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1

Record of the largest specimen of neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae)  

E-print Network

Dosidicus gigas (YATSU AND YAMASHIRO, 1999; ZUEV, NIGMATULLIN, CHESALIN, AND NESIS, 2002). The Sub- tropicalRecord of the largest specimen of neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda indicate an age of 492-512 days. The stomach was full and contained beaks of ommastrephid squids

Pierce, Graham

2

Influence of El Nin~o/La Nin~a on the western winterspring cohort of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the  

E-print Network

Influence of El Nin~o/La Nin~a on the western winter�spring cohort of neon flying squid., Zhao, X. H., and Chen, Y. 2007. Influence of El Nin~o/La Nin~a on the western winter�spring cohort, and its western winter�spring cohort is the target of a traditional squid fishery. Commercial fisheries

Chen, Yong

3

The study on fishing ground of neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartrami, and ocean environment based on remote sensing data in the Northwest Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartrami, and the relative ocean environmental factors are analyzed. The environmental factors collected are sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll concentration (Chl- a) and sea surface height (SSH) from NASA, as well as the yields of neon flying squid in the North Pacific Ocean. The results show that the favorable temperature for neon flying squid living is 10C-22C and the favorite temperature is between 15C-17C. The Chl- a concentration is 0.1-0.6 mg/m3. When Chl- a concentration changes to 0.12-0.14 mg/m3, the probability of forming fishing ground becomes very high. In most fishing grounds, the SSH is higher than the mean SSH. The generalized additive model (GAM) was applied to analyze the correlations between neon flying squid and ocean environmental factors. Every year, squids migrate northward from June to August and return southward during October-November, and the characteristics of the both migrations are very different. When squids migrate to the north, most relationships between the yields and SST are positive. The relationships are negative when squids move to southward. The relationships between the yields and Chl- a concentrations are negative from June to October, and insignificant in November. There is no obvious correlation between the catches of squid and longitude, but good with latitude.

Fan, Wei; Wu, Yumei; Cui, Xuesen

2009-05-01

4

Characteristic of lipids and fatty acid compositions of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii.  

PubMed

The lipids and fatty acids of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) were an-alyzed to clarify its lipid physiology and health benefit as marine food. Triacylglycerols were the only major component in the digestive gland (liver). In all other organs (mantle, arm, integument, and ovary), sterols and phospholipids were the major components with noticeable levels of ceramide aminoethyl phosphonate and sphingomyelin. The significant levels of sphingolipids suggest the O. bartramii lipids is a useful source for cosmetics. Although the lipid content between the liver and all other tissues markedly differed from each other, the same nine dominant fatty acids in the triacylglycerols were found in all organs; 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 20:1n-9, 20:1n-11, 22:1n-11, 20:5n-3 (icosapentaenoic acid, EPA), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Unusually high 20:1n-11 levels in the O. bartramii triacylglycerols were probably characteristic for western Pacific animal depot lipids, compared with non-detectable levels of 20:1n-11 reported in other marine animals. O. bartramii concurrently has high levels of DHA in their triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in the phospholipids were 16:0, 18:0, 20:1n-9, EPA, and DHA without 20:1n-11. Markedly high levels of both EPA and DHA were observed in phosphatidylethanolamine, while only DHA was found as the major one in phosphatidylcholine. In particular, high levels of DHA were found both in its depot triacylglycerols and tissue phospholipids in all organs of O. bartramii, similar to that in highly migratory fishes. The high DHA levels in all its organs suggest that O. bartramii lipids is a healthy marine source for DHA supplements. PMID:23018852

Saito, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Satoru

2012-01-01

5

Age, growth and population structure of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in Peruvian waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age, growth and population structure of the jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, from the jig fishery in Peruvian waters in 1992 were determined by reading daily increments in ground and polished sections of statoliths. The squid ranged in size from 192 to 965mm dorsal mantle length (ML) and no squid were older than 1 year. Two size groups were present

J. Argelles; P. G. Rodhouse; P. Villegas; G. Castillo

2001-01-01

6

Size increment of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas mature females in Peruvian waters, 19892004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in population structure of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in Peruvian waters were studied based on size-at-maturity from 1989 to 2004. From 1989 to 1999, mature squid belonging to the medium-sized group prevailed, but from 2001 on, mature squids were larger. This change is not related to the changes in sea surface temperature and we hypothesized that it

Juan Argelles; Ricardo Tafur; Anatolio Taipe; Piero Villegas; Friedeman Keyl; Noel Dominguez; Martn Salazar

2008-01-01

7

Size increment of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas mature females in Peruvian waters, 1989-2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in population structure of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in Peruvian waters were studied based on size-at-maturity from 1989 to 2004. From 1989 to 1999, mature squid belonging to the medium-sized group prevailed, but from 2001 on, mature squids were larger. This change is not related to the changes in sea surface temperature and we hypothesized that it was caused by the population increase of mesopelagic fishes as prey.

Argelles, Juan; Tafur, Ricardo; Taipe, Anatolio; Villegas, Piero; Keyl, Friedeman; Dominguez, Noel; Salazar, Martn

2008-10-01

8

Age, Growth and Population Structure of Jumbo Flying Squid, Dosidicus Gigas, Based on Statolith Microstructure Off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chilean Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, support an important squid fishery off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chilean waters. However, we only have limited information about their biology. In this study, age, growth and population structure of D. gigas were studied using statoliths from 333 specimens (386 females and 147 males) randomly sampled in the Chinese squid jigging surveys from

X. J. Chen; H. J. Lu; B. L. Liu; Yong Chen

2011-01-01

9

Distribution and concentrations of jumbo flying squid ( Dosidicus gigas) off the Peruvian coast between 1991 and 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes in the distribution and concentration of jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) off the Peruvian coast were assessed using catch and effort data from the jigging vessels that worked within the area between 1991 and 1999. The results showed a wide distribution of D. gigas along the coast, the highest concentrations occurred along the coast of northern Peru, from

Anatolio Taipe; Carmen Yamashiro; Luis Mariategui; Pablo Rojas; Cecilia Roque

2001-01-01

10

A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid. Biting Flies of the Coastal Region. Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 227, 231, 232. [Project COAST].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. The units are: (1) A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid; (2) Biting Flies of the Coastal Region; and (3) Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. All three units were designed for secondary school students. Each unit contains teacher background materials, student activity materials,

Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

11

Identification of the first major allergen of a squid (Todarodes pacificus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In Japan, squid is an important seafood, and some patients with food allergies are sensitive to squid. There has been no report, however, describing the major allergens of squid. Objective: To characterize squid allergens, we isolated a major allergen from the Pacific flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) and compared it with a major allergen from a shrimp (Penaeus orientalis). Methods:

Hiroshi Miyazawa; Hiromi Fukamachi; Yoshimasa Inagaki; Gerald Reese; Carolyn B. Daul; Samuel B. Lehrer; Sakae Inouye; Masahiro Sakaguchi

1996-01-01

12

Squids of the family Ommastrephi-dae are a vital part of marine food  

E-print Network

--from a few intact squids to New information from fish diets on the importance of glassy flying squid) are heavily preyed upon by top marine predators, i.e., birds, mammals, and fish, and currently support). Hyaloteuthis pelagica (Bosc, 1802), the glassy flying squid, is the smallest ommastrephid, reaching a maximum

13

Fly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fly is a seamless way to edit videos quickly and with little fuss, all from your iPhone. This application can be used to make simple edits, dissolve transitions, add split screens, and much more. Additionally, users can videos to four different devices. The site contains several helpful demos and a thorough FAQ area. This version is compatible with all devices running iOS 7.0 and newer.

2014-07-11

14

Giant Squid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you get two dead Giant Squid the size of a school bus from a fishing boat in Spain to a museum in Washington, DC, USA? Call in the Navy! Find out how Operation Calamari unfolded and how the museum managed to put their new Giant Squid on display. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

15

Holographic SQUID  

E-print Network

We propose a holographic model of the SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) composed of two Josephson junctions connected each other in a circle with the magnetic flux penetrating the circuit of the SQUID and the supercurrents flowing in both Josephson junction. The gravity in this paper is the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar field model on the four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild black brane geometry in which one space direction is compactified into a circle, and we arrange the profile of the coefficient of the time component of the gauge field having the role for the chemical potential of the cooper pair. The magnetic flux is involved by the rewriting of the surface integral of the magnetic field to the contour integral of the gauge field.

Shingo Takeuchi

2013-09-22

16

Holographic SQUID  

E-print Network

We propose a holographic model of the SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) composed of two Josephson junctions connected each other in a circle with the magnetic flux penetrating the circuit of the SQUID and the supercurrents flowing in both Josephson junction. The gravity in this paper is the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar field model on the four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild black brane geometry in which one space direction is compactified into a circle, and we arrange the profile of the coefficient of the time component of the gauge field having the role for the chemical potential of the cooper pair. The magnetic flux is involved by the rewriting of the surface integral of the magnetic field to the contour integral of the gauge field.

Takeuchi, Shingo

2013-01-01

17

Japan's Squid Market.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study is to identify markets for U.S. squid products with special emphasis on the export potential for squid species available to U.S. fishermen. The squid fishery is one of the fastest growing fisheries in the world. World squid prod...

S. C. Sonu

1993-01-01

18

Helium Neon Laser  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, part of the Spectroscopy Lab Suite, illustrates the physics of a Helium-Neon Laser. Students can create energy levels for both the He and Ne atoms. The basic processes for light emission, including collisions and level transitions, are shown. The atomic energy levels and the pumping energy can be adjusted to achieve an output spectrum similar to the measured physical spectrum.

Zollman, Dean

2010-08-13

19

Positron excitation of neon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The differential and total cross section for the excitation of the 3s1P10 and 3p1P1 states of neon by positron impact were calculated using a distorted-wave approximation. The results agree well with experimental conclusions.

Parcell, L. A.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

1990-01-01

20

California Squid Fishery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Squid usually migrate into shallow waters of 15 to 35 meters in depth to spawn, although some trawlers claim to have captured squid egg capsules at depths exceeding 100 meters. Spawning aggregations occur most frequently during winter in southern Californ...

1983-01-01

21

The Neon Image Processing Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neon is a high-level domain-specific programming language for writing efficient image processing programs which can run on either the CPU or the GPU. End users write Neon programs in a C# programming environment. When the Neon program is executed, our optimizing code generator outputs human-readable source files for either the CPU or GPU. These source files are then added to

Brian Guenter; Diego Nehab

2010-01-01

22

The Squid Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach to the study of squid that helps students of all ages develop richer ideas about the structure of living things, how living things are adapted to their habitats, and how they interact with other organisms. Highlights include the external and internal features of the squid, squid statements and statistics, and writing

Guillaume, Andrea M.

1997-01-01

23

In Search of Giant Squid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, an online exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), provides a wealth of background information on Giant Squids. The largest invertebrates on the planet, Giant Squids have aroused human curiosity for centuries. This site offers a plethora of general information about squids and includes a long list of squid links as well.

24

Chimeras in SQUID Metamaterials  

E-print Network

Non-locally coupled, periodically arranged SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) can form magnetic metamaterials exhibiting extraordinary properties, including tuneability and dynamic multistability, which have been experimentally observed. It is demonstrated numerically that they also exhibit complex dynamic states in which clusters of SQUIDs with synchronous dynamics coexist with clusters that exhibit asynchronous behavior. These {\\em "chimera states"} appear generically as a result of the non-local, dipole-dipole magnetic coupling between SQUIDs, and they can be reached by randomly initializing the system. They also affect measurable quantities and thus their presence can in principle be detected with presently available experimental set-ups.

N. Lazarides; G. Neofotistos; G. P. Tsironis

2014-08-26

25

Future Medicine From Squid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news article reports an exciting discovery about a toxic molecule found in both humans and in the Hawaiian bobtail squid that may hold the medical key for critical organ development and the immune system. Margaret McFall-Ngai, funded by the National Institute of Health, is studying the toxic molecule that causes tissue damage in human diseases such as whooping cough and gonorrhea and, is found to generate the light-producing organ in the Hawaiian bobtail squid.

Millot, Charmaine; Times, The E.

26

Future Medicine From Squid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news article reports an exciting discovery about a toxic molecule found in both humans and in the Hawaiian bobtail squid that may hold the medical key for critical organ development and the immune system. Margaret McFall-Ngai, funded by the National Institute of Health, is studying the toxic molecule that causes tissue damage in human diseases such as whooping cough and gonorrhea and, is found to generate the light-producing organ in the Hawaiian bobtail squid.

Millot, Charmaine

2009-11-04

27

Geographic, seasonal and ontogenetic variation in cadmium and mercury concentrations in squid (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) from UK waters  

E-print Network

high Cd concentrations, whereas larger individuals prey mainly on fish that have low Cd concentrations landings are reported from England and Wales (ICES, 2006). The lesser flying squid T. eblanae is most., 1994). All squid are carnivorous, feeding mainly on crustaceans, small fish and other cephalopods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

Squid concepts and systems  

SciTech Connect

In Section I, I try to give an overview of the current state of the SQUID art. I cannot hope to describe all of the SQUIDs that have been made or, even less, all of the applications in which they have been successfully used. I began, in Sec. II, with a brief review of the resistively-shunted Josephson junction, with particular emphasis on the effects of noise. Section III contains a description of the dc SQUID: how these devices are made and operated, and the limitations imposed by noise. Section IV contains a similar description of the properties of rf SQUIDs, but because there has been little development of these devices in the 1980's, I shall keep this section relatively brief. In Sec. V, I described a selection of instruments based on SQUIDs and mention some of their applications. Section VI contains a discussion of the impact of high temperature superconducting on SQUIDs, and of future prospects in this area, while Sec. VII contains a few concluding remarks. 96 refs., 29 figs.

Clarke, J.

1988-11-01

29

Subranging scheme for SQUID sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A readout scheme for measuring the output from a SQUID-based sensor-array using an improved subranging architecture that includes multiple resolution channels (such as a coarse resolution channel and a fine resolution channel). The scheme employs a flux sensing circuit with a sensing coil connected in series to multiple input coils, each input coil being coupled to a corresponding SQUID detection circuit having a high-resolution SQUID device with independent linearizing feedback. A two-resolution configuration (course and fine) is illustrated with a primary SQUID detection circuit for generating a fine readout, and a secondary SQUID detection circuit for generating a course readout, both having feedback current coupled to the respective SQUID devices via feedback/modulation coils. The primary and secondary SQUID detection circuits function and derive independent feedback. Thus, the SQUID devices may be monitored independently of each other (and read simultaneously) to dramatically increase slew rates and dynamic range.

Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

30

Rogue mantle helium and neon.  

PubMed

The canonical model of helium isotope geochemistry describes the lower mantle as undegassed, but this view conflicts with evidence of recycled material in the source of ocean island basalts. Because mantle helium is efficiently extracted by magmatic activity, it cannot remain in fertile mantle rocks for long periods of time. Here, I suggest that helium with high 3He/4He ratios, as well as neon rich in the solar component, diffused early in Earth's history from low-melting-point primordial material into residual refractory "reservoir" rocks, such as dunites. The difference in 3He/4He ratios of ocean-island and mid-ocean ridge basalts and the preservation of solar neon are ascribed to the reservoir rocks being stretched and tapped to different extents during melting. PMID:18202257

Albarde, Francis

2008-02-15

31

Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are sensitive probes that can detect small changes in the magnetic field. They take advantage of two important properties of superconductors, namely flux quantization and the Josephson effect. Furthermore, SQUIDs demonstrate quantum effects on the macroscopic scale, such as macroscopic wavefunctions, quantum interference and quantum mechanical tunneling. SQUID is a commercially available high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC SQUID magnetometer that will be used for our prototypical experiments. The objectives of this experiment are: 1. study the basic principles underlying SQUID applications, 2. observe zero resistance of superconductors and examine the superconducting phase transition, 3. observe the DC Josephson effect, 4. observe the periodically varying critical current in the resistive mode of the SQUID, 5. learn about the detection of extremely small magnetic fields by converting them into voltages and using a feedback loop, 6. measure the electrical characteristics of SQUID Josephson junctions and 7. build an ac/dc nano-voltmeter.

Khalid, Asma; Salman, Rabiya; Anwar, Muhammad S.

2012-02-13

32

Obtaining Neon from a NeonHelium Mixture on a Quartz Glass Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, neon has been used increasingly in science and engineering ? in the electric lamp and radio-electronic industries, in laser engineering, and aerospace engineering. The demand for neon in gaseous and liquid form for cryostating superconducting cables made of high-temperature superconductors is expected to grow. About 10% of the neon produced is used for scientific purposes: to obtain

I. A. Arkharov; V. L. Bondarenko; A. V. Mikhailov

2002-01-01

33

Low-noise SQUID  

DOEpatents

The present invention comprises a high-transition-temperature superconducting device having low-magnitude low-frequency noise-characteristics in magnetic fields comprising superconducting films wherein the films have a width that is less than or equal to a critical width, w.sub.C, which depends on an ambient magnetic field. For operation in the Earth's magnetic field, the critical width is about 6 micrometers (.mu.m). When made with film widths of about 4 .mu.m an inventive high transition-temperature, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) excluded magnetic flux vortices up to a threshold ambient magnetic field of about 100 microTesla (.mu.T). SQUIDs were fabricated having several different film strip patterns. When the film strip width was kept at about 4 .mu.m, the SQUIDs exhibited essentially no increase in low-frequency noise, even when cooled in static magnetic fields of magnitude up to 100 .mu.T. Furthermore, the mutual inductance between the inventive devices and a seven-turn spiral coil was at least 85% of that for inductive coupling to a conventional SQUID.

Dantsker, Eugene (Torrance, CA); Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

34

Low-noise SQUID  

SciTech Connect

The present invention comprises a high-transition-temperature superconducting device having low-magnitude low-frequency noise-characteristics in magnetic fields comprising superconducting films wherein the films have a width that is less than or equal to a critical width, w(C), which depends on an ambient magnetic field. For operation in the Earth's magnetic field, the critical width is about 6 micrometers ({mu}m). When made with film widths of about 4 {mu}m an inventive high transition-temperature, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) excluded magnetic flux vortices up to a threshold ambient magnetic field of about 100 microTesla ({mu}T). SQUIDs were fabricated having several different film strip patterns. When the film strip width was kept at about 4 {mu}m, the SQUIDs exhibited essentially no increase in low-frequency noise, even when cooled in static magnetic fields of magnitude up to 100 {mu}T. Furthermore, the mutual inductance between the inventive devices and a seven-turn spiral coil was at least 85% of that for inductive coupling to a conventional SQUID.

Dantsker, E.; Clarke, J.

2000-02-08

35

The Microwave SQUID Multiplexer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes a multiplexer of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) with low-noise, ultra-low power dissipation, and great scalability. The multiplexer circuit measures the magnetic flux in a large number of unshunted rf SQUIDs by coupling each SQUID to a superconducting microwave resonator tuned to a unique resonance frequency and driving the resonators from a common feedline. A superposition of microwave tones measures each SQUID simultaneously using only two coaxial cables between the cryogenic device and room temperature. This multiplexer will enable the instrumentation of arrays with hundreds of thousands of low-temperature detectors for new applications in cosmology, materials analysis, and nuclear non-proliferation. The driving application of the Microwave SQUID Multiplexer is the readout of large arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors, by some figures of merit the most sensitive detectors of electromagnetic signals over a span of more than nine orders of magnitude in energy, from 40 GHz microwaves to 200 keV gamma rays. Modern transition-edge sensors have noise-equivalent power as low as 10-20 W / Hz1/2 and energy resolution as good as 2 eV at 6 keV. These per-pixel sensitivities approach theoretical limits set by the underlying signals, motivating a rapid increase in pixel count to access new science. Compelling applications, like the non-destructive assay of nuclear material for treaty verification or the search for primordial gravity waves from inflation use arrays of these detectors to increase collection area or tile a focal plane. We developed three generations of SQUID multiplexers, optimizing the first for flux noise 0.17 muPhi0 / Hz1/2, the second for input current noise 19 pA / Hz1/2, and the last for practical multiplexing of large arrays of cosmic microwave background polarimeters based on transition-edge sensors. Using the last design we demonstrated multiplexed readout of prototype polarimeters with the performance required for the future development of a large-scale astronomical instrument.

Mates, John Arthur Benson

36

Dissect Your Squid and Eat It Too!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a science lab activity in which students dissect fresh squids in groups of four and observe the anatomy. Parent volunteers cook the squid mantle for kids to taste. Includes directions for squid dissection. (YDS)

McGinnis, Patricia

2001-01-01

37

SQUID With Integral Flux Concentrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In improved superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), change in size and shape of superconducting ring improves coupling to external signal coil and eases coil-positioning tolerances. More rugged and easier to manufacture than conventional SQUID's with comparable electrical characteristics. Thin-film superconducting flux concentrator utilizes Meissner effect to deflect magnetic field of signal coil into central hole of SQUID. Used in magnetometers, ammeters, analog-to-digital converters, and related electronic applications in which high signal-to-noise ratios required.

Peters, Palmer N.; Sisk, Robert C.

1989-01-01

38

Moat-guarded Josephson squids  

SciTech Connect

The authors report experimental investigations of a simple structure, called a moat, which significantly reduces the probability of flux-trapping in Josephson SQUIDs. Proper operation of Josephson logic and memory circuits requires that the SQUIDs be free of stray magnetic flux that may become trapped in the superconducting groundplane upon cooling through the critical temperature. The problem is particularly severe for so-called holey SQUIDs which rely on holes in the groundplane to obtain suitably large device inductances. Moats are rectangular channels in the groundplane surrounding the SQUID's which provide preferred sites for trapping flux, thus preventing such flux from coupling to the SQUID. The authors have measured the effectiveness of moats by monitoring the flux trapped in the moats and comparing it to the flux trapped in the associated SQUID as a function of applied field. The number of flux quanta in the moat is determined by measuring the shift of the threshold curve of a two-junction SQUID coupled to the moat. The data indicates that at fields on the order of a mG, moats reduce the sensitivity of holey SQUIDs to trapped flux by at least several orders of magnitude. As the chips are cooled through T/iota/, transient magnetic fields are produced in the metallic sample holder parts surrounding the chip by thermalgradient-induced EMF's. The effects of such magnetic fields on the flux trapping behaviour of the SQUIDs are also reported.

Bermon, S.; Gheewala, T.

1983-05-01

39

Neon PRS experiments on Hawk  

SciTech Connect

Neon gas-puff PRS experiments have been performed on the Hawk generator with and without a plasma opening switch. The POS driven load current rises to 500--600 kA in 75--100 ns and then remains essentially constant over several hundreds of ns. This wave form is ideal for evaluation of K-shell x-ray scaling with mass because mass cans can be performed for a given initial radius without substantially changing the implosion kinetic energy. POS-driven, 2.3-cm-long PRS implosions produce 500 J {+-} 50% of neon K-shell x-rays with x-ray pulse widths of 5 to 10-ns. Although the smaller radius nozzles produce larger yields, the optimum load mass is the same for the different nozzles demonstrating that for kinetic energy weakly dependent on implosion time only specific energy is important for high yield. The radiation yields and pulse-widths from simple K-shell modeling are consistent with a 1-mm stagnation radius for the imploding plasma. Direct drive shots on Hawk require greater than 700 ns implosion times to achieve the same final load currents as the POS driven shots and therefore are not mass optimized for the nozzles used. The direct drive shots have reduced implosion quality and greatly reduced x-ray yields. The results of these experiments and support analyses will be presented.

Peterson, G.G.; Apruzese, J.P.; Commisso, R.J. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.] [and others

1996-12-31

40

Small scale demand type neon liquefaction plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-temperature measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulating materials is generally made using a boil-off calorimetry technique involving liquid hydrogen (LH2). Liquid neon (LNe) has nearly the same normal boiling point as LH2, but has a much larger heat of vaporization, allowing extended run times. The main drawback of using LNe has been its excessive cost; $170.00 versus $1.50/l for LH2 (1989 prices). A neon liquefaction plant has been designed and constructed to capture, purify, and refrigerate the neon boil-off from calorimetry experiments. Recycling the neon reduces operating costs to approximately $20/l. The system consists of a purification section, a heat exchanger, LNe and LH2 storage dewars, and a fully automated control system. After purification, neon is liquified in the heat exchanger by LH2 flowing countercurrently through stainless steel cooling coils. Hydrogen flow is automatically adjusted to keep the neon at its normal saturation temperature, 27 K. The liquid neon is then stored in a dewar placed directly below the heat exchanger.

