical stimulation led to enhanced amplitude, decreased decay time constant and increased frequency of sIPSCs. These alterations of sIPSC properties produced by optical stimulation were specifically mediated by GABAA receptors and caused by the transient laser light per se since no exogenous substances such as caged compounds were used. These data show that optical stimulation using transient infrared laser light can alter GABAergic neurotransmission and demonstrate that it may be an alternative approach to electrical stimulation in studying GABAergic function. PMID:20654645

  13. A GABAergic tecto-tegmento-tectal pathway in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Stacho, Martin; Letzner, Sara; Theiss, Carsten; Manns, Martina; Güntürkün, Onur

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the optic tecta of the left and right brain halves reciprocally inhibit each other in birds. In mammals, the superior colliculus receives inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic input from the basal ganglia via both the ipsilateral and the contralateral substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). This contralateral SNr projection is important in intertectal inhibition. Because the basal ganglia are evolutionarily conserved, the tectal projections of the SNr may show a similar pattern in birds. Therefore, the SNr could be a relay station in an indirect tecto-tectal pathway constituting the neuronal substrate for the tecto-tectal inhibition. To test this hypothesis, we performed bilateral anterograde and retrograde tectal tracing combined with GABA immunohistochemistry in pigeons. Suprisingly, the SNr has only ipsilateral projections to the optic tectum, and these are non-GABAergic. Inhibitory GABAergic input to the contralateral optic tectum arises instead from a nearby tegmental region that receives input from the ipsilateral optic tectum. Thus, a disynaptic pathway exists that possibly constitutes the anatomical substrate for the inhibitory tecto-tectal interaction. This pathway likely plays an important role in attentional switches between the laterally placed eyes of birds. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2886-2913, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991544

  14. Shaping inhibition: activity dependent structural plasticity of GABAergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Flores, Carmen E; Méndez, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory transmission through the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shapes network activity in the mammalian cerebral cortex by filtering synaptic incoming information and dictating the activity of principal cells. The incredibly diverse population of cortical neurons that use GABA as neurotransmitter shows an equally diverse range of mechanisms that regulate changes in the strength of GABAergic synaptic transmission and allow them to dynamically follow and command the activity of neuronal ensembles. Similarly to glutamatergic synaptic transmission, activity-dependent functional changes in inhibitory neurotransmission are accompanied by alterations in GABAergic synapse structure that range from morphological reorganization of postsynaptic density to de novo formation and elimination of inhibitory contacts. Here we review several aspects of structural plasticity of inhibitory synapses, including its induction by different forms of neuronal activity, behavioral and sensory experience and the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. We discuss the functional consequences of GABAergic synapse structural plasticity for information processing and memory formation in view of the heterogenous nature of the structural plasticity phenomena affecting inhibitory synapses impinging on somatic and dendritic compartments of cortical and hippocampal neurons. PMID:25386117

  15. Turning a Negative into a Positive: Ascending GABAergic Control of Cortical Activation and Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Recent technological advances have illuminated the role of GABAergic neurons in control of cortical arousal and sleep. Sleep-promoting GABAergic neurons in the preoptic hypothalamus are well-known. Less well-appreciated are GABAergic projection neurons in the brainstem, midbrain, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, which paradoxically promote arousal and fast electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. Thus, GABA is not purely a sleep-promoting neurotransmitter. GABAergic projection neurons in the brainstem nucleus incertus and ventral tegmental nucleus of Gudden promote theta (4–8 Hz) rhythms. Ventral tegmental area GABAergic neurons, neighboring midbrain dopamine neurons, project to the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. They discharge faster during cortical arousal and regulate reward. Thalamic reticular nucleus GABAergic neurons initiate sleep spindles in non-REM sleep. In addition, however, during wakefulness, they tonically regulate the activity of thalamocortical neurons. Other GABAergic inputs to the thalamus arising in the globus pallidus pars interna, substantia nigra pars reticulata, zona incerta, and basal forebrain regulate motor activity, arousal, attention, and sensory transmission. Several subpopulations of cortically projecting GABAergic neurons in the basal forebrain project to the thalamus and neocortex and preferentially promote cortical gamma-band (30–80 Hz) activity and wakefulness. Unlike sleep-active GABAergic neurons, these ascending GABAergic neurons are fast-firing neurons which disinhibit and synchronize the activity of their forebrain targets, promoting the fast EEG rhythms typical of conscious states. They are prominent targets of GABAergic hypnotic agents. Understanding the properties of ascending GABAergic neurons may lead to novel treatments for diseases involving disorders of cortical activation and wakefulness. PMID:26124745

  16. Temporally defined neocortical translation and polysome assembly are determined by the RNA-binding protein Hu antigen R.

    PubMed

    Kraushar, Matthew L; Thompson, Kevin; Wijeratne, H R Sagara; Viljetic, Barbara; Sakers, Kristina; Marson, Justin W; Kontoyiannis, Dimitris L; Buyske, Steven; Hart, Ronald P; Rasin, Mladen-Roko

    2014-09-01

    Precise spatiotemporal control of mRNA translation machinery is essential to the development of highly complex systems like the neocortex. However, spatiotemporal regulation of translation machinery in the developing neocortex remains poorly understood. Here, we show that an RNA-binding protein, Hu antigen R (HuR), regulates both neocorticogenesis and specificity of neocortical translation machinery in a developmental stage-dependent manner in mice. Neocortical absence of HuR alters the phosphorylation states of initiation and elongation factors in the core translation machinery. In addition, HuR regulates the temporally specific positioning of functionally related mRNAs into the active translation sites, the polysomes. HuR also determines the specificity of neocortical polysomes by defining their combinatorial composition of ribosomal proteins and initiation and elongation factors. For some HuR-dependent proteins, the association with polysomes likewise depends on the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4, which associates with HuR in prenatal developing neocortices. Finally, we found that deletion of HuR before embryonic day 10 disrupts both neocortical lamination and formation of the main neocortical commissure, the corpus callosum. Our study identifies a crucial role for HuR in neocortical development as a translational gatekeeper for functionally related mRNA subgroups and polysomal protein specificity. PMID:25157170

  17. Live-Cell, Label-Free Identification of GABAergic and Non-GABAergic Neurons in Primary Cortical Cultures Using Micropatterned Surface

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Sho; Kushida, Takatoshi; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Niwano, Michio; Tanii, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Excitatory and inhibitory neurons have distinct roles in cortical dynamics. Here we present a novel method for identifying inhibitory GABAergic neurons from non-GABAergic neurons, which are mostly excitatory glutamatergic neurons, in primary cortical cultures. This was achieved using an asymmetrically designed micropattern that directs an axonal process to the longest pathway. In the current work, we first modified the micropattern geometry to improve cell viability and then studied the axon length from 2 to 7 days in vitro (DIV). The cell types of neurons were evaluated retrospectively based on immunoreactivity against GAD67, a marker for inhibitory GABAergic neurons. We found that axons of non-GABAergic neurons grow significantly longer than those of GABAergic neurons in the early stages of development. The optimal threshold for identifying GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons was evaluated to be 110 μm at 6 DIV. The method does not require any fluorescence labelling and can be carried out on live cells. The accuracy of identification was 98.2%. We confirmed that the high accuracy was due to the use of a micropattern, which standardized the development of cultured neurons. The method promises to be beneficial both for engineering neuronal networks in vitro and for basic cellular neuroscience research. PMID:27513933

  18. Generic mesoscopic neural networks based on statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingber, Lester

    1992-02-01

    A series of papers has developed a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI), deriving aggregate behavior of experimentally observed columns of neurons from statistical electrical-chemical properties of synaptic interactions, demonstrating its capability in describing large-scale properties of short-term memory and electroencephalographic systematics. This methodology also defines an algorithm to construct a mesoscopic neural network, based on realistic neocortical processes and parameters, to record patterns of brain activity and to compute the evolution of this system. Furthermore, this algorithm is quite generic and can be used to similarly process information in other systems, especially, but not limited to, those amenable to modeling by mathematical physics techniques alternatively described by path-integral Lagrangians, Fokker-Planck equations, or Langevin rate equations. This methodology is made possible and practical by a confluence of techniques drawn from SMNI itself, modern methods of functional stochastic calculus defining nonlinear Lagrangians, very fast simulated reannealing, and parallel-processing computation.

  19. Awake reactivation of emotional memory traces through hippocampal-neocortical interactions.

    PubMed

    de Voogd, Lycia D; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J

    2016-07-01

    Emotionally arousing experiences are typically well remembered not only due to immediate effects at encoding, but also through further strengthening of subsequent consolidation processes. A large body of research shows how neuromodulatory systems promote synaptic consolidation. However, how emotionally arousing experiences alter systems-level interactions, presumably a consequence of modifications at a synaptic level, remains unclear. Animal models predict that memory traces are maintained by spontaneous reactivations across hippocampal-neocortical circuits during "offline" periods such as post-learning rest, and suggest this might be stronger for emotional memories. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis in humans using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Participants underwent a two-category localizer paradigm followed by a categorical differential delay fear conditioning paradigm interleaved with blocks of awake rest. Counterbalanced across participants, exemplars of one category (CS+), but not the other (CS-), were paired with mild electrical shocks. Fear recall (differential conditioned pupil dilation) was tested 24h later. Analyses of the localizer paradigm replicate earlier work showing category-specific response patterns in neocortical higher-order visual regions. Critically, we show that during post-learning rest, spontaneous reactivation of these neocortical patterns was stronger for the CS+ than the CS- category. Furthermore, hippocampal connectivity with the regions exhibiting these reactivations predicted strength of fear recall 24h later. We conclude that emotional arousal during learning promotes spontaneous post-learning reactivation of neocortical representations of recent experiences, which leads to better memory when coinciding with hippocampal connectivity. Our findings reveal a systems-level mechanism that may explain the persistence of long-term memory for emotional experiences. PMID:27095308

  20. Neocortical slices from adult chronic epileptic rats exhibit discharges of higher voltages and broader spread.

    PubMed

    Serafini, R; Dettloff, S; Loeb, J A

    2016-05-13

    Much of the current understanding of epilepsy mechanisms has been built on data recorded with one or a few electrodes from temporal lobe slices of normal young animals stimulated with convulsants. Mechanisms of adult, extratemporal, neocortical chronic epilepsy have not been characterized as much. A more advanced understanding of epilepsy mechanisms can be obtained by recording epileptiform discharges simultaneously from multiple points of an epileptic focus so as to define their sites of initiation and pathways of spreading. Brain slice recordings can characterize epileptic mechanisms in a simpler, more controlled preparation than in vivo. Yet, the intrinsic hyper-excitability of a chronic epileptic focus may not be entirely preserved in slices following the severing of connections in slice preparation. This study utilizes recordings of multiple electrode arrays to characterize which features of epileptic hyper-excitability present in in vivo chronic adult neocortical epileptic foci are preserved in brain slices. After tetanus toxin somatosensory cortex injections, adult rats manifest chronic spontaneous epileptic discharges both in the injection site (primary focus) and in the contralateral side (secondary focus). We prepared neocortical slices from these epileptic animals. When perfused with 4-Aminopyridine in a magnesium free medium, epileptic rat slices exhibit higher voltage discharges and broader spreading than control rat slices. Rates of discharges are similar in slices of epileptic and normal rats, however. Ictal and interictal discharges are distributed over most cortical layers, though with significant differences between primary and secondary foci. A chronic neocortical epileptic focus in slices does not show increased spontaneous pacemakers initiating epileptic discharges but shows discharges with higher voltages and broader spread, consistent with an enhanced synchrony of cellular and synaptic generators over wider surfaces. PMID:26892299

  1. Spontaneous Neuronal Activity in Developing Neocortical Networks: From Single Cells to Large-Scale Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Heiko J.; Sinning, Anne; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Stüttgen, Maik C.; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal activity has been shown to be essential for the proper formation of neuronal circuits, affecting developmental processes like neurogenesis, migration, programmed cell death, cellular differentiation, formation of local and long-range axonal connections, synaptic plasticity or myelination. Accordingly, neocortical areas reveal distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, when immature neurons start to develop voltage-dependent channels, spontaneous activity is highly synchronized within small neuronal networks and governed by electrical synaptic transmission. Subsequently, spontaneous activity patterns become more complex, involve larger networks and propagate over several neocortical areas. The developmental shift from local to large-scale network activity is accompanied by a gradual shift from electrical to chemical synaptic transmission with an initial excitatory action of chloride-gated channels activated by GABA, glycine and taurine. Transient neuronal populations in the subplate (SP) support temporary circuits that play an important role in tuning early neocortical activity and the formation of mature neuronal networks. Thus, early spontaneous activity patterns control the formation of developing networks in sensory cortices, and disturbances of these activity patterns may lead to long-lasting neuronal deficits. PMID:27252626

  2. Humans and great apes share increased neocortical neuropeptide Y innervation compared to other haplorhine primates

    PubMed Central

    Raghanti, Mary Ann; Edler, Melissa K.; Meindl, Richard S.; Sudduth, Jessica; Bohush, Tatiana; Erwin, Joseph M.; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a role in a variety of basic physiological functions and has also been implicated in regulating cognition, including learning and memory. A decrease in neocortical NPY has been reported for Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, potentially contributing to associated cognitive deficits. The goal of the present analysis was to examine variation in neocortical NPY-immunoreactive axon and varicosity density among haplorhine primates (monkeys, apes, and humans). Stereologic methods were used to measure the ratios of NPY-expressing axon length density to total neuron density (ALv/Nv) and NPY-immunoreactive varicosity density to neuron density (Vv/Nv), as well as the mean varicosity spacing in neocortical areas 10, 24, 44, and 22 (Tpt) of humans, African great apes, New World monkeys, and Old World monkeys. Humans and great apes showed increased cortical NPY innervation relative to monkey species for ALv/Nv and Vv/Nv. Furthermore, humans and great apes displayed a conserved pattern of varicosity spacing across cortical areas and layers, with no differences between cortical layers or among cortical areas. These phylogenetic differences may be related to shared life history variables and may reflect specific cognitive abilities. PMID:24616688

  3. Fibroblast growth factor 8 organizes the neocortical area map and regulates sensory map topography.

    PubMed

    Assimacopoulos, Stavroula; Kao, Tina; Issa, Naoum P; Grove, Elizabeth A

    2012-05-23

    The concept of an "organizer" is basic to embryology. An organizer is a portion of the embryo producing signals that lead to the creation of a patterned mature structure from an embryonic primordium. Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is a morphogen that disperses from a rostromedial source in the neocortical primordium (NP), forms a rostral-to-caudal (R/C) gradient, and regulates embryonic and neonatal R/C patterns of gene expression in neocortex. Whether FGF8 also has organizer activity that generates the postnatal neocortical area map is uncertain. To test this possibility, new sources of FGF8 were introduced into the mouse NP with in utero microelectroporation at embryonic day 10.5, close to the estimated peak of area patterning. Results differed depending on the position of ectopic FGF8. Ectopic FGF8 in the caudalmost NP could duplicate somatosensory cortex (S1) and primary visual cortex (V1). FGF8 delivered to the midlateral NP generated a sulcus separating rostral and caudal portions of the NP, in effect creating duplicate NPs. In the caudal NP, ectopic FGF8 induced a second, inclusive area map, containing frontal cortex, S1, V1, and primary auditory areas. Moreover, duplicate S1 showed plasticity to sensory deprivation, and duplicate V1 responded to visual stimuli. Our findings implicate FGF8 as an organizer signal, and its source in the rostromedial telencephalon as an organizer of the neocortical area map. PMID:22623663

  4. Spontaneous Neuronal Activity in Developing Neocortical Networks: From Single Cells to Large-Scale Interactions.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Sinning, Anne; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Stüttgen, Maik C; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal activity has been shown to be essential for the proper formation of neuronal circuits, affecting developmental processes like neurogenesis, migration, programmed cell death, cellular differentiation, formation of local and long-range axonal connections, synaptic plasticity or myelination. Accordingly, neocortical areas reveal distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, when immature neurons start to develop voltage-dependent channels, spontaneous activity is highly synchronized within small neuronal networks and governed by electrical synaptic transmission. Subsequently, spontaneous activity patterns become more complex, involve larger networks and propagate over several neocortical areas. The developmental shift from local to large-scale network activity is accompanied by a gradual shift from electrical to chemical synaptic transmission with an initial excitatory action of chloride-gated channels activated by GABA, glycine and taurine. Transient neuronal populations in the subplate (SP) support temporary circuits that play an important role in tuning early neocortical activity and the formation of mature neuronal networks. Thus, early spontaneous activity patterns control the formation of developing networks in sensory cortices, and disturbances of these activity patterns may lead to long-lasting neuronal deficits. PMID:27252626

  5. The effect of MAPT haplotype on neocortical Lewy body pathology in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Robakis, Daphne; Cortes, Etty; Clark, Lorraine N; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G; Virmani, Tuhin; Alcalay, Roy N; Crary, John F; Levy, Oren A

    2016-06-01

    The H1 haplotype of the microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD) compared with the H2 haplotype, but its effect on Lewy body (LB) formation is unclear. In this study, we compared the MAPT haplotype frequency between pathologically confirmed PD patients (n = 71) and controls (n = 52). We analyzed Braak LB stage, Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) stage, and CERAD amyloid score by haplotype. We further tested the association between MAPT haplotype and semi-quantitative counts of LBs, NFTs, and neuritic plaques (NPs) in multiple neocortical regions. Consistent with previous reports, PD cases had an increased likelihood of carrying an H1/H1 genotype compared to controls (OR = 5.72, 95 % CI 1.80-18.21, p = 0.003). Braak LB, Braak NFT and CERAD scores did not differ by haplotype. However, H1/H1 carriers had higher LB counts in parietal cortex (p = 0.02) and in overall neocortical LBs (p = 0.03) compared to non-H1/H1 cases. Our analyses suggest that PD patients homozygous for the H1 haplotype have a higher burden of neocortical LB pathology. PMID:27098667

  6. A novel transient glutamatergic population migrating from the pallial-subpallial boundary contributes to neocortical development.

    PubMed

    Teissier, Anne; Griveau, Amélie; Vigier, Lisa; Piolot, Tristan; Borello, Ugo; Pierani, Alessandra

    2010-08-01

    The generation of a precise number of neural cells and the determination of their laminar fate are tightly controlled processes during development of the cerebral cortex. Using genetic tracing in mice, we have identified a population of glutamatergic neurons generated by Dbx1-expressing progenitors at the pallial-subpallial boundary predominantly at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and subsequent to Cajal-Retzius cells. We show that these neurons migrate tangentially to populate the cortical plate (CP) at all rostrocaudal and mediolateral levels by E14.5. At birth, they homogeneously populate cortical areas and represent <5% of cortical cells. However, they are distributed into neocortical layers according to their birthdates and express the corresponding markers of glutamatergic differentiation (Tbr1, ER81, Cux2, Ctip2). Notably, this population dies massively by apoptosis at the completion of corticogenesis and represents 50% of dying neurons in the postnatal day 0 cortex. Specific genetic ablation of these transient Dbx1-derived CP neurons leads to a 20% decrease in neocortical cell numbers in perinatal animals. Our results show that a previously unidentified transient population of glutamatergic neurons migrates from extraneocortical regions over long distance from their generation site and participates in neocortical radial growth in a non-cell-autonomous manner. PMID:20685999

  7. GABAergic inhibition shapes SAM responses in rat auditory thalamus.

    PubMed

    Cai, R; Caspary, D M

    2015-07-23

    Auditory thalamus (medial geniculate body [MGB]) receives ascending inhibitory GABAergic inputs from inferior colliculus (IC) and descending GABAergic projections from the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) with both inputs postulated to play a role in shaping temporal responses. Previous studies suggested that enhanced processing of temporally rich stimuli occurs at the level of MGB, with our recent study demonstrating enhanced GABA sensitivity in MGB compared to IC. The present study used sinusoidal amplitude-modulated (SAM) stimuli to generate modulation transfer functions (MTFs), to examine the role of GABAergic inhibition in shaping the response properties of MGB single units in anesthetized rats. Rate MTFs (rMTFs) were parsed into "bandpass (BP)", "mixed (Mixed)", "highpass (HP)" or "atypical" response types, with most units showing the Mixed response type. GABAA receptor blockade with iontophoretic application of the GABAA receptor (GABAAR) antagonist gabazine (GBZ) selectively altered the response properties of most MGB neurons examined. Mixed and HP units showed significant GABAAR-mediated SAM-evoked rate response changes at higher modulation frequencies (fms), which were also altered by N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor blockade (2R)-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (AP5). BP units, and the lower arm of Mixed units responded to GABAAR blockade with increased responses to SAM stimuli at or near the rate best modulation frequency (rBMF). The ability of GABA circuits to shape responses at higher modulation frequencies is an emergent property of MGB units, not observed at lower levels of the auditory pathway and may reflect activation of MGB NMDA receptors (Rabang and Bartlett, 2011; Rabang et al., 2012). Together, GABAARs exert selective rate control over selected fms, generally without changing the units' response type. These results showed that coding of modulated stimuli at the level of auditory thalamus is at least, in part, strongly controlled by GABA

  8. GABAergic Signaling as Therapeutic Target for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cellot, Giada; Cherubini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, early in postnatal life exerts a depolarizing and excitatory action. This depends on accumulation of chloride inside the cell via the cation–chloride importer NKCC1, being the expression of the chloride exporter KCC2 very low at birth. The developmentally regulated expression of KCC2 results in extrusion of chloride with age and a shift of GABA from the depolarizing to the hyperpolarizing direction. The depolarizing action of GABA leads to intracellular calcium rise through voltage-dependent calcium channels and/or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. GABA-mediated calcium signals regulate a variety of developmental processes from cell proliferation migration, differentiation, synapse maturation, and neuronal wiring. Therefore, it is not surprising that some forms of neuro-developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are associated with alterations of GABAergic signaling and impairment of the excitatory/inhibitory balance in selective neuronal circuits. In this review, we will discuss how changes of GABAA-mediated neurotransmission affect several forms of ASDs including the Fragile X, the Angelman, and Rett syndromes. Then, we will describe various animal models of ASDs with GABAergic dysfunctions, highlighting their behavioral deficits and the possibility to rescue them by targeting selective components of the GABAergic synapse. In particular, we will discuss how in some cases, reverting the polarity of GABA responses from the depolarizing to the hyperpolarizing direction with the diuretic bumetanide, a selective blocker of NKCC1, may have beneficial effects on ASDs, thus opening new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of these devastating disorders. PMID:25072038

  9. Differential regulation of neurexin at glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Pregno, Giulia; Frola, Elena; Graziano, Stefania; Patrizi, Annarita; Bussolino, Federico; Arese, Marco; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Neurexins (Nrxs) have emerged as potential determinants of synaptic specificity, but little is known about their localization at central synapses. Here we show that Nrxs have a remarkably selective localization at distinct types of glutamatergic synapses and we reveal an unexpected ontogenetic regulation of Nrx expression at GABAergic synapses. Our data indicate that synapses are specified by molecular interactions that involve both Nrx-dependent and Nrx-independent mechanisms. We propose that differences in the spatio-temporal profile of Nrx expression may contribute to specify the molecular identity of synapses. PMID:23576952

  10. Neuropsychological, Neurovirological and Neuroimmune Aspects of Abnormal GABAergic Transmission in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Buzhdygan, Tetyana; Lisinicchia, Joshua; Patel, Vipulkumar; Johnson, Kenneth; Neugebauer, Volker; Paessler, Slobodan; Jennings, Kristofer; Gelman, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high in patients with effective suppression of virus replication by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Several neurotransmitter systems were reported to be abnormal in HIV-infected patients, including the inhibitory GABAergic system, which mediates fine-tuning of neuronal processing and plays an essential role in cognitive functioning. To elucidate the role of abnormal GABAergic transmission in HAND, the expression of GABAergic markers was measured in 449 human brain specimens from HIV-infected patients with and without HAND. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry we found that the GABAergic markers were significantly decreased in most sectors of cerebral neocortex, the neostriatum, and the cerebellum of HIV-infected subjects. Low GABAergic expression in frontal neocortex was correlated significantly with high expression of endothelial cell markers, dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2L), and preproenkephalin (PENK) mRNAs, and with worse performance on tasks of verbal fluency. Significant associations were not found between low GABAergic mRNAs and HIV-1 RNA concentration in the brain, the history of cART, or HIV encephalitis. Pathological evidence of neurodegeneration of the affected GABAergic neurons was not present. We conclude that abnormally low expression of GABAergic markers is prevalent in HIV-1 infected patients. Interrelationships with other neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic transmission and with endothelial cell markers lend added support to suggestions that synaptic plasticity and cerebrovascular anomalies are involved with HAND in virally suppressed patients. PMID:26829944

  11. Genome-wide association study of neocortical Lewy-related pathology

    PubMed Central

    Peuralinna, Terhi; Myllykangas, Liisa; Oinas, Minna; Nalls, Mike A; Keage, Hannah A D; Isoviita, Veli-Matti; Valori, Miko; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Paetau, Anders; Sulkava, Raimo; Ince, Paul G; Zaccai, Julia; Brayne, Carol; Traynor, Bryan J; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew B; Tienari, Pentti J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dementia with Lewy bodies is an α-synucleinopathy characterized by neocortical Lewy-related pathology (LRP). We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on neocortical LRP in a population-based sample of subjects aged 85 or over. Methods LRP was analyzed in 304 subjects in the Vantaa 85+ sample from Southern Finland. The GWAS included 41 cases with midbrain, hippocampal, and neocortical LRP and 177 controls without midbrain and hippocampal LRP. The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) material was used for replication (51 cases and 131 controls). Results By analyzing 327,010 markers the top signal was obtained at the HLA-DPA1/DPB1 locus (P = 1.29 × 10−7); five other loci on chromosomes 15q14, 2p21, 2q31, 18p11, and 5q23 were associated with neocortical LRP at P < 10−5. Two loci were marked by multiple markers, 2p21 (P = 3.9 × 10−6, upstream of the SPTBN1 gene), and HLA-DPA1/DPB1; these were tested in the CFAS material. Single marker (P = 0.0035) and haplotype (P = 0.04) associations on 2p21 were replicated in CFAS, whereas HLA-DPA1/DPB1 association was not. Bioinformatic analyses suggest functional effects for the HLA-DPA1/DPB1 markers as well as the 15q14 marker rs8037309. Interpretation We identified suggestive novel risk factors for neocortical LRP. SPTBN1 is the candidate on 2p21, it encodes beta-spectrin, an α-synuclein binding protein and a component of Lewy bodies. The HLA-DPA1/DPB1 association suggests a role for antigen presentation or alternatively, cis-regulatory effects, one of the regulated neighboring genes identified here (vacuolar protein sorting 52) plays a role in vesicular trafficking and has been shown to interact with α-synuclein in a yeast model. PMID:26401513

  12. Functional differences in Na+ channel gating between fast-spiking interneurones and principal neurones of rat hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Martina, M; Jonas, P

    1997-01-01

    1. GABAergic interneurones differ from glutamatergic principal neurones in their ability to discharge high-frequency trains of action potentials without adaptation. To examine whether Na+ channel gating contributed to these differences, Na+ currents were recorded in nucleated patches from interneurones (dentate gyrus basket cells, BCs) and principal neurones (CA1 pyramidal cells, PCs) of rat hippocampal slices. 2. The voltage dependence of Na+ channel activation in BCs and PCs was similar. The slope factors of the activation curves, fitted with Boltzmann functions raised to the third power, were 11.5 and 11.8 mV, and the mid-point potentials were -25.1 and -23.9 mV, respectively. 3. Whereas the time course of Na+ channel activation (-30 to +40 mV) was similar, the deactivation kinetics (-100 to -40 mV) were faster in BCs than in PCs (tail current decay time constants, 0.13 and 0.20 ms, respectively, at -40 mV). 4. Na+ channels in BCs and PCs differed in the voltage dependence of inactivation. The slope factors of the steady-state inactivation curves fitted with Boltzmann functions were 6.7 and 10.7 mV, and the mid-point potentials were -58.3 and -62.9 mV, respectively. 5. The onset of Na+ channel inactivation at -55 mV was slower in BCs than in PCs; the inactivation time constants were 18.6 and 9.3 ms, respectively. At more positive potentials the differences in inactivation onset were smaller. 6. The time course of recovery of Na+ channels from inactivation induced by a 30 ms pulse was fast and mono-exponential (tau = 2.0 ms at -120 mV) in BCs, whereas it was slower and bi-exponential in PCs (tau 1 = 2.0 ms and tau 2 = 133 ms; amplitude contribution of the slow component, 15%). 7. We conclude that Na+ channels of BCs and PCs differ in gating properties that contribute to the characteristic action potential patterns of the two types of neurones. PMID:9457638

  13. Distribution of GABAergic neurons and terminals in the auditory system of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Carr, C E; Fujita, I; Konishi, M

    1989-08-01

    Antisera to GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase) and GABA were used to determine the distribution of GABAergic cells and terminals in the brainstem and midbrain auditory nuclei of the barn owl. The owl processes time and intensity components of the auditory signal in separate pathways, and each pathway has a distinctive pattern of GAD- and GABA-like immunoreactivity. In the time pathway, all the cells of the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis and nucleus laminaris receive perisomatic GABAergic terminals, and small numbers of GABAergic neurons surround both nuclei. The ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (anterior division) contains both immunoreactive terminals and some GABAergic neurons. In the intensity pathway, dense immunoreactive terminals are distributed throughout the cochlear nucleus angularis, which also contains a small number of GABAergic neurons. The superior olive contains two GABAergic cell types and immunoreactive terminals distributed throughout the neuropil. All the neurons of the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (ventral part) appear to be GABAergic, and this nucleus also contains a moderate number of immunoreactive terminals. Immunoreactive terminals are distributed throughout the neuropil of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (posterior division), whereas multipolar and small fusiform GABAergic neurons predominate in the dorsal regions of the nucleus. The time and intensity pathways combine in the inferior colliculus. The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus contains a larger number of fusiform and stellate GABAergic neurons and a dense plexus of immunoreactive terminals, whereas the external nucleus contains slightly fewer immunoreactive cells and terminals. The superficial nucleus contains dense, fine immunoreactive terminals and a small number of GABAergic neurons. PMID:2794115

  14. Differential Susceptibility to Prevention: GABAergic, Dopaminergic, and Multilocus Effects

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Randomized prevention trials provide a unique opportunity to test hypotheses about the interaction of genetic predispositions with contextual processes to create variations in phenotypes over time. Methods Using two longitudinal, randomized prevention trials, molecular genetic and alcohol use outcome data were gathered from more than 900 youths to determine whether prevention program participation would, across 2 years, moderate genetic risk for increased alcohol use conferred by the dopaminergic and GABAergic systems. Results We found that (a) variance in dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, ANKK1) and GABAergic (GABRG1, GABRA2) genes forecast increases in alcohol use across 2 years, and (b) youths at genetic risk who were assigned to the control condition displayed greater increases in alcohol use across 2 years than did youths at genetic risk who were assigned to the prevention condition or youths without genetic risk who were assigned to either condition. Conclusions This study is unique in combining data from two large prevention trials to test hypotheses regarding genetic main effects and gene × prevention interactions. Focusing on gene systems purported to confer risk for alcohol use and abuse, the study demonstrated that participation in efficacious prevention programs can moderate genetic risk. The results also support the differential susceptibility hypothesis that some youths, for genetic reasons, are more susceptible than others to both positive and negative contextual influences. PMID:23294086

  15. GABAergic complex basket formations in the human neocortex.

    PubMed

    Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; García-Marín, Virginia; DeFelipe, Javier

    2010-12-15

    Certain GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex, basket cells, establish multiple connections with cell bodies that typically outline the somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal cells. During studies into the distribution of the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in the human cerebral cortex, we were struck by the presence of a very dense, pericellular arrangement of multiple VGAT-immunoreactive (-ir) terminals in certain cortical areas. We called these terminals "Complex basket formations" (Cbk-formations) to distinguish them from the simpler and more typical pericellular GABAergic innervations of most cortical neurons. Here we examined the distribution of these VGAT-ir Cbk-formations in various cortical areas, including the somatosensory (area 3b), visual (areas 17 and 18), motor (area 4), associative frontal (dorsolateral areas 9, 10, 45, 46, and orbital areas 11, 12, 13, 14, 47), associative temporal (areas 20, 21, 22, and 38), and limbic cingulate areas (areas 24, 32). Furthermore, we used dual or triple staining techniques to study the chemical nature of the innervated cells. We found that VGAT-ir Cbk-formations were most frequently found in area 4 followed by areas 3b, 13, and 18. In addition, they were mostly observed in layer III, except in area 17, where they were most dense in layer IV. We also found that 70% of the innervated neurons were pyramidal cells, while the remaining 30% were multipolar cells. Most of these multipolar cells expressed the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin and the lectin Vicia villosa agglutinin. PMID:21031559

  16. Glutamatergic and gabaergic neurotransmission and neuronal circuits in hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Cauli, Omar; Rodrigo, Regina; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Monfort, Pilar; Piedrafita, Blanca; El Mlili, Nisrin; Boix, Jordi; Agustí, Ana; Felipo, Vicente

    2009-03-01

    Patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) may present different neurological alterations including impaired cognitive function and altered motor activity and coordination. HE may lead to coma and death. Many of these neurological alterations are the consequence of altered neurotransmission. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the alterations in neurotransmission and in neurological functions in HE. Both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission are altered in animal models of HE. We review some of these alterations, especially those alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission responsible for some specific neurological alterations in hyperammonemia and HE: the role 1) of excessive NMDA receptors activation in death induced by acute hyperammonemia; 2) of impaired function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, associated to NMDA receptors, in cognitive impairment in chronic HE; 3) of increased extracellular glutamate and activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors in substantia nigra in hypokinesia in chronic HE. The therapeutic implications are discussed. We also review the alterations in the function of the neuronal circuits between basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex modulating motor activity and the role of sequential alterations in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in these alterations. HE would be a consequence of altered neuronal communication due to alterations in general neurotransmission involving different neurotransmitter systems in different neurons. PMID:19085094

  17. Synchronized firing of fast-spiking interneurons is critical to maintain balanced firing between direct and indirect pathway neurons of the striatum

    PubMed Central

    Damodaran, Sriraman; Evans, Rebekah C.

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitory circuits of the striatum are known to be critical for motor function, yet their contributions to Parkinsonian motor deficits are not clear. Altered firing in the globus pallidus suggests that striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN) of the direct (D1 MSN) and indirect pathway (D2 MSN) are imbalanced during dopamine depletion. Both MSN classes receive inhibitory input from each other and from inhibitory interneurons within the striatum, specifically the fast-spiking interneurons (FSI). To investigate the role of inhibition in maintaining striatal balance, we developed a biologically-realistic striatal network model consisting of multicompartmental neuron models: 500 D1 MSNs, 500 D2 MSNs and 49 FSIs. The D1 and D2 MSN models are differentiated based on published experiments of individual channel modulations by dopamine, with D2 MSNs being more excitable than D1 MSNs. Despite this difference in response to current injection, in the network D1 and D2 MSNs fire at similar frequencies in response to excitatory synaptic input. Simulations further reveal that inhibition from FSIs connected by gap junctions is critical to produce balanced firing. Although gap junctions produce only a small increase in synchronization between FSIs, removing these connections resulted in significant firing differences between D1 and D2 MSNs, and balanced firing was restored by providing synchronized cortical input to the FSIs. Together these findings suggest that desynchronization of FSI firing is sufficient to alter balanced firing between D1 and D2 MSNs. PMID:24304860

  18. Ablation of fast-spiking interneurons in the dorsal striatum, recapitulating abnormalities seen post-mortem in Tourette syndrome, produces anxiety and elevated grooming.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Li, L; Pittenger, C

    2016-06-01

    Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS), are thought to involve pathology of cortico-basal ganglia loops, but their pathology is not well understood. Post-mortem studies have shown a reduced number of several populations of striatal interneurons, including the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), in individuals with severe, refractory TS. We tested the causal role of this interneuronal deficit by recapitulating it in an otherwise normal adult mouse using a combination transgenic-viral cell ablation approach. FSIs were reduced bilaterally by ∼40%, paralleling the deficit found post-mortem. This did not produce spontaneous stereotypies or tic-like movements, but there was increased stereotypic grooming after acute stress in two validated paradigms. Stereotypy after amphetamine, in contrast, was not elevated. FSI ablation also led to increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, but not to alterations in motor learning on the rotorod or to alterations in prepulse inhibition, a measure of sensorimotor gating. These findings indicate that a striatal FSI deficit can produce stress-triggered repetitive movements and anxiety. These repetitive movements may recapitulate aspects of the pathophysiology of tic disorders. PMID:26968763

  19. Characterization of thalamocortical responses of regular-spiking and fast-spiking neurons of the mouse auditory cortex in vitro and in silico

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Alex D.

    2012-01-01

    We use a combination of in vitro whole cell recordings and computer simulations to characterize the cellular and synaptic properties that contribute to processing of auditory stimuli. Using a mouse thalamocortical slice preparation, we record the intrinsic membrane properties and synaptic properties of layer 3/4 regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal neurons and fast-spiking (FS) interneurons in primary auditory cortex (AI). We find that postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) evoked in FS cells are significantly larger and depress more than those evoked in RS cells after thalamic stimulation. We use these data to construct a simple computational model of the auditory thalamocortical circuit and find that the differences between FS and RS cells observed in vitro generate model behavior similar to that observed in vivo. We examine how feedforward inhibition and synaptic depression affect cortical responses to time-varying inputs that mimic sinusoidal amplitude-modulated tones. In the model, the balance of cortical inhibition and thalamic excitation evolves in a manner that depends on modulation frequency (MF) of the stimulus and determines cortical response tuning. PMID:22090462

  20. Role of tonic GABAergic currents during pre- and early postnatal rodent development

    PubMed Central

    Kilb, Werner; Kirischuk, Sergei; Luhmann, Heiko J.

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades it became evident that the GABAergic system plays an essential role for the development of the central nervous system, by influencing the proliferation of neuronal precursors, neuronal migration and differentiation, as well as by controlling early activity patterns and thus formation of neuronal networks. GABA controls neuronal development via depolarizing membrane responses upon activation of ionotropic GABA receptors. However, many of these effects occur before the onset of synaptic GABAergic activity and thus require the presence of extrasynaptic tonic currents in neuronal precursors and immature neurons. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the role of tonic GABAergic currents during early brain development. In this review we compare the temporal sequence of the expression and functional relevance of different GABA receptor subunits, GABA synthesizing enzymes and GABA transporters. We also refer to other possible endogenous agonists of GABAA receptors. In addition, we describe functional consequences mediated by the GABAergic system during early developmental periods and discuss current models about the origin of extrasynaptic GABA and/or other endogenous GABAergic agonists during early developmental states. Finally, we present evidence that tonic GABAergic activity is also critically involved in the generation of physiological as well as pathophysiological activity patterns before and after the establishment of functional GABAergic synaptic connections. PMID:24027498

  1. The endogenous peptide antisecretory factor promotes tonic GABAergic signaling in CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg, Joakim; Lindquist, Catarina; Lange, Stefan; Asztely, Fredrik; Hanse, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Tonic GABAergic inhibition regulates neuronal excitability and has been implicated to be involved in both neurological and psychiatric diseases. We have previously shown that the endogenous peptide antisecretory factor (AF) decreases phasic GABAergic inhibition onto pyramidal CA1 neurons. In the present study, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we investigated the mechanisms behind this disinhibition of CA1 pyramidal neurons by AF. We found that application of AF to acute rat hippocampal slices resulted in a reduction of the frequency, but not of the amplitude, of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX), were however not affected by AF, neither in CA1 pyramidal cells, nor in stratum radiatum interneurons. Instead, AF caused an increase of the tonic GABAA current in stratum radiatum interneurons, leaving the tonic GABAergic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells unaffected. These results show that the endogenous peptide AF enhances tonic, but not phasic, GABAergic signaling in CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons, without affecting tonic GABAergic signaling in CA1 pyramidal neurons. We suggest that this increased tonic GABAergic signaling in GABAergic interneurons could be a mechanism for the AF-mediated disinhibition of pyramidal neurons. PMID:24478633

  2. Neocortical neurogenesis is not really "neo": a new evolutionary model derived from a comparative study of chick pallial development.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ikuo K; Hirata, Tatsumi

    2013-01-01

    The neocortex facilitates mammalian adaptive radiation by conferring highly sophisticated cognitive and motor abilities. A unique feature of the mammalian neocortex is its laminar structure in which similar neuronal subtypes are arranged in tangential layers and construct columnar circuits via interlaminar connections. The neocortical layer structure is completely conserved among all mammalian species, including monotremes and marsupials. However, this structure is missing in non-mammalian sister groups, such as birds and reptiles. The evolutionary origins of neocortical layers and cytoarchitectural borders have been the subject of debate over the past century. Using the chicken embryos as a model of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo model), we recently provided evidence suggesting that the evolutionary origin of layer-specific neuron subtypes predates the emergence of laminar structures. Based on this finding, we review the evolutionary conservation and divergence of neocortical development between mammals and non-mammals and discuss how the layered cytoarchitecture of the mammalian neocortex originated during evolution. PMID:23230908

  3. Aberrant excitatory rewiring of layer V pyramidal neurons early after neocortical trauma.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, D Koji; Gu, Feng; Parada, Isabel; Vyas, Shri; Prince, David A

    2016-07-01

    Lesioned neuronal circuits form new functional connections after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). In humans and animal models, aberrant excitatory connections that form after TBI may contribute to the pathogenesis of post-traumatic epilepsy. Partial neocortical isolation ("undercut" or "UC") leads to altered neuronal circuitry and network hyperexcitability recorded in vivo and in brain slices from chronically lesioned neocortex. Recent data suggest a critical period for maladaptive excitatory circuit formation within the first 3days post UC injury (Graber and Prince 1999, 2004; Li et al. 2011, 2012b). The present study focuses on alterations in excitatory connectivity within this critical period. Immunoreactivity (IR) for growth-associated protein (GAP)-43 was increased in the UC cortex 3days after injury. Some GAP-43-expressing excitatory terminals targeted the somata of layer V pyramidal (Pyr) neurons, a domain usually innervated predominantly by inhibitory terminals. Immunocytochemical analysis of pre- and postsynaptic markers showed that putative excitatory synapses were present on somata of these neurons in UC neocortex. Excitatory postsynaptic currents from UC layer V Pyr cells displayed properties consistent with perisomatic inputs and also reflected an increase in the number of synaptic contacts. Laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) experiments demonstrated reorganized excitatory connectivity after injury within the UC. Concurrent with these changes, spontaneous epileptiform bursts developed in UC slices. Results suggest that aberrant reorganization of excitatory connectivity contributes to early neocortical hyperexcitability in this model. The findings are relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of neocortical post-traumatic epileptogenesis and are important in terms of the timing of potential prophylactic treatments. PMID:26956396

  4. Experimentally Verified Parameter Sets for Modelling Heterogeneous Neocortical Pyramidal-Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Paul M.; Badel, Laurent; Wall, Mark J.; Richardson, Magnus J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Models of neocortical networks are increasingly including the diversity of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal classes. Significant variability in cellular properties are also seen within a nominal neuronal class and this heterogeneity can be expected to influence the population response and information processing in networks. Recent studies have examined the population and network effects of variability in a particular neuronal parameter with some plausibly chosen distribution. However, the empirical variability and covariance seen across multiple parameters are rarely included, partly due to the lack of data on parameter correlations in forms convenient for model construction. To addess this we quantify the heterogeneity within and between the neocortical pyramidal-cell classes in layers 2/3, 4, and the slender-tufted and thick-tufted pyramidal cells of layer 5 using a combination of intracellular recordings, single-neuron modelling and statistical analyses. From the response to both square-pulse and naturalistic fluctuating stimuli, we examined the class-dependent variance and covariance of electrophysiological parameters and identify the role of the h current in generating parameter correlations. A byproduct of the dynamic I-V method we employed is the straightforward extraction of reduced neuron models from experiment. Empirically these models took the refractory exponential integrate-and-fire form and provide an accurate fit to the perisomatic voltage responses of the diverse pyramidal-cell populations when the class-dependent statistics of the model parameters were respected. By quantifying the parameter statistics we obtained an algorithm which generates populations of model neurons, for each of the four pyramidal-cell classes, that adhere to experimentally observed marginal distributions and parameter correlations. As well as providing this tool, which we hope will be of use for exploring the effects of heterogeneity in neocortical networks, we also provide

  5. GABAergic and glycinergic pathways to goldfish retinal ganglion cells: an ultrastructural double label study

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    An ultrastructural double label has been employed to compare GABAergic and glycinergic systems in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the goldfish retina. Electron microscope autoradiography of /sup 3/H-GABA and /sup 3/H-glycine uptake was combined with retrograde HRP-labeling of ganglion cells. When surveyed for distribution, GABAergic and glycinergic synapses were found onto labeled ganglion cells throughout the IPL. This reinforces previous physiological work that described GABAergic and glycinergic influences on a variety of ganglion cells in goldfish and carp; These physiological effects often reflect direct inputs.

  6. Persistent hypersynchronization of neocortical neurons in the mocha mutant of mouse.

    PubMed

    Noebels, J L; Sidman, R L

    2007-01-01

    A recessive mutation in the mouse at the mocha locus (mh, chromosome 10) modulates the synchronous synaptic activation of neocortical neurons, resulting in a constant 6-7 Hz (theta) wave pattern in the electrocorticogram. The gene-linked brain rhythm is unaffected by motor behavior and cannot be desynchronized by sensory stimuli. This exemplary neurological mutation affecting cortical excitability is the first to reveal clearly that the predominance of a specific pattern of spontaneous brain wave activity can be inherited as a recessive trait. PMID:18161587

  7. Persistent hypersynchronization of neocortical neurons in the mocha mutant of mouse.

    PubMed

    Noebels, J L; Sidman, R L

    1989-09-01

    A recessive mutation in the mouse at the mocha locus (mh, chromosome 10) modulates the synchronous synaptic activation of neocortical neurons, resulting in a constant 6-7 Hz (theta) wave pattern in the electrocorticogram. The gene-linked brain rhythm is unaffected by motor behavior and cannot be desynchronized by sensory stimuli. This exemplary neurological mutation affecting cortical excitability is the first to reveal clearly that the predominance of a specific pattern of spontaneous brain wave activity can be inherited as a recessive trait. PMID:2778559

  8. [Adult GM2 gangliosidosis: improvement of ataxia with GABAergic drugs].

    PubMed

    Gazulla Abío, J; Benavente Aguilar, I

    2002-03-01

    The authors present a case of adult GM2 gangliosidosis, B1 enzymatic type. The main clinical features found were cerebellar ataxia, proximal lower limb weakness and myokymia. The neurological examination, and the biochemical, electrophysiologic and imaging studies are all described. Decreased activity of the enzyme beta-hexosaminidase A in the metabolism of the sulfate substrate 4-MU-NAGS was found in serum. Global cerebellar atrophy was observed in a cranial nuclear magnetic resonance. The electrophysiologic study showed continuous spontaneous activity integrated by myokymia and neuromyotonic discharges in addition to signs of acute and chronic denervation. Disappearance of the myokymia and improvement in the ataxia were attained with the use of the GABAergic drugs gabapentin and tiagabine. The authors try to explain the clinical improvement obtained with the drugs by relating their mechanisms of action to the central nervous system neurotransmitter alterations proposed for this disease. PMID:11927106

  9. Four GABAergic interneurons impose feeding restraint in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Allan-Hermann; Kvello, Pal; Mann, Kevin; Cheung, Samantha K.; Gordon, Michael D.; Wang, Liming; Scott, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Feeding is dynamically regulated by the palatability of the food source and the physiological needs of the animal. How consumption is controlled by external sensory cues and internal metabolic state remains under intense investigation. Here, we identify four GABAergic interneurons in the Drosophila brain that establish a central feeding threshold which is required to inhibit consumption. Inactivation of these cells results in indiscriminate and excessive intake of all compounds, independent of taste quality or nutritional state. Conversely, acute activation of these neurons suppresses consumption of water and nutrients. The output from these neurons is required to gate activity in motor neurons that control meal initiation and consumption. Thus, our study reveals a new layer of inhibitory control in feeding circuits that is required to suppress a latent state of unrestricted and non-selective consumption. PMID:24991960

  10. Differential antiepileptic effects of the organic calcium antagonists verapamil and flunarizine in neurons of organotypic neocortical explants from newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Bingmann, D; Speckmann, E J; Baker, R E; Ruijter, J; de Jong, B M

    1988-01-01

    Effects of the organic calcium antagonists verapamil and flunarizine on pentylenetetrazol induced paroxysmal depolarizations were tested in organotypic neocortical explants taken from neonatal rats. In these in vitro experiments the papaverin derivative verapamil depressed, and finally abolished, epileptic discharges in all cases. The piperazine derivative flunarizine, however, which is known to suppress epileptic discharges in hippocampal CA3 neurons (Bingmann and Speckmann 1986), showed no significant antiepileptic effects in the explanted neocortical neurons. Thus, the present findings may indicate that the suppressive action of flunarizine on the generation of paroxysmal depolarizations is restricted to distinct populations of neurons. PMID:3224653

  11. Steroid influences on GABAergic neurotransmission: A behavioral and biochemical approach

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Steroid influences on GABAergic neurotransmission are varied and complex. However, there has been little investigation into the behavioral relevance of steroid effects on GABA. GABA had been implicated in the control of lordosis, a steroid dependent posture exhibited by sexually receptive female rats, but with conflicting results. This data demonstrated that GABA plays a dual role in the regulation of lordosis; stimulation of GABAergic transmission in the medial hypothalamus enhances lordosis whereas stimulation of GABA in the preoptic area inhibits lordosis. In separate experiments it was determined that progesterone enhances binding of the GABA{sub A} agonist, muscimol, in an in vitro exchange assay utilizing synaptic membranes prepared from the hypothalamus of ovariectomized rats. Scatchard analysis revealed a difference in affinity of the GABA{sub A} receptor between ovariectomized, receptive and post receptive females. In the preoptic area there was a significant decrease in the binding of {sup 3}H-muscimol in receptive females versus post-receptive and ovariectomized rats. In other behavioral experiments, the influence of estrogen and progesterone on GABA-induced analgesia was assessed. Intrathecal infusion of a low dose of muscimol at the lumbar level of the spinal cord did not alter nociceptive thresholds in ovariectomized rats. However, when intact females were administered the same dose of muscimol, they exhibited differential responses over the estrous cycle. Females in estrus were analgesic after muscimol, whereas diestrus females did not differ from ovariectomized controls. Ovariectomized rats injected s.c. with progesterone (2mg) exhibited a pronounced analgesia after intrathecal muscimol beginning 15 minutes after steroid treatment, whereas similar treatment with estrogen (10ug) was without effect.

  12. Modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission by ethanol in the developing neocortex: an in vitro test of the excessive inhibition hypothesis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Jennifer L.; Partridge, L. Donald; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Summary Exposure to ethanol during development triggers neuronal cell death and this is thought to play a central role in the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Studies suggest that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration during the period of synaptogenesis results from widespread potentiation of GABAA receptors and inhibition of NMDA receptors throughout the brain, with neocortical layer II being particularly sensitive. Here, we tested whether ethanol modulates the function of these receptors during this developmental period using patch-clamp electrophysiological and Ca2+ imaging techniques in acute slices from postnatal day 7–9 rats. We focused on pyramidal neurons in layer II of the parietal cortex (with layer III as a control). Ethanol (70 mM) increased spontaneous action potential-dependent GABA release in layer II (but not layer III) neurons without affecting postsynaptic GABAA receptors. Protein and mRNA expression for both the Cl− importer, NKCC1, and the Cl− exporter KCC2, were detected in layer II/III neurons. Perforated-patch experiments demonstrated that ECl− is shifted to the right of Em; activation of GABAA receptors with muscimol depolarized Em, decreased action potential firing, and minimally increased [Ca2+]i. However, the ethanol-induced increase of GABAergic transmission did not affect neuronal excitability. Ethanol had no effect on currents exogenously evoked by NMDA or AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Acute application of ethanol in the absence of receptor antagonists minimally increased [Ca2+]i. These findings are inconsistent with the excessive inhibition model of ethanol-induced neurodegeneration, supporting the view that ethanol damages developing neurons via more complex mechanisms that vary among specific neuronal populations. PMID:19027758

  13. Target-Specific Effects of Somatostatin-Expressing Interneurons on Neocortical Visual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Cottam, James C. H.

    2013-01-01

    A diverse array of interneuron types regulates activity in the mammalian neocortex. Two of the most abundant are the fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, which target the axosomatic region of pyramidal cells, and the somatostatin-positive (SOM+) interneurons, which target the dendrites. Recent work has focused on the influence of PV+ and SOM+ interneurons on pyramidal cells. However, the connections among PV+ and SOM+ interneurons are poorly understood and could play an important role in cortical circuitry, since their interactions may alter the net influence on pyramidal cell output. We used an optogenetic approach to investigate the effect of SOM+ interneurons on pyramidal cells and PV+ interneurons during visual stimulation in mouse primary visual cortex. We find that SOM+ interneuron activation suppresses PV+ cell spiking at least twice as potently as pyramidal cell spiking during visual stimulation. This differential effect of SOM+ cell stimulation is detectable even when only two to three SOM+ cells are activated. Importantly, the remaining responses to oriented gratings in PV+ cells are more orientation tuned and temporally modulated, suggesting that SOM+ activity unmasks this tuning by suppressing untuned input. Our results highlight the importance of SOM+ inhibition of PV+ interneurons during sensory processing. This prominent competitive inhibition between interneuron types leads to a reconfiguration of inhibition along the somatodendritic axis of pyramidal cells, and enhances the orientation selectivity of PV+ cells. PMID:24336721

  14. Development of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors and their correlation with NMDA receptors in fast-spiking interneurons of rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huai-Xing; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal influx of Ca2+ is thought to contribute to the neuronal injury associated with a number of brain disorders, and Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) play a critical role in the pathological process. Despite the apparent vulnerability of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons in neurological disorders, little is known about the CP-AMPARs expressed by functionally identified FS interneurons in the developing prefrontal cortex (PFC). We investigated the development of inwardly rectifying AMPA receptor-mediated currents and their correlation with NMDA receptor-mediated currents in FS interneurons in the rat PFC. We found that 78% of the FS interneurons expressed a low rectification index, presumably Ca2+-permeable AMPARs, with only 22% exhibiting AMPARs with a high rectification index, probably Ca2+ impermeable (CI). FS interneurons with CP-AMPARs exhibited properties distinct from those expressing CI-AMPARs, although both displayed similar morphologies, passive membrane properties and AMPA currents at resting membrane potentials. The AMPA receptors also exhibited dramatic changes during cortical development with significantly more FS interneurons with CP-AMPARs and a clearly decreased rectification index during adolescence. In addition, FS interneurons with CP-AMPARs exhibited few or no NMDA currents, distinct frequency-dependent synaptic facilitation, and protracted maturation in short-term plasticity. These data suggest that CP-AMPARs in FS interneurons may play a critical role in neuronal integration and that their characteristic properties may make these cells particularly vulnerable to disruptive influences in the PFC, thus contributing to the onset of many psychiatric disorders. PMID:20547673

  15. Neocortical connections with perihippocampal and periamygdalar regions in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    2003-12-01

    The perihippocampal fields represent the most important regions connecting the neocortex and the hippocampus in rat, cat and monkey but little is known about their presence and connectivity in species with poorly differentiated brain. Using axonal tracer substances we have recently studied the distribution of cortical cells projecting to the hippocampus in the hedgehog tenrec. In the present study we determined the regions of the paleocortex and the rhinal cortex connected with the neocortex, and provide a tentative view of the site and the extent of the tenrec's entorhinal, perirhinal and postrhinal/parahippocampal fields. It is shown that only the dorsal portions of the posterior rhinal cortex may be considered equivalent to the perirhinal and postrhinal fields of higher mammals, while a considerable expanse of the ventral rhinal cortex may be part of the entorhinal area (its so-called dorsal portion) connected with both the dentate gyrus and the neocortex. A few cells projecting to the neocortex were also noted in the dorsal-most portion of the three-layered paleocortex (ventral entorhinal portion). These cells were linearly arranged and reminiscent of the neocortical projecting cells in the entorhinal layer 4/5 in more differentiated mammals. The main portion of the paleocortex caudal to the corpus callosum remained unlabeled following neocortical and hippocampal tracer injections. Unexpectedly, the area in the most ventral paleocortex adjacent to the amygdala also projected to the neocortex, particularly the tenrec's somatosensorimotor cortex. PMID:14615890

  16. A gradient in the duration of the G1 phase in the murine neocortical proliferative epithelium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyama, S.; Takahashi, T.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    1997-01-01

    Neuronogenesis in the neocortical pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) is initiated rostrolaterally and progresses caudo-medially as development progresses. Here we have measured the cytokinetic parameters and the fractional neuronal output parameter, Q, of laterally located early-maturing regions over the principal embryonic days (E12-E15) of neocortical neuronogenesis in the mouse. These measures are compared with ones previously made of a medial, late-maturing portion of the PVE. Laterally, as medially, the duration of the neuronogenetic interval is 6 days and comprises 11 integer cell cycles. Also, in both lateral and medial areas the length of G1 phase (TG1) increases nearly 4-fold and is the only cell cycle parameter to change. Q progresses essentially identically laterally and medially with respect to the succession of integer cell cycles. Most importantly, from E12 to E13 there is a steeply declining lateral to medial gradient in TG1. The gradient is due both to the lateral to medial graded stage of neuronogenesis and to the stepwise increase in TG1 with each integer cycle during the neuronogenetic interval. To our knowledge this gradient in TG1 of the cerebral PVE is the first cell biological gradient to be demonstrated experimentally in such an extensive proliferative epithelial sheet. We suggest that this gradient in TG1 is the cellular mechanism for positionally encoding a protomap of the neocortex within the PVE.