Dube, W. P.; Slifka, A. J.; Bitsy, R. M.; Sparks, L. L.; Johnson, K. B.

1990-01-01

41

NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be a national resource for ecological research and education. NEON citizen science projects are being designed to increase awareness and educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecological processes as well as expand NEON data collection capacity by enabling laypersons to collect geographically distributed data. The citizen science area of the NEON web portal will enable citizen scientists to collect, contribute, interpret, and visualize scientific data, as well as access training modules, collection protocols and targeted learning experiences related to citizen science project topics. For NEON, citizen science projects are a means for interested people to interact with and contribute to NEON science. Investigations at vast spatial and temporal scales often require rapid acquisition of large amounts of data from a geographically distributed population of "human sensors." As a continental-scale ecological observatory, NEON is uniquely positioned to develop strategies to effectively integrate data collected by non-scientists into scientific databases. Ultimately, we plan to work collaboratively to transform the practice of science to include "citizens" or non-scientists in the process. Doing science is not limited to scientists, and breaking down the barriers between scientists and citizens will help people better understand the power of using science in their own decision making. In preparation for fully developing the NEON citizen science program, we are partnering with Project BudBurst (PBB), a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology. The educational goals of PBB are to: (1) increase awareness of climate change, (2) educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change on plants and the environment, and (3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. Phenology was chosen as the focus of this citizen science campaign because it is a visible and comprehensible way of demonstrating the effects of climate change. In addition, plants are readily accessible in nearly every neighborhood and park, and wild area across the continent, so people can make observations whether they live near an inner city park or in the rural countryside. Recently, NEON developed data visualization tools for Project BudBurst to engage citizen science participants in "doing science" beyond data collection. By prototyping NEON citizen science through Project BudBurst, NEON is developing a better understanding of how to build a citizen science program that addresses areas of awareness, mastery, and leadership of scientific information like that which NEON will produce over the next 30 years.

Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Gardiner, L. S.; Ward, D.; Gram, W.

2011-12-01

42

Japan's Squid Fishing Industry WILLIAM G. COURT  

E-print Network

Japan's Squid Fishing Industry WILLIAM G. COURT .. Introduction Dried-squid (surume) has been an item of commerce, ceremony, and diet in Japan for hundreds of years, and squid is caught of labor, and the low capital investment required for squid jigging stimulated the rapid de- velopment

43

Principles and applications of SQUIDs  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) combine flux quantization and Josephson tunneling to produce an output voltage that is periodic in the applied magnetic flux with a period of one flux quantum Phi/sub o/. SQUIDs are thus flux-to-voltage transducers, and are able to detect changes in flux much smaller that Phi/sub o/. Using Nb-based thin-film technology, a number of groups can now routinely fabricate dc SQUIDs with input circuits integrated on the same chip. At 4.2 {Kappa} the dc SQUID, which operates with a constant bias current, can detect signals with an equivalent energy per unit bandwidth of a few hundred h-bar. At low frequencies, the SQUID exhibits l/f noise that originates in fluctuations in the critical current of the junctions and in the motion of magnetic flux trapped in the thin films. RF SQUIDs, which operate with an RF flux bias, are usually machined from bulk Nb, and have a typical energy sensitivity per unit bandwidth of 10/sup 5/ to 10/sup 6/ h-bar. Both types of SQUID can be used in a wide variety of applications, including magnetometers, gradiometers, susceptometers, voltmeters, RF amplifiers, gravity wave antennas, and gravity gradiometers.

Clarke, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1989-08-01

44

NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be a national resource for ecological research and education. NEON citizen science projects are being designed to increase awareness and educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecological processes as well as expand NEON data collection capacity by enabling laypersons to collect geographically distributed data. The citizen science area of the NEON web portal will enable citizen scientists to collect, contribute, interpret, and visualize scientific data, as well as access training modules, collection protocols and targeted learning experiences related to citizen science project topics. For NEON, citizen science projects are a means for interested people to interact with and contribute to NEON science. Investigations at vast spatial and temporal scales often require rapid acquisition of large amounts of data from a geographically distributed population of human sensors. As a continental-scale ecological observatory, NEON is uniquely positioned to develop strategies to effectively integrate data collected by non-scientists into scientific databases. Ultimately, we plan to work collaboratively to transform the practice of science to include citizens or non-scientists in the process. Doing science is not limited to scientists, and breaking down the barriers between scientists and citizens will help people better understand the power of using science in their own decision making. In preparation for fully developing the NEON citizen science program, we are partnering with Project BudBurst (PBB), a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology. The educational goals of PBB are to: (1) increase awareness of climate change, (2) educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change on plants and the environment, and (3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. Phenology was chosen as the focus of this citizen science campaign because it is a visible and comprehensible way of demonstrating the effects of climate change. In addition, plants are readily accessible in nearly every neighborhood and park, and wild areas across the continent, so people can make observations whether they live near an inner city park or in the rural countryside. Recently, NEON built 3 web tools that enable users to visualize PBB data. The tools include a mapping function that displays selected PBB distributional data on a map, an animated map that shows green up through time and space, and a graphing tool that compares number of species flowering or leafing out with day length. This prototyping will help NEON better understand how to engage citizen science participants in doing science beyond data collection.

Gram, W.

2010-12-01

45

dc SQUID: Noise and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer model is described for the dc SQUID in which the two Josephson junctions are nonhysteretic, resistively shunted tunnel junctions. In the absence of noise, current-voltage(IV) characteristics are obtained as functions of the applied flux, Fa, SQUID inductanceL, junction critical currentI0, and shunt resistanceR. The effects of asymmetry inL, I0, andR are discussed.IV characteristics, flux-voltage transfer functions, and low-frequency

Claudia D. Tesche; John Clarke

1977-01-01

46

Flying wings / flying fuselages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

2001-01-01

47

Occupational allergy to squid (Loligo vulgaris).  

PubMed

Occupational allergy from exposure to squid has been rarely described, mainly as contact dermatitis or urticaria. Our report presents the first case of occupational asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and contact urticaria to squid in a 33-year-old seafood production worker, with documented increased eosinophilia in the nasal and tear fluids after specific inhalation challenge test (SICT) with squid. IgE-mediated sensitization to squid was confirmed by positive skin prick test and opened skin test with squid extract. SICT demonstrated a direct and significant link between the exposure to squid and the allergic response from the respiratory system and conjunctiva. PMID:23535711

Wiszniewska, M; Tymoszuk, D; Pas-Wyro?lak, A; Nowakowska-?wirta, E; Chomiczewska-Skra, D; Pa?czy?ski, C; Walusiak-Skorupa, J

2013-06-01

48

Performance of a double dc SQUID magnetometer  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a magnetic flux sensing device that is made by using two dc Squids. The dc Squids are of similar characteristics, magnetically coupled by a common coil and are turned into the voltage state by a single dc current source. As the dc Squids are magnetically coupled, the magnetic flux noise generated by one of the dc Squids is sensed by the other one and vice versa. Then by making a differential measurement across both dc Squids, the magnetic flux noise detected by the dc Squids can be added either constructively or destructively. This means the magnetic flux noise cancellation is possible as it is demonstrated experimentally. The double dc Squid configuration can also be used in the add flux noise mode, case in which there is no loss of performance when comparing with what is possible to obtain with a single dc Squid.

Casas, J.; Miyoamoto, N.; Nakane, H.; Goto, E. (Research Development Corp. of Japan, I-280 Higashi Koigakubo, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185 (JP))

1991-03-01

49

SQUID magnetometers for low-frequency applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel formulation for SQUID operation, which enables us to evaluate and compare the sensitivity and applicability of different devices. SQUID magnetometers for low-frequency applications are analyzed, taking into account the coupling circuits and electronics. We discuss nonhysteretic and hysteretic single-junction rf SQUIDs, but the main emphasis is on the dynamics, sensitivity, and coupling considerations of dc-SQUID magnetometers.

Tapani Ryhnen; Heikki Sepp; Risto Ilmoniemi; Jukka Knuutila

1989-01-01

50

SQUID holder with high magnetic shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A SQUID holder designed for high magnetic shielding is discussed. It is shown how to estimate the attenuation of the magnetic field from the normal magnetic modes for an approximate geometry. The estimate agrees satisfactorily with the attenuation measured with a commercial RF SQUID installed in the holder. The holder attenuates external magnetic fields by more than 10 to the 9th at the SQUID input. With the SQUID input shorted, the response to external fields is 0.00001 Phi(0)/G.

Rigby, K. W.; Marek, D.; Chui, T. C. P.

1990-01-01

51

Biomagnetic measurements using squids.  

PubMed

Systematic studies of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) in normal and pathological subjects (mainly with focal epilepsies) showed that the MEG may evidence significant brain activities even if they are not present in the electroencephalogram (EEG). They also showed that the MEG has a considerably higher spatial resolution than the EEG. A novel mapping technique was introduced to get such a representation of the data that would enable the investigator to draw his conclusions mainly from inspecting the plots. This technique is characterized by an isospectral amplitude (iso-SA) mapping of the scalp distribution of specified spectral components or frequency bands of the MEG power spectrum. With the above method we were able to localize an epileptiform focus using a noninvasive technique without applying an eliciting stimulus. Furthermore using SQUID measurements we were able to describe the behavior of the MEG when the brains of different subjects were subjected to low frequency sinusoidal binaural stimuli. Under these conditions it has been shown that the MEG tends to organize around discrete frequencies that depend on the interference pattern (beat) between the two inputs. PMID:3692698

Anninos, P A; Anogianakis, G; Lehnertz, K; Pantev, C; Hoke, M

1987-12-01

52

Paleomagnetic Analysis Using SQUID Microscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopes are a new generation of instruments that map magnetic fields with unprecedented spatial resolution and moment sensitivity. Unlike standard rock magnetometers, SQUID microscopes map magnetic fields rather than measuring magnetic moments such that the sample magnetization pattern must be retrieved from source model fits to the measured field data. In this paper, we presented the first direct comparison between paleomagnetic analyses on natural samples using joint measurements from SQUID microscopy and moment magnetometry. We demonstrated that in combination with apriori geologic and petrographic data, SQUID microscopy can accurately characterize the magnetization of lunar glass spherules and Hawaiian basalt. The bulk moment magnitude and direction of these samples inferred from inversions of SQUID microscopy data match direct measurements on the same samples using moment magnetometry. In addition, these inversions provide unique constraints on the magnetization distribution within the sample. These measurements are among the most sensitive and highest resolution quantitative paleomagnetic studies of natural remanent magnetization to date. We expect that this technique will be able to extend many other standard paleomagnetic techniques to previously inaccessible microscale samples.

Weiss, Benjamin P.; Lima, Eduardo A.; Fong, Luis E.; Baudenbacher, Franz J.

2007-01-01

53

A 37 channel DC SQUID magnetometer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 37-channel DC SQUID magnetometer system has been built for biomagnetic studies. The SQUID loop of each magnetometer serves as the active sensing element, thereby eliminating the need for flux coupling circuits. The magnetometers are located ≃3 cm above the outer dewar bottom. The SQUIDs are directly coupled to a highly simplified readout electronics using only five wires per channel;

H. Koch; R. Cantor; D. Drung; S. N. Erne; K. P. Matthies; M. Peters; T. Ryhanen; H. J. Scheer; H. D. Hahlbohm

1991-01-01

54

Experimental Squid Jigging Off the Washington Coast  

E-print Network

Experimental Squid Jigging Off the Washington Coast ROGER W. MERCER and MICHELE SUCY Introduction Service was contacted by Capta in Jerry Sweeney of the salmon charter vessel Tres Cher in regard to squid of existing literature on squid yielded several pieces of information which indicated some potential

55

Developments in South American Squid Fisheries  

E-print Network

Developments in South American Squid Fisheries Marcelo Juanico is with the Museo Nacional deI., 1975). Up to now squids have been only a minor and scarce resource in the Chilean fisheries, recorded gigante," Humboldt squid) with a man- tle length of up to I m and a weight of 35 kg. It is fished mainly

56

The Philippines Squid Fishery: A Review  

E-print Network

The Philippines Squid Fishery: A Review ANICETO M. HERNANDO, Jr. and EFREN ED. C. FLORES Aniceto M not necessarily reflect the position of the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. Introduction Squids were increasing squid production, it cannot meet the increasing demand of local, national, and foreign markets

57

Spanish Market for U.S. Squid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spain is the eighth largest consumer of fishery products in the world and second, behind Japan, in the consumption of squid and squid products. In recent years, the Spanish squid catch has shifted from species found in the waters off North Africa and Nort...

W. Folsom, M. Miller

1987-01-01

58

Tracking Electromagnetic Energy With SQUIDs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a gadget used to measure extremely weak signals, specifically magnetic flux. It can detect subtle changes in energy, up to 100 billion times weaker than the electromagnetic energy required to move a compass needle. SQUIDs are used for a variety of testing procedures where extreme sensitivity is required and where the test instrument need not come into direct contact with the test subject. NASA uses SQUIDs for remote, noncontact sensing in a variety of venues, including monitoring the Earth s magnetic field and tracking brain activity of pilots. Scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have been making extensive use of this technology, from astrophysical research, to tracking the navigational paths of bees in flight to determine if they are using internal compasses. These very sensitive measurement devices have a wide variety of uses within NASA and even more uses within the commercial realm.

2005-01-01

59

Laboratory Astrophysics: Spectral Analysis of Photoionized Neon  

E-print Network

Laboratory Astrophysics: Spectral Analysis of Photoionized Neon James MacArthur Advisor: David comparable to astrophysical plasmas measured in high mass X-ray binaries or Seyfert 2 galaxies. A proper Cloudy and XSTAR used by the astrophysics community. The curve of growth analysis of absorption spectra

Cohen, David

60

Mining Helium programs with Neon Jurriaan Hage  

E-print Network

Mining Helium programs with Neon Jurriaan Hage Peter van Keeken Department of Information in a first-year functional programming course using the Helium compiler. The mining of such a collection to resolve a type error. 1 #12;1 Introduction and motivation When the Helium compiler for learning Haskell

Utrecht, Universiteit

61

A series array of dc SQUIDs  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a series array of 100 dc SQUIDs using trilayer Nb-AlO{sub x}-Nb junctions. The SQUIDs are modulated with a common flux bias line and produce an output voltage swing of several millivolts across the array. The large output voltage will allow direct connection to room temperature electronics without the transformer coupling and resulting frequency limitations commonly associated with dc SQUID amplifiers. The authors measured a bandwidth of dc to at least 175 MHz for a 100-SQUID array. The series array will be used as the output stage for a multistage integrated SQUID amplifier.

Welty, R.P. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Martinis, J.M. (Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Reston, VA (United States))

1991-03-01

62

In Brief. ... Of Squid, Tarpon,  

E-print Network

than $2.8 bill- ion worth of property. . . . · . . . The Alaska Board of Fisheries reports adopting of Fisheries adopted a policy for the long- term management of Cook Inlet salmon stocks, as competition between Russian trawler, the Argus, failed to find commercial quantities of squid off the southeastern U.S. coast

63

Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

2000-09-01

64

Cold SQUIDs and hot samples  

SciTech Connect

Low transition temperature (low-{Tc}) and high-{Tc} Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) have been used to perform high-resolution magnetic measurements on samples whose temperatures are much higher than the operating temperatures of the devices. Part 1 of this work focuses on measurements of the rigidity of flux vortices in high-{Tc} superconductors using two low-{Tc} SQUIDs, one on either side of a thermally-insulated sample. The correlation between the signals of the SQUIDs is a direct measure of the extent of correlation between the movements of opposite ends of vortices. These measurements were conducted under the previously-unexplored experimental conditions of nominally-zero applied magnetic field, such that vortex-vortex interactions were unimportant, and with zero external current. At specific temperatures, the authors observed highly-correlated noise sources, suggesting that the vortices moved as rigid rods. At other temperatures, the noise was mostly uncorrelated, suggesting that the relevant vortices were pinned at more than one point along their length. Part 2 describes the design, construction, performance, and applications of a scanning high-{Tc} SQUID microscope optimized for imaging room-temperature objects with very high spatial resolution and magnetic source sensitivity.

Lee, T.S.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; [Lawrence Berkeley national Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1997-05-01

65

MFR PAPER 1257 Care and Maintenance of Squid Quality  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1257 Care and Maintenance of Squid Quality INTRODUCTION The squid resources in the proper handling of squid at sea and through the processing and dis- tribution stages. Typically, squid for squid is primarily a small-boat fishery, and the catch is sometimes not iced at sea. In southern New

66

Small scale demand type neon liquefaction plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-temperature measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulating materials is generally made using a boil-off calorimetry technique involving liquid hydrogen (LH2). Liquid neon (LNe) has nearly the same normal boiling point as LH2, but has a much larger heat of vaporization, allowing extended run times. The main drawback of using LNe has been its excessive cost; $170.00 versus $1.50\\/l for

W. P. Dube; A. J. Slifka; R. M. Bitsy; L. L. Sparks; K. B. Johnson

1990-01-01

67

The NEON Soil Archive - A community resource  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a 30-year National Science Foundation-funded facility for understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, and ecohydrology. NEON will measure a wide range of properties at 60 terrestrial and 36 aquatic sites throughout the US using in situ sensors, sample collection/lab analysis, and remote sensing, and all data will be made freely available. The Observatory is currently under construction and will be fully operational by 2017, however, limited data collection and release will begin in 2013. In addition, NEON is archiving large numbers of samples, including surface soils (top ~30 cm) collected from locations across each site, and soils collected by horizon to 2 m deep from a single soil pit at each site. Here I present information about the latter, focusing on sampling and processing, metadata, and currently available samples. At each terrestrial site the soil pit is dug in the locally dominant soil type and soil is collected by horizon, mixed, and ~4-8 liters soil is sent for processing. Soil samples are air-dried and sieved (mineral soil) or air-dried (organic soil) and 1.2 kg is split between 4 glass jars for archiving (protocol available upon request). To date 15 soil pits have been sampled, representing 7 soil orders, and soils from 110 horizons have been archived or are being processed. Metadata associated with each archive sample include a soil profile description, photos, and soil properties (total C, N, S, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, Sr, Ti, Zr, bulk density, pH, and texture). The procedure for requesting samples from the archive is under development and I encourage scientists to use the archive in their future research. Collecting and processing samples for the NEON Soil Archive

Ayres, E.

2013-12-01

68

Binary collision model for neon Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is developed to account for the angle-resolved Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface recently obtained by Pepper and Aron. The neon is assumed to be excited in a single asymmetric neon-aluminum collision and scattered back into the vacuum where it emits an Auger electron. The velocity of the Auger electron acquires a Doppler shift by virtue of the emission from a moving source. The dependence of the Auger peak shape and energy on the incident ion energy, angle of incidence and on the angle of Auger electron emission with respect to the surface is presented. Satisfactory agreement with the angle resolved experimental observations is obtained. The dependence of the angle-integrated Auger yield on the incident ion energy and angle of incidence is also obtained and shown to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental evidence.

Pepper, Stephen V.

1986-04-01

69

Binary collision model for neon Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is developed to account for the angle-resolved Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface recently obtained by Pepper and Aron. The neon is assumed to be excited in a single asymmetric neon-aluminum-collision and scattered back into the vacuum where it emits an Auger electron. The velocity of the Auger electron acquires a Doppler shift by virtue of the emission from a moving source. The dependence of the Auger peak shape and energy on the incident ion energy, angle of incidence and on the angle of Auger electron emission with respect to the surface is presented. Satisfactory agreement with the angle resolved experimental observations is obtained. The dependence of the angle-integrated Auger yield on the incident ion energy and angle of incidence is also obtained and shown to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental evidence.

Pepper, S. V.

1986-01-01

70

Neon: A Domain-Specific Programming Language for Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neon is a high-level domain-specific programming language for writing efficient image processing programs which can run on either the CPU or the GPU. End users write Neon programs in a C# programming environment. When the Neon program is executed, our optimizing code generator outputs human-readable source files for either the CPU or GPU. These source files are then added to

Brian Guenter; Diego Nehab

71

Microwave-free manipulation of a SQUID qubit  

E-print Network

Microwave-free manipulation of a SQUID qubit S. Poletto1, J. Lisenfeld1, A. Lukashenko1 M/2 0=2.07·10-15 Wb 1-junction SQUID (rf SQUID) #12;I Vs JJ with tunable critical current 0 2I0 I0 l I0 s V I 2I0 s=0 2-junction SQUID (dc SQUID) #12;Qubit (double SQUID) x For x = 0/2 the potential

Fominov, Yakov

72

Integrated SQUID linear amplifier design and simulation  

SciTech Connect

A linear cascade video amplifier capable of working from DC to about one GHz was designed, fabricated, and initially tested. Two asymmetric SQUIDs operating in push-pull are used to achieve linearity and to eliminate output offset. Decoupling of the Josephson oscilliation between the SQUIDs is accomplished by using a special low-pass resonant transformer. Simulation results are presented for three- and ten-junction SQUIDs.

Gershenson, M.

1985-03-01

73

Black Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information about the common annoyance pest the Black Fly. The flies life cycle and control strategy are covered. While the information is specific to Los Angeles California, the same strategies are effective elsewhere. Personal protection information is also offered and is universally effective.

0002-11-30

74

The House Fly and Other Filth Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A primer on recognizing and controlling so-called "filth flies". Diptera commonly associated with trash, waste, and decay. The article covers common larger flies muscids, calliphorids, sarcophagids, as well as smaller fungus gnats, drain flies, and humpbacked flies (conspicuously missing are the soldier flies). Fly development, and biology are covered. No links, and no bibliography are offered.

0002-11-30

75

What NEON Is The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale  

E-print Network

, biophysical, biogeochemical, and land-use and land-management data. A variety of instrument packages will be deployed: � The Fundamental Instrument Unit consists of fixed towers supported by sensor arrays management and provide early warning of biological natural hazards. NEON will support the first continental

Patterson, Bruce D.

76

Kinetic energies of liquid and solid neon  

SciTech Connect

We have calculated the kinetic energies of liquid and solid neon in the temperature range 9.2--35 K. We have used the Wigner-Kirkwood expansion technique for the calculation of quantum corrections to the kinetic energy up to the order of [h bar][sup 6] in the expansion. All the averages are calculated by molecular dynamics computer simulation. Our results are in agreement with the experimental findings of Peek [ital et] [ital al]. Both the Lennard-Jones and Aziz pair potentials have been used in calculations with comparable results.

Asger, M.; Usmani, Q.N. (Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamianagar, New Delhi 110 025 (India))

1994-05-01

77

Dietary Protein Source and Level Affects Growth in Neon Tetras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional studies for aquarium fishes like the neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi are sparse in comparison with those for food fish. To determine the optimum dietary protein level and source for growth of neon tetras, diets were formulated to contain 25, 35, 45, and 55% dietary protein from either marine animal protein or plant protein sources in a 4 2

Wendy M. Sealey; Frederic T. Barrows; Mike Casten; Ronald W. Hardy

2009-01-01

78

Developments in South American Squid Fisheries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The only important squid catches in South America are the Argentinian ones, and to a much less extent those of Uruguay. Estimates of squid potential yields near the continent will be available at short term only on this resource (Illex argentinus). The la...

M. Juanico

1980-01-01

79

A series array of DC SQUIDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series array of 100 DC SQUIDs has been fabricated using trilayer Nb-AlOx-Nb junctions. The SQUIDs are modulated with a common flux bias line and produce an output voltage swing of several millivolts across the array. The large output voltage will allow direct connection to room temperature electronics without the transformer coupling and resulting frequency limitations commonly associated with DC

R. P. Welty; J. M. Martinis

1991-01-01

80

Drain Flies (Moth Flies or Filter Flies)  

E-print Network

Drain flies can be a common problem in homes. They live and reproduce in drains and septic tank field lines. The first step in controlling these pests is identifying the source of the infestation. Then there are cleaning products and insecticides...