  17. Human neocortical excitability is decreased during anoxia via sodium channel modulation.

    PubMed

    Cummins, T R; Jiang, C; Haddad, G G

    1993-02-01

    When the central nervous system in humans is deprived of oxygen, the effects are potentially disastrous. Electroencephalographic activity is lost and higher brain function ceases rapidly. Despite the importance of these effects, the mechanisms underlying the loss of cortical activity are poorly understood. Using intracellular recordings of human neocortical neurons in tissue slices, we show that, whereas anoxia produces a relatively small depolarization and modest alterations in passive properties, it causes a major decrease in excitability. Whole-cell voltage-clamp studies of acutely isolated human neocortical pyramidal neurons demonstrate that anoxia and metabolic inhibition produce a large negative shift in the steady-state inactivation [h infinity (V)] curve for the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa). Inclusion of ATP in the patch pipette decreased the shift of the h infinity (V) curve by two-thirds. Because increased inactivation of INa decreases cellular metabolic demand, we postulate that this promotes neuronal survival during periods of oxygen deprivation. These data show a novel mechanism by which anoxia links metabolism to membrane ionic conductances in human cortical neurons. PMID:8381823

  18. A large fraction of neocortical myelin ensheathes axons of local inhibitory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Micheva, Kristina D; Wolman, Dylan; Mensh, Brett D; Pax, Elizabeth; Buchanan, JoAnn; Smith, Stephen J; Bock, Davi D

    2016-01-01

    Myelin is best known for its role in increasing the conduction velocity and metabolic efficiency of long-range excitatory axons. Accordingly, the myelin observed in neocortical gray matter is thought to mostly ensheath excitatory axons connecting to subcortical regions and distant cortical areas. Using independent analyses of light and electron microscopy data from mouse neocortex, we show that a surprisingly large fraction of cortical myelin (half the myelin in layer 2/3 and a quarter in layer 4) ensheathes axons of inhibitory neurons, specifically of parvalbumin-positive basket cells. This myelin differs significantly from that of excitatory axons in distribution and protein composition. Myelin on inhibitory axons is unlikely to meaningfully hasten the arrival of spikes at their pre-synaptic terminals, due to the patchy distribution and short path-lengths observed. Our results thus highlight the need for exploring alternative roles for myelin in neocortical circuits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15784.001 PMID:27383052

  19. Positive Regulation of Neocortical Synapse Formation by the Plexin-D1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Synapse formation is a critical process during neural development and is coordinated by multiple signals. Several lines of evidence implicate the Plexin-D1 receptor in synaptogenesis. Studies have shown that Plexin-D1 signaling is involved in synaptic specificity and synapse formation in spinal cord and striatum. Expression of Plexin-D1 and its principal neural ligand, Sema3E, by neocortical neurons is temporally and spatially regulated, reaching the highest level at the time of synaptogenesis in mice. In this study, we examined the function of Plexin-D1 in synapse formation by primary neocortical neurons in vitro. A novel, automated image analysis method was developed to quantitate synapse formation under baseline conditions and with manipulation of Plexin-D1 levels. shRNA and overexpression manipulations caused opposite changes, with reduction resulting in less synapse formation, an effect distinct from that reported in the striatum. The data indicate that Plexin-D1 operates in a cell context-specific fashion, mediating different synaptogenic outcomes depending upon neuron type. PMID:25976775

  20. Neural mechanisms of transient neocortical beta rhythms: Converging evidence from humans, computational modeling, monkeys, and mice.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Maxwell A; Lee, Shane; Law, Robert; Haegens, Saskia; Thorn, Catherine A; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Moore, Christopher I; Jones, Stephanie R

    2016-08-16

    Human neocortical 15-29-Hz beta oscillations are strong predictors of perceptual and motor performance. However, the mechanistic origin of beta in vivo is unknown, hindering understanding of its functional role. Combining human magnetoencephalography (MEG), computational modeling, and laminar recordings in animals, we present a new theory that accounts for the origin of spontaneous neocortical beta. In our MEG data, spontaneous beta activity from somatosensory and frontal cortex emerged as noncontinuous beta events typically lasting <150 ms with a stereotypical waveform. Computational modeling uniquely designed to infer the electrical currents underlying these signals showed that beta events could emerge from the integration of nearly synchronous bursts of excitatory synaptic drive targeting proximal and distal dendrites of pyramidal neurons, where the defining feature of a beta event was a strong distal drive that lasted one beta period (∼50 ms). This beta mechanism rigorously accounted for the beta event profiles; several other mechanisms did not. The spatial location of synaptic drive in the model to supragranular and infragranular layers was critical to the emergence of beta events and led to the prediction that beta events should be associated with a specific laminar current profile. Laminar recordings in somatosensory neocortex from anesthetized mice and awake monkeys supported these predictions, suggesting this beta mechanism is conserved across species and recording modalities. These findings make several predictions about optimal states for perceptual and motor performance and guide causal interventions to modulate beta for optimal function. PMID:27469163

  1. Neural mechanisms of transient neocortical beta rhythms: Converging evidence from humans, computational modeling, monkeys, and mice

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Maxwell A.; Lee, Shane; Law, Robert; Haegens, Saskia; Thorn, Catherine A.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Moore, Christopher I.; Jones, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Human neocortical 15–29-Hz beta oscillations are strong predictors of perceptual and motor performance. However, the mechanistic origin of beta in vivo is unknown, hindering understanding of its functional role. Combining human magnetoencephalography (MEG), computational modeling, and laminar recordings in animals, we present a new theory that accounts for the origin of spontaneous neocortical beta. In our MEG data, spontaneous beta activity from somatosensory and frontal cortex emerged as noncontinuous beta events typically lasting <150 ms with a stereotypical waveform. Computational modeling uniquely designed to infer the electrical currents underlying these signals showed that beta events could emerge from the integration of nearly synchronous bursts of excitatory synaptic drive targeting proximal and distal dendrites of pyramidal neurons, where the defining feature of a beta event was a strong distal drive that lasted one beta period (∼50 ms). This beta mechanism rigorously accounted for the beta event profiles; several other mechanisms did not. The spatial location of synaptic drive in the model to supragranular and infragranular layers was critical to the emergence of beta events and led to the prediction that beta events should be associated with a specific laminar current profile. Laminar recordings in somatosensory neocortex from anesthetized mice and awake monkeys supported these predictions, suggesting this beta mechanism is conserved across species and recording modalities. These findings make several predictions about optimal states for perceptual and motor performance and guide causal interventions to modulate beta for optimal function. PMID:27469163

  2. Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Insecticide-Induced Stimulation of Calcium Influx in Neocortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhengyu; Shafer, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Pyrethroids have also been reported to alter the function of other channel types, including activation of voltage-gated calcium channels. Therefore, the present study compared the ability of 11 structurally diverse pyrethroids to evoke Ca2+ influx in primary cultures of mouse neocortical neurons. Nine pyrethroids (tefluthrin, deltamethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, β-cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate, S-bioallethrin, fenpropathrin, cypermethrin, and bifenthrin) produced concentration-dependent elevations in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in neocortical neurons. Permethrin and resmethrin were without effect on [Ca2+]i. These pyrethroids displayed a range of efficacies on Ca2+ influx; however, the EC50 values for active pyrethroids all were within one order of magnitude. Tetrodotoxin blocked increases in [Ca2+]i caused by all nine active pyrethroids, indicating that the effects depended on VGSC activation. The pathways for deltamethrin- and tefluthrin-induced Ca2+ influx include N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors, L-type Ca2+ channels, and reverse mode of operation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inasmuch as antagonists of these sites blocked deltamethrin-induced Ca2+ influx. These data demonstrate that pyrethroids stimulate Ca2+ entry into neurons subsequent to their actions on VGSCs. PMID:20881019

  3. Glial glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase regulate GABAergic synaptic strength in the spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Enshe; Yan, Xisheng; Weng, Han-Rong

    2012-05-01

    Decreased GABAergic synaptic strength ('disinhibition') in the spinal dorsal horn is a crucial mechanism contributing to the development and maintenance of pathological pain. However, mechanisms leading to disinhibition in the spinal dorsal horn remain elusive. We investigated the role of glial glutamate transporters (GLT-1 and GLAST) and glutamine synthetase in maintaining GABAergic synaptic activity in the spinal dorsal horn. Electrically evoked GABAergic inhibitory post-synaptic currents (eIPSCs), spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) and miniature IPSCs were recorded in superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons of spinal slices from young adult rats. We used (2S,3S)-3-[3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoylamino]benzyloxy]aspartate (TFB-TBOA), to block both GLT-1 and GLAST and dihydrokainic acid to block only GLT-1. We found that blockade of both GLAST and GLT-1 and blockade of only GLT-1 in the spinal dorsal horn decreased the amplitude of GABAergic eIPSCs, as well as both the amplitude and frequency of GABAergic sIPSCs or miniature IPSCs. Pharmacological inhibition of glial glutamine synthetase had similar effects on both GABAergic eIPSCs and sIPSCs. We provided evidence demonstrating that the reduction in GABAergic strength induced by the inhibition of glial glutamate transporters is due to insufficient GABA synthesis through the glutamate-glutamine cycle between astrocytes and neurons. Thus, our results indicate that deficient glial glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase significantly attenuate GABAergic synaptic strength in the spinal dorsal horn, which may be a crucial synaptic mechanism underlying glial-neuronal interactions caused by dysfunctional astrocytes in pathological pain conditions. PMID:22339645

  4. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes involved in facilitation of GABAergic inhibition in mouse superficial superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiaki; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Isa, Tadashi

    2005-12-01

    The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) is a key station in the sensory processing related to visual salience. The sSC receives cholinergic projections from the parabigeminal nucleus, and previous studies have revealed the presence of several different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the sSC. In this study, to clarify the role of the cholinergic inputs to the sSC, we examined current responses induced by ACh in GABAergic and non-GABAergic sSC neurons using in vitro slice preparations obtained from glutamate decarboxylase 67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice in which GFP is specifically expressed in GABAergic neurons. Brief air pressure application of acetylcholine (ACh) elicited nicotinic inward current responses in both GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons. The inward current responses in the GABAergic neurons were highly sensitive to a selective antagonist for alpha3beta2- and alpha6beta2-containing receptors, alpha-conotoxin MII (alphaCtxMII). A subset of these neurons exhibited a faster alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive inward current component, indicating the expression of alpha7-containing nAChRs. We also found that the activation of presynaptic nAChRs induced release of GABA, which elicited a burst of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents mediated by GABA(A) receptors in non-GABAergic neurons. This ACh-induced GABA release was mediated mainly by alphaCtxMII-sensitive nAChRs and resulted from the activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels. Morphological analysis revealed that recorded GFP-positive neurons are interneurons and GFP-negative neurons include projection neurons. These findings suggest that nAChRs are involved in the regulation of GABAergic inhibition and modulate visual processing in the sSC. PMID:16107532

  5. Sodium Salicylate Suppresses GABAergic Inhibitory Activity in Neurons of Rodent Dorsal Raphe Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yan; Luo, Bin; Su, Yan-Yan; Wang, Xin-Xing; Chen, Liang; Wang, Ming; Wang, Wei-Wen; Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Sodium salicylate (NaSal), a tinnitus inducing agent, can activate serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and can increase serotonin (5-HT) level in the inferior colliculus and the auditory cortex in rodents. To explore the underlying neural mechanisms, we first examined effects of NaSal on neuronal intrinsic properties and the inhibitory synaptic transmissions in DRN slices of rats by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that NaSal hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, decreased the input resistance, and suppressed spontaneous and current-evoked firing in GABAergic neurons, but not in 5-HTergic neurons. In addition, NaSal reduced GABAergic spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in 5-HTergic neurons. We next examined whether the observed depression of GABAergic activity would cause an increase in the excitability of 5-HTergic neurons using optogenetic technique in DRN slices of the transgenic mouse with channelrhodopsin-2 expressed in GABAergic neurons. When the GABAergic inhibition was enhanced by optical stimulation to GABAergic neurons in mouse DRN, NaSal significantly depolarized the resting membrane potential, increased the input resistance and increased current-evoked firing of 5-HTergic neurons. However, NaSal would fail to increase the excitability of 5-HTergic neurons when the GABAergic synaptic transmission was blocked by picrotoxin, a GABA receptor antagonist. Our results indicate that NaSal suppresses the GABAergic activities to raise the excitability of local 5-HTergic neural circuits in the DRN, which may contribute to the elevated 5-HT level by NaSal in the brain. PMID:25962147

  6. Physiological impact of CB1 receptor expression by hippocampal GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Albayram, Önder; Passlick, Stefan; Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; Zimmer, Andreas; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2016-04-01

    A subset of hippocampal GABAergic neurons, which are cholecystokinin-positive, highly express cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors. Activation of these receptors inhibits GABA release and thereby limits inhibitory control. While genetic deletion of CB1 receptors from GABAergic neurons led to behavioural alterations and neuroinflammatory reactions, it remained unclear whether these changes in the knockout animals were a direct consequence of the enhanced transmitter release or reflected developmental deficits. The hippocampus is vital for the generation of spatial, declarative and working memory. Here, we addressed the question how CB1 receptors in GABAergic neurons influence hippocampal function. Patch clamp and field potential recordings in mice devoid of CB1 receptors in GABAergic neurons revealed an enhanced frequency and faster kinetics of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons while tonic inhibition, paired-pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus were not affected. Evaluation of cognitive functions demonstrated impaired acquisition of spatial memory and deficits in novel object recognition and partner recognition in the knockout mice, while working memory and spatial memory remained intact. The density of GABAergic neurons was also similar in knockout mice and their littermates, which argues against global deficits in hippocampal development. Together, these results suggest that CB1 receptors in GABAergic neurons influence specific aspects of neuronal excitability and hippocampal learning. PMID:26739712

  7. Using Multiple Whole-Cell Recordings to Study Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity in Acute Neocortical Slices.

    PubMed

    Lalanne, Txomin; Abrahamsson, Therese; Sjöström, P Jesper

    2016-01-01

    This protocol provides a method for quadruple whole-cell recording to study synaptic plasticity of neocortical connections, with a special focus on spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). It also describes how to morphologically identify recorded cells from two-photon laser-scanning microscopy (2PLSM) stacks. PMID:27250948

  8. Dendritic and Axonal Wiring Optimization of Cortical GABAergic Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The way in which a neuronal tree expands plays an important role in its functional and computational characteristics. We aimed to study the existence of an optimal neuronal design for different types of cortical GABAergic neurons. To do this, we hypothesized that both the axonal and dendritic trees of individual neurons optimize brain connectivity in terms of wiring length. We took the branching points of real three-dimensional neuronal reconstructions of the axonal and dendritic trees of different types of cortical interneurons and searched for the minimal wiring arborization structure that respects the branching points. We compared the minimal wiring arborization with real axonal and dendritic trees. We tested this optimization problem using a new approach based on graph theory and evolutionary computation techniques. We concluded that neuronal wiring is near-optimal in most of the tested neurons, although the wiring length of dendritic trees is generally nearer to the optimum. Therefore, wiring economy is related to the way in which neuronal arborizations grow irrespective of the marked differences in the morphology of the examined interneurons. PMID:27345531

  9. GABAergic mechanisms contributing to categorical amygdala responses to chemosensory signals.

    PubMed

    Westberry, Jenne M; Meredith, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Chemosensory stimuli from conspecific and heterospecific animals, elicit categorically different immediate-early gene response-patterns in medial amygdala in male hamsters and mice. We previously showed that conspecific signals activate posterior (MeP) as well as anterior medial amygdala (MeA), and especially relevant heterospecific signals such as chemosensory stimuli from potential predators also activate MeP in mice. Other heterospecific chemosignals activate MeA, but not MeP. Here we show that male hamster amygdala responds significantly differentially to different conspecific signals, by activating different proportions of cells of different phenotype, possibly leading to differential activation of downstream circuits. Heterospecific signals that fail to activate MeP do activate GABA-immunoreactive cells in the adjacent caudal main intercalated nucleus (mICNc) and elicit selective suppression of MeP cells bearing GABA-Receptors, suggesting GABA inhibition in MeP by GABAergic cells in mICNc. Overall, work presented here suggests that medial amygdala may discriminate between important conspecific social signals, distinguish them from the social signals of other species and convey that information to brain circuits eliciting appropriate social behavior. PMID:27329335

  10. Nicotine increases GABAergic input on rat dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vázquez, F; Chavarría, K; Garduño, J; Hernández-López, S; Mihailescu, S P

    2014-12-15

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) contains large populations of serotonergic (5-HT) neurons. This nucleus receives GABAergic inhibitory afferents from many brain areas and from DRN interneurons. Both GABAergic and 5-HT DRN neurons express functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotine increases 5-HT release and 5-HT DRN neuron discharge rate by stimulating postsynaptic nAChRs and by increasing glutamate and norepinephrine release inside DRN. However, the influence of nicotine on the GABAergic input to 5-HT DRN neurons was poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the effect of nicotine on GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) of 5-HT DRN neurons and the subtype of nAChR(s) involved in this response. Experiments were performed in coronal slices obtained from young Wistar rats. GABAergic sIPSCs were recorded from post hoc-identified 5-HT DRN neurons with the whole cell voltage patch-clamp technique. Administration of nicotine (1 μM) increased sIPSC frequency in 72% of identified 5-HT DRN neurons. This effect was not reproduced by the α4β2 nAChR agonist RJR-2403 and was not influenced by TTX (1 μM). It was mimicked by the selective agonist for α7 nAChR, PNU-282987, and exacerbated by the positive allosteric modulator of the same receptor, PNU-120596. The nicotine-induced increase in sIPSC frequency was independent on voltage-gated calcium channels and dependent on Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). These results demonstrate that nicotine increases the GABAergic input to most 5-HT DRN neurons, by activating α7 nAChRs and producing CICR in DRN GABAergic terminals. PMID:25231613

  11. Identification of a Group of GABAergic Neurons in the Dorsomedial Area of the Locus Coeruleus

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Li, Shanshan; Bondy, Brian; Zhong, Weiwei; Oginsky, Max F.; Wu, Yang; Johnson, Christopher M.; Zhang, Shuang; Cui, Ningren; Jiang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system in the brainstem plays a critical role in a variety of behaviors is an important target of pharmacological intervention to several neurological disorders. Although GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of LC neurons, the modulation of LC neuronal firing activity by local GABAergic interneurons remains poorly understood with respect to their precise location, intrinsic membrane properties and synaptic modulation. Here, we took an optogenetic approach to address these questions. Channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in a tandem with the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) was expressed in GABAergic neurons under the control of glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (GAD2) promoter. Immediately dorsomedial to the LC nucleus, a group of GABAergic neurons was observed. They had small soma and were densely packed in a small area, which we named the dorsomedial LC or dmLC nucleus. These GABAergic neurons showed fast firing activity, strong inward rectification and spike frequency adaptation. Lateral inhibition among these GABAergic neurons was observed. Optostimulation of the dmLC area drastically inhibited LC neuronal firing frequency, expanded the spike intervals, and reset their pacemaking activity. Analysis of the light evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) indicated that they were monosynaptic. Such light evoked IPSCs were not seen in slices where this group of GABAergic neurons was absent. Thus, an isolated group of GABAergic neurons is demonstrated in the LC area, whose location, somatic morphology and intrinsic membrane properties are clearly distinguishable from adjacent LC neurons. They interact with each and may inhibit LC neurons as well as a part of local neuronal circuitry in the LC. PMID:26785258

  12. Alterations of Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons: Turning Points in the Genesis of Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Granato, Alberto; De Giorgio, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons (PNs) represent the majority of neocortical cells and their involvement in cognitive functions is decisive. Therefore, they are the most obvious target of developmental disorders characterized by mental retardation. Genetic and non-genetic forms of intellectual disability share a few basic pathogenetic signatures that result in the anomalous function of PNs. Here, we review the key mechanisms impairing these neurons and their participation in the cortical network, with special focus on experimental models of fetal exposure to alcohol. Due to the heterogeneity of PNs, some alterations affect selectively a given cell population, which may also differ depending on the considered pathology. These specific features open new possibilities for the interpretation of cognitive defects observed in mental retardation syndromes, as well as for novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:25157343

  13. Imaging the Dynamics of Neocortical Population Activity in Behaving and Freely Moving Mammals.

    PubMed

    Grinvald, Amiram; Petersen, Carl C H

    2015-01-01

    The development of functional imaging techniques applicable to neuroscience and covering a wide range of spatial and temporal scales has greatly facilitated the exploration of the relationships between cognition, behaviour and electrical brain activity. For mammals, the neocortex plays a particularly profound role in generating sensory perception, controlling voluntary movement, higher cognitive functions and planning goal-directed behaviours. Since these remarkable functions of the neocortex cannot be explored in simple model preparations or in anesthetised animals, the neural basis of behaviour must be explored in awake behaving subjects. Because neocortical function is highly distributed across many rapidly interacting regions, it is essential to measure spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical activity in real-time. Extensive work in anesthetised mammals has shown that in vivo Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging (VSDI) reveals the neocortical population membrane potential dynamics at millisecond temporal resolution and subcolumnar spatial resolution. Here, we describe recent advances indicating that VSDI is also already well-developed for exploring cortical function in behaving monkeys and mice. The first animal model, the non-human primate, is well-suited for fundamental exploration of higher-level cognitive function and behavior. The second animal model, the mouse, benefits from a rich arsenal of molecular and genetic technologies. In the monkey, imaging from the same patch of cortex, repeatedly, is feasible for a long period of time, up to a year. In the rodent, VSDI is applicable to freely moving and awake head-restrained mice. Interactions between different cortical areas and different cortical columns can therefore now be dynamically mapped through VSDI and related to the corresponding behaviour. Thus by applying VSDI to mice and monkeys one can begin to explore how behaviour emerges from neuronal activity in neuronal networks residing in different cortical areas

  14. A rule-based seizure prediction method for focal neocortical epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Aarabi, Ardalan; He, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Objective In the present study, we have developed a novel patient-specific rule-based seizure prediction system for focal neocortical epilepsy. Methods Five univariate measures including correlation dimension, correlation entropy, noise level, Lempel-Ziv complexity, and largest Lyapunov exponent as well as one bivariate measure, nonlinear interdependence, were extracted from non-overlapping 10-second segments of intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) data recorded using electrodes implanted deep in the brain and/or placed on the cortical surface. The spatio-temporal information was then integrated by using rules established based on patient-specific changes observed in the period prior to a seizure sample for each patient. The system was tested on 316 h of iEEG data containing 49 seizures recorded in eleven patients with medically intractable focal neocortical epilepsy. Results For seizure occurrence periods of 30 and 50 min our method showed an average sensitivity of 79.9% and 90.2% with an average false prediction rate of 0.17 and 0.11/h, respectively. In terms of sensitivity and false prediction rate, the system showed superiority to random and periodical predictors. Conclusions The nonlinear analysis of iEEG in the period prior to seizures revealed patient-specific spatio-temporal changes that were significantly different from those observed within baselines in the majority of the seizures analyzed in this study. Significance The present results suggest that the patient specific rule-based approach may become a potentially useful approach for predicting seizures prior to onset. PMID:22361267

  15. GABAergic regulation of the HPA and HPG axes and the impact of stress on reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Camille Melón, Laverne; Maguire, Jamie

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes are regulated by GABAergic signaling at the level of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, respectively. Under basal conditions, activity of CRH and GnRH neurons are controlled in part by both phasic and tonic GABAergic inhibition, mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs), respectively. For CRH neurons, this tonic GABAergic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic, δ subunit-containing GABAARs. Similarly, a THIP-sensitive tonic GABAergic current has been shown to regulate GnRH neurons, suggesting a role for δ subunit-containing GABAARs; however, this remains to be explicitly demonstrated. GABAARs incorporating the δ subunit confer neurosteroid sensitivity, suggesting a potential role for neurosteroid modulation in the regulation of the HPA and HPG axes. Thus, stress-derived neurosteroids may contribute to the impact of stress on reproductive function. Interestingly, excitatory actions of GABA have been demonstrated in both CRH neurons at the apex of control of the HPA axis and in GnRH neurons which mediate the HPG axis, adding to the complexity for the role of GABAergic signaling in the regulation of these systems. Here we review the effects that stress has on GnRH neurons and HPG axis function alongside evidence supporting GABAARs as a major interface between the stress and reproductive axes. PMID:26690789

  16. Pin1-dependent signalling negatively affects GABAergic transmission by modulating neuroligin2/gephyrin interaction

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Roberta; Pizzarelli, Rocco; Pedroni, Andrea; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Del Sal, Giannino; Cherubini, Enrico; Zacchi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The cell adhesion molecule Neuroligin2 (NL2) is localized selectively at GABAergic synapses, where it interacts with the scaffolding protein gephyrin in the post-synaptic density. However, the role of this interaction for formation and plasticity of GABAergic synapses is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous NL2 undergoes proline-directed phosphorylation at its unique S714-P consensus site, leading to the recruitment of the peptidyl-prolyl cis–trans isomerase Pin1. This signalling cascade negatively regulates NL2’s ability to interact with gephyrin at GABAergic post-synaptic sites. As a consequence, enhanced accumulation of NL2, gephyrin and GABAA receptors was detected at GABAergic synapses in the hippocampus of Pin1-knockout mice (Pin1−/−) associated with an increase in amplitude of spontaneous GABAA-mediated post-synaptic currents. Our results suggest that Pin1-dependent signalling represents a mechanism to modulate GABAergic transmission by regulating NL2/gephyrin interaction. PMID:25297980

  17. Recent progress on the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Mahmood, Wajahat; Kabir, Nurul

    2016-06-01

    Despite their possible causative role, targeting amyloidosis, tau phosphorylation, acetylcholine esterase, glutamate, oxidative stress and mitochondrial metabolism have not yet led to the development of drugs to cure Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent preclinical and clinical reports exhibit a surge in interest in the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the pathogenesis of AD. The interaction among GABAergic signaling, amyloid-β and acetylcholine is shown to affect the homeostasis between excitation (glutamate) and inhibition (GABA) in the brain. As a consequence, over-excitation leads to neurodegeneration (excitotoxicity) and impairment in the higher level functions. Previously, the glutamate arm of this balance received the most attention. Recent literature suggests that over-excitation is primarily mediated by dysfunctional GABA signaling and can possibly be restored by rectifying anomalous metabolism observed in the GABAergic neurons during AD. Additionally, neurogenesis and synaptogenesis have also been linked with GABAergic signaling. This association may provide a basis for the needed repair mechanism. Furthermore, several preclinical interventional studies revealed that targeting various GABA receptor subtypes holds potential in overcoming the memory deficits associated with AD. In conclusion, the recent scientific literature suggests that GABAergic signaling presents itself as a promising target for anti-AD drug development. PMID:26812781

  18. Interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in cognitive and motor impairment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Agusti, Ana; Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Gomez-Gimenez, Belen; Malaguarnera, Michele; Dadsetan, Sherry; Belghiti, Majedeline; Garcia-Garcia, Raquel; Balzano, Tiziano; Taoro, Lucas; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    The cognitive and motor alterations in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) are the final result of altered neurotransmission and communication between neurons in neuronal networks and circuits. Different neurotransmitter systems cooperate to modulate cognitive and motor function, with a main role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in different brain areas and neuronal circuits. There is an interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in cognitive and motor impairment in HE. This interplay may occur: (a) in different brain areas involved in specific neuronal circuits; (b) in the same brain area through cross-modulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We will summarize some examples of the (1) interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in different areas in the basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit in the motor alterations in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE); (2) interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in cerebellum in the impairment of cognitive function in MHE through altered function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway. We will also comment the therapeutic implications of the above studies and the utility of modulators of glutamate and GABA receptors to restore cognitive and motor function in rats with hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:25447766

  19. Dopamine synapse is a neuroligin-2-mediated contact between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures.

    PubMed

    Uchigashima, Motokazu; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopamine neurons project densely to the striatum and form so-called dopamine synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), principal neurons in the striatum. Because dopamine receptors are widely expressed away from dopamine synapses, it remains unclear how dopamine synapses are involved in dopaminergic transmission. Here we demonstrate that dopamine synapses are contacts formed between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures. The presynaptic structure expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and plasmalemmal dopamine transporter, which are essential for dopamine synthesis, vesicular filling, and recycling, but was below the detection threshold for molecules involving GABA synthesis and vesicular filling or for GABA itself. In contrast, the postsynaptic structure of dopamine synapses expressed GABAergic molecules, including postsynaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin-2, postsynaptic scaffolding molecule gephyrin, and GABAA receptor α1, without any specific clustering of dopamine receptors. Of these, neuroligin-2 promoted presynaptic differentiation in axons of midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal GABAergic neurons in culture. After neuroligin-2 knockdown in the striatum, a significant decrease of dopamine synapses coupled with a reciprocal increase of GABAergic synapses was observed on MSN dendrites. This finding suggests that neuroligin-2 controls striatal synapse formation by giving competitive advantage to heterologous dopamine synapses over conventional GABAergic synapses. Considering that MSN dendrites are preferential targets of dopamine synapses and express high levels of dopamine receptors, dopamine synapse formation may serve to increase the specificity and potency of dopaminergic modulation of striatal outputs by anchoring dopamine release sites to dopamine-sensing targets. PMID:27035941

  20. Low threshold primary afferent drive onto GABAergic interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Claire A.; MacDermott, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition in the spinal cord dorsal horn is crucial for maintaining separation of touch and pain modalities. Disruption of this inhibition results in allodynia, allowing low threshold drive onto pain and temperature sensitive projection neurons. This low threshold excitatory pathway is normally under strong inhibition. We hypothesized that superficial dorsal horn inhibitory neurons, which would be ideally located to suppress low threshold drive onto projection neurons in a feedforward manner, are driven by low threshold input. In addition, because disinhibition-induced allodynia shares some features with the immature dorsal horn such as elevated sensitivity to low threshold input, we also questioned whether low threshold drive onto inhibitory neurons changes during postnatal maturation. To investigate these questions, slices were made at different ages from transgenic mice with EGFP expression in GABAergic neurons and whole cell recordings were made from these fluorescent neurons. Evoked synaptic activity was measured in response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal root. We demonstrate that Aβ fibers activate a significant proportion of superficial dorsal horn GABAergic neurons. This occurs with similar excitatory synaptic drive throughout postnatal maturation, but with a greater prevalence at younger ages. These GABAergic neurons are well situated to contribute to suppressing low threshold activation of output projection neurons. In addition, the majority of these GABAergic neurons also had convergent input from high threshold fibers, suggesting that this novel subclass of GABAergic neurons is important for gating innocuous as well as noxious information. PMID:19158295

  1. Bayesian network classifiers for categorizing cortical GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Mihaljević, Bojan; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Bielza, Concha; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    An accepted classification of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex is a major goal in neuroscience. A recently proposed taxonomy based on patterns of axonal arborization promises to be a pragmatic method for achieving this goal. It involves characterizing interneurons according to five axonal arborization features, called F1-F5, and classifying them into a set of predefined types, most of which are established in the literature. Unfortunately, there is little consensus among expert neuroscientists regarding the morphological definitions of some of the proposed types. While supervised classifiers were able to categorize the interneurons in accordance with experts' assignments, their accuracy was limited because they were trained with disputed labels. Thus, here we automatically classify interneuron subsets with different label reliability thresholds (i.e., such that every cell's label is backed by at least a certain (threshold) number of experts). We quantify the cells with parameters of axonal and dendritic morphologies and, in order to predict the type, also with axonal features F1-F4 provided by the experts. Using Bayesian network classifiers, we accurately characterize and classify the interneurons and identify useful predictor variables. In particular, we discriminate among reliable examples of common basket, horse-tail, large basket, and Martinotti cells with up to 89.52% accuracy, and single out the number of branches at 180 μm from the soma, the convex hull 2D area, and the axonal features F1-F4 as especially useful predictors for distinguishing among these types. These results open up new possibilities for an objective and pragmatic classification of interneurons. PMID:25420745

  2. Compromised GABAergic inhibition contributes to tumor-associated epilepsy.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Georgina; O'Toole, Kate K; Moss, Stephen J; Maguire, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of primary brain tumor with 30-50% of patients presenting with epilepsy. These tumor-associated seizures are often resistant to traditional antiepileptic drug treatment and persist after tumor resection. This suggests that changes in the peritumoral tissue underpin epileptogenesis. It is known that glioma cells extrude pathological concentrations of glutamate which is thought to play a role in tumor progression and the development of epilepsy. Given that pathological concentrations of glutamate have been shown to dephosphorylate and downregulate the potassium chloride cotransporter KCC2, we hypothesized that glioma-induced alterations in KCC2 in the peritumoral region may play a role in tumor-associated epilepsy. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observe a decrease in total KCC2 expression and a dephosphorylation of KCC2 at residue Ser940 in a glioma model which exhibits hyperexcitability and the development of spontaneous seizures. To determine whether the reduction of KCC2 could potentially contribute to tumor-associated epilepsy, we generated mice with a focal knockdown of KCC2 by injecting AAV2-Cre-GFP into the cortex of floxed KCC2 mice. The AAV2-Cre-mediated knockdown of KCC2 was sufficient to induce the development of spontaneous seizures. Further, blocking NKCC1 with bumetanide to offset the loss of KCC2 reduced the seizure susceptibility in glioma-implanted mice. These findings support a mechanism of tumor-associated epilepsy involving downregulation of KCC2 in the peritumoral region leading to compromised GABAergic inhibition and suggest that modulating chloride homeostasis may be useful for seizure control. PMID:27513374

  3. Blockade of glutamatergic and GABAergic receptor channels by trimethyltin chloride

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Katharina; Diepgrond, Victoria; Ahnefeld, Maria; Wackerbeck, Christina; Madeja, Michael; Binding, Norbert; Musshoff, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Organotin compounds such as trimethyltin chloride (TMT) are among the most toxic of the organometallics. As their main target for toxicity is the central nervous system, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of TMT on receptor channels involved in various processes of synaptic transmission. The Xenopus oocyte expression system was chosen for direct assessment of TMT effects on voltage-operated potassium channels and glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors, and hippocampal slices from rat brain for analyzing TMT effects on identified synaptic sites. TMT was found to be ineffective, at 100 μmol l−1, against several potassium- and sodium-operated ion channel functions as well as the metabotropic glutamate receptor. The functions of the ionotropic glutamate and the GABAA receptor channels were inhibited by TMT in micromolar concentrations. Thus, at a maximum concentration of 100 μmol l−1, around 20–30% of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid and GABAA receptor-mediated ion currents and 35% of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated ion currents were blocked. In the hippocampal slice model, the inhibitory effects of TMT were much stronger than expected from the results on the ion channels. Bath application of TMT significantly reduced the amplitudes of evoked excitatory postsynaptic field potentials in a concentration-dependent and nonreversible manner.  Induction of long-term potentiation, recorded from the CA1 dendritic region, was inhibited by TMT and failed completely at a concentration of 10 μmol l−1. In general, TMT affects the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic processes in a receptor specific manner and is able to disturb the activity within a neuronal network. PMID:15655511

  4. Neocortical inhibitory activities and long-range afferents contribute to the synchronous onset of silent states of the neocortical slow oscillation.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Maxime; Chauvette, Sylvain; Timofeev, Igor

    2015-02-01

    During slow-wave sleep, neurons of the thalamocortical network are engaged in a slow oscillation (<1 Hz), which consists of an alternation between the active and the silent states. Several studies have provided insights on the transition from the silent, which are essentially periods of disfacilitation, to the active states. However, the conditions leading to the synchronous onset of the silent state remain elusive. We hypothesized that a synchronous input to local inhibitory neurons could contribute to the transition to the silent state in the cat suprasylvian gyrus during natural sleep and under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. After partial and complete deafferentation of the cortex, we found that the silent state onset was more variable among remote sites. We found that the transition to the silent state was preceded by a reduction in excitatory postsynaptic potentials and firing probability in cortical neurons. We tested the impact of chloride-mediated inhibition in the silent-state onset. We uncovered a long-duration (100-300 ms) inhibitory barrage occurring about 250 ms before the silent state onset in 3-6% of neurons during anesthesia and in 12-15% of cases during natural sleep. These inhibitory activities caused a decrease in cortical firing that reduced the excitatory drive in the neocortical network. That chain reaction of disfacilitation ends up on the silent state. Electrical stimuli could trigger a network silent state with a maximal efficacy in deep cortical layers. We conclude that long-range afferents to the neocortex and chloride-mediated inhibition play a role in the initiation of the silent state. PMID:25392176

  5. An extrasynaptic GABAergic signal modulates a pattern of forward movement in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Wen, Quan; Liu, He; Zhong, Connie; Qin, Yuqi; Harris, Gareth; Kawano, Taizo; Wu, Min; Xu, Tianqi; Samuel, Aravinthan Dt; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    As a common neurotransmitter in the nervous system, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulates locomotory patterns in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying the behavioral effects of GABAergic modulation are not completely understood. Here, we demonstrate that a GABAergic signal in C. elegans modulates the amplitude of undulatory head bending through extrasynaptic neurotransmission and conserved metabotropic receptors. We show that the GABAergic RME head motor neurons generate undulatory activity patterns that correlate with head bending and the activity of RME causally links with head bending amplitude. The undulatory activity of RME is regulated by a pair of cholinergic head motor neurons SMD, which facilitate head bending, and inhibits SMD to limit head bending. The extrasynaptic neurotransmission between SMD and RME provides a gain control system to set head bending amplitude to a value correlated with optimal efficiency of forward movement. PMID:27138642

  6. Palmitoylation of Gephyrin Controls Receptor Clustering and Plasticity of GABAergic Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Dejanovic, Borislav; Semtner, Marcus; Ebert, Silvia; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Neuser, Franziska; Lüscher, Bernhard; Meier, Jochen C.; Schwarz, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Postsynaptic scaffolding proteins regulate coordinated neurotransmission by anchoring and clustering receptors and adhesion molecules. Gephyrin is the major instructive molecule at inhibitory synapses, where it clusters glycine as well as major subsets of GABA type A receptors (GABAARs). Here, we identified palmitoylation of gephyrin as an important mechanism of strengthening GABAergic synaptic transmission, which is regulated by GABAAR activity. We mapped palmitoylation to Cys212 and Cys284, which are critical for both association of gephyrin with the postsynaptic membrane and gephyrin clustering. We identified DHHC-12 as the principal palmitoyl acyltransferase that palmitoylates gephyrin. Furthermore, gephyrin pamitoylation potentiated GABAergic synaptic transmission, as evidenced by an increased amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Consistently, inhibiting gephyrin palmitoylation either pharmacologically or by expression of palmitoylation-deficient gephyrin reduced the gephyrin cluster size. In aggregate, our study reveals that palmitoylation of gephyrin by DHHC-12 contributes to dynamic and functional modulation of GABAergic synapses. PMID:25025157

  7. Acidosis and alkalosis impair brain functions through weakening spike encoding at cortical GABAergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Song, Rongrong; Zhang, Liming; Yang, Zichao; Tian, Xiaoyan

    2011-05-15

    Acidosis and alkalosis, associated with metabolic disorders, lead to the pathological changes of cognition and behaviors in clinical practices of neurology and psychology. Cellular mechanisms for these functional disorders in the central nervous system remain unclear. We have investigated the influences of acidosis and alkalosis on the functions of cortical GABAergic neurons. Both acidosis and alkalosis impair the ability of encoding sequential spikes at these GABAergic neurons. The impairments of their spiking are associated with the increases of refractory periods, threshold potential and afterhyperpolarization. Our studies reveal that acidosis and alkalosis impair cortical GABAergic neurons and in turn deteriorate brain functions, in which their final targets may be voltage-gated channels of sodium and potassium. PMID:21353681

  8. An extrasynaptic GABAergic signal modulates a pattern of forward movement in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yu; Wen, Quan; Liu, He; Zhong, Connie; Qin, Yuqi; Harris, Gareth; Kawano, Taizo; Wu, Min; Xu, Tianqi; Samuel, Aravinthan DT; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    As a common neurotransmitter in the nervous system, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulates locomotory patterns in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying the behavioral effects of GABAergic modulation are not completely understood. Here, we demonstrate that a GABAergic signal in C. elegans modulates the amplitude of undulatory head bending through extrasynaptic neurotransmission and conserved metabotropic receptors. We show that the GABAergic RME head motor neurons generate undulatory activity patterns that correlate with head bending and the activity of RME causally links with head bending amplitude. The undulatory activity of RME is regulated by a pair of cholinergic head motor neurons SMD, which facilitate head bending, and inhibits SMD to limit head bending. The extrasynaptic neurotransmission between SMD and RME provides a gain control system to set head bending amplitude to a value correlated with optimal efficiency of forward movement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14197.001 PMID:27138642

  9. The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

    2007-01-01

    Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are…

  10. GABAergic somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons in the amygdala project to the entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A J; Zaric, V

    2015-04-01

    The entorhinal cortex and other hippocampal and parahippocampal cortices are interconnected by a small number of GABAergic nonpyramidal neurons in addition to glutamatergic pyramidal cells. Since the cortical and basolateral amygdalar nuclei have cortex-like cell types and have robust projections to the entorhinal cortex, we hypothesized that a small number of amygdalar GABAergic nonpyramidal neurons might participate in amygdalo-entorhinal projections. To test this hypothesis we combined Fluorogold (FG) retrograde tract tracing with immunohistochemistry for the amygdalar nonpyramidal cell markers glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and the m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (M2R). Injections of FG into the rat entorhinal cortex labeled numerous neurons that were mainly located in the cortical and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala. Although most of these amygdalar FG+ neurons labeled by entorhinal injections were large pyramidal cells, 1-5% were smaller long-range nonpyramidal neurons (LRNP neurons) that expressed SOM, or both SOM and NPY. No amygdalar FG+ neurons in these cases were PV+ or VIP+. Cell counts revealed that LRNP neurons labeled by injections into the entorhinal cortex constituted about 10-20% of the total SOM+ population, and 20-40% of the total NPY population in portions of the lateral amygdalar nucleus that exhibited a high density of FG+ neurons. Sixty-two percent of amygdalar FG+/SOM+ neurons were GAD+, and 51% were M2R+. Since GABAergic projection neurons typically have low perikaryal levels of GABAergic markers, it is actually possible that most or all of the amygdalar LRNP neurons are GABAergic. Like GABAergic LRNP neurons in hippocampal/parahippocampal regions, amygdalar LRNP neurons that project to the entorhinal cortex are most likely involved in synchronizing oscillatory activity between the two regions. These oscillations could entrain

  11. MeCP2 Is Required for Normal Development of GABAergic Circuits in the Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Joseph D.; Liu, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is highly expressed in neurons in the vertebrate brain, and mutations of the gene encoding MeCP2 cause the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome. This study examines the role of MeCP2 in the development and function of thalamic GABAergic circuits. Whole cell recordings were carried out in excitatory neurons of the ventrobasal complex (VB) of the thalamus and in inhibitory neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) in acute brain slices from mice aged P6 through P23. At P14–P16, the number of quantal GABAergic events was decreased in VB neurons but increased in RTN neurons of Mecp2-null mice, without any change in the amplitude or kinetics of quantal events. There was no difference between mutant and wild-type mice in paired-pulse ratios of evoked GABAergic responses in the VB or the RTN. On the other hand, unitary responses evoked by minimal stimulation were decreased in the VB but increased in the RTN of mutants. Similar changes in the frequency of quantal events were observed at P21–P23 in both the VB and RTN. At P6, however, quantal GABAergic transmission was altered only in the VB not the RTN. Immunostaining of vesicular GABA transporter showed opposite changes in the number of GABAergic synaptic terminals in the VB and RTN of Mecp2-null mice at P18–P20. The loss of MeCP2 had no significant effect on intrinsic properties of RTN neurons recorded at P15–P17. Our findings suggest that MeCP2 differentially regulates the development of GABAergic synapses in excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the thalamus. PMID:20200124

  12. MeCP2 is required for normal development of GABAergic circuits in the thalamus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Zak, Joseph D; Liu, Hong

    2010-05-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is highly expressed in neurons in the vertebrate brain, and mutations of the gene encoding MeCP2 cause the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome. This study examines the role of MeCP2 in the development and function of thalamic GABAergic circuits. Whole cell recordings were carried out in excitatory neurons of the ventrobasal complex (VB) of the thalamus and in inhibitory neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) in acute brain slices from mice aged P6 through P23. At P14-P16, the number of quantal GABAergic events was decreased in VB neurons but increased in RTN neurons of Mecp2-null mice, without any change in the amplitude or kinetics of quantal events. There was no difference between mutant and wild-type mice in paired-pulse ratios of evoked GABAergic responses in the VB or the RTN. On the other hand, unitary responses evoked by minimal stimulation were decreased in the VB but increased in the RTN of mutants. Similar changes in the frequency of quantal events were observed at P21-P23 in both the VB and RTN. At P6, however, quantal GABAergic transmission was altered only in the VB not the RTN. Immunostaining of vesicular GABA transporter showed opposite changes in the number of GABAergic synaptic terminals in the VB and RTN of Mecp2-null mice at P18-P20. The loss of MeCP2 had no significant effect on intrinsic properties of RTN neurons recorded at P15-P17. Our findings suggest that MeCP2 differentially regulates the development of GABAergic synapses in excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the thalamus. PMID:20200124

  13. Modulation of the GABAergic pathway for the treatment of fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Reymundo; Hare, Emma B; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and the most common single-gene cause of autism. It is caused by mutations on the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1) and lack of fragile X mental retardation protein, which in turn, leads to decreased inhibition of translation of many synaptic proteins. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) hypothesis states that the neurological deficits in individuals with FXS are due mainly to downstream consequences of overstimulation of the mGluR pathway. The main efforts have focused on mGluR5 targeted treatments; however, investigation on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system and its potential as a targeted treatment is less emphasized. The fragile X mouse models (Fmr1-knock out) show decreased GABA subunit receptors, decreased synthesis of GABA, increased catabolism of GABA, and overall decreased GABAergic input in many regions of the brain. Consequences of the reduced GABAergic input in FXS include oversensitivity to sensory stimuli, seizures, and anxiety. Deficits in the GABA receptors in different regions of the brain are associated with behavioral and attentional processing deficits linked to anxiety and autistic behaviors. The understanding of the neurobiology of FXS has led to the development of targeted treatments for the core behavioral features of FXS, which include social deficits, inattention, and anxiety. These symptoms are also observed in individuals with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, therefore the targeted treatments for FXS are leading the way in the treatment of other neurodevelopmental syndromes and autism. The GABAergic system in FXS represents a target for new treatments. Herein, we discuss the animal and human trials of GABAergic treatment in FXS. Arbaclofen and ganaxolone have been used in individuals with FXS. Other potential GABAergic treatments, such as riluzole, gaboxadol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, will be also discussed. Further

  14. Lateral Hypothalamus GABAergic Neurons Modulate Consummatory Behaviors Regardless of the Caloric Content or Biological Relevance of the Consumed Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Montserrat; Olney, Jeffrey J; Burnham, Nathan W; Mazzone, Christopher M; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Pleil, Kristen E; Kash, Thomas L; Thiele, Todd E

    2016-05-01

    It was recently reported that activation of a subset of lateral hypothalamus (LH) GABAergic neurons induced both appetitive (food-seeking) and consummatory (eating) behaviors in vGat-ires-cre mice, while inhibition or deletion of GABAergic neurons blunted these behaviors. As food and caloric-dense liquid solutions were used, the data reported suggest that these LH GABAergic neurons may modulate behaviors that function to maintain homeostatic caloric balance. Here we report that chemogenetic activation of this GABAergic population in vGat-ires-cre mice increased consummatory behavior directed at any available stimulus, including those entailing calories (food, sucrose, and ethanol), those that do not (saccharin and water), and those lacking biological relevance (wood). Chemogenetic inhibition of these neurons attenuated consummatory behaviors. These data indicate that LH GABAergic neurons modulate consummatory behaviors regardless of the caloric content or biological relevance of the consumed stimuli. PMID:26442599

  15. Conical expansion of the outer subventricular zone and the role of neocortical folding in evolution and development

    PubMed Central

    Lewitus, Eric; Kelava, Iva; Huttner, Wieland B.

    2013-01-01

    There is a basic rule to mammalian neocortical expansion: as it expands, so does it fold. The degree to which it folds, however, cannot strictly be attributed to its expansion. Across species, cortical volume does not keep pace with cortical surface area, but rather folds appear more rapidly than expected. As a result, larger brains quickly become disproportionately more convoluted than smaller brains. Both the absence (lissencephaly) and presence (gyrencephaly) of cortical folds is observed in all mammalian orders and, while there is likely some phylogenetic signature to the evolutionary appearance of gyri and sulci, there are undoubtedly universal trends to the acquisition of folds in an expanding neocortex. Whether these trends are governed by conical expansion of neocortical germinal zones, the distribution of cortical connectivity, or a combination of growth- and connectivity-driven forces remains an open question. But the importance of cortical folding for evolution of the uniquely mammalian neocortex, as well as for the incidence of neuropathologies in humans, is undisputed. In this hypothesis and theory article, we will summarize the development of cortical folds in the neocortex, consider the relative influence of growth- vs. connectivity-driven forces for the acquisition of cortical folds between and within species, assess the genetic, cell-biological, and mechanistic implications for neocortical expansion, and discuss the significance of these implications for human evolution, development, and disease. We will argue that evolutionary increases in the density of neuron production, achieved via maintenance of a basal proliferative niche in the neocortical germinal zones, drive the conical migration of neurons toward the cortical surface and ultimately lead to the establishment of cortical folds in large-brained mammal species. PMID:23914167

  16. Uptake and metabolism of fructose by rat neocortical cells in vivo and by isolated nerve terminals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Elsais, Ahmed; Frøland, Anne-Sofie; Taubøll, Erik; Gjerstad, Leif; Quan, Yi; Dingledine, Raymond; Rise, Frode

    2015-05-01

    Fructose reacts spontaneously with proteins in the brain to form advanced glycation end products (AGE) that may elicit neuroinflammation and cause brain pathology, including Alzheimer's disease. We investigated whether fructose is eliminated by oxidative metabolism in neocortex. Injection of [(14) C]fructose or its AGE-prone metabolite [(14) C]glyceraldehyde into rat neocortex in vivo led to formation of (14) C-labeled alanine, glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and glutamine. In isolated neocortical nerve terminals, [(14) C]fructose-labeled glutamate, GABA, and aspartate, indicating uptake of fructose into nerve terminals and oxidative fructose metabolism in these structures. This was supported by high expression of hexokinase 1, which channels fructose into glycolysis, and whose activity was similar with fructose or glucose as substrates. By contrast, the fructose-specific ketohexokinase was weakly expressed. The fructose transporter Glut5 was expressed at only 4% of the level of neuronal glucose transporter Glut3, suggesting transport across plasma membranes of brain cells as the limiting factor in removal of extracellular fructose. The genes encoding aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, enzymes of the polyol pathway that forms glucose from fructose, were expressed in rat neocortex. These results point to fructose being transported into neocortical cells, including nerve terminals, and that it is metabolized and thereby detoxified primarily through hexokinase activity. We asked how the brain handles fructose, which may react spontaneously with proteins to form 'advanced glycation end products' and trigger inflammation. Neocortical cells took up and metabolized extracellular fructose oxidatively in vivo, and isolated nerve terminals did so in vitro. The low expression of fructose transporter Glut5 limited uptake of extracellular fructose. Hexokinase was a main pathway for fructose metabolism, but ketohexokinase (which leads to glyceraldehyde formation) was

  17. VTA glutamatergic inputs to nucleus accumbens drive aversion by acting on GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jia; Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Hui-Ling; Barker, David J; Miranda-Barrientos, Jorge; Morales, Marisela

    2016-05-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is best known for its dopamine neurons, some of which project to nucleus accumbens (nAcc). However, the VTA also has glutamatergic neurons that project to nAcc. The function of the mesoaccumbens glutamatergic pathway remains unknown. Here we report that nAcc photoactivation of mesoaccumbens glutamatergic fibers promotes aversion. Although we found that these mesoaccumbens glutamatergic fibers lack GABA, the aversion evoked by their photoactivation depended on glutamate- and GABA-receptor signaling, and not on dopamine-receptor signaling. We found that mesoaccumbens glutamatergic fibers established multiple asymmetric synapses on single parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons and that nAcc photoactivation of these fibers drove AMPA-mediated cellular firing of parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons. These parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons in turn inhibited nAcc medium spiny output neurons, thereby controlling inhibitory neurotransmission in nAcc. To our knowledge, the mesoaccumbens glutamatergic pathway is the first glutamatergic input to nAcc shown to mediate aversion instead of reward, and the first pathway shown to establish excitatory synapses on nAcc parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons. PMID:27019014

  18. The role of spinal GABAergic circuits in the control of phrenic nerve motor output

    PubMed Central

    Ghali, Michael G. Z.; Rogers, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    While supraspinal mechanisms underlying respiratory pattern formation are well characterized, the contribution of spinal circuitry to the same remains poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that intraspinal GABAergic circuits are involved in shaping phrenic motor output. To this end, we performed bilateral phrenic nerve recordings in anesthetized adult rats and observed neurogram changes in response to knocking down expression of both isoforms (65 and 67 kDa) of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65/67) using microinjections of anti-GAD65/67 short-interference RNA (siRNA) in the phrenic nucleus. The number of GAD65/67-positive cells was drastically reduced on the side of siRNA microinjections, especially in the lateral aspects of Rexed's laminae VII and IX in the ventral horn of cervical segment C4, but not contralateral to microinjections. We hypothesize that intraspinal GABAergic control of phrenic output is primarily phasic, but also plays an important role in tonic regulation of phrenic discharge. Also, we identified respiration-modulated GABAergic interneurons (both inspiratory and expiratory) located slightly dorsal to the phrenic nucleus. Our data provide the first direct evidence for the existence of intraspinal GABAergic circuits contributing to the formation of phrenic output. The physiological role of local intraspinal inhibition, independent of descending direct bulbospinal control, is discussed. PMID:25833937

  19. Mechanism of nitric oxide action on inhibitory GABAergic signaling within the nucleus tractus solitarii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Teschemacher, Anja G; Paton, Julian F R; Kasparov, Sergey

    2006-07-01

    The cellular mechanisms mediating nitric oxide (NO) modulation of the inhibitory transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) remain unclear, even though this could be extremely important for various physiological and pathological processes. Specifically, in the NTS NO-evoked glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release might contribute to pathological hypertension. In cultured rat brainstem slices, NTS GABAergic neurons were targeted using an adenoviral vector to express enhanced green fluorescent protein and studied with a combination of patch clamp and confocal microscopy. Low nanomolar concentrations of NO increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in somata, dendrites, and putative axons of GABAergic neurons, with axons being the most sensitive compartment. This effect was cGMP mediated and not related to depolarization or indirect presynaptic effects on glutamatergic transmission. Blockade of the cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR)/ryanodine-sensitive stores but not the inositol triphosphate-sensitive stores, inhibited NO effect. Since cADPR/ryanodine-sensitive stores are implicated in the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, NO can be expected to potentiate GABA release. In support of this notion, a cADPR antagonist abolished the NO-induced potentiation of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in the NTS. Thus, the NO-cGMP-cADPR-Ca2+ pathway, previously described in sea urchin eggs, also operates in mammalian GABAergic neurons. Potentiation of GABA release by NO may have implications for numerous brain functions. PMID:16720728

  20. The GABAergic septohippocampal pathway is directly involved in internal processes related to operant reward learning.