Sansone, Chris; Minzenmayer, Rick

2003-07-21

81

SQUID Multiplexers for Cryogenic Detector Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SQUID multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of cryogenic detectors with a manageable number of readout channels. We are developing time-division SQUID multiplexers based on Nb trilayer SQUIDs to read arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors. Our first-generation, 8-channel SQUID multiplexer was used in FIBRE, a one-dimensional TES array for submillimeter astronomy. Our second-generation 32-pixel multiplexer, based on an improved architecture, has been developed for instruments including Constellation-X, SCUBA-2, and solar x-ray astronomy missions. SCUBA-2, which is being developed for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, will have more than 10,000 pixels. We are now developing a third-generation architecture based on superconducting hot-electron switches. The use of SQUID multiplexers in instruments operating at above 2 K will also be discussed.

Irwin, Kent; Beall, James; Deiker, Steve; Doriese, Randy; Duncan, William; Hilton, Gene; Moseley, S. Harvey; Reintsema, Carl; Stahle, Caroline; Ullom, Joel; Vale, Leila

2004-01-01

82

Hessian Fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) is the worlds most important insect pest of wheat. It also belongs to one of the largest families of the Diptera, the gall\\u000a midges (Cecidomyiidae), which includes a number of other agriculturally important beneficial and pest species. The genetics\\u000a of the Hessian fly is representative of the family. It has several interesting characteristics: highly adapted

Jeffrey J. Stuart; Ming-Shun Chen; Marion O. Harris

83

A MINIATURE SQUID MAGNETOMETER FOR BIOMAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS WITH IMPROVED SELECTIVITY  

E-print Network

A MINIATURE SQUID MAGNETOMETER FOR BIOMAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS WITH IMPROVED SELECTIVITY J.A. Overweg a conventional gradiometer, so that a better flux transfer to the SQUID is possible. INTRODUCTION.- In most SQUID-magnetometer systems the external magnetic fields to be measured are coupled into the SQUID by a fluxtransformer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

A 200 # twostage dc SQUID amplifier for resonant detectors  

E-print Network

A 200 # two­stage dc SQUID amplifier for resonant detectors . In a resonant GW detector/2 ) and the Bandwidth (µ[S vv /S ii ] 1/2 ) . The two­stage dc SQUID amplifier, based on commercial (Quantum Design . A feedback damping network suitable for both the resonator­SQUID system and the GW detector­SQUID system

85

Biological Considerations Relevant to the Management of Squid  

E-print Network

Biological Considerations Relevant to the Management of Squid (Loligo pealei and IIlex illecebrosus squid) and lllex illecebrosus (short-finned squid) are found in com- mercially exploited quantities aspects of the biology and population dynamics of these species relevant to the management of squid

86

Title: High-Tc DC SQUIDs for magnetoencephalography Presentation  

E-print Network

Title: High-Tc DC SQUIDs for magnetoencephalography Presentation Thursday, Oct 11, 2012, 9:00 AM Engineering & Electronics RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation. Keyword: ++16- SQUID designs and applications interference devices (SQUIDs), which rely on liquid helium. In contrast, high-Tc (HTc) DC SQUIDs are cooled

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

87

A Taste of Crispy Squid Syam Gadde, Jeff Chase  

E-print Network

A Taste of Crispy Squid Syam Gadde, Jeff Chase Dept. of Computer Science Duke University Durham NC cache structures in Crispy Squid, an extension to the Squid Internet Object Cache. We are evaluating] and the public­domain Squid caches [20]. Hierarchical Web caches are built as a collective of independent proxy

Rabinovich, Michael "Misha"

88

The Foreign Squid Fishery Off the Northeast United States Coast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past 5 years, the foreign fleet has taken an average of 50,000 metric tons (t) of squid per year. The 1978 optimum yield of squid has been set at 79,000 t (29,000 t of Illex, short-finned squid, and 19,000 t of Loligo, long-finned squid, foreig...

D. J. Kolator, D. P. Long

1979-01-01

89

Aperture effects in squid jet propulsion.  

PubMed

Squid are the largest jet propellers in nature as adults, but as paralarvae they are some of the smallest, faced with the inherent inefficiency of jet propulsion at a low Reynolds number. In this study we describe the behavior and kinematics of locomotion in 1 mm paralarvae of Dosidicus gigas, the smallest squid yet studied. They swim with hop-and-sink behavior and can engage in fast jets by reducing the size of the mantle aperture during the contraction phase of a jetting cycle. We go on to explore the general effects of a variable mantle and funnel aperture in a theoretical model of jet propulsion scaled from the smallest (1 mm mantle length) to the largest (3 m) squid. Aperture reduction during mantle contraction increases propulsive efficiency at all squid sizes, although 1 mm squid still suffer from low efficiency (20%) because of a limited speed of contraction. Efficiency increases to a peak of 40% for 1 cm squid, then slowly declines. Squid larger than 6 cm must either reduce contraction speed or increase aperture size to maintain stress within maximal muscle tolerance. Ecological pressure to maintain maximum velocity may lead them to increase aperture size, which reduces efficiency. This effect might be ameliorated by nonaxial flow during the refill phase of the cycle. Our model's predictions highlight areas for future empirical work, and emphasize the existence of complex behavioral options for maximizing efficiency at both very small and large sizes. PMID:24501132

Staaf, Danna J; Gilly, William F; Denny, Mark W

2014-05-01

90

76 FR 47492 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery; Emergency Rule...mortality cap in the Loligo (Doryteuthis) squid fishery, based on the most recent and...Specifications for Atlantic mackerel, Loligo squid, and Illex squid also remain...

2011-08-05

91

77 FR 51853 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework...the risk policy, do not apply to longfin squid or Illex squid; these species are...

2012-08-27

92

21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...intended to measure the concentration of neon in a gas mixture exhaled by a patient. The device may use techniques such as mass spectrometry or thermal conductivity. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2010-04-01

93

Flying Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN excellent opportunity of observing the aerial means of propulsion in the flying fish was afforded me during a six days' calm lately when crossing the Bay of Bengal. This must be my excuse for again touching this subject. I watched day by day some hundreds rise under the bows of the ship. The water surface was a glassy calm.

Alfred Carpenter

1885-01-01

94

Interactive Fly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is award-winning and comprehensive. It thoroughly discusses genes, tissues, biochemical paths, and developmental processes in the fruit fly, Drosophila. Its gene index identifies genes with their functions, maternal and zygotically transcribed genes, genes important to behavior and genes in conserved pathways. Its tissue and organ development section shows stages and an atlas, as well as genes and processes in gastrulation, histogenesis, morphogenesis, organogenesis, imaginal discs, adult formation, oogenesis and spermatogenesis.

PhD Thomas B Brody (NIH Laboratory of Neurochemistry)

2005-09-13

95

Multistage Zeeman deceleration of metastable neon  

SciTech Connect

A supersonic beam of metastable neon atoms has been decelerated by exploiting the interaction between the magnetic moment of the atoms and time-dependent inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a multistage Zeeman decelerator. Using 91 deceleration solenoids, the atoms were decelerated from an initial velocity of 580 m/s to final velocities as low as 105 m/s, corresponding to a removal of more than 95% of their initial kinetic energy. The phase-space distribution of the cold, decelerated atoms was characterized by time-of-flight and imaging measurements, from which a temperature of 10 mK was obtained in the moving frame of the decelerated sample. In combination with particle-trajectory simulations, these measurements allowed the phase-space acceptance of the decelerator to be quantified. The degree of isotope separation that can be achieved by multistage Zeeman deceleration was also studied by performing experiments with pulse sequences generated for {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne.

Wiederkehr, Alex W.; Motsch, Michael; Hogan, Stephen D.; Andrist, Markus; Schmutz, Hansjuerg; Lambillotte, Bruno; Agner, Josef A.; Merkt, Frederic [Laboratorium fuer Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-12-07

96

Electron Impact Excitation and Ionization of Neon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have further developed the B-Spline R-matrix (BSR) code [1] to allow for a large number of pseudo-states in the close-coupling expansion. In the present work, the BSRMPS approach [2] was employed to perform semi-relativistic (Breit-Pauli) close-coupling calculations for elastic scattering, excitation, and ionization of neon from both the ground state and the metastable excited states. Coupling to the ionization continuum through the pseudo-states is important for low-energy elastic scattering (to represent polarizability effects), for excitation in the ``intermediate'' energy regime of about 1-5 times the ionization potential, and to allow for the calculation of ionization processes by transforming the results obtained for excitation of the positive-energy pseudo-states. The current results represent a significant extension of our earlier near-threshold work [3] and previous non-relativistic RMPS calculations [4,5].[4pt] [1] O. Zatsarinny, Comp. Phys. Commun. 174 (2006) 273.[0pt] [2] O. Zatsarinny and K. Bartschat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 023203.[0pt] [3] O. Zatsarinny and K. Bartschat, J. Phys. B 37 (2004) 2173.[0pt] [4] C. P. Ballance and D. C. Griffin, J. Phys. B 37 (2004) 2943.[0pt] [5] C. P. Ballance et al., J. Phys. B 37 (2004) 4779.

Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus

2012-10-01

97

Boundary field theory approach to the renormalization of SQUID devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the quantum properties of some Josephson SQUID devices are described by a boundary sine-Gordon model. Our approach naturally describes multi-junction SQUID devices and, when applied to a single junction SQUID (the rf-SQUID), it reproduces the known results of Glazman and Hekking. We provide a detailed analysis of the regimes accessible to an rf-SQUID and to a two-Josephson junction SQUID device (the dc-SQUID). We then compute the normal component of the current-response of a SQUID device to an externally applied voltage and show that the equation describing the current-voltage characteristic function reduces to well-known results when the infrared cutoff is suitably chosen. Our approach helps in establishing new and interesting connections between superconducting devices, quantum Brownian motion, fermionic quantum wires and, more generally, quantum impurity problems.

Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale

2007-05-01

98

ICP and the Squid Web Cache \\Lambda Duane Wessels  

E-print Network

ICP and the Squid Web Cache \\Lambda Duane Wessels k claffy August 13, 1997 Abstract We describe the structure and functionality of the Internet Cache Protocol (ICP) and its implementation in the Squid Web

California at San Diego, University of

99

Boundary Field Theory Approach to the Renormalization of SQUID Devices  

E-print Network

We show that the quantum properties of some Josephson SQUID devices are described by a boundary sine Gordon model. Our approach naturally describes multi-junction SQUID devices and, when applied to a single junction SQUID (the rf-SQUID), it reproduces the known results of Glazman and Hekking. We provide a detailed analysis of the regimes accessible to an rf-SQUID and to a two-Josephson junction SQUID device (the dc-SQUID). We then compute the normal component of the current-response of a SQUID device to an externally applied voltage and show that the equation describing the current-voltage characteristic function reduces to well-known results when the infrared cutoff is suitably chosen. Our approach helps in establishing new and interesting connections between superconducting devices, quantum brownian motion, fermionic quantum wires and, more generally, quantum impurity problems.

Domenico Giuliano; Pasquale Sodano

2006-08-27

100

Low Field dc SQUID NMR on Room Temperature Samples  

E-print Network

Low Field dc SQUID NMR on Room Temperature Samples and Single Crystal UPt3 by Aya Shibahara is the technique of dc SQUID NMR. Firstly the application of the technique for broadband spectroscopy on room temperature samples is described. The mo- tivation behind this work was to try to obtain SQUID NMR signals

Sheldon, Nathan D.

101

Boundary shape identification in twodimensional electrostatic problems using SQUIDs  

E-print Network

Boundary shape identification in two­dimensional electrostatic problems using SQUIDs H.T. BANKS 1 of conduc­ tors using superconducting quantum interference devices ( SQUIDs ). A measurement system. SQUIDs ( superconducting quantum interference devices ) have the potential to detect material defects

102

The Foreign Squid Fishery Off the Northeast United States Coast  

E-print Network

The Foreign Squid Fishery Off the Northeast United States Coast DAVID J. KOLATOR and DOUGLAS P LONG Introduction Squid has long been a popular food fish in the foreign market and thus a highly sought marine resource by the foreign fishing fleet. Foreign vessels began reporting incidental catches of squid off

103

"Saki-ika": Dried Squid Processing Equipment and Markets  

E-print Network

"Saki-ika": Dried Squid Processing Equipment and Markets DANIEL J SHEEHY and SUSAN F. VIK · Introduction Squid has been widely recognized as an underutilized food fishery in the United States. Only 18. In northwest Atlantic waters, most squid landings are incidental to trawl effort for finfishes (Lux et a

104

Development of a Squid Skinning and Eviscerating System  

E-print Network

Development of a Squid Skinning and Eviscerating System R. PAUL SINGH and DANIEL E. BROWN Introduction Despite its excellent food value, a North American market for squid is vir- tually non-existent. The appearance of whole squid is unappetizing to many in the market place despite its relatively low retail price

105

Magnetism in SQUIDs at Millikelvin Temperatures S. Sendelbach,1  

E-print Network

Magnetism in SQUIDs at Millikelvin Temperatures S. Sendelbach,1 D. Hover,1 A. Kittel,2 M. Mu¨ck,3 SQUIDs cooled to millikelvin temperatures. The flux increases as 1=T as temperature is lowered; moreover an explanation for the universal 1=f flux noise in SQUIDs and superconducting qubits. DOI: 10.1103/Phys

Saffman, Mark

106

Orientation dependence of broadband acoustic backscattering from live squid  

E-print Network

Orientation dependence of broadband acoustic backscattering from live squid Wu-Jung Lee, Andone C squid (Loligo pealeii) was conducted using linear chirp signals (60­103 kHz) with data collected over with an analytical prolate spheroid model and a three-dimensional numerical model with randomized squid shape, both

Stanton, Tim

107

Information Panel The Embryonic Development of the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid  

E-print Network

Information Panel The Embryonic Development of the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes the growing interest in Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) as a contemporary cephalopod developmental, and potential uses of E. scolopes as model organisms, see The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

108

100 h SQUID AMPLIFIERS FOR THE ULTRACRYOGENIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS  

E-print Network

100 ?h SQUID AMPLIFIERS FOR THE ULTRACRYOGENIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS PAOLO FALFERI, MICHELE of the cryogenic resonant de­ tectors is the noise temperature of the dc SQUID amplifier used to detect the signal matching between SQUID amplifier and displacement transducer, this limit can be approached also with finite

109

INTRODUCTION Squid employ a complex locomotive approach involving two  

E-print Network

2009 INTRODUCTION Squid employ a complex locomotive approach involving two separate systems, the pulsed jet and movement of the lateral fins (Bartol et al., 2001b). However, many studies involving squid of squid may play important roles in lift and thrust production at various speeds. In fact, based on force

Stewart, William J.

110

J.Z. AND THE DISCOVERY OF SQUID GIANT NERVE  

E-print Network

179 J.Z. AND THE DISCOVERY OF SQUID GIANT NERVE FIBRES Richard Keynes writes about J. Z. Young's 1938 ground-breaking publication on the function of squid giant nerve fibres. A PDF file of Young to further studies at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory of some structures in the mantles of squid that he

Fullard, James H.

111

Graphoepitaxial high-Tc SQUIDs M. I. Faley1  

E-print Network

Graphoepitaxial high-Tc SQUIDs M. I. Faley1 , D. Meertens, U. Poppe and R. E. Dunin-Borkowski Peter of graphoepitaxially engineered high-Tc direct current superconducting quantum interferometer devices (DC SQUIDs to investigate the microstructural properties of DC SQUIDs with graphoepitaxial Josephson junctions. Both direct

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

112

Many loliginid squid populations depend entirely upon the reproduc-  

E-print Network

306 Many loliginid squid populations depend entirely upon the reproduc- tive output- mens, 2000; Semmens and Moltschani- wskyj, 2000). In California waters, Loligo opalescens (market squid, also known as the opalescent inshore squid [FAO]) live only 6-12 months (Butler et al., 1999) and die

113

"SQUID Susceptometry Imaging of Magnetic Nanoparticles" Solomon Diamond  

E-print Network

"SQUID Susceptometry Imaging of Magnetic Nanoparticles" Solomon Diamond 2010-2011 We have completed for synchronized recording of the SQUID system, encoder, and a fluxgate magnetometer and also developed software for magnetic field simulation and data analysis. We have demonstrated experimentally that the SQUID system can

Shepherd, Simon

114

Abstract--Three experiments were performed in an estuarine squid-  

E-print Network

533 Abstract--Three experiments were performed in an estuarine squid- trawl fishery in New South to reduce nontargeted catches of fish, while maintaining catches of the targeted broad squid (Photololigo etheridgei) and bottle squid (Loliolus noctiluca). Compared to conventional codends made with 41-mm diamond

115

Swimming dynamics and propulsive efficiency of squids throughout ontogeny  

E-print Network

Swimming dynamics and propulsive efficiency of squids throughout ontogeny Ian K. Bartol,1,? Paul S Synopsis Squids encounter vastly different flow regimes throughout ontogeny as they undergo critical morphological changes to their two locomotive systems: the fins and jet. Squid hatchlings (paralarvae) operate

Hynes, Wayne L.

116

SQUID method of lung contamination testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are reporting on the development of a SQUID magnetometric method of ferromagnetic dust quantification in the human lungs. In order to solve this problem we utilize a forward method of magnetized ferromagnetic particle (dipole) distribution 3D modeling in human lung torso and in an arc welders lungs. We also solve the inverse problem, by which the amount of dust in the lungs is estimated using the results of the remanent magnetic induction Br measurement upon the human chest. We state the formula for SQUID measured output voltage U to Br conversion for the second order gradiometer, which is in a highly dipole position and density dependent. We utilize a low- Tc second order rf SQUID gradiometer with the sensitivity of 10 -14 T in the unit frequency range.

Martinick, F.; im?ek, I.; Jurdk, P.; Cig?, A.; Ma?ka, J.

2006-03-01

117

Original superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) design and measurement technique for flux noise source localization in SQUID systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an original method for studying the low frequency flux noise due to vortices in superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) systems. We use two SQUIDs connected to the same washer in order to study the correlation of their outputs. A dedicated electronic system has been built so as to operate both SQUIDs at the same time. It was thus

M. Lam Chok Sing; S. Flament; X. Ridereau; C. Gunther; L. Mchin; D. Bloyet

2003-01-01

118

NEON INSIGHTS FROM OLD SOLAR X-RAYS: A PLASMA TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE CORONAL NEON CONTENT  

SciTech Connect

An analysis using modern atomic data of fluxes culled from the literature for O VIII and Ne IX lines observed in solar active regions by the P78 and Solar Maximum Mission satellites confirms that the coronal Ne/O abundance ratio varies by a factor of two or more, and finds an increase in Ne/O with increasing active region plasma temperature. The latter is reminiscent of evidence for increasing Ne/O with stellar activity in low-activity coronae that reaches a 'neon saturation' in moderately active stars at approximately twice the historically accepted solar value of about 0.15 by number. We argue that neon saturation represents the underlying stellar photospheric compositions, and that low-activity coronae, including that of the Sun, are generally depleted in neon. The implication would be that the solar Ne/O abundance ratio should be revised upward by a factor of about two to n(Ne)/n(O) {approx} 0.3. Diverse observations of neon in the local cosmos provide some support for such a revision. Neon would still be of some relevance for reconciling helioseismology with solar models computed using recently advocated chemical mixtures with lower metal content.

Drake, Jeremy J., E-mail: jdrake@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS-3, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-12-10

119

Sensitive SQUID magnetometry for studying nanomagnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer is one of the most sensitive experimental techniques to magnetically characterize samples with high sensitivity. Here we present a detailed discussion of possible artifacts and pitfalls characteristic for commercial SQUID magnetometers. This includes intrinsic artifacts which stem from the inherent design of the magnetometer as well as potential issues due to the user. We provide some guidelines on how to avoid and correct these, which is of particular importance when the proper magnetization of nanoscale objects will be established in cases where its response is dwarfed by that of the substrate it comes with, a situation frequently found in the field of nanomagnetism.

Sawicki, M.; Stefanowicz, W.; Ney, A.

2011-06-01

120

From micro- to nano-SQUIDs: applications to nanomagnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a growing interest in quantum information processing based on spin systems, the micro-SQUID technique has been finding new interest and fabrication improvements have led to nano-SQUIDs. There are two types of nano-SQUIDs: either the cross section of the Josephson junctions is reduced to about 1 nm by using carbon nanotube junctions, or the loop size is reduced to a few 100 nm. This paper reviews the basic ideas of the micro-SQUID technique applied to magnetic nanostructures and shows that both types of nano-SQUIDs lead to a significant improvement concerning the detection of magnetization switching of individual magnetic particles or molecules.

Wernsdorfer, W.

2009-06-01

121

Fast Imaging of Intact and Shattered Cryogenic Neon Pellets  

SciTech Connect

Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100- m- and sub- s-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of m to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL] [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL] [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL] [ORNL; Lyttle, Mark S [ORNL] [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

122

Cascade units for neon isotope production by rectification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basics of neon isotope separation by the distillation method at T = 28 K are discussed. The required numbers of transfer units at the top and bottom column sections are calculated for different loads. The experimental characteristics of packed rectification columns are presented and examples of the cascade are discussed. A configuration for a cryogenic circuit based on a high-pressure throttle neon cycle with intermediate nitrogen cooling is presented. The necessity for and the technical feasibility of creating a driver pressure difference between the columns for different stages are demonstrated.

Bondarenko, V. L.; Simonenko, Yu. M.; Diachenko, O. V.; Matveyev, E. V.

2013-05-01

123

Fast imaging of intact and shattered cryogenic neon pelletsa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100-m- and sub-s-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of m to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

Wang, Zhehui; Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Foust, C. R.; Lyttle, M. S.; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.

2014-11-01

124

OpenSQUID: a flexible open-source software framework for the control of SQUID electronics  

E-print Network

Commercially available computer-controlled SQUID electronics are usually delivered with software providing a basic user interface for adjustment of SQUID tuning parameters, such as bias current, flux offset, and feedback loop settings. However, in a research context it would often be useful to be able to modify this code and/or to have full control over all these parameters from researcher-written software. In the case of the STAR Cryoelectronics PCI/PFL family of SQUID control electronics, the supplied software contains modules for automatic tuning and noise characterization, but does not provide an interface for user code. On the other hand, the Magnicon SQUIDViewer software package includes a public application programmer's interface (API), but lacks auto-tuning and noise characterization features. To overcome these limitations, we are developing an open-source framework for controlling SQUID electronics which should provide maximal interoperability with user software, a unified user interface for electron...

Jaeckel, Felix T; Boyd, S T P

2012-01-01

125

Retinal responses in squid and octopus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroretinogram and optic nerve impulse recordings from an isolated eye-optic lobe preparation of squid and octopus show: 1) linear and nonlinear responses to modulated light; 2) facilitation of retinal and optic nerve responses to pairs and trains of suitably spaced brief flashes; 3) bothon andoff responses in optic nerve fibers; 4) centrifugally conducted impulses in the optic nerve which may

G. David Lange; Peter H. Hartline

1974-01-01

126

High Resolution LTS-SQUID Microscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope for imaging magnetic fields of room-temperature samples with sub-millimeter resolution. In our design, hand wound niobium pickup coils were coupled to commercially available low-temperature SQUID sensors. The SQUID sensor and the pickup coil are in the vacuum space of the cryostat separated typically less than 50?m by a thin sapphire window from the room-temperature sample. A computerized non-magnetic scanning stage with sub-micron resolution in combination with a tripod leveling system allows samples to be scanned within 10?m of the sapphire window. For a 20-turn 500?m diameter pickup coil, we achieved a field sensitivity of 350fT\\cdotHz-1/2 for frequencies above 1 Hz, and 1pT\\cdotHz-1/2 for a 10-turn 250mm coil. The SQUID microscope was used to image the distribution of time-dependent stimulus and action currents in anisotropic cardiac tissue, the remanent magnetization of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 during thermal demagnetisation, and the magnetic susceptibility of biogenic magnetite in the beak of homing pigeons.

Baudenbacher, Franz; Peters, Nicholas; Wikswo, John

2000-03-01

127

Sharing the squid: tangible workplace collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective communication is central in building trust and negotiating differences in diverse, multidisciplinary working environments. In this paper we discuss a tangible mediated environment designed to facilitate positive social interaction between colleagues in a research workplace. Through our multi-user tangible interface in the form of a plush squid, participants can share media resources and collaborate in a playful and inviting

Rebecca P. Stern; Aisling Kelliher; Winslow Burleson; Lisa M. Tolentino

2008-01-01

128

Multichannel SQUID systems for brain research  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews basis principles of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and neuromagnetic instrumentation. The authors' 24-channel system, based on planar gradiometer coils and dc-SQUIDs, is then described. Finally, recent MEG-experiments on human somatotopy and focal epilepsy, carried out in the authors' laboratory, are presented.