    PubMed

    Vega-Flores, Germán; Rubio, Sara E; Jurado-Parras, M Teresa; Gómez-Climent, María Ángeles; Hampe, Christiane S; Manto, Mario; Soriano, Eduardo; Pascual, Marta; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M

    2014-08-01

    We studied the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic septohippocampal projections in medial septum (MS) self-stimulation of behaving mice. Self-stimulation was evoked in wild-type (WT) mice using instrumental conditioning procedures and in J20 mutant mice, a type of mouse with a significant deficit in GABAergic septohippocampal projections. J20 mice showed a significant modification in hippocampal activities, including a different response for input/output curves and the paired-pulse test, a larger long-term potentiation (LTP), and a delayed acquisition and lower performance in the MS self-stimulation task. LTP evoked at the CA3-CA1 synapse further decreased self-stimulation performance in J20, but not in WT, mice. MS self-stimulation evoked a decrease in the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) at the CA3-CA1 synapse in WT, but not in J20, mice. This self-stimulation-dependent decrease in the amplitude of fEPSPs was also observed in the presence of another positive reinforcer (food collected during an operant task) and was canceled by the local administration of an antibody-inhibiting glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65). LTP evoked in the GAD65Ab-treated group was also larger than in controls. The hippocampus has a different susceptibility to septal GABAergic inputs depending on ongoing cognitive processes, and the GABAergic septohippocampal pathway is involved in consummatory processes related to operant rewards. PMID:23479403

  1. Mice Deficient in Transmembrane Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Display Increased GABAergic Transmission and Neurological Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Myöhänen, Timo T.; Voikar, Vootele; Mijatovic, Jelena; Segerstråle, Mikael; Herrala, Annakaisa M.; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Pulkka, Anitta E.; Kivinummi, Tanja; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Taira, Tomi; Piepponen, T. Petteri; Rauvala, Heikki; Vihko, Pirkko

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), the first diagnostic marker and present therapeutic target for prostate cancer, modulates nociception at the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), but its function in the central nervous system has remained unknown. We studied expression and function of TMPAP (the transmembrane isoform of PAP) in the brain by utilizing mice deficient in TMPAP (PAP−/− mice). Here we report that TMPAP is expressed in a subpopulation of cerebral GABAergic neurons, and mice deficient in TMPAP show multiple behavioral and neurochemical features linked to hyperdopaminergic dysregulation and altered GABAergic transmission. In addition to increased anxiety, disturbed prepulse inhibition, increased synthesis of striatal dopamine, and augmented response to amphetamine, PAP-deficient mice have enlarged lateral ventricles, reduced diazepam-induced loss of righting reflex, and increased GABAergic tone in the hippocampus. TMPAP in the mouse brain is localized presynaptically, and colocalized with SNARE-associated protein snapin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion, and PAP-deficient mice display altered subcellular distribution of snapin. We have previously shown TMPAP to reside in prostatic exosomes and we propose that TMPAP is involved in the control of GABAergic tone in the brain also through exocytosis, and that PAP deficiency produces a distinct neurological phenotype. PMID:24846136

  2. Neto2-null mice have impaired GABAergic inhibition and are susceptible to seizures.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Vivek; Dargaei, Zahra; Ivakine, Evgueni A; Hartmann, Anna-Maria; Ng, David; Chevrier, Jonah; Ormond, Jake; Nothwang, Hans Gerd; McInnes, Roderick R; Woodin, Melanie A

    2015-01-01

    Neto2 is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC2) in the central nervous system (CNS). Efficient KCC2 transport is essential for setting the neuronal Cl(-) gradient, which is required for fast GABAergic inhibition. Neto2 is required to maintain the normal abundance of KCC2 in neurons, and increases KCC2 function by binding to the active oligomeric form of this cotransporter. In the present study, we characterized GABAergic inhibition and KCC2-mediated neuronal chloride homeostasis in pyramidal neurons from adult hippocampal slices. Using gramicidin perforated patch clamp recordings we found that the reversal potential for GABA (EGABA) was significantly depolarized. We also observed that surface levels of KCC2 and phosphorylation of KCC2 serine 940 (Ser940) were reduced in Neto2(-/-) neurons compared to wild-type controls. To examine GABAergic inhibition we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and found that Neto2(-/-) neurons had significant reductions in both their amplitude and frequency. Based on the critical role of Neto2 in regulating GABAergic inhibition we rationalized that Neto2-null mice would be prone to seizure activity. We found that Neto2-null mice demonstrated a decrease in the latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and an increase in seizure severity. PMID:26441539

  3. Caffeine-Induced Suppression of GABAergic Inhibition and Calcium-Independent Metaplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Isokawa, Masako

    2016-01-01

    GABAergic inhibition plays a critical role in the regulation of neuron excitability; thus, it is subject to modulations by many factors. Recent evidence suggests the elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and calcium-dependent signaling molecules underlie the modulations. Caffeine induces a release of calcium from intracellular stores. We tested whether caffeine modulated GABAergic transmission by increasing [Ca2+]i. A brief local puff-application of caffeine to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells transiently suppressed GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) by 73.2 ± 6.98%. Time course of suppression and the subsequent recovery of IPSCs resembled DSI (depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition), mediated by endogenous cannabinoids that require a [Ca2+]i rise. However, unlike DSI, caffeine-induced suppression of IPSCs (CSI) persisted in the absence of a [Ca2+]i rise. Intracellular applications of BAPTA and ryanodine (which blocks caffeine-induced calcium release from intracellular stores) failed to prevent the generation of CSI. Surprisingly, ruthenium red, an inhibitor of multiple calcium permeable/release channels including those of stores, induced metaplasticity by amplifying the magnitude of CSI independently of calcium. This metaplasticity was accompanied with the generation of a large inward current. Although ionic basis of this inward current is undetermined, the present result demonstrates that caffeine has a robust Ca2+-independent inhibitory action on GABAergic inhibition and causes metaplasticity by opening plasma membrane channels. PMID:26998364

  4. The GABAergic Septohippocampal Pathway Is Directly Involved in Internal Processes Related to Operant Reward Learning

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Flores, Germán; Rubio, Sara E.; Jurado-Parras, M. Teresa; Gómez-Climent, María Ángeles; Hampe, Christiane S.; Manto, Mario; Soriano, Eduardo; Pascual, Marta; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic septohippocampal projections in medial septum (MS) self-stimulation of behaving mice. Self-stimulation was evoked in wild-type (WT) mice using instrumental conditioning procedures and in J20 mutant mice, a type of mouse with a significant deficit in GABAergic septohippocampal projections. J20 mice showed a significant modification in hippocampal activities, including a different response for input/output curves and the paired-pulse test, a larger long-term potentiation (LTP), and a delayed acquisition and lower performance in the MS self-stimulation task. LTP evoked at the CA3–CA1 synapse further decreased self-stimulation performance in J20, but not in WT, mice. MS self-stimulation evoked a decrease in the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) at the CA3–CA1 synapse in WT, but not in J20, mice. This self-stimulation-dependent decrease in the amplitude of fEPSPs was also observed in the presence of another positive reinforcer (food collected during an operant task) and was canceled by the local administration of an antibody-inhibiting glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65). LTP evoked in the GAD65Ab-treated group was also larger than in controls. The hippocampus has a different susceptibility to septal GABAergic inputs depending on ongoing cognitive processes, and the GABAergic septohippocampal pathway is involved in consummatory processes related to operant rewards. PMID:23479403

  5. Neto2-null mice have impaired GABAergic inhibition and are susceptible to seizures

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Vivek; Dargaei, Zahra; Ivakine, Evgueni A.; Hartmann, Anna-Maria; Ng, David; Chevrier, Jonah; Ormond, Jake; Nothwang, Hans Gerd; McInnes, Roderick R.; Woodin, Melanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Neto2 is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the neuron-specific K+-Cl− cotransporter (KCC2) in the central nervous system (CNS). Efficient KCC2 transport is essential for setting the neuronal Cl− gradient, which is required for fast GABAergic inhibition. Neto2 is required to maintain the normal abundance of KCC2 in neurons, and increases KCC2 function by binding to the active oligomeric form of this cotransporter. In the present study, we characterized GABAergic inhibition and KCC2-mediated neuronal chloride homeostasis in pyramidal neurons from adult hippocampal slices. Using gramicidin perforated patch clamp recordings we found that the reversal potential for GABA (EGABA) was significantly depolarized. We also observed that surface levels of KCC2 and phosphorylation of KCC2 serine 940 (Ser940) were reduced in Neto2−/− neurons compared to wild-type controls. To examine GABAergic inhibition we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and found that Neto2−/− neurons had significant reductions in both their amplitude and frequency. Based on the critical role of Neto2 in regulating GABAergic inhibition we rationalized that Neto2-null mice would be prone to seizure activity. We found that Neto2-null mice demonstrated a decrease in the latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and an increase in seizure severity. PMID:26441539

  6. Glutamatergic axon-derived BDNF controls GABAergic synaptic differentiation in the cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Albert I.; Zang, Keling; Masliah, Eliezer; Reichardt, Louis F.

    2016-01-01

    To study mechanisms that regulate the construction of inhibitory circuits, we examined the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the assembly of GABAergic inhibitory synapses in the mouse cerebellar cortex. We show that within the cerebellum, BDNF-expressing cells are restricted to the internal granular layer (IGL), but that the BDNF protein is present within mossy fibers which originate from cells located outside of the cerebellum. In contrast to deletion of TrkB, the cognate receptor for BDNF, deletion of Bdnf from cerebellar cell bodies alone did not perturb the localization of pre- or postsynaptic constituents at the GABAergic synapses formed by Golgi cell axons on granule cell dendrites within the IGL. Instead, we found that BDNF derived from excitatory mossy fiber endings controls their differentiation. Our findings thus indicate that cerebellar BDNF is derived primarily from excitatory neurons—precerebellar nuclei/spinal cord neurons that give rise to mossy fibers—and promotes GABAergic synapse formation as a result of release from axons. Thus, within the cerebellum the preferential localization of BDNF to axons enhances the specificity through which BDNF promotes GABAergic synaptic differentiation. PMID:26830657

  7. Target-Specific Expression of Presynaptic NMDA Receptors in Neocortical Microcircuits

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Katherine A.; Blackman, Arne V.; Moreau, Alexandre W.; Elgar, Dale; Costa, Rui P.; Lalanne, Txomin; Tudor Jones, Adam A.; Oyrer, Julia; Sjöström, P. Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Summary Traditionally, NMDA receptors are located postsynaptically; yet, putatively presynaptic NMDA receptors (preNMDARs) have been reported. Although implicated in controlling synaptic plasticity, their function is not well understood and their expression patterns are debated. We demonstrate that, in layer 5 of developing mouse visual cortex, preNMDARs specifically control synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell inputs to other pyramidal cells and to Martinotti cells, while leaving those to basket cells unaffected. We also reveal a type of interneuron that mediates ascending inhibition. In agreement with synapse-specific expression, we find preNMDAR-mediated calcium signals in a subset of pyramidal cell terminals. A tuned network model predicts that preNMDARs specifically reroute information flow in local circuits during high-frequency firing, in particular by impacting frequency-dependent disynaptic inhibition mediated by Martinotti cells, a finding that we experimentally verify. We conclude that postsynaptic cell type determines presynaptic terminal molecular identity and that preNMDARs govern information processing in neocortical columns. PMID:22884329

  8. Na+ channel-mediated Ca2+ entry leads to glutamate secretion in mouse neocortical preplate

    PubMed Central

    Platel, J.-C.; Boisseau, S.; Dupuis, A.; Brocard, J.; Poupard, A.; Savasta, M.; Villaz, M.; Albrieux, M.

    2005-01-01

    Before synaptogenesis, early excitability implicating voltage-dependent and transmitter-activated channels is known to be crucial for neuronal development. We previously showed that preplate (PP) neurons of the mouse neocortex express functional Na+ channels as early as embryonic day 12. In this study, we investigated the role of these Na+ channels in signaling during early development. In the neocortex of embryonic-day-13 mice, activation of Na+ channels with veratridine induced a large Ca2+ response throughout the neocortex, even in cell populations that lack the Na+ channel. This Na+-dependent Ca2+ activity requires external Ca2+ and is completely blocked by inhibitors of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers. Moreover, veratridine-induced Ca2+ increase coincides with a burst of exocytosis in the PP. In parallel, we show that Na+ channel stimulation enhances glutamate secretion in the neocortical wall. Released glutamate triggers further Ca2+ response in PP and ventricular zone, as indicated by the decreased response to veratridine in the presence of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor and NMDA-receptor inhibitors. Therefore, the combined activation of the Na+ channel and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger triggers Ca2+ signaling in the PP neurons, leading to glutamate secretion, which amplifies the signal and serves as an autocrine/paracrine transmitter before functional synapses are formed in the neocortex. Membrane depolarization induced by glycine receptors activation could be one physiological activator of this Na+ channel-dependent pathway. PMID:16357207

  9. Involvement of JNK and Caspase Activation in Hoiamide A-Induced Neurotoxicity in Neocortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhengyu; Li, Xichun; Zou, Xiaohan; Greenwood, Michael; Gerwick, William H.; Murray, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) blooms has been associated with adverse effects on human health. Hoiamide A is a structurally unique cyclic depsipeptide isolated from an assemblage of the marine cyanobacteria M. producens and Phormidium gracile. We examined the influence of hoiamide A on neurite outgrowth in neocortical neurons and found that it suppressed neurite outgrowth with an IC50 value of 4.89 nM. Further study demonstrated that hoiamide A stimulated lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux, nuclear condensation and caspase-3 activity with EC50 values of 3.66, 2.55 and 4.33 nM, respectively. These data indicated that hoiamide A triggered a unique neuronal death profile that involves both necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms. The similar potencies and similar time-response relationships between LDH efflux and caspase-3 activation/nuclear condensation suggested that both necrosis and apoptosis may derive from interaction with a common molecular target. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK completely inhibited hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, hoiamide A stimulated JNK phosphorylation, and a JNK inhibitor attenuated hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that hoiamide A-induced neuronal death requires both JNK and caspase signaling pathways. The potent neurotoxicity and unique neuronal cell death profile of hoiamide A represents a novel neurotoxic chemotype from marine cyanobacteria. PMID:25675001

  10. Neocortical capillary flow pulsatility is not elevated in experimental communicating hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Shams; McAllister, James P; Yu, Yiting; Wagshul, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    While communicating hydrocephalus (CH) is often characterized by increased pulsatile flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral aqueduct, a clear-cut explanation for this phenomenon is lacking. Increased pulsatility of the entire cerebral vasculature including the cortical capillaries has been suggested as a causative mechanism. To test this theory, we used two-photon microscopy to measure flow pulsatility in neocortical capillaries 40 to 500 μm below the pial surface in adult rats with CH at 5 to 7 days (acute, n=8) and 3 to 5 weeks (chronic, n=5) after induction compared with intact controls (n=9). Averaging over all cortical depths, no increase in capillary pulsatility occurred in acute (pulsatility index (PI): 0.15±0.06) or chronic (0.14±0.05) CH animals compared with controls (0.18±0.07; P=0.07). More specifically, PI increased significantly with cortical depth in controls (r=0.35, P<0.001), but no such increase occurred in acute (r=0.06, P=0.3) or chronic (r=0.05, P=0.5) CH. Pulsatile CSF aqueductal flow, in contrast, was elevated 10- to 500-fold compared with controls. We conclude that even in the presence of markedly elevated pulsatile CSF flow in the aqueduct, there is no concurrent increase in microvascular pulsatile flow. PMID:21934694

  11. Inside-out radial migration facilitates lineage-dependent neocortical microcircuit assembly

    PubMed Central

    Shuijin, He; Zhizhong, Li; Shaoyu, Ge; Yong-Chun, Yu; Song-Hai, Shi

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Neocortical excitatory neurons migrate radially along the glial fibers of mother radial glial progenitors (RGPs) in a birth date-dependent inside-out manner. However, the precise functional significance of this well-established orderly neuronal migration remains largely unclear. Here, we show that strong electrical synapses selectively form between RGPs and their newborn progeny, and between sister excitatory neurons in ontogenetic radial clones at the embryonic stage. Interestingly, the preferential electrical coupling between sister excitatory neurons, but not that between RGP and newborn progeny, is eliminated in mice lacking REELIN or upon clonal depletion of DISABLED-1, which compromises the inside-out radial neuronal migration pattern in the developing neocortex. Moreover, increased levels of Ephrin-A ligand or receptor that laterally disperse sister excitatory neurons also disrupt preferential electrical coupling between radially aligned sister excitatory neurons. These results suggest that RGP-guided inside-out radial neuronal migration facilitates the initial assembly of lineage-dependent precise columnar microcircuits in the neocortex. PMID:26050035

  12. Layer Specific Development of Neocortical Pyramidal to Fast Spiking Cell Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Voinova, Olga; Valiullina, Fliza; Zakharova, Yulia; Mukhtarov, Marat; Draguhn, Andreas; Rozov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    All cortical neurons are engaged in inhibitory feedback loops which ensure excitation-inhibition balance and are key elements for the development of coherent network activity. The resulting network patterns are strongly dependent on the strength and dynamic properties of these excitatory-inhibitory loops which show pronounced regional and developmental diversity. Therefore we compared the properties and postnatal maturation of two different synapses between rat neocortical pyramidal cells (layer 2/3 and layer 5, respectively) and fast spiking (FS) interneurons in the corresponding layer. At P14, both synapses showed synaptic depression upon repetitive activation. Synaptic release properties between layer 2/3 pyramidal cells and FS cells were stable from P14 to P28. In contrast, layer 5 pyramidal to FS cell connections showed a significant increase in paired pulse ratio by P28. Presynaptic calcium dynamics also changed at these synapses, including sensitivity to exogenously loaded calcium buffers and expression of presynaptic calcium channel subtypes. These results underline the large variety of properties at different, yet similar, synapses in the neocortex. They also suggest that postnatal maturation of the brain goes along with increasing differences between synaptically driven network activity in layer 5 and layer 2/3. PMID:26834564

  13. [The modulation of the pulse activity of neocortical neurons during a conditioned reflex].

    PubMed

    Storozhuk, V M; Sanzharovskiĭ, A V; Sachenko, V V; Busel', B I

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous and evoked activity of neurons in the sensorimotor cortex was recorded in cats with learned conditioned placing reaction before, during, and after the iontophoretic application of synaptically active substances. It was shown that apart from direct excitatory effect on the cortical neurons during its application, glutamate (Glu) exerted some modulatory influence on unit activity in subsequent 20 min. Noradrenaline suppressed the background and evoked activity through beta 1 adrenoreceptors. Activation of beta 2 adrenoreceptors by metaproterenol was accompanied by facilitation of the background and evoked activity during application and 10-20 min after. The joint application of Glu and metaproterenol improved facilitation of neuronal responses evoked by conditioned stimuli. Application of levodopa, like Glu, increased the background and evoked activity of many sensorimotor cortical neurons. The joint effect of Glu and levodopa was not substantially more intensive than the changes produced by the isolated application of any of these substances. A nonselective blocker of DA1 and DA2 receptors haloperidol either increased or did not change the background and evoked activity of some cortical neurons. In contrast to isolated application of Glu, simultaneous application of Glu and haloperidol to neocortex suppressed the neuronal responses associated with conditioned movements. The results suggest that the Glu-induced potentiation is substantially realized through molecular mechanisms common for Glu and dopamine, probably, through Gi-proteins. The conclusion is drawn that the adrenergic and dopaminergic inputs to neocortical neurons are involved in the Glu-mediated plastic changes in the cortex during conditioning. PMID:10420557

  14. Seizure prediction in hippocampal and neocortical epilepsy using a model-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Aarabi, Ardalan; He, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to develop a model based seizure prediction method. Methods A neural mass model was used to simulate the macro-scale dynamics of intracranial EEG data. The model was composed of pyramidal cells, excitatory and inhibitory interneurons described through state equations. Twelve model’s parameters were estimated by fitting the model to the power spectral density of intracranial EEG signals and then integrated based on information obtained by investigating changes in the parameters prior to seizures. Twenty-one patients with medically intractable hippocampal and neocortical focal epilepsy were studied. Results Tuned to obtain maximum sensitivity, an average sensitivity of 87.07% and 92.6% with an average false prediction rate of 0.2 and 0.15/h were achieved using maximum seizure occurrence periods of 30 and 50 min and a minimum seizure prediction horizon of 10 s, respectively. Under maximum specificity conditions, the system sensitivity decreased to 82.9% and 90.05% and the false prediction rates were reduced to 0.16 and 0.12/h using maximum seizure occurrence periods of 30 and 50 min, respectively. Conclusions The spatio-temporal changes in the parameters demonstrated patient-specific preictal signatures that could be used for seizure prediction. Significance The present findings suggest that the model-based approach may aid prediction of seizures. PMID:24374087

  15. Blood metabolite markers of neocortical amyloid-β burden: discovery and enrichment using candidate proteins.

    PubMed

    Voyle, N; Kim, M; Proitsi, P; Ashton, N J; Baird, A L; Bazenet, C; Hye, A; Westwood, S; Chung, R; Ward, M; Rabinovici, G D; Lovestone, S; Breen, G; Legido-Quigley, C; Dobson, R J B; Kiddle, S J

    2016-01-01

    We believe this is the first study to investigate associations between blood metabolites and neocortical amyloid burden (NAB) in the search for a blood-based biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Further, we present the first multi-modal analysis of blood markers in this field. We used blood plasma samples from 91 subjects enrolled in the University of California, San Francisco Alzheimer's Disease Research Centre. Non-targeted metabolomic analysis was used to look for associations with NAB using both single and multiple metabolic feature models. Five metabolic features identified subjects with high NAB, with 72% accuracy. We were able to putatively identify four metabolites from this panel and improve the model further by adding fibrinogen gamma chain protein measures (accuracy=79%). One of the five metabolic features was studied in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort, but results were inconclusive. If replicated in larger, independent studies, these metabolic features and proteins could form the basis of a blood test with potential for enrichment of amyloid pathology in anti-amyloid trials. PMID:26812040

  16. Closed-Loop Brain Model of Neocortical Information-Based Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Kozloski, James

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe an “information-based exchange” model of brain function that ascribes to neocortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus distinct network functions. The model allows us to analyze whole brain system set point measures, such as the rate and heterogeneity of transitions in striatum and neocortex, in the context of neuromodulation and other perturbations. Our closed-loop model is grounded in neuroanatomical observations, proposing a novel “Grand Loop” through neocortex, and invokes different forms of plasticity at specific tissue interfaces and their principle cell synapses to achieve these transitions. By implementing a system for maximum information-based exchange of action potentials between modeled neocortical areas, we observe changes to these measures in simulation. We hypothesize that similar dynamic set points and modulations exist in the brain's resting state activity, and that different modifications to information-based exchange may shift the risk profile of different component tissues, resulting in different neurodegenerative diseases. This model is targeted for further development using IBM's Neural Tissue Simulator, which allows scalable elaboration of networks, tissues, and their neural and synaptic components toward ever greater complexity and biological realism. PMID:26834573

  17. Kaede-Centrin1 labeling of mother and daughter centrosomes in mammalian neocortical neural progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Janice H.; Wang, Xiaoqun; Shi, Song-Hai

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the centrosome in regulating basic cellular processes and cell fate decisions has become increasingly evident from recent studies tracing the etiology of developmental disorders to mutations in genes encoding centrosomal proteins (Nigg and Raff, 2009). This unit details a protocol for a fluorescence-based pulse-labeling of centrioles of neural progenitor cells in the developing neocortex of mice. In utero electroporation of Kaede-Centrin1 followed by in utero or ex vivo photoconversion allows a direct monitoring of the inheritance of centrosomes containing centrioles of different ages in dividing neocortical neural progenitors (i.e., radial glial cells). This is achieved by combining the irreversible photoconversion capacity of Kaede protein from green to red fluorescence with the faithful duplication of the centrosome during each cell cycle. After two mitotic divisions following photoconversion, mother centrosomes containing the original labeled centriole appear in both red and green fluorescence, and can be distinguished from daughter centrosomes which appear in green fluorescence only. This facilitates the study of the inheritance and behavior of the mother and daughter centrosomes in asymmetric cell divisions in the developing mammalian neocortex. PMID:20938915

  18. Maternal-fetal unit interactions and eutherian neocortical development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Juan F.; Kaune, Heidy; Maliqueo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The conserved brain design that primates inherited from early mammals differs from the variable adult brain size and species-specific brain dominances observed across mammals. This variability relies on the emergence of specialized cerebral cortical regions and sub-compartments, triggering an increase in brain size, areal interconnectivity and histological complexity that ultimately lies on the activation of developmental programs. Structural placental features are not well correlated with brain enlargement; however, several endocrine pathways could be tuned with the activation of neuronal progenitors in the proliferative neocortical compartments. In this article, we reviewed some mechanisms of eutherians maternal–fetal unit interactions associated with brain development and evolution. We propose a hypothesis of brain evolution where proliferative compartments in primates become activated by “non-classical” endocrine placental signals participating in different steps of corticogenesis. Changes in the inner placental structure, along with placenta endocrine stimuli over the cortical proliferative activity would allow mammalian brain enlargement with a concomitant shorter gestation span, as an evolutionary strategy to escape from parent-offspring conflict. PMID:23882189

  19. SARA regulates neuronal migration during neocortical development through L1 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mestres, Iván; Chuang, Jen-Zen; Calegari, Federico; Conde, Cecilia; Sung, Ching-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that endocytic trafficking of adhesion proteins plays a crucial role in neuronal migration during neocortical development. However, molecular insights into these processes remain elusive. Here, we study the early endosomal protein Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) in the developing mouse brain. SARA is enriched at the apical endfeet of radial glia of the neocortex. Although SARA knockdown did not lead to detectable neurogenic phenotypes, SARA-suppressed neurons exhibited impaired orientation and migration across the intermediate zone. Mechanistically, we show that SARA knockdown neurons exhibit increased surface expression of the L1 cell adhesion molecule. Neurons ectopically expressing L1 phenocopy the migration and orientation defects caused by SARA knockdown and display increased contact with neighboring neurites. L1 knockdown effectively rescues SARA suppression-induced phenotypes. SARA knockdown neurons eventually overcome their migration defect and enter later into the cortical plate. Nevertheless, these neurons localize at more superficial cortical layers than their control counterparts. These results suggest that SARA regulates the orientation, multipolar-to-bipolar transition and the positioning of cortical neurons via modulating surface L1 expression. PMID:27471254

  20. FGF15 promotes neurogenesis and opposes FGF8 function during neocortical development

    PubMed Central

    Borello, Ugo; Cobos, Inma; Long, Jason E; Murre, Cornelis; Rubenstein, John LR

    2008-01-01

    Background Growth, differentiation and regional specification of telencephalic domains, such as the cerebral cortex, are regulated by the interplay of secreted proteins produced by patterning centers and signal transduction systems deployed in the surrounding neuroepithelium. Among other signaling molecules, members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family have a prominent role in regulating growth, differentiation and regional specification. In the mouse telencephalon the rostral patterning center expresses members of the Fgf family (Fgf8, Fgf15, Fgf17, Fgf18). FGF8 and FGF17 signaling have major roles in specification and morphogenesis of the rostroventral telencephalon, whereas the functions of FGF15 and FGF18 in the rostral patterning center have not been established. Results Using Fgf15-/- mutant mice, we provide evidence that FGF15 suppresses proliferation, and that it promotes differentiation, expression of CoupTF1 and caudoventral fate; thus, reducing Fgf15 and Fgf8 dosage have opposite effects. Furthermore, we show that FGF15 and FGF8 differentially phosphorylate ERK (p42/44), AKT and S6 in cultures of embryonic cortex. Finally, we show that FGF15 inhibits proliferation in cortical cultures. Conclusion FGF15 and FGF8 have distinct signaling properties, and opposite effects on neocortical patterning and differentiation; FGF15 promotes CoupTF1 expression, represses proliferation and promotes neural differentiation. PMID:18625063

  1. Medial temporal and neocortical contributions to remote memory for semantic narratives: evidence from amnesia.

    PubMed

    Verfaellie, Mieke; Bousquet, Kathryn; Keane, Margaret M

    2014-08-01

    Studies of remote memory for semantic facts and concepts suggest that hippocampal lesions lead to a temporally graded impairment that extends no more than ten years prior to the onset of amnesia. Such findings have led to the notion that once consolidated, semantic memories are represented neocortically and are no longer dependent on the hippocampus. Here, we examined the fate of well-established semantic narratives following medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions. Seven amnesic patients, five with lesions restricted to the MTL and two with lesions extending into lateral temporal cortex (MTL+), were asked to recount fairy tales and bible stories that they rated as familiar. Narratives were scored for number and type of details, number of main thematic elements, and order in which the main thematic elements were recounted. In comparison to controls, patients with MTL lesions produced fewer details, but the number and order of main thematic elements generated was intact. By contrast, patients with MTL+ lesions showed a pervasive impairment, affecting not only the generation of details, but also the generation and ordering of main steps. These findings challenge the notion that, once consolidated, semantic memories are no longer dependent on the hippocampus for retrieval. Possible hippocampal contributions to the retrieval of detailed semantic narratives are discussed. PMID:24953960

  2. Murine neocortical histogenesis is perturbed by prenatal exposure to low doses of Bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keiko; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Sugimoto, Tohru; Fushiki, Shinji

    2006-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone function. We therefore studied whether prenatal exposure to low-doses of BPA affects the morphology and the expression of some genes related to brain development in the murine fetal neocortex. Pregnant mice were injected subcutaneously with 20 microg/kg of BPA daily from embryonic day 0 (E0). Control animals received vehicle alone. For evaluating cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected intraperitoneally into pregnant mice with various regimens and the brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. The total RNA was extracted from the embryonic telencephalon at various embryonic stages. The BrdU-labeled cells examined 1 hour after BrdU injection showed no differences between the BPA-treated and control groups (n = 10, each), which indicated that the proliferation of precursor cells was not affected. The BrdU-labeled cells, analysed 2 days after BrdU injection, were decreased in the ventricular zone of BPA-treated mice at E14.5 and E16.5, whereas they were increased in the cortical plate at E14.5 as compared with those in control mice (n = 10, each). Furthermore, the expression of Math3, Ngn2, Hes1, LICAM, and THRalpha was significantly upregulated at E14.5 in the BPA-treated group. These results suggested that BPA might disrupt normal neocortical development by accelerating neuronal differentiation/migration. PMID:16902998

  3. Medial Temporal and Neocortical Contributions to Remote Memory for Semantic Narratives: Evidence from Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Verfaellie, Mieke; Bousquet, Kathryn; Keane, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of remote memory for semantic facts and concepts suggest that hippocampal lesions lead to a temporally graded impairment that extends no more than ten years prior to the onset of amnesia. Such findings have led to the notion that once consolidated, semantic memories are represented neocortically and are no longer dependent on the hippocampus. Here, we examined the fate of well-established semantic narratives following medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions. Seven amnesic patients, five with lesions restricted to the MTL and two with lesions extending into lateral temporal cortex (MTL+), were asked to recount fairy tales and bible stories that they rated as familiar. Narratives were scored for number and type of details, number of main thematic elements, and order in which the main thematic elements were recounted. In comparison to controls, patients with MTL lesions produced fewer details, but the number and order of main thematic elements generated was intact. By contrast, patients with MTL+ lesions showed a pervasive impairment, affecting not only the generation of details, but also the generation and ordering of main steps. These findings challenge the notion that, once consolidated, semantic memories are no longer dependent on the hippocampus for retrieval. Possible hippocampal contributions to the retrieval of detailed semantic narratives are discussed. PMID:24953960

  4. The involvement of the GABAergic system in the formation and expression of the extinction memory in the crab Neohelice granulata.

    PubMed

    Tano, Martin Carbó; Molina, Victor A; Pedreira, Maria Eugenia

    2013-11-01

    There is growing interest in the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the extinction of aversive memory. This cognitive process usually occurs after repeated or prolonged presentation of a conditioned stimulus that was previously associated with an unconditioned stimulus. If extinction is considered to be a new memory, the role of the γ-aminobutyric acid system (GABAergic system) during extinction memory consolidation should be similar to that described for the original trace. It is also accepted that negative modulation of the GABAergic system before testing can impair extinction memory expression. However, it seems possible to speculate that inhibitory mechanisms may be required in order to acquire a memory that is inhibitory in nature. Using a combination of behavioral protocols, such as weak and robust extinction training procedures, and pharmacological treatments, such as the systemic administration of GABAA agonist (muscimol) and antagonist (bicuculline), we investigated the role of the GABAergic system in the different phases of the extinction memory in the crab Neohelice granulata. We show that the stimulation of the GABAergic system impairs and its inactivation facilitates the extinction memory consolidation. Moreover, fine variations in the GABAergic tone affect its expression at testing. Finally, an active GABAergic system is necessary for the acquisition of the extinction memory. This detailed description may contribute to the understanding of the role of the GABAergic system in diverse aspects of the extinction memory. PMID:23914974

  5. Distinct behavioral consequences of short-term and prolonged GABAergic depletion in prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Judith M.; Nissel, Sabine; Rogel-Salazar, Gabriela; Mederer, Anna; Käfer, Karola; Bedenk, Benedikt T.; Martens, Henrik; Anders, Rebecca; Grosche, Jens; Michalski, Dominik; Härtig, Wolfgang; Wotjak, Carsten T.

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons are essential for a functional equilibrium between excitatory and inhibitory impulses throughout the CNS. Disruption of this equilibrium can lead to various neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsy or schizophrenia. Schizophrenia itself is clinically defined by negative (e.g., depression) and positive (e.g., hallucinations) symptoms as well as cognitive dysfunction. GABAergic interneurons are proposed to play a central role in the etiology and progression of schizophrenia; however, the specific mechanisms and the time-line of symptom development as well as the distinct involvement of cortical and hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in the etiology of schizophrenia-related symptoms are still not conclusively resolved. Previous work demonstrated that GABAergic interneurons can be selectively depleted in adult mice by means of saporin-conjugated anti-vesicular GABA transporter antibodies (SAVAs) in vitro and in vivo. Given their involvement in schizophrenia-related disease etiology, we ablated GABAergic interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) in adult male C57BL/6N mice. Subsequently we assessed alterations in anxiety, sensory processing, hyperactivity and cognition after long-term (>14 days) and short-term (<14 days) GABAergic depletion. Long-term GABAergic depletion in the mPFC resulted in a decrease in sensorimotor-gating and impairments in cognitive flexibility. Notably, the same treatment at the level of the dHPC completely abolished spatial learning capabilities. Short-term GABAergic depletion in the dHPC revealed a transient hyperactive phenotype as well as marked impairments regarding the acquisition of a spatial memory. In contrast, recall of a spatial memory was not affected by the same intervention. These findings emphasize the importance of functional local GABAergic networks for the encoding but not the recall of hippocampus-dependent spatial memories. PMID:25628548

  6. Hairy/Enhancer-of-Split MEGANE and Proneural MASH1 Factors Cooperate Synergistically in Midbrain GABAergic Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wende, Clara-Zoe; Zoubaa, Saida; Blak, Alexandra; Echevarria, Diego; Martinez, Salvador; Guillemot, François; Wurst, Wolfgang; Guimera, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic neurons are the primary inhibitory cell type in the mature brain and their dysfunction is associated with important neurological conditions like schizophrenia and anxiety. We aimed to discover the underlying mechanisms for dorsal/ventral midbrain GABAergic neurogenesis. Previous work by us and others has provided crucial insights into the key function of Mgn and Mash1 genes in determining GABAergic neurotransmitter fate. Induction of dorsal midbrain GABAergic neurons does not take place at any time during development in either of the single mutant mice. However, GABAergic neurons in the ventral midbrain remained unchanged. Thus, the similarities in MB-GABAergic phenotype observed in the Mgn and Mash1 single mutants suggest the existence of other factors that take over the function of MGN and MASH1 in the ventral midbrain or the existence of different molecular mechanisms. We show that this process essentially depends on heterodimers and homodimers formed by MGN and MASH1 and deciphered the in vivo relevance of the interaction by phenotypic analysis of Mgn/Mash1 double knockout and compound mice. Furthermore, the combination of gain- and loss-of-function experiments in the developing midbrain showed co-operative roles for Mgn and Mash1 genes in determining GABAergic identity. Transcription factors belonging to the Enhancer-of-split-related and proneural families have long been believed to counterpart each other's function. This work uncovers a synergistic cooperation between these two families, and provides a novel paradigm for how these two families cooperate for the acquisition of MB-GABAergic neuronal identity. Understanding their molecular mechanisms is essential for cell therapy strategies to amend GABAergic deficits. PMID:25993409

  7. Hairy/Enhancer-of-Split MEGANE and Proneural MASH1 Factors Cooperate Synergistically in Midbrain GABAergic Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wende, Clara-Zoe; Zoubaa, Saida; Blak, Alexandra; Echevarria, Diego; Martinez, Salvador; Guillemot, François; Wurst, Wolfgang; Guimera, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic neurons are the primary inhibitory cell type in the mature brain and their dysfunction is associated with important neurological conditions like schizophrenia and anxiety. We aimed to discover the underlying mechanisms for dorsal/ventral midbrain GABAergic neurogenesis. Previous work by us and others has provided crucial insights into the key function of Mgn and Mash1 genes in determining GABAergic neurotransmitter fate. Induction of dorsal midbrain GABAergic neurons does not take place at any time during development in either of the single mutant mice. However, GABAergic neurons in the ventral midbrain remained unchanged. Thus, the similarities in MB-GABAergic phenotype observed in the Mgn and Mash1 single mutants suggest the existence of other factors that take over the function of MGN and MASH1 in the ventral midbrain or the existence of different molecular mechanisms. We show that this process essentially depends on heterodimers and homodimers formed by MGN and MASH1 and deciphered the in vivo relevance of the interaction by phenotypic analysis of Mgn/Mash1 double knockout and compound mice. Furthermore, the combination of gain- and loss-of-function experiments in the developing midbrain showed co-operative roles for Mgn and Mash1 genes in determining GABAergic identity. Transcription factors belonging to the Enhancer-of-split-related and proneural families have long been believed to counterpart each other’s function. This work uncovers a synergistic cooperation between these two families, and provides a novel paradigm for how these two families cooperate for the acquisition of MB-GABAergic neuronal identity. Understanding their molecular mechanisms is essential for cell therapy strategies to amend GABAergic deficits. PMID:25993409

  8. A Transgenic Mouse Line Expressing the Red Fluorescent Protein tdTomato in GABAergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Besser, Stefanie; Sicker, Marit; Marx, Grit; Winkler, Ulrike; Eulenburg, Volker; Hülsmann, Swen; Hirrlinger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic inhibitory neurons are a large population of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals and crucially contribute to the function of the circuitry of the brain. To identify specific cell types and investigate their functions labelling of cell populations by transgenic expression of fluorescent proteins is a powerful approach. While a number of mouse lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in different subpopulations of GABAergic cells are available, GFP expressing mouse lines are not suitable for either crossbreeding to other mouse lines expressing GFP in other cell types or for Ca2+-imaging using the superior green Ca2+-indicator dyes. Therefore, we have generated a novel transgenic mouse line expressing the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in GABAergic neurons using a bacterial artificial chromosome based strategy and inserting the tdTomato open reading frame at the start codon within exon 1 of the GAD2 gene encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65). TdTomato expression was observed in all expected brain regions; however, the fluorescence intensity was highest in the olfactory bulb and the striatum. Robust expression was also observed in cortical and hippocampal neurons, Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, amacrine cells in the retina as well as in cells migrating along the rostral migratory stream. In cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and brainstem, 80% to 90% of neurons expressing endogenous GAD65 also expressed the fluorescent protein. Moreover, almost all tdTomato-expressing cells coexpressed GAD65, indicating that indeed only GABAergic neurons are labelled by tdTomato expression. This mouse line with its unique spectral properties for labelling GABAergic neurons will therefore be a valuable new tool for research addressing this fascinating cell type. PMID:26076353

  9. A Transgenic Mouse Line Expressing the Red Fluorescent Protein tdTomato in GABAergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Stefanie; Sicker, Marit; Marx, Grit; Winkler, Ulrike; Eulenburg, Volker; Hülsmann, Swen; Hirrlinger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic inhibitory neurons are a large population of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals and crucially contribute to the function of the circuitry of the brain. To identify specific cell types and investigate their functions labelling of cell populations by transgenic expression of fluorescent proteins is a powerful approach. While a number of mouse lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in different subpopulations of GABAergic cells are available, GFP expressing mouse lines are not suitable for either crossbreeding to other mouse lines expressing GFP in other cell types or for Ca2+-imaging using the superior green Ca2+-indicator dyes. Therefore, we have generated a novel transgenic mouse line expressing the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in GABAergic neurons using a bacterial artificial chromosome based strategy and inserting the tdTomato open reading frame at the start codon within exon 1 of the GAD2 gene encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65). TdTomato expression was observed in all expected brain regions; however, the fluorescence intensity was highest in the olfactory bulb and the striatum. Robust expression was also observed in cortical and hippocampal neurons, Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, amacrine cells in the retina as well as in cells migrating along the rostral migratory stream. In cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and brainstem, 80% to 90% of neurons expressing endogenous GAD65 also expressed the fluorescent protein. Moreover, almost all tdTomato-expressing cells coexpressed GAD65, indicating that indeed only GABAergic neurons are labelled by tdTomato expression. This mouse line with its unique spectral properties for labelling GABAergic neurons will therefore be a valuable new tool for research addressing this fascinating cell type. PMID:26076353

  10. Leptin Responsive and GABAergic Projections to the Rostral Preoptic Area in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zuure, W A; Quennell, J H; Anderson, G M

    2016-03-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role in the control of reproduction via signalling in hypothalamic neurones. The drivers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, do not have the receptors for leptin. Therefore, intermediate leptin responsive neurones must provide leptin-to-GnRH signalling. We investigated the populations of leptin responsive neurones that provide input to the rostral preoptic area (rPOA) where GnRH cell bodies reside. Fluorescent retrograde tracer beads (RetroBeads; Lumafluor Inc., Naples, FL, USA) were injected into the rPOA of transgenic leptin receptor enhanced green fluorescent protein (Lepr-eGFP) reporter mice. Uptake of the RetroBeads by Lepr-eGFP neurones was assessed throughout the hypothalamus. RetroBead uptake was most evident in the medial arcuate nucleus (ARC), the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of the hypothalamus. The uptake of RetroBeads specifically by Lepr-eGFP neurones was highest in the medial ARC (18% of tracer-labelled neurones Lepr-eGFP-positive). Because neurones that are both leptin responsive and GABAergic play a critical role in the regulation of fertility by leptin, we next focussed on the location of these populations. To address whether GABAergic neurones in leptin-responsive hypothalamic regions project to the rPOA, the experiment was repeated in GABA neurone reporter mice (Vgat-tdTomato). Between 10% and 45% of RetroBead-labelled neurones in the ARC were GABAergic, whereas uptake of tracer by GABAergic neurones in the DMN and PMV was very low (< 5%). These results show that both leptin responsive and GABAergic neurones from the ARC project to the region of the GnRH cell bodies. Our findings suggest that LEPR-expressing GABA neurones from the ARC may be mediators of leptin-to-GnRH signalling. PMID:26716764

  11. Kappa Opioid Receptor-Mediated Dysregulation of GABAergic Transmission in the Central Amygdala in Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kallupi, Marsida; Wee, Sunmee; Edwards, Scott; Whitfield, Tim W.; Oleata, Christopher S.; Luu, George; Schmeichel, Brooke E.; Koob, George F.; Roberto, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated an enhanced dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system following repeated cocaine exposure, but few reports have focused on neuroadaptations within the central amygdala (CeA). Methods We identified KOR-related physiological changes in the CeA following escalation of cocaine self-administration in rats. We used in vitro slice electrophysiological (intracellular and whole-cell recordings) methods to assess whether differential cocaine access in either 1h (short access, ShA) or 6h (long access, LgA) sessions induced plasticity at CeA GABAergic synapses, or altered the sensitivity of these synapses to KOR agonism (U50488) or antagonism (nor-BNI). We then determined the functional effects of CeA KOR blockade in cocaine-related behaviors. Results Baseline evoked GABAergic transmission was enhanced in the CeA from ShA and LgA rats compared to cocaine-naïve rats. Acute cocaine (1 uM) application significantly decreased GABA release in all groups (naïve, ShA, and LgA rats). Application of U50488 (1 uM) significantly decreased GABAergic transmission in the CeA from naïve rats, but increased it in LgA rats. Conversely, nor-BNI (200 nM) significantly increased GABAergic transmission in the CeA from naïve rats, but decreased it in LgA rats. Nor-BNI did not alter the acute cocaine-induced inhibition of GABAergic responses. Finally, CeA microinfusion of nor-BNI blocked cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and attenuated the heightened anxiety-like behavior observed during withdrawal from chronic cocaine exposure in the defensive burying paradigm. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that CeA dynorphin/KOR systems are dysregulated following excessive cocaine exposure and suggest KOR antagonism as a viable therapeutic strategy for cocaine addiction. PMID:23751206

  12. Novel GABAergic circuits mediating excitation/inhibition of Cajal-Retzius cells in the developing hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Quattrocolo, Giulia; Maccaferri, Gianmaria

    2013-01-01

    Cajal-Retzius cells are a class of neurons believed to play critical roles during cortical development. However, their network computational functions remain poorly understood. Although work in the neocortex and hippocampus has shown that Cajal-Retzius cells receive predominantly, if not exclusively, spontaneous GABAA receptor-mediated input, the cellular sources originating these events remain unclear. Yet, a precise definition of the presynaptic GABAergic interneurons contacting Cajal-Retzius cells is important to understand the microcircuits and network patterns controlling their activation. Here, we have taken advantage of electrophysiological and anatomical techniques applied to mouse hippocampal slices in vitro to directly address this question. Our paired recording experiments indicate that Cajal-Retzius cells receive small-amplitude, kinetically-slow synaptic input from stratum lacunosum-moleculare interneurons, anatomically identified as neurogliaform cells. In addition, a convergence of optogenetic, electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments show that Cajal-Retzius cell receive GABAergic input from O-LM cells, and that this input has different physiological properties (i.e. larger amplitude and faster kinetics) from the one provided by neurogliaform cells. Lastly, we show that GABAergic evoked synaptic input onto Cajal-Retzius cells may either increase their excitability and trigger action potentials or inhibit spontaneous firing by depolarization block. We propose that the specific type of response depends both on the membrane potential of Cajal-Retzius cells and on the kinetics of the received GABAergic input. In conclusion, we have unraveled a novel hippocampal microcircuit with complex GABAergic synaptic signaling, which we suggest may play a role in the refinement of the hippocampal network and connections during development. PMID:23536064

  13. A multi-resource data integration approach: identification of candidate genes regulating cell proliferation during neocortical development

    PubMed Central

    Vied, Cynthia M.; Freudenberg, Florian; Wang, Yuting; Raposo, Alexandre A. S. F.; Feng, David; Nowakowski, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the mammalian neocortex are produced by proliferating cells located in the ventricular zone (VZ) lining the lateral ventricles. This is a complex and sequential process, requiring precise control of cell cycle progression, fate commitment and differentiation. We have analyzed publicly available databases from mouse and human to identify candidate genes that are potentially involved in regulating early neocortical development and neurogenesis. We used a mouse in situ hybridization dataset (The Allen Institute for Brain Science) to identify 13 genes (Cdon, Celsr1, Dbi, E2f5, Eomes, Hmgn2, Neurog2, Notch1, Pcnt, Sox3, Ssrp1, Tead2, Tgif2) with high correlation of expression in the proliferating cells of the VZ of the neocortex at early stages of development (E15.5). We generated a similar human brain network using microarray and RNA-seq data (BrainSpan Atlas) and identified 407 genes with high expression in the developing human VZ and subventricular zone (SVZ) at 8–9 post-conception weeks. Seven of the human genes were also present in the mouse VZ network. The human and mouse networks were extended using available genetic and proteomic datasets through GeneMANIA. A gene ontology search of the mouse and human networks indicated that many of the genes are involved in the cell cycle, DNA replication, mitosis and transcriptional regulation. The reported involvement of Cdon, Celsr1, Dbi, Eomes, Neurog2, Notch1, Pcnt, Sox3, Tead2, and Tgif2 in neural development or diseases resulting from the disruption of neurogenesis validates these candidate genes. Taken together, our knowledge-based discovery method has validated the involvement of many genes already known to be involved in neocortical development and extended the potential number of genes by 100's, many of which are involved in functions related to cell proliferation but others of which are potential candidates for involvement in the regulation of neocortical development. PMID:25191221

  14. A multi-resource data integration approach: identification of candidate genes regulating cell proliferation during neocortical development.

    PubMed

    Vied, Cynthia M; Freudenberg, Florian; Wang, Yuting; Raposo, Alexandre A S F; Feng, David; Nowakowski, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the mammalian neocortex are produced by proliferating cells located in the ventricular zone (VZ) lining the lateral ventricles. This is a complex and sequential process, requiring precise control of cell cycle progression, fate commitment and differentiation. We have analyzed publicly available databases from mouse and human to identify candidate genes that are potentially involved in regulating early neocortical development and neurogenesis. We used a mouse in situ hybridization dataset (The Allen Institute for Brain Science) to identify 13 genes (Cdon, Celsr1, Dbi, E2f5, Eomes, Hmgn2, Neurog2, Notch1, Pcnt, Sox3, Ssrp1, Tead2, Tgif2) with high correlation of expression in the proliferating cells of the VZ of the neocortex at early stages of development (E15.5). We generated a similar human brain network using microarray and RNA-seq data (BrainSpan Atlas) and identified 407 genes with high expression in the developing human VZ and subventricular zone (SVZ) at 8-9 post-conception weeks. Seven of the human genes were also present in the mouse VZ network. The human and mouse networks were extended using available genetic and proteomic datasets through GeneMANIA. A gene ontology search of the mouse and human networks indicated that many of the genes are involved in the cell cycle, DNA replication, mitosis and transcriptional regulation. The reported involvement of Cdon, Celsr1, Dbi, Eomes, Neurog2, Notch1, Pcnt, Sox3, Tead2, and Tgif2 in neural development or diseases resulting from the disruption of neurogenesis validates these candidate genes. Taken together, our knowledge-based discovery method has validated the involvement of many genes already known to be involved in neocortical development and extended the potential number of genes by 100's, many of which are involved in functions related to cell proliferation but others of which are potential candidates for involvement in the regulation of neocortical development. PMID:25191221

  15. Patterns of hippocampal-neocortical interactions in the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memories across the entire life-span of aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Viard, Armelle; Lebreton, Karine; Chételat, Gaël; Desgranges, Béatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; Young, Alan; De La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Episodic Autobiographical Memories (EAMs) rely on a network of brain regions comprising the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and distributed neocortical regions regardless of their remoteness. The findings supported the model of memory consolidation which proposes a permanent role of MTL during EAM retrieval (Multiple-Trace Theory or MTT) rather than a temporary role (standard model). Our present aim was to expand the results by examining the interactions between the MTL and neocortical regions (or MTL-neocortical links) during EAM retrieval with varying retention intervals. We used an experimental paradigm specially designed to engage aged participants in the recollection of EAMs, extracted from five different time-periods, covering their whole life-span, in order to examine correlations between activation in the MTL and neocortical regions. The nature of the memories was checked at debriefing by means of behavioral measures to control the degree of episodicity and properties of memories. Targeted correlational analyses carried out on the MTL, frontal, lateral temporal and posterior regions revealed strong links between the MTL and neocortex during the retrieval of both recent and remote EAMs, challenging the standard model of memory consolidation and supporting MTT instead. Further confirmation was given by results showing that activation in the left and right hippocampi significantly correlated during the retrieval of both recent and remote memories. Correlations among extra-MTL neocortical regions also emerged for all time-periods, confirming the critical role of the prefrontal, temporal (lateral temporal cortex and temporal pole), precuneus and posterior cingulate regions in EAM retrieval. Overall, this paper emphasizes the role of a bilateral network of MTL and neocortical areas whose activation correlate during the recollection of rich phenomenological recent and remote EAMs. PMID:19338022

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM REDUCES PARVALBUMIN EXPRESSION IN GABAERGIC NEURONS OF CORTEX AND HIPPOCAMPUS: IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL FINDINGS AND FUNCTIONAL CORRELATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    GABAergic interneurons comprise the bulk of local inhibitory neuronal circuitry in cortex and hippocampus and a subpopulation of these interneurons contain the calcium binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). A previous report indicated that severe hypothyroidism reduced PV immunoreact...