Ahonen, A.I.; Hamalainen, M.S.; Kajola, M.J.; Knuutila, J.E.F.; Lounasmaa, O.V.; Simola, J.T.; Vilkman, V.A. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Low Temperature Lab.); Tesche, C.D. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center)

1991-03-01

129

Patch voltage clamp of squid axon membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A small area (patch) of the external surface of a squid axon can be isolated electrically from the surrounding bath by means of a pair of concentric glass pipettes. The seawater-filled inner pipette makes contact with the axon and constitutes the external access to the patch. The outer pipette is used to direct flowing sucrose solution over the area

Harvey M. Fishman

1975-01-01

130

ICP and the Squid web cache  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the structure and functionality of the Internet cache protocol (ICP) and its implementation in the Squid web caching software. ICP is a lightweight message format used for communication among Web caches. Caches exchange ICP queries and replies to gather information to use in selecting the most appropriate location from which to retrieve an object. We present background on

Duane Wessels; K. Claffy

1998-01-01

131

Squid Dissection: From Pen to Ink.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces students to dissection, which is an important part of scientific discovery. Students not only gain an understanding of the anatomy of a squid, but also develop a sense of responsibility and respect for the animal that they are using as a learning tool. (Author/SOE)

Brown, Cindy; Kisiel, Jim

2003-01-01

132

ICP and the Squid Web Cache  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the structure and functionality of the Internet Cache Protocol (ICP) and itsimplementation in the Squid Web Caching software. ICP is a lightweight message format usedfor communication among Web caches. Caches exchange ICP queries and replies to gatherinformation to use in selecting the most appropriate location from which to retrieve an object.We present background on the history of ICP,

Duane Wessels

1997-01-01

133

One Period of Exploration with the Squid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lab that can be offered after students have learned the basic anatomy and physiology of the various phyla, the primary objective of which is to explore and apply their acquired knowledge to a new situation. Involves exploring the anatomy and life-style of the squid. (JRH)

Bradley, James V.; Ng, Andrew

1997-01-01

134

Alaska Underutilized Species. Volume I: Squid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Review of cephalopods in the northern North Pacific and Bering Sea shows ten species of squid which occur in relative abundance. The majority of cephalopds found in Alaskan waters are oceanic forms of the family Gonatidae. The distribution and abundance o...

A. H. Gorham, J. R. Wilson

1982-01-01

135

Sodium Extrusion by Internally Dialyzed Squid Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed which allows a length of elec- trically excitable squid axon to be internally dialyzed against a continuously flowing solution of defined composition. Tests showed that diffusional exchange of small molecules in the axoplasm surrounding the dialysis tube occurred with a half-time of 2-5 rain, and that protein does not cross the wall of the dialysis

F. J. Brinley; L. J. MULLINS

1967-01-01

136

Binding energies of neon and krypton cluster ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the kinetic energy released in the metastable fragmentation of mass selected neon and krypton cluster ions, produced by electron impact ionization of a neutral cluster beam. Finite heat bath theory is applied to determine the transition state temperatures and binding energies of the metastable cluster ions.

Parajuli, R.; Matt, S.; Echt, O.; Stamatovic, A.; Scheier, P.; Mrk, T. D.

2002-01-01

137

Fly on the Ceiling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners play two different games to help them understand coordinates. First, learners read the book, "The Fly on the Ceiling," by Julie Glass. Then, learners play "Fly Tic-Tac-Toe," a game similar to tic-tac-toe but with coordinates, and "Swat the Flies," a game similar to Battleship but with flies. Each game requires two players.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-10-30

138

76 FR 51272 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2011 Trimester 2 Directed Loligo Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...that 90 percent of the Trimester 2 Loligo squid (Loligo) quota is projected to be...

2011-08-18

139

77 FR 40527 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2012 Trimester 2 Directed Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...that 90 percent of the Trimester 2 longfin squid (longfin) quota is projected to be...

2012-07-10

140

77 FR 22678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Trimester 1 Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...closure of the directed fishery for longfin squid (longfin) in the Exclusive Economic...

2012-04-17

141

77 FR 23635 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications...Specifications for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish fisheries. DATES: Effective...measures for the Atlantic mackerel and squid fisheries, and the interim final...

2012-04-20

142

77 FR 58507 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework...Adjustment 5 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan...consistent with the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish FMP, other...

2012-09-21

143

50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession...

2013-10-01

144

Characterizing the Host and Symbiont Proteomes in the Association between the Bobtail Squid, Euprymna  

E-print Network

Characterizing the Host and Symbiont Proteomes in the Association between the Bobtail Squid Abstract The beneficial symbiosis between the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes within a natural microenvironment. Colonization of the squid light organ by V. fischeri begins a lifelong

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

145

50 CFR 648.27 - Observer requirements for the longfin squid fishery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Observer requirements for the longfin squid fishery. 648.27 Section 648.27...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries 648.27 Observer requirements for the longfin squid fishery. (a) A vessel issued a...

2012-10-01

146

75 FR 32745 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Scoping Process...Management Plan (FMP) for Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) and to prepare...implementation of catch share systems for the squid fisheries; the need for additional...

2010-06-09

147

50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession...

2012-10-01

148

77 FR 38566 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 6...including the risk policy, do not apply to longfin squid or Illex squid; these species are exempt from these requirements...

2012-06-28

149

78 FR 14230 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework...butterfish mortality cap on the longfin squid fishery from a catch cap to a discard cap...Adjustment 7 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management...

2013-03-05

150

50 CFR 648.27 - Observer requirements for the longfin squid fishery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Observer requirements for the longfin squid fishery. 648.27 Section 648.27...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries 648.27 Observer requirements for the longfin squid fishery. (a) A vessel issued a...

2013-10-01

151

77 FR 74159 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework...butterfish mortality cap on the longfin squid fishery from a catch cap to a discard cap...Adjustment 7 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management...

2012-12-13

152

77 FR 7544 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Amendment...Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan...Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery...

2012-02-13

153

A method for simulating a flux-locked DC SQUID  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors describe a computationally efficient and accurate method for simulating a dc SQUID's V-Phi (voltage-flux) and I-V characteristics which has proven valuable in evaluating and improving various SQUID readout methods. The simulation of the SQUID is based on fitting of previously acquired data from either a real or a modeled device using the Fourier transform of the V-Phi curve. This method does not predict SQUID behavior, but rather is a way of replicating a known behavior efficiently with portability into various simulation programs such as SPICE. The authors discuss the methods used to simulate the SQUID and the flux-locking control electronics, and present specific examples of this approach. Results include an estimate of the slew rate and linearity of a simple flux-locked loop using a characterized dc SQUID.

Gutt, G. M.; Kasdin, N. J.; Condron, M. R., II; Muhlfelder, B.; Lockhart, J. M.; Cromar, M. W.

1993-01-01

154

The Renormalization Effects in the Microstrip-SQUID Amplifier  

E-print Network

The peculiarities of the microstrip-DC SQUID amplifier caused by the resonant structure of the input circuit are analyzed. It is shown that the mutual inductance, that couples the input circuit and the SQUID loop, depends on the frequency of electromagnetic field. The renormalization of the SQUID parameters due to the screening effect of the input circuit vanishes when the Josephson frequency is much greater than the signal frequency.

G. P. Berman; A. A. Chumak; V. I. Tsifrinovich

2011-10-25

155

MFR PAPER 1023 While the world squid etch octupl d  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1023 While the world squid etch octupl d between 1938 and 1968, th r"SOlJrC potent/aIls stili enormous Northwest Atlantic Squids WARREN F. RATHJEN In 19 the \\\\{ fld \\..,Idl II qUId ,1Il1l" FAO f'isheries ircular o. 1~9) re- \\Ie\\\\ of v. orld squid ..Inu ,)CIl'PU" potentials. \\ oss andlcateu

156

The Renormalization Effects in the Microstrip-SQUID Amplifier  

E-print Network

The peculiarities of the microstrip-DC SQUID amplifier caused by the resonant structure of the input circuit are analyzed. It is shown that the mutual inductance, that couples the input circuit and the SQUID loop, depends on the frequency of electromagnetic field. The renormalization of the SQUID parameters due to the screening effect of the input circuit vanishes when the Josephson frequency is much greater than the signal frequency.

Berman, G P; Tsifrinovich, V I

2011-01-01

157

Fractionation of terrestrial neon by hydrodynamic hydrogen escape from ancient steam atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric neon is isotopically heavier than mantle neon. By contrast, nonradiogenic mantle Ar, Kr, and Xe are not known to differ from the atmosphere. These observations are most easily explained by selective neon loss to space; however, neon is much too massive to escape from the modern atmosphere. Steam atmospheres are a likely, if intermittent, feature of the accreting Earth. They occur because, on average, the energy liberated during accretion places Earth above the runaway greenhouse threshold, so that liquid water is not stable at the surface. It is found that steam atmospheres should have lasted some ten to fifty million years. Hydrogen escape would have been vigorous, but abundant heavy constituents would have been retained. There is no lack of plausible candidates; CO2, N2, or CO could all suffice. Neon can escape because it is less massive than any of the likely pollutants. Neon fractionation would have been a natural byproduct. Assuming that the initial Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio was solar, it was found that it would have taken some ten million years to effect the observed neon fractionation in a 30 bar steam atmosphere fouled with 10 bars of CO. Thicker atmospheres would have taken longer; less CO, shorter. This mechanism for fractionating neon has about the right level of efficiency. Because the lighter isotope escapes much more readily, total neon loss is pretty minimal; less than half of the initial neon endowment escapes.

Zahnle, K.

1991-01-01

158

Protecting SQUID metamaterials against stray magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) as the basic, low-loss elements of thin-film metamaterials has one main advantage: their resonance frequency is easily tunable by applying a weak magnetic field. The downside, however, is a strong sensitivity to stray and inhomogeneous magnetic fields. In this work, we demonstrate that even small magnetic fields from electronic components destroy the collective, resonant behaviour of the SQUID metamaterial. We also show how the effect of these fields can be minimized. As a first step, magnetic shielding decreases any initially present fields, including the earths magnetic field. However, further measures such as improvements in the sample geometry have to be taken to avoid the trapping of Abrikosov vortices.

Butz, S.; Jung, P.; Filippenko, L. V.; Koshelets, V. P.; Ustinov, A. V.

2013-09-01

159

Practical SQUID Instrument for Nondestructive Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the development of a scanning eddy-current imaging system designed to detect deep subsurface flaws in conducting materials. A high transition temperature (high-T c) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer is employed to provide the required sensitivity at low frequencies, while a combination of small cylindrical high-Tc superconducting and A-metal shields enable the instrument to be scanned in a magnetically noisy environment, rather than the object under test. The shields are arranged to prevent unwanted excitation and ambient noise fields from reaching the SQUID, and to enhance spatial resolution and minimize undesirable edge effects. Thus far, the instrument has successfully detected cracks and pits through 10 layers of aluminum, with a combined thickness of 5 cm at room temperature.

Tralshawala, N.; Claycomb, J. R.; Miller, John H., Jr.

1997-01-01

160

Allometry indicates giant eyes of giant squid are not exceptional  

PubMed Central

Background The eyes of giant and colossal squid are among the largest eyes in the history of life. It was recently proposed that sperm whale predation is the main driver of eye size evolution in giant squid, on the basis of an optical model that suggested optimal performance in detecting large luminous visual targets such as whales in the deep sea. However, it is poorly understood how the eye size of giant and colossal squid compares to that of other aquatic organisms when scaling effects are considered. Results We performed a large-scale comparative study that included 87 squid species and 237 species of acanthomorph fish. While squid have larger eyes than most acanthomorphs, a comparison of relative eye size among squid suggests that giant and colossal squid do not have unusually large eyes. After revising constants used in a previous model we found that large eyes perform equally well in detecting point targets and large luminous targets in the deep sea. Conclusions The eyes of giant and colossal squid do not appear exceptionally large when allometric effects are considered. It is probable that the giant eyes of giant squid result from a phylogenetically conserved developmental pattern manifested in very large animals. Whatever the cause of large eyes, they appear to have several advantages for vision in the reduced light of the deep mesopelagic zone. PMID:23418818

2013-01-01

161

Discriminative responses of squid (Loligo pealeii) photoreceptors to polarized light  

E-print Network

behavioral discrimination of polarized light by another cephalopod, the octopus. D 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Cephalopod; Squid eye; Photoreceptor; Polarization; E-vector; Sensory; Vision

Hanlon, Roger T.

162

A nanoscale SQUID operating at high magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

A washer-free Nb nanoSQUID has been developed for measuring magnetization changes from nanoscale objects. The SQUID loop is etched into a 250 nm wide Au/Nb bilayer track and the diameter of the SQUID hole is {approx} 70 nm. In the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the SQUID, vortex penetration into the 250 nm wide track can be observed via the critical current-applied field characteristic and the value at which vortex first penetrates is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Upon removing the applied field, the penetrated vortices escape the track and the critical current at zero field is restored.

Lam, Simon K. H.; Clem, John R.; Yang, Wenrong

2011-10-13

163

A nanoscale SQUID operating at high magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

A washer-free Nb nanoSQUID has been developed for measuring magnetization changes from nanoscale objects. The SQUID loop is etched into a 250 nm wide Au/Nb bilayer track and the diameter of the SQUID hole is ~ 70 nm. In the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the SQUID, vortex penetration into the 250 nm wide track can be observed via the critical currentapplied field characteristic and the value at which vortex first penetrates is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Upon removing the applied field, the penetrated vortices escape the track and the critical current at zero field is restored.

Lam, Simon K. H.; Clem, John R.; Yang, Wenrong

2011-10-13

164

Single SQUID frequency-domain multiplexer for large bolometer arrays  

SciTech Connect

We describe the development of a frequency-domain superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer which monitors a row of low-temperature sensors simultaneously with a single SQUID. Each sensor is ac biased with a unique frequency and all the sensor currents are added in a superconducting summing loop. A single SQUID measures the current in the summing loop, and the individual signals are lock-in detected after the room temperature SQUID electronics. The current in the summing loop is nulled by feedback to eliminate direct crosstalk. We have built an eight-channel prototype and demonstrated channel separation and signal recovery.

Yoon, Jongsoo; Clarke, John; Gildemeister, J.M.; Lee, Adrian T.; Myers, M.J.; Skidmore, J.T.; Richards, P.L.; Spieler, H.G.

2001-08-20

165

Ceramic HTSC SQUID-based galvanometer  

SciTech Connect

A highly sensitive galvanometer operating at liquid-nitrogen temperature for direct and low-frequency current measurements was developed on the basis of a HTSC SQUID. The direct-current sensitivity of the galvanometer is approximately 0.5 nA at an internal resistance of about 20 ohms. Its energy resolution in the white noise region is 2 x 10 exp 21 J/Hz. 11 refs.

Uchaikin, S.V.; Hiep, L.H. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation))

1992-06-01

166

Sodium Fluxes in Internally Dialyzed Squid Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects which alterations in the concentrations of internal sodium and high energy phosphate compounds had on the sodium influx and efflux of internally dialyzed squid axons were examined. Nine naturally occurring high energy phosphate compounds were ineffective in supporting significant sodium extrusion. These compounds were: AcP, PEP, G-3-P, ADP, AMP, GTP, CTP, PA, and UTP. 1 The compound d-ATP

F. J. Brinley; L. J. MULLINS

1968-01-01

167

Optimized SQUID sensors for low frequency measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated and measured optimized SQUID sensors (superconducting quantum interference device) for low frequency measurements of magnetic field. We have also investigated the dependence of flux trapping field on the position of Josephson junctions with respect to the Ketchen-type washer. The sensors are measured using direct room temperature readout utilizing noise cancellation techniques based on negative and positive feedback. A superconducting magnesium diboride can is used to shield the sample in pulse-tube cryocooler measurements.

Penttil, J.; Grnberg, L.; Hassel, J.; Kiviranta, M.

2009-03-01

168

Evidence of weak plasma series resonance heating in the H-mode of neon and neon/argon inductively coupled plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase-resolved optical emission spectroscopy measurements in argon and neon inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) have revealed a surplus of high-energy electrons in neon-containing plasmas. Differences between results of emission model analyses using neon and argon lines (as well as probe measurements) also indicate a high-energy enhancement in neon-containing plasmas. The abundance of these extra high-energy electrons is correlated with the sheath thickness near the rf antenna and can be reduced by either adding a Faraday shield (external shielding) or increasing the plasma density. A comparison of modelled and experimental values of the 13.56 MHz time modulation of select neon emission lines strongly suggests plasma series resonance heating adjacent to the ICP antenna as the source of the extra heating.

Boffard, John B.; Jung, R. O.; Lin, Chun C.; Aneskavich, L. E.; Wendt, A. E.

2012-09-01

169

Heteronuclear collisions between laser-cooled metastable neon atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate heteronuclear collisions in isotope mixtures of laser-cooled metastable (3P2) neon. Experiments are performed with spin-polarized atoms in a magnetic trap for all two-isotope combinations of the stable neon isotopes 20Ne, 21Ne, and 22Ne. We determine the rate coefficients for heteronuclear ionizing collisions to ?21,20=(3.92.7)10-11 cm3/s, ?22,20=(2.60.7)10-11 cm3/s, and ?21,22=(3.91.9)10-11 cm3/s. We also study heteronuclear elastic collision processes and give upper bounds for heteronuclear thermal relaxation cross sections. This work significantly extends the limited available experimental data on heteronuclear ionizing collisions for laser-cooled atoms involving one or more rare gas atoms in a metastable state.

Schtz, Jan; Feldker, Thomas; John, Holger; Birkl, Gerhard

2012-08-01

170

New Design of Neon Refrigerator for Hts Power Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007, we developed a prototype refrigerator with a small turbo-expander to provide adequate cooling power (2 kW at 70 K) for HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) power machines. The reverse-Brayton cycle with neon gas as a working fluid was adopted in the refrigerator. The prototype refrigerator does not have enough COP (Coefficient of Performance) for practical HTS applications, and the

S. Yoshida; H. Hirai; A. Takaike; M. Hirokawa; Y. Aizawa; Y. Kamioka; H. Okamoto; H. Hayashi; Y. Shiohara

2010-01-01

171

Nova LMC 1990 no. 1: The first extragalactic neon nova  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of nova LMC (Large Magellanic Cloud) 1990 No. 1, the first neon (or ONeMg) nova observed outside the Galaxy are presented. The observations were obtained from 17 Jan. to Mar. 1990, with especially dense coverage during the first 25 days of the outburst. (The neon nova categorization is based on the detection of forbidden Ne 3-4 lines in optical spectra; the ultraviolet neon lines were not detected.) During the first 30 days of the outburst, the radiative losses were dominated by the N 5 delta 1240 and C 4 delta 1550 lines. The maximum ejection velocity was approximately 8000 km/s, based on the blue absorption edge of the C 4 P-Cygni profile. Early in the outburst of Nova LMC 1990 No. 1 the UV luminosity alone was approximately 3 times 10 to the 38th power erg/sec, implying that the bolometric luminosity was well in excess of the Eddington luminosity for a one solar mass object.

Sonneborn, George; Shore, Steven N.; Starrfield, Sumner G.

1990-01-01

172

Controlling Blow Flies  

E-print Network

Blow flies lay their eggs on animal remains and can spread disease. To control blow flies, it is important to remove dead animals and dispose of them properly, and to use effective insecticides when necessary....

Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

2005-10-05

173

Solar flare neon composition and solar cosmic-ray exposure ages based on lunar mineral separates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etched pyroxene grain-size separates from lunar soils 14148 and 24087 and etched feldspar grain-size separates from soil 61221 are analyzed for neon isotopic and elemental composition, and the procedures to isolate the implanted solar flare (SF) neon and solar and Galactic cosmic-ray (SCR and GCR)-produced Ne components in these samples are discussed. These results indicate that the SF neon composition

C. M. Nautiyal; J. T. Padia; M. N. Rao; T. R. Venkatesan

1986-01-01

174

Experimental Widths and Shifts for 3s-3p Neon Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widths and shifts of several neon red lines were measured as functions of electron densities [(0.4-2.1) 1017 cm-3] and neutral neon densities [(0.3-2.2) 1019 cm-3]. Conditions in a gas-driven shock tube were determined from pressure-temperature data and from the shapes of hydrogen Balmer lines. In each experiment, profiles of neon lines emitted by the plasma were compared directly

Myron H. Miller; Randy A. Roig; George A. Moo-Young

1971-01-01

175

Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements  

DOEpatents

Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

2002-01-01

176

Ultra low noise all niobium dc-SQUIDs  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the signal and noise properties of all niobium DC-SQUIDs of Ketchen type studied with and without an integrated coupling coil for SQUIDs with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barriers as well as amorphous Silicon barriers.

Daalmans, G.M.; Bar, L.; Bommel, F.R.; Kress, R.; Uhl, D. (Siemens Research Lab., Paul Gossenstrasse 100, D-8520 Erlangen (DE))

1991-03-01

177

SQUID magnetometry from nanometer to centimeter length scales  

SciTech Connect

The development of Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID)-based magnetometer for two applications, in vivo prepolarized, ultra-low field MRI of humans and dispersive readout of SQUIDs for micro- and nano-scale magnetometery, are the focus of this thesis.

Hatridge, Michael J.

2010-06-28

178

Planar thin film SQUID with integral flux concentrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin film SQUID is disclosed having improved flux concentration combined with simplicity of design and fabrication. The SQUID starts with a wafer like substrate having simple planar geometry. A large area of superconducting film is coated on the substrate, with a small open or uncoated area remaining at its center to define a SQUID loop, and a gap in the film formed, beginning at the outer circumferential edge of the substrate and extending radially inward to the open area. A Josephson junction is formed across the gap near the open area to interrupt the electrical continuity of the SQUID loop. A coil is attached to the surface of the substrate, electrically insulated from the superconducting film, and is energized to induce flux within the SQUID which is concentrated within the open area.

Peters, Palmer N. (inventor); Sisk, Robert C. (inventor)

1988-01-01

179

Enhancements to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) Multiplexer Readout and Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Far-infrared detector arrays such as the 16x32 superconducting bolometer array for the SAFIRE instrument (flying on the SOFIA airborne observatory) require systems of readout and control electronics to provide translation between a user-driven, digital PC and the cold, analog world of the cryogenic detector. In 2001, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed their Mark III electronics for purposes of control and readout of their 1x32 SQUID Multiplexer chips. We at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center acquired a Mark 111 system and subsequently designed upgrades to suit our and our collaborators purposes. We developed an arbitrary, programmable multiplexing system that allows the user to cycle through rows in a SQUID array in an infinite number of combinations. We provided hooks in the Mark III system to allow readout of signals from outside the Mark 111 system, such as telescope status information. Finally, we augmented the heart of the system with a new feedback algorithm implementation, flexible diagnostic tools, and informative telemetry.

Forgione, J.; Benford, D. J.; Buchanan, E. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rebar, J.; Shafer, R. A.

2004-01-01

180

A Single SQUID Multiplexer for Arrays of Low Temperature Sensors Jongsoo Yoona)  

E-print Network

1 A Single SQUID Multiplexer for Arrays of Low Temperature Sensors Jongsoo Yoona) , John Clarkea and experimental evaluation of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mul- tiplexer for an array, in turn, is inductively coupled to the readout SQUID. The flux-locked loop of the SQUID is used to null

Richards, Paul L.