  17. Neocortical neuronal morphology in the newborn giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bob; Lee, Laura; Schall, Matthew; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Lewandowski, Albert H; Kottwitz, Jack J; Roberts, John F; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-02-01

    Although neocortical neuronal morphology has been documented in the adult giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana), no research has explored the cortical architecture in newborns of these species. To this end, the current study examined the morphology of neurons from several cortical areas in the newborn giraffe and elephant. After cortical neurons were stained with a modified Golgi technique (N = 153), dendritic branching and spine distributions were analyzed by using computer-assisted morphometry. The results showed that newborn elephant neurons were considerably larger in terms of all dendritic and spine measures than newborn giraffe neurons. Qualitatively, neurons in the newborns appeared morphologically comparable to those in their adult counterparts. Neurons in the newborn elephant differed considerably from those observed in other placental mammals, including the giraffe, particularly with regard to the morphology of spiny projection neurons. Projection neurons were observed in both species, with a much larger variety in the elephant (e.g., flattened pyramidal, nonpyramidal multipolar, and inverted pyramidal neurons). Although local circuit neurons (i.e., interneurons, neurogliaform, Cajal-Retzius neurons) resembled those observed in other eutherian mammals, these were usually spiny, which contrasts with their adult, aspiny equivalents. Newborn projection neurons were smaller than the adult equivalents in both species, but newborn interneurons were approximately the same size as their adult counterparts. Cortical neuromorphology in the newborn giraffe is thus generally consistent with what has been observed in other cetartiodactyls, whereas newborn and adult elephant morphology appears to deviate substantially from what is commonly observed in other placental mammals. PMID:26104263

  18. β1 Integrin Maintains Integrity of the Embryonic Neocortical Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Marthiens, Veronique; Relucio, Jenne; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Tang, Sung-Chun; Coksaygan, Turhan; Hall, Peter E.; Chigurupati, Srinivasulu; Patton, Bruce; Colognato, Holly; Rao, Mahendra S.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    surface and maintaining the physical integrity of the neocortical niche, with even transient perturbations resulting in long-lasting cortical defects. PMID:19688041

  19. Blood Protein Markers of Neocortical Amyloid-β Burden: A Candidate Study Using SOMAscan Technology

    PubMed Central

    Voyle, Nicola; Baker, David; Burnham, Samantha C.; Covin, Antonia; Zhang, Zhanpan; Sangurdekar, Dipen P.; Tan Hehir, Cristina A.; Bazenet, Chantal; Lovestone, Simon; Kiddle, Steven; Dobson, Richard J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Four previously reported studies have tested for association of blood proteins with neocortical amyloid-β burden (NAB). If shown to be robust, these proteins could have utility as a blood test for enrichment in clinical trials of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapeutics. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether previously identified blood proteins also show evidence for association with NAB in serum samples from the Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL). The study considers candidate proteins seen in cohorts other than AIBL and candidates previously discovered in the AIBL cohort. Methods: Our study used the SOMAscan platform for protein quantification in blood serum. Linear and logistic regressions were used to model continuous NAB and dichotomized NAB respectively using single proteins as a predictor. Multiple protein models were built using stepwise regression techniques and support vectors machines. Age and APOE ɛ4 carriage were used as covariates for all analysis. Results: Of the 41 proteins previously reported, 15 AIBL candidates and 20 non-AIBL candidates were available for testing. Of these candidates, pancreatic polypeptide (PPY) and IgM showed a significant association with NAB. Notably, IgM was found to associate with continuous NAB across cognitively normal control subjects. Conclusions: We have further demonstrated the association of PPY and IgM with NAB, despite technical differences between studies. There are several reasons for a lack of significance for the other candidates including platform differences and the use of serum rather than plasma samples. To investigate the possibility of technical differences causing lack of replication, further studies are required. PMID:25881911

  20. Persistent neocortical astrogliosis in adult wistar rats following prenatal ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Fakoya, Francis Adelade

    2005-06-01

    Timed pregnant wistar rats were divided randomly into groups A and B (n=6) each and C (n=4). Group A received a daily ethanol dose of 5.8 g/kg body weight per day, at 16.00 h on days 9-12th of gestation by intragastric intubations. Group B was pair-fed along with the treated rats and received an isocaloric solution of sucrose to substitute for the ethanol in the experimental group, for the same duration, while group C received standard chow and water ad libitum. The adult offsprings at 42 days of age, (n=10) from each group were sacrificed by whole body perfusion-fixation, after anaesthesia by an overdose of pentothal intraperitoneally. Specimens of neocortical samples were processed routinely for paraffin embedding and sections of 6 microm thickness stained for neurohistology. Another set of specimens was cryosectioned at -23 degrees C after cryoprotection in 30% sucrose/PBS and evaluated for GFAP immunohistochemistry. The study showed a distortion of the microanatomy of the neocortex in the treatment group A, particularly of layer V pyramidal neurons, which revealed mostly pyknotic pyramidal neurons with broken dendrites, collapsed cell bodies, obliterated nuclei and nucleoli. No differences were found between the brains from rats in groups B and C. There were widespread focal areas of reactive astrogliosis, more prominent within the layer V. Astrocytes demonstrated highly stained GFAP-positive immunoreactivity with heavy fibrillary processes in the neocortex of group A offsprings compared to the controls. The sub-pial regions were, however, sparse. In conclusion, this study confirms the hypothesis that microanatomical and microchemical changes following prenatal ethanol exposure persist into adulthood in rats. PMID:15862187

  1. Unsupervised classification of neocortical activity patterns in neonatal and pre-juvenile rodents.

    PubMed

    Cichon, Nicole B; Denker, Michael; Grün, Sonja; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L

    2014-01-01

    Flexible communication within the brain, which relies on oscillatory activity, is not confined to adult neuronal networks. Experimental evidence has documented the presence of discontinuous patterns of oscillatory activity already during early development. Their highly variable spatial and time-frequency organization has been related to region specificity. However, it might be equally due to the absence of unitary criteria for classifying the early activity patterns, since they have been mainly characterized by visual inspection. Therefore, robust and unbiased methods for categorizing these discontinuous oscillations are needed for increasingly complex data sets from different labs. Here, we introduce an unsupervised detection and classification algorithm for the discontinuous activity patterns of rodents during early development. For this, in a first step time windows with discontinuous oscillations vs. epochs of network "silence" were identified. In a second step, the major features of detected events were identified and processed by principal component analysis for deciding on their contribution to the classification of different oscillatory patterns. Finally, these patterns were categorized using an unsupervised cluster algorithm. The results were validated on manually characterized neonatal spindle bursts (SB), which ubiquitously entrain neocortical areas of rats and mice, and prelimbic nested gamma spindle bursts (NG). Moreover, the algorithm led to satisfactory results for oscillatory events that, due to increased similarity of their features, were more difficult to classify, e.g., during the pre-juvenile developmental period. Based on a linear classification, the optimal number of features to consider increased with the difficulty of detection. This algorithm allows the comparison of neonatal and pre-juvenile oscillatory patterns in their spatial and temporal organization. It might represent a first step for the unbiased elucidation of activity patterns

  2. Electroconvulsive therapy and structural neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic cortex.

    PubMed

    Pirnia, T; Joshi, S H; Leaver, A M; Vasavada, M; Njau, S; Woods, R P; Espinoza, R; Narr, K L

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and rapidly acting treatment for severe depression. To understand the biological bases of therapeutic response, we examined variations in cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 29 patients scanned at three time points during an ECT treatment index series and in 29 controls at two time points. Changes in thickness across time and with symptom improvement were evaluated at high spatial resolution across the cortex and within discrete cortical regions of interest. Patients showed increased thickness over the course of ECT in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior and superior temporal, parahippocampal, entorhinal and fusiform cortex and in distributed prefrontal areas. No changes across time occurred in controls. In temporal and fusiform regions showing significant ECT effects, thickness differed between patients and controls at baseline and change in thickness related to therapeutic response in patients. In the ACC, these relationships occurred in treatment responders only, and thickness measured soon after treatment initiation predicted the overall ECT response. ECT leads to widespread neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic regions and changes relate to the extent of antidepressant response. Variations in ACC thickness, which discriminate treatment responders and predict response early in the course of ECT, may represent a biomarker of overall clinical outcome. Because post-mortem studies show focal reductions in glial density and neuronal size in patients with severe depression, ECT-related increases in thickness may be attributable to neuroplastic processes affecting the size and/or density of neurons and glia and their connections. PMID:27271858

  3. Electroconvulsive therapy and structural neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pirnia, T; Joshi, S H; Leaver, A M; Vasavada, M; Njau, S; Woods, R P; Espinoza, R; Narr, K L

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and rapidly acting treatment for severe depression. To understand the biological bases of therapeutic response, we examined variations in cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 29 patients scanned at three time points during an ECT treatment index series and in 29 controls at two time points. Changes in thickness across time and with symptom improvement were evaluated at high spatial resolution across the cortex and within discrete cortical regions of interest. Patients showed increased thickness over the course of ECT in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior and superior temporal, parahippocampal, entorhinal and fusiform cortex and in distributed prefrontal areas. No changes across time occurred in controls. In temporal and fusiform regions showing significant ECT effects, thickness differed between patients and controls at baseline and change in thickness related to therapeutic response in patients. In the ACC, these relationships occurred in treatment responders only, and thickness measured soon after treatment initiation predicted the overall ECT response. ECT leads to widespread neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic regions and changes relate to the extent of antidepressant response. Variations in ACC thickness, which discriminate treatment responders and predict response early in the course of ECT, may represent a biomarker of overall clinical outcome. Because post-mortem studies show focal reductions in glial density and neuronal size in patients with severe depression, ECT-related increases in thickness may be attributable to neuroplastic processes affecting the size and/or density of neurons and glia and their connections. PMID:27271858

  4. Coupling between gamma-band power and cerebral blood volume during recurrent acute neocortical seizures

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sam; Ma, Hongtao; Zhao, Mingrui; Boorman, Luke; Zheng, Ying; Kennerley, Aneurin; Bruyns-Haylett, Michael; Overton, Paul G.; Berwick, Jason; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of neural and hemodynamic biomarkers of epileptic activity that can be measured using non-invasive techniques is fundamental to the accurate identification of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in the clinical setting. Recently, oscillations at gamma-band frequencies and above (> 30 Hz) have been suggested to provide valuable localizing information of the EZ and track cortical activation associated with epileptogenic processes. Although a tight coupling between gamma-band activity and hemodynamic-based signals has been consistently demonstrated in non-pathological conditions, very little is known about whether such a relationship is maintained in epilepsy and the laminar etiology of these signals. Confirmation of this relationship may elucidate the underpinnings of perfusion-based signals in epilepsy and the potential value of localizing the EZ using hemodynamic correlates of pathological rhythms. Here, we use concurrent multi-depth electrophysiology and 2-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy to examine the coupling between multi-band neural activity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) during recurrent acute focal neocortical seizures in the urethane-anesthetized rat. We show a powerful correlation between gamma-band power (25–90 Hz) and CBV across cortical laminae, in particular layer 5, and a close association between gamma measures and multi-unit activity (MUA). Our findings provide insights into the laminar electrophysiological basis of perfusion-based imaging signals in the epileptic state and may have implications for further research using non-invasive multi-modal techniques to localize epileptogenic tissue. PMID:24736180

  5. Medial Septum-Diagonal Band of Broca (MSDB) GABAergic Regulation of Hippocampal Acetylcholine Efflux Is Dependent on Cognitive Demands

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Jessica J.; Stewart, Amanda L.; Janke, Kellie L.; Gielow, Matthew R.; Kostek, John A.; Savage, Lisa M.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The septohippocampal pathway contains cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic projections and has an established role in learning, memory, and hippocampal theta rhythm. Both GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MSDB) have been associated with spatial memory, but the relationship between the two neuronal populations is not fully understood. The present study investigated the effect of selective GABAergic MSDB lesions on hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) efflux and spatial memory during tasks that varied in memory demand. Male Sprague Dawley rats were given GABAergic lesions of the MSDB using GAT1-saporin (GAT1-SAP) and examined on spontaneous exploration (Experiment 1) and non-matching to position without (NMTP; Experiment 2) and with a delay (DNMTP; Experiment 3), while concurrently using in vivo microdialysis to measure hippocampal ACh efflux. Intraseptal GAT1-SAP treatment did not alter baseline or behaviorally stimulated hippocampal ACh efflux or maze exploration (Experiment 1). Moreover, GAT1-SAP did not alter evoked hippocampal ACh efflux related to NMTP nor did it impair working memory in NMTP (Experiment 2). In contrast, both ACh efflux and performance in DNMTP were impaired by intraseptal GAT1-SAP. Thus, GABAergic MSDB neurons are important for spatial working memory and modulate hippocampal ACh efflux under conditions of high memory load. The relationship between the septohippocampal cholinergic and GABAergic systems and working memory will be discussed. PMID:24403150

  6. An interneuron progenitor maintains neurogenic potential in vivo and differentiates into GABAergic interneurons after transplantation in the postnatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Hong, Peiwei; Gao, Hui; Chen, Yuntian; Yang, Qi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Hedong

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of cortical GABAergic interneurons are involved in numerous neurological disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism; and replenishment of these cells by transplantation strategy has proven to be a feasible and effective method to help revert the symptoms in several animal models. To develop methodology of generating transplantable GABAergic interneurons for therapy, we previously reported the isolation of a v-myc-induced GABAergic interneuron progenitor clone GE6 from embryonic ganglionic eminence (GE). These cells can proliferate and form functional inhibitory synapses in culture. Here, we tested their differentiation behavior in vivo by transplanting them into the postnatal rat forebrain. We found that GE6 cells migrate extensively in the neonatal forebrain and differentiate into both neurons and glia, but preferentially into neurons when compared with a sister progenitor clone CTX8. The neurogenic potential of GE6 cells is also maintained after transplantation into a non-permissive environment such as adult cortex or when treated with inflammatory cytokine in culture. The GE6-derived neurons were able to mature in vivo as GABAergic interneurons expressing GABAergic, not glutamatergic, presynaptic puncta. Finally, we propose that v-myc-induced human interneuron progenitor clones could be an alternative cell source of transplantable GABAergic interneurons for treating related neurological diseases in future clinic. PMID:26750620

  7. New insights into the classification and nomenclature of cortical GABAergic interneurons

    PubMed Central

    DeFelipe, Javier; López-Cruz, Pedro L.; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Anderson, Stewart; Burkhalter, Andreas; Cauli, Bruno; Fairén, Alfonso; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Fishell, Gord; Fitzpatrick, David; Freund, Tamás F.; González-Burgos, Guillermo; Hestrin, Shaul; Hill, Sean; Hof, Patrick R.; Huang, Josh; Jones, Edward G.; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Kisvárday, Zoltán; Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Lewis, David A.; Marín, Oscar; Markram, Henry; McBain, Chris J.; Meyer, Hanno S.; Monyer, Hannah; Nelson, Sacha B.; Rockland, Kathleen; Rossier, Jean; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Rudy, Bernardo; Scanziani, Massimo; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Staiger, Jochen F.; Tamás, Gábor; Thomson, Alex; Wang, Yun; Yuste, Rafael; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic classification and accepted nomenclature of neuron types is much needed but is currently lacking. This article describes a possible taxonomical solution for classifying GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex based on a novel, web-based interactive system that allows experts to classify neurons with pre-determined criteria. Using Bayesian analysis and clustering algorithms on the resulting data, we investigated the suitability of several anatomical terms and neuron names for cortical GABAergic interneurons. Moreover, we show that supervised classification models could automatically categorize interneurons in agreement with experts’ assignments. These results demonstrate a practical and objective approach to the naming, characterization and classification of neurons based on community consensus. PMID:23385869

  8. Desensitization of GABAergic receptors as a mechanism of zolpidem-induced somnambulism.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Grzegorz R

    2011-08-01

    Sleepwalking is a frequently reported side effect of zolpidem which is a short-acting hypnotic drug potentiating activity of GABA(A) receptors. Paradoxically, the most commonly used medications for somnambulism are benzodiazepines, especially clonazepam, which also potentiate activity of GABA(A) receptors. It is proposed that zolpidem-induced sleepwalking can be explained by the desensitization of GABAergic receptors located on serotonergic neurons. According to the proposed model, the delay between desensitization of GABA receptors and a compensatory decrease in serotonin release constitutes the time window for parasomnias. The occurrence of sleepwalking depends on individual differences in receptor desensitization, autoregulation of serotonin release and drug pharmacokinetics. The proposed mechanism of interaction between GABAergic and serotonergic systems can be also relevant for zolpidem abuse and zolpidem-induced hallucinations. It is therefore suggested that special care should be taken when zolpidem is used in patients taking at the same time selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:21565448

  9. GABAergic lateral interactions tune the early stages of visual processing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Freifeld, Limor; Clark, Damon A; Schnitzer, Mark J; Horowitz, Mark A; Clandinin, Thomas R

    2013-06-19

    Early stages of visual processing must capture complex, dynamic inputs. While peripheral neurons often implement efficient encoding by exploiting natural stimulus statistics, downstream neurons are specialized to extract behaviorally relevant features. How do these specializations arise? We use two-photon imaging in Drosophila to characterize a first-order interneuron, L2, that provides input to a pathway specialized for detecting moving dark edges. GABAergic interactions, mediated in part presynaptically, create an antagonistic and anisotropic center-surround receptive field. This receptive field is spatiotemporally coupled, applying differential temporal processing to large and small dark objects, achieving significant specialization. GABAergic circuits also mediate OFF responses and balance these with responses to ON stimuli. Remarkably, the functional properties of L2 are strikingly similar to those of bipolar cells, yet emerge through different molecular and circuit mechanisms. Thus, evolution appears to have converged on a common strategy for processing visual information at the first synapse. PMID:23791198

  10. Interplay of environmental signals and progenitor diversity on fate specification of cortical GABAergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Romcy-Pereira, Rodrigo N.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical GABAergic interneurons constitute an extremely diverse population of cells organized in a well-defined topology of precisely interconnected cells. They play a crucial role regulating inhibitory-excitatory balance in brain circuits, gating sensory perception, and regulating spike timing to brain oscillations during distinct behaviors. Dysfunctions in the establishment of proper inhibitory circuits have been associated to several brain disorders such as autism, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. In the rodent adult cortex, inhibitory neurons are generated during the second gestational week from distinct progenitor lineages located in restricted domains of the ventral telencephalon. However, only recently, studies have revealed some of the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity of neuronal subtypes and their modes of integration in brain networks. Here we will discuss some the events involved in the production of cortical GABAergic neuron diversity with focus on the interaction between intrinsically driven genetic programs and environmental signals during development. PMID:25972784

  11. Neurosteroids increase tonic GABAergic inhibition in the lateral section of the central amygdala in mice

    PubMed Central

    Blaesse, P.; Sosulina, L.; Pape, H.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Neurosteroids are formed de novo in the brain and can modulate both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. Recent evidence suggests that the anxiolytic effects of neurosteroids are mediated by the amygdala, a key structure for emotional and cognitive behaviors. Tonic inhibitory signaling via extrasynaptic type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) is known to be crucially involved in regulating network activity in various brain regions including subdivisions of the amygdala. Here we provide evidence for the existence of tonic GABAergic inhibition generated by the activation of δ-subunit-containing GABAARs in neurons of the lateral section of the mouse central amygdala (CeAl). Furthermore, we show that neurosteroids play an important role in the modulation of tonic GABAergic inhibition in the CeAl. Taken together, these findings provide new mechanistic insights into the effects of pharmacologically relevant neurosteroids in the amygdala and might be extrapolated to the regulation of anxiety. PMID:25787948

  12. Forebrain GABAergic neuron precursors integrate into adult spinal cord and reduce injury-induced neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Bráz, JM; Sharif-Naeini, R; Vogt, D; Kriegstein, A; Alvarez-Buylla, A; Rubenstein, JL; Basbaum, AI

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by mechanical allodynia and spontaneous pain. Because symptoms are often unresponsive to conventional methods of pain treatment, new therapeutic approaches are essential. Here, we describe a strategy that not only ameliorates symptoms of neuropathic pain, but is also potentially disease modifying. We show that transplantation of immature telencephalic GABAergic interneurons from the mouse medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) into the adult mouse spinal cord completely reverses the mechanical hypersensitivity produced by peripheral nerve injury. Underlying this improvement is a remarkable integration of the MGE transplants into the host spinal cord circuitry, in which the transplanted cells make functional connections with both primary afferent and spinal cord neurons. By contrast, MGE transplants were not effective against inflammatory pain. Our findings suggest that MGE-derived GABAergic interneurons overcome the spinal cord hyperexcitability that is a hallmark of nerve-injury induced neuropathic pain. PMID:22632725

  13. Glutamate transporters and presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors protect neocortical Cajal-Retzius cells against over-excitation.

    PubMed

    Dvorzhak, Anton; Unichenko, Petr; Kirischuk, Sergei

    2012-08-01

    Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells, early generated neurons in the marginal zone of developing neocortex, are reported to be highly vulnerable to excitotoxic damage. Because extracellular glutamate concentration in the central nervous system is mainly controlled by glutamate transporters (EAATs), we studied the effects of EAAT blockade on CR cells. DL: -TBOA, a specific EAAT antagonist, induced NMDA receptor-dependent bursting discharges in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons, indicating that EAATs operate in the uptake mode and their blockade leads to elevation of extracellular glutamate concentration. In CR cells, however, DL: -TBOA failed to change either the membrane resistance or holding current, and moreover, it reduced the frequency of spontaneous GABAergic postsynaptic currents. DL: -TBOA decreased the mean amplitude and increased paired-pulse ratio of evoked GABAergic postsynaptic currents, indicating the presynaptic locus of its action. Indeed, LY379268, a specific agonist of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR-II), mimicked the DL: -TBOA-mediated effects, and LY341495, an unspecific mGluR antagonist, eliminated the DL: -TBOA-induced effects. As dihydrokainic acid, a specific EAAT2 blocker, failed to affect evoked GABAergic postsynaptic currents, whereas TFB-TBOA, a selective blocker of EAAT1 and EAAT2, produced effects similar to that of DL: -TBOA, extracellular glutamate concentration in the marginal zone is mainly controlled by EAAT1 (GLAST). Thus, even though CR cells are highly vulnerable to excitotoxic damage, a number of mechanisms serve to protect them against excessive extracellular glutamate concentration including a lack of functional glutamatergic synapses, Mg(2+) blockade of NMDA receptors, and presynaptic mGluRs that inhibit transmission at GABAergic synapses. PMID:22665047

  14. Concerted GABAergic actions of Aplysia feeding interneurons in motor program specification.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian; Vilim, Ferdinand S; Wu, Jin-Sheng; Park, Ji-Ho; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2003-06-15

    GABAergic inhibitory interneurons regulate the activity of diverse types of neural networks, but the specific roles of these interneurons in motor control are poorly understood. In the Aplysia feeding motor network, three interneurons, cerebral-buccal interneuron-3 (CBI-3) and buccal interneurons B40 and B34, are GABA-immunoreactive and evoke fast IPSPs in their postsynaptic followers. Using a combination of pharmacological experiments with GABA antagonists, agonists, and uptake inhibitors, we found that these fast IPSPs are likely mediated by GABA. Functionally, these fast IPSPs specify two parameters for ingestive motor programs elicited by the command-like interneuron CBI-2: (1) the appropriate phasing of activity of the radula closer motor neuron B8 relative to protraction-retraction, and (2) protraction duration. First, in ingestive programs, B8 activity is phased such that it fires minimally during protraction. CBI-3 and B40 exert fast inhibition to minimize B8 activity during protraction, by either acting directly on B8 (B40) or indirectly on B8 (CBI-3). Second, these ingestive programs are characterized by long protraction duration, which is promoted by B40 and B34 because hyperpolarization of either cell shortens protraction. Such effects of B40 and B34 are attributable, at least partly, to their inhibitory effects on the retraction-phase interneuron B64 whose activation terminates protraction. Consistent with a GABAergic contribution to both B8 phasing and protraction duration, blockade of GABAergic inhibition by picrotoxin increases B8 activity during protraction and shortens protraction, without disrupting the integrity of motor programs. Thus, the concerted actions of GABAergic inhibition from three Aplysia feeding interneurons contribute to the specification of multiple features that define the motor program as an ingestive one. PMID:12832553

  15. Chronic ethanol exposure decreases CB1 receptor function at GABAergic synapses in the rat central amygdala.

    PubMed

    Varodayan, Florence P; Soni, Neeraj; Bajo, Michal; Luu, George; Madamba, Samuel G; Schweitzer, Paul; Parsons, Loren H; Roberto, Marisa

    2016-07-01

    The endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) influence the acute response to ethanol and the development of tolerance, dependence and relapse. Chronic alcohol exposure alters eCB levels and Type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1 ) expression and function in brain regions associated with addiction. CB1 inhibits GABA release, and GABAergic dysregulation in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical in the transition to alcohol dependence. We investigated possible disruptions in CB1 signaling of rat CeA GABAergic transmission following intermittent ethanol exposure. In the CeA of alcohol-naive rats, CB1 agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) decreased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (s/mIPSCs). This effect was prevented by CB1 antagonism, but not Type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2 ) antagonism. After 2-3 weeks of intermittent ethanol exposure, these WIN inhibitory effects were attenuated, suggesting ethanol-induced impairments in CB1 function. The CB1 antagonist AM251 revealed a tonic eCB/CB1 control of GABAergic transmission in the alcohol-naive CeA that was occluded by calcium chelation in the postsynaptic cell. Chronic ethanol exposure abolished this tonic CB1 influence on mIPSC, but not sIPSC, frequency. Finally, acute ethanol increased CeA GABA release in both naive and ethanol-exposed rats. Although CB1 activation prevented this effect, the AM251- and ethanol-induced GABA release were additive, ruling out a direct participation of CB1 signaling in the ethanol effect. Collectively, these observations demonstrate an important CB1 influence on CeA GABAergic transmission and indicate that the CeA is particularly sensitive to alcohol-induced disruptions of CB1 signaling. PMID:25940135

  16. [Fenibut and fenazepam as potential protectors of pregnancy with a GABA-ergic mechanism of action].

    PubMed

    Sergeev, P V; Sizov, P I; Dukhanin, A S

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that the GABAergic system of the myometrium takes part in regulation of uterine contractility during the development of pregnancy Fenibut and phenazepam exhibit a specific uterotropic effect. The uterodepressant effect of fenibut is realized via the inhibiting GABA-receptors of the myometrium. The uteroinhibiting effect of phenazepam is mediated through the interaction with the postsynaptic GABA-benzodiazepin-C1-receptor complex of the myometrium. PMID:9206566

  17. [Anti-arrhythmic properties of GABA and GABA-ergic system activators].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Perfilova, V N

    2002-01-01

    Clinical and experimental data available in the literature are summarized, which are indicative of the antiarrhythmogenic properties of GABA and substances possessing GABA-positive activity (phenibut, piracetam, sodium hydroxybutyrate, lithium hydroxybutyrate, etc.). The antiarrhythmic effects are manifested in various cases of the heart rhythm violation. The mechanism of this action is related to activation of the central and peripheral retarding GABAergic system, as well as to antihypoxant, antioxidant, and antistressor effects. PMID:12025796

  18. Loss of GABAergic cortical neurons underlies the neuropathology of Lafora disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lafora disease is an autosomal recessive form of progressive myoclonic epilepsy caused by defects in the EPM2A and EPM2B genes. Primary symptoms of the pathology include seizures, ataxia, myoclonus, and progressive development of severe dementia. Lafora disease can be caused by defects in the EPM2A gene, which encodes the laforin protein phosphatase, or in the NHLRC1 gene (also called EPM2B) codifying the malin E3 ubiquitin ligase. Studies on cellular models showed that laforin and malin interact and operate as a functional complex apparently regulating cellular functions such as glycogen metabolism, cellular stress response, and the proteolytic processes. However, the pathogenesis and the molecular mechanism of the disease, which imply either laforin or malin are poorly understood. Thus, the aim of our study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the pathology by characterizing cerebral cortex neurodegeneration in the well accepted murine model of Lafora disease EPM2A-/- mouse. Results In this article, we want to asses the primary cause of the neurodegeneration in Lafora disease by studying GABAergic neurons in the cerebral cortex. We showed that the majority of Lafora bodies are specifically located in GABAergic neurons of the cerebral cortex of 3 months-old EPM2A-/- mice. Moreover, GABAergic neurons in the cerebral cortex of younger mice (1 month-old) are decreased in number and present altered neurotrophins and p75NTR signalling. Conclusions Here, we concluded that there is impairment in GABAergic neurons neurodevelopment in the cerebral cortex, which occurs prior to the formation of Lafora bodies in the cytoplasm. The dysregulation of cerebral cortex development may contribute to Lafora disease pathogenesis. PMID:24472629

  19. Differential Control of Cocaine Self-Administration by GABAergic and Glutamatergic CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Martín-García, Elena; Bourgoin, Lucie; Cathala, Adeline; Kasanetz, Fernando; Mondesir, Miguel; Gutiérrez-Rodriguez, Ana; Reguero, Leire; Fiancette, Jean-François; Grandes, Pedro; Spampinato, Umberto; Maldonado, Rafael; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Marsicano, Giovanni; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    The type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) modulates numerous neurobehavioral processes and is therefore explored as a target for the treatment of several mental and neurological diseases. However, previous studies have investigated CB1 by targeting it globally, regardless of its two main neuronal localizations on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. In the context of cocaine addiction this lack of selectivity is critical since glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal transmission is involved in different aspects of the disease. To determine whether CB1 exerts different control on cocaine seeking according to its two main neuronal localizations, we used mutant mice with deleted CB1 in cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1) or in forebrain GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1). In Glu-CB1, gene deletion concerns the dorsal telencephalon, including neocortex, paleocortex, archicortex, hippocampal formation and the cortical portions of the amygdala. In GABA-CB1, it concerns several cortical and non-cortical areas including the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, thalamic, and hypothalamic nuclei. We tested complementary components of cocaine self-administration, separating the influence of primary and conditioned effects. Mechanisms underlying each phenotype were explored using in vivo microdialysis and ex vivo electrophysiology. We show that CB1 expression in forebrain GABAergic neurons controls mouse sensitivity to cocaine, while CB1 expression in cortical glutamatergic neurons controls associative learning processes. In accordance, in the nucleus accumbens, GABA-CB1 receptors control cocaine-induced dopamine release and Glu-CB1 receptors control AMPAR/NMDAR ratio; a marker of synaptic plasticity. Our findings demonstrate a critical distinction of the altered balance of Glu-CB1 and GABA-CB1 activity that could participate in the vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction. Moreover, these novel insights advance our understanding of CB1 neuropathophysiology. PMID:26612422

  20. Contribution of the GABAergic pathway(s) to the correlated activities of chicken retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue; Zhou, Yi; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2007-10-26

    In the present study, the spatiotemporal pattern of chicken retinal ganglion cells' firing activity in response to full-field white light stimulation was investigated. Cross-correlation analysis showed that ganglion cells of sustained subtype fired in precise synchrony with their adjacent neurons of the same subtype (delay lag within 2 ms, narrow correlation). On the other hand, the activities of neighboring ganglion cells of transient subtype were correlated with distributed time lags (10-30 ms, medium correlation). Pharmacological studies demonstrated that the intensity of the medium correlations could be strengthened when exogenous GABA was applied and attenuated when GABA receptors were blocked by picrotoxin. Meanwhile, the GABAergic modulation on the narrow correlations was not consistent. These results suggest that, in the chicken retina, GABAergic pathway(s) are likely involved in the formation of medium correlations between ganglion cells. Neurons might fire at a lower rate but with higher level of synchronization to improve the efficiency of information transmission, with the mechanism involving the GABAergic inhibitory input. PMID:17919471

  1. Medial septal GABAergic projection neurons promote object exploration behavior and type 2 theta rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Gireesh; Shin, Jonghan; Kim, Seong-Wook; Kim, Angela; Paydar, Afshin; Kim, Duk-Soo; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Kim, Jinhyun; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Kim, Daesoo; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Exploratory drive is one of the most fundamental emotions, of all organisms, that are evoked by novelty stimulation. Exploratory behavior plays a fundamental role in motivation, learning, and well-being of organisms. Diverse exploratory behaviors have been described, although their heterogeneity is not certain because of the lack of solid experimental evidence for their distinction. Here we present results demonstrating that different neural mechanisms underlie different exploratory behaviors. Localized Cav3.1 knockdown in the medial septum (MS) selectively enhanced object exploration, whereas the null mutant (KO) mice showed enhanced-object exploration as well as open-field exploration. In MS knockdown mice, only type 2 hippocampal theta rhythm was enhanced, whereas both type 1 and type 2 theta rhythm were enhanced in KO mice. This selective effect was accompanied by markedly increased excitability of septo-hippocampal GABAergic projection neurons in the MS lacking T-type Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, optogenetic activation of the septo-hippocampal GABAergic pathway in WT mice also selectively enhanced object exploration behavior and type 2 theta rhythm, whereas inhibition of the same pathway decreased the behavior and the rhythm. These findings define object exploration distinguished from open-field exploration and reveal a critical role of T-type Ca2+ channels in the medial septal GABAergic projection neurons in this behavior. PMID:27208094

  2. LAMP5 Fine-Tunes GABAergic Synaptic Transmission in Defined Circuits of the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tiveron, Marie-Catherine; Beurrier, Corinne; Céni, Claire; Andriambao, Naly; Combes, Alexis; Koehl, Muriel; Maurice, Nicolas; Gatti, Evelina; Abrous, Dhoher Nora; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Pierre, Philippe; Cremer, Harold

    2016-01-01

    LAMP5 is member of the LAMP family of membrane proteins. In contrast to the canonical members of this protein family, LAMP1 and LAMP2, which show widespread expression in many tissues, LAMP 5 is brain specific in mice. In C. elegans, the LAMP5 ortholog UNC-46 has been suggested to act a trafficking chaperone, essential for the correct targeting of the nematode vesicular GABA-transporter UNC-47. We show here that in the mouse brain LAMP5 is expressed in subpopulations of GABAergic forebrain neurons in the striato-nigral system and the olfactory bulb. The protein was present at synaptic terminals, overlapping with the mammalian vesicular GABA-transporter VGAT. In LAMP5-deficient mice localization of the transporter was unaffected arguing against a conserved role in VGAT trafficking. Electrophysiological analyses in mutants showed alterations in short term synaptic plasticity suggesting that LAMP5 is involved in controlling the dynamics of evoked GABAergic transmission. At the behavioral level, LAMP5 mutant mice showed decreased anxiety and deficits in olfactory discrimination. Altogether, this work implicates LAMP5 function in GABAergic neurotransmission in defined neuronal subpopulations. PMID:27272053

  3. Tau pathology induces loss of GABAergic interneurons leading to altered synaptic plasticity and behavioral impairments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tau is a microtubule stabilizing protein and is mainly expressed in neurons. Tau aggregation into oligomers and tangles is considered an important pathological event in tauopathies, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Tauopathies are also associated with deficits in synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP), but the specific role of tau in the manifestation of these deficiencies is not well-understood. We examined long lasting forms of synaptic plasticity in JNPL3 (BL6) mice expressing mutant tau that is identified in some inherited FTDs. Results We found that aged (>12 months) JNPL3 (BL6) mice exhibit enhanced hippocampal late-phase (L-LTP), while young JNPL3 (BL6) mice (age 6 months) displayed normal L-LTP. This enhanced L-LTP in aged JNPL3 (BL6) mice was rescued with the GABAAR agonist, zolpidem, suggesting a loss of GABAergic function. Indeed, we found that mutant mice displayed a reduction in hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Finally, we also found that expression of mutant tau led to severe sensorimotor-gating and hippocampus-dependent memory deficits in the aged JNPL3 (BL6) mice. Conclusions We show for the first time that hippocampal GABAergic function is impaired by pathological tau protein, leading to altered synaptic plasticity and severe memory deficits. Increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the synaptic failure in AD and FTD is critical to identifying targets for therapies to restore cognitive deficiencies associated with tauopathies. PMID:24252661

  4. Genetic disruption of Met signaling impairs GABAergic striatal development and cognition.

    PubMed

    Martins, G J; Shahrokh, M; Powell, E M

    2011-03-10

    The largest structure of the basal ganglia, the striatum, modulates motor activity and cognitive function and is composed of GABAergic projection neurons and interneurons. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the development of the striatal neurons and their assembly into functional circuits, we used a mouse with a targeted conditional Met mutation in post-mitotic cells of the ventral telencephalon. Characterization of the ontogeny of the striatal neuronal populations demonstrated that disruption of Met signaling specifically altered the GABAergic interneurons. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and cholinergic interneurons were largely unaffected. Mice lacking Met signaling have increased numbers of striatal GABAergic interneurons in the lateral sensorimotor areas with distinct behavioral deficits. Motor function and memory formation and consolidation appeared intact, but procedural learning on the cued task of the Morris water maze was delayed. MET is a susceptibility gene in Tourette syndrome and autism, which are human disorders with impaired procedural learning. This study reveals how a striatal targeted disruption in Met signaling after generation of striatal neurons produces behavioral phenotypes shared by Tourette syndrome and autism, linking the human genetics with the mechanism underlying the disorders. PMID:21195751

  5. GABAergic transmission in the rat paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is suppressed by corticosterone and stress.

    PubMed

    Verkuyl, J Martin; Karst, Henk; Joëls, Marian

    2005-01-01

    Parvocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus receive hormonal inputs mediated by corticosterone as well as neuronal inputs, prominent among which is a GABAergic inhibitory projection. In the present study we examined the functional properties of this GABAergic innervation when corticosteroid levels fluctuate. Frequency, amplitude and kinetic properties of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (mIPSCs), mediated by gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) were studied with whole cell recording in parvocellular neurons. Injection of a high dose of corticosterone in vivo suppressed the frequency but did not change the amplitude and kinetic properties of mIPSCs recorded 1-5 h later in vitro. Similar effects were observed after restraint stress. The corticosteroid actions do not require involvement of extrahypothalamic brain regions, because in vitro administration of 100 nM corticosterone (20 min) directly to a hypothalamic slice also suppressed the frequency of mIPSCs recorded several hours later. Corticosterone administration to hypothalamic slices from restraint rats did not result in stronger reduction of mIPSC frequency than either treatment alone, pointing to a common underlying mechanism. Paired pulse response inhibition was reduced by corticosterone, suggesting that the hormone decreases the release probability of GABA-containing vesicles. Unlike neurosteroids, corticosterone induced no rapid effects on mIPSC properties. These results indicate that increases in glucocorticoid level due to stress can slowly but persistently inhibit the GABAergic tone on parvocellular hypothalamic neurons via a hitherto unknown local mechanism independent of limbic projections. PMID:15654848

  6. Natural terpenoids as a promising source for modulation of GABAergic system and treatment of neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Manayi, Azadeh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Daglia, Maria; Jafari, Samineh

    2016-08-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter reducing neural excitability in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) with three subclasses of receptors. Several conventional drugs and compounds modulate the GABAergic system, demonstrating different pharmacological effects. In this review, interactions of natural terpenoids with the GABAergic system are highlighted with relation to disorders like anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, pain, and cognitive deficits. Terpenoids with various structures affect the function of the GABAergic system via dissimilar mechanisms. Most of the discussed compounds interact with GABA receptors, but especially with the GABAA subtype. This may be due to the fact that researchers tend to assess the interaction of compounds using GABAA receptors. However, bilobalide, a sesquiterpene, showed anticonvulsant properties through the activation of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) enzyme, which is a key enzyme in biosynthesis of GABA. Therefore, further studies evaluating and comparing terpenoids of different classes and their interaction with the GABA system, along with their pharmacokinetic properties, could be worthwhile in future studies. PMID:27110875

  7. Alcohol enhances GABAergic transmission to cerebellar granule cells via an increase in Golgi cell excitability.

    PubMed

    Carta, Mario; Mameli, Manuel; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2004-04-14

    Alcohol intoxication alters coordination and motor skills, and this is responsible for a significant number of traffic accident-related deaths around the world. Although the precise mechanism of action of ethanol (EtOH) is presently unknown, studies suggest that it acts, in part, by interfering with normal cerebellar functioning. An important component of cerebellar circuits is the granule cell. The excitability of these abundantly expressed neurons is controlled by the Golgi cell, a subtype of GABAergic interneuron. Granule cells receive GABAergic input in the form of phasic and tonic currents that are mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors, respectively. Using the acute cerebellar slice preparation and patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques, we found that ethanol induces a parallel increase in both the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs and the magnitude of the tonic current. EtOH (50 mm) did not produce this effect when spontaneous action potentials were blocked with tetrodotoxin. Recordings in the loose-patch cell-attached configuration demonstrated that ethanol increases the frequency of spontaneous action potentials in Golgi cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that ethanol enhances GABAergic inhibition of granule cells via a presynaptic mechanism that involves an increase in action potential-dependent GABA release from Golgi cells. This effect is likely to have an impact on the flow of information through the cerebellar cortex and may contribute to the mechanism by which acute ingestion of alcoholic beverages induces motor impairment. PMID:15084654

  8. Layer-specific potentiation of network GABAergic inhibition in the CA1 area of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Colavita, Michelangelo; Terral, Geoffrey; Lemercier, Clement E.; Drago, Filippo; Marsicano, Giovanni; Massa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important functions of GABAergic inhibition in cortical regions is the tight control of spatiotemporal activity of principal neuronal ensembles. However, electrophysiological recordings do not provide sufficient spatial information to determine the spatiotemporal properties of inhibitory plasticity. Using Voltage Sensitive Dye Imaging (VSDI) in mouse hippocampal slices, we demonstrate that GABAA-mediated field inhibitory postsynaptic potentials undergo layer-specific potentiation upon activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu). VSDI recordings allowed detection of pharmacologically isolated GABAA-dependent hyperpolarization signals. Bath-application of the selective group-I mGlu receptor agonist, (S)-3,5-Dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), induces an enhancement of the GABAergic VSDI-recorded signal, which is more or less pronounced in different hippocampal layers. This potentiation is mediated by mGlu5 and downstream activation of IP3 receptors. Our results depict network GABAergic activity in the hippocampal CA1 region and its sub-layers, showing also a novel form of inhibitory synaptic plasticity tightly coupled to glutamatergic activity. PMID:27345695

  9. Anti-GAD65 Containing Cerebrospinal Fluid Does not Alter GABAergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hackert, Jana K.; Müller, Lorenz; Rohde, Marco; Bien, Christian G.; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase of 65 kDa (GAD65) antibodies have been reported in a variety of neurological disorders such as stiff-person syndrome (SPS), sporadic ataxia and some cases of epilepsy. Since the target is believed to be the cytoplasmic enzyme GAD65, the key enzyme of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis, the pathophysiological role of these antibodies is poorly understood. Here, we stereotactically injected human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing GAD65-antibodies into the hippocampus of rats in vivo and then prepared hippocampal slices 1–2 days after post-operative recovery. We characterized both evoked and spontaneous GABAergic transmission in vitro using sharp microelectrode and patch-clamp recordings in CA1 neurons. Intracellular recordings with sharp microelectrodes from CA1 neurons showed that evoked GABAAR- or GABABR-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSP) remained unaltered in anti-GAD65 tissue. These results were confirmed with patch-clamp recordings showing no difference in evoked gabazine-sensitive inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs). In addition, spontaneous IPSCs also showed no difference between anti-GAD65 tissue and controls with respect to the mean frequency, the mean amplitude and the sIPSC distribution. In conclusion, stereotactic injection of GAD65-antibodies into the hippocampus leaves evoked and spontaneous GABAergic synaptic transmission intact. Hence, dysfunction of the inhibitory GABAergic system does not appear to be the major mechanism of epileptogenicity in this disease. PMID:27242441

  10. Neurogenesis and widespread forebrain migration of distinct GABAergic neurons from the postnatal subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Inta, Dragos; Alfonso, Julieta; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Kreuzberg, Maria M.; Meyer, Axel H.; van Hooft, Johannes A.; Monyer, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    Most forebrain GABAergic interneurons in rodents are born during embryonic development in the ganglionic eminences (GE) and migrate tangentially into the cortical plate. A subset, however, continues to be generated postnatally in the subventricular zone (SVZ). These interneurons populate the olfactory bulb (OB) reached via migration in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). Employing transgenic mice expressing EGFP in 5-HT3-positive neurons, we identified additional migratory pathways in the early postnatal brain. Time-lapse imaging experiments revealed massive migration of EGFP-positive cells from the SVZ into numerous forebrain regions, including cortex, striatum, and nucleus accumbens. The neuronal fate of the migratory EGFP-labeled cells was indicated by their doublecortin (DCX) expression. Birthdating experiments, by using 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and retrovirus-based experiments, provided evidence that migrating neuroblasts were born in the SVZ postnatally and developed a distinct GABAergic phenotype. Our results demonstrate that the SVZ is a reservoir of GABAergic interneurons not only for the OB, but also for other cortical and subcortical areas. PMID:19095802

  11. GABAergic disinhibition and impaired KCC2 cotransporter activity underlie tumor-associated epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Susan L.; Robel, Stefanie; Cuddapah, Vishnu A.; Robert, Stephanie; Buckingham, Susan C.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Sontheimer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Seizures frequently accompany gliomas and often escalate to peritumoral epilepsy. Previous work revealed the importance of tumor-derived excitatory glutamate (Glu) release mediated by the cystine-glutamate transporter (SXC) in epileptogenesis. We now show a novel contribution of GABAergic disinhibition to disease pathophysiology. In a validated mouse glioma model, we found that peritumoral parvalbumin-positive GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are significantly reduced, corresponding with deficits in spontaneous and evoked inhibitory neurotransmission. Most remaining peritumoral neurons exhibit elevated intracellular Cl− concentration ([Cl−]i) and consequently depolarizing, excitatory GABA responses. In these neurons, the plasmalemmal expression of KCC2, which establishes the low [Cl−]i required for GABAAR-mediated inhibition, is significantly decreased. Interestingly, reductions in inhibition are independent of Glu release, but the presence of both decreased inhibition and decreased SXC expression is required for epileptogenesis. We suggest GABAergic disinhibition renders peritumoral neuronal networks hyper-excitable and susceptible to seizures triggered by excitatory stimuli, and propose KCC2 as a therapeutic target. PMID:25066727

  12. Impaired arousal in rat pups with prenatal alcohol exposure is modulated by GABAergic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sirieix, Chrystelle M; Tobia, Christine M; Schneider, Robert W; Darnall, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) increases the risk for The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in human infants. In rat pups, the arousal response to hypoxia is modulated by medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. We hypothesized that arousal to hypoxia is impaired by PAE, and is associated with an increase in medullary GABA and enhanced GABAergic activity. Pregnant dams received an ethanol liquid diet (ETOH), an iso-caloric pair fed diet (PF) or a standard chow diet (CHOW). We first measured the time to arousal (latency), during four episodes of hypoxia in P5, P15, and P21 CHOW, PF, and ETOH pups. We also measured brainstem GABA concentration in the same groups of pups. Finally, we injected artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), nipecotic acid (NIP) or gabazine into the medullary raphe of P15 and P21 pups receiving the three diets. For statistical analysis, the PF and CHOW groups were combined into a single CONTROL group. Our main finding was that compared to CONTROL, arousal latency to hypoxia is increased in ETOH pups at P15 and P21, and the concentration of brainstem GABA is elevated at P21. NIP administration in CONTROL pups led to arousal latencies similar in magnitude to those in ETOH pups after aCSF injection. NIP injected ETOH pups had no further increases in arousal latency. We conclude that PAE impairs arousal latency and this is mediated or modulated by medullary GABAergic mechanisms. PMID:26059034

  13. Medial septal GABAergic projection neurons promote object exploration behavior and type 2 theta rhythm.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, Gireesh; Shin, Jonghan; Kim, Seong-Wook; Kim, Angela; Paydar, Afshin; Kim, Duk-Soo; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Kim, Jinhyun; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Kim, Daesoo; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Exploratory drive is one of the most fundamental emotions, of all organisms, that are evoked by novelty stimulation. Exploratory behavior plays a fundamental role in motivation, learning, and well-being of organisms. Diverse exploratory behaviors have been described, although their heterogeneity is not certain because of the lack of solid experimental evidence for their distinction. Here we present results demonstrating that different neural mechanisms underlie different exploratory behaviors. Localized Cav3.1 knockdown in the medial septum (MS) selectively enhanced object exploration, whereas the null mutant (KO) mice showed enhanced-object exploration as well as open-field exploration. In MS knockdown mice, only type 2 hippocampal theta rhythm was enhanced, whereas both type 1 and type 2 theta rhythm were enhanced in KO mice. This selective effect was accompanied by markedly increased excitability of septo-hippocampal GABAergic projection neurons in the MS lacking T-type Ca(2+) channels. Furthermore, optogenetic activation of the septo-hippocampal GABAergic pathway in WT mice also selectively enhanced object exploration behavior and type 2 theta rhythm, whereas inhibition of the same pathway decreased the behavior and the rhythm. These findings define object exploration distinguished from open-field exploration and reveal a critical role of T-type Ca(2+) channels in the medial septal GABAergic projection neurons in this behavior. PMID:27208094

  14. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Rescues Maternal Deprivation-Induced GABAergic Metaplasticity through Restoration of AKAP Signaling.

    PubMed

    Authement, Michael E; Kodangattil, Jayaraj N; Gouty, Shawn; Rusnak, Milan; Symes, Aviva J; Cox, Brian M; Nugent, Fereshteh S

    2015-06-01

    Adverse early-life experiences such as child neglect and abuse increase the risk of developing addiction and stress-related disorders through alterations in motivational systems including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway. Here we investigated whether a severe early-life stress (i.e., maternal deprivation, MD) promotes DA dysregulation through an epigenetic impairment of synaptic plasticity within ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Using a single 24-hr episode of MD and whole-cell patch clamp recording in rat midbrain slices, we show that MD selectively induces long-term depression (LTD) and shifts spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) toward LTD at GABAergic synapses onto VTA DA neurons through epigenetic modifications of postsynaptic scaffolding A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP79/150) signaling. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition rescues GABAergic metaplasticity and normalizes AKAP signaling in MD animals. MD-induced reversible HDAC-mediated GABAergic dysfunction within the VTA may be a mechanistic link for increased propensity to mental health disorders following MD. PMID:26050042

  15. Brevetoxin-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and Src in murine neocortical neurons involves distinct signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhengyu; George, Joju; Baden, Daniel G.; Murray, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Brevetoxins (PbTx-1 to PbTx-10) are potent lipid soluble polyether neurotoxins produced by the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Brevetoxins bind to site 5 of the α-subunit of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and augment Na+ influx. In neocortical neurons brevetoxins elevate intracellular Ca2+ and augment NMDA receptor signaling. In this study, we explored the effects of PbTx-2 on Pyk2 and Src activation in neocortical neurons. We found that both Pyk2 and Src were activated following PbTx-2 exposure. PbTx-2-induced Pyk2 Tyr402 phosphorylation was dependent on elevation of Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptors. Moreover, Pyk2 Tyr402 phosphorylation was also found to require PKC activation inasmuch as RO-31-8425 and GF 109203x both attenuated the response. In contrast, PbTx-2-induced Src Tyr416 phosphorylation involved a Gq-coupled receptor inasmuch as U73122, a specific PLC inhibitor, abolished the response. This Gq-coupled receptor appears to be mGluR 5. The PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin abolished PbTx-2-induced Src activation demonstrating that this isoform of PKC is involved in the activation of Src by PbTx-2. Considered together these data suggest that although activation of neuronal Pyk2 and Src result from PbTx-2 stimulation of VGSC, engagement of these two non-receptor tyrosine kinases involves distinct signaling pathways. PMID:17963734

  16. Late maternal hypothyroidism alters the expression of Camk4 in neocortical subplate neurons: a comparison with Nurr1 labeling.

    PubMed

    Navarro, D; Alvarado, M; Morte, B; Berbel, D; Sesma, J; Pacheco, P; Morreale de Escobar, G; Bernal, J; Berbel, P

    2014-10-01

    Maternal thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal offspring's neurodevelopment even after onset of fetal thyroid function. This is particularly relevant for preterm children who are deprived of maternal THs following birth, are at risk of suffering hypothyroxinemia, and develop attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expression of neocortical Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase IV (Camk4), a genomic target of thyroid hormone, and nuclear receptor-related 1 protein (Nurr1), a postnatal marker of cortical subplate (SP) cells, was studied in euthyroid fetuses and in pups born to dams thyroidectomized in late gestation (LMH group, a model of prematurity), and compared with control and developmentally hypothyroid pups (C and MMI groups, respectively). In LMH pups, the extinction of heavy Camk4 expression in an SP was 1-2 days delayed postnatally compared with C pups. The heavy Camk4 and Nurr1 expression in the SP was prolonged in MMI pups, whereas heavy Camk4 and Nurr1 expression in layer VIb remains at P60. The abnormal expression of Camk4 in the cortical SP and in layer VIb might cause altered cortical connectivity affecting neocortical function. PMID:23680840

  17. Decoding the Formation of New Semantics: MVPA Investigation of Rapid Neocortical Plasticity during Associative Encoding through Fast Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Atir-Sharon, Tali; Gilboa, Asaf; Hazan, Hananel; Koilis, Ester; Manevitz, Larry M.