181

Intrapopulation structure of winter-spawned Argentine shortfin squid, Illex argentinus  

E-print Network

1 Intrapopulation structure of winter-spawned Argentine shortfin squid, Illex argentinus of the important commercial squid Illex argentinus were studied by using bio- logical data from about 25 thousand until April, composed predominantly of June- and July-hatched squid. Squid grow and mature rapidly

182

The market squid (Loligo opalescens) (also known as the opalescent inshore  

E-print Network

661 The market squid (Loligo opalescens) (also known as the opalescent inshore squid, FAO [Roper et with declines in other fisheries off the U.S. West Coast. Market squid is a short-lived species (Jackson, 1994. For exam- ple, squid landings plummeted during the 1997-98 El Niño but reached a record high

183

Quantum dynamics in a camel-back potential of a dc SQUID E. Hoskinson1  

E-print Network

Quantum dynamics in a camel-back potential of a dc SQUID E. Hoskinson1 , F. Lecocq1 , N. Didier2 Josephson junctions (dc SQUID), with near-zero current bias and flux bias near half a flux quantum. We SQUID and the rf SQUID phase qubit have been extensively studied [2­6]. In each of these devices

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

A method for determining the SQUID parameter ? and the coupling coefficient K in a nonhysteretic rf SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for determining the superconducting-quantum-interference-device (SQUID) parameter ? = LsIc/?o and the coupling coefficient K between the SQUID loop and tank circuit based on the general theory for the nonhysteretic rf SQUID is derived. Analysis of the periodic dependence of the amplitude of the tank-circuit voltage on applied dc flux leads to explicit expressions for ? and K. Important advantages of the method are that, during measurements, the SQUID loop has neither to be opened nor decoupled from the tank circuit, and the temperature of the sample does not have to be changed. Measurements with a Nb-point-contact SQUID at 4.2 K to verify the method in practice are reported. Intrinsic errors were estimated to be less than 10%.

Ern, S. N.; Luther, H.

1981-04-01

185

Carbon in Fly Ash Analysis Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy (PAS) was investigated as a method for on-line monitoring of carbon in fly ash from coal-fired boilers. PAS is based on the periodic heating of a gas when amplitude-modulated radiation is absorbed by the gas or by particles suspended in the gas. This periodic heating produces an acoustical wave that can be detected by a microphone. Because the PAS signal is based solely on the absorption of radiation (by carbon) and not scattering of radiation (by mineral matter), it has the potential for distinguishing unburned carbon from mineral matter suspended in the flue gas. Two radiation sources were studied: helium-neon laser and microwaves. The helium-neon source produces a large mass specific absorption coefficient for the carbon in the fly ash. Although the optical PAS system uses less than one forty thousandths of the power as the microwave system, it still has twice the sensitivity (D < 75 mu m). The helium-neon laser source is easy to work with and there is no pick-up of the electromagnetic field by the electronic equipment, but there is also a size dependence of the PAS signal to the carbon size distribution. This is a serious drawback because a carbon monitor should be able to perform without knowledge of the carbon particle size distribution. The microwave source produces a signal that is independent of the carbon particle size distribution, but the low mass specific absorption coefficient at 12.24 cm would require a microwave source producing 12000 watts to measure the carbon content of pulverized coal combustors. This is impractical. There are also problems with electronic equipment picking up the electromagnetic field generated by the magnetron leaking from the waveguide. An optimum source may be found in the spectrum between the helium-neon laser source (lambda = 632 etam) and the microwave source (lambda = 12.24 cm). It may be possible to find a source that has all the positive characteristics with manageable drawbacks.

Dykstra, Jeffrey Raymond

186

How and why do flying fish fly?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.The review is concerned mainly with exocoetid flying fish, because little reliable information is available concerning other groups.2.Adult flying fish are of variable size (150500 mm maximum length) and may be broadly divided into two categories: two-wingers (e.g.Fodiator, Exocoetus, Parexocoetus) in which the enlarged pectoral fins make up most of the lifting surfaces, and four-wingers (e.g.Cypsilurus, Hirundichthys) in which

John Davenport

1994-01-01

187

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOEpatents

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14

188

Cross-linking chemistry of squid beak.  

PubMed

In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed. PMID:20870720

Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J Herbert

2010-12-01

189

Cross-linking Chemistry of Squid Beak*  

PubMed Central

In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed. PMID:20870720

Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J. Herbert

2010-01-01

190

Sodium Extrusion by Internally Dialyzed Squid Axons  

PubMed Central

A method has been developed which allows a length of electrically excitable squid axon to be internally dialyzed against a continuously flowing solution of defined composition. Tests showed that diffusional exchange of small molecules in the axoplasm surrounding the dialysis tube occurred with a half-time of 25 min, and that protein does not cross the wall of the dialysis tube. The composition of the dialysis medium was (mM): K isethionate 151, K aspartate 151, taurine 275, MgCI2 410, NaCl 80, KCN 2, EDTA 0.1, ATP 510, and phosphoarginine 010. The following measurements were made: resting Na influx 57 pmole/cm2sec (n = 8); resting potassium efflux 59 pmole/ cm2sec (n = 4); stimulated Na efflux 3.1 pmole/cm2imp (n = 9); stimulated K efflux 2.9 pmole/cm2imp (n = 3); resting Na efflux 48 pmole/cm2sec (n = 18); Q10 Na efflux 2.2 (n = 5). Removal of ATP and phosphoarginine from the dialysis medium (n = 4) or external application of strophanthidin (n = 1) reversibly reduced Na efflux to 1013 pmole/cm2sec. A general conclusion from the study is that dialyzed squid axons have relatively normal passive permeability properties and that a substantial fraction of the Na efflux is under metabolic control although the Na extrusion mechanism may not be working perfectly. PMID:6063685

Brinley, F. J.; Mullins, L. J.

1967-01-01

191

Application of a pulse-discharge helium detector to the determination of neon in air and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulse-discharge helium detector (Valco, PD-D2-I) is used to measure neon concentrations in air and water. The detection level is 0.510?8 g\\/cm3 (0.2 ppm). Discharge gas doped with neon results in a linear response to the neon mass up to 10?6 g. For measuring the neon concentration in water, a simple enrichment system is used.

J Lasa; P Mochalski; E ?okas; L K?dzior

2002-01-01

192

Flying Robots and Flying Cars Heinrich H. Blthoff  

E-print Network

Flying Robots and Flying Cars Heinrich H. Bülthoff Biological Cybernetics Research at the Max Flying Robots -- Human Robot Interaction group at MPI Tübingen Flying Cars -- European Project (my. Robuffo Giordano Human Robot Interaction group Bilateral shared control of Flying Robots M. Cognetti, V

193

Optimizing Sampling Efficiency for Biomass Estimation Across NEON Domains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the course of 30 years, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will measure plant biomass and productivity across the U.S. to enable an understanding of terrestrial carbon cycle responses to ecosystem change drivers. Over the next several years, prior to operational sampling at a site, NEON will complete construction and characterization phases during which a limited amount of sampling will be done at each site to inform sampling designs, and guide standardization of data collection across all sites. Sampling biomass in 60+ sites distributed among 20 different eco-climatic domains poses major logistical and budgetary challenges. Traditional biomass sampling methods such as clip harvesting and direct measurements of Leaf Area Index (LAI) involve collecting and processing plant samples, and are time and labor intensive. Possible alternatives include using indirect sampling methods for estimating LAI such as digital hemispherical photography (DHP) or using a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. These LAI estimations can then be used as a proxy for biomass. The biomass estimates calculated can then inform the clip harvest sampling design during NEON operations, optimizing both sample size and number so that standardized uncertainty limits can be achieved with a minimum amount of sampling effort. In 2011, LAI and clip harvest data were collected from co-located sampling points at the Central Plains Experimental Range located in northern Colorado, a short grass steppe ecosystem that is the NEON Domain 10 core site. LAI was measured with a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. The layout of the sampling design included four, 300 meter transects, with clip harvests plots spaced every 50m, and LAI sub-transects spaced every 10m. LAI was measured at four points along 6m sub-transects running perpendicular to the 300m transect. Clip harvest plots were co-located 4m from corresponding LAI transects, and had dimensions of 0.1m by 2m. We conducted regression analyses with LAI and clip harvest data to determine whether LAI can be used as a suitable proxy for aboveground standing biomass. We also compared optimal sample sizes derived from LAI data, and clip-harvest data from two different size clip harvest areas (0.1m by 1m vs. 0.1m by 2m). Sample sizes were calculated in order to estimate the mean to within a standardized level of uncertainty that will be used to guide sampling effort across all vegetation types (i.e. estimated within 10% with 95% confidence). Finally, we employed a Semivariogram approach to determine optimal sample size and spacing.

Abercrombie, H. H.; Meier, C. L.; Spencer, J. J.

2013-12-01

194

Noble gases in diamonds - Occurrences of solarlike helium and neon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventeen diamond samples from diverse locations were analyzed for the contents of He, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and of their isotopes, using a Reynolds (1956) type glass mass spectrometer. The results disclosed a large spread in the He-3/He-4 ratios, ranging from values below atmospheric to close to the solar ratio. In particular, solarlike He-3/He-4 ratios were seen for an Australian colorless diamond composite and an Arkansas diamond, which also displayed solarlike neon isotopic ratios. Wide variation was also observed in the He-4/Ar-40 ratios, suggesting a complex history for the source regions and the diamond crystallization processes.

Honda, M.; Reynolds, J. H.; Roedder, E.; Epstein, S.

1987-01-01

195

Neon Isotope and Lambda Hypernuclei with the Nijmegen Hyperon Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We optimize the nuclear parameterization for the description of Ne isotope in the deformed Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model, and succeed in providing an overall good description of the nuclear deformation in this model, which is consistent with the available experimental data and microscopic model results. The addition of a ? hyperon, based on a realistic Nijmegen hyperon-nucleon potential, is found to have no large effect on the shape of the isotopic nuclei, indicating that the neon isotopic nuclei might not be good candidates for studying the deformation effect of hyperon in future experiments.

Li, A.

2013-08-01

196

Applications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles in the ocean  

E-print Network

. Emerson School of Oceanography This study used measurements of dissolved neon, nitrogen, argon, and oxygenApplications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles in the ocean Roberta Claire Hamme A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

Hamme, Roberta C.

197

Using NEON to Measure Adaptation of Vegetation to Changes in Environmental Forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform for documenting and analyzing the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON features sensor networks and experiments linked by cyberinfrastructure to record and archive ecological data for at least 30 years. NEON partitions the United States into 20 ecoclimatic domains. Each domain hosts one fully instrumented core site in a wildland area and two re-locatable sites, which aims to capture ecologically significant gradients (e.g. landuse). Using standardized protocols and an open data policy, NEON data will be gathered from the level of the gene and organism to populations and communities, with extrapolations to the continental scale. In conjunction with environmental data, NEON will conduct field observations and analyses of biological specimens to track biodiversity, population dynamics, productivity, phenology, infectious disease, biogeochemistry and ecohydrology. Here we present a few examples of the type of research NEON will enable using this data. The NEON network will measure and scale many environmental factors that affect vegetation, e.g. temperature, precipitation, and nutrient availability. Direct monitoring of vegetation will enable the study of acclimatory and adaptive changes in vegetation properties over different time scales. Such data will improve the representation of vegetation responses to environmental change in models. The vision behind NEON aims to advance our ability to quantitatively predict ecological change.

Martin, P. H.; Kao, R.; Gibson, C.

2009-12-01

198

Method and apparatus for cooling high temperature superconductors with neon-nitrogen mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and methods for cooling high temperature superconducting materials (HTSC) to superconductive temperatures within the range of 27 K to 77 K using a mixed refrigerant consisting of liquefied neon and nitrogen containing up to about ten mole percent neon by contacting and surrounding the HTSC material with the mixed refrigerant so that free convection or forced flow convection heat transfer can be effected.

Laverman, R.J.; Ban-Yen Lai.

1993-03-16

199

Development of a Neon Cryogenic TurboExpander with Magnetic Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryogenic turbo-expander with active magnetic bearings was made and tested in a reverse-Brayton cycle refrigerator using neon as working fluid. Turbine isentropic efficiency is a very important factor for the refrigerator since it affects the performance of the refrigerator significantly. Properties of neon are suitable for the working fluid in a refrigerator to cool HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) applications.

H. Hirai; M. Hirokawa; S. Yoshida; Y. Kamioka; A. Takaike; H. Hayashi; H. Okamoto; Y. Shiohara

2010-01-01

200

Recent Results of a New Microwave SQUID Multiplexer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are developing a proof-of-concept microwave SQUID multiplexer containing four SQUIDs coupled to GHz frequency resonant circuits and fed with a single microwave readout line. The resonators are half-wave coplanar waveguide sections and are similar to the structures used for the microwave kinetic inductance detectors developed in our group. Optimal values for the interdigital gap capacitors were determined to maximize the sensitivity of the transmitted and reflected microwave signal with respect to changes in the dynamic resistance of the SQUID. The dc current-bias line for the SQUID has an in-line inductive high frequency filter to minimize coupling between the bias line and resonator. A high frequency modulation scheme is proposed to eliminate the need for individual flux biasing of the SQUIDs, which extends the dynamic range of the readout. In this scheme a common modulation signal is imposed on each SQUID and the received signal is demodulated at one and two times the modulation frequency to maintain sensitivity at any flux state. We present the recent results of the microwave SQUID multiplexer system operating at a readout frequency range of 10 - 11GHz.

Hahn, Inseob; Limketkai, B.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H. G.

2007-01-01

201

Anatomical atlas of flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A novel and beautifully done way to identify or learn fly anatomy. Developed by CSIRO Entomology, this atlas uses high resolution digital images of flies to allow users to highlight anatomical parts of a fly to learn the name or click on the part name to identify where it is positioned on the fly. There are four images representing the lower Diptera, lower Brachycera, Acalyptrate and Calyptrate with a dragable lens that allows 1X, 2x and 3X magnification of the regions. Users can click the parts on the image or click on the part name, broken into regions of the fly. The selected part is highlighted in blue to aid easy study. There is a useful help section to guide in the use of this tool. This is an excellent tool for those looking for definitions of Diptera anatomical terms and fly anatomy.

0002-11-30

202

Decoherence and Recoherence in a Vibrating RF SQUID  

E-print Network

We study an RF SQUID, in which a section of the loop is a freely suspended beam that is allowed to oscillate mechanically. The coupling between the RF SQUID and the mechanical resonator originates from the dependence of the total magnetic flux threading the loop on the displacement of the resonator. Motion of the latter affects the visibility of Rabi oscillations between the two lowest energy states of the RF SQUID. We address the feasibility of experimental observation of decoherence and recoherence, namely decay and rise of the visibility, in such a system.

Eyal Buks; M. P. Blencowe

2006-07-16

203

Electronic energies for Neon dimer dication radiative charge transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research was conducted to find the shape of the potential energy surfaces for the Neon dimer dication, designated Ne2(+2), to include all symmetries which dissociate to two ground state Ne(+) ions or a ground state Ne atom and Ne(+2) ion. The motivation is to investigate whether there is a minimum in the upper level, the Ne(+2) and Ne level, located in such a way that populations of bound dimer molecules can be built up without dissociating or transitioning to the lower level other than by radiative charge transfer. It is also of interest to show that the ground state is dissociative, that is that its energy is monotonically decreasing with increasing nuclear separation. Calculations were completed using programs known as Gaussian-86, and Diatom. Diatom produced excellent results for the He2(+2)test case. Ne2(+2) calculations were not as accurate as He2(+2), but results did indicate that bound upper level states exist which can only undergo charge transfer radiatively. This research computed Neon dimer dication potential energies for nuclear separations from 0.9 to 20 a.u. of Ne2(+2) sigma, pi, and delta states.

Deemer, Roger Alan

1989-12-01

204

New Design of Neon Refrigerator for Hts Power Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, we developed a prototype refrigerator with a small turbo-expander to provide adequate cooling power (2 kW at 70 K) for HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) power machines. The reverse-Brayton cycle with neon gas as a working fluid was adopted in the refrigerator. The prototype refrigerator does not have enough COP (Coefficient of Performance) for practical HTS applications, and the purpose of this study is to research the information required for designing a new neon refrigerator with improved performance. We take the same refrigeration cycle and working fluid as the prototype one adopted, but a lower process pressure of 1 MPa/0.5 MPa is chosen instead of 2 MPa/1 MPa. The lower process pressure is required by the turbo-compressor design and the refrigeration process is analyzed by using a newly developed process simulator. Also, a heat-exchanger configuration is studied to make the refrigerator size small. The new refrigerator will have a cooling power of 2.5 kW at 65 K, and a COP of 0.06 at 80 K.

Yoshida, S.; Hirai, H.; Takaike, A.; Hirokawa, M.; Aizawa, Y.; Kamioka, Y.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

2010-04-01

205

Glycine fluxes in squid giant axons.  

PubMed Central

1. The influx of a number of amino acids into squid giant axons has been studied. Particular emphasis has been placed on glycine and to a lesser extent glutamate. 2. To facilitate the study of the uptake of 14C-labelled amino acids a technique was devised in which the 14C taken up was measured directly in the intact axon with a glass scintillator fibre. This technique gave results similar to the usual technique in which the axoplasm was extruded for the assay of radioactivity. 3. The changes in glycine influx with extracellular glycine concentration suggests that two saturating components are present, one with high affinity and one with low affinity. 4. The glycine influx does not seem normally to be sensitive to the removal of extracellular sodium by replacement with choline. A Na-sensitive component appeared, however, after a period of immersion in artificial sea water. There was also some depression of glycine influx if Na were replaced by Li. 5. Glutamate uptake was greatly reduced by removal of extracellular Na in confirmation of work by Baker & Potashner (1973). Orthophosphate uptake was also greatly reduced by removal of extracellular Na. 6. CN reversibly inhibited glycine uptake after a delay, indicating that part of the uptake mechanism may require ATP. 7. 14C-labelled glycine injected into squid axons was found not to exchange to any serious extent with other compounds over periods of a few hours. The glycine efflux could therefore be studied. This was found to be markedly increased by extracellular glycine and by certain other neutral amino acids applied extracellularly in the artificial sea water. 8. The enhanced glycine efflux in extracellular glycine was not affected by ouabain and CN. 9. It is suggested that glycine uptake in squid axons involves two components. One is sensitive to CN and ouabain and probably derives energy from ATP break-down. The other is probably an ATP independent exchange diffusion system in which other amino acids as well as glycine can exchange for glycine. Both these systems are independent of extracellular Na concentration. A third Na-dependent system may appear under certain conditions. PMID:671272

Caldwell, P C; Lea, T J

1978-01-01

206

NEON, Establishing a Standardized Network for Groundwater Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is establishing a standardized set of data collection systems comprised of in-situ sensors and observational sampling to obtain data fundamental to the analysis of environmental change at a continental scale. NEON will be collecting aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric data using Observatory-wide standardized designs and methods via a systems engineering approach. This approach ensures a wealth of high quality data, data algorithms, and models that will be freely accessible to all communities such as academic researchers, policy makers, and the general public. The project is established to provide 30 years of data which will enable prediction and forecasting of drivers and responses of ecological change at scales ranging from localized responses through regional gradients and up to the continental scale. The Observatory is a distributed system of sites spread across the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, which is subdivided into 20 statistically unique domains, based on a set of 18 ecologically important parameters. Each domain contains at least one core aquatic and terrestrial site which are located in unmanaged lands, and up to 2 additional sites selected to study domain specific questions such as nitrogen deposition gradients and responses of land use change activities on the ecosystem. Here, we present the development of NEON's groundwater observation well network design and the timing strategy for sampling groundwater chemistry. Shallow well networks, up to 100 feet in depth, will be installed at NEON aquatic sites and will allow for observation of localized ecohydrologic site conditions, by providing basic spatio-temporal near-real time data on groundwater parameters (level, temperature, conductivity) collected from in situ high-resolution instrumentation positioned in each well; and biannual sampling of geochemical and nutrient (N and P) concentrations in a subset of wells for each site. These data will be used to calculate several higher level data products such as hydrologic gradients which drive nutrient fluxes and their change over time. When coupled with other NEON data products, these data will allow for examining surface water/groundwater interactions as well as additional terrestrial and aquatic linkages, such as riparian vegetation response to changing ecohydrologic conditions (i.e. groundwater withdraw for irrigation, land use change) and natural sources (i.e. drought and changing precipitation patterns). This work will present the well network arrays designed for the different types of aquatic sites (1st/2nd order streams, larger rivers, and lakes) including variations on the well network designs for sites where physical constraints hinder a consistent design due to topographic (steep topography, wetlands) or physical constraints (such as permafrost). A generalized sampling strategy for each type of environment will also be detailed indicating the time of year, largely governed by hydrologic conditions, when sampling should take place to provide consistent groundwater chemistry data to allow for analyzing geochemical trends spatially across the network and through time.

Fitzgerald, M.; Schroeter, N.; Goodman, K. J.; Roehm, C. L.

2013-12-01

207

NEON: Transforming Environmental Data into Free, Open Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data across the United States on the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on natural resources and biodiversity. NEON is a project of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), with many other U.S. agencies and NGOs cooperating. The Observatorys construction plans call for 60 sites distributed across 20 ecoclimatic Domains. Data will be collected from strategically selected sites within each Domain and synthesized into information products that can be used to describe changes in the nations ecosystem through space and time. Sites are arrayed across different land-use types in order to understand large-scale environmental drivers affect biodiversity, ecohydrology, biogeochemistry, and disease ecology across the US continent. NEON is an instrument that listens to the pulse of the US continental ecosystem: infrastructure deployed at these sites will collect an average of over 500 primary measurements at each site, including annual high-resolution airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral data. These primary measurements will be transformed by a state-of-the-art cyberinfrastruture into over 100 higher-order data products. All measurements, data products, algorithms used to compute the data products, and protocols used to collect the primary measurements will be freely available to the public and assessable over the internet. The information products, including selected socio-economic datasets from cooperating Federal agencies, will be served in standard formats, grid-sizes, and geographical projections. This type of information is anticipated to have a wide range of uses, including ecological forecasting, education, public engagement, socio-economic analyses, decision support for climate-change adaptation and mitigation, resource management, and environmental risk management. Open data, interoperability, an open and integrated observation infrastructure, public engagement, and a deliberate approach to making sure that research data can be repurposed for operational purposes are the cornerstones of the NEON strategy: they facilitate the repurposing of credible, reliable data and information for multiple purposes. Often, the same data is useful in an undergraduate course on correlations as it is for public discourse on the effects of increased precipitation on stream water quality. This suggests a strategy for evolving an ecosystem of institutions whose primary responsibility is contributing to an open information commons that creates and curates credible sources of data and information products with clearly documented provenance, quality protocols, uncertainty estimates, and other qualitative descriptors. This information commons is deliberately designed to be tapped by another ecosystem of institutions whose individual missions revolve around some combination of discovery (e.g. research, forecasting, innovation), learning (e.g. public engagement, informal and formal learning, education research), and solutions (e.g. science and technology policy). This talk explores how the NEON information commons is envisioned to interact with this other community of institutions, and how the cornerstone principles enable that community to better focus their creative capabilities around their respective core missions.

Wee, B.

2010-12-01

208

Development of new HTS-SQUID and HTS current sensor for HTS-SQUID beam current monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two years ago, a prototype of a highly sensitive beam current monitor with a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID, an HTS current sensor and an HTS magnetic shield, that is, an HTS-SQUID monitor, was installed in the beam transport line of the RIKEN ring cyclotron (RRC). As a result, the beam intensity of a sub-?A beam was successfully measured by the prototype HTS-SQUID monitor. In fact, the intensity of a sub-?A 40Ar15+ (63 MeV/u) beam was successfully measured with a 500 nA resolution. However, the current resolution of the prototype HTS-SQUID monitor is not sufficient to measure the current of a uranium beam, which is accelerated in a new radioactive isotope (RI) beam facility called "RI Beam Factory" (RIBF). A minimum current resolution of 1 nA is required for the measurement of the uranium beam. Therefore, we are developing a new HTS-SQUID monitor so as to improve the current resolution. This new monitor consists of three parts, the HTS SQUID, an HTS current sensor and an HTS magnetic shield, and these parts have been separately developed this year. The high-permeability core that is installed in the two input coils of the HTS-SQUID is an extremely important part in this new HTS-SQUID monitor. A 50-fold improvement in gain was successfully realized using the high-permeability core compared with that obtained without the high-permeability core. Another key factor is the substrate of the HTS current sensor. A MgO ceramic tube was used for the substrate of the HTS current sensor in the prototype HTS-SQUID monitor. However, it was difficult to form the bridge circuit using the MgO ceramic substrate in the new HTS-SQUID monitor, because the bridge circuit that magnetically connects the HTS current sensor and the HTS-SQUID has to be three-dimensional. To solve this problem, silver (Ag) of 99.9% purity was adopted for the substrates of the HTS current sensor in the new HTS-SQUID monitor. Then the surfaces of the substrates were coated by a thin layer (70?m) of Bi2-Sr2-Ca1-Cu2-Ox (Bi 2212), which is an HTS material. We report the results of this development.