    2015-01-01

    Neocortical structures typically only support slow acquisition of declarative memory; however, learning through fast mapping may facilitate rapid learning-induced cortical plasticity and hippocampal-independent integration of novel associations into existing semantic networks. During fast mapping the meaning of new words and concepts is inferred, and durable novel associations are incidentally formed, a process thought to support early childhood's exuberant learning. The anterior temporal lobe, a cortical semantic memory hub, may critically support such learning. We investigated encoding of semantic associations through fast mapping using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis. Subsequent memory performance following fast mapping was more efficiently predicted using anterior temporal lobe than hippocampal voxels, while standard explicit encoding was best predicted by hippocampal activity. Searchlight algorithms revealed additional activity patterns that predicted successful fast mapping semantic learning located in lateral occipitotemporal and parietotemporal neocortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. By contrast, successful explicit encoding could be classified by activity in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal and parahippocampal cortices. We propose that fast mapping promotes incidental rapid integration of new associations into existing neocortical semantic networks by activating related, nonoverlapping conceptual knowledge. In healthy adults, this is better captured by unique anterior and lateral temporal lobe activity patterns, while hippocampal involvement is less predictive of this kind of learning. PMID:26257961

  18. Uptake and metabolism of fructose by rat neocortical cells in vivo and by isolated nerve terminals in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Elsais, Ahmed; Frøland, Anne Sofie; Taubøll, Erik; Gjerstad, Leif; Quan, Yi; Dingledine, Ray; Rise, Frode

    2015-01-01

    Fructose reacts spontaneously with proteins in the brain to form advanced glycation end products (AGE) that may elicit neuroinflammation and cause brain pathology, including Alzheimer’s disease. We investigated whether fructose is eliminated by oxidative metabolism in neocortex. Injection of [14C]fructose or its AGE-prone metabolite [14C]glyceraldehyde into rat neocortex in vivo led to formation of 14C-labeled alanine, glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and glutamine. In isolated neocortical nerve terminals, [14C]fructose labeled glutamate, GABA, and aspartate, indicating uptake of fructose into nerve terminals and oxidative fructose metabolism in these structures. Hexokinase 1, which channels fructose into glycolysis, was highly expressed, and enzyme activity was similar with fructose or glucose as substrates, whereas the fructose-specific ketohexokinase was weakly expressed. The fructose transporter Glut5 was expressed at only ~4% of the level of neuronal glucose transporter Glut3, suggesting transport across plasma membranes of brain cells as the limiting factor in removal of extracellular fructose. Fructose may be formed from glucose through the polyol pathway. The genes encoding enzymes of this pathway, aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, were expressed in rat neocortex. We conclude that fructose is transported into neocortical cells, including nerve terminals, and that it is metabolized and thereby detoxified primarily through hexokinase activity. PMID:25708447

  19. Spreading depression: imaging and blockade in the rat neocortical brain slice.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Trent R; Andrew, R David

    2002-11-01

    Spreading depression (SD) is a profound but transient depolarization of neurons and glia that migrates across the cortical and subcortical gray at 2-5 mm/min. Under normoxic conditions, SD occurs during migraine aura where it precedes migraine pain but does not damage tissue. During stroke and head trauma, however, SD can arise repeatedly near the site of injury and may promote neuronal damage. We developed a superfused brain slice preparation that can repeatedly support robust SD during imaging and electrophysiological recording to test drugs that may block SD. Submerged rat neocortical slices were briefly exposed to artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) with KCl elevated to 26 mM. SD was evoked within 2 min, recorded in layers II/III both as a negative DC shift and as a propagating front of elevated light transmittance (LT) representing transient cell swelling in all cortical layers. An SD episode was initiated focally and could be repeatedly evoked and imaged with no damage to slices. As reported in vivo, pretreatment with one of several N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists blocked SD, but a non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist (CNQX) had no effect. NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation does not initiate SD nor are NMDAR antagonists tolerated therapeutically so we searched for more efficacious drugs to block SD generation. Pretreatment with the sigma-one receptor (sigma(1)R) agonists dextromethorphan (10-100 microM), carbetapentane (100 microM), or 4-IBP (30 microM) blocked SD, even when KCl exposure was extended beyond 5 min. The block was independent of NMDA receptor antagonism. Two sigma(1)R antagonists [(+)-3PPP and BD-1063] removed this block but had no effect upon SD alone. Remarkably, the sigma(1)R agonists also substantially reduced general cell swelling evoked by bath application of 26 mM KCl. More potent sigma(1)R ligands that are therapeutically tolerated could prove useful in reducing SD associated with migraine and be of potential use in

  20. Surface based laminar analysis of diffusion abnormalities in cortical and white matter layers in neocortical epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Rajkumar Munian; Asano, Eishi; Juhasz, Csaba; Jeong, Jeong-won; Chugani, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Purpose Microstructural alterations seen in the epileptic cortex have been implicated as a cause and also result of multiple seizure activity. In the present study, we evaluated water diffusion changes at different cortical thickness fractions and in the underlying white matter of the epileptic cortex and compared them with electrographically normal cortex and also with corresponding cortical regions of healthy controls. Methods We selected 18 children with normal MRI who underwent two-stage epilepsy surgery to control seizures of neocortical origin, and compared their MR images with those of 18 age-matched healthy controls. First, delineation of the grey-white and grey-pial intersection surfaces was performed on high-resolution volumetric T1 MR images. Using the delineated surfaces as reference, diffusion values were measured at different cortical thickness fractions and in the underlying white matter at various depths, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Cortical regions representing seizure onset and electrographically normal cortex were differentiated by electrocorticography in the epilepsy patients. Key findings We observed different patterns of diffusion abnormalities in both the seizure onset and electrographically normal cortical regions when compared to healthy controls. In the seizure onset regions, a marked increase in diffusivity was noted in the cortical grey matter and this increase was most pronounced in the outer fraction of the grey matter. Similarly, increased diffusivity was noted in the white matter underlying the epileptic cortex. The electrographically normal cortex, in contrast, showed decreased diffusivity in inner and middle cortical fractions compared to the controls. The white matter underlying the electrographically normal cortex did not show any difference in diffusivity between the epileptic children and controls. Finally, both the cortical grey matter and the underlying white matter regions showed decreased anisotropy in

  1. hVGAT-mCherry: a novel molecular tool for analysis of GABAergic neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    DeRosa, Brooke A.; Belle, Kinsley C.; Thomas, Blake J.; Cukier, Holly N.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Dykxhoorn, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    Background GABAergic synaptic transmission is known to play a critical role in the assembly of neuronal circuits during development and is responsible for maintaining the balance between excitatory and inhibitory signaling in the brain during maturation into adulthood. Importantly, defects in GABAergic neuronal function and signaling have been linked to a number of neurological diseases, including autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and epilepsy. With patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based models of neurological disease, it is now possible to investigate the disease mechanisms that underlie deficits in GABAergic function in affected human neurons. To that end, tools that enable the labeling and purification of viable GABAergic neurons from human pluripotent stem cells would be of great value. Results To address the need for tools that facilitate the identification and isolation of viable GABAergic neurons from the in vitro differentiation of iPSC lines, a cell type-specific promoter-driven fluorescent reporter construct was developed that utilizes the human vesicular GABA transporter (hVGAT) promoter to drive the expression of mCherry specifically in VGAT-expressing neurons. The transduction of iPSC-derived forebrain neuronal cultures with the hVGAT promoter-mCherry lentiviral reporter construct specifically labeled GABAergic neurons. Immunocytochemical analysis of hVGAT-mCherry expression cells showed significant co-labelling with the GABAergic neuronal markers for endogenous VGAT, GABA, and GAD67. Expression of mCherry from the VGAT promoter showed expression in several cortical interneuron subtypes to similar levels. In addition, an effective and reproducible protocol was developed to facilitate the fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS)-mediated purification of high yields of viable VGAT-positive cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate the utility of the hVGAT-mCherry reporter construct as an effective tool for studying

  2. Akting up in the GABA hypothesis of schizophrenia: Akt1 deficiency modulates GABAergic functions and hippocampus-dependent functions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implies that both AKT1 and GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit genes are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Activated Akt promotes GABAergic neuron differentiation and increases GABAAR expression on the plasma membrane. To elucidate the role of Akt1 in modulating GABAergic functions and schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits, a set of 6 in vitro and in vivo experiments was conducted. First, an Akt1/2 inhibitor was applied to evaluate its effect on GABAergic neuron-like cell formation from P19 cells. Inhibiting Akt resulted in a reduction in parvalbumin-positive neuron-like cells. In Akt1(-/-) and wild-type mice, seizures induced using pentylenetetrazol (a GABAAR antagonist) were measured, and GABAAR expression and GABAergic interneuron abundance in the brain were examined. Female Akt1(-/-) mice, but not male Akt1(-/-) mice, exhibited less pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsive activity than their corresponding wild-type controls. Reduced parvalbumin-positive interneuron abundance and GABAAR subunit expression, especially in the hippocampus, were also observed in female Akt1(-/-) mice compared to female wild-type mice. Neuromorphometric analyses revealed significantly reduced neurite complexity in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Additionally, female Akt1(-/-) mice displayed increased hippocampal oscillation power and impaired spatial memory compared to female wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that Akt1 deficiency modulates GABAergic interneurons and GABAAR expression, contributing to hippocampus-dependent cognitive functional impairment. PMID:27615800

  3. GABAergic neurons of the medial septum play a nodal role in facilitation of nociception-induced affect

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Seok Ting; Lee, Andy Thiam Huat; Foo, Fang Chee; Ng, Lynn; Low, Chian-Ming; Khanna, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the functional details of the influence of medial septal region (MSDB) on spectrum of nociceptive behaviours by manipulating intraseptal GABAergic mechanisms. Results showed that formalin-induced acute nociception was not affected by intraseptal microinjection of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, or on selective lesion of septal GABAergic neurons. Indeed, the acute nociceptive responses were dissociated from the regulation of sensorimotor behaviour and generation of theta-rhythm by the GABAergic mechanisms in MSDB. The GABAergic lesion attenuated formalin-induced unconditioned cellular response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and blocked formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA), and as well as the contextual fear induced on conditioning with brief footshock. The effects of lesion on nociceptive-conditioned cellular responses were, however, variable. Interestingly, the lesion attenuated the conditioned representation of experimental context in dorsal hippocampus field CA1 in the F-CPA task. Collectively, the preceding suggests that the MSDB is a nodal centre wherein the GABAergic neurons mediate nociceptive affect-motivation by regulating cellular mechanisms in ACC that confer an aversive value to the noxious stimulus. Further, in conjunction with a modulatory influence on hippocampal contextual processing, MSDB may integrate affect with context as part of associative learning in the F-CPA task. PMID:26487082

  4. The GAD65 knock out mouse - a model for GABAergic processes in fear- and stress-induced psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Müller, Iris; Çalışkan, Gürsel; Stork, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 is critically involved in the activity-dependent regulation of GABAergic inhibition in the central nervous system. It is also required for the maturation of the GABAergic system during adolescence, a phase that is critical for the development of several neuropsychiatric diseases. Mice bearing a null mutation of the GAD65 gene develop hyperexcitability of the amygdala and hippocampus, and a phenotype of increased anxiety and pathological fear memory reminiscent of posttraumatic stress disorder. Although genetic association of GAD65 in human has not yet been reported, these findings are in line with observations of reduced GABAergic function in these brain regions of anxiety disorder patients. The particular value of GAD65(-/-) mice thus lies in modeling the effects of reduced GABAergic function in the mature nervous system. The expression of GAD65 and a second GAD isozyme, GAD67, are differentially regulated in response to stress in limbic brain areas suggesting that by controlling GABAergic inhibition these enzymes determine the vulnerability for the development of pathological anxiety and other stress-induced phenotypes. In fact, we could recently show that GAD65 haplodeficiency, which results in delayed postnatal increase of GABA levels, provides resilience to juvenile-stress-induced anxiety to GAD65(+/-) mice thus foiling the increased fear and anxiety in homozygous GAD65(-/-) mice. PMID:25470336

  5. Modulation of GABAergic transmission in development and neurodevelopmental disorders: investigating physiology and pathology to gain therapeutic perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Deidda, Gabriele; Bozarth, Ignacio F.; Cancedda, Laura

    2014-01-01

    During mammalian ontogenesis, the neurotransmitter GABA is a fundamental regulator of neuronal networks. In neuronal development, GABAergic signaling regulates neural proliferation, migration, differentiation, and neuronal-network wiring. In the adult, GABA orchestrates the activity of different neuronal cell-types largely interconnected, by powerfully modulating synaptic activity. GABA exerts these functions by binding to chloride-permeable ionotropic GABAA receptors and metabotropic GABAB receptors. According to its functional importance during development, GABA is implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, Fragile X, Rett syndrome, Down syndrome, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome and neurofibromatosis. The strength and polarity of GABAergic transmission is continuously modulated during physiological, but also pathological conditions. For GABAergic transmission through GABAA receptors, strength regulation is achieved by different mechanisms such as modulation of GABAA receptors themselves, variation of intracellular chloride concentration, and alteration in GABA metabolism. In the never-ending effort to find possible treatments for GABA-related neurological diseases, of great importance would be modulating GABAergic transmission in a safe and possibly physiological way, without the dangers of either silencing network activity or causing epileptic seizures. In this review, we will discuss the different ways to modulate GABAergic transmission normally at work both during physiological and pathological conditions. Our aim is to highlight new research perspectives for therapeutic treatments that reinstate natural and physiological brain functions in neuro-pathological conditions. PMID:24904277

  6. Human olfactory consciousness and cognition: its unusual features may not result from unusual functions but from limited neocortical processing resources

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Attuquayefio, Tuki

    2013-01-01

    Human and animal olfactory perception is shaped both by functional demands and by various environmental constraints seemingly peculiar to chemical stimuli. These demands and constraints may have generated a sensory system that is cognitively distinct from the major senses. In this article we identify these various functional demands and constraints, and examine whether they can be used to account for olfaction's unique cognitive features on a case-by-case basis. We then use this as grounds to argue that specific conscious processes do have functional value, a finding that naturally emerges when a comparative approach to consciousness across the senses is adopted. More generally, we conclude that certain peculiar features of olfactory cognition may owe more to limited neocortical processing resources, than they do to the challenges faced by perceiving chemical stimuli. PMID:24198808

  7. Onset Dynamics of Action Potentials in Rat Neocortical Neurons and Identified Snail Neurons: Quantification of the Difference

    PubMed Central

    Volgushev, Maxim; Malyshev, Aleksey; Balaban, Pavel; Chistiakova, Marina; Volgushev, Stanislav; Wolf, Fred

    2008-01-01

    The generation of action potentials (APs) is a key process in the operation of nerve cells and the communication between neurons. Action potentials in mammalian central neurons are characterized by an exceptionally fast onset dynamics, which differs from the typically slow and gradual onset dynamics seen in identified snail neurons. Here we describe a novel method of analysis which provides a quantitative measure of the onset dynamics of action potentials. This method captures the difference between the fast, step-like onset of APs in rat neocortical neurons and the gradual, exponential-like AP onset in identified snail neurons. The quantitative measure of the AP onset dynamics, provided by the method, allows us to perform quantitative analyses of factors influencing the dynamics. PMID:18398478

  8. Glucose sensing by GABAergic neurons in the mouse nucleus tractus solitarii.

    PubMed

    Boychuk, Carie R; Gyarmati, Peter; Xu, Hong; Smith, Bret N

    2015-08-01

    Changes in blood glucose concentration alter autonomic function in a manner consistent with altered neural activity in brain regions controlling digestive processes, including neurons in the brain stem nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), which process viscerosensory information. With whole cell or on-cell patch-clamp recordings, responses to elevating glucose concentration from 2.5 to 15 mM were assessed in identified GABAergic NTS neurons in slices from transgenic mice that express EGFP in a subset of GABA neurons. Single-cell real-time RT-PCR was also performed to detect glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) in recorded neurons. In most identified GABA neurons (73%), elevating glucose concentration from 2.5 to 15 mM resulted in either increased (40%) or decreased (33%) neuronal excitability, reflected by altered membrane potential and/or action potential firing. Effects on membrane potential were maintained when action potentials or fast synaptic inputs were blocked, suggesting direct glucose sensing by GABA neurons. Glucose-inhibited GABA neurons were found predominantly in the lateral NTS, whereas glucose-excited cells were mainly in the medial NTS, suggesting regional segregation of responses. Responses were prevented in the presence of glucosamine, a glucokinase (GCK) inhibitor. Depolarizing responses were prevented when KATP channel activity was blocked with tolbutamide. Whereas effects on synaptic input to identified GABAergic neurons were variable in GABA neurons, elevating glucose increased glutamate release subsequent to stimulation of tractus solitarius in unlabeled, unidentified neurons. These results indicate that GABAergic NTS neurons act as GCK-dependent glucose sensors in the vagal complex, providing a means of modulating central autonomic signals when glucose is elevated. PMID:26084907

  9. Genetic Deletion of the Clathrin Adaptor GGA3 Reduces Anxiety and Alters GABAergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, David; Lomoio, Selene; Haydon, Philip G.; Moss, Stephen J.; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF binding protein 3 (GGA3) is a monomeric clathrin adaptor that has been shown to regulate the trafficking of the Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), which is required for production of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated amyloid βpeptide. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that depletion of GGA3 results in increased BACE1 levels and activity owing to impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation. We further demonstrated the role of GGA3 in the regulation of BACE1 in vivo by showing that BACE1 levels are increased in the brain of GGA3 null mice. We report here that GGA3 deletion results in novelty-induced hyperactivity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors. Given the pivotal role of GABAergic transmission in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors, we performed electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices and found increased phasic and decreased tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGC). Moreover, we found that the number of inhibitory synapses is increased in the dentate gyrus of GGA3 null mice in further support of the electrophysiological data. Thus, the increased GABAergic transmission is a leading candidate mechanism underlying the reduced anxiety-like behaviors observed in GGA3 null mice. All together these findings suggest that GGA3 plays a key role in GABAergic transmission. Since BACE1 levels are elevated in the brain of GGA3 null mice, it is possible that at least some of these phenotypes are a consequence of increased processing of BACE1 substrates. PMID:27192432

  10. Permutation Lempel-Ziv complexity measure of electroencephalogram in GABAergic anaesthetics.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Liang, Zhenhu; Li, Xiaoli; Voss, Logan J; Sleigh, Jamie W

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring the brain state in anaesthesia is crucial for clinical doctors. In this study, we propose a novel nonlinear method, the permutation Lempel-Ziv complexity (PLZC) index, which describes the complexity in the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal to quantify the effect of GABAergic anaesthetics on brain activities.We applied the PLZC to two EEG data sets that were recorded under sevoflurane and propofol anaesthesia. The results are compared with traditional mean value-based Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC), permutation entropy (PE), composite PE index (CPEI), response entropy (RE), state entropy (SE) and bispectral index (BIS) or SynchFastSlow (SFS, derived from BIS). Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling and prediction probability ([Formula: see text]) were used to assess the performance of the proposed method for tracking GABAergic anaesthetic concentrations.We found that PLZC correlates closely with the anaesthetic drug effect. When applied in sevoflurane anaesthesia, the coefficient of determination [Formula: see text] between the PLZC values and the sevoflurane effect site concentrations was ([Formula: see text], mean  ±  standard deviation), and the prediction probability [Formula: see text] was ([Formula: see text]). These values were higher than those for the other indices. While in propofol anaesthesia, the value of [Formula: see text] between PLZC and the effect site concentrations was ([Formula: see text]), and the [Formula: see text] was ([Formula: see text]), which were close to those for CPEI but better than those for the others.PLZC based on electroencephalogram signals can be used as a new index to characterize the depth of anaesthesia. This index outperformed LZC, PE, CPEI, RE, SE, and BIS or SFS in tracking drug concentration changes during GABAergic anaesthetics.PLZC is a potentially superior method for applications in intra-operative monitoring. PMID:26536480

  11. The presence of pacemaker HCN channels identifies theta rhythmic GABAergic neurons in the medial septum

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Viktor; Hangya, Balázs; Kránitz, Kinga; Ludányi, Anikó; Zemankovics, Rita; Katona, István; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Freund, Tamás F; Borhegyi, Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    The medial septum (MS) is an indispensable component of the subcortical network which synchronizes the hippocampus at theta frequency during specific stages of information processing. GABAergic neurons exhibiting highly regular firing coupled to the hippocampal theta rhythm are thought to form the core of the MS rhythm-generating network. In recent studies the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated non-selective cation (HCN) channel was shown to participate in theta synchronization of the medial septum. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HCN channel expression correlates with theta modulated firing behaviour of MS neurons by a combined anatomical and electrophysiological approach. HCN-expressing neurons represented a subpopulation of GABAergic cells in the MS partly overlapping with parvalbumin (PV)-containing neurons. Rhythmic firing in the theta frequency range was characteristic of all HCN-expressing neurons. In contrast, only a minority of HCN-negative cells displayed theta related activity. All HCN cells had tight phase coupling to hippocampal theta waves. As a group, PV-expressing HCN neurons had a marked bimodal phase distribution, whereas PV-immunonegative HCN neurons did not show group-level phase preference despite significant individual phase coupling. Microiontophoretic blockade of HCN channels resulted in the reduction of discharge frequency, but theta rhythmic firing was perturbed only in a few cases. Our data imply that HCN-expressing GABAergic neurons provide rhythmic drive in all phases of the hippocampal theta activity. In most MS theta cells rhythm genesis is apparently determined by interactions at the level of the network rather than by the pacemaking property of HCN channels alone. PMID:18565991

  12. Retrograde Endocannabinoid Signaling Reduces GABAergic Synaptic Transmission to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Imre; Kalló, Imre; Deli, Levente; Vida, Barbara; Hrabovszky, Erik; Fekete, Csaba; Moenter, Suzanne M.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Liposits, Zsolt

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids suppress fertility via reducing hypothalamic GnRH output. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor (GABAA-R)-mediated transmission is a major input to GnRH cells that can be excitatory. We hypothesized that cannabinoids act via inhibiting GABAergic input. We performed loose-patch electrophysiological studies of acute slices from adult male GnRH-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. Bath application of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) agonist WIN55,212 decreased GnRH neuron firing rate. This action was detectable in presence of the glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid but disappeared when bicuculline was also present, indicating GABAA-R involvement. In immunocytochemical experiments, CB1-immunoreactive axons formed contacts with GnRH neurons and a subset established symmetric synapses characteristic of GABAergic neurotransmission. Functional studies were continued with whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in presence of tetrodotoxin. WIN55,212 decreased the frequency of GABAA-R-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs) (reflecting spontaneous vesicle fusion), which was prevented with the CB1 antagonist AM251, indicating collectively that activation of presynaptic CB1 inhibits GABA release. AM251 alone increased mPSC frequency, providing evidence that endocannabinoids tonically inhibit GABAA-R drive onto GnRH neurons. Increased mPSC frequency was absent when diacylglycerol lipase was blocked intracellularly with tetrahydrolipstatin, showing that tonic inhibition is caused by 2-arachidonoylglycerol production of GnRH neurons. CdCl2 in extracellular solution can maintain both action potentials and spontaneous vesicle fusion. Under these conditions, when endocannabinoid-mediated blockade of spontaneous vesicle fusion was blocked with AM251, GnRH neuron firing increased, revealing an endogenous endocannabinoid brake on GnRH neuron firing. Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling may represent an important mechanism under physiological and

  13. Synaptic Organization of Perisomatic GABAergic Inputs onto the Principal Cells of the Mouse Basolateral Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Vereczki, Viktória K; Veres, Judit M; Müller, Kinga; Nagy, Gergö A; Rácz, Bence; Barsy, Boglárka; Hájos, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Spike generation is most effectively controlled by inhibitory inputs that target the perisomatic region of neurons. Despite the critical importance of this functional domain, very little is known about the organization of the GABAergic inputs contacting the perisomatic region of principal cells (PCs) in the basolateral amygdala. Using immunocytochemistry combined with in vitro single-cell labeling we determined the number and sources of GABAergic inputs of PCs at light and electron microscopic levels in mice. We found that the soma and proximal dendrites of PCs were innervated primarily by two neurochemically distinct basket cell types expressing parvalbumin (PVBC) or cholecystokinin and CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CCK/CB1BC). The innervation of the initial segment of PC axons was found to be parceled out by PVBCs and axo-axonic cells (AAC), as the majority of GABAergic inputs onto the region nearest to the soma (between 0 and 10 μm) originated from PVBCs, while the largest portion of the axon initial segment was innervated by AACs. Detailed morphological investigations revealed that the three perisomatic region-targeting interneuron types significantly differed in dendritic and axonal arborization properties. We found that, although individual PVBCs targeted PCs via more terminals than CCK/CB1BCs, similar numbers (15-17) of the two BC types converge onto single PCs, whereas fewer (6-7) AACs innervate the axon initial segment of single PCs. Furthermore, we estimated that a PVBC and a CCK/CB1BC may target 800-900 and 700-800 PCs, respectively, while an AAC can innervate 600-650 PCs. Thus, BCs and AACs innervate ~10 and 20% of PC population, respectively, within their axonal cloud. Our results collectively suggest, that these interneuron types may be differently affiliated within the local amygdalar microcircuits in order to fulfill specific functions in network operation during various brain states. PMID:27013983

  14. Synaptic Organization of Perisomatic GABAergic Inputs onto the Principal Cells of the Mouse Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Vereczki, Viktória K.; Veres, Judit M.; Müller, Kinga; Nagy, Gergö A.; Rácz, Bence; Barsy, Boglárka; Hájos, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Spike generation is most effectively controlled by inhibitory inputs that target the perisomatic region of neurons. Despite the critical importance of this functional domain, very little is known about the organization of the GABAergic inputs contacting the perisomatic region of principal cells (PCs) in the basolateral amygdala. Using immunocytochemistry combined with in vitro single-cell labeling we determined the number and sources of GABAergic inputs of PCs at light and electron microscopic levels in mice. We found that the soma and proximal dendrites of PCs were innervated primarily by two neurochemically distinct basket cell types expressing parvalbumin (PVBC) or cholecystokinin and CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CCK/CB1BC). The innervation of the initial segment of PC axons was found to be parceled out by PVBCs and axo-axonic cells (AAC), as the majority of GABAergic inputs onto the region nearest to the soma (between 0 and 10 μm) originated from PVBCs, while the largest portion of the axon initial segment was innervated by AACs. Detailed morphological investigations revealed that the three perisomatic region-targeting interneuron types significantly differed in dendritic and axonal arborization properties. We found that, although individual PVBCs targeted PCs via more terminals than CCK/CB1BCs, similar numbers (15–17) of the two BC types converge onto single PCs, whereas fewer (6–7) AACs innervate the axon initial segment of single PCs. Furthermore, we estimated that a PVBC and a CCK/CB1BC may target 800–900 and 700–800 PCs, respectively, while an AAC can innervate 600–650 PCs. Thus, BCs and AACs innervate ~10 and 20% of PC population, respectively, within their axonal cloud. Our results collectively suggest, that these interneuron types may be differently affiliated within the local amygdalar microcircuits in order to fulfill specific functions in network operation during various brain states. PMID:27013983

  15. Reduced GABAergic inhibition and abnormal sensory symptoms in children with Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ashley D.; Crocetti, Deana; Nettles, Carrie; Singer, Harvey S.; Tommerdahl, Mark; Edden, Richard A. E.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is characterized by the presence of chronic tics. Individuals with TS often report difficulty with ignoring (habituating to) tactile sensations, and some patients perceive that this contributes to a “premonitory urge” to tic. While common, the physiological basis of impaired tactile processing in TS, and indeed tics themselves, remain poorly understood. It has been well established that GABAergic processing plays an important role in shaping the neurophysiological response to tactile stimulation. Furthermore, there are multiple lines of evidence suggesting that a deficit in GABAergic transmission may contribute to symptoms found in TS. In this study, GABA-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was combined with a battery of vibrotactile tasks to investigate the role of GABA and atypical sensory processing in children with TS. Our results show reduced primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) GABA concentration in children with TS compared with healthy control subjects (HC), as well as patterns of impaired performance on tactile detection and adaptation tasks, consistent with altered GABAergic function. Moreover, in children with TS SM1 GABA concentration correlated with motor tic severity, linking the core feature of TS directly to in vivo brain neurochemistry. There was an absence of the typical correlation between GABA and frequency discrimination performance in TS as was seen in HC. These data show that reduced GABA concentration in TS may contribute to both motor tics and sensory impairments in children with TS. Understanding the mechanisms of altered sensory processing in TS may provide a foundation for novel interventions to alleviate these symptoms. PMID:26041822

  16. Delta opioid receptors expressed in forebrain GABAergic neurons are responsible for SNC80-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    CHUNG, Paul CHU SIN; BOEHRER, Annie; STEPHAN, Aline; MATIFAS, Audrey; SCHERRER, Gregory; DARCQ, Emmanuel; BEFORT, Katia; KIEFFER, Brigitte L.

    2014-01-01

    The delta opioid receptor (DOR) has raised much interest for the development of new therapeutic drugs, particularly to treat patients suffering from mood disorders and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the prototypal DOR agonist SNC80 induces mild epileptic seizures in rodents. Although recently developed agonists do not seem to show convulsant properties, mechanisms and neuronal circuits that support DOR-mediated epileptic seizures remain to be clarified. DORs are expressed throughout the nervous system. In this study we tested the hypothesis that SNC80-evoked seizures stem from DOR activity at the level of forebrain GABAergic transmission, whose inhibition is known to facilitate the development of epileptic seizures. We generated a conditional DOR knockout mouse line, targeting the receptor gene specifically in GABAergic neurons of the forebrain (Dlx-DOR). We measured effects of SNC80 (4.5, 9, 13.5 and 32 mg/kg), ARM390 (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) or ADL5859 (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg) administration on electroencephalograms (EEGs) recorded in Dlx-DOR mice and their control littermates (Ctrl mice). SNC80 produced dose-dependent seizure events in Ctrl mice, but these effects were not detected in Dlx-DOR mice. As expected, ARM390 and ADL5859 did not trigger any detectable change in mice from both genotypes. These results demonstrate for the first time that SNC80-induced DOR activation induces epileptic seizures via direct inhibition of GABAergic forebrain neurons, and supports the notion of differential activities between first and second-generation DOR agonists. PMID:25447299

  17. The role of GABAergic inhibition in processing of interaural time difference in the owl's auditory system.

    PubMed

    Fujita, I; Konishi, M

    1991-03-01

    The barn owl uses interaural time differences (ITDs) to localize the azimuthal position of sound. ITDs are processed by an anatomically distinct pathway in the brainstem. Neuronal selectivity for ITD is generated in the nucleus laminaris (NL) and conveyed to both the anterior portion of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VLVa) and the central (ICc) and external (ICx) nuclei of the inferior colliculus. With tonal stimuli, neurons in all regions are found to respond maximally not only to the real ITD, but also to ITDs that differ by integer multiples of the tonal period. This phenomenon, phase ambiguity, does not occur when ICx neurons are stimulated with noise. The main aim of this study was to determine the role of GABAergic inhibition in the processing of ITDs. Selectivity for ITD is similar in the NL and VLVa and improves in the ICc and ICx. Iontophoresis of bicuculline methiodide (BMI), a selective GABAA antagonist, decreased the ITD selectivity of ICc and ICx neurons, but did not affect that of VLVa neurons. Responses of VLVa and ICc neurons to unfavorable ITDs were below the monaural response levels. BMI raised both binaural responses to unfavorable ITDs and monaural responses, though the former remained smaller than the latter. During BMI application, ICx neurons showed phase ambiguity to noise stimuli and no longer responded to a unique ITD. BMI increased the response magnitude and changed the temporal discharge patterns in the VLVa, ICc, and ICx. Iontophoretically applied GABA exerted effects opposite to those of BMI, and the effects could be antagonized with simultaneous application of BMI. These results suggest that GABAergic inhibition (1) sharpens ITD selectivity in the ICc and ICx, (2) contributes to the elimination of phase ambiguity in the ICx, and (3) controls response magnitude and temporal characteristics in the VLVa, ICc, and ICx. Through these actions, GABAergic inhibition shapes the horizontal dimension of the auditory receptive

  18. GABAergic Afferents activate both GABAA and GABAB receptors in mouse substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Brazhnik, Elena; Shah, Fulva; Tepper, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Most in vivo electrophysiological studies of substantia nigra have employed rats. With the recent proliferation of the use of mice for in vitro neurophysiological studies due to the availability of various genetically modified strains to identify the roles of various channels and proteins in neuronal function, it is crucial to obtain data on in vivo responses in mice to verify that the in vitro results reflect functioning of systems comparable to those that have been well studied in rat. Inhibitory responses of rat nigral dopaminergic neurons by stimulation of afferents from striatum, globus pallidus or pars reticulata have been shown to be mediated predominantly or exclusively by GABAA receptors. This is puzzling given the substantial expression of GABAB receptors and the ubiquitous appearance of GABAB synaptic responses in rat dopaminergic neurons in vitro. In the present study we studied electrically evoked GABAergic inhibition in nigral dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice. Stimulation of the three major GABAergic inputs elicited stronger and longer lasting inhibitory responses than those seen in rats. The early inhibition was GABAA mediated, whereas the later component, absent in rats, was GABAB mediated and selectively enhanced by GABA uptake inhibition. Striatal-evoked inhibition exhibited a slower onset and a weaker initial component compared to inhibition from globus pallidus or substantia nigra pars reticulata. These results are discussed with respect to differences in the size and neuronal density of the rat and mouse brain, and the different sites of synaptic contact of the synapses from the three GABAergic afferents. PMID:18842898

  19. Prefrontal cognitive deficits in mice with altered cerebral cortical GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Bissonette, Gregory B; Bae, Mihyun H; Suresh, Tejas; Jaffe, David E; Powell, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Alterations of inhibitory GABAergic neurons are implicated in multiple psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, autism and epilepsy. In particular, interneuron deficits in prefrontal areas, along with presumed decreased inhibition, have been reported in several human patients. The majority of forebrain GABAergic interneurons arise from a single subcortical source before migrating to their final regional destination. Factors that govern the interneuron populations have been identified, demonstrating that a single gene mutation may globally affect forebrain structures or a single area. In particular, mice lacking the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (Plaur) gene have decreased GABAergic interneurons in frontal and parietal, but not caudal, cortical regions. Plaur assists in the activation of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), and several of the interneuron deficits are correlated with decreased levels of HGF/SF. In some cortical regions, the interneuron deficit can be remediated by endogenous overexpression of HGF/SF. In this study, we demonstrate decreased parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the medial frontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus or basal lateral amygdala in the Plaur null mouse. The Plaur null mouse demonstrates impaired medial frontal cortical function in extinction of cued fear conditioning and the inability to form attentional sets. Endogenous HGF/SF overexpression increased the number of PV-expressing cells in medial frontal cortical areas to levels greater than found in wildtype mice, but did not remediate the behavioral deficits. These data suggest that proper medial frontal cortical function is dependent upon optimum levels of inhibition and that a deficit or excess of interneuron numbers impairs normal cognition. PMID:24211452

  20. Abnormal GABAergic function and face processing in schizophrenia: A pharmacologic-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Tso, Ivy F; Fang, Yu; Phan, K Luan; Welsh, Robert C; Taylor, Stephan F

    2015-10-01

    The involvement of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in schizophrenia is suggested by postmortem studies and the common use of GABA receptor-potentiating agents in treatment. In a recent study, we used a benzodiazepine challenge to demonstrate abnormal GABAergic function during processing of negative visual stimuli in schizophrenia. This study extended this investigation by mapping GABAergic mechanisms associated with face processing and social appraisal in schizophrenia using a benzodiazepine challenge. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients (SZ) and 13 healthy controls (HC) underwent functional MRI using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they performed the Socio-emotional Preference Task (SePT) on emotional face stimuli ("Do you like this face?"). Participants received single-blinded intravenous saline and lorazepam (LRZ) in two separate sessions separated by 1-3weeks. Both SZ and HC recruited medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate during the SePT, relative to gender identification. A significant drug by group interaction was observed in the medial occipital cortex, such that SZ showed increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, while HC showed an expected decrease of signal; the interaction did not vary by task. The altered BOLD response to LRZ challenge in SZ was significantly correlated with increased negative affect across multiple measures. The altered response to LRZ challenge suggests that abnormal face processing and negative affect in SZ are associated with altered GABAergic function in the visual cortex, underscoring the role of impaired visual processing in socio-emotional deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26363970

  1. Reduced GABAergic inhibition and abnormal sensory symptoms in children with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puts, Nicolaas A J; Harris, Ashley D; Crocetti, Deana; Nettles, Carrie; Singer, Harvey S; Tommerdahl, Mark; Edden, Richard A E; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-08-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is characterized by the presence of chronic tics. Individuals with TS often report difficulty with ignoring (habituating to) tactile sensations, and some patients perceive that this contributes to a "premonitory urge" to tic. While common, the physiological basis of impaired tactile processing in TS, and indeed tics themselves, remain poorly understood. It has been well established that GABAergic processing plays an important role in shaping the neurophysiological response to tactile stimulation. Furthermore, there are multiple lines of evidence suggesting that a deficit in GABAergic transmission may contribute to symptoms found in TS. In this study, GABA-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was combined with a battery of vibrotactile tasks to investigate the role of GABA and atypical sensory processing in children with TS. Our results show reduced primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) GABA concentration in children with TS compared with healthy control subjects (HC), as well as patterns of impaired performance on tactile detection and adaptation tasks, consistent with altered GABAergic function. Moreover, in children with TS SM1 GABA concentration correlated with motor tic severity, linking the core feature of TS directly to in vivo brain neurochemistry. There was an absence of the typical correlation between GABA and frequency discrimination performance in TS as was seen in HC. These data show that reduced GABA concentration in TS may contribute to both motor tics and sensory impairments in children with TS. Understanding the mechanisms of altered sensory processing in TS may provide a foundation for novel interventions to alleviate these symptoms. PMID:26041822

  2. Role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in regulation of GABAergic transmission and acute response to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Suryanarayanan, A; Carter, J M; Landin, J D; Morrow, A L; Werner, D F; Spigelman, I

    2016-08-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that ethanol (EtOH) exposure activates neuroimmune signaling. Alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokines after acute and chronic EtOH exposure have been heavily investigated. In contrast, little is known about the regulation of neurotransmission and/or modulation by anti-inflammatory cytokines in the brain after an acute EtOH exposure. Recent evidence suggests that interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is upregulated during withdrawal from chronic EtOH exposure. In the present study, we show that IL-10 is increased early (1 h) after a single intoxicating dose of EtOH (5 g/kg, intragastric) in Sprague Dawley rats. We also show that IL-10 rapidly regulates GABAergic transmission in dentate gyrus neurons. In brain slice recordings, IL-10 application dose-dependently decreases miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSC) area and frequency, and decreases the magnitude of the picrotoxin sensitive tonic current (Itonic), indicating both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. A PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (but not the negative control LY303511) ablated the inhibitory effects of IL-10 on mIPSC area and Itonic, but not on mIPSC frequency, indicating the involvement of PI3K in postsynaptic effects of IL-10 on GABAergic transmission. Lastly, we also identify a novel neurobehavioral regulation of EtOH sensitivity by IL-10, whereby IL-10 attenuates acute EtOH-induced hypnosis. These results suggest that EtOH causes an early release of IL-10 in the brain, which may contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability as well as disturbed sleep seen after binge exposure to EtOH. These results also identify IL-10 signaling as a potential therapeutic target in alcohol-use disorders and other CNS disorders where GABAergic transmission is altered. PMID:27016017

  3. Toxoplasma gondii Infections Alter GABAergic Synapses and Signaling in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Justin M.; Carrillo, Gabriela L.; Su, Jianmin; Lindsay, David S.; Blader, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During infections with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is utilized as a carbon source for parasite metabolism and also to facilitate parasite dissemination by stimulating dendritic-cell motility. The best-recognized function for GABA, however, is its role in the nervous system as an inhibitory neurotransmitter that regulates the flow and timing of excitatory neurotransmission. When this pathway is altered, seizures develop. Human toxoplasmosis patients suffer from seizures, suggesting that Toxoplasma interferes with GABA signaling in the brain. Here, we show that while excitatory glutamatergic presynaptic proteins appeared normal, infection with type II ME49 Toxoplasma tissue cysts led to global changes in the distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), a key enzyme that catalyzes GABA synthesis in the brain. Alterations in GAD67 staining were not due to decreased expression but rather to a change from GAD67 clustering at presynaptic termini to a more diffuse localization throughout the neuropil. Consistent with a loss of GAD67 from the synaptic terminals, Toxoplasma-infected mice develop spontaneous seizures and are more susceptible to drugs that induce seizures by antagonizing GABA receptors. Interestingly, GABAergic protein mislocalization and the response to seizure-inducing drugs were observed in mice infected with type II ME49 but not type III CEP strain parasites, indicating a role for a polymorphic parasite factor(s) in regulating GABAergic synapses. Taken together, these data support a model in which seizures and other neurological complications seen in Toxoplasma-infected individuals are due, at least in part, to changes in GABAergic signaling. PMID:26507232

  4. Deficient tonic GABAergic conductance and synaptic balance in the fragile X syndrome amygdala.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brandon S; Corbin, Joshua G; Huntsman, Molly M

    2014-08-15

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability. Comorbidities of FXS such as autism are increasingly linked to imbalances in excitation and inhibition (E/I) as well as dysfunction in GABAergic transmission in a number of brain regions including the amygdala. However, the link between E/I imbalance and GABAergic transmission deficits in the FXS amygdala is poorly understood. Here we reveal that normal tonic GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission in principal neurons (PNs) of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is comprised of both δ- and α5-subunit-containing GABAA receptors. Furthermore, tonic GABAergic capacity is reduced in these neurons in the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model of FXS (1.5-fold total, 3-fold δ-subunit, and 2-fold α5-subunit mediated) as indicated by application of gabazine (50 μM), 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP, 1 μM), and α5ia (1.5 μM) in whole cell patch-clamp recordings. Moreover, α5-containing tonic GABAA receptors appear to preferentially modulate nonsomatic compartments of BLA PNs. Examination of evoked feedforward synaptic transmission in these cells surprisingly revealed no differences in overall synaptic conductance or E/I balance between wild-type (WT) and Fmr1 KO mice. Instead, we observed altered feedforward kinetics in Fmr1 KO PNs that supports a subtle yet significant decrease in E/I balance at the peak of excitatory conductance. Blockade of α5-subunit-containing GABAA receptors replicated this condition in WT PNs. Therefore, our data suggest that tonic GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission can modulate synaptic E/I balance and timing established by feedforward inhibition and thus may represent a therapeutic target to enhance amygdala function in FXS. PMID:24848467

  5. Prefrontal cognitive deficits in mice with altered cerebral cortical GABAergic interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Bissonette, Gregory B.; Bae, Mihyun H.; Suresh, Tejas; Jaffe, David E.; Powell, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Alterations of inhibitory GABAergic neurons are implicated in multiple psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, autism and epilepsy. In particular, interneuron deficits in prefrontal areas, along with presumed decreased inhibition, have been reported in several human patients. The majority of forebrain GABAergic interneurons arise from a single subcortical source before migrating to their final regional destination. Factors that govern the interneuron populations have been identified, demonstrating that a single gene mutation may globally affect forebrain structures or a single area. In particular, mice lacking the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (Plaur) gene have decreased GABAergic interneurons in frontal and parietal, but not caudal, cortical regions. Plaur assists in the activation of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), and several of the interneuron deficits are correlated with decreased levels of HGF/SF. In some cortical regions, the interneuron deficit can be remediated by endogenous overexpression of HGF/SF. In this study, we demonstrate decreased parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the medial frontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus or basal lateral amygdala in the Plaur null mouse. The Plaur null mouse demonstrates impaired medial frontal cortical function in extinction of cued fear conditioning and the inability to form attentional sets. Endogenous HGF/SF overexpression increased the number of PV-expressing cells in medial frontal cortical areas to levels greater than found in wildtype mice, but did not remediate the behavioral deficits. These data suggest that proper medial frontal cortical function is dependent upon optimum levels of inhibition and that a deficit or excess of interneuron numbers impairs normal cognition. PMID:24211452

  6. GABAergic neurons immunoreactive for calcium binding proteins are reduced in the prefrontal cortex in major depression.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska, Grazyna; O'Dwyer, Gillian; Teleki, Zsofia; Stockmeier, Craig A; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier

    2007-02-01

    Post-mortem morphometric studies report reductions in the average density and size of cortical neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (ORB) in major depressive disorder (MDD). The contribution of specific neuronal phenotypes to this general pathology in depression is still unclear. Post-mortem sections from the dlPFC and ORB regions of 14 subjects with MDD and 11 controls were immunostained to visualize calbindin-immunoreactive (CB-IR) and parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) presumptive GABAergic neurons. A three-dimensional cell counting probe was used to assess the cell packing density and size of CB-IR neurons in layers II+IIIa and PV-IR neurons in layers III-VI. The density of CB-IR neurons was significantly reduced by 50% in depression in the dlPFC and there was a trend toward reduction in the ORB. The size of CB-IR somata was significantly decreased (18%) in depression in the dlPFC with a trend toward reduction in the ORB. In contrast, there was no difference in the density of PV-IR neurons between the depressed and control groups in the dlPFC. The size of PV-IR neuronal soma was unchanged in depressed compared to control subjects in either dlPFC or ORB. In depression, subpopulations of GABAergic neurons may be affected differently in dlPFC and ORB. A significant reduction in the density and size of GABAergic interneurons immunoreactive for calcium binding proteins was found predominantly in the dlPFC region. These cellular changes are consistent with recent neuroimaging studies revealing a reduction in the cortical levels of GABA in depression. PMID:17063153

  7. Activity-dependent endogenous taurine release facilitates excitatory neurotransmission in the neocortical marginal zone of neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Taizhe; Chen, Rongqing; Nakamura, Masato; Furukawa, Tomonori; Kumada, Tatsuro; Akita, Tenpei; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Nakahara, Daiichiro; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    In the developing cerebral cortex, the marginal zone (MZ), consisting of early-generated neurons such as Cajal-Retzius cells, plays an important role in cell migration and lamination. There is accumulating evidence of widespread excitatory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the MZ. Cajal-Retzius cells express not only GABAA receptors but also α2/β subunits of glycine receptors, and exhibit glycine receptor-mediated depolarization due to high [Cl−]i. However, the physiological roles of glycine receptors and their endogenous agonists during neurotransmission in the MZ are yet to be elucidated. To address this question, we performed optical imaging from the MZ using the voltage-sensitive dye JPW1114 on tangential neocortical slices of neonatal rats. A single electrical stimulus evoked an action-potential-dependent optical signal that spread radially over the MZ. The amplitude of the signal was not affected by glutamate receptor blockers, but was suppressed by either GABAA or glycine receptor antagonists. Combined application of both antagonists nearly abolished the signal. Inhibition of Na+, K+-2Cl− cotransporter by 20 µM bumetanide reduced the signal, indicating that this transporter contributes to excitation. Analysis of the interstitial fluid obtained by microdialysis from tangential neocortical slices with high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that GABA and taurine, but not glycine or glutamate, were released in the MZ in response to the electrical stimulation. The ambient release of taurine was reduced by the addition of a voltage-sensitive Na+ channel blocker. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy indicated that taurine was stored both in Cajal-Retzius and non-Cajal-Retzius cells in the MZ, but was not localized in presynaptic structures. Our results suggest that activity-dependent non-synaptic release of endogenous taurine facilitates excitatory neurotransmission through activation of glycine receptors in

  8. Analysis of Graph Invariants in Functional Neocortical Circuitry Reveals Generalized Features Common to Three Areas of Sensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gururangan, Suchin S.; Sadovsky, Alexander J.; MacLean, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in local neocortical spiking activity can provide insight into the underlying organization of cortical microcircuitry. However, identifying structure in patterned multi-neuronal spiking remains a daunting task due to the high dimensionality of the activity. Using two-photon imaging, we monitored spontaneous circuit dynamics in large, densely sampled neuronal populations within slices of mouse primary auditory, somatosensory, and visual cortex. Using the lagged correlation of spiking activity between neurons, we generated functional wiring diagrams to gain insight into the underlying neocortical circuitry. By establishing the presence of graph invariants, which are label-independent characteristics common to all circuit topologies, our study revealed organizational features that generalized across functionally distinct cortical regions. Regardless of sensory area, random and -nearest neighbors null graphs failed to capture the structure of experimentally derived functional circuitry. These null models indicated that despite a bias in the data towards spatially proximal functional connections, functional circuit structure is best described by non-random and occasionally distal connections. Eigenvector centrality, which quantifies the importance of a neuron in the temporal flow of circuit activity, was highly related to feedforwardness in all functional circuits. The number of nodes participating in a functional circuit did not scale with the number of neurons imaged regardless of sensory area, indicating that circuit size is not tied to the sampling of neocortex. Local circuit flow comprehensively covered angular space regardless of the spatial scale that we tested, demonstrating that circuitry itself does not bias activity flow toward pia. Finally, analysis revealed that a minimal numerical sample size of neurons was necessary to capture at least 90 percent of functional circuit topology. These data and analyses indicated that functional circuitry

  9. Spontaneous activity in the developing gerbil auditory cortex in vivo involves GABAergic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kotak, Vibhakar C.; Péndola, L. Martín; Rodríguez-Contreras, Adrián

    2012-01-01

    A salient feature of the developing brain is that spontaneous oscillations (SOs) and waves may influence the emergence of synaptic connections. Whilst gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) produces depolarization and may support SOs in the neurons of developing rodents, it elicits hyperpolarization and diminishes SOs in developing gerbil auditory cortex (ACx). Therefore, we asked whether SOs exist in developing gerbil ACx in vivo and if GABAergic involvement can be manipulated. In vivo extracellular recordings in P3-5 ACx revealed SOs with longer burst durations and shorter inter-event intervals compared to ACx SOs in slices. ACx was then validated by gross anatomical features and lesions created at the in vivo recording site that corresponded with the electrophysiological coordinates of thalamorecipient ACx in slices. Further, NeuroVue Red, a lipophilic dye loaded at the in vivo recording sites, stained anatomically identifiable fiber tracks between the ACx and the auditory thalamus, medial geniculate body (MG). Separately, to chronically perturb GABAergic role in SOs, P2-5 pups were administered daily with GABAA receptor blocker, bicuculline (BIC). We then recorded from P14-17 ACx neurons in slices generated after hearing onset. ACx neurons from BIC-administered pups exhibited spontaneous action potentials in contrast to subthreshold synaptic potentials in neurons from sham-injected animals. Finally, to elucidate whether the gap junction blocker mefloquine (MFQ) previously shown to dampen ACx SOs in slices affected GABAergic transmission, MFQ was acutely applied in P3-5 slices while spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) were recorded. Whereas MFQ increased the amplitude and frequency of sIPSCs in ACx neurons, the broad-spectrum gap junction blocker carbenoxolone decreased sIPSC amplitudes only. Together, we show that P2-5 gerbil ACx can endogenously generate SOs in vivo. Persistence of activity in ACx in P14-17 slices from pups administered with BIC at

  10. Involvement of medullary GABAergic system in extraterritorial neuropathic pain mechanisms associated with inferior alveolar nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Nakaya, Yuka; Imamura, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Shinoda, Masamichi; Kita, Kozue; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    In order to determine if the functional changes in the GABAergic system in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) are involved in the mechanisms underlying extraterritorial neuropathic pain in the orofacial region following inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANX), mechanical noxious behavior, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) immunohistochemistry and single neuronal activity were analyzed in vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-VenusA rats expressing fluorescent protein and the VGAT in Vc neurons. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive neurons was significantly reduced in IANX rats than naive and sham rats at 7days after nerve transection. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive pERK-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly increased in IANX rats at 21days after IAN transection compared with naive and sham rats. The background activity and mechanical-evoked responses of Vc nociceptive neurons were significantly depressed after intrathecal application of the GABA receptor agonist muscimol in sham rats but not in IANX rats. Furthermore, the expression of potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the Vc was significantly reduced in IANX rats compared with sham rats. The head-withdrawal threshold (HWT) to mechanical stimulation of the whisker pad skin was significantly decreased in IANX rats compared with sham rats on days 7 and 21 after IANX. The significant reduction of the HWT and significant increase in the number of VGAT-VenusA negative pERK-IR cells were observed in KCC2 blocker R-DIOA-injected rats compared with vehicle-injected rats on day 21 after sham treatment. These findings revealed that GABAergic Vc neurons might be reduced in their number at the early period after IANX and the functional changes might occur in GABAergic neurons from inhibitory to excitatory at the late period after IANX, suggesting that the neuroplastic changes occur in the GABAergic neuronal network in the Vc due to morphological and functional changes at

  11. IL-1 interacts with ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission in the mouse central amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, Michal; Varodayan, Florence P.; Madamba, Samuel G.; Robert, Amanda J.; Casal, Lindsey M.; Oleata, Christopher S.; Siggins, George R.; Roberto, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is hypothesized to enhance alcohol consumption and contribute to the development of alcoholism. GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in the transition to alcohol dependence. Therefore, we studied the effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a proinflammatory cytokine mediating ethanol-induced neuroinflammation, and its interaction with ethanol on CeA GABAegic transmission in B6129SF2/J mice. We also assessed ethanol intake in B6129SF2/J mice. Intake with unlimited (24 h) ethanol access was 9.2–12.7 g/kg (3–15% ethanol), while limited (2 h) access produced an intake of 4.1 ± 0.5 g/kg (15% ethanol). In our electrophysiology experiments, we found that recombinant IL-1β (50 and 100 ng/ml) significantly decreased the amplitude of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (eIPSPs), with no significant effects on paired-pulse facilitation (PPF). IL-1β (50 ng/ml) had dual effects on spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs): increasing mIPSC frequencies in most CeA neurons, but decreasing both mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes in a few cells. The IL-1β receptor antagonist (IL-1ra; 100 ng/ml) also had dual effects on mIPSCs and prevented the actions of IL-1β on mIPSC frequencies. These results suggest that IL-1β can alter CeA GABAergic transmission at pre- and postsynaptic sites. Ethanol (44 mM) significantly increased eIPSP amplitudes, decreased PPFs, and increased mIPSC frequencies. IL-1β did not alter ethanol’s enhancement of the eIPSP amplitude, but, in IL-1β-responsive neurons, the ethanol effects on mIPSC frequencies were lost. Overall, our data suggest that the IL-1 system is involved in basal GABAergic transmission and that IL-1β interacts with the ethanol-induced facilitation of CeA GABAergic transmission. PMID:25852553

  12. Glutamatergic and GABAergic energy metabolism measured in the rat brain by (13) C NMR spectroscopy at 14.1 T.

    PubMed

    Duarte, João M N; Gruetter, Rolf

    2013-09-01

    Energy metabolism supports both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission processes. This study investigated the specific contribution of astrocytic metabolism to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission that remained to be ilucidated in vivo. Therefore, we measured (13)C incorporation into brain metabolites by dynamic (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 14.1 T in rats under α-chloralose anaesthesia during infusion of [1,6-(13)C]glucose. The enhanced sensitivity at 14.1 T allowed to quantify incorporation of (13) C into the three aliphatic carbons of GABA non-invasively. Metabolic fluxes were determined with a mathematical model of brain metabolism comprising glial, glutamatergic and GABAergic compartments. GABA synthesis rate was 0.11 ± 0.01 μmol/g/min. GABA-glutamine cycle was 0.053 ± 0.003 μmol/g/min and accounted for 22 ± 1% of total neurotransmitter cycling between neurons and glia. Cerebral glucose oxidation was 0.47 ± 0.02 μmol/g/min, of which 35 ± 1% and 7 ± 1% was diverted to the glutamatergic and GABAergic tricarboxylic acid cycles, respectively. The remaining fraction of glucose oxidation was in glia, where 12 ± 1% of the TCA cycle flux was dedicated to oxidation of GABA. 16 ± 2% of glutamine synthesis was provided to GABAergic neurons. We conclude that substantial metabolic activity occurs in GABAergic neurons and that glial metabolism supports both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the living rat brain. PMID:23745684

  13. Functional Upregulation of α4* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in VTA GABAergic Neurons Increases Sensitivity to Nicotine Reward

    PubMed Central

    Ngolab, Jennifer; Liu, Liwang; Zhao-Shea, Rubing; Gao, Guangping; Gardner, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nicotine exposure increases sensitivity to nicotine reward during a withdrawal period, which may facilitate relapse in abstinent smokers, yet the molecular neuroadaptation(s) that contribute to this phenomenon are unknown. Interestingly, chronic nicotine use induces functional upregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesocorticolimbic reward pathway potentially linking upregulation to increased drug sensitivity. In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), functional upregulation of nAChRs containing the α4 subunit (α4* nAChRs) is restricted to GABAergic neurons. To test the hypothesis that increased functional expression of α4* nAChRs in these neurons modulates nicotine reward behaviors, we engineered a Cre recombinase-dependent gene expression system to selectively express α4 nAChR subunits harboring a “gain-of-function” mutation [a leucine mutated to a serine residue at the 9′ position (Leu9′Ser)] in VTA GABAergic neurons of adult mice. In mice expressing Leu9′Ser α4 nAChR subunits in VTA GABAergic neurons (Gad2VTA:Leu9′Ser mice), subreward threshold doses of nicotine were sufficient to selectively activate VTA GABAergic neurons and elicit acute hypolocomotion, with subsequent nicotine exposures eliciting tolerance to this effect, compared to control animals. In the conditioned place preference procedure, nicotine was sufficient to condition a significant place preference in Gad2VTA:Leu9′Ser mice at low nicotine doses that failed to condition control animals. Together, these data indicate that functional upregulation of α4* nAChRs in VTA GABAergic neurons confers increased sensitivity to nicotine reward and points to nAChR subtypes specifically expressed in GABAergic VTA neurons as molecular targets for smoking cessation therapeutics. PMID:26041923

  14. GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area receive dual GABA/enkephalin-mediated inhibitory inputs from the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Takehiro; Konno, Kohtarou; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Sora, Ichiro; Minami, Masabumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2014-06-01

    Activation of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) disinhibits dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) through inhibition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons. This mechanism is thought to play a pivotal role in mediating reward behaviors. Here, we characterised VTA-projecting enkephalinergic neurons in the anterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and investigated their targets by examining MOR expression in the VTA. In the BST, neurons expressing preproenkephalin mRNA were exclusively GABAergic, and constituted 37.2% of the total GABAergic neurons. Using retrograde tracer injected into the VTA, 21.6% of VTA-projecting BST neurons were shown to express preproenkephalin mRNA. Enkephalinergic projections from the BST exclusively formed symmetrical synapses onto the dendrites of VTA neurons. In the VTA, 74.1% of MOR mRNA-expressing neurons were GABAergic, with the rest being glutamatergic neurons expressing type-2 vesicular glutamate transporter mRNA. However, MOR mRNA was below the detection threshold in dopaminergic neurons. By immunohistochemistry, MOR was highly expressed on the extrasynaptic membranes of dendrites in GABAergic VTA neurons, including dendrites innervated by BST-VTA projection terminals. MOR was also expressed weakly on GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals in the VTA. Given that GABAA α1 is expressed at GABAergic BST-VTA synapses on dendrites of GABAergic neurons [T. Kudo et al. (2012) J. Neurosci., 32, 18035-18046], our results collectively indicate that the BST sends dual inhibitory outputs targeting GABAergic VTA neurons; GABAergic inhibition via 'wired' transmission, and enkephalinergic inhibition via 'volume' transmission. This dual inhibitory system provides the neural substrate underlying the potent disinhibitory control over dopaminergic VTA neurons exerted by the BST. PMID:24580812

  15. GABAergic synaptic plasticity during a developmentally-regulated sleep-like state in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Dabbish, Nooreen S.; Raizen, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately one fourth of the neurons in C. elegans adults are born during larval development, indicating tremendous plasticity in larval nervous system structure. Larval development shows cyclical expression of sleep-like quiescent behavior during lethargus periods, which occur at larval stage transitions. We studied plasticity at the neuromuscular junction during lethargus using the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. The rate of animal contraction when exposed to aldicarb is controlled by the balance between excitatory cholinergic and inhibitory GABAergic input on the muscle. During lethargus, there is an accelerated rate of contraction on aldicarb. Mutant analysis and optogenetic studies reveal that GABAergic synaptic transmission is reduced during lethargus. Worms in lethargus show partial resistance to GABA-A receptor agonists, indicating that post-synaptic mechanisms contribute to lethargus-dependent plasticity. Using genetic manipulations that separate the quiescent state from the developmental stage, we show that the synaptic plasticity is dependent on developmental time and not on behavioral state of the animal. We propose that the synaptic plasticity regulated by a developmental clock in C. elegans is analogous to synaptic plasticity regulated by the circadian clock in other species. PMID:22049436

  16. GABAergic mechanisms in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus of the cat promote active (REM) sleep.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Morales, Francisco R; Chase, Michael H

    2002-07-19

    The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) has been implicated in the generation and/or maintenance of both active sleep (AS) and wakefulness (W). GABAergic neurons are present within this nucleus and recent studies have shown that these neurons are active during AS. In order to examine the role of mesopontine GABAergic processes in the generation of AS, the GABA(A) agonist muscimol and the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline were microinjected into the PPT of chronic cats that were prepared for recording the states of sleep and wakefulness. Muscimol increased the time spent in AS by increasing the frequency and duration of AS episodes; this increase in AS was at the expense of the time spent in wakefulness. A decrease in PGO density during AS was also observed following the microinjection of muscimol. On the other hand, bicuculline decreased both AS and quiet sleep and increased the time spent in wakefulness. These data suggest that GABA acts on GABA(A) receptors within the PPT to facilitate the generation of AS by suppressing the activity of waking-related processes within this nucleus. PMID:12106660

  17. Critical Roles of the Direct GABAergic Pallido-cortical Pathway in Controlling Absence Seizures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingming; Guo, Daqing; Li, Min; Ma, Tao; Wu, Shengdun; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-10-01

    The basal ganglia (BG), serving as an intermediate bridge between the cerebral cortex and thalamus, are believed to play crucial roles in controlling absence seizure activities generated by the pathological corticothalamic system. Inspired by recent experiments, here we systematically investigate the contribution of a novel identified GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway, projecting from the globus pallidus externa (GPe) in the BG to the cerebral cortex, to the control of absence seizures. By computational modelling, we find that both increasing the activation of GPe neurons and enhancing the coupling strength of the inhibitory pallido-cortical pathway can suppress the bilaterally synchronous 2-4 Hz spike and wave discharges (SWDs) during absence seizures. Appropriate tuning of several GPe-related pathways may also trigger the SWD suppression, through modulating the activation level of GPe neurons. Furthermore, we show that the previously discovered bidirectional control of absence seizures due to the competition between other two BG output pathways also exists in our established model. Importantly, such bidirectional control is shaped by the coupling strength of this direct GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway. Our work suggests that the novel identified pallido-cortical pathway has a functional role in controlling absence seizures and the presented results might provide testable hypotheses for future experimental studies. PMID:26496656

  18. Bombesin facilitates GABAergic transmission and depresses epileptiform activity in the entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-peng; Xiao, Zhaoyang; Cilz, Nicholas I; Hu, Binqi; Dong, Hailong; Lei, Saobo

    2014-01-01

    Bombesin and the bombesin-like peptides including neuromedin B (NMB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are important neuromodulators in the brain. We studied their effects on GABAergic transmission and epileptiform activity in the entorhinal cortex (EC). Bath application of bombesin concentration-dependently increased both the frequency and amplitude of sIPSCs recorded from the principal neurons in the EC. Application of NMB and GRP exerted the same effects as bombesin. Bombesin had no effects on mIPSCs recorded in the presence of TTX but slightly depressed the evoked IPSCs. Omission of extracellular Ca(2+) or inclusion of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blockers, Cd(2+) and Ni(2+), blocked bombesin-induced increases in sIPSCs suggesting that bombesin increases GABA release via facilitating extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Bombesin induced membrane depolarization and slightly increased the input resistance of GABAergic interneurons recorded from layer III of the EC. The action potential firing frequency of the interneurons was also increased by bombesin. Bombesin-mediated depolarization of interneurons was unlikely to be mediated by the opening of a cationic conductance but due to the inhibition of inward rectifier K(+) channels. Bath application of bombesin, NMB and GRP depressed the frequency of the epileptiform activity elicited by deprivation of Mg(2+) from the extracellular solution suggesting that bombesin and the bombesin-like peptides have antiepileptic effects in the brain. PMID:23966303

  19. [REM sleep modulation by non-GABAergic neurons of the hypothalamus and basal forebrain].