Watanabe, T.; Sasaki, Y.; Kase, M.; Watanabe, S.; Ikeda, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Yano, Y.

2008-02-01

209

Protecting Cattle from Horn Flies  

E-print Network

Horn flies are the most damaging insect to cattle in Texas. This publication explains biological, cultural and chemical methods of controlling horn flies. Various insecticides used to suppress horn flies are listed...

Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

2004-05-24

210

Squid as nutrient vectors linking Southwest Atlantic marine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term investigations of three abundant nektonic squid species from the Southwest Atlantic, Illex argentinus, Doryteuthis gahi and Onykia ingens, permitted to estimate important population parameters including individual growth rates, duration of ontogenetic phases and mortalities. Using production model, the productivity of squid populations at different phases of their life cycle was assessed and the amount of biomass they convey between marine ecosystems as a result of their ontogenetic migrations was quantified. It was found that squid are major nutrient vectors and play a key role as transient 'biological pumps' linking spatially distinct marine ecosystems. I. argentinus has the largest impact in all three ecosystems it encounters due to its high abundance and productivity. The variable nature of squid populations increases the vulnerability of these biological conveyers to overfishing and environmental change. Failure of these critical biological pathways may induce irreversible long-term consequences for biodiversity, resource abundance and spatial availability in the world ocean.

Arkhipkin, Alexander I.

2013-10-01

211

HTS SQUIDs for the nondestructive evaluation of composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While LTS and HTS SQUIDs have successfully been applied in the detection of flaws in aircraft grade aluminium structures for well over a decade, interest has recently spread to a type of new material, namely composites. One example, carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP), is increasingly being favoured by the aircraft industry because of its strength to weight ratio and the fact that it is corrosion-resistant. Material and defect characterization using SQUIDs is still at an early stage, but due to expected rapid expansion in the use of such materials, there is ample scope for the application of HTS SQUIDs. Here we have applied HTS SQUID single-layer gradiometers to investigate artificially created defects in CFRP samples.

Carr, Chris; Graham, David; Macfarlane, John C.; Donaldson, Gordon B.

2003-12-01

212

Brooding in a gonatid squid off northern Japan.  

PubMed

Brooding of egg masses by a squid in Japan is described. Brooding females were photographed in situ, and the females, their eggs, and their hatchlings were collected. The squid had all undergone gelatinous degeneration and swam slowly and continuously by undulating the fins and expelling water sporadically through the funnel. Eggs were held together by a dark, viscous material that formed a single-layer, sheet-like mass, from which hatchlings were seen to emerge. The annual appearance of brooding females in surface waters during spring suggests that they transport their egg masses from deep water to the surface before the eggs hatch. Genetic analyses identified the squid as Gonatus madokai (family Gonatidae), now the second gonatid and third squid known to brood. PMID:23264471

Bower, John R; Seki, Katsunori; Kubodera, Tsunemi; Yamamoto, Jun; Nobetsu, Takahiro

2012-12-01

213

Weld quality evaluation using a high temperature SQUID array  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary data for evaluating weld quality using high temperature SQUIDS. The SQUIDS are integrated into an instrument known as the SQUID Array Microscope, or SAMi. The array consists of ll SQUIDs evenly distributed over an 8.25 mm baseline. Welds are detected using SAMi by using an on board coil to induce eddy currents in a conducting sample and measuring the resulting magnetic fields. The concept is that the induced magnetic fields will differ in parts of varying weld quality. The data presented here was collected from three stainless steel parts using SAMi. Each part was either solid, included a good weld, or included a bad weld. The induced magnetic field's magnitude and phase relative to the induction signal were measured. For each sample considered, both the magnitude and phase data were measurably different than the other two samples. These results indicate that it is possible to use SAMi to evaluate weld quality.

Clark, D. D. (David D.); Espy, M. A. (Michelle A.); Kraus, Robert H., Jr.; Matlachov, A. N. (Andrei N.); Lamb, J. S. (Jessica S.)

2002-01-01

214

Experimental realization of Josephson junctions for an atom SQUID.  

PubMed

We report the creation of a pair of Josephson junctions on a toroidal dilute gas Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a configuration that is the cold atom analog of the well-known dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). We observe Josephson effects, measure the critical current of the junctions, and find dynamic behavior that is in good agreement with the simple Josephson equations for a tunnel junction with the ideal sinusoidal current-phase relation expected for the parameters of the experiment. The junctions and toroidal trap are created with the painted potential, a time-averaged optical dipole potential technique which will allow scaling to more complex BEC circuit geometries than the single atom-SQUID case reported here. Since rotation plays the same role in the atom SQUID as magnetic field does in the dc SQUID magnetometer, the device has potential as a compact rotation sensor. PMID:24289693

Ryu, C; Blackburn, P W; Blinova, A A; Boshier, M G

2013-11-15

215

Experimental realization of Josephson junctions for an Atom SQUID  

E-print Network

We report the creation of a pair of Josephson junctions on a toroidal dilute gas Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a configuration that is the cold atom analog of the well-known dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). We observe Josephson effects, measure the critical current of the junctions, and find dynamic behavior that is in good agreement with the simple Josephson equations for a tunnel junction with the ideal sinusoidal current-phase relation expected for the parameters of the experiment. The junctions and toroidal trap are created with the painted potential, a time-averaged optical dipole potential technique which will allow scaling to more complex BEC circuit geometries than the single atom-SQUID case reported here. Since rotation plays the same role in the atom SQUID as magnetic field does in the dc SQUID magnetometer, the device has potential as a compact rotation sensor.

C. Ryu; A. A. Blinova; P. W. Blackburn; M. G. Boshier

2013-04-30

216

Experimental Realization of Josephson Junctions for an Atom SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the creation of a pair of Josephson junctions on a toroidal dilute gas Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a configuration that is the cold atom analog of the well-known dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). We observe Josephson effects, measure the critical current of the junctions, and find dynamic behavior that is in good agreement with the simple Josephson equations for a tunnel junction with the ideal sinusoidal current-phase relation expected for the parameters of the experiment. The junctions and toroidal trap are created with the painted potential, a time-averaged optical dipole potential technique which will allow scaling to more complex BEC circuit geometries than the single atom-SQUID case reported here. Since rotation plays the same role in the atom SQUID as magnetic field does in the dc SQUID magnetometer, the device has potential as a compact rotation sensor.

Ryu, C.; Blackburn, P. W.; Blinova, A. A.; Boshier, M. G.

2013-11-01

217

Signal and noise characteristics of bi-SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an improved analytic theory, numerical simulation, and analysis of noise characteristics of a bi-SQUID in comparison with those of a dc SQUID in an open loop configuration. The analytic theory which had been developed earlier, neglecting a pulse component of the difference of the phases of Josephson junctions, is now completed taking into account the pulse component. In the bi-SQUID, the additional Josephson junction introduces another source of fluctuations and changes its transfer function, nonlinear dynamics, and the noise spectrum transformation. Some increase in the reduced-to-input noise at low values of applied magnetic flux comes from the nonlinear flux to phase difference transformation that was introduced in bi-SQUID as a way to linearize its voltage response.

Kornev, V. K.; Sharafiev, A. V.; Soloviev, I. I.; Mukhanov, O. A.

2014-11-01

218

Nonstandard applications of superconducting quantum interferometers: SQUIDS (Review)  

SciTech Connect

Some applications of superconducting quantum interferometers are studied. The problems of quantum noise in the Josephson junction are discussed, theoretical estimates of their magnitude are given, and ways for achieving the limiting sensitivity of SQUIDs are indicated. Applications of SQUIDs in checking some basic physical laws (Newton's law, the principle of equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses, general relativity), in elementary particle physics (search for quarks and magnetic monopoles), in geophysics (magnetotelluric measurements, gradiometric measurements, gravimetric experiments, etc.), and in ultra-low-temperature physics (nuclear gyroscope, SQUIDs and NMR, ultra-low-temperature thermometry) are described. Both past and future experiments are studied and some further applications of SQUID-based magnetometers are indicated.

Odegnal, M.

1985-01-01

219

Cation Interdiffusion in Squid Giant Axons  

PubMed Central

Radiotracer techniques were used to study the influxes and effluxes of various univalent cations in internally perfused squid giant axons. Membrane currents and conductances were determined by the voltage-clamp technique under analogous internal and external conditions. Both sodium-containing and sodium-free internal and external media were studied. Membrane impedance was measured with an ac impedance bridge to determine the general magnitude and time course of the impedance loss which accompanied the excitation process in both varieties of external media. Maximum transmembrane currents were found to be of comparable magnitude to the charge transfer associated with the peak interdiffusion flux measured under the same conditions. The product of the membrane resistance and the interdiffusion flux remained constant over a wide range of resistance and flux values, both at rest and during activity, both in sodium-containing and sodium-free media. The implications of these findings for excitation theory are discussed. PMID:6034513

Tasaki, Ichiji; Singer, Irwin; Watanabe, Akira

1967-01-01

220

Temperature Dependence of Oscillation in Squid Axons  

PubMed Central

The temperature dependence of the oscillatory behavior of experimental and computed axons was compared. In the experimental study of space-clamped giant axons of the squid, small oscillations after a single threshold spike were measured using the double glucose gap over the temperature range 10-30C during treatment with three concentrations of external CaCl2 solutions. Calcium concentration had little effect on frequency, as was found also by Huxley in his computations at 18.5C for a fiber at rest. The Q10 both for the experimental and for the computed axon of FitzHugh was 2.25. The experimental measurements of the frequency of oscillations near threshold agree extremely well with the Hodgkin-Huxley calculations. PMID:5780709

Guttman, Rita

1969-01-01

221

Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of

King, Kenneth

2004-01-01

222

Alumina from fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the exploratory work done so far with the lime-sinter process show that more than 50 percent of the alumina in a typical fly ash can be made soluble by sodium carbonate extraction of the sintered product. Based on work reported for other non-bauxite materials, there is every reason to expect increased yields. Fly ash can become a

Burnet

2008-01-01

223

Activation of fly ash  

DOEpatents

Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

Corbin, David R. (New Castle, DE); Velenyi, Louis J. (Lyndhurst, OH); Pepera, Marc A. (Northfield, OH); Dolhyj, Serge R. (Parma, OH)

1986-01-01

224

ELECTROPHORETIC AND IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SQUID AXOPLASM PROTEINS.  

PubMed

By disc electrophoresis of the axoplasm of Dosidicus gigas, 14 protein bands have been resolved. Anti-bodies to the intra-axonal proteins and to squid blood proteins were produced in rabbits. By Ouchterlony's technique, six antigenic components can be demonstrated in axoplasm; the combined use of disc electrophoresis and immune diflusion in agar resolves seven antigenic components in axoplasm; none of these components is detectable in squid blood. PMID:14107426

HUNEEUS-COX, F

1964-03-01

225

The Squid-Vibrio Symbioses: From Demes to Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The monospecific light organ association between the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri has been used as a model for the study of the most common type of coevolved animal-bacterial interaction; i.e., the association of Gram-negative bacteria with the extracellular apical surfaces of polarized epithelia. Analysis of the squid-vibrio symbiosis has ranged from

JENNIFER R. KIMBELL

2003-01-01

226

High transition-temperature SQUID magnetometers and practical applications  

SciTech Connect

The design, fabrication and performance of SQUID magnetometers based on thin films of the high-transition temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) are described. Essential to the achieving high magnetic field resolution at low frequencies is the elimination of 1/f flux noise due to thermally activated hopping of flux vortices between pinning sites in the superconducting films. Through improvements in processing, 1/f noise in single layer YBCO thin films and YBCO-SrTiO{sub 3}-YBCO trilayers was systematically reduced to allow fabrication of sensitive SQUID magnetometers. Both single-layer directly coupled SQUID magnetometers and multilayer magnetometers were fabricated, based on the dc SQUID with bicrystal grain boundary Josephson junctions. Multilayer magnetometers had a lower magnetic field noise for a given physical size due to greater effective sensing areas. A magnetometer consisting of a SQUID inductively coupled to the multiturn input coil of a flux transformer in a flip-chip arrangement had a field noise of 27 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 1 Hz and 8.5 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 1 kHz. A multiloop multilayer SQUID magnetometer had a field noise of 37 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 1 Hz and 18 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 1 kHz. A three-axis SQUID magnetometer for geophysical applications was constructed and operated in the field in the presence of 60 Hz and radiofrequency noise. Clinical quality magnetocardiograms were measured using multilayer SQUID magnetometers in a magnetically shielded room.

Dantsker, E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1997-05-01

227

An Efficient Superconducting Transformer Design for SQUID Magnetometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a novel superconducting transformer design for the efficient transfer of magnetic flux from a macroscopic pickup coil to a low-inductance SQUID. A large number of highly-efficient one-to-one transformer elements are wired in series and in parallel, for the primary and secondary of the transformer, respectively. This transformer coupling allows us to isolate the SQUID from the microwave resonances inherent in high-inductance coils.

Mates, J. A. B.; Irwin, K. D.; Vale, L. R.; Hilton, G. C.; Cho, H. M.

2014-08-01

228

Morphometry and feeding habits of two ommastrephid squid  

E-print Network

MORPHOMETRY AND FEEDING HABITS OF TWO OFKASTREPHID SQUID A Thesis by GARY ARTHUR WOLFF Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977... Major Subject: Oceanography NORPHO~ifETRY AND FEEDING HABITS OF TWO OM'IASTREPHID SQUID A Thesis by GARY ARTHUR WOEFF Approved as to style and content by: rkfk ( (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departme ' '(rremb er ) (Nember August 1977...

Wolff, Gary Arthur

2012-06-07

229

High-T(c) squid application in medicine and geophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In our laboratory of high-T(sub c), a one-hole squid was built from Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-x) ceramics obtained by a standard procedure of solid state reaction. The ceramics with critical current density J(sub c) is greater than 100 A/sq cm was selected. In the middle of a 10 x 10 x 2 mm ceramics pellet, a 0.8 mm hole was drilled in which the superconducting loop of the squid was located. Between the hole and the edge of the pellet, a cut was mechanically filed out with a bridge inside it connecting the superconducting ring. A scheme of the magnetometer is presented. The resonant frequency shift of the tank circuit, the connection of the squid with this circuit, and the squid inductance are evaluated. One of the most interesting fields of the squid-based magnetometer application is biomagnetism, particularly, the human heart magnetocardiogram measuring. The low-temperature squids were used in this area and many interesting and important scientific results have been obtained. The observations have shown that the main noise contribution was not due to the squid but to the Earth's magnetic field variations, industrial inductions, and mainly to the vibrations caused by liquid nitrogen boiling and by vibrations of the box. Further attempts are needed to reduce the magnetic noise inductions. Nevertheless, the estimations promise the maximum signal/noise relation of the high-T(sub c) squid-magnetocardiometer to be not less than 10:1 in a bandwidth of 60 Hz. Apparently, such resolution would be enough not only for steady cardiogram reading but even for thin structure investigation at average technique application.

Polushkin, V. N.; Uchaikin, S. V.; Vasiliev, B. V.

1991-01-01

230

Design and optimization of HTC DC SQUIDs for magnetometric applications  

SciTech Connect

In order to optimize the magnetic field sensitivity, the authors have followed two different approaches. In the former they have analyzed the influence of the quality of YBCO films on the superconducting properties and noise characteristics of bicrystal grain boundary junctions and dc-SQUIDs. For this purpose they have studied and compared three different YBCO deposition processes. In the latter they have reported the different criteria for the design of SQUID magnetometers usable for applications in shielded and unshielded environment.

Testa, G.; Monaco, A. [CNR, Arco Felice (Italy). Ist. di Cibermetica] [CNR, Arco Felice (Italy). Ist. di Cibermetica; [Unita di Napoli (Italy). Ist. Nacionale di Fisica della Materia; Camerlingo, C.; Russo, M.; Sarnelli, E. [CNR, Arco Felice (Italy). Ist. di Cibermetica] [CNR, Arco Felice (Italy). Ist. di Cibermetica

1999-04-20

231

Highly Sensitive and Easy-to-Use SQUID Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a novel family of low-noise superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to cover a wide range of applications. These sensors are robust and easy to use without compromising noise performance. They are optimized for operation with our high-speed direct-coupled flux-locked loop (FLL) electronics XXF-1. For the readout of cryogenic detectors, series arrays of 16 SQUIDs with 3 nH

D.. Drung; C.. Assmann; J.. Beyer; A.. Kirste; M.. Peters; F.. Ruede; T.. Schurig

2007-01-01

232

SQUID magnetometry applied as non-invasive electroanalytic chemical technique  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a SQUID magnetometer, employed as a highly sensitive ammeter, used to perform standard electroanalytic chemical measurements non- invasively. Specifically, the magnetic fields generated by the net ionic movement in the solution of a driven electrochemical system is detected by the gradiometer coils. The SQUID signal can then be compared to conventional current measurements. One such standard measurement investigated is Cyclic Voltametry (CV) which determines the I-V characteristics of an electrochemical system yielding critical kinetic parameters.

Jette, B.D.; MacVicar, M.L.A. (Specialty Materials Lab., Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (US))

1991-03-01

233

Comparison experiments of neon and helium buffer gases cooling in trapped 199Hg+ ions linear trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influences of different buffer gas, neon and helium, on 199Hg+ clock transition are compared in trapped 199Hg+linear trap. By the technique of time domain's Ramsey separated oscillatory fields, the buffer gas pressure frequency shifts of 199Hg+ clock transition are measured to be (df/dPNe)(1/f) = 1.8 10-8 Torr-1 for neon and (df/dPHe)(1/f) = 9.110-8 Torr-1 for helium. Meanwhile, the line-width of 199Hg+ clock transition spectrum with the buffer gas neon is narrower than that with helium at the same pressure. These experimental results show that neon is a more suitable buffer gas than helium in 199Hg+ ions microwave frequency standards because of the 199Hg+ clock transition is less sensitive to neon variations and the better cooling effect of neon. The optimum operating pressure for neon is found to be about 1.010-5 Torr in our linear ion trap system.

Yang, Yu-Na; Liu, Hao; He, Yue-Hong; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Man; Chen, Yi-He; She, Lei; Li, Jiao-Mei

2014-09-01

234

[Biochemistry and functional characterization of squid mantle meat (Dosidicus gigas)].  

PubMed

A study for the characterization of frozen giant squid mantle (meat) protein stored at -25 degrees C for 8 month was started. In the present research, the following functional properties were investigate: emulsifying, water holding and gel forming capacities. Optimal conditions for the separation and differentiation of miofibrillar and sarcoplasmatic proteins were also studied. It was found that the unfrozen giant squid mantle meat es capable of emulifying 2.817,4 g of oil/g of protein and holding capacity was 3.64 g of water/g of protein. Related to the gel forming capacity, it was not obtain, probably due to excessive storage of the meat. With regard to miofibrilar protein obtention of the squid mantle meat, it was found that two low ionic strength washings (I = 0.05), the sarcoplasmic proteins were practically eliminated from the protein matrix. The differentiation of miofibrilar and sarcoplasmatic proteins was obtained by PAGE-SDS of the squid mantle meat extracted at two different ionic strength (I = 0.05 and I = 0.5). This work demonstrates that the giant squid mantle protein has a high emulsifying and water holding capacity, and it can be used, as a raw material, for the improvement of sausage products. About the gelling products, more studies will be necessary with fresh squid mantle meat to conclude about this functional property. PMID:11464670

Abugoch, L; Guarda, A; Mara Prez, L; Isabel Donghi, M

2000-12-01

235

High-{Tc} DC SQUID and flux transformer development  

SciTech Connect

A description is presented of the fabrication and properties of high {Tc} DC SQUIDS and flux transformers fabricated by dry processing of pulsed laser ablated YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) thin films. SQUIDs have been fabricated with either bicrystal substrate or step edge junctions. For all devices fabricated thus far, measurements indicate a similar character to the flux noise spectra with a significant 1/f noise component below 100--500 Hz. The transfer function and energy sensitivities as a function of SQUID inductances in the range 60--200 pH have been measured for bicrystal DC SQUIDs and compared with estimates. Various techniques have been employed to improve the magnetic field sensitivity of the uncoupled DC SQUID toward more practical levels including the use of large area washers, single layer magnetometers and 3-level flux transformers fabricated from trilayers of YBCO/SrTiO{sub 3}/YBCO. The properties of open input coils are presented as well as the performance of closed loop transformers coupled via flip chip geometry to the SQUID washer. A white magnetic noise level of {approx} 130 fT rms/{radical}Hz above 200 Hz has been reached with a flux transformer with a 15 turn input coil and pick-up loop area of 13 mm{sup 2}.

Fife, A.A.; Angus, V.; Betts, K. [CTF Systems Inc., Port Coquitlam, British Columbia (Canada)] [and others

1994-12-31

236

An investigation of pinch welds using HTS SQUIDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To contain high-pressure gases inside a pressure vessel a seal is often made in a thin-walled tube, known as the stem tube, that connects the gas reservoir and the vessel. This seal can be achieved through the use of a resistance pinch weld that forms with only a limited amount of melting occurring. The lack of melting makes applying traditional post-weld nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques extremely difficult. The welds of interest here are made from 304L stainless steel (typically 3.8 mm diameter and 38 mm long) and have a non-uniform geometry that does not inherently lend itself to either eddy current or static field SQUID-based measurement techniques. We perform these NDE measurements with both the sample and the SQUID located inside local electromagnetic shielding. SQUID data are presented as individual time series traces for a set of welds that were fabricated using a broad range of fabrication parameters, and a comparison is made between the SQUID-based results and the known parameters. With the limited spatial resolution offered by our present SQUID system, it is not clear if weld quality can be evaluated from purely SQUID-based results.

Carr, Chris; Espy, Michelle A.; Urbaitis, Algis V.; Kraus, Robert H., Jr.

2006-05-01

237

DC and RF Measurements of Serial Bi-SQUID Arrays  

E-print Network

SQUID arrays are promising candidates for low profile antennas and low noise amplifier applications. We present the integrated circuit designs and results of DC and RF measurements of the wideband serial arrays based on integration of linear bi-SQUID cells forming a Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter (bi-SQUID SQIF). Various configurations of serial arrays designs are described. The measured linearity, power gain, and noise temperature are analyzed and compared. The experimental results are matched to results of mathematical modeling. A serial bi-SQUID SQIF arrays are mounted into a coplanar waveguide (CPW) and symmetrically grounded to corresponding sides of CPW. The RF output comes out from the central common line, which is also used for DC biasing and forms a symmetrical balanced output. The signal and DC flux biasing line is designed as coplanar lines passed in parallel over each bi-SQUID cell in a bidirectional fashion concentrating magnetic flux inside of each cell. Serial bi-SQUID SQIF arrays ...

Prokopenko, G V; de Escobar, A Leese; Taylor, B; de Andrade, M C; Berggren, S; Longhini, P; Palacios, A; Nisenoff, M; Fagaly, R L

2012-01-01

238

A SQUID gradiometer module with wire-wound pickup antenna and integrated voltage feedback circuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of the direct readout schemes for dc SQUID, Additional Positive Feedback (APF), noise cancellation (NC) and SQUID bootstrap circuit (SBC), have been studied in conjunction with planar SQUID magnetometers. In this paper, we examine the NC technique applied to a niobium SQUID gradiometer module with an Nb wire-wound antenna connecting to a dual-loop SQUID chip with an integrated voltage feedback circuit for suppression of the preamplifier noise contribution. The sensitivity of the SQUID gradiometer module is measured to be about 1 fT/(cm ?Hz) in the white noise range in a magnetically shielded room. Using such gradiometer, both MCG and MEG signals are recorded.