    PubMed

    Reinoso Suárez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO) is a demonstrated site of brainstem REM-sleep generation and maintenance. The vRPO has reciprocal connections with structures that control other states of the sleep-wakefulness cycle, many situated in the basal forebrain and the diencephalon. The aim of the present revision is to map, using the results described in previous publications of our group, the local origin of the basal forebrain and hypothalamus non-GABAergic projections to the vRPO, and specially the contribution of the hypothalamic neurons positive to hypocretin/orexin (H/O) peptides. I summarize non-GABAergic projections to the vRPO from the: ipsilateral central amygdaline nucleus and the stria terminalis bed nuclei, bilateral projections, but most abundant in the ipsilateral side, from the median preoptic nucleus, medial and lateral preoptic areas, abundant from the zona incerta and dorsal, lateral, posterior and perifornical hypothalamic areas. Very abundant bilateral projections of H/O neurons to the vRPO are described, expressive of the important modulation exerted by these neurons on the vRPO nucleus. I discuss the functional significance of the above results and the corresponding mechanisms, supported by physiological and ultrastructural results of our group. Based on the connections and action mechanisms of H/O neurons on the vRPO, which produce the decreased activity of neurons in this nucleus and, therefore, inhibition of REM sleep, I reflect briefly on narcolepsy pathophysiology. PMID:21877412

  20. Short-term potentiation of GABAergic synaptic inputs to vasopressin and oxytocin neurones

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Linda A; Popescu, Ion R; Haam, Juhee; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2014-01-01

    The magnocellular vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) neurones undergo long-term synaptic plasticity to accommodate prolonged hormone demand. By contrast, rapidly induced, transient synaptic plasticity in response to brief stimuli could enable the activation of magnocellular neurones in response to acute challenges. Here, we report a robust short-term potentiation of asynchronous GABAergic synaptic inputs (STPGABA) to VP and OT neurones of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus elicited by repetitive extracellular electrical stimulation. The STPGABA required extracellular Ca2+, but did not require activation of glutamate, VP or OT receptors or nitric oxide synthesis. Presynaptic action potential generation was necessary for the induction, but not the maintenance, of STPGABA. The STPGABA led to a minutes-long GABAA receptor-dependent increase in spike frequency in VP neurones, but not in OT neurones, consistent with an excitatory function of GABA in only VP neurones and with the generation of prolonged bursts of action potentials in VP neurones. Therefore, this short-term plasticity of GABAergic synaptic inputs is likely to play very different roles in the regulation of OT and VP neurones and their distinct patterns of physiological activation. PMID:25063825

  1. Luteolin Attenuates Airway Mucus Overproduction via Inhibition of the GABAergic System.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chen-Hung; Lin, Ching-Huei; Zhou, Ning; Kao, Shung-Te; Wu, Dong Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Airway mucus overproduction is one of the most common symptoms of asthma that causes severe clinical outcomes in patients. Despite the effectiveness of general asthma therapies, specific treatments that prevent mucus overproduction in asthma patients remain lacking. Recent studies have found that activation of GABAA receptors (GABAAR) is important for promoting mucus oversecretion in lung airway epithelia. Here, we report that luteolin, a natural flavonoid compound, suppresses mucus overproduction by functionally inhibiting the GABAergic system. This hypothesis was investigated by testing the effects of luteolin on goblet cell hyperplasia, excessive mucus secretion, and GABAergic transmission using histological and electrophysiological approaches. Our results showed that 10 mg/kg luteolin significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the lung tissue and inhibited mucus overproduction in an in vivo asthma model induced by ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. Patch-clamp recordings showed that luteolin inhibited GABAAR-mediated currents in A549 cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of luteolin on OVA-induced goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus overproduction were occluded by the GABAAR antagonist picrotoxin. In conclusion, our observations indicate that luteolin effectively attenuates mucus overproduction at least partially by inhibiting GABAARs, suggesting the potential for therapeutic administration of luteolin in the treatment of mucus overproduction in asthma patients. PMID:27595800

  2. Anticonvulsant Effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae) Leaves Ethanolic Extract in Mice: Role of GABAergic System

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Amir; Farhang, Forogh; Vahedi, Habib; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ejtemai Mehr, Shahram; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lippia citriodora Kunth is one of the Iranian traditional medicines for the treatment of convulsive disorders. The goal of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's leave ethanolic extract against electro- and chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. Methods: The anticonvulsant activity of the extract (200, 400, 800 mg/kg, per os, p.o.) was investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) and phenytoin (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) were used as reference drugs. In addition, for investigating the role of GABAergic system, flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was also injected before L. citriodora. Results: The extract had not any toxicity and significantly decreased the duration and increased the latency of the seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg). In the MES test, L. citriodora displayed statistically significant reduction in hind limb tonic extension duration in a nondose-dependent manner. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's extract in the PTZ model. Conclusions: The results propose that L. citriodora leave ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against convulsive disorders. It seems that this plant's extract generates its antiseizure effect through GABAergic system potentiation. Further studies will be needed in order to investigate the exact mechanisms of it. Moreover, one may conclude that the present results are in accordance with the positive effect of L. citriodora extract to treat convulsion mentioned in old Iranian literature. PMID:27563433

  3. Fgf16 Is Required for Specification of GABAergic Neurons and Oligodendrocytes in the Zebrafish Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Ayumi; Chitose, Tatsuya; Kamei, Eriko; Murakami, Atsuko; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling plays crucial roles in various developmental processes including those in the brain. We examined the role of Fgf16 in the formation of the zebrafish brain. The knockdown of fgf16 decreased cell proliferation in the forebrain and midbrain. fgf16 was also essential for development of the ventral telencephalon and diencephalon, whereas fgf16 was not required for dorsoventral patterning in the midbrain. fgf16 was additionally required for the specification and differentiation of γ–aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons and oligodendrocytes, but not for those of glutamatergic neurons in the forebrain. Cross talk between Fgf and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling was critical for the specification of GABAergic interneurons and oligodendrocytes. The expression of fgf16 in the forebrain was down-regulated by the inhibition of Hh and Fgf19 signaling, but not by that of Fgf3/Fgf8 signaling. The fgf16 morphant phenotype was similar to that of the fgf19 morphant and embryos blocked Hh signaling. The results of the present study indicate that Fgf16 signaling, which is regulated by the downstream pathways of Hh-Fgf19 in the forebrain, is involved in forebrain development. PMID:25357195

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury Increases Cortical Glutamate Network Activity by Compromising GABAergic Control

    PubMed Central

    Cantu, David; Walker, Kendall; Andresen, Lauren; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Hampton, David; Tesco, Giuseppina; Dulla, Chris G.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for developing pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Although disruptions in brain circuitry are associated with TBI, the precise mechanisms by which brain injury leads to epileptiform network activity is unknown. Using controlled cortical impact (CCI) as a model of TBI, we examined how cortical excitability and glutamatergic signaling was altered following injury. We optically mapped cortical glutamate signaling using FRET-based glutamate biosensors, while simultaneously recording cortical field potentials in acute brain slices 2–4 weeks following CCI. Cortical electrical stimulation evoked polyphasic, epileptiform field potentials and disrupted the input–output relationship in deep layers of CCI-injured cortex. High-speed glutamate biosensor imaging showed that glutamate signaling was significantly increased in the injured cortex. Elevated glutamate responses correlated with epileptiform activity, were highest directly adjacent to the injury, and spread via deep cortical layers. Immunoreactivity for markers of GABAergic interneurons were significantly decreased throughout CCI cortex. Lastly, spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency decreased and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current increased after CCI injury. Our results suggest that specific cortical neuronal microcircuits may initiate and facilitate the spread of epileptiform activity following TBI. Increased glutamatergic signaling due to loss of GABAergic control may provide a mechanism by which TBI can give rise to post-traumatic epilepsy. PMID:24610117

  5. Exogenous Sonic hedgehog modulates the pool of GABAergic interneurons during cerebellar development.

    PubMed

    De Luca, A; Parmigiani, E; Tosatto, G; Martire, S; Hoshino, M; Buffo, A; Leto, K; Rossi, F

    2015-04-01

    All cerebellar GABAergic interneurons were derived from a common pool of precursor cells residing in the embryonic ventricular zone (VZ) and migrating in the prospective white matter (PWM) after birth, where both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to regulate their amplification. Among the environmental factors, we focused on Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a morphogen well known to regulate neural progenitor cell proliferation. We asked if and how exogenous Shh treatment affects the lineage of cerebellar GABAergic interneurons. To address these issues, exogenous Shh was administered to embryonic and postnatal organotypic slices. We found that Shh is able to expand the pool of interneuron progenitors residing in the embryonic epithelium and in the postnatal PWM. In particular, Shh signalling pathway was highly mitogenic at early developmental stages of interneuron production, whereas its effect decreased after the first postnatal week. Gene expression analysis of sorted cells and in situ hybridization further showed that immature interneurons express both the Shh receptor patched and the Shh target gene Gli1. Thus, within the interneuron lineage, Shh might exert regulatory functions also in postmitotic cells. On the whole, our data enlighten the role of Shh during cerebellar maturation and further broaden our knowledge on the amplification mechanisms of the interneuron progenitor pool. PMID:25245619

  6. Female contact modulates male aggression via a sexually dimorphic GABAergic circuit in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Quan; Song, Yuanquan; Yang, Chung-Hui; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2014-01-01

    Intraspecific male-male aggression, which is important for sexual selection, is regulated by environment, experience and internal states through largely undefined molecular and cellular mechanisms. To understand the basic neural pathway underlying the modulation of this innate behavior, we established a behavioral assay in Drosophila melanogaster and investigated the relationship between sexual experience and aggression. In the presence of mating partners, adult male flies exhibited elevated levels of aggression, which was largely suppressed by prior exposure to females via a sexually dimorphic neural mechanism. The suppression involved the ability of male flies to detect females by contact chemosensation through the pheromone-sensing ion channel ppk29 and was mediated by male-specific GABAergic neurons acting on the GABAA receptor RDL in target cells. Silencing or activating this circuit led to dis-inhibition or elimination of sex-related aggression, respectively. We propose that the GABAergic inhibition represents a critical cellular mechanism that enables prior experience to modulate aggression. PMID:24241395

  7. MADD-4/Punctin and Neurexin Organize C. elegans GABAergic Postsynapses through Neuroligin

    PubMed Central

    Maro, Géraldine S.; Gao, Shangbang; Olechwier, Agnieszka M.; Hung, Wesley L.; Liu, Michael; Özkan, Engin

    2015-01-01

    At synapses, the presynaptic release machinery is precisely juxtaposed to the postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. We studied the molecular mechanisms underlying this exquisite alignment at the C. elegans inhibitory synapses. We found that the sole C. elegans neuroligin homologue, NLG-1, localizes specifically at GABAergic postsynapses and is required for clustering the GABAA receptor UNC-49. Two presynaptic factors, Punctin/MADD-4, an ADAMTS-like extracellular protein, and Neurexin/NRX-1, act partially redundantly to recruit NLG-1 to synapses. In the absence of both MADD-4 and NRX-1, NLG-1 and GABAA receptors fail to cluster, and GABAergic synaptic transmission is severely compromised. Biochemically, we detect an interaction between MADD-4 and NLG-1, as well as between MADD-4 and NRX-1. Interestingly, the presence of NRX-1 potentiates binding between Punctin/MADD-4 and NLG-1, suggestive of a tripartite receptor ligand complex. We propose that presynaptic terminals induce postsynaptic receptor clustering through the action of both secreted ECM proteins and trans-synaptic adhesion complexes. PMID:26028574

  8. A transcriptional program promotes remodeling of GABAergic synapses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sarah C; Watson, Joseph D; Richmond, Janet E; Sarov, Mihail; Walthall, Walter W; Miller, David M

    2011-10-26

    Although transcription factors are known to regulate synaptic plasticity, downstream genes that contribute to neural circuit remodeling are largely undefined. In Caenorhabditis elegans, GABAergic Dorsal D (DD) motor neuron synapses are relocated to new sites during larval development. This remodeling program is blocked in Ventral D (VD) GABAergic motor neurons by the COUP-TF (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor) homolog, UNC-55. We exploited this UNC-55 function to identify downstream synaptic remodeling genes that encode a diverse array of protein types including ion channels, cytoskeletal components, and transcription factors. We show that one of these targets, the Iroquois-like homeodomain protein, IRX-1, functions as a key regulator of remodeling in DD neurons. Our discovery of irx-1 as an unc-55-regulated target defines a transcriptional pathway that orchestrates an intricate synaptic remodeling program. Moreover, the well established roles of these conserved transcription factors in mammalian neural development suggest that a similar cascade may also control synaptic plasticity in more complex nervous systems. PMID:22031882

  9. A Transcriptional Program Promotes Remodeling of GABAergic Synapses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Sarah C.; Watson, Joseph D.; Richmond, Janet E.; Sarov, Mihail; Walthall, W. W.; Miller, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Although transcription factors are known to regulate synaptic plasticity, downstream genes that contribute to neural circuit remodeling are largely undefined. In C. elegans, GABAergic Dorsal D (DD) motor neuron synapses are relocated to new sites during larval development. This remodeling program is blocked in Ventral D (VD) GABAergic motor neurons by the COUP-TF homologue, UNC-55. We exploited this UNC-55 function to identify downstream synaptic remodeling genes that encode a diverse array of protein types including ion channels, cytoskeletal components and transcription factors. We show that one of these targets, the Iroquois-like homeodomain protein, IRX-1, functions as a key regulator of remodeling in DD neurons. Our discovery of irx-1 as an unc-55-regulated target defines a transcriptional pathway that orchestrates an intricate synaptic remodeling program. Moreover, the well-established roles of these conserved transcription factors in mammalian neural development suggest that a similar cascade may also control synaptic plasticity in more complex nervous systems. PMID:22031882

  10. Postnatal development of GABAergic signalling in the rat lateral geniculate nucleus: presynaptic dendritic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Marie-Claude; Qin, Yi; Heggelund, Paul; Zhu, J Julius

    2003-01-01

    Diverse forms of GABAergic inhibition are found in the mature brain. To understand how this diversity develops, we studied the changes in morphology of inhibitory interneurons and changes in interneuron-mediated synaptic transmission in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). We found a steady expansion of the dendritic tree of interneurons over the first three postnatal weeks. During this period, the area around a thalamocortical cell from which GABAA inhibition could be elicited also expanded. Dendritic branching and burst firing in interneurons evolved more slowly. The distal dendrites of interneurons began to branch extensively after the third week, and at the same time burst firing appeared. The appearance of burst firing and an elaborated dendritic tree were accompanied by a pronounced GABAB inhibition of thalamocortical cells. Thus, GABA inhibition of thalamocortical cells developed from one type of GABAA inhibition (spatially restricted) in the young animal into two distinct types of GABAA inhibition (short- and long-range) and GABAB inhibition in the adult animal. The close temporal relationships between the development of the diverse forms of inhibition and the postnatal changes in morphology of local GABAergic interneurons in the dLGN suggest that postnatal dendritic maturation is an important presynaptic factor for the developmental time course of the various types of feedforward inhibition in thalamus. PMID:12509484

  11. Diminished Perisomatic GABAergic Terminals on Cortical Neurons Adjacent to Amyloid Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Marin, Virginia; Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; Rodriguez, José-Rodrigo; Boluda, Susana; Muntane, Gerard; Ferrer, Isidro; DeFelipe, Javier

    2009-01-01

    One of the main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of plaques in the cerebral cortex, which may appear either in the neuropil or in direct association with neuronal somata. Since different axonal systems innervate the dendritic (mostly glutamatergic) and perisomatic (mostly GABAergic) regions of neurons, the accumulation of plaques in the neuropil or associated with the soma might produce different alterations to synaptic circuits. We have used a variety of conventional light, confocal and electron microscopy techniques to study their relationship with neuronal somata in the cerebral cortex from AD patients and APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The main finding was that the membrane surfaces of neurons (mainly pyramidal cells) in contact with plaques lack GABAergic perisomatic synapses. Since these perisomatic synapses are thought to exert a strong influence on the output of pyramidal cells, their loss may lead to the hyperactivity of the neurons in contact with plaques. These results suggest that plaques modify circuits in a more selective manner than previously thought. PMID:19949482

  12. Critical Roles of the Direct GABAergic Pallido-cortical Pathway in Controlling Absence Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Ma, Tao; Wu, Shengdun; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG), serving as an intermediate bridge between the cerebral cortex and thalamus, are believed to play crucial roles in controlling absence seizure activities generated by the pathological corticothalamic system. Inspired by recent experiments, here we systematically investigate the contribution of a novel identified GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway, projecting from the globus pallidus externa (GPe) in the BG to the cerebral cortex, to the control of absence seizures. By computational modelling, we find that both increasing the activation of GPe neurons and enhancing the coupling strength of the inhibitory pallido-cortical pathway can suppress the bilaterally synchronous 2–4 Hz spike and wave discharges (SWDs) during absence seizures. Appropriate tuning of several GPe-related pathways may also trigger the SWD suppression, through modulating the activation level of GPe neurons. Furthermore, we show that the previously discovered bidirectional control of absence seizures due to the competition between other two BG output pathways also exists in our established model. Importantly, such bidirectional control is shaped by the coupling strength of this direct GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway. Our work suggests that the novel identified pallido-cortical pathway has a functional role in controlling absence seizures and the presented results might provide testable hypotheses for future experimental studies. PMID:26496656

  13. GABAergic synaptic plasticity during a developmentally regulated sleep-like state in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Dabbish, Nooreen S; Raizen, David M

    2011-11-01

    Approximately one-fourth of the neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans adults are born during larval development, indicating tremendous plasticity in larval nervous system structure. Larval development shows cyclical expression of sleep-like quiescent behavior during lethargus periods, which occur at larval stage transitions. We studied plasticity at the neuromuscular junction during lethargus using the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. The rate of animal contraction when exposed to aldicarb is controlled by the balance between excitatory cholinergic and inhibitory GABAergic input on the muscle. During lethargus, there is an accelerated rate of contraction on aldicarb. Mutant analysis and optogenetic studies reveal that GABAergic synaptic transmission is reduced during lethargus. Worms in lethargus show partial resistance to GABA(A) receptor agonists, indicating that postsynaptic mechanisms contribute to lethargus-dependent plasticity. Using genetic manipulations that separate the quiescent state from the developmental stage, we show that the synaptic plasticity is dependent on developmental time and not on the behavioral state of the animal. We propose that the synaptic plasticity regulated by a developmental clock in C. elegans is analogous to synaptic plasticity regulated by the circadian clock in other species. PMID:22049436

  14. DNA fragmentation is increased in non-GABAergic neurons in bipolar disorder but not in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Buttner, Ned; Bhattacharyya, Sujoy; Walsh, John; Benes, Francine M.

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis is thought to contribute to neuronal loss in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, although empiric evidence in support of this idea has been lacking. In this study, we investigated whether or not apoptosis is associated with GABAergic interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia (n = 14) and bipolar disorder (n = 14) when compared to normal controls (n = 14). A double-labeling technique using the Klenow method of in situ end-labeling (ISEL) of single-stranded DNA breaks was combined with an in situ hybridization localization of mRNA for the 67 kiloDalton (kDa) isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) and applied to the anterior cingulate cortex of 14 normal controls, 14 schizophrenics, and 14 patients with bipolar disorder matched for age and postmortem interval. An increase in Klenow-positive, GAD67-negative nuclei was observed in layer V/VI of patients with bipolar disorder, but not schizophrenics. Klenow-positive cells that were also positive for GAD67 mRNA did not show differences in either patient group. Conclusions: This is the first demonstration that there is more DNA fragmentation in cells showing no detectable GAD67 mRNA in patients with bipolar disorder than in schizophrenics or controls. These findings suggest that non-GABAergic cells may be selectively vulnerable to oxidative stress in patients with bipolar disorder. PMID:17442540

  15. Luteolin Attenuates Airway Mucus Overproduction via Inhibition of the GABAergic System

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chen-Hung; Lin, Ching-Huei; Zhou, Ning; Kao, Shung-Te; Wu, Dong Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Airway mucus overproduction is one of the most common symptoms of asthma that causes severe clinical outcomes in patients. Despite the effectiveness of general asthma therapies, specific treatments that prevent mucus overproduction in asthma patients remain lacking. Recent studies have found that activation of GABAA receptors (GABAAR) is important for promoting mucus oversecretion in lung airway epithelia. Here, we report that luteolin, a natural flavonoid compound, suppresses mucus overproduction by functionally inhibiting the GABAergic system. This hypothesis was investigated by testing the effects of luteolin on goblet cell hyperplasia, excessive mucus secretion, and GABAergic transmission using histological and electrophysiological approaches. Our results showed that 10 mg/kg luteolin significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the lung tissue and inhibited mucus overproduction in an in vivo asthma model induced by ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. Patch-clamp recordings showed that luteolin inhibited GABAAR-mediated currents in A549 cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of luteolin on OVA-induced goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus overproduction were occluded by the GABAAR antagonist picrotoxin. In conclusion, our observations indicate that luteolin effectively attenuates mucus overproduction at least partially by inhibiting GABAARs, suggesting the potential for therapeutic administration of luteolin in the treatment of mucus overproduction in asthma patients. PMID:27595800

  16. Chronic cortisol exposure promotes the development of a GABAergic phenotype in the primate hippocampus.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Pamela J; Wilkinson, Charles W; Greenup, Lynne; Raskind, Murray A; Peskind, Elaine R; Leverenz, James B

    2004-11-01

    Glucocorticoids regulate plasticity and survival of hippocampal neurons. Aberrant exposure to this steroid hormone can result in neurodegeneration, perhaps secondary to disruption of calcium homeostasis. Calbindin, a calcium-binding protein that buffers excess calcium, may protect against neurodegeneration resulting from overabundance of intracellular calcium. In this study, we examined whether chronic treatment (1 year) with cortisol enhances hippocampal calbindin expression in primates. Calbindin is a marker for inhibitory neurons and the dentate gyrus is known to adopt an inhibitory phenotype in response to extreme conditions such as seizures. Thus, we hypothesized that chronic cortisol exposure may also promote a GABAergic phenotype. Therefore, we examined the expression of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is responsive to glucocorticoids, was also examined. Our results demonstrate significant increases in calbindin, glutamic acid decarboxylase and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in several regions of the primate hippocampus, including the dentate gyrus and CA3, in response to chronic cortisol exposure. These results suggest that chronic cortisol exposure may shift the balance towards a GABAergic phenotype, perhaps as part of a compensatory feedback mechanism to dampen the initial excitatory effects of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus. PMID:15525338

  17. GABAergic regulation of cerebellar NG2 cell development is altered in perinatal white matter injury.

    PubMed

    Zonouzi, Marzieh; Scafidi, Joseph; Li, Peijun; McEllin, Brian; Edwards, Jorge; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Harvey, Lloyd; Sun, Dandan; Hübner, Christian A; Cull-Candy, Stuart G; Farrant, Mark; Gallo, Vittorio

    2015-05-01

    Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI), a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants, is characterized by reduced oligodendrocyte formation. NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells (NG2 cells) are exposed to various extrinsic regulatory signals, including the neurotransmitter GABA. We investigated GABAergic signaling to cerebellar white matter NG2 cells in a mouse model of DWMI (chronic neonatal hypoxia). We found that hypoxia caused a loss of GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic input to NG2 cells, extensive proliferation of these cells and delayed oligodendrocyte maturation, leading to dysmyelination. Treatment of control mice with a GABAA receptor antagonist or deletion of the chloride-accumulating transporter NKCC1 mimicked the effects of hypoxia. Conversely, blockade of GABA catabolism or GABA uptake reduced NG2 cell numbers and increased the formation of mature oligodendrocytes both in control and hypoxic mice. Our results indicate that GABAergic signaling regulates NG2 cell differentiation and proliferation in vivo, and suggest that its perturbation is a key factor in DWMI. PMID:25821912

  18. Learning-Dependent Plasticity of the Barrel Cortex Is Impaired by Restricting GABA-Ergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Posluszny, Anna; Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Turzynska, Danuta; Zakrzewska, Renata; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Experience-induced plastic changes in the cerebral cortex are accompanied by alterations in excitatory and inhibitory transmission. Increased excitatory drive, necessary for plasticity, precedes the occurrence of plastic change, while decreased inhibitory signaling often facilitates plasticity. However, an increase of inhibitory interactions was noted in some instances of experience-dependent changes. We previously reported an increase in the number of inhibitory markers in the barrel cortex of mice after fear conditioning engaging vibrissae, observed concurrently with enlargement of the cortical representational area of the row of vibrissae receiving conditioned stimulus (CS). We also observed that an increase of GABA level accompanied the conditioning. Here, to find whether unaltered GABAergic signaling is necessary for learning-dependent rewiring in the murine barrel cortex, we locally decreased GABA production in the barrel cortex or reduced transmission through GABAA receptors (GABAARs) at the time of the conditioning. Injections of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), an inhibitor of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), into the barrel cortex prevented learning-induced enlargement of the conditioned vibrissae representation. A similar effect was observed after injection of gabazine, an antagonist of GABAARs. At the behavioral level, consistent conditioned response (cessation of head movements in response to CS) was impaired. These results show that appropriate functioning of the GABAergic system is required for both manifestation of functional cortical representation plasticity and for the development of a conditioned response. PMID:26641862

  19. Pharmacological activation of the GABAergic system does not affect GH and PRL release in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Orio, F; Iovino, M; Monteleone, P; Agrusta, M; Steardo, L; Lombardi, G

    1988-11-01

    An extensive hypothalamic neurotransmitter impairment has been proposed in acromegaly. However, at the moment, the hypothalamic GABAergic system has been little investigated in this disorder. Since GABA has been shown to modulate growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion in human subjects, it seemed reasonable to investigate hypothalamic GABAergic functioning through the assessment of basal GH and PRL responses to pharmacological activation of this system. 800 mg of sodium valproate (SV), a drug with GABA facilitating properties, were administered orally to 7 acromegalic patients and 9 healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected before and after the drug administration for the measurement of plasma GH and PRL levels. SV induced a clear-cut rise in basal GH and a decrease in basal PRL in healthy subjects, but it did not induce any change in the basal levels of these hormones in acromegalics. These results suggest that the response of GH and PRL to SV in acromegaly is qualitatively different from normal controls. PMID:2850985

  20. Abnormal UP/DOWN Membrane Potential Dynamics Coupled with the Neocortical Slow Oscillation in Dentate Granule Cells during the Latent Phase of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy123

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, David W.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Marti, Geoffrey; Robbe, David; Crépel, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The dentate gyrus, a major entry point to the hippocampus, gates (or filters) incoming information from the cortex. During sleep or anesthesia, the slow-wave oscillation (SWO) orchestrates hippocampus–neocortex communication, which is important for memory formation. The dentate gate is altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) early during epileptogenesis, which favors the propagation of pathological activities. Yet, whether the gating of physiological SWO by dentate granule cells (DGCs) is altered in TLE has remained unexplored. We combined intracellular recordings of membrane potential (Vm) of DGCs and local field potential recordings of the SWO in parietal cortex in anesthetized rats early during epileptogenesis [post-status epilepticus (SE) rats]. As expected, in control rats, the Vm of DGCs weakly and rarely oscillated in the SWO frequency range. In contrast, in post-SE rats, the Vm of DGCs displayed strong and long-lasting SWO. In these cells, clear UP and DOWN states, in phase with the neocortical SWO, led to a bimodal Vm distribution. In post-SE rats, the firing of DGCs was increased and more temporally modulated by the neocortical SWO. We conclude that UP/DOWN state dynamics dominate the Vm of DGCs and firing early during epileptogenesis. This abnormally strong neocortical influence on the dynamics of DGCs may profoundly modify the hippocampus–neocortex dialogue during sleep and associated cognitive functions. PMID:27257629

  1. GABAergic feedback signaling into the calyces of the mushroom bodies enables olfactory reversal learning in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Boitard, Constance; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Isabel, Guillaume; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In reversal learning, subjects first learn to respond to a reinforced stimulus A and not to a non-reinforced stimulus B (A+ vs. B−) and then have to learn the opposite when stimulus contingencies are reversed (A− vs. B+). This change in stimulus valence generates a transitory ambiguity at the level of stimulus outcome that needs to be overcome to solve the second discrimination. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) efficiently master reversal learning in the olfactory domain. The mushroom bodies (MBs), higher-order structures of the insect brain, are required to solve this task. Here we aimed at uncovering the neural circuits facilitating reversal learning in honey bees. We trained bees using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) coupled with localized pharmacological inhibition of Gamma-AminoButyric Acid (GABA)ergic signaling in the MBs. We show that inhibition of ionotropic but not metabotropic GABAergic signaling into the MB calyces impairs reversal learning, but leaves intact the capacity to perform two consecutive elemental olfactory discriminations with ambiguity of stimulus valence. On the contrary, inhibition of ionotropic GABAergic signaling into the MB lobes had no effect on reversal learning. Our results are thus consistent with a specific requirement of the feedback neurons (FNs) providing ionotropic GABAergic signaling from the MB lobes to the calyces for counteracting ambiguity of stimulus valence in reversal learning. PMID:26283938

  2. A Subpopulation of Olfactory Bulb GABAergic Interneurons Is Derived from Emx1- and Dlx5/6-Expressing Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Kohwi, Minoree; Petryniak, Magdalena A.; Long, Jason E.; Ekker, Marc; Obata, Kunihiko; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the postnatal brain continuously generates olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons. We show that calretinin+, calbindin+, and dopaminergic (TH+) periglomerular OB interneurons correspond to distinct subtypes of GABAergic cells; all were produced in the postnatal mouse brain, but they matured and were eliminated at different rates. The embryonic lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) is thought to be the site of origin of postnatal SVZ neural progenitors. Consistently, grafts of the embryonic LGE into the adult brain SVZ generated many OB interneurons, including TH+ and calbindin+ periglomerular interneurons. However, calretinin+ cells were not produced from these LGE grafts. Surprisingly, pallial and septal embryonic progenitors transplanted into the adult brain SVZ also resulted in the generation of OB interneurons, including calretinin+ cells. A subset of Dlx2+ OB interneurons was derived from cells expressing Emx1, a transcription factor largely restricted to the pallium during development. Emx1 lineage-derived cells contributed a substantial portion of GABAergic cells in the OB, including calretinin+ interneurons. This is in contrast to cortex, in which Emx1 lineage-derived cells do not differentiate into GABAergic neurons. Our results suggest that some OB interneurons are derived from progenitors outside the LGE and that precursors expressing what has classically been considered a pallial transcription factor generate GABAergic interneurons. PMID:17596436

  3. Age-related changes in rostral basal forebrain cholinergic and GABAergic projection neurons: Relationship with spatial impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bañuelos, C.; LaSarge, C. L.; McQuail, J. A.; Hartman, J. J.; Gilbert, R. J.; Ormerod, B. K.; Bizon, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Both cholinergic and GABAergic projections from the rostral basal forebrain have been implicated in hippocampal function and mnemonic abilities. While dysfunction of cholinergic neurons has been heavily implicated in age-related memory decline, significantly less is known regarding how age-related changes in co-distributed GABAergic projection neurons contribute to a decline in hippocampal-dependent spatial learning. In the current study, confocal stereology was used to quantify cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunopositive) neurons, GABAergic projection (glutamic decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) immunopositive) neurons, and total (NeuN immunopositive) neurons in the rostral basal forebrain of young and aged rats that were first characterized on a spatial learning task. ChAT immunopositive neurons were significantly but modestly reduced in aged rats. Although ChAT immunopositive neuron number was strongly correlated with spatial learning abilities among young rats, the reduction of ChAT immunopositive neurons was not associated with impaired spatial learning in aged rats. In contrast, the number of GAD67 immunopositive neurons was robustly and selectively elevated in aged rats that exhibited impaired spatial learning. Interestingly, the total number of rostral basal forebrain neurons was comparable in young and aged rats, regardless of their cognitive status. These data demonstrate differential effects of age on phenotypically distinct rostral basal forebrain projection neurons, and implicate dysregulated cholinergic and GABAergic septohippocampal circuitry in age-related mnemonic decline. PMID:22817834

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of GABAergic key molecules in the main olfactory bulb of the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongtae; Takayama, Chitoshi; Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Moon, Changjong; Shin, Taekyun

    2015-09-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) negatively regulates the excitatory activity of neurons and is a predominant neurotransmitter in the nervous system. The olfactory bulb, the main center in the olfactory system, is modulated by inhibitory interneurons that use GABA as their main neurotransmitter. The present study aimed to evaluate GABAergic transmission in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of the Korean roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) by examining the immunohistochemical localization of GABAergic key molecules, including glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), GABA transporters (GATs; GAT-1 and GAT-3), and potassium sodium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2). GAD, VGAT, and KCC2 were expressed in the glomerular layer (GL), external plexiform layer (ePL), mitral cell layer (ML), and granule cell layer (GrL). Intense GAT-1 expression was observed in the GL; GAT-1 expression was discernible in the ePL, ML, and GrL. However, intense GAT-3 expression was extensively observed in all layers of the MOB. These results suggest that substantial GABAergic synapses are present in the GL, ePL, ML, and GrL. Furthermore, the released GABA may be removed by GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the GL, and the majority of GABA, which is present in the ePL to GrL, may undergo reuptake by GAT-3. This is the first morphological and descriptive study of GABAergic transmission in the MOB of Korean roe deer. PMID:26115600

  5. GABAergic feedback signaling into the calyces of the mushroom bodies enables olfactory reversal learning in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Boitard, Constance; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Isabel, Guillaume; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In reversal learning, subjects first learn to respond to a reinforced stimulus A and not to a non-reinforced stimulus B (A(+) vs. B(-)) and then have to learn the opposite when stimulus contingencies are reversed (A(-) vs. B(+)). This change in stimulus valence generates a transitory ambiguity at the level of stimulus outcome that needs to be overcome to solve the second discrimination. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) efficiently master reversal learning in the olfactory domain. The mushroom bodies (MBs), higher-order structures of the insect brain, are required to solve this task. Here we aimed at uncovering the neural circuits facilitating reversal learning in honey bees. We trained bees using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) coupled with localized pharmacological inhibition of Gamma-AminoButyric Acid (GABA)ergic signaling in the MBs. We show that inhibition of ionotropic but not metabotropic GABAergic signaling into the MB calyces impairs reversal learning, but leaves intact the capacity to perform two consecutive elemental olfactory discriminations with ambiguity of stimulus valence. On the contrary, inhibition of ionotropic GABAergic signaling into the MB lobes had no effect on reversal learning. Our results are thus consistent with a specific requirement of the feedback neurons (FNs) providing ionotropic GABAergic signaling from the MB lobes to the calyces for counteracting ambiguity of stimulus valence in reversal learning. PMID:26283938

  6. Analysis of primary visual cortex in dementia with Lewy bodies indicates GABAergic involvement associated with recurrent complex visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Khundakar, Ahmad A; Hanson, Peter S; Erskine, Daniel; Lax, Nichola Z; Roscamp, Joseph; Karyka, Evangelia; Tsefou, Eliona; Singh, Preeti; Cockell, Simon J; Gribben, Andrew; Ramsay, Lynne; Blain, Peter G; Mosimann, Urs P; Lett, Deborah J; Elstner, Matthias; Turnbull, Douglass M; Xiang, Charles C; Brownstein, Michael J; O'Brien, John T; Taylor, John-Paul; Attems, Johannes; Thomas, Alan J; McKeith, Ian G; Morris, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients frequently experience well formed recurrent complex visual hallucinations (RCVH). This is associated with reduced blood flow or hypometabolism on imaging of the primary visual cortex. To understand these associations in DLB we used pathological and biochemical analysis of the primary visual cortex to identify changes that could underpin RCVH. Alpha-synuclein or neurofibrillary tangle pathology in primary visual cortex was essentially absent. Neurone density or volume within the primary visual cortex in DLB was also unchanged using unbiased stereology. Microarray analysis, however, demonstrated changes in neuropeptide gene expression and other markers, indicating altered GABAergic neuronal function. Calcium binding protein and GAD65/67 immunohistochemistry showed preserved interneurone populations indicating possible interneurone dysfunction. This was demonstrated by loss of post synaptic GABA receptor markers including gephyrin, GABARAP, and Kif5A, indicating reduced GABAergic synaptic activity. Glutamatergic neuronal signalling was also altered with vesicular glutamate transporter protein and PSD-95 expression being reduced. Changes to the primary visual cortex in DLB indicate that reduced GABAergic transmission may contribute to RCVH in DLB and treatment using targeted GABAergic modulation or similar approaches using glutamatergic modification may be beneficial. PMID:27357212

  7. Pathological alterations in GABAergic interneurons and reduced tonic inhibition in the basolateral amygdala during epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, B; Qashu, F; Figueiredo, T H; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, V; Rogawski, M A; Braga, M F M

    2009-09-29

    An acute brain insult such as traumatic head/brain injury, stroke, or an episode of status epilepticus can trigger epileptogenesis, which, after a latent, seizure-free period, leads to epilepsy. The discovery of effective pharmacological interventions that can prevent the development of epilepsy requires knowledge of the alterations that occur during epileptogenesis in brain regions that play a central role in the induction and expression of epilepsy. In the present study, we investigated pathological alterations in GABAergic interneurons in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA), and the functional impact of these alterations on inhibitory synaptic transmission, on days 7 to 10 after status epilepticus induced by kainic acid. Using design-based stereology combined with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 immunohistochemistry, we found a more extensive loss of GABAergic interneurons compared to the loss of principal cells. Fluoro-Jade C staining showed that neuronal degeneration was still ongoing. These alterations were accompanied by an increase in the levels of GAD and the alpha1 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor, and a reduction in the GluK1 (previously known as GluR5) subunit, as determined by Western blots. Whole-cell recordings from BLA pyramidal neurons showed a significant reduction in the frequency and amplitude of action potential-dependent spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), a reduced frequency but not amplitude of miniature IPSCs, and impairment in the modulation of IPSCs via GluK1-containing kainate receptors (GluK1Rs). Thus, in the BLA, GABAergic interneurons are more vulnerable to seizure-induced damage than principal cells. Surviving interneurons increase their expression of GAD and the alpha1 GABA(A) receptor subunit, but this does not compensate for the interneuronal loss; the result is a dramatic reduction of tonic inhibition in the BLA circuitry. As activation of GluK1Rs by ambient levels of glutamate facilitates GABA release, the

  8. Extended neocortical maturation time encompasses speciation, fatty acid and lateralization theories of the evolution of schizophrenia and creativity.

    PubMed

    Seldon, H Lee

    2007-01-01

    I suggest that the extended maturation time of some regions of the human neocortex is the uniquely human factor which allows the development of language, creativity and madness. The genetic event or events which contribute to the long delay to final maturation occurred at or after the speciation of Homo sapiens sapiens. Neocortical growth may follow the previously detailed "balloon model", which suggests that intra- and subcortical myelin production during development physically stretches each local area of the cortex tangentially to the pial surface, thereby causing neuronal columns to become more disjoint and more functionally independent, thereby increasing the functional capacity of the area [Seldon HL. Does brain white matter growth expand the cortex like a balloon? Hypothesis and consequences. Laterality 2005;10(1):81-95]. This occurs in addition to Hebbian synaptic modeling. Therefore, the size and functional capacity of each cytoarchitectonic area of each individual adult neocortex are the outcomes of partly deterministic (e.g., genetic) and partly statistical growth processes with numerous factors including environmental stimuli and fatty acid content in diets. The possible functional capacity and variation among growth outcomes increase with the length of time allowed to "finalize" synaptic weights, myelination and other plastic processes. For example, acquisition of quite differing linguistic skills becomes possible only in Homo sapiens because of the extended, decades-long plasticity of temporal lobe areas; in contrast, tactile skills vary little among human races and cultures, or even among higher primates, because of the faster maturation of the somatomotor areas. Some of the statistically extreme variations of the neocortical growth processes lead to abnormal cognition and behavior called "madness" or "genius". This maturation hypothesis overcomes some problems with those based purely on fatty acid metabolism or on functional asymmetry (non

  9. Low-frequency electrical stimulation enhances the effectiveness of phenobarbital on GABAergic currents in hippocampal slices of kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Azam; Semnanian, Saeed; Atapour, Nafiseh; Shojaei, Amir; Moradi-Chameh, Homeira; Ghafouri, Samireh; Sheibani, Vahid; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad

    2016-08-25

    Low frequency stimulation (LFS) has been proposed as a new approach in the treatment of epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism of LFS may be through its effect on GABAA receptors, which are the main target of phenobarbital anticonvulsant action. We supposed that co-application of LFS and phenobarbital may increase the efficacy of phenobarbital. Therefore, the interaction of LFS and phenobarbital on GABAergic inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in kindled and control rats was investigated. Animals were kindled by electrical stimulation of basolateral amygdala in a semi rapid manner (12 stimulations/day). The effect of phenobarbital, LFS and phenobarbital+LFS was investigated on GABAA-mediated evoked and miniature IPSCs in the hippocampal brain slices in control and fully kindled animals. Phenobarbital and LFS had positive interaction on GABAergic currents. In vitro co-application of an ineffective pattern of LFS (100 pulses at afterdischarge threshold intensity) and a sub-threshold dose of phenobarbital (100μM) which had no significant effect on GABAergic currents alone, increased the amplitude and area under curve of GABAergic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons of hippocampal slices significantly. Interestingly, the sub-threshold dose of phenobarbital potentiated the GABAergic currents when applied on the hippocampal slices of kindled animals which received LFS in vivo. Post-synaptic mechanisms may be involved in observed interactions. Obtained results implied a positive interaction between LFS and phenobarbital through GABAA currents. It may be suggested that a combined therapy of phenobarbital and LFS may be a useful manner for reinforcing the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital. PMID:27235746

  10. Interactions between hypocretinergic and GABAergic systems in the control of activity of neurons in the cat pontine reticular formation.

    PubMed

    Xi, M; Fung, S J; Yamuy, J; Chase, M H

    2015-07-01

    Anatomical studies have demonstrated that hypocretinergic and GABAergic neurons innervate cells in the nucleus pontis oralis (NPO), a nucleus responsible for the generation of active (rapid eye movement (REM)) sleep (AS) and wakefulness (W). Behavioral and electrophysiological studies have shown that hypocretinergic and GABAergic processes in the NPO are involved in the generation of AS as well as W. An increase in hypocretin in the NPO is associated with both AS and W, whereas GABA levels in the NPO are elevated during W. We therefore examined the manner in which GABA modulates NPO neuronal responses to hypocretin. We hypothesized that interactions between the hypocretinergic and GABAergic systems in the NPO play an important role in determining the occurrence of AS or W. To determine the veracity of this hypothesis, we examined the effects of the juxtacellular application of hypocretin-1 and GABA on the activity of NPO neurons, which were recorded intracellularly, in chloralose-anesthetized cats. The juxtacellular application of hypocretin-1 significantly increased the mean amplitude of spontaneous EPSPs and the frequency of discharge of NPO neurons; in contrast, the juxtacellular microinjection of GABA produced the opposite effects, i.e., there was a significant reduction in the mean amplitude of spontaneous EPSPs and a decrease in the discharge of these cells. When hypocretin-1 and GABA were applied simultaneously, the inhibitory effect of GABA on the activity of NPO neurons was reduced or completely blocked. In addition, hypocretin-1 also blocked GABAergic inhibition of EPSPs evoked by stimulation of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. These data indicate that hypocretin and GABA function within the context of a neuronal gate that controls the activity of AS-on neurons. Therefore, we suggest that the occurrence of either AS or W depends upon interactions between hypocretinergic and GABAergic processes as well as inputs from other sites that project to AS

  11. Effects of Repeated Stress on Age-Dependent GABAergic Regulation of the Lateral Nucleus of the Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2016-08-01

    The adolescent age is associated with lability of mood and emotion. The onset of depression and anxiety disorders peaks during adolescence and there are differences in symptomology during adolescence. This points to differences in the adolescent neural circuitry that underlies mood and emotion, such as the amygdala. The human adolescent amygdala is more responsive to evocative stimuli, hinting to less local inhibitory regulation of the amygdala, but this has not been explored in adolescents. The amygdala, including the lateral nucleus (LAT) of the basolateral amygdala complex, is sensitive to stress. The amygdala undergoes maturational processes during adolescence, and therefore may be more vulnerable to harmful effects of stress during this time period. However, little is known about the effects of stress on the LAT during adolescence. GABAergic inhibition is a key regulator of LAT activity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test whether there are differences in the local GABAergic regulation of the rat adolescent LAT, and differences in its sensitivity to repeated stress. We found that LAT projection neurons are subjected to weaker GABAergic inhibition during adolescence. Repeated stress reduced in vivo endogenous and exogenous GABAergic inhibition of LAT projection neurons in adolescent rats. Furthermore, repeated stress decreased measures of presynaptic GABA function and interneuron activity in adolescent rats. In contrast, repeated stress enhanced glutamatergic drive of LAT projection neurons in adult rats. These results demonstrate age differences in GABAergic regulation of the LAT, and age differences in the mechanism for the effects of repeated stress on LAT neuron activity. These findings provide a substrate for increased mood lability in adolescents, and provide a substrate by which adolescent repeated stress can induce distinct behavioral outcomes and psychiatric symptoms. PMID:26924679

  12. Presynaptic GABAergic inhibition regulated by BDNF contributes to neuropathic pain induction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeremy Tsung-chieh; Guo, Da; Campanelli, Dario; Frattini, Flavia; Mayer, Florian; Zhou, Luming; Kuner, Rohini; Heppenstall, Paul A; Knipper, Marlies; Hu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The gate control theory proposes the importance of both pre- and post-synaptic inhibition in processing pain signal in the spinal cord. However, although postsynaptic disinhibition caused by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proved as a crucial mechanism underlying neuropathic pain, the function of presynaptic inhibition in acute and neuropathic pain remains elusive. Here we show that a transient shift in the reversal potential (EGABA) together with a decline in the conductance of presynaptic GABAA receptor result in a reduction of presynaptic inhibition after nerve injury. BDNF mimics, whereas blockade of BDNF signalling reverses, the alteration in GABAA receptor function and the neuropathic pain syndrome. Finally, genetic disruption of presynaptic inhibition leads to spontaneous development of behavioural hypersensitivity, which cannot be further sensitized by nerve lesions or BDNF. Our results reveal a novel effect of BDNF on presynaptic GABAergic inhibition after nerve injury and may represent new strategy for treating neuropathic pain. PMID:25354791

  13. Polycomb Ezh2 controls the fate of GABAergic neurons in the embryonic cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xuesong; Juan, Aster H; Wang, Hongjun A; Ko, Kyung Dae; Zare, Hossein; Sartorelli, Vittorio

    2016-06-01

    Although the genetic interactions between signaling pathways and transcription factors have been largely decoded, much remains to be learned about the epigenetic regulation of cerebellar development. Here, we report that cerebellar deletion of Ezh2, the methyltransferase subunit of the PRC2 complex, results in reduced H3K27me3 and profound transcriptional dysregulation, including that of a set of transcription factors directly involved in cerebellar neuronal cell-type specification and differentiation. Such transcriptional changes lead to increased GABAergic interneurons and decreased Purkinje cells. Transcriptional changes also inhibit the proliferation of granule precursor cells derived from the rhombic lip. The loss of both cell types ultimately results in cerebellar hypoplasia. These findings indicate Ezh2/PRC2 plays crucial roles in regulating neurogenesis from both cerebellar germinal zones. PMID:27068104

  14. Electrical Remodeling of Preoptic GABAergic Neurons Involves the Kv1.5 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Tabarean, Iustin V.