Zhang, Guofeng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Shulin; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Wang, Yongliang; Liu, Chao; Zeng, Jia; Qiu, Yang; Kong, Xiangyan; Dong, Hui; Xie, Xiaoming; Offenhusser, Andreas; Jiang, Mianheng

2012-10-01

239

Development of new HTS-SQUID and HTS current sensor for HTS-SQUID beam current monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two years ago, a prototype of a highly sensitive beam current monitor with a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID, an HTS current sensor and an HTS magnetic shield, that is, an HTS-SQUID monitor, was installed in the beam transport line of the RIKEN ring cyclotron (RRC). As a result, the beam intensity of a sub-?A beam was successfully measured by the

T Watanabe; Y Sasaki; M Kase; S Watanabe; T Ikeda; T Kawaguchi; Y Yano

2008-01-01

240

Helium and Neon Abundances and Compositions in Cometary Matter  

SciTech Connect

Materials trapped and preserved in comets date from the earliest history of the solar system. Particles captured by the Stardust spacecraft from comet Wild 2 are indisputable cometary matter available for laboratory study. Here they report measurements of noble gases in Stardust material. neon isotope ratios are within the range observed in 'phase Q', a ubiquitous, primitive organic carrier of noble gases in meteorites. Helium displays {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios twice those in phase Q and in Jupiter's atmosphere. Abundances per gram are surprisingly large, suggesting implantation by ion irradiation. The gases are carried in high temperature igneous grains similar to particles found in other Stardust studies. Collectively the evidence points to gas acquisition in a hot, high ion flux nebular environment close to the young Sun.

Marty, B; Palma, R L; Pepin, R O; Zimmmermann, L; Schlutter, D J; Burnard, P G; Westphal, A J; Snead, C J; Bajt, S; Becker, R H; Simones, J E

2007-10-15

241

Research Into a Neon Spectral Line Profile of Dusty Plasma  

E-print Network

Ordered dusty structures influence plasma conditions. This influence can be revealed, when plasma spectral characteristics change, as dusty particles are injected. For example, a variation in the atomic temperature leads to a variation in the profiles of spectral lines. We studied the profile of a 585 nm neon spectral line in the dusty structures. The structures levitated in a positive column of a glow discharge at a pressure of 50-150 Pa and with a current of 1-9 mA. We scanned the profile with the use of a Fabry-Perot interferometer, by changing the air pressure between the interferometer mirrors. To process the data, a special algorithm was developed. The algorithm is resistant to a noise and a scanning speed instability. We have found an upper bound of the impact of dusty structures on the profile width. The appearance of macroparticles changes the atomic plasma temperature less than by 10 K.

Pikalev, Aleksandr

2014-01-01

242

Endogenous circadian retinomotor movements in the neon tetra (Paracheirodon innesi).  

PubMed

Retinomotor movements of retinal cones and pigment epithelium melanosomes were studied in the neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi. The cone myoids clearly contracted during the daytime, but the migration of the total population of pigment granules was less easy to see. However, when rod-shaped melanosomes were measured separately from granular-shaped melanosomes it became evident that the rod-shaped melanosomes, but not the granular melanosomes, did migrate in response to circadian changes in light intensity. Retinomotor movements of both the cones and the rod-shaped melanosomes persisted for at least 2 days in continuous darkness. Microspectrophotometric measurements of spectral transmission of small groups of melanosomes showed that absorption was greatest at shorter wavelengths, but that there was also a distinct absorbance maximum at about 480 nm. PMID:6885308

Lythgoe, J N; Shand, J

1983-09-01

243

Comprehensive X-Ray Absorption Models for Oxygen and Neon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to perform state-of-the-art R-matrix calculations for the oxygen and neon photoabsorption cross sections to improve upon earlier, incomplete data. Several important higher-order effects will be addressed: orbital relaxation, Auger line broadening, two-electron shake, and elimination of pseudoresonances. The computed atomic cross sections will first be fit by a recently-developed analytical fitting formula, and then benchmarked further to experimental and Chandra observed absorption lines. The resulting data will be uploaded into the AtomDB, XSPEC, and ISIS databases for spectral modeling use. These definitive cross sections will resolve an outstanding discrepancy between XSTAR and SPEX spectral modeling predictions of molecular (dust and/or ice) abundances in the ISM.

Gorczyca, Thomas

2013-09-01

244

Fruit Fly Phlebotomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-04-21

245

Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with dc SQUID amplifiers  

SciTech Connect

The development and fabrication of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) with Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb Josephson junctions is described. A theory of the dc SQUID as a radio-frequency amplifier is presented, with an optimization strategy that accounts for the loading and noise contributions of the postamplifier and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the total system. The high sensitivity of the dc SQUID is extended to high field NMR. A dc SQUID is used as a tuned radio-frequency amplifier to detect pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance at 32 MHz from a metal film in a 3.5 Tesla static field. A total system noise temperature of 11 K has been achieved, at a bath temperature of 4.2 K. The minimum number of nuclear Bohr magnetons observable from a free precession signal after a single pulse is about 2 {times} 10{sup 17} in a bandwidth of 25 kHz. In a separate experiment, a dc SQUID is used as a rf amplifier in a NQR experiment to observe a new resonance response mechanism. The net electric polarization of a NaClO{sub 3} crystal due to the precessing electric quadrupole moments of the Cl nuclei is detected at 30 MHz. The sensitivity of NMR and NQR spectrometers using dc SQUID amplifiers is compared to the sensitivity of spectrometers using conventional rf amplifiers. A SQUID-based spectrometer has a voltage sensitivity which is comparable to the best achieved by a FET-based spectrometer, at these temperatures and operating frequencies.

Heaney, M.B. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-11-01

246

Neon as a Buffer Gas for a Mercury-Ion Clock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A developmental miniature mercury-ion clock has stability comparable to that of a hydrogen-maser clock. The ion-handling components are housed in a sealed vacuum tube, wherein a getter pump is used to maintain the partial vacuum, and the evacuated tube is backfilled with mercury vapor in a buffer gas. Neon was determined to be the best choice for the buffer gas: The pressure-induced frequency pulling by neon was found to be only about two-fifths of that of helium. Furthermore, because neon diffuses through solids much more slowly than does helium, the operational lifetime of a tube backfilled with neon could be considerably longer than that of a tube backfilled with helium.

Prestage, John; Chung, Sang

2008-01-01

247

Effect of metastable neon atoms in a positive column of glow discharge with dust particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion/drift model of the positive column of glow discharge in neon was used for the analysis of the role of neon metastable atoms in the interaction between neon plasma and dust particles. The radial profiles of electrons and metastable atoms were simulated in the typical range of neon pressure and discharge current where dust particles may form dense dust structures changing the plasma properties. The results showed the nonlocal effect of dust particles on the plasma composition. Within the dust structure, the metastable atom concentration was shown to be higher than in the discharge without dust particles at the same discharge parameters; the ratio of concentrations of metastable atoms and electrons may increase with increasing dust particle concentration in a certain range of discharge parameters. The partial contribution of metastable atoms to the ionization was found to be higher than their losses on the surface of dust particles and increased when the gas pressure was increased.

Shumova, V. V.; Polyakov, D. N.; Vasilyak, L. M.

2014-12-01

248

75 FR 51683 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish...fishing for the species managed under the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The...

2010-08-23

249

76 FR 74724 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Amendment 11 AGENCY: National...regulations implementing Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery Management Plan (FMP)....

2011-12-01

250

Squid Protein Concentrates. 1. Evaluation of Processes and Product Characteristics. 2. Evaluation of Functional Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains two articles concerning squid protein concentrates. (1) Evaluation of Processes and Product Characteristics. Protein concentrates have been produced from squid by alkaline or salt extraction, and isoelectric precipitation of the alkali...

L. N. Kahn, Z. Berk, S. Tong, J. M. Flink, S. A. Goldblith

1975-01-01

251

Design, Optimization, and Construction of a DC SQUID with Complete Flux Transformer Circuits,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of a complete dc SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) with a flux transformer input circuit is discussed. The flux coupling circuits introduce a substantial capacitance across the SQUID and give rise to many resonances which may ...

J. Knuutila, M. Kajola, H. Seppae, R. Mutikainen, J. Salmi

1987-01-01

252

Venus fly trap  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Time-lapse photos or video show progressions from the start of an event to the end of the event. These time-lapse photos illustrate the growth of a single Venus fly trap. Biological processes require time.

Paul Lenz (None;)

2006-01-26

253

Laser optogalvanic wavelength calibration with a commercial hollow cathode iron - neon discharge lamp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

351 optogalvanic transitions have been observed in the 337 - 598 nm wavelength region using an iron - neon hollow cathode discharge lamp and a pulsed tunable dye laser. 223 of these have been identified as transitions associated with neon energy levels. These optogalvanic transitions have allowed, in conjunction with interference fringes recorded concomitantly with an etalon, the calibration of the dye laser wavelength with 0.3/cm accuracy.

Zhu, Xinming; Nur, Abdullahi H.; Misra, Prabhakar

1994-08-01

254

Method and apparatus for cooling high temperature superconductors with neon-nitrogen mixtures  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods for cooling high temperature superconducting materials (HTSC) to superconductive temperatures within the range of 27.degree. K. to 77.degree. K. using a mixed refrigerant consisting of liquefied neon and nitrogen containing up to about ten mole percent neon by contacting and surrounding the HTSC material with the mixed refrigerant so that free convection or forced flow convection heat transfer can be effected.

Laverman, Royce J. (South Holland, IL); Lai, Ban-Yen (Hinsdale, IL)

1993-01-01

255

Emission anomalous optical magnetic resonances in a mixture of even neon isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Unusual resonances have been detected in the dependence of the discharge glow in neon on the longitudinal magnetic field. The resonances appear in fairly high magnetic fields and are observed only at low gas pressures and exclusively in a mixture of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne isotopes. This phenomenon is an evidence of collective resonant radiation processes involving atoms of different neon isotopes.

Saprykin, E. G.; Sorokin, V. A., E-mail: Vlad_sorokin@ngs.ru; Shalagin, A. M. [Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15

256

Attractants for synanthropic flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented molasses or sucrose solutions are known to attract several species of filth-breeding flies. To identify the volatile attractants produced in fermenting sucrose solutions with yeast, these solutions were fractionated, and the chemical constituents identified and bioassayed against filth-breeding flies includingFannia canicularis (L.),Muscina stabulans (Falln), andMusca domestica (L.). Distillation of a fermented sucrose solution gave an active distillate and an

Yih-Shen Hwang; Mir S. Mulla; Harold Axelrod

1978-01-01

257

Design a Flying Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is for the students to draw a design for their own flying machine. They will apply their knowledge of aircraft design and the forces acting on them. The students will start with a brainstorming activity where they come up with creative uses for every day objects. They will then use their creativity and knowledge of airplanes to design their own flying machine.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

258

Sodium Movements in Perfused Squid Giant Axons  

PubMed Central

Sodium movements in internally perfused giant axons from the squid Dosidicus gigas were studied with varying internal sodium concentrations and with fluoride as the internal anion. It was found that as the internal concentration of sodium was increased from 2 to 200 mM the resting sodium efflux increased from 0.09 to 34.0 pmoles/cm2sec and the average resting sodium influx increased from 42.9 to 64.5 pmoles/cm2sec but this last change was not statistically significant. When perfusing with a mixture of 500 mM K glutamate and 100 mM Na glutamate the resting efflux was 10 3 pmoles/cm2sec and 41 10 pmoles/cm2sec for sodium influx. Increasing the internal sodium concentration also increased both the extra influx and the extra efflux of sodium due to impulse propagation. At any given internal sodium concentration the net extra influx was about 5 pmoles/cm2impulse. This finding supports the notion that the inward current generated in a propagated action potential can be completely accounted for by movements of sodium. PMID:5672003

Rojas, Eduardo; Canessa-Fischer, Mitzy

1968-01-01

259

Selenium in fly ash.  

PubMed

Selenium, at concentrations exceeding 200 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight), has been found in white sweet clover voluntarily growing on beds of fly ash in central New York State. Guinea pigs fed such clover concentrated selenium in their tissues. The contents of the honey stomachs of bees foraging on this seleniferous clover contained negligible selenium. Mature vegetables cultured on 10 percent (by weight) fly ash-amended soil absorbed up to 1 ppm of selenium. Fly ashes from 21 states contained total selenium contents ranging from 1.2 to 16.5 ppm. Cabbage grown on soil containing 10 percent (by weight) of these fly ashes absorbed selenium (up to 3.7 ppm) in direct proportion (correlation coefficient r = .89) to the selenium concentration in the respective fly ash. Water, aquatic weeds, algae, dragonfly nymphs, polliwogs, and tissues of bullheads and muskrats from a fly ash-contaminated pond contained concentrations of selenium markedly elevated over those of controls. PMID:1251212

Gutenmann, W H; Bache, C A; Youngs, W D; Lisk, D J

1976-03-01

260

A comparison of neon versus helium ion beam induced deposition via Monte Carlo simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion beam induced nanoscale synthesis of PtCx (where x 5) using the trimethyl (methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV) (MeCpPtIVMe3) precursor is investigated by performing Monte Carlo simulations of helium and neon ions. The helium beam leads to more lateral growth relative to the neon beam because of its larger interaction volume. The lateral growth of the nanopillars is dominated by molecules deposited via secondary electrons in both the simulations. Notably, the helium pillars are dominated by SE-I electrons whereas the neon pillars are dominated by SE-II electrons. Using a low precursor residence time of 70 ?s, resulting in an equilibrium coverage of 4%, the neon simulation has a lower deposition efficiency (3.5%) compared to that of the helium simulation (6.5%). At larger residence time (10 ms) and consequently larger equilibrium coverage (85%) the deposition efficiencies of helium and neon increased to 49% and 21%, respectively; which is dominated by increased lateral growth rates leading to broader pillars. The nanoscale growth is further studied by varying the ion beam diameter at 10 ms precursor residence time. The study shows that total SE yield decreases with increasing beam diameters for both the ion types. However, helium has the larger SE yield as compared to that of neon in both the low and high precursor residence time, and thus pillars are wider in all the simulations studied.

Timilsina, Rajendra; Smith, Daryl A.; Rack, Philip D.

2013-03-01

261

Monte Carlo simulations of neon versus helium ion beam induced deposition, sputtering and etching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion beam induced nanoscale synthesis of PtCx (where x 5) using the trimethyl (methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV) (MeCpPt^IVMe3) precursor is investigated by performing Monte Carlo simulations of helium and neon ions. The helium beam leads to more lateral growth relative to the neon beam because of its larger interaction volume. The lateral growth of the nanopillars is dominated by molecules deposited via secondary electrons in the both simulations. Notably, the helium pillars are dominated by SE-I electrons whereas the neon pillars by SE-II electrons. Using a low precursor residence time of 70?s resulting in an equilibrium coverage of 4%, the neon simulation has a lower deposition efficiency (3.5%) compared to that of the helium simulation (6.5%). At larger residence time (10ms) and consequently larger equilibrium coverage (85%) the deposition efficiencies of helium and neon increased to 49% and 21%, respectively; which is dominated by increased lateral growth rates leading to broader pillars. The nanoscale growth is further studied by varying the ion beam diameter at 10 ms precursor residence time. The study shows that total SE yield decreases with increasing beam diameters for the both ion types. However, the helium has the larger SE yield as compared to that of neon in the both low and high precursor residence time, and thus pillars are wider in all the simulations studied.

Timilsina, Rajendra; Smith, Daryl; Rack, Philip

2013-03-01

262

Development of a Neon Cryogenic Turbo-Expander with Magnetic Bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryogenic turbo-expander with active magnetic bearings was made and tested in a reverse-Brayton cycle refrigerator using neon as working fluid. Turbine isentropic efficiency is a very important factor for the refrigerator since it affects the performance of the refrigerator significantly. Properties of neon are suitable for the working fluid in a refrigerator to cool HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) applications. The neon refrigerator needs a very small and high speed turbo-expander. But there are few studies of isentropic efficiencies of cryogenic turbo-expander using neon gas. Thus the experiment to get the design information was carried out. A prototype of neon refrigerator was made for HTS applications in 2007. Its cooling power was 2 kW at temperature of 70 K and operated in process pressure between 2 MPa and 1 MPa. To improve the performance of the neon refrigerator, the process pressure was changed to 1 MPa0.5 MPa. Under this process pressure, isentropic efficiencies for two types of turbine impellers were obtained. The test results were included in to the turbine design program so that we could predict the isentropic efficiencies of the turbo-expander more accurately. Details of the turbo-expander design and test results are described in this report.

Hirai, H.; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, S.; Kamioka, Y.; Takaike, A.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

2010-04-01

263

Environmental effects on recreational squid jigging fishery catches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental fishing sessions simulating the operating procedures of the recreational fishery for the European squid that operates at inshore Palma Bay (Balearic Islands, Spain) were conducted to investigate the effects of environmental variables on squid catches. The catch per unit of effort (cpue) of recreational-like jigging sessions showed a seasonal pattern (higher cpue during colder months). Two alternative hypotheses can explain such a pattern. First, squid could migrate inshore during colder months to seek spatio-temporal windows within which the sea temperature maximize spawning success. Second, the timing of the seasonal reproductive peak and the growth rate of any given cohort would result in a higher percentage of squid whose body size is greater than the gear-specific vulnerability threshold during the colder months. The combination of environmental variables that maximized cpue was a low sea surface temperature, a low windspeed, low atmospheric pressure, and days close to the new moon. A specific period of the day, narrowly around sunset, favoured the catches. Within this narrow period, the sunlight is still sufficient to allow the recreational fishing lures to be effective, and the squid have already shifted to a more active pattern of movement characteristic of the night-time period.

Cabanellas-Reboredo, Miguel; Als, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

2012-08-01

264

Coupled non-uniform bi-squid: A numerical investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates through numerical simulations a novel device that improvesdynamic range and linearity. The standard DC SQUID can increase in linearity by adding athird junction, changing to a device known as the bi-SQUID. It is known that the dynamicrange can increase by connecting SQUIDs in series, and it has been shown that nonuniformityin the loops sizes in arrays of SQUIDs can produce a unique 'anti'-peak at thezero magnetic flux (device know as a SQIF). Thus, combining these ideas we can improvethe dynamic range and design a highly linear device with a unique 'anti'-peak. Hence, this device can be referred to as a bi-SQIF or non-uniform bi-SQUID array. Results have shown that the maximum voltage swing increase proportional to N, where N is the number of loops connected in series. The spur free dynamic range also improves as N increases, which is directly related to the linearity of the device. Therefore, we have designed a device which can lead to improvements which can be applicable to low noise amplifier (LNA), and provide a platform for creating "electrically" small antennas.

Longhini, Patrick; Berggren, Susan; Palacios, Antonio; In, Visarath; Leese de Escobar, Anna

2012-06-01

265

RANGE EXPANSION AND TROPHIC INTERACTIONS OF THE JUMBO SQUID, DOSIDICUS GIGAS, IN THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) have been oc- casional visitors to the California Current over the last century, their abundance and distribution increased be- tween 2002 and 2006. We report several time series of jumbo squid relative abundance from commercial and recreational fisheries as well as resource surveys and food habits studies. To evaluate the trophic relationships of jumbo squid,

JOHN C. FIELD; KEN BALTZ; A. JASON PHILLIPS

266

SQUID magnetometers for biomagnetism and nondestructive testing: important questions and initial answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For two decades, academic and industrial researchers worldwide have used SQUID magnetometers to measure magnetic signals from the heart, brain, lungs, liver, nerves, skeletal muscle, stomach, intestines, eyes, and other organs, and have invested heavily in developing and promoting this technology. While there are as yet few accepted clinical applications of SQUIDs, various trends are encouraging. The introduction of SQUIDs

1995-01-01

267

Ferromagnetic concentrator of a magnetic field for the planar HTSC SQUID  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of the magnetic field by two ferromagnetic rods at the different gap between them was investigated. The possibility of the considerable sensitivity increase of the HTSC DC SQUID at the SQUID sensor situation into the gap between the rods was substantiated. The ferromagnetic concentrator design for the high sensitivity and technology convenient HTSC SQUID ?Bz\\/?z type gradiometer was

S. I. Bondarenko; A. A. Shablo; P. P. Pavlov; S. S. Perepelkin

2002-01-01

268

Although there are similarities in reproductive behavior among several squid species, our obser-  

E-print Network

Although there are similarities in reproductive behavior among several squid species, our obser earlier who reported 12-15 pairs of squids in a semicircle (Turcol ), indi- cate that the social structure:53-57. 1965. Observations on the mating behavior of the squid Sepioteuthis sepioidea. Bull. Mar. Sci. 15

269

The squid family Gonatidae plays an important role in the ecosystems  

E-print Network

733 The squid family Gonatidae plays an important role in the ecosystems of the North Pacific. In the Sea of Okhotsk, the annual production of gonatid squids is more than half that of fish production Pacific and the processes influencing the production of gonatid squids in this region, information

270

Jumbo squid beaks: Inspiration for design of robust organic composites Ali Miserez a  

E-print Network

Jumbo squid beaks: Inspiration for design of robust organic composites Ali Miserez a , Youli Li b of the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas). Its main constituents are chitin fibers (15­20 wt.%) and histidine of the present article is on another hard but unmineralized biomolecular material: the beaks of the jumbo squid

Zok, Frank

271

Deep-Sea Research II 51 (2004) 849862 Environment, krill and squid in the Monterey Bay  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research II 51 (2004) 849­862 Environment, krill and squid in the Monterey Bay: from 95064, USA Received 8 October 2002; accepted 3 May 2004 Abstract The fishery for market squid of squid persist offshore and move inshore for reproduction throughout the season. In order to predict

Switzer, Paul

272

Ontogenetic Changes in Fibrous Connective Tissue Organization in the Oval Squid, Sepioteuthis  

E-print Network

Ontogenetic Changes in Fibrous Connective Tissue Organization in the Oval Squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, the oval squid. Outer tunic fiber angle (the angle of a tunic collagen fiber relative to the long axis of the squid) decreased from 33.5° in newly hatched animals to 17.7° in the largest animals

Kier, William M.

273

Motion detection of a micromechanical resonator embedded in a d.c. SQUID  

E-print Network

LETTERS Motion detection of a micromechanical resonator embedded in a d.c. SQUID S. ETAKI1,2 *, M.s.j.vanderzant@tudelft.nl Published online: 31 August 2008; doi:10.1038/nphys1057 Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs into SQUIDs to achieve controlled entanglement of the resonator ground state and a qubit3 as well

Loss, Daniel

274

Physics 6, 123 (2013) A SQUID Analog with a Bose-Einstein Condensate  

E-print Network

Physics 6, 123 (2013) Viewpoint A SQUID Analog with a Bose-Einstein Condensate Yuki Sato Rowland SQUID C. Ryu, P. W. Blackburn, A. A. Blinova, and M. G. Boshier Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 2013 ­ Published November 11, 2013 Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (specifically, dc-SQUIDs) are the world

Sato, Yuki

275

Complex Inductance, Excess Noise, and Surface Magnetism in dc SQUIDs S. Sendelbach,1  

E-print Network

Complex Inductance, Excess Noise, and Surface Magnetism in dc SQUIDs S. Sendelbach,1 D. Hover,1 M (Received 12 May 2009; published 9 September 2009) We have characterized the complex inductance of dc SQUIDs cooled to millikelvin temperatures. The SQUID inductance displays a rich, history-dependent structure

Saffman, Mark

276

Calculations for Magnetism in SQUIDs at Millikelvin Temperatures S. Sendelbach1  

E-print Network

Calculations for Magnetism in SQUIDs at Millikelvin Temperatures S. Sendelbach1 , D. Hover1 , A a surface density of spins from the flux vs. temperature experiments performed on field-cooled dc SQUIDs- dence of SQUID flux on bath temperature. The flux change scales as 1/T as temperature is lowered. Param

Saffman, Mark

277

SQUIDS: Interactive Deformation of Superquadrics for Model Matching in Virtual Environments  

E-print Network

SQUIDS: Interactive Deformation of Superquadrics for Model Matching in Virtual Environments James Manchester M13 9PL sinnottj@cs.man.ac.uk Abstract This paper presents work-in-progress on SQUIDS, a system for the interactive creation and deformation of superquadric shapes in virtual environments. SQUIDS is one component

Manchester, University of

278

New Perspectives on Collagen Fibers in the Squid Michael Krieg1,3  

E-print Network

New Perspectives on Collagen Fibers in the Squid Mantle Michael Krieg1,3 and Kamran Mohseni*1,2,3 1, Floriday ABSTRACT The squid mantle is a complex structure which, in conjunction with a highly sensitive sensory sys- tem, provides squid with a wide variety of highly con- trolled movements. This article

Mohseni, Kamran

279

Squid Catches Resulting From Trawl Surveys off the Southeastern United States  

E-print Network

Squid Catches Resulting From Trawl Surveys off the Southeastern United States J. DAVID WHITAKER Introduction The importance of the squid fishery off the northeastern United States has grown considerably since 1964 with re- cent squid catches by foreign fleets av- eraging 50,000 t (110,231 ,000 pounds

280

The Quality of Squid Held in Chilled Seawater Versus Conventional Shipboard Handling  

E-print Network

The Quality of Squid Held in Chilled Seawater Versus Conventional Shipboard Handling VINCENT G. AMPOLA liest tow of each trip were always placed in Pen A, and the squid/ice/ seawater ratio was adjusted provided a workable slush into which the freshly caught squid were submerged. During each trip, the top

281

Reference: Bid. Bull. 192: 364-374. (June. 1997) Laboratory Culture of the Sepiolid Squid  

E-print Network

Reference: Bid. Bull. 192: 364-374. (June. 1997) Laboratory Culture of the Sepiolid Squid Eupvymna, was cultured through one complete life cycle in 4 months. Paralarval squid hatchlings were actively planktonic and diurnal quiescence. Squids were aggressive predators that preferred actively swimming prey up to 2- 4

Ruby, Edward G.