    2014-01-01

    The electrogenic machinery of an excitable cell can adapt in response to changes in input, genetic deficit or in pathological conditions, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not understood. In cases of genetic deletion it is commonly observed that a channel subunit from the same family replaces the missing one. We have previously reported that Kv4.2−/− preoptic GABAergic neurons display identical firing characteristics to those of wild-type neurons despite having reduced A-type currents, and that, surprisingly, they present a robust upregulation of a delayed rectifier current, the nature of which is unknown. Here, using pharmacology, qPCR and Western blots we report that, although the wild-type neurons express several Kv subunits, the upregulated current is conducted by the Kv1.5 subunit exclusively. Thus, this study reveals the molecular nature of a novel mechanism of electrical remodeling in central neurons. PMID:24797243

  15. Electrical remodeling of preoptic GABAergic neurons involves the Kv1.5 subunit.

    PubMed

    Tabarean, Iustin V

    2014-01-01

    The electrogenic machinery of an excitable cell can adapt in response to changes in input, genetic deficit or in pathological conditions, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not understood. In cases of genetic deletion it is commonly observed that a channel subunit from the same family replaces the missing one. We have previously reported that Kv4.2-/- preoptic GABAergic neurons display identical firing characteristics to those of wild-type neurons despite having reduced A-type currents, and that, surprisingly, they present a robust upregulation of a delayed rectifier current, the nature of which is unknown. Here, using pharmacology, qPCR and Western blots we report that, although the wild-type neurons express several Kv subunits, the upregulated current is conducted by the Kv1.5 subunit exclusively. Thus, this study reveals the molecular nature of a novel mechanism of electrical remodeling in central neurons. PMID:24797243

  16. Treating enhanced GABAergic inhibition in Down syndrome: use of GABA α5-selective inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Delatour, Benoît; Potier, Marie-Claude

    2014-10-01

    Excess inhibition in the brain of individuals carrying an extra copy of chromosome 21 could be responsible for cognitive deficits observed throughout their lives. A change in the excitatory/inhibitory balance in adulthood would alter synaptic plasticity, potentially triggering learning and memory deficits. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature central nervous system and binds to GABAA receptors, opens a chloride channel, and reduces neuronal excitability. In this review we discuss methods to alleviate neuronal inhibition in a mouse model of Down syndrome, the Ts65Dn mouse, using either an antagonist (pentylenetetrazol) or two different inverse agonists selective for the α5-subunit containing receptor. Both inverse agonists, which reduce inhibitory GABAergic transmission, could rescue learning and memory deficits in Ts65Dn mice. We also discuss safety issues since modulation of the excitatory-inhibitory balance to improve cognition without inducing seizures remains particularly difficult when using GABA antagonists. PMID:24412222

  17. Presynaptic GABAergic inhibition regulated by BDNF contributes to neuropathic pain induction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeremy Tsung-chieh; Guo, Da; Campanelli, Dario; Frattini, Flavia; Mayer, Florian; Zhou, Luming; Kuner, Rohini; Heppenstall, Paul A.; Knipper, Marlies; Hu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The gate control theory proposes the importance of both pre- and post-synaptic inhibition in processing pain signal in the spinal cord. However, although postsynaptic disinhibition caused by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proved as a crucial mechanism underlying neuropathic pain, the function of presynaptic inhibition in acute and neuropathic pain remains elusive. Here we show that a transient shift in the reversal potential (EGABA) together with a decline in the conductance of presynaptic GABAA receptor result in a reduction of presynaptic inhibition after nerve injury. BDNF mimics, whereas blockade of BDNF signalling reverses, the alteration in GABAA receptor function and the neuropathic pain syndrome. Finally, genetic disruption of presynaptic inhibition leads to spontaneous development of behavioural hypersensitivity, which cannot be further sensitized by nerve lesions or BDNF. Our results reveal a novel effect of BDNF on presynaptic GABAergic inhibition after nerve injury and may represent new strategy for treating neuropathic pain. PMID:25354791

  18. Opposing Dopaminergic and GABAergic Neurons Control the Duration and Persistence of Copulation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Crickmore, Michael A.; Vosshall, Leslie B.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Behavioral persistence is a major factor in determiningwhen and under which circumstances animals will terminate their current activity and transition into more profitable, appropriate, or urgent behavior. We show that, for the first 5 min of copulation in Drosophila, stressful stimuli do not interrupt mating, whereas 10 min later, even minor perturbations are sufficient to terminate copulation. This decline in persistence occurs as the probability of successful mating increases and is promoted by approximately eight sexually dimorphic, GABAergic interneurons of the male abdominal ganglion. When these interneurons were silenced, persistence increased and males copulated far longer than required for successful mating. When these interneurons were stimulated, persistence decreased and copulations were shortened. In contrast, dopaminergic neurons of the ventral nerve cord promote copulation persistence and extend copulation duration. Thus, copulation duration in Drosophila is a product of gradually declining persistence controlled by opposing neuronal populations using conserved neurotransmission systems. PMID:24209625

  19. Cannabinoids Occlude the HIV-1 Tat-Induced Decrease in GABAergic Neurotransmission in Prefrontal Cortex Slices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Hermes, Douglas J; Mackie, Ken; Lichtman, Aron H; Ignatowska-Jankowska, Bogna M; Fitting, Sylvia

    2016-06-01

    In the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is now considered a chronic disease that specifically targets the brain and causes HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Endocannabinoids exhibit neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties in several central nervous system (CNS) disease models, but their effects in HAND are poorly understood. To address this issue, whole-cell recordings were performed on young (14-24 day old) C57BL/6J mice. We investigated the actions of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (1 μM) and the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide; AEA, 1 μM) in the presence of HIV-1 Tat on GABAergic neurotransmission in mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC) slices. We found a Tat concentration-dependent (5-50 nM) decrease in the frequency and amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist rimonabant (1 μM) and zero extracellular calcium prevented the significant Tat-induced decrease in mIPSCs. Further, bath-applied WIN55,212-2 or AEA by itself, significantly decreased the frequency, but not amplitude of mIPSCs and/or spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs), and occluded a further downregulation of IPSCs by Tat. Pretreatment with rimonabant but not the CB2R antagonist AM630 (1 μM) prevented the WIN55,212-2- and AEA-induced decrease in IPSCs frequency without any further Tat effect. Results indicated a Tat-induced decrease in GABAergic neurotransmission, which was occluded by cannabinoids via a CB1R-related mechanism. Understanding the relationship between Tat toxicity and endocannabinoid signaling has the potential to identify novel therapeutic interventions to benefit individuals suffering from HAND and other cognitive impairments. PMID:26993829

  20. Comparison of spike parameters from optically identified GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in sparse cortical cultures

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Keiko; Blanquie, Oriane; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Sinning, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Primary neuronal cultures share many typical features with the in vivo situation, including similarities in distinct electrical activity patterns and synaptic network interactions. Here, we use multi-electrode array (MEA) recordings from spontaneously active cultures of wildtype and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice to evaluate which spike parameters differ between GABAergic interneurons and principal, putatively glutamatergic neurons. To analyze this question we combine MEA recordings with optical imaging in sparse cortical cultures to assign individual spikes to visually-identified single neurons. In our culture system, excitatory and inhibitory neurons are present at a similar ratio as described in vivo, and spike waveform characteristics and firing patterns are fully developed after 2 weeks in vitro. Spike amplitude, but not other spike waveform parameters, correlated with the distance between the recording electrode and the location of the assigned neuron’s soma. Cluster analysis of spike waveform properties revealed no particular cell population that may be assigned to putative inhibitory or excitatory neurons. Moreover, experiments in primary cultures from transgenic GAD67-GFP mice, which allow optical identification of GABAergic interneurons and thus unambiguous assignment of extracellular signals, did not reveal any significant difference in spike timing and spike waveform parameters between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. Despite of our detailed characterization of spike waveform and temporal spiking properties we could not identify an unequivocal electrical parameter to discriminate between individual excitatory and inhibitory neurons in vitro. Our data suggest that under in vitro conditions cellular classifications of single neurons on the basis of their extracellular firing properties should be treated with caution. PMID:25642167

  1. GABAergic Control of Critical Developmental Periods for Anxiety- and Depression-Related Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiuying; Fuchs, Thomas; Sahir, Nadia; Luscher, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability for anxiety and depressive disorders is thought to have origins in early life and is increasingly recognized to involve deficits in GABAergic neurotransmission. Mice that were rendered heterozygous for the γ2 subunit gene of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) show behavioral, cognitive, neuroendocrine and pharmacologic features expected of a mouse model of melancholic anxious depression, including reduced survival of adult-born hippocampal neurons. Here we embarked on elucidating the developmental substrate underlying this phenotype, focusing on the Elevated Plus Maze and Forced Swim Test as relevant behavioral paradigms. In a first series of experiments using hemizygous tamoxifen-induced genetic inactivation of a floxed γ2 genomic locus we show that reducing the gene dosage at postnatal days (P)13/14 but not P27/28 results in altered behavior in both of these tests in adulthood, reminiscent of the anxious-depressive phenotype previously described for global heterozygous mice. However, in contrast to global heterozygous mice, the behavioral changes induced by γ2 subunit knockdown at P13/14 occurred without changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, indicating that altered neurogenesis is not an absolute prerequisite for anxiety- and depression-related behavior in this model. In a separate series of experiments using a pharmacological approach, acute but transient potentiation of GABAARs with diazepam uncovered distinct developmental vulnerabilities for altered behavior in the Elevated Plus Maze and Forced Swim Test, respectively. Specifically, diazepam given during P10-16 but not during later weeks resulted in increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood, while diazepam administered during P29-35 but not earlier nor later resulted in increased immobility behavior in adulthood. We conclude that anxiety-like behavior in the Elevated Plus Maze and behavioral despair-like immobility in the Forced Swim Test are controlled by separate postnatal critical periods

  2. GABAergic control of the ascending input from the median raphe nucleus to the limbic system.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaomin; Varga, Viktor; Sik, Attila; Kocsis, Bernat

    2005-10-01

    The median raphe nucleus (MRN) is the primary source of serotonergic afferents to the limbic system that are generally considered to suppress hippocampal theta oscillations. GABA receptors are expressed in the MRN by serotonergic and nonserotonergic cells, including GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. This study investigated the mechanisms by which the fluctuating GABA tone in the MRN leads to induction or suppression of hippocampal theta rhythm. We found that MRN application of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol (0.05-1.0 mM) or GABA(B) agonist baclofen (0.2 mM) by reverse microdialysis had strong theta promoting effects. The GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline infused in low concentrations (0.1, 0.2 mM) eliminated theta rhythm. A short period of theta activity of higher than normal frequency preceded hippocampal desynchronization in 46% of rats. Bicuculline in larger concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mM) resulted in a biphasic response of an initial short (<10 min) hippocampal desynchronization followed by stable theta rhythm that lasted as long as the infusion continued. The frequency and amplitude of theta waves were higher than in control recordings and the oscillations showed a conspicuous intermittent character. Hippocampal theta rhythm elicited by MRN administration of bicuculline could be completely (0.5 mM bicuculline) or partially (1.0 mM bicuculline) blocked by simultaneous infusion of the GABA(B) antagonist CGP35348. Our findings suggest that the GABAergic network may have two opposing functions in the MRN: relieving the theta-generators from serotonergic inhibition and regulating the activity of a theta-promoting circuitry by the fluctuating GABA tone. The two mechanisms may be involved in different functions. PMID:15944232

  3. Lamina-specific contribution of glutamatergic and GABAergic potentials to hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes

    PubMed Central

    Schönberger, Jan; Draguhn, Andreas; Both, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian hippocampus expresses highly organized patterns of neuronal activity which form a neuronal correlate of spatial memories. These memory-encoding neuronal ensembles form on top of different network oscillations which entrain neurons in a state- and experience-dependent manner. The mechanisms underlying activation, timing and selection of participating neurons are incompletely understood. Here we studied the synaptic mechanisms underlying one prominent network pattern called sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R) which are involved in memory consolidation during sleep. We recorded SPW-R with extracellular electrodes along the different layers of area CA1 in mouse hippocampal slices. Contribution of glutamatergic excitation and GABAergic inhibition, respectively, was probed by local application of receptor antagonists into s. radiatum, pyramidale and oriens. Laminar profiles of field potentials show that GABAergic potentials contribute substantially to sharp waves and superimposed ripple oscillations in s. pyramidale. Inhibitory inputs to s. pyramidale and s. oriens are crucial for action potential timing by ripple oscillations, as revealed by multiunit-recordings in the pyramidal cell layer. Glutamatergic afferents, on the other hand, contribute to sharp waves in s. radiatum where they also evoke a fast oscillation at ~200 Hz. Surprisingly, field ripples in s. radiatum are slightly slower than ripples in s. pyramidale, resulting in a systematic shift between dendritic and somatic oscillations. This complex interplay between dendritic excitation and perisomatic inhibition may be responsible for the precise timing of discharge probability during the time course of SPW-R. Together, our data illustrate a complementary role of spatially confined excitatory and inhibitory transmission during highly ordered network patterns in the hippocampus. PMID:25202239

  4. Aldrin-induced locomotor activity: possible involvement of the central GABAergic-cholinergic-dopaminergic interaction.

    PubMed

    Jamaluddin, S; Poddar, M K

    2001-01-01

    Aldrin (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.) under nontolerant condition, administered either for a single day or for 12 consecutive days, enhanced locomotor activity (LA) of rats. The increase in LA was greater in rats treated with aldrin for 12 consecutive days than that observed with a single dose. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the involvement of possible interactions of central GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic systems using their agonist(s) and antagonist(s) in the regulation of LA in aldrin nontolerant rats. Administration of either L-DOPA along with carbidopa or bicuculline potentiated aldrin-induced increase in LA under nontolerant condition as well as LA of the control rats. Treatment with muscimol, haloperidol, atropine or physostigmine all decreased the LA of both aldrin nontolerant and control rats. Further, the application of (a) haloperidol along with bicuculline, atropine or physostigmine and (b) physostigmine along with bicuculline or L-DOPA + carbidopa significantly reduced LA but L-DOPA + carbidopa along with atropine or bicuculline increased LA of the control rats. These agonist(s)/antagonist(s)-induced decrease or increase in LA of the control rats were attenuated or potentiated, respectively, when those agonist(s)/antagonist(s) under abovementioned condition were administered to aldrin nontolerant rats. The attenuating or potentiating effects of aldrin on agonist(s)/antagonist(s) (either individually or in different combinations)-induced change in LA were greater in rats treated with aldrin for 12 consecutive days than that observed with a single-dose aldrin treatment. These results suggest that aldrin, under nontolerant condition, reduces central GABAergic activity and increases LA by activating dopaminergic system via inhibition of cholinergic activity. The treatment with aldrin for 12 consecutive days produces greater effect than that caused by a single-day treatment. PMID:11785907

  5. Leptin-Responsive GABAergic Neurons Regulate Fertility through Pathways That Result in Reduced Kisspeptinergic Tone

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Cecilia; Navarro, Víctor M.; Simavli, Serap; Vong, Linh; Carroll, Rona S.; Lowell, Bradford B.

    2014-01-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role in the central transmission of energy balance to modulate reproductive function. However, the neurocircuitry underlying this interaction remains elusive, in part due to incomplete knowledge of first-order leptin-responsive neurons. To address this gap, we explored the contribution of predominantly inhibitory (GABAergic) neurons versus excitatory (glutamatergic) neurons in the female mouse by selective ablation of the leptin receptor in each neuronal population: Vgat-Cre;Leprlox/lox and Vglut2-Cre;Leprlox/lox mice, respectively. Female Vgat-Cre;Leprlox/lox but not Vglut2-Cre;Leprlox/lox mice were obese. Vgat-Cre;Leprlox/lox mice had delayed or absent vaginal opening, persistent diestrus, and atrophic reproductive tracts with absent corpora lutea. In contrast, Vglut2-Cre;Leprlox/lox females exhibited reproductive maturation and function comparable to Leprlox/lox control mice. Intracerebroventricular administration of kisspeptin-10 to Vgat-Cre;Leprlox/lox female mice elicited robust gonadotropin responses, suggesting normal gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal and gonadotrope function. However, adult ovariectomized Vgat-Cre;Leprlox/lox mice displayed significantly reduced levels of Kiss1 (but not Tac2) mRNA in the arcuate nucleus, and a reduced compensatory luteinizing hormone increase compared with control animals. Estradiol replacement after ovariectomy inhibited gonadotropin release to a similar extent in both groups. These animals also exhibited a compromised positive feedback response to sex steroids, as shown by significantly lower Kiss1 mRNA levels in the AVPV, compared with Leprlox/lox mice. We conclude that leptin-responsive GABAergic neurons, but not glutamatergic neurons, act as metabolic sensors to regulate fertility, at least in part through modulatory effects on kisspeptin neurons. PMID:24760864

  6. Optogenetic activation of neocortical neurons in vivo with a sapphire-based micro-scale LED probe

    PubMed Central

    McAlinden, Niall; Gu, Erdan; Dawson, Martin D.; Sakata, Shuzo; Mathieson, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics has proven to be a revolutionary technology in neuroscience and has advanced continuously over the past decade. However, optical stimulation technologies for in vivo need to be developed to match the advances in genetics and biochemistry that have driven this field. In particular, conventional approaches for in vivo optical illumination have a limitation on the achievable spatio-temporal resolution. Here we utilize a sapphire-based microscale gallium nitride light-emitting diode (μLED) probe to activate neocortical neurons in vivo. The probes were designed to contain independently controllable multiple μLEDs, emitting at 450 nm wavelength with an irradiance of up to 2 W/mm2. Monte-Carlo stimulations predicted that optical stimulation using a μLED can modulate neural activity within a localized region. To validate this prediction, we tested this probe in the mouse neocortex that expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and compared the results with optical stimulation through a fiber at the cortical surface. We confirmed that both approaches reliably induced action potentials in cortical neurons and that the μLED probe evoked strong responses in deep neurons. Due to the possibility to integrate many optical stimulation sites onto a single shank, the μLED probe is thus a promising approach to control neurons locally in vivo. PMID:26074778

  7. Optogenetic drive of neocortical pyramidal neurons generates fMRI signals that are correlated with spiking activity

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, I.; Knoblich, U.; Desai, M.; Bernstein, J.; Graybiel, A.M.; Boyden, E.S.; Buckner, R.L.; Moore, C.I.

    2013-01-01

    Local fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal serve as the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Understanding the correlation between distinct aspects of neural activity and the BOLD response is fundamental to the interpretation of this widely used mapping signal. Analysis of this question requires the ability to precisely manipulate the activity of defined neurons. To achieve such control, we combined optogenetic drive of neocortical neurons with high-resolution (9.4 T) rodent fMRI and detailed analysis of neurophysiological data. Light-driven activation of pyramidal neurons resulted in a positive BOLD response at the stimulated site. To help differentiate the neurophysiological correlate(s) of the BOLD response, we employed light trains of the same average frequency, but with periodic and Poisson distributed pulse times. These different types of pulse trains generated dissociable patterns of single-unit, multi-unit and local field potential (LFP) activity, and of BOLD signals. The BOLD activity exhibited the strongest correlation to spiking activity with increasing rates of stimulation, and, to a first approximation, was linear with pulse delivery rate, while LFP activity showed a weaker correlation. These data provide an example of a strong correlation between spike rate and the BOLD response. PMID:23523914

  8. Photostimulation of whole-cell conductance in primary rat neocortical astrocytes mediated by organic semiconducting thin films.

    PubMed

    Benfenati, Valentina; Martino, Nicola; Antognazza, Maria Rosa; Pistone, Assunta; Toffanin, Stefano; Ferroni, Stefano; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Muccini, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Astroglial ion channels are fundamental molecular targets in the study of brain physiology and pathophysiology. Novel tools and devices intended for stimulation and control of astrocytes ion channel activity are therefore highly desirable. The study of the interactions between astrocytes and biomaterials is also essential to control and minimize reactive astrogliosis, in view of the development of implantable functional devices. Here, the growth of rat primary neocortical astrocytes on the top of a light sensitive, organic polymer film is reported; by means of patch-clamp analyses, the effect of the visible light stimulation on membrane conductance is then determined. Photoexcitation of the active material causes a significant depolarization of the astroglial resting membrane potential: the effect is associated to an increase in whole-cell conductance at negative potentials. The magnitude of the evoked inward current density is proportional to the illumination intensity. Biophysical and pharmacological characterization suggests that the ion channel mediating the photo-transduction mechanism is a chloride channel, the ClC-2 channel. These results open interesting perspectives for the selective manipulation of astrocyte bioelectrical activity by non-invasive, label-free, organic-based, photostimulation approaches. PMID:23966220

  9. HERC 1 Ubiquitin Ligase Mutation Affects Neocortical, CA3 Hippocampal and Spinal Cord Projection Neurons: An Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Bachiller, Sara; Rosa, José Luis; Armengol, José Angel

    2016-01-01

    The spontaneous mutation tambaleante is caused by the Gly483Glu substitution in the highly conserved N terminal RCC1-like domain of the HERC1 protein, which leads to the increase of mutated protein levels responsible for cerebellar Purkinje cell death by autophagy. Until now, Purkinje cells have been the only central nervous neurons reported as being targeted by the mutation, and their degeneration elicits an ataxic syndrome in adult mutant mice. However, the ultrastructural analysis performed here demonstrates that signs of autophagy, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and altered mitochondria, are present in neocortical pyramidal, CA3 hippocampal pyramidal, and spinal cord motor neurons. The main difference is that the reduction in the number of neurons affected in the tambaleante mutation in the neocortex, the hippocampus, and the spinal cord is not so evident as the dramatic loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Interestingly, signs of autophagy are absent in both interneurons and neuroglia cells. Affected neurons have in common that they are projection neurons which receive strong and varied synaptic inputs, and possess the highest degree of neuronal activity. Therefore, because the integrity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for protein degradation and hence, for normal protein turnover, it could be hypothesized that the deleterious effects of the misrouting of these pathways would depend directly on the neuronal activity. PMID:27147983

  10. HERC 1 Ubiquitin Ligase Mutation Affects Neocortical, CA3 Hippocampal and Spinal Cord Projection Neurons: An Ultrastructural Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Bachiller, Sara; Rosa, José Luis; Armengol, José Angel

    2016-01-01

    The spontaneous mutation tambaleante is caused by the Gly483Glu substitution in the highly conserved N terminal RCC1-like domain of the HERC1 protein, which leads to the increase of mutated protein levels responsible for cerebellar Purkinje cell death by autophagy. Until now, Purkinje cells have been the only central nervous neurons reported as being targeted by the mutation, and their degeneration elicits an ataxic syndrome in adult mutant mice. However, the ultrastructural analysis performed here demonstrates that signs of autophagy, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and altered mitochondria, are present in neocortical pyramidal, CA3 hippocampal pyramidal, and spinal cord motor neurons. The main difference is that the reduction in the number of neurons affected in the tambaleante mutation in the neocortex, the hippocampus, and the spinal cord is not so evident as the dramatic loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Interestingly, signs of autophagy are absent in both interneurons and neuroglia cells. Affected neurons have in common that they are projection neurons which receive strong and varied synaptic inputs, and possess the highest degree of neuronal activity. Therefore, because the integrity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for protein degradation and hence, for normal protein turnover, it could be hypothesized that the deleterious effects of the misrouting of these pathways would depend directly on the neuronal activity. PMID:27147983

  11. Maternal dietary imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids impairs neocortical development via epoxy metabolites.

    PubMed

    Sakayori, Nobuyuki; Kikkawa, Takako; Tokuda, Hisanori; Kiryu, Emiko; Yoshizaki, Kaichi; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kang, Jing X; Katagiri, Hideki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Innis, Sheila M; Arita, Makoto; Osumi, Noriko

    2016-02-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients. Although several studies have suggested that a balanced dietary n-6:n-3 ratio is essential for brain development, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we found that feeding pregnant mice an n-6 excess/n-3 deficient diet, which reflects modern human diets, impairsed neocortical neurogenesis in the offspring. This impaired neurodevelopment occurs through a precocious fate transition of neural stem cells from the neurogenic to gliogenic lineage. A comprehensive mediator lipidomics screen revealed key mediators, epoxy metabolites, which were confirmed functionally using a neurosphere assay. Importantly, although the offspring were raised on a well-balanced n-6:n-3 diet, they exhibited increased anxiety-related behavior in adulthood. These findings provide compelling evidence that excess maternal consumption of n-6 PUFAs combined with insufficient intake of n-3 PUFAs causes abnormal brain development that can have long-lasting effects on the offspring's mental state. PMID:26580686

  12. GABAB receptor-mediated, layer-specific synaptic plasticity reorganizes gamma-frequency neocortical response to stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Matthew; Lee, Shane; Kaiser, Marcus; Simonotto, Jennifer; Kopell, Nancy J; Whittington, Miles A

    2016-05-10

    Repeated presentations of sensory stimuli generate transient gamma-frequency (30-80 Hz) responses in neocortex that show plasticity in a task-dependent manner. Complex relationships between individual neuronal outputs and the mean, local field potential (population activity) accompany these changes, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible. Here we show that transient stimulation of input layer 4 sufficient to generate gamma oscillations induced two different, lamina-specific plastic processes that correlated with lamina-specific changes in responses to further, repeated stimulation: Unit rates and recruitment showed overall enhancement in supragranular layers and suppression in infragranular layers associated with excitatory or inhibitory synaptic potentiation onto principal cells, respectively. Both synaptic processes were critically dependent on activation of GABAB receptors and, together, appeared to temporally segregate the cortical representation. These data suggest that adaptation to repetitive sensory input dramatically alters the spatiotemporal properties of the neocortical response in a manner that may both refine and minimize cortical output simultaneously. PMID:27118845

  13. GABAB receptor-mediated, layer-specific synaptic plasticity reorganizes gamma-frequency neocortical response to stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ainsworth, Matthew; Lee, Shane; Kaiser, Marcus; Simonotto, Jennifer; Kopell, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Repeated presentations of sensory stimuli generate transient gamma-frequency (30–80 Hz) responses in neocortex that show plasticity in a task-dependent manner. Complex relationships between individual neuronal outputs and the mean, local field potential (population activity) accompany these changes, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible. Here we show that transient stimulation of input layer 4 sufficient to generate gamma oscillations induced two different, lamina-specific plastic processes that correlated with lamina-specific changes in responses to further, repeated stimulation: Unit rates and recruitment showed overall enhancement in supragranular layers and suppression in infragranular layers associated with excitatory or inhibitory synaptic potentiation onto principal cells, respectively. Both synaptic processes were critically dependent on activation of GABAB receptors and, together, appeared to temporally segregate the cortical representation. These data suggest that adaptation to repetitive sensory input dramatically alters the spatiotemporal properties of the neocortical response in a manner that may both refine and minimize cortical output simultaneously. PMID:27118845

  14. The leaving or Q fraction of the murine cerebral proliferative epithelium: a general model of neocortical neuronogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    1996-01-01

    Neurons of neocortical layers II-VI in the dorsomedial cortex of the mouse arise in the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) through 11 cell cycles over the six embryonic days 11-17 (E11-E17). The present experiments measure the proportion of daughter cells that leave the cycle (quiescent or Q fraction or Q) during a single cell cycle and the complementary proportion that continues to proliferate (proliferative or P fraction or P; P = 1 - Q). Q and P for the PVE become 0.5 in the course of the eighth cycle, occurring on E14, and Q rises to approximately 0.8 (and P falls to approximately 0.2) in the course of the 10th cycle occurring on E16. This indicates that early in neuronogenesis, neurons are produced relatively slowly and the PVE expands rapidly but that the reverse happens in the final phase of neuronogenesis. The present analysis completes a cycle of analyses that have determined the four fundamental parameters of cell proliferation: growth fraction, lengths of cell cycle, and phases Q and P. These parameters are the basis of a coherent neuronogenetic model that characterizes patterns of growth of the PVE and mathematically relates the size of the initial proliferative population to the neuronal population of the adult neocortex.

  15. Interkinetic and migratory behavior of a cohort of neocortical neurons arising in the early embryonic murine cerebral wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    1996-01-01

    Neocortical neuronogenesis occurs in the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) where nuclei of proliferative cells undergo interkinetic nuclear movement. A fraction of daughter cells exits the cell cycle as neurons (the quiescent, or Q, fraction), whereas a complementary fraction remains in the cell cycle (the proliferative, or P, fraction). By means of sequential thymidine and bromodeoxyuridine injections in mouse on embryonic day 14, we have monitored the proliferative and post-mitotic migratory behaviors of 1 and 2 hr cohorts of PVE cells defined by the injection protocols. Soon after mitosis, the Q fraction partitions into a rapidly exiting (up to 50 microns/hr) subpopulation (Qr) and a more slowly exiting (6 microns/hr) subpopulation (Qs). Qr and Qs are separated as two distributions on exit from the ventricular zone with an interpeak distance of approximately 40 microns. Cells in Qr and Qs migrate through the intermediate zone with no significant change in the interpeak distance, suggesting that they migrate at approximately the same velocities. The rate of migration increases with ascent through the intermediate zone (average 2-6.4 microns/hr) slowing only transiently on entry into the developing cortex. Within the cortex, Qr and Qs merge to form a single distribution most concentrated over layer V.

  16. Genetic threshold hypothesis of neocortical spike-and-wave discharges in the rat: An animal model of petit mal epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Vadasz, C.; Fleischer, A.; Carpi, D.; Jando, G.

    1995-02-27

    Neocortical high-voltage spike-and-wave discharges (HVS) in the rat are an animal model of petit mal epilepsy. Genetic analysis of total duration of HVS (s/12 hr) in reciprocal F1 and F2 hybrids of F344 and BN rats indicated that the phenotypic variability of HVS cannot be explained by simple, monogenic Mendelian model. Biometrical analysis suggested the presence of additive, dominance, and sex-linked-epistatic effects, buffering maternal influence, and heterosis. High correlation was observed between average duration (s/episode) and frequency of occurrence of spike-and-wave episodes (n/12 hr) in parental and segregating generations, indicating that common genes affect both duration and frequency of the spike-and-wave pattern. We propose that both genetic and developmental - environmental factors control an underlying quantitative variable, which, above a certain threshold level, precipitates HVS discharges. These findings, together with the recent availability of rat DNA markers for total genome mapping, pave the way to the identification of genes that control the susceptibility of the brain to spike-and-wave discharges. 67 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Cortical and subcortical contributions to sequence retrieval: Schematic coding of temporal context in the neocortical recollection network.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Liang-Tien; Ranganath, Charan

    2015-11-01

    Episodic memory entails the ability to remember what happened when. Although the available evidence indicates that the hippocampus plays a role in structuring serial order information during retrieval of event sequences, information processed in the hippocampus must be conveyed to other cortical and subcortical areas in order to guide behavior. However, the extent to which other brain regions contribute to the temporal organization of episodic memory remains unclear. Here, we examined multivoxel activity pattern changes during retrieval of learned and random object sequences, focusing on a neocortical "core recollection network" that includes the medial prefrontal cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and angular gyrus, as well as on striatal areas including the caudate nucleus and putamen that have been implicated in processing of sequence information. The results demonstrate that regions of the core recollection network carry information about temporal positions within object sequences, irrespective of object information. This schematic coding of temporal information is in contrast to the putamen, which carried information specific to objects in learned sequences, and the caudate, which carried information about objects, irrespective of sequence context. Our results suggest a role for the cortical recollection network in the representation of temporal structure of events during episodic retrieval, and highlight the possible mechanisms by which the striatal areas may contribute to this process. More broadly, the results indicate that temporal sequence retrieval is a useful paradigm for dissecting the contributions of specific brain regions to episodic memory. PMID:26209802

  18. A biophysically detailed model of neocortical Local Field Potentials predicts the critical role of active membrane currents

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Michael W.; Anastassiou, Costas A.; Perin, Rodrigo; Hill, Sean; Markram, Henry; Koch, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Summary Brain activity generates extracellular voltage fluctuations recorded as local field potentials (LFPs). While known that the relevant micro-variables, the ionic currents across membranes, jointly generate the macro-variables, the extracellular voltage, neither the detailed biophysical knowledge nor the required computational power has been available to model these processes. We simulated the LFP in a model of the rodent neocortical column composed of >12,000 reconstructed, multi-compartmental and spiking cortical layer 4 and 5 pyramidal neurons and basket cells, including five million dendritic and somatic compartments with voltage- and ion-dependent currents, realistic connectivity and probabilistic AMPA, NMDA and GABA synapses. We found that, depending on a number of factors, the LFP reflects local and cross-layer processing and active currents dominate the generation of LFPs rather than synaptic ones. Spike-related currents impact the LFP not only at higher frequencies but lower than 50 Hz. This work calls for re-evaluating the genesis of LFPs. PMID:23889937

  19. Restoration of Mecp2 expression in GABAergic neurons is sufficient to rescue multiple disease features in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ure, Kerstin; Lu, Hui; Wang, Wei; Ito-Ishida, Aya; Wu, Zhenyu; He, Ling-Jie; Sztainberg, Yehezkel; Chen, Wu; Tang, Jianrong; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2016-01-01

    The postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome, caused by mutations in MECP2, produces a diverse array of symptoms, including loss of language, motor, and social skills and the development of hand stereotypies, anxiety, tremor, ataxia, respiratory dysrhythmias, and seizures. Surprisingly, despite the diversity of these features, we have found that deleting Mecp2 only from GABAergic inhibitory neurons in mice replicates most of this phenotype. Here we show that genetically restoring Mecp2 expression only in GABAergic neurons of male Mecp2 null mice enhanced inhibitory signaling, extended lifespan, and rescued ataxia, apraxia, and social abnormalities but did not rescue tremor or anxiety. Female Mecp2(+/-) mice showed a less dramatic but still substantial rescue. These findings highlight the critical regulatory role of GABAergic neurons in certain behaviors and suggest that modulating the excitatory/inhibitory balance through GABAergic neurons could prove a viable therapeutic option in Rett syndrome. PMID:27328321

  20. Genetic labeling of both the axons of transduced, glutamatergic neurons in rat postrhinal cortex and their postsynaptic neurons in other neocortical areas by Herpes Simplex Virus vectors that coexpress an axon-targeted ß-galactosidase and wheat germ agglutinin from a vesicular glutamate transporter-1 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-rong; Cao, Haiyan; Li, Xu; Zhao, Hua; Geller, Alfred I.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal circuits comprise the foundation for neuronal physiology and synaptic plasticity, and thus for consequent behaviors and learning, but our knowledge of neocortical circuits is incomplete. Mapping neocortical circuits is a challenging problem because these circuits contain large numbers of neurons, a high density of synapses, and numerous classes and subclasses of neurons that form many different types of synapses. Expression of specific genetic tracers in small numbers of specific subclasses of neocortical neurons has potential to map neocortical circuits. Suitable genetic tracers have been established in neurons in subcortical areas, but application to neocortical circuits has been limited. Enabling this approach, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) plasmid (amplicon) vectors can transduce small numbers of neurons in a specific neocortical area. Further, expression of a particular genetic tracer can be restricted to specific subclasses of neurons; in particular, the vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1) promoter supports expression in VGLUT1-containing glutamatergic neurons in rat postrhinal (POR) cortex. Here, we show that expression of an axon-targeted ß-galactosidase (ß-gal) from such vectors supports mapping specific commissural and associative projections of the transduced neurons in POR cortex. Further, coexpression of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and an axon-targeted ß-gal supports mapping both specific projections of the transduced neurons and identifying specific postsynaptic neurons for the transduced neurons. The neocortical circuit mapping capabilities developed here may support mapping specific neocortical circuits that have critical roles in cognitive learning. PMID:20849834

  1. Structural and functional characterization of dendritic arbors and GABAergic synaptic inputs on interneurons and principal cells in the rat basolateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Fogarty, Matthew J.; Belmer, Arnauld; Noakes, Peter G.; Bellingham, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a complex brain region associated with processing emotional states, such as fear, anxiety, and stress. Some aspects of these emotional states are driven by the network activity of synaptic connections, derived from both local circuitry and projections to the BLA from other regions. Although the synaptic physiology and general morphological characteristics are known for many individual cell types within the BLA, the combination of morphological, electrophysiological, and distribution of neurochemical GABAergic synapses in a three-dimensional neuronal arbor has not been reported for single neurons from this region. The aim of this study was to assess differences in morphological characteristics of BLA principal cells and interneurons, quantify the distribution of GABAergic neurochemical synapses within the entire neuronal arbor of each cell type, and determine whether GABAergic synaptic density correlates with electrophysiological recordings of inhibitory postsynaptic currents. We show that BLA principal neurons form complex dendritic arborizations, with proximal dendrites having fewer spines but higher densities of neurochemical GABAergic synapses compared with distal dendrites. Furthermore, we found that BLA interneurons exhibited reduced dendritic arbor lengths and spine densities but had significantly higher densities of putative GABAergic synapses compared with principal cells, which was correlated with an increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents. The quantification of GABAergic connectivity, in combination with morphological and electrophysiological measurements of the BLA cell types, is the first step toward a greater understanding of how fear and stress lead to changes in morphology, local connectivity, and/or synaptic reorganization of the BLA. PMID:26041829

  2. Homologs of genes expressed in Caenorhabditis elegans GABAergic neurons are also found in the developing mouse forebrain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In an effort to identify genes that specify the mammalian forebrain, we used a comparative approach to identify mouse homologs of transcription factors expressed in developing Caenorhabditis elegans GABAergic neurons. A cell-specific microarray profiling study revealed a set of transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic C. elegans GABAergic neurons. Results Bioinformatic analyses identified mouse protein homologs of these selected transcripts and their expression pattern was mapped in the mouse embryonic forebrain by in situ hybridization. A review of human homologs indicates several of these genes are potential candidates in neurodevelopmental disorders. Conclusions Our comparative approach has revealed several novel candidates that may serve as future targets for studies of mammalian forebrain development. PMID:21122108

  3. GABAergic neurons of the cat dorsal raphe nucleus express c-fos during carbachol-induced active sleep.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, P; Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    2000-11-24

    Serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) cease firing during active sleep (AS, also called rapid-eye-movement sleep). This cessation of electrical activity is believed to play a 'permissive' role in the generation of AS. In the present study we explored the possibility that GABAergic cells in the DRN are involved in the suppression of serotonergic activity during AS. Accordingly, we examined whether immunocytochemically identified GABAergic neurons in the DRN were activated, as indicated by their expression of c-fos, during carbachol-induced AS (AS-carbachol). Three chronically-prepared cats were euthanized after prolonged episodes of AS that was induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis. Another four cats (controls) were maintained 2 h in quiet wakefulness before being euthanized. Thereafter, immunocytochemical studies were performed on brainstem sections utilizing antibodies against Fos, GABA and serotonin. When compared with identically prepared tissue from awake cats, the number of Fos+ neurons was larger in the DRN during AS-carbachol (35.9+/-5.6 vs. 13.9+/-4.4, P<0.05). Furthermore, a larger number of GABA+ Fos+ neurons were observed during AS-carbachol than during wakefulness (24.8+/-3.3 vs. 4.0+/-1.0, P<0.001). These GABA+ Fos+ neurons were distributed asymmetrically with a larger number located ipsilaterally to the site of injection. There was no significant difference between control and experimental animals in the number of non-GABAergic neurons that expressed c-fos in the DRN. We therefore suggest that activated GABAergic neurons of the DRN are responsible for the inhibition of serotonergic neurons that occurs during natural AS. PMID:11082488

  4. Parvalbumin and neuropeptide Y expressing hippocampal GABA-ergic inhibitory interneuron numbers decline in a model of Gulf War illness

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Tarick; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is amongst the most conspicuous symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Combined exposure to the nerve gas antidote pyridostigmine bromide (PB), pesticides and stress during the Persian Gulf War-1 (PGW-1) are presumed to be among the major causes of GWI. Indeed, our recent studies in rat models have shown that exposure to GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks engenders cognitive impairments accompanied with several detrimental changes in the hippocampus. In this study, we tested whether reduced numbers of hippocampal gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons are among the pathological changes induced by GWIR-chemicals and stress. Animals were exposed to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks. Three months after this exposure, subpopulations of GABA-ergic interneurons expressing the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV), the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin (SS) in the hippocampus were stereologically quantified. Animals exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress for 4 weeks displayed reduced numbers of PV-expressing GABA-ergic interneurons in the dentate gyrus and NPY-expressing interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields. However, no changes in SS+ interneuron population were observed in the hippocampus. Furthermore, GABA-ergic interneuron deficiency in these animals was associated with greatly diminished hippocampus neurogenesis. Because PV+ and NPY+ interneurons play roles in maintaining normal cognitive function and neurogenesis, and controlling the activity of excitatory neurons in the hippocampus, reduced numbers of these interneurons may be one of the major causes of cognitive dysfunction and reduced neurogenesis observed in GWI. Hence, strategies that improve inhibitory neurotransmission in the hippocampus may prove beneficial for reversing cognitive dysfunction in GWI. PMID:25620912

  5. All-trans-retinoid acid induces the differentiation of encapsulated mouse embryonic stem cells into GABAergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Addae, Cynthia; Yi, Xiaoping; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Cheng, Henrique; Musto, Alberto; Martinez-Ceballos, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells that can differentiate into all three main germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Although a number of methods have been developed to differentiate ES cells into neuronal phenotypes such as sensory and motor neurons, the efficient generation of GABAergic interneurons from ES cells still presents an ongoing challenge. Because the main output of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons is the gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter whose controlled homeostasis is required for normal brain function, the efficient generation in culture of functional interneurons may have future implications on the treatment of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. The goal of this work was to examine the generation of GABAergic neurons from mouse ES cells by comparing an embryoid body-based methodology versus a hydrogel-based encapsulation protocol that involves the use of all-trans-retinoid acid (RA). We observed that (1) there was a 2-fold increase in neuronal differentiation in encapsulated versus non-encapsulated cells and (2) there was an increase in the specificity for interneuronal differentiation in encapsulated cells, as assessed by mRNA expression and electrophysiology approaches. Furthermore, our results indicate that most of the neurons obtained from encapsulated mouse ES cells are GABA-positive (∼87%). Thus, these results suggest that combining encapsulation of ES cells and RA treatment provide a more efficient and scalable differentiation strategy for the generation in culture of functional GABAergic interneurons. This technology may have implications for future cell replacement therapies and the treatment of CNS disorders. PMID:22466603

  6. All-Trans-Retinoid Acid Induces the Differentiation of Encapsulated Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into GABAergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Addae, Cynthia; Yi, Xiaoping; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Cheng, Henrique; Musto, Alberto; Martinez-Ceballos, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells that can differentiate into all three main germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Although a number of methods have been developed to differentiate ES cells into neuronal phenotypes such as sensory and motor neurons, the efficient generation of GABAergic interneurons from ES cells still presents an ongoing challenge. Because the main output of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons is the gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter whose controlled homeostasis is required for normal brain function, the efficient generation in culture of functional interneurons may have future implications on the treatment of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. The goal of this work was to examine the generation of GABAergic neurons from mouse ES cells by comparing an embryoid body-based methodology versus a hydrogel-based encapsulation protocol that involves the use of all-trans-retinoid acid (RA). We observed that 1) there was a 2-fold increase in neuronal differentiation in encapsulated versus non-encapsulated cells and 2) there was an increase in the specificity for interneuronal differentiation in encapsulated cells, as assessed by mRNA expression and electrophysiology approaches. Furthermore, our results indicate that most of the neurons obtained from encapsulated mouse ES cells are GABA-positive (~87%). Thus, these results suggest that combining encapsulation of ES cells and RA treatment provide a more efficient and scalable differentiation strategy for the generation in culture of functional GABAergic interneurons. This technology may have implications for future cell replacement therapies and the treatment of CNS disorders. PMID:22466603

  7. Potential of GABA-ergic cell therapy for schizophrenia, neuropathic pain, and Alzheimer׳s and Parkinson׳s diseases.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ashok K; Bates, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    Several neurological and psychiatric disorders present hyperexcitability of neurons in specific regions of the brain or spinal cord, partly because of some loss and/or dysfunction of gamma-amino butyric acid positive (GABA-ergic) inhibitory interneurons. Strategies that enhance inhibitory neurotransmission in the affected brain regions may therefore ease several or most deficits linked to these disorders. This perception has incited a huge interest in testing the efficacy of GABA-ergic interneuron cell grafting into regions of the brain or spinal cord exhibiting hyperexcitability, dearth of GABA-ergic interneurons or impaired inhibitory neurotransmission, using preclinical models of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Interneuron progenitors from the embryonic ventral telencephalon capable of differentiating into diverse subclasses of interneurons have particularly received much consideration because of their ability for dispersion, migration and integration with the host neural circuitry after grafting. The goal of this review is to discuss the premise, scope and advancement of GABA-ergic cell therapy for easing neurological deficits in preclinical models of schizophrenia, chronic neuropathic pain, Alzheimer׳s disease and Parkinson׳s disease. As grafting studies in these prototypes have so far utilized either primary cells from the embryonic medial and lateral ganglionic eminences or neural progenitor cells expanded from these eminences as donor material, the proficiency of these cell types is highlighted. Moreover, future studies that are essential prior to considering the possible clinical application of these cells for the above neurological conditions are proposed. Particularly, the need for grafting studies utilizing medial ganglionic eminence-like progenitors generated from human pluripotent stem cells via directed differentiation approaches or somatic cells through direct reprogramming methods are emphasized. This article is part of a Special Issue

  8. Postsynaptic mGluR5 promotes evoked AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission onto neocortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons during development

    PubMed Central

    Loerwald, Kristofer W.; Patel, Ankur B.; Huber, Kimberly M.

    2014-01-01

    Both short- and long-term roles for the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor number 5 (mGluR5) have been examined for the regulation of cortical glutamatergic synapses. However, how mGluR5 sculpts neocortical networks during development still remains unclear. Using a single cell deletion strategy, we examined how mGluR5 regulates glutamatergic synaptic pathways in neocortical layer 2/3 (L2/3) during development. Electrophysiological measurements were made in acutely prepared slices to obtain a functional understanding of the effects stemming from loss of mGluR5 in vivo. Loss of postsynaptic mGluR5 results in an increase in the frequency of action potential-independent synaptic events but, paradoxically, results in a decrease in evoked transmission in two separate synaptic pathways providing input to the same pyramidal neurons. Synaptic transmission through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, but not N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, is specifically decreased. In the local L2/3 pathway, the decrease in evoked transmission appears to be largely due to a decrease in cell-to-cell connectivity and not in the strength of individual cell-to-cell connections. This decrease in evoked transmission correlates with a decrease in the total dendritic length in a region of the dendritic arbor that likely receives substantial input from these two pathways, thereby suggesting a morphological correlate to functional alterations. These changes are accompanied by an increase in intrinsic membrane excitability. Our data indicate that total mGluR5 function, incorporating both short- and long-term processes, promotes the strengthening of AMPA receptor-mediated transmission in multiple neocortical pathways. PMID:25392167

  9. Heteromeric Kv7.2/7.3 channels differentially regulate action potential initiation and conduction in neocortical myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Battefeld, Arne; Tran, Baouyen T; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C; Kole, Maarten H P

    2014-03-01

    Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of K(v)7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels in the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. The local biophysical properties of these K(v)7 channels and the functional impact of colocalization with Na(v) channels remain poorly understood. Here, we quantitatively examined K(v)7 channels in myelinated axons of rat neocortical pyramidal neurons using high-resolution confocal imaging and patch-clamp recording. K(v)7.2 and 7.3 immunoreactivity steeply increased within the distal two-thirds of the axon initial segment and was mirrored by the conductance density estimates, which increased from ~12 (proximal) to 150 pS μm(-2) (distal). The axonal initial segment and nodal M-currents were similar in voltage dependence and kinetics, carried by K(v)7.2/7.3 heterotetramers, 4% activated at the resting membrane potential and rapidly activated with single-exponential time constants (~15 ms at 28 mV). Experiments and computational modeling showed that while somatodendritic K(v)7 channels are strongly activated by the backpropagating action potential to attenuate the afterdepolarization and repetitive firing, axonal K(v)7 channels are minimally recruited by the forward-propagating action potential. Instead, in nodal domains K(v)7.2/7.3 channels were found to increase Na(v) channel availability and action potential amplitude by stabilizing the resting membrane potential. Thus, K(v)7 clustering near axonal Na(v) channels serves specific and context-dependent roles, both restraining initiation and enhancing conduction of the action potential. PMID:24599470

  10. Heteromeric Kv7.2/7.3 Channels Differentially Regulate Action Potential Initiation and Conduction in Neocortical Myelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Battefeld, Arne; Tran, Baouyen T.; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of Kv7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels in the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. The local biophysical properties of these Kv7 channels and the functional impact of colocalization with Nav channels remain poorly understood. Here, we quantitatively examined Kv7 channels in myelinated axons of rat neocortical pyramidal neurons using high-resolution confocal imaging and patch-clamp recording. Kv7.2 and 7.3 immunoreactivity steeply increased within the distal two-thirds of the axon initial segment and was mirrored by the conductance density estimates, which increased from ∼12 (proximal) to 150 pS μm−2 (distal). The axonal initial segment and nodal M-currents were similar in voltage dependence and kinetics, carried by Kv7.2/7.3 heterotetramers, 4% activated at the resting membrane potential and rapidly activated with single-exponential time constants (∼15 ms at 28 mV). Experiments and computational modeling showed that while somatodendritic Kv7 channels are strongly activated by the backpropagating action potential to attenuate the afterdepolarization and repetitive firing, axonal Kv7 channels are minimally recruited by the forward-propagating action potential. Instead, in nodal domains Kv7.2/7.3 channels were found to increase Nav channel availability and action potential amplitude by stabilizing the resting membrane potential. Thus, Kv7 clustering near axonal Nav channels serves specific and context-dependent roles, both restraining initiation and enhancing conduction of the action potential. PMID:24599470

  11. A blood-based predictor for neocortical Aβ burden in Alzheimer's disease: results from the AIBL study.

    PubMed

    Burnham, S C; Faux, N G; Wilson, W; Laws, S M; Ames, D; Bedo, J; Bush, A I; Doecke, J D; Ellis, K A; Head, R; Jones, G; Kiiveri, H; Martins, R N; Rembach, A; Rowe, C C; Salvado, O; Macaulay, S L; Masters, C L; Villemagne, V L

    2014-04-01

    Dementia is a global epidemic with Alzheimer's disease (AD) being the leading cause. Early identification of patients at risk of developing AD is now becoming an international priority. Neocortical Aβ (extracellular β-amyloid) burden (NAB), as assessed by positron emission tomography (PET), represents one such marker for early identification. These scans are expensive and are not widely available, thus, there is a need for cheaper and more widely accessible alternatives. Addressing this need, a blood biomarker-based signature having efficacy for the prediction of NAB and which can be easily adapted for population screening is described. Blood data (176 analytes measured in plasma) and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET measurements from 273 participants from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study were utilised. Univariate analysis was conducted to assess the difference of plasma measures between high and low NAB groups, and cross-validated machine-learning models were generated for predicting NAB. These models were applied to 817 non-imaged AIBL subjects and 82 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) for validation. Five analytes showed significant difference between subjects with high compared to low NAB. A machine-learning model (based on nine markers) achieved sensitivity and specificity of 80 and 82%, respectively, for predicting NAB. Validation using the ADNI cohort yielded similar results (sensitivity 79% and specificity 76%). These results show that a panel of blood-based biomarkers is able to accurately predict NAB, supporting the hypothesis for a relationship between a blood-based signature and Aβ accumulation, therefore, providing a platform for developing a population-based screen. PMID:23628985

  12. Increased GABAergic Efficacy of Central Amygdala Projections to Neuropeptide S Neurons in the Brainstem During Fear Memory Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Jüngling, Kay; Lange, Maren D; Szkudlarek, Hanna J; Lesting, Jörg; Erdmann, Frank S; Doengi, Michael; Kügler, Sebastian; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2015-11-01

    The canonical view on the central amygdala has evolved from a simple output station towards a highly organized microcircuitry, in which types of GABAergic neurons in centrolateral (CeL) and centromedial (CeM) subnuclei regulate fear expression and generalization. How these specific neuronal populations are connected to extra-amygdaloid target regions remains largely unknown. Here we show in mice that a subpopulation of GABAergic CeL and CeM neurons projects monosynaptically to brainstem neurons expressing neuropeptide S (NPS). The CeL neurons are PKCδ-negative and are activated during conditioned fear. During fear memory retrieval, the efficacy of this GABAergic influence on NPS neurons is enhanced. Moreover, a large proportion of these neurons (~50%) contain prodynorphin and somatostatin, two neuropeptides inhibiting NPS neurons. We conclude that CeL and CeM neurons inhibit NPS neurons in the brainstem by GABA release and that efficacy of this connection is strengthened upon fear memory retrieval. Thereby, this pathway provides a possible feedback mechanism between amygdala and brainstem routes involved in fear and stress coping. PMID:25936641

  13. Modulation of Spinal GABAergic Inhibition and Mechanical Hypersensitivity following Chronic Compression of Dorsal Root Ganglion in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon Chul; Nam, Taick Sang; Jung, Se Jung; Gwak, Young S.; Leem, Joong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (CCD) results in neuropathic pain. We investigated the role of spinal GABA in CCD-induced pain using rats with unilateral CCD. A stereological analysis revealed that the proportion of GABA-immunoreactive neurons to total neurons at L4/5 laminae I–III on the injured side decreased in the early phase of CCD (post-CCD week 1) and then returned to the sham-control level in the late phase (post-CCD week 18). In the early phase, the rats showed an increase in both mechanical sensitivity of the hind paw and spinal WDR neuronal excitability on the injured side, and such increase was suppressed by spinally applied muscimol (GABA-A agonist, 5 nmol) and baclofen (GABA-B agonist, 25 nmol), indicating the reduced spinal GABAergic inhibition involved. In the late phase, the CCD-induced increase in mechanical sensitivity and neuronal excitability returned to pre-CCD levels, and such recovered responses were enhanced by spinally applied bicuculline (GABA-A antagonist, 15 nmol) and CGP52432 (GABA-B antagonist, 15 nmol), indicating the regained spinal GABAergic inhibition involved. In conclusion, the alteration of spinal GABAergic inhibition following CCD and leading to a gradual reduction over time of CCD-induced mechanical hypersensitivity is most likely due to changes in GABA content in spinal GABA neurons. PMID:26451259

  14. ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells differentially regulate serotonergic and GABAergic activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Li; Tan, Minjie; Pu, Mingliang; Pickard, Gary E; So, Kwok-Fai; Ren, Chaoran

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the major source of serotonergic input to the forebrain, receives excitatory input from the retina that can modulate serotonin levels and depressive-like behavior. In the Mongolian gerbil, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with alpha-like morphological and Y-like physiological properties innervate the DRN with ON DRN-projecting RGCs out numbering OFF DRN-projecting RGCs. The DRN neurons targeted by ON and OFF RGCs are unknown. To explore retino-raphe anatomical organization, retinal afferents labeled with Cholera toxin B were examined for association with the postsynaptic protein PSD-95. Synaptic associations between retinal afferents and DRN serotonergic and GABAergic neurons were observed. To explore retino-raphe functional organization, light-evoked c-fos expression was examined. Light significantly increased the number of DRN serotonergic and GABAergic cells expressing c-Fos. When ON RGCs were rendered silent while enhancing the firing rate of OFF RGCs, c-Fos expression was greatly increased in DRN serotonergic neurons suggesting that OFF DRN-projecting RGCs predominately activate serotonergic neurons whereas ON DRN-projecting RGCs mainly target GABAergic neurons. Direct glutamatergic retinal input to DRN 5-HT neurons contributes to the complex excitatory drive regulating these cells. Light, via the retinoraphe pathway can modify DRN 5-HT neuron activity which may play a role in modulating affective behavior. PMID:27181078

  15. Trajectory of the main GABAergic interneuron populations from early development to old age in the rat primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Lydia; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In both humans and rodents, decline in cognitive function is a hallmark of the aging process; the basis for this decrease has yet to be fully characterized. However, using aged rodent models, deficits in auditory processing have been associated with significant decreases in inhibitory signaling attributed to a loss of GABAergic interneurons. Not only are these interneurons crucial for pattern detection and other large-scale population dynamics, but they have also been linked to mechanisms mediating plasticity and learning, making them a prime candidate for study and modeling of modifications to cortical communication pathways in neurodegenerative diseases. Using the rat primary auditory cortex (A1) as a model, we probed the known markers of GABAergic interneurons with immunohistological methods, using antibodies against gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), calretinin (CR), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cholecystokinin (CCK) to document the changes observed in interneuron populations across the rat's lifespan. This analysis provided strong evidence that several but not all GABAergic neurons were affected by the aging process, showing most dramatic changes in expression of parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SOM) expression. With this evidence, we show how understanding these trajectories of cell counts may be factored into a simple model to quantify changes in inhibitory signaling across the course of life, which may be applied as a framework for creating more advanced simulations of interneuronal implication in normal cerebral processing, normal aging, or pathological processes. PMID:24917792

  16. ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells differentially regulate serotonergic and GABAergic activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Li; Tan, Minjie; Pu, Mingliang; Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Ren, Chaoran

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the major source of serotonergic input to the forebrain, receives excitatory input from the retina that can modulate serotonin levels and depressive-like behavior. In the Mongolian gerbil, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with alpha-like morphological and Y-like physiological properties innervate the DRN with ON DRN-projecting RGCs out numbering OFF DRN-projecting RGCs. The DRN neurons targeted by ON and OFF RGCs are unknown. To explore retino-raphe anatomical organization, retinal afferents labeled with Cholera toxin B were examined for association with the postsynaptic protein PSD-95. Synaptic associations between retinal afferents and DRN serotonergic and GABAergic neurons were observed. To explore retino-raphe functional organization, light-evoked c-fos expression was examined. Light significantly increased the number of DRN serotonergic and GABAergic cells expressing c-Fos. When ON RGCs were rendered silent while enhancing the firing rate of OFF RGCs, c-Fos expression was greatly increased in DRN serotonergic neurons suggesting that OFF DRN-projecting RGCs predominately activate serotonergic neurons whereas ON DRN-projecting RGCs mainly target GABAergic neurons. Direct glutamatergic retinal input to DRN 5-HT neurons contributes to the complex excitatory drive regulating these cells. Light, via the retinoraphe pathway can modify DRN 5-HT neuron activity which may play a role in modulating affective behavior. PMID:27181078

  17. Nicotine enhances inhibition of mouse vagal motor neurons by modulating excitability of premotor GABAergic neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Boychuk, Jeffery A; Boychuk, Carie R; Uteshev, Victor V; Smith, Bret N

    2015-02-15

    The caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) serves as the site of the first synapse for visceral sensory inputs to the central nervous system. The NTS sends functional projections to multiple brain nuclei, with gastric-related projections primarily targeting the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Previous studies have demonstrated that the majority of caudal NTS neurons that project to the DMV respond robustly to nicotine and express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, the cytochemical identity and relationship with specific viscera of DMV-projecting, nicotine-responsive caudal NTS neurons have not been determined. The present study used transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under a GAD67 promoter in a subset of GABAergic neurons, in vivo retrograde pseudorabies viral labeling to identify gastric-related vagal complex neurons, and patch-clamp electrophysiology in acute brain stem slices to test the hypothesis that gastric-related and GABAergic inhibitory synaptic input to the DMV from the caudal NTS is under a robust modulatory control by nAChRs. Our results suggest that activation of nAChRs in the caudal NTS, but not DMV, potentiates GABAergic, but not glutamatergic, input to the DMV. Gastric-related caudal NTS and DMV neurons are directly involved in this nicotine-sensitive circuitry. Understanding the central patterns of nicotinic modulation of visceral sensory-motor circuitry may help develop therapeutic interventions to restore autonomic homeostasis in patients with autonomic impairments. PMID:25429117

  18. Analysis of Synaptotagmin, SV2, and Rab3 Expression in Cortical Glutamatergic and GABAergic Axon Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Bragina, Luca; Fattorini, Giorgia; Giovedí, Silvia; Melone, Marcello; Bosco, Federica; Benfenati, Fabio; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic release machineries can be differentiated on the basis of the nature and amount of proteins they express, by performing a quantitative analysis of the degree of co-localization of synaptotagmin (SYT) 1 and 2, synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) A and B, and Rab3a and c in VGLUT1+, VGLUT2+, and VGAT+ terminals and synaptic vesicles (SVs) in rat cerebral cortex. Co-localization studies showed that VGLUT1 puncta had high levels of SV2A and B and of Rab3c, intermediate levels of SYT1, and low levels of SYT2 and Rab3c; VGLUT2 puncta exhibited intermediate levels of all presynaptic proteins studied; whereas vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) puncta had high levels of SV2A and SYT2, intermediate levels of SYT1, Rab3a, and Rab3c, and low levels of SV2B. Since SV2B is reportedly expressed by glutamatergic neurons and we observed SV2B expression in VGAT puncta, we performed electron microscopic studies and found SV2B positive axon terminals forming symmetric synapses. Immunoisolation studies showed that the expression levels of the protein isoforms varied in the three populations of SVs. Expression of SYT1 was highest in VGLUT1–SVs, while SYT2 expression was similar in the three SV groups. Expression of SV2A was similarly high in all three SV populations, except for SV2B levels that were very low in VGAT SVs. Finally, Rab3a levels were similar in the three SV groups, while Rab3c levels were highest in VGLUT1–SVs. These quantitative results extend our previous studies on the differential expression of presynaptic proteins involved in neurotransmitter release in GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals and indicate that heterogeneity of the respective release machineries can be generated by the differential complement of SV proteins involved in distinct stages of the release process. PMID:22275882

  19. Subchronic phencyclidine treatment in adult mice increases GABAergic transmission and LTP threshold in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Toshihiro; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Fernandes, Herman B; Remmers, Christine L; Xu, Jian; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Contractor, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Repeated administration of non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) to rodents causes long-lasting deficits in cognition and memory, and has effects on behaviors that have been suggested to be models of the cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). Despite this being a widely studied animal model, little is known about the long lasting changes in synapses and circuits that underlie the altered behaviors. Here we examined synaptic transmission ex-vivo in the hippocampus of mice after a subchronic PCP (scPCP) administration regime. We found that after at least one week of drug free washout period when mice have impaired cognitive function, the threshold for long-term potentiation (LTP) of CA1 excitatory synapses was elevated. This elevated LTP threshold was directly related to increased inhibitory input to CA1 pyramidal cells through increased activity of GABAergic neurons. These results suggest repeated PCP administration causes a long-lasting metaplastic change in the inhibitory circuits in the hippocampus that results in impaired LTP, and could contribute to the deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory in PCP-treated mice. Changes in GABA signaling have been described in patients with schizophrenia, therefore our results support using scPCP as a model of CIAS. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Synaptopathy--from Biology to Therapy'. PMID:25937215

  20. Serotonin excites hippocampal CA1 GABAergic interneurons at the stratum radiatum-stratum lacunosum moleculare border.

    PubMed

    Wyskiel, Daniel R; Andrade, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    The hippocampus receives robust serotonergic innervation that is thought to control the excitability of both pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons. Previous work has addressed serotonergic regulation of pyramidal cells but considerable gaps remain in our understanding of how serotonin regulates different interneuron subclasses. 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2A Rs) appear to localize predominantly, if not solely, on interneurons in the hippocampus and have been implicated in the regulation of hippocampal function including mnemonic and novelty recognition processes. Interneurons are functionally diverse. Therefore in the current work, we have used a BAC transgenic mouse line expressing EGFP under the control of the 5-HT2A R promoter to identify the interneuron subtype(s) regulated by serotonin via 5-HT2A Rs. We find that EGFP expression in this mouse identifies a group of interneurons that resides predominantly along the border of the stratum radiatum (SR) and stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM) of the CA1 region. We then show that these cells are depolarized and excited by serotonin acting through 5-HT2A Rs and appear to belong predominantly to the perforant pathway-associated and Schaffer collateral/commissural pathway-associated subtypes. These results indicate that serotonin interneurons expressing 5-HT2A Rs are localized primarily along the SR-SLM border of the CA1 region and represent a newly identified target for serotonin regulation in the hippocampus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27328460

  1. Control of on/off glomerular signaling by a local GABAergic microcircuit in the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Gire, David H.; Schoppa, Nathan E.

    2009-01-01

    Odors are coded at the input-level of the olfactory bulb by a spatial map of activated glomeruli, reflecting different odorant receptors (ORs) stimulated in the nose. Here we examined the function of local synaptic processing within glomeruli in transforming these input patterns into an output for the bulb, using patch-clamp recordings and calcium imaging in rat bulb slices. Two types of transformations were observed at glomeruli, the first of which produced a bimodal, “on/off” glomerular signal that varied probabilistically depending on ORN input levels. The bimodal response-behavior was seen in glomerular synaptic responses, as well as in action potential (“spike”)-firing, wherein all mitral cells affiliated with a glomerulus either engaged in prolonged spike bursts or did not spike at all. In addition, evidence was obtained that GABAergic periglomerular (PG) cells that surround a glomerulus can prevent activation of a glomerulus through inhibitory inputs targeted onto excitatory external tufted cells. The path of PG cell activation appeared to be confined to one glomerulus, such that ORNs at one glomerulus initiated inhibition of the same glomerulus. The observed glomerular “self-inhibition” provides a mechanism of filtering odor signals that would be an alternative to commonly-proposed mechanisms of lateral inhibition between OR-specific glomeruli. In this case, selective suppression of weak odor signals could be achieved based on the difference in the input resistance of PG cells versus excitatory neurons at a glomerulus. PMID:19864558

  2. The GABAergic anterior paired lateral neurons facilitate olfactory reversal learning in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanying; Ren, Qingzhong; Li, Hao; Guo, Aike

    2012-01-01

    Reversal learning has been widely used to probe the implementation of cognitive flexibility in the brain. Previous studies in monkeys identified an essential role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in reversal learning. However, the underlying circuits and molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we use the T-maze to investigate the neural mechanism of olfactory reversal learning in Drosophila. By adding a reversal training cycle to the classical learning protocol, we show that wild-type flies are able to reverse their choice according to the alteration of conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) contingency. The reversal protocol induced a specific suppression of the initial memory, an effect distinct from memory decay or extinction. GABA down-regulation in the anterior paired lateral (APL) neurons, which innervate the mushroom bodies (MBs), eliminates this suppression effect and impairs normal reversal. These findings reveal that inhibitory regulation from the GABAergic APL neurons facilitates olfactory reversal learning by suppressing initial memory in Drosophila. PMID:22988290

  3. Selank Administration Affects the Expression of Some Genes Involved in GABAergic Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Anastasiya; Shadrina, Maria; Kolomin, Timur; Andreeva, Lyudmila; Limborska, Svetlana; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Slominsky, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown the similarity of the spectrum of physiological effects of Selank and classical benzodiazepines, such as diazepam and phenazepam. These data suggest that there is a similar basis of their mechanism of action. To test this hypothesis we studied the effect of Selank and GABA on the expression of genes involved in neurotransmission. We analyzed the expression of 84 genes involved in neurotransmission (e.g., major subunit of the GABA receptor, transporters, ion channels, dopamine, and serotonin receptors) in the frontal cortex of rats 1 and 3 h after the administration of Selank or GABA (300 μg/kg) using real-time PCR method. We found significant changes in the expression of 45 genes 1 h after the administration of the compounds. Three hours after Selank or GABA administration, 22 genes changed their expression. We found positive correlation between the changes in genes expression within 1 h after administration of Selank or GABA. Our results showed that Selank caused a number of alterations in the expression of genes involved in neurotransmission. The data obtained indicate that Selank is characterized by its complex effects on nerve cells, and one of its possible molecular mechanisms is associated with allosteric modulation of the GABAergic system. PMID:26924987

  4. Direct Induction and Functional Maturation of Forebrain GABAergic Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Alfred Xuyang; Yuan, Qiang; Tan, Shawn; Xiao, Yixin; Wang, Danlei; Khoo, Audrey Tze Ting; Sani, Levena; Tran, Hoang-Dai; Kim, Paul; Chiew, Yong Seng; Lee, Kea Joo; Yen, Yi-Chun; Ng, Huck Hui; Lim, Bing; Je, Hyunsoo Shawn

    2016-08-16

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-releasing interneurons play an important modulatory role in the cortex and have been implicated in multiple neurological disorders. Patient-derived interneurons could provide a foundation for studying the pathogenesis of these diseases as well as for identifying potential therapeutic targets. Here, we identified a set of genetic factors that could robustly induce human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into GABAergic neurons (iGNs) with high efficiency. We demonstrated that the human iGNs express neurochemical markers and exhibit mature electrophysiological properties within 6-8 weeks. Furthermore, in vitro, iGNs could form functional synapses with other iGNs or with human-induced glutamatergic neurons (iENs). Upon transplantation into immunodeficient mice, human iGNs underwent synaptic maturation and integration into host neural circuits. Taken together, our rapid and highly efficient single-step protocol to generate iGNs may be useful to both mechanistic and translational studies of human interneurons. PMID:27498872

  5. Neuroimmune Regulation of GABAergic Neurons Within the Ventral Tegmental Area During Withdrawal from Chronic Morphine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anna M W; Castonguay, Annie; Ghogha, Atefeh; Vayssiere, Pia; Pradhan, Amynah A A; Xue, Lihua; Mehrabani, Sadaf; Wu, Juli; Levitt, Pat; Olmstead, Mary C; De Koninck, Yves; Evans, Christopher J; Cahill, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    Opioid dependence is accompanied by neuroplastic changes in reward circuitry leading to a negative affective state contributing to addictive behaviors and risk of relapse. The current study presents a neuroimmune mechanism through which chronic opioids disrupt the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic circuitry that contributes to impaired reward behavior. Opioid dependence was induced in rodents by treatment with escalating doses of morphine. Microglial activation was observed in the VTA following spontaneous withdrawal from chronic morphine treatment. Opioid-induced microglial activation resulted in an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and a reduction in the expression and function of the K(+)Cl(-) co-transporter KCC2 within VTA GABAergic neurons. Inhibition of microglial activation or interfering with BDNF signaling prevented the loss of Cl(-) extrusion capacity and restored the rewarding effects of cocaine in opioid-dependent animals. Consistent with a microglial-derived BDNF-induced disruption of reward, intra-VTA injection of BDNF or a KCC2 inhibitor resulted in a loss of cocaine-induced place preference in opioid-naïve animals. The loss of the extracellular Cl(-) gradient undermines GABAA-mediated inhibition, and represents a mechanism by which chronic opioid treatments can result in blunted reward circuitry. This study directly implicates microglial-derived BDNF as a negative regulator of reward in opioid-dependent states, identifying new therapeutic targets for opiate addictive behaviors. PMID:26202104

  6. GABAergic modulation of DC stimulation-induced motor cortex excitability shifts in humans.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Michael A; Liebetanz, David; Schlitterlau, Anett; Henschke, Undine; Fricke, Kristina; Frommann, Kai; Lang, Nicolas; Henning, Stefan; Paulus, Walter; Tergau, Frithjof

    2004-05-01

    Weak transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex results in excitability shifts during and after the end of stimulation, which are most probably localized intracortically. Anodal stimulation enhances excitability, whereas cathodal stimulation reduces it. Although the after-effects of tDCS are NMDA receptor-dependent, nothing is known about the involvement of additional receptors. Here we show that pharmacological strengthening of GABAergic inhibition modulates selectively the after-effects elicited by anodal tDCS. Administration of the GABA(A) receptor agonist lorazepam resulted in a delayed, but then enhanced and prolonged anodal tDCS-induced excitability elevation. The initial absence of an excitability enhancement under lorazepam is most probably caused by a loss of the anodal tDCS-generated intracortical diminution of inhibition and enhancement of facilitation, which occurs without pharmacological intervention. The reasons for the late-occurring excitability enhancement remain unclear. Because intracortical inhibition and facilitation are not changed in this phase compared with pre-tDCS values, excitability changes originating from remote cortical or subcortical areas could be involved. PMID:15147306

  7. Activity-dependent scaling of GABAergic synapse strength is regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    PubMed Central

    Swanwick, Catherine Croft; Murthy, Namita R.; Kapur, Jaideep

    2010-01-01

    The homeostatic plasticity hypothesis suggests that neuronal activity scales synaptic strength. This study analyzed effects of activity deprivation on GABAergic synapses in cultured hippocampal neurons using patch clamp electrophysiology to record mIPSCs and immunocytochemistry to visualize presynaptic GAD-65 and the γ2 subunit of the GABAA receptor. When neural activity was blocked for 48 h with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 μM), the amplitude of mIPSCs was reduced, corresponding with diminished sizes of GAD-65 puncta and γ2 clusters. Treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist APV (50 μM) or the AMPA receptor antagonist DNQX (20 μM) mimicked these effects, and co-application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, 100 ng/mL) overcame them. Moreover, when neurons were treated with BDNF alone for 48 h, these effects were reversed via the TrkB receptor. Overall, these results suggest that activity-dependent scaling of inhibitory synaptic strength can be modulated by BDNF/TrkB-mediated signaling. PMID:16330218

  8. GABAergic transmission and enhanced modulation by opioids and endocannabinoids in adult rat rostral ventromedial medulla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Hua; Suchland, Katherine L; Ingram, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) play critical and complex roles in pain modulation. Recent studies have shown that electrical stimulation of the RVM produces pain facilitation in young animals (postnatal (PN) day < 21) but predominantly inhibits pain behaviours in adults. The cellular mechanisms underlying these changes in RVM modulation of pain behaviours are not known. This is in part because whole-cell patch-clamp studies in RVM to date have been in young (PN day < 18) animals because the organization and abundance of myelinated fibres in this region make the RVM a challenging area for whole-cell patch-clamp recording in adults. Several neurotransmitter systems, including GABAergic neurotransmission, undergo developmental changes that mature by PN day 21. Thus, we focused on optimizing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings for RVM neurons in animals older than PN day 30 and compared the results to animals at PN day 10–21. Our results demonstrate that the probability of GABA release is lower and that opioid and endocannabinoid effects are more evident in adult rats (mature) compared to early postnatal (immature) rats. Differences in these properties of RVM neurons may contribute to the developmental changes in descending control of pain from the RVM to the spinal cord. PMID:25556797

  9. GABAergic neural activity involved in salicylate-induced auditory cortex gain enhancement.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Lobarinas, E; Deng, A; Goodey, R; Stolzberg, D; Salvi, R J; Sun, W

    2011-08-25

    Although high doses of sodium salicylate impair cochlear function, it paradoxically enhances sound-evoked activity in the auditory cortex (AC) and augments acoustic startle reflex responses, neural and behavioral metrics associated with hyperexcitability and hyperacusis. To explore the neural mechanisms underlying salicylate (SS)-induced hyperexcitability and "increased central gain," we examined the effects of GABA receptor agonists and antagonists on SS-induced hyperexcitability in the AC and startle reflex responses. Consistent with our previous findings, local or systemic application of SS significantly increased the amplitude of sound-evoked AC neural activity, but generally reduced spontaneous activity in the AC. Systemic injection of SS also significantly increased the acoustic startle reflex. S-baclofen or R-baclofen, GABA-B agonists, which suppressed sound-evoked AC neural firing rate and local field potentials, also suppressed the SS-induced enhancement of the AC field potential and the acoustic startle reflex. Local application of vigabatrin, which enhances GABA concentration in the brain, suppressed the SS-induced enhancement of AC firing rate. Systemic injection of vigabatrin also reduced the SS-induced enhancement of acoustic startle reflex. Collectively, these results suggest that the sound-evoked behavioral and neural hyperactivity induced by SS may arise from a SS-induced suppression of GABAergic inhibition in the AC. PMID:21664433

  10. Transplantation of GABAergic Interneurons into the Neonatal Primary Visual Cortex Reduces Absence Seizures in Stargazer Mice.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Mohamed; Schmidt, Stephen L; Zhang, Xuying; Bray, Ryan; Frohlich, Flavio; Ghashghaei, H Troy

    2015-09-01

    Epilepsies are debilitating neurological disorders characterized by repeated episodes of pathological seizure activity. Absence epilepsy (AE) is a poorly understood type of seizure with an estimated 30% of affected patients failing to respond to antiepileptic drugs. Thus, novel therapies are needed for the treatment of AE. A promising cell-based therapeutic strategy is centered on transplantation of embryonic neural stem cells from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), which give rise to gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) interneurons during embyronic development. Here, we used the Stargazer (Stg) mouse model of AE to map affected loci using c-Fos immunohistochemistry, which revealed intense seizure-induce activity in visual and somatosensory cortices. We report that transplantation of MGE cells into the primary visual cortex (V1) of Stg mice significantly reduces AE episodes and lowers mortality. Electrophysiological analysis in acute cortical slices of visual cortex demonstrated that Stg V1 neurons exhibit more pronounced increases in activity in response to a potassium-mediated excitability challenge than wildtypes (WT). The defective network activity in V1 was significantly altered following WT MGE transplantation, associating it with behavioral rescue of seizures in Stgs. Taken together, these findings present MGE grafting in the V1 as a possible clinical approach in the treatment of AE. PMID:24812085

  11. Cholinergic suppression of visual responses in primate V1 is mediated by GABAergic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Chiye; Hawken, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) has been implicated in selective attention. To understand the local circuit action of ACh, we iontophoresed cholinergic agonists into the primate primary visual cortex (V1) while presenting optimal visual stimuli. Consistent with our previous anatomical studies showing that GABAergic neurons in V1 express ACh receptors to a greater extent than do excitatory neurons, we observed suppressed visual responses in 36% of recorded neurons outside V1's primary thalamorecipient layer (4c). This suppression is blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine. Within layer 4c, ACh release produces a response gain enhancement (Disney AA, Aoki C, Hawken MJ. Neuron 56: 701–713, 2007); elsewhere, ACh suppresses response gain by strengthening inhibition. Our finding contrasts with the observation that the dominant mechanism of suppression in the neocortex of rats is reduced glutamate release. We propose that in primates, distinct cholinergic receptor subtypes are recruited on specific cell types and in specific lamina to yield opposing modulatory effects that together increase neurons' responsiveness to optimal stimuli without changing tuning width. PMID:22786955

  12. Cholinergic suppression of visual responses in primate V1 is mediated by GABAergic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Disney, Anita A; Aoki, Chiye; Hawken, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) has been implicated in selective attention. To understand the local circuit action of ACh, we iontophoresed cholinergic agonists into the primate primary visual cortex (V1) while presenting optimal visual stimuli. Consistent with our previous anatomical studies showing that GABAergic neurons in V1 express ACh receptors to a greater extent than do excitatory neurons, we observed suppressed visual responses in 36% of recorded neurons outside V1's primary thalamorecipient layer (4c). This suppression is blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist gabazine. Within layer 4c, ACh release produces a response gain enhancement (Disney AA, Aoki C, Hawken MJ. Neuron 56: 701-713, 2007); elsewhere, ACh suppresses response gain by strengthening inhibition. Our finding contrasts with the observation that the dominant mechanism of suppression in the neocortex of rats is reduced glutamate release. We propose that in primates, distinct cholinergic receptor subtypes are recruited on specific cell types and in specific lamina to yield opposing modulatory effects that together increase neurons' responsiveness to optimal stimuli without changing tuning width. PMID:22786955

  13. Spines slow down dendritic chloride diffusion and affect short-term ionic plasticity of GABAergic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Namrata; Tønnesen, Jan; Vlachos, Andreas; Kuner, Thomas; Deller, Thomas; Nägerl, U. Valentin; Santamaria, Fidel; Jedlicka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cl− plays a crucial role in neuronal function and synaptic inhibition. However, the impact of neuronal morphology on the diffusion and redistribution of intracellular Cl− is not well understood. The role of spines in Cl− diffusion along dendritic trees has not been addressed so far. Because measuring fast and spatially restricted Cl− changes within dendrites is not yet technically possible, we used computational approaches to predict the effects of spines on Cl− dynamics in morphologically complex dendrites. In all morphologies tested, including dendrites imaged by super-resolution STED microscopy in live brain tissue, spines slowed down longitudinal Cl− diffusion along dendrites. This effect was robust and could be observed in both deterministic as well as stochastic simulations. Cl− extrusion altered Cl− diffusion to a much lesser extent than the presence of spines. The spine-dependent slowing of Cl− diffusion affected the amount and spatial spread of changes in the GABA reversal potential thereby altering homosynaptic as well as heterosynaptic short-term ionic plasticity at GABAergic synapses in dendrites. Altogether, our results suggest a fundamental role of dendritic spines in shaping Cl− diffusion, which could be of relevance in the context of pathological conditions where spine densities and neural excitability are perturbed. PMID:26987404

  14. Function coupling of otoferlin with GAD65 acts to modulate GABAergic activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wu; Rahman, Mona N; Guo, Jun; Roy, Natalie; Xue, Lihua; Cahill, Catherine M; Zhang, Shetuan; Jia, Zongchao

    2015-04-01

    Otoferlin, an integral membrane protein implicated in a late stage of exocytosis, has been reported to play a critical role in hearing although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. However, its widespread tissue distribution infers a more ubiquitous role in synaptic vesicle trafficking. Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, is converted to its inhibitory counterpart, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), by L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which exists in soluble (GAD67) and membrane-bound (GAD65) forms. For the first time, we have revealed a close association between otoferlin and GAD65 in both HEK293 and neuronal cells, including SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and primary rat hippocampus cells, showing a direct interaction between GAD65 and otoferlin's C2 domains. In primary rat hippocampus cells, otoferlin and GAD65 co-localized in a punctate pattern within the cell body, as well as in the axon along the path of vesicular traffic. Significantly, GABA is virtually abolished in otoferlin-knockdown neuronal cells whereas otoferlin overexpression markedly increases endogenous GABA. GABA attenuation in otoferlin-knockdown primary cells is correlated with diminished L-type calcium current. This previously unknown and close correlation demonstrates that otoferlin, through GAD65, modulates GABAergic activity. The discovery of otoferlin-GAD65 functional coupling provides a new avenue for understanding the molecular mechanism by which otoferlin functions in neurological pathways. PMID:25701657

  15. Feeding and Reward Are Differentially Induced by Activating GABAergic Lateral Hypothalamic Projections to VTA.

    PubMed

    Barbano, M Flavia; Wang, Hui-Ling; Morales, Marisela; Wise, Roy A

    2016-03-01

    Electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) has two motivational effects: long trains of stimulation induce drive-like effects such as eating, and short trains are rewarding. It has not been clear whether a single set of activated fibers subserves the two effects. Previous optogenetic stimulation studies have confirmed that reinforcement and induction of feeding can each be induced by selective stimulation of GABAergic fibers originating in the bed nucleus of the LH and projecting to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In the present study we determined the optimal stimulation parameters for each of the two optogenetically induced effects in food-sated mice. Stimulation-induced eating was strongest with 5 Hz and progressively weaker with 10 and 20 Hz. Stimulation-induced reward was strongest with 40 Hz and progressively weaker with lower or higher frequencies. Mean preferred duration for continuous 40 Hz stimulation was 61.6 s in a "real-time" place preference task; mean preferred duration for 5 Hz stimulation was 45.6 s. The differential effects of high- and low-frequency stimulation of this pathway seem most likely to be due to differential effects on downstream targets. PMID:26961951

  16. Spines slow down dendritic chloride diffusion and affect short-term ionic plasticity of GABAergic inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Namrata; Tønnesen, Jan; Vlachos, Andreas; Kuner, Thomas; Deller, Thomas; Nägerl, U. Valentin; Santamaria, Fidel; Jedlicka, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Cl‑ plays a crucial role in neuronal function and synaptic inhibition. However, the impact of neuronal morphology on the diffusion and redistribution of intracellular Cl‑ is not well understood. The role of spines in Cl‑ diffusion along dendritic trees has not been addressed so far. Because measuring fast and spatially restricted Cl‑ changes within dendrites is not yet technically possible, we used computational approaches to predict the effects of spines on Cl‑ dynamics in morphologically complex dendrites. In all morphologies tested, including dendrites imaged by super-resolution STED microscopy in live brain tissue, spines slowed down longitudinal Cl‑ diffusion along dendrites. This effect was robust and could be observed in both deterministic as well as stochastic simulations. Cl‑ extrusion altered Cl‑ diffusion to a much lesser extent than the presence of spines. The spine-dependent slowing of Cl‑ diffusion affected the amount and spatial spread of changes in the GABA reversal potential thereby altering homosynaptic as well as heterosynaptic short-term ionic plasticity at GABAergic synapses in dendrites. Altogether, our results suggest a fundamental role of dendritic spines in shaping Cl‑ diffusion, which could be of relevance in the context of pathological conditions where spine densities and neural excitability are perturbed.

  17. Neuroimmune Regulation of GABAergic Neurons Within the Ventral Tegmental Area During Withdrawal from Chronic Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anna M W; Castonguay, Annie; Ghogha, Atefeh; Vayssiere, Pia; Pradhan, Amynah A A; Xue, Lihua; Mehrabani, Sadaf; Wu, Juli; Levitt, Pat; Olmstead, Mary C; De Koninck, Yves; Evans, Christopher J; Cahill, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    Opioid dependence is accompanied by neuroplastic changes in reward circuitry leading to a negative affective state contributing to addictive behaviors and risk of relapse. The current study presents a neuroimmune mechanism through which chronic opioids disrupt the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic circuitry that contributes to impaired reward behavior. Opioid dependence was induced in rodents by treatment with escalating doses of morphine. Microglial activation was observed in the VTA following spontaneous withdrawal from chronic morphine treatment. Opioid-induced microglial activation resulted in an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and a reduction in the expression and function of the K+Cl− co-transporter KCC2 within VTA GABAergic neurons. Inhibition of microglial activation or interfering with BDNF signaling prevented the loss of Cl− extrusion capacity and restored the rewarding effects of cocaine in opioid-dependent animals. Consistent with a microglial-derived BDNF-induced disruption of reward, intra-VTA injection of BDNF or a KCC2 inhibitor resulted in a loss of cocaine-induced place preference in opioid-naïve animals. The loss of the extracellular Cl− gradient undermines GABAA-mediated inhibition, and represents a mechanism by which chronic opioid treatments can result in blunted reward circuitry. This study directly implicates microglial-derived BDNF as a negative regulator of reward in opioid-dependent states, identifying new therapeutic targets for opiate addictive behaviors. PMID:26202104

  18. Maturation of GABAergic Inhibition Promotes Strengthening of Temporally Coherent Inputs among Convergent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlman, Sandra J.; Lu, Jiangteng; Lazarus, Matthew S.; Huang, Z. Josh

    2010-01-01

    Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), a form of Hebbian plasticity, is inherently stabilizing. Whether and how GABAergic inhibition influences STDP is not well understood. Using a model neuron driven by converging inputs modifiable by STDP, we determined that a sufficient level of inhibition was critical to ensure that temporal coherence (correlation among presynaptic spike times) of synaptic inputs, rather than initial strength or number of inputs within a pathway, controlled postsynaptic spike timing. Inhibition exerted this effect by preferentially reducing synaptic efficacy, the ability of inputs to evoke postsynaptic action potentials, of the less coherent inputs. In visual cortical slices, inhibition potently reduced synaptic efficacy at ages during but not before the critical period of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity. Whole-cell recordings revealed that the amplitude of unitary IPSCs from parvalbumin positive (Pv+) interneurons to pyramidal neurons increased during the critical period, while the synaptic decay time-constant decreased. In addition, intrinsic properties of Pv+ interneurons matured, resulting in an increase in instantaneous firing rate. Our results suggest that maturation of inhibition in visual cortex ensures that the temporally coherent inputs (e.g. those from the open eye during monocular deprivation) control postsynaptic spike times of binocular neurons, a prerequisite for Hebbian mechanisms to induce OD plasticity. PMID:20532211

  19. A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Arpiar; Oldenburg, Ian A.; Berezovskii, Vladimir K.; Johnson, Caroline A.; Kingery, Nathan D.; Elliott, Hunter L.; Xie, Tiao; Gerfen, Charles R.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are phylogenetically conserved subcortical nuclei necessary for coordinated motor action and reward learning1. Current models postulate that the BG modulate cerebral cortex indirectly via an inhibitory output to thalamus, bidirectionally controlled by the BG via direct (dSPNs) and indirect (iSPNs) pathway striatal projection neurons2–4. The BG thalamic output sculpts cortical activity by interacting with signals from sensory and motor systems5. Here we describe a direct projection from the globus pallidus externus (GP), a central nucleus of the BG, to frontal regions of the cerebral cortex (FC). Two cell types make up the GP-FC projection, distinguished by their electrophysiological properties, cortical projections and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a synthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Despite these differences, ChAT+ cells, which have been historically identified as an extension of the nucleus basalis (NB), as well as ChAT− cells, release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) and are inhibited by iSPNs and dSPNs of dorsal striatum. Thus GP-FC cells comprise a direct GABAergic/cholinergic projection under the control of striatum that activates frontal cortex in vivo. Furthermore, iSPN inhibition of GP-FC cells is sensitive to dopamine 2 receptor signaling, revealing a pathway by which drugs that target dopamine receptors for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders can act in the BG to modulate frontal cortices. PMID:25739505

  20. A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Arpiar; Oldenburg, Ian A; Berezovskii, Vladimir K; Johnson, Caroline A; Kingery, Nathan D; Elliott, Hunter L; Xie, Tiao; Gerfen, Charles R; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2015-05-01

    The basal ganglia are phylogenetically conserved subcortical nuclei necessary for coordinated motor action and reward learning. Current models postulate that the basal ganglia modulate cerebral cortex indirectly via an inhibitory output to thalamus, bidirectionally controlled by direct- and indirect-pathway striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs, respectively). The basal ganglia thalamic output sculpts cortical activity by interacting with signals from sensory and motor systems. Here we describe a direct projection from the globus pallidus externus (GP), a central nucleus of the basal ganglia, to frontal regions of the cerebral cortex (FC). Two cell types make up the GP-FC projection, distinguished by their electrophysiological properties, cortical projections and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a synthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Despite these differences, ChAT(+) cells, which have been historically identified as an extension of the nucleus basalis, as well as ChAT(-) cells, release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) and are inhibited by iSPNs and dSPNs of dorsal striatum. Thus, GP-FC cells comprise a direct GABAergic/cholinergic projection under the control of striatum that activates frontal cortex in vivo. Furthermore, iSPN inhibition of GP-FC cells is sensitive to dopamine 2 receptor signalling, revealing a pathway by which drugs that target dopamine receptors for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders can act in the basal ganglia to modulate frontal cortices. PMID:25739505

  1. GABAergic synchronization in the limbic system and its role in the generation of epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Avoli, Massimo; de Curtis, Marco

    2016-01-01

    GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult forebrain, where it activates ionotropic type A and metabotropic type B receptors. Early studies have shown that GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition controls neuronal excitability and thus the occurrence of seizures. However, more complex, and at times unexpected, mechanisms of GABAergic signaling have been identified during epileptiform discharges over the last few years. Here, we will review experimental data that point at the paradoxical role played by GABAA receptor-mediated mechanisms in synchronizing neuronal networks, and in particular those of limbic structures such as the hippocampus, the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices, or the amygdala. After having summarized the fundamental characteristics of GABAA receptor-mediated mechanisms, we will analyze their role in the generation of network oscillations and their contribution to epileptiform synchronization. Whether and how GABAA receptors influence the interaction between limbic networks leading to ictogenesis will be also reviewed. Finally, we will consider the role of altered inhibition in the human epileptic brain along with the ability of GABAA receptor-mediated conductances to generate synchronous depolarizing events that may lead to ictogenesis in human epileptic disorders as well. PMID:21802488

  2. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated GABAergic inputs to cholinergic interneurons in the striosomes and the matrix compartments of the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ritsuko; Suzuki, Takeo; Nishimura, Kinya; Miura, Masami

    2016-06-01

    The striatum consists of two neurochemically distinct compartments: the striosomes (or patches) and the extrastriosomal matrix. Although striatal neurons are strongly innervated by intrinsic cholinergic interneurons, acetylcholinesterase is expressed more abundantly in the matrix than in the striosomes. At present, little is known about the different cholinergic functions of the striatal compartments. In this study, we examined gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) inputs to cholinergic interneurons in both compartments. We found that nicotinic receptor-mediated GABAergic responses were evoked more frequently in the matrix than in the striosomes. Furthermore, a single action potential of cholinergic neurons induced nicotinic receptor-mediated GABAergic inputs to the cholinergic neurons themselves, suggesting mutual connections that shape the temporal firing pattern of cholinergic neurons. The nicotinic receptor-mediated GABAergic responses were attenuated by continuous application of acetylcholine or the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor eserine and were enhanced by desformylflustrabromine, a positive allosteric modulator of the α4β2 subunit containing a nicotinic receptor. These results suggest that the nicotinic impact on the GABAergic responses are not uniform despite the massive and continuous cholinergic innervation. It has been reported that differential activation of neurons in the striosomes and the matrix produce a repetitive behavior called stereotypy. Drugs acting on α4β2 nicotinic receptors might provide potential tools for moderating the imbalanced activities between the compartments. PMID:26808315

  3. GABAergic actions on cholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons: implications for control of behavioral state.

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, K A; Kristiansen, U

    2010-12-15

    Cholinergic neurons of the pontine laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) play a critical role in regulation of behavioral state. Therefore, elucidation of mechanisms that control their activity is vital for understanding of how switching between wakefulness, sleep and anesthetic states is effectuated. In vivo studies suggest that GABAergic mechanisms within the pons play a critical role in behavioral state switching. However, the postsynaptic, electrophysiological actions of GABA on LDT neurons, as well as the identity of GABA receptors present in the LDT mediating these actions is virtually unexplored. Therefore, we studied the actions of GABA agonists and antagonists on cholinergic LDT cells by performing patch clamp recordings in mouse brain slices. Under conditions where detection of Cl(-) -mediated events was optimized, GABA induced gabazine (GZ)-sensitive inward currents in the majority of LDT neurons. Post-synaptic location of GABA(A) receptors was demonstrated by persistence of muscimol-induced inward currents in TTX and low Ca(2+) solutions. THIP, a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist with a preference for δ-subunit containing GABA(A) receptors, induced inward currents, suggesting the existence of extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors. LDT cells also possess GABA(B) receptors as baclofen-activated a TTX- and low Ca(2+)-resistant outward current that was attenuated by the GABA(B) antagonists CGP 55845 and saclofen. The tertiapin sensitivity of baclofen-induced outward currents suggests that a G(IRK) mediated this effect. Further, outward currents were never additive with those induced by application of carbachol, suggesting that they were mediated by activation of GABA(B) receptors linked to the same G(IRK) activated in these cells by muscarinic receptor stimulation. Activation of GABA(B) receptors inhibited Ca(2+) increases induced by a depolarizing voltage step shown previously to activate VOCCs in cholinergic LDT neurons. Baclofen-mediated reductions in depolarization

  4. Thorough GABAergic innervation of the entire axon initial segment revealed by an optogenetic ‘laserspritzer’

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinjun; Hooks, Bryan M; Sun, Qian-Quan

    2014-01-01

    GABAergic terminals of chandelier cells exclusively innervate the axon initial segment (AIS) of excitatory neurons. Although the anatomy of these synapses has been well-studied in several brain areas, relatively little is known about their physiological properties. Using vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid transporter–channelrhodopsin 2–enhanced yellow fluorescence protein (VGAT-ChR2-YFP)-expressing mice and a novel fibreoptic ‘laserspritzer’ approach that we developed, we investigated the physiological properties of axo-axonic synapses (AASs) in brain slices from the piriform cortex (PC) of mice. AASs were in close proximity to voltage-gated Na+ (NaV) channels located at the AIS. AASs were selectively activated by a 5 μm laserspritzer placed in close proximity to the AIS. Under a minimal laser stimulation condition and using whole-cell somatic voltage-clamp recordings, the amplitudes and kinetics of IPSCs mediated by AASs were similar to those mediated by perisomatic inhibitions. Results were further validated with channelrhodopsin 2-assisted circuit mapping (CRACM) of the entire inhibitory inputs map. For the first time, we revealed that the laserspritzer-induced AAS-IPSCs persisted in the presence of TTX and TEA but not 4-AP. Next, using gramicidin-based perforated patch recordings, we found that the GABA reversal potential (EGABA) was −73.6 ± 1.2 mV when induced at the AIS and −72.8 ± 1.1 mV when induced at the perisomatic site. Our anatomical and physiological results lead to the novel conclusions that: (1) AASs innervate the entire length of the AIS, as opposed to forming a highly concentrated cartridge, (2) AAS inhibition suppresses action potentials and epileptiform activity more robustly than perisomatic inhibitions, and (3) AAS activation alone can be sufficient to inhibit action potential generation and epileptiform activities in vitro. PMID:25085892

  5. GABAergic signaling by AgRP neurons prevents anorexia via a melanocortin-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus contains two anatomically and functionally distinct populations of neurons – the agouti-related peptide (AgRP)- and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons that integrate various nutritional, hormonal, and neuronal signals to regulate food intake and energy expenditure, and thereby help achieve energy homeostasis. AgRP neurons, also co-release neuropeptide Y and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to promote feeding and inhibit metabolism through at least three possible mechanisms: (1) suppression of the melanocortin signaling system through competitive binding of AgRP with the melanocortin 4 receptors; (2) neuropeptide Y-mediated inhibition of post-synaptic neurons that reside in hypothalamic nuclei; (3) GABAergic inhibition of POMC neurons in their post-synaptic targets including the parabrachial nucleus (parabrachial nucleus), a brainstem structure that relays gustatory and visceral sensory information. Acute ablation of AgRP neurons in adult mice by the action of diphtheria toxin (DT) results in precipitous reduction of food intake, and eventually leads to starvation within 6 days of DT treatment. Chronic delivery of bretazenil, a GABAA receptor partial agonist, into the parabrachial nucleus is sufficient to restore feeding and body weight when AgRP neurons are ablated, whereas chronic blockade of melanocortin 4 receptor signaling is inadequate. This review summarizes the physiological roles of a neural circuitry regulated by AgRP neurons in control of feeding behavior with particular emphasis of the GABA output to the parabrachial nucleus. We also describe a compensatory mechanism that is gradually engaged after ablation of AgRP neurons that allows mice to continue eating without them. PMID:21211531

  6. Developmentally regulated neurosteroid synthesis enhances GABAergic neurotransmission in mouse thalamocortical neurones

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Adam R; Herd, Murray B; Belelli, Delia; Lambert, Jeremy J

    2015-01-01

    During brain development the duration of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) mediated by GABAA receptors (GABAARs) progressively reduces, to accommodate the temporal demands required for precise network activity. Conventionally, this synaptic plasticity results from GABAAR subunit reorganisation. In particular, in certain developing neurones synaptic α2-GABAARs are replaced by α1-GABAARs. However, in thalamocortical neurones of the mouse ventrobasal (VB) thalamus, the major alteration to mIPSC kinetics occurs on postnatal (P) day 10, some days prior to the GABAAR isoform change. Here, whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from VB neurones of mouse thalamic slices revealed that early in postnatal development (P7–P8), the mIPSC duration is prolonged by local neurosteroids acting in a paracrine or autocrine manner to enhance GABAAR function. However, by P10, this neurosteroid ‘tone’ rapidly dissipates, thereby producing brief mIPSCs. This plasticity results from a lack of steroid substrate as pre-treatment of mature thalamic slices (P20–24) with the GABAAR-inactive precursor 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP) resulted in markedly prolonged mIPSCs and a greatly enhanced tonic conductance, mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs, respectively. In summary, endogenous neurosteroids profoundly influence GABAergic neurotransmission in developing VB neurones and govern a transition from slow to fast phasic synaptic events. Furthermore, the retained capacity for steroidogenesis in the mature thalamus raises the prospect that certain physiological or pathophysiological conditions may trigger neurosteroid neosynthesis, thereby providing a local mechanism for fine-tuning neuronal excitability. PMID:25556800

  7. Involvement of the GABAergic septo-hippocampal pathway in brain stimulation reward.

    PubMed

    Vega-Flores, Germán; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is a structure related to several cognitive processes, but not very much is known about its putative involvement in positive reinforcement. In its turn, the septum has been related to instrumental brain stimulation reward (BSR) by its electrical stimulation with trains of pulses. Although the anatomical relationships of the septo-hippocampal pathway are well established, the functional relationship between these structures during rewarding behaviors remains poorly understood. To explore hippocampal mechanisms involved in BSR, CA3-evoked field excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs, fIPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 area during BSR in alert behaving mice. The synaptic efficiency was determined from changes in fEPSP and fIPSP amplitudes across the learning of a BSR task. The successive BSR sessions evoked a progressive increase of the performance in inverse relationship with a decrease in the amplitude of fEPSPs, but not of fIPSPs. Additionally, we evaluated CA1 local field potentials (LFPs) during a preference task, comparing 8-, 20-, and 100-Hz trains of septal BSR. We corroborate a clear preference for BSR at 100 Hz (in comparison with BSR at 20 Hz or 8 Hz), in parallel with an increase in the spectral power of the low theta band, and a decrease in the gamma. These results were replicated by intrahippocampal injections of a GABAB antagonist. Thus, the GABAergic septo-hippocampal pathway seems to carry information involved in the encoding of reward properties, where GABAB receptors seem to play a key role. With regard to the dorsal hippocampus, fEPSPs evoked at the CA3-CA1 synapse seem to reflect the BSR learning process, while hippocampal rhythmic activities are more related to reward properties. PMID:25415445

  8. GABAergic modulation of serotonin release in the rat subfornical organ area.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Nomura, Masahiko; Tanaka, Junichi

    2016-09-01

    The present study was carried out to examine whether γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor mechanisms are involved in the release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the subfornical organ (SFO) using intracerebral microdialysis techniques. Perfusion with the GABA receptor antagonists as well as agonists was performed in the region of the SFO through a microdialysis probe and extracellular concentrations of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured in freely moving rats. Perfusion with the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (10 and 50μM), but not the GABAB receptor antagonist phaclofen (10 and 50μM), increased dialysate 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in the SFO area, suggesting that the GABAergic system may tonically inhibit the 5-HT release in the SFO area through GABAA receptors. Higher perfusion with the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (50μM) or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (250μM) decreased extracellular levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the SFO area. Nonhypotensive hypovolemia induced by subcutaneous injection of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 30%, 5ml) significantly enhanced the 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in the SFO area. The enhanced 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels elicited the PEG treatment were reduced by perfusion with muscimol (10μM), but not by baclofen (50μM). These results show the involvement of both GABAA and GABAB receptors in the modulation of the 5-HT release in the SFO area, and imply that the GABAA receptor mechanism may be importance for the serotonergic regulatory system of body fluid balance. PMID:27453060

  9. Neuregulin 1 Prevents Phencyclidine-Induced Behavioral Impairments and Disruptions to GABAergic Signaling in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Snikeris, Peta; Jenner, Andrew; Karl, Tim; Huang, Xu-Feng; Frank, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substantial evidence from human post-mortem and genetic studies has linked the neurotrophic factor neuregulin 1 (NRG1) to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Genetic animal models and in vitro experiments have suggested that altered NRG1 signaling, rather than protein changes, contributes to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the effect of NRG1 on schizophrenia-relevant behavior and neurotransmission (particularly GABAergic and glutamatergic) in adult animals. Method: To address this question, we treated adult mice with the extracellular signaling domain of NRG1 and assessed spontaneous locomotor activity and acoustic startle response, as well as extracellular GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus via microdialysis. Furthermore, we asked whether the effect of NRG1 would differ under schizophrenia-relevant impairments in mice and therefore co-treated mice with NRG1 and phencyclidine (PCP) (3mg/kg). Results: Acute intraventricularly- or systemically-injected NRG1 did not affect spontaneous behavior, but prevented PCP induced hyperlocomotion and deficits of prepulse inhibition. NRG1 retrodialysis (10nM) reduced extracellular glutamate and glycine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and prevented PCP-induced increase in extracellular GABA levels in the hippocampus. Conclusion: With these results, we provide the first compelling in vivo evidence for the involvement of NRG1 signaling in schizophrenia-relevant behavior and neurotransmission in the adult nervous system, which highlight its treatment potential. Furthermore, the ability of NRG1 treatment to alter GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the presence of PCP also suggests that NRG1 signaling has the potential to alter disrupted neurotransmission in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26478928

  10. Interaction of CRF and kappa opioid systems on GABAergic neurotransmission in the mouse central amygdala.

    PubMed

    Kang-Park, Maenghee; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Roberts, Amanda J; Siggins, George R; Moore, Scott D

    2015-11-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) systems are both implicated in stress-related behaviors and drug dependence. Although previous studies suggest that antagonism of each system blocks aspects of experimental models of drug dependence, the possible interaction between these systems at the neuronal level has not been completely examined. We used an in vitro brain slice preparation to investigate the interaction of these two peptide systems on inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Application of exogenous CRF increased the mean frequency of GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) by 20.2%, suggesting an increase in presynaptic GABA release. Although the pharmacological blockade of KORs by norBNI alone did not significantly affect mIPSC frequency, it significantly enhanced the effect of CRF (by 43.9%, P = 0.02). Similarly, the CRF effects in slices from KOR knockout (KO) mice (84.0% increase) were significantly greater than in wild-type (WT) mice (24.6%, P = 0.01), although there was no significant difference in baseline mIPSC frequency between slices from KOR KO and WT mice. The increase in CRF action in the presence of norBNI was abolished by a CRF-1 receptor antagonist but was unaffected by a CRF-2 receptor antagonist. We hypothesize that CRF facilitates the release of an endogenous ligand for KORs and that subsequent activation of KOR receptors modulates presynaptic effects of CRF in CeA. These results suggest that potential pharmacotherapies aimed at neurobehavioral and addictive disorders may need to involve both the KOR/dynorphin and the CRF systems in CeA. PMID:26350161

  11. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Espallergues, Julie; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; El Mestikawy, Salah; Gerfen, Charles R.; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) or the Cre-recombinase (Cre) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist), quinpirole (a D2 receptors (D2R)-like agonist), apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist), raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist), and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study. PMID:23423476

  12. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Espallergues, Julie; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; El Mestikawy, Salah; Gerfen, Charles R; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) or the Cre-recombinase (Cre) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist), quinpirole (a D2 receptors (D2R)-like agonist), apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist), raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist), and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study. PMID:23423476

  13. Interferon-gamma induced disruption of GABAergic inhibition in the spinal dorsal horn in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vikman, Kristina S; Duggan, Arthur W; Siddall, Philip J

    2007-12-15

    The proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which can be present in elevated levels in the central nervous system during pathological conditions, may be involved in the generation of persistent pain states by inducing neuronal hyperexcitability. The aim of the present study was to examine whether loss of dorsal horn GABAergic inhibition may underlie this IFN-gamma-mediated neuronal hyperexcitability. Repetitive intrathecal injections of recombinant rat IFN-gamma (1000 U) or control buffer were administered to rats every second day for eight days. Electrophysiological recordings from lumbar dorsal horn neurons (n=46) were performed under halothane anaesthesia. Cellular responses were recorded before, during and after microiontophoretic application of the GABA antagonist bicuculline. In control animals, all cellular responses studied were significantly enhanced in the presence of bicuculline, including increased spontaneous activity, enhanced responses to innocuous and noxious mechanical stimulation and reduced paired-pulse depression. In contrast, in IFN-gamma-treated animals, bicuculline ejection had little or no facilitating effect on neuronal responses and instead a significant proportion of neurons displayed reduced responses. Seventy-four percent of cells from IFN-gamma treated animals showed a reduction in the response to noxious stimulation and 47% of the cells showed increased rather than reduced paired-pulse depression in the presence of bicuculline, thus suggesting IFN-gamma-induced excitatory actions by GABA. These findings show that the prolonged presence of increased levels of IFN-gamma in the central nervous system may contribute to the generation of central sensitization and persistent pain by reducing inhibitory tone in the dorsal horn. This implies a potential link between disinhibition and cytokine action in the spinal cord. PMID:17407800

  14. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying increased anxiety after soman exposure: reduced GABAergic inhibition in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Prager, Eric M; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr I; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Apland, James P; Braga, Maria F M

    2014-09-01

    The recent sarin attack in Syria killed 1429 people, including 426 children, and left countless more to deal with the health consequences of the exposure. Prior to the Syrian chemical assault, nerve agent attacks in Japan left many victims suffering from neuropsychiatric illnesses, particularly anxiety disorders, more than a decade later. Uncovering the neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of anxiety after nerve agent exposure is necessary for successful treatment. Anxiety is associated with hyperexcitability of the basolateral amygdala (BLA). The present study sought to determine the nature of the nerve agent-induced alterations in the BLA, which could explain the development of anxiety. Rats were exposed to soman, at a dose that induced prolonged status epilepticus. Twenty-four hours and 14-days after exposure, neurons from the BLA were recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. At both the 24h and 14-day post-exposure time-points, the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in the BLA were reduced, along with reduction in the frequency but not amplitude of miniature IPSCs. In addition, activation of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a cholinergic receptor that participates in the regulation of BLA excitability and is involved in anxiety, increased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in both soman-exposed rats and controls, but was less effective in increasing sIPSCs in soman-exposed rats. Despite the loss of both interneurons and principal cells after soman-induced status epilepticus, the frequency of sEPSCs was increased in the soman-exposed rats. Impaired function and cholinergic modulation of GABAergic inhibition in the BLA may underlie anxiety disorders that develop after nerve agent exposure. PMID:25150775

  15. Pathophysiological Mechanisms Underlying Increased Anxiety after Soman Exposure: Reduced GABAergic Inhibition in the Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Prager, Eric M.; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr I.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Apland, James P.; Braga, Maria F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The recent sarin attack in Syria killed 1,429 people, including 426 children, and left countless more to deal with the health consequences of the exposure. Prior to the Syrian chemical assault, nerve agent attacks in Japan left many victims suffering from neuropsychiatric illnesses, particularly anxiety disorders, more than a decade later. Uncovering the neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of anxiety after nerve agent exposure is necessary for successful treatment. Anxiety is associated with hyperexcitability of the basolateral amygdala (BLA). The present study sought to determine the nature of the nerve agent-induced alterations in the BLA, which could explain the development of anxiety. Rats were exposed to soman, at a dose that induced prolonged status epilepticus. Twenty-four hours and 14-days after exposure, neurons from the BLA were recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. At both the 24 h and 14-day post-exposure time-points, the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in the BLA were reduced, along with reduction in the frequency but not amplitude of miniature IPSCs. In addition, activation of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a cholinergic receptor that participates in the regulation of BLA excitability and is involved in anxiety, increased spontaneous excitatory p