282

The California market squid (Loligo opalescens Berry), also known as the  

E-print Network

389 The California market squid (Loligo opalescens Berry), also known as the opalescent inshore squid (FAO), plays a central role in the nearshore ecological communities of the west coast Bay, the squids are fished directly on the egg beds, and the con- sequences of this practice

283

The Dynamics of SQUIDs and Coupled Don G Aronson and Hans G Othmer  

E-print Network

The Dynamics of SQUIDs and Coupled Pendula Don G Aronson and Hans G Othmer 1 School of Mathematics is a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), so called because the wave functions of the Cooper pairs at each junction interfere. SQUIDS are among the most sensitive devices for detecting mag- netic fields

Othmer, Hans

284

Tunable Electrodynamic Environment and Coulomb Blockade with 1D SQUID Arrays  

E-print Network

Tunable Electrodynamic Environment and Coulomb Blockade with 1D SQUID Arrays D. B. Haviland, M arrays of small capacitance SQUIDs have been used to make a tunable elec­ trodynamic environment for a single, small capac­ itance Josephson junctions. The tunability of the SQUID arrays when used

Haviland, David

285

FOUR NEW SPECIES OF SQUID (OEGOPSIDA: ENOPLOTEUTHIS) FROM THE CENTRAL PACIFIC AND A DESCRIPTION OF ADULT  

E-print Network

FOUR NEW SPECIES OF SQUID (OEGOPSIDA: ENOPLOTEUTHIS) FROM THE CENTRAL PACIFIC AND A DESCRIPTION enoplo- teuthid squids are deepwater animals that are not easily accessible or profitableto fish, they are not at present generally exploited commercially. In Toyama Bay, Sea of Japan, however, the enoploteuthid squid

286

Ontogenetic Changes in Mantle Kinematics During Escape-Jet Locomotion in the Oval Squid,  

E-print Network

Ontogenetic Changes in Mantle Kinematics During Escape-Jet Locomotion in the Oval Squid of Sepioteuthis lessoniana, the oval squid. Changes in mantle diameter during the jet were measured from digi mantle diameter) during an escape jet was significantly greater in hatchlings than in older, larger squid

Kier, William M.

287

TUNABLE ELECTRODYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT AND COULOMB BLOCKADE WITH 1D SQUID ARRAYS  

E-print Network

TUNABLE ELECTRODYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT AND COULOMB BLOCKADE WITH 1D SQUID ARRAYS M. WATANABE RIKEN, 2 of small-capacitance SQUIDs have been used to make a tunable electrodynamic environment for a single, small-capacitance Josephson junction. The tunability of the SQUID arrays when used in the measurement leads allows us

Haviland, David

288

Quantum phase transition and Coulomb blockade with one-dimensional SQUID arrays  

E-print Network

Quantum phase transition and Coulomb blockade with one-dimensional SQUID arrays Michio Watanabe a-dimensional arrays of small-capacitance super- conducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), where an external; Fig. 1. A scanning electron micrograph of a one-dimensional SQUID array. The electromagnetic

Haviland, David

289

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF AN OBJECTIVE METHOD FOR CLASSIFYING LONG-FINNED SQUID, LOLIGO PEALEI,  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF AN OBJECTIVE METHOD FOR CLASSIFYING LONG-FINNED SQUID, LOLIGO PEALEI, INTO SEXUAL MATURITY STAGES WILLIAM K. MACY III! ABSTRACT An objective method of classifying long-finned squid by an appli- cation of the method. Each summer schools of long-finned squid, Loli- go pealei Lesueur, 1821

290

A 200 h two-stage dc SQUID amplifier for resonant gravitational wave detectors  

E-print Network

A 200 h two-stage dc SQUID amplifier for resonant gravitational wave detectors Andrea Vinante1 commercial chips a two-stage dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) was developed in order to be used as low noise amplifier on the resonant gravitational wave detector AURIGA. The SQUID was coupled

291

MFR PAPER 128C Strandings of Shortfin Squid, II/ex  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 128C Strandings of Shortfin Squid, II/ex illecebrosus, in New England in Fall 1976 F. E 02642. Figure (.-Shore area of grealest strandings (shaded) of shon fin squid in Cape Cod Bay during fall 1976, and numbers of this squid caught per h-hour low at otter trawl stations in fall I975

292

Magnetic Flux Noise in dc SQUIDs: Temperature and Geometry Dependence S. M. Anton,1  

E-print Network

Magnetic Flux Noise in dc SQUIDs: Temperature and Geometry Dependence S. M. Anton,1 J. S. Birenbaum? of magnetic flux noise in ten dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with systematically of the outer dimension of a given SQUID. These results are incompatible with a model based on the random

Clarke, John

293

Protein synthesis in a solitary benthic cephalopod, the Southern dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica)  

E-print Network

Protein synthesis in a solitary benthic cephalopod, the Southern dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica-history Protein synthesis Squid Tissue protein synthesis Rates of protein synthesis were measured in the whole body and tissues of southern dumpling squid Eu- prymna tasmanica to validate the use of a flooding

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

294

Role of Aerobic and Anaerobic Circular Mantle Muscle Fibers in Swimming Squid: Electromyography  

E-print Network

Role of Aerobic and Anaerobic Circular Mantle Muscle Fibers in Swimming Squid: Electromyography IAN muscle of squids and cuttle- fishes consists of distinct zones of aerobic and anaerobic muscle fibers with video footage were recorded from brief squid Lolli- guncula brevis (5.0­6.8 cm dorsal mantle length, 10

Hynes, Wayne L.

295

Low field DC SQUID nuclear magnetic resonance on single crystal UPt3  

E-print Network

Low field DC SQUID nuclear magnetic resonance on single crystal UPt3 R. Koorber a,*, A. Casey a , B, Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin, Germany c Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA Abstract A SQUID pulsed NMR on 195 Pt. The system uses a multiloop DC SQUID with additional positive feedback and operates

Le Roy, Robert J.

296

A MICROWAVE RESISTIVE SQUID FOR NOISE THERMOMETRY R. J. SOULEN and T. F. FINNEGAN  

E-print Network

305 A MICROWAVE RESISTIVE SQUID FOR NOISE THERMOMETRY R. J. SOULEN and T. F. FINNEGAN Institute for Basic Standards, National Bureau of Standards Washington, DC 20234, USA Résumé. 2014 Un SQUID température plus rapides. On décrit les perfor- mances d'un SQUID résistif travaillant à 10 GHz. La

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

Control of the Electromagnetic Environment for Single Josephson Junctions Using Arrays of dc SQUIDs  

E-print Network

Control of the Electromagnetic Environment for Single Josephson Junctions Using Arrays of dc SQUIDs with one-dimensional arrays of dc SQUIDs. We have clearly observed Coulomb blockade of Cooper-pair tunneling when the zero-bias resistance of the SQUID arrays is much higher than h/e2 26 k. I. INTRODUCTION

Haviland, David

298

27 SQUID amplifier operating with high-Q resonant input load Paolo Falferia  

E-print Network

27 SQUID amplifier operating with high-Q resonant input load Paolo Falferia and Michele Bonaldi characterization of a low-noise two-stage superconducting quantum interference device SQUID amplifier developed. To evaluate the back action voltage noise, the SQUID is strongly coupled to a high-Q macroscopic electrical

299

NMR/MRI with hyperpolarized gas and high Tc SQUID  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for the detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals and production of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from samples combines the use of hyperpolarized inert gases to enhance the NMR signals from target nuclei in a sample and a high critical temperature (Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to detect the NMR signals. The system operates in static magnetic fields of 3 mT or less (down to 0.1 mT), and at temperatures from liquid nitrogen (77K) to room temperature. Sample size is limited only by the size of the magnetic field coils and not by the detector. The detector is a high Tc SQUID magnetometer designed so that the SQUID detector can be very close to the sample, which can be at room temperature.

Schlenga, Klaus (Eggenstein, DE); de Souza, Ricardo E. (Recife, BR); Wong-Foy, Annjoe (Berkeley, CA); Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA); Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

300

Microwave SQUID Multiplexer for the Readout of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have realized a frequency-domain multiplexing technique for the readout of large metallic magnetic calorimeter detector arrays. It is based on non-hysteretic single-junction SQUIDs and allows for a simultaneous readout of hundreds or thousands of detectors by using a single cryogenic high electron mobility transistor amplifier and two coaxial cables that are routed from room-temperature to the detector array. We discuss the working principle of the multiplexer and present details about our prototype multiplexer design. We show that fabricated devices are fully operational and that characteristic SQUID parameters such as the input sensitivity of the SQUID or the resonance frequency of the readout circuit can be predicted with confidence. Our best device so far has shown a magnetic flux white noise level of 1.4 m which can in future be reduced by an optimization of the fabrication processes as well as an improved microwave readout system.

Kempf, S.; Gastaldo, L.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.

2014-06-01

301

Signal detection in l/f noise of SQUID magnetometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the variance on the SQUID power spectrum in the l/f low frequency region is well behaved, i.e., any small frequency band may be treated as white noise in standard power spectrum estimation theory. Specifically a calibration signal is examined at 0.017 Hz with an equivalent energy referred to the SQUID input coil of 1 times 10 to the -30th J and a digitally recorded and analyzed record of 140 hr duration obtained an optimum S/N better than 400. The results are in good agreement with theory. In addition no deviation from the l/f dependence of the noise energy spectrum is seen down to frequencies below 10 to the -5th Hz. A commercially available SQUID and electronics system were used.

Cabrera, B.; Anderson, J. T.

1978-01-01

302

Noise in relaxation-oscillation-driven DC SQUIDs  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the noise properties of the simple-relaxation-oscillation-driven dc SQUIDs (RO-SQUIDs). The limitation of its internal energy sensitivity E{sub v} at the level close to 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}31} J/Hz due to the influence of the Josephson junctions plasma oscillation has been found for the 5-{mu}m design rules technology. The signal characteristics with the transfer flux-to-voltage factor up to 2 mV/{phi}{sub 0} and equivalent noise flux about of 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} {phi}{sub 0}/Hz{sup {1/2}} in the new all-niobium version of the balanced RO-SQUID have been measured.

Gugoshnikov, S.A.; Snigirev, O.V. (Dept. of Physics, Moscow State Univ., Moscow 19899 GSP (SU)); Kaplunenko, O.V. (Inst. of Radio Ingeniering and Electronics, USSR Academy of Science, Marx avenue 18, 103907 Moscow GSP-3 (SU)); Maslennikov, Y.V. (Inst. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, USSR Academy of Science Troitsk, Moscow Region 142092 (SU))

1991-03-01

303

Evaluation of a pulse-discharge helium ionisation detector for the determination of neon concentrations by gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulse-discharge helium ionisation detector, PDHID (Valco, PD-D2-I) with sample introduced to the discharge zone is shown to be applicable for reliable determinations of neon by gas chromatography. The detection level of 80pg was obtained, but the dependence between detector response and neon mass was non-linear. However, for the discharge gas doped with 33ppm of neon, a linear response to

J Lasa; P Mochalski; J Pusz

2004-01-01

304

Improved Readout Scheme for SQUID-Based Thermometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved readout scheme has been proposed for high-resolution thermometers, (HRTs) based on the use of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to measure temperature- dependent magnetic susceptibilities. The proposed scheme would eliminate counting ambiguities that arise in the conventional scheme, while maintaining the superior magnetic-flux sensitivity of the conventional scheme. The proposed scheme is expected to be especially beneficial for HRT-based temperature control of multiplexed SQUIDbased bolometer sensor arrays. SQUID-based HRTs have become standard for measuring and controlling temperatures in the sub-nano-Kelvin temperature range in a broad range of low-temperature scientific and engineering applications. A typical SQUIDbased HRT that utilizes the conventional scheme includes a coil wound on a core made of a material that has temperature- dependent magnetic susceptibility in the temperature range of interest. The core and the coil are placed in a DC magnetic field provided either by a permanent magnet or as magnetic flux inside a superconducting outer wall. The aforementioned coil is connected to an input coil of a SQUID. Changes in temperature lead to changes in the susceptibility of the core and to changes in the magnetic flux detected by the SQUID. The SQUID readout instrumentation is capable of measuring magnetic-flux changes that correspond to temperature changes down to a noise limit .0.1 nK/Hz1/2. When the flux exceeds a few fundamental flux units, which typically corresponds to a temperature of .100 nK, the SQUID is reset. The temperature range can be greatly expanded if the reset events are carefully tracked and counted, either by a computer running appropriate software or by a dedicated piece of hardware.

Penanen, Konstantin

2007-01-01

305

A simple three-channel dc SQUID system using time domain multiplexing M. Mck and M. Korn  

E-print Network

A simple three-channel dc SQUID system using time domain multiplexing M. Mück and M. Korn Justus) Conventional multichannel superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) systems require a SQUID read-out circuit for each channel, as well as many wires connecting each individual SQUID and feedback coil

Le Roy, Robert J.

306

Ionized calcium concentrations in squid axons  

PubMed Central

Values for ionized [Ca] in squid axons were obtained by measuring the light emission from a 0.1-mul drop of aequorin confined to a plastic dialysis tube of 140-mum diameter located axially. Ionized Ca had a mean value of 20 x 10(-9) M as judged by the subsequent introduction of CaEGTA/EGTA buffer (ratio ca. 0.1) into the axoplasm, and light measurement on a second aequorin drop. Ionized Ca in axoplasma was also measured by introducing arsenazo dye into an axon by injection and measuring the Ca complex of such a dye by multichannel spectrophotometry. Values so obtained were ca. 50 x 10(-9) M as calibrated against CaEGTA/EGTA buffer mixtures. Wth a freshly isolated axon in 10 mM Ca seawater, the aequorin glow invariably increased with time; a seawater [Ca] of 2-3 mM allowed a steady state with respect to [Ca]. Replacement of Na+ in seawater with choline led to a large increase in light emission from aequorin. Li seawater partially reversed this change and the reintroduction of Na+ brought light levels back to their initial value. Stimulation at 60/s for 2-5 min produced an increase in aequorin glow about 0.1% of that represented by the known Ca influx, suggesting operationally the presence of substantial Ca buffering. Treatment of an axon with CN produced a very large increase in aequorin glow and in Ca arsenazo formation only if the external seawater contained Ca. PMID:818340

1976-01-01

307

Effects of Storage Temperature on the Quality of Frozen Squid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Squid ( Todarodes pacificus) , which is one of the main Japanzse coastal fish , was frozen under commercial condition after catch immediately and stored at -18 , -23 , -30 C and 40 C for 12 months. During storage the quality was measured by determining amount of free drip , water-holding capacity of muscle , weight ratio of cooking loss , histoligical feature of frozen and thawed muscle , and organoleptic test at regular intervals , each 2 months. Storage life of frozen squid was 12 months at below -18 C.

Kozima, Tsuneo; Ohtaka, Tateo

308

SQUID-based Resonant Detection of Axion Dark Matter  

E-print Network

A new method for searching for Dark Matter axions is proposed. It is shown that a two-contact SQUID can detect oscillating magnetic perturbations induced by the axions in a strong inhomogeneous magnetic field. A resonant signal is a steplike response in the SQUID current-voltage characteristic at a voltage corresponding to the axion mass with a height depending on the axion energy density near the Earth. The proposed experimental technique appears to be sensitive to the axions with masses $m_a\\lesssim 10^{-4}$ eV, which is well-motivated by current researches both in cosmology and in particle physics.

Vladimir Popov

2014-10-24

309

SQUID-based Resonant Detection of Axion Dark Matter  

E-print Network

A new method for searching for Dark Matter axions is proposed. It is shown that a two-contact SQUID can detect oscillating magnetic perturbations induced by the axions in a strong inhomogeneous magnetic field. A resonant signal is a steplike response in the SQUID current-voltage characteristic at a voltage corresponding to the axion mass with a height depending on the axion energy density near the Earth. The proposed experimental technique appears to be sensitive to the axions with masses $m_a\\lesssim 10^{-4}$ eV, which is well-motivated by current researches both in cosmology and in particle physics.

Popov, Vladimir

2014-01-01

310

Squid detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields  

DOEpatents

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA); Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); McDermott, Robert F. (Monona, WI); Trabesinger, Andreas H. (London, GB)

2008-12-16

311

Squid detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields  

DOEpatents

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA); McDermott, Robert (Louisville, CO); Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Trabesinger, Andreas Heinz (CH-8006 Zurich, CH)

2007-05-15

312

Interstellar oxygen, nitrogen and neon in the heliosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen, nitrogen and neon pick-up ions of interstellar origin were detected for the first time with the Solar Wind Ion Spectrometer (SWICS) on board Ulysses. The interstellar origin of these ions is established by the following criteria: (a) they are singly charged, (b) they have the broad velocity distributions characteristic of pick-up ions, with an upper limit of twice the solar wind speed, (c) their relative abundance as a function of distance from the sun corresponds to the theoretical expectation, and (d) there is no relation to a planetary or cometary source. The interstellar abundance ratios He(+)/O(+), N(+)/O(+), Ne(+)/O(+) were investigated. At approximately 5.25 AU in the outermost part of Ulysses' trajectory He(+)/O(+) = 175(sup +70 sub -50) N(+)/O(+) = 0.13(sup +0.05 sub -0.05) and Ne(+)/O(+) = 0.18(sup +0.10 sub -0.07) were determined. For the interstellar gas passing through the termination region and entering the heliosphere (He/O)(sub 0) = 290(sup +190 sub -100), (N/O)(sub 0) = 0.13(sup +0.06 sub -0.06) and (Ne/O)(sub 0) = 0.20(sup +0.12 sub -0.09) were obtained from the pick-up ion measurements. Upper limits for the relative abundances of C(+) and C were also determined.

Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.; Mall, U.; Von Steiger, R.; Galvin, A. B.; Ogilvie, K. W.

1994-01-01

313

Neutrino oscillation signatures of oxygen-neon-magnesium supernovae  

E-print Network

We discuss the flavor conversion of neutrinos from core collapse supernovae that have oxygen-neon-magnesium (ONeMg) cores. Using the numerically calculated evolution of the star up to 650 ms post bounce, we find that, for the normal mass hierarchy, the electron neutrino flux in a detector shows signatures of two typical features of an ONeMg-core supernova: a sharp step in the density profile at the base of the He shell and a faster shock wave propagation compared to iron core supernovae. Before the shock hits the density step (t ~ 150 ms), the survival probability of electron neutrinos is about 0.68, in contrast to values of 0.32 or less for an iron core supernova. The passage of the shock through the step and its subsequent propagation cause a decrease of the survival probability and a decrease of the amplitude of oscillations in the Earth, reflecting the transition to a more adiabatic propagation inside the star. These changes affect the lower energy neutrinos first; they are faster and more sizable for larger theta_13. They are unique of ONeMg-core supernovae, and give the possibility to test the speed of the shock wave. The time modulation of the Earth effect and its negative sign at the neutronization peak are the most robust signatures in a detector.

C. Lunardini; B. Mueller; H. -Th. Janka

2007-12-18

314

Neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator for HTS power machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a prototype turbo-Brayton refrigerator whose working fluid is neon gas. The refrigerator is designed for a HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power transformer and its cooling power is more than 2 kW at 65 K. The refrigerator has a turboexpander and a turbo-compressor, which utilize magnetic bearings. These rotational machines have no rubbing parts and no oil-components. Those make a long maintenance interval of the refrigerator. The refrigerator is very compact because our newly developed turbo-compressor is volumetrically smaller than a displacement type compressor in same operating specification. Another feature of the refrigerator is a wide range operation capability for various heat-loads. Cooling power is controlled by the input-power of the turbo-compressor instead of the conventional method of using an electric heater. The rotational speed of the compressor motor is adjusted by an inverter. This system is expected to be more efficient. We show design details, specification and cooling test results of the new refrigerator in this paper.

Hirai, Hirokazu; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

2012-06-01

315

Metal atom (Zn, Cd and Mg) luminescence in solid neon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminescence spectroscopy of the metal atoms Mg, Zn and Cd isolated in solid neon is recorded using pulsed synchrotron radiation excitation of the ns1np1 1P1-ns2 1S0 resonance (n = 3, 4 and 5 respectively) transitions. Two features, a dominant band and a red-shoulder, are identified in the UV absorption spectra of Zn/Ne and Cd/Ne. Excitation of these features yields distinct emission bands with the red-shoulder absorption producing the smaller, Stokes-shifted emission. Nanosecond decaytime measurements, made with the time correlated single photon counting technique indicate the emission bands arise from the spin singlet 1P1?1S0 transition. Hence, it is concluded that the duplication of absorption and emission features in the Cd/Ne and Zn/Ne systems arises from metal atom occupancy in two distinct sites. In contrast, Mg/Ne luminescence consists of single excitation and emission bands, indicative of occupancy in just one site. The occurrence of distinct photophysical characteristics of the linewidths, Stokes shift and lifetimes in the Mg/Ne system, compared with those recorded for Zn/Ne and Cd/Ne, is rationalized in terms of a different site occupancy for atomic Mg. Accurate interaction potentials for the ground states of the M . Ne diatomics are used to analyse site occupancies and interpret this contrasting behavior.

Healy, Brendan; Kerins, Paul; McCaffrey, John G.

2012-08-01

316

Two Methods for a First Order Hardware Gradiometer Using Two HTS SQUID's  

SciTech Connect

Two different systems for noise cancellation (first order gradiometers) have been developed using two similar high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUIDs. ''Analog'' gradiometry is accomplished in hardware by either (1) subtracting the signals from the sensor and background SQUIDs at a summing amplifier (parallel technique) or (2) converting the inverted background SQUID signal to a magnetic field at the sensor SQUID (series technique). Balance levels achieved are 2000 and 1000 at 20 Hz for the parallel and series methods respectively. The balance level as a function of frequency is also presented. The effect which time delays in the two sets of SQUID electronics have on this balance level is presented and discussed.

Espy, M.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H., Jr.; Matlachov, A.

1998-09-15

317

Hysteresis and intermittency in a nano-bridge based suspended DC-SQUID  

E-print Network

We study voltage response of nano-bridge based DC-SQUID fabricated on a Si\\_{3}N\\_{4} membrane. Such a configuration may help in reducing 1/f noise, which originates from substrate fluctuating defects. We find that the poor thermal coupling between the DC-SQUID and the substrate leads to strong hysteretic response of the SQUID, even though it is biased by an alternating current. In addition, when the DC-SQUID is biased near a threshold of spontaneous oscillations, the measured voltage has an intermittent pattern, which depends on the applied magnetic flux through the SQUID.

Eran Segev; Oren Suchoi; Oleg Shtempluck; Fei Xue; Eyal Buks

2010-10-21

318

Two methods for a first order hardware gradiometer using two HTS SQUIDs  

SciTech Connect

Two different systems for noise cancellation (first order gradiometers) have been developed using two similar high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUIDs. Analog gradiometry is accomplished in hardware by either (1) subtracting the signals from the sensor and background SQUIDs at a summing amplifier (parallel technique) or (2) converting the inverted background SQUID signal to a magnetic field at the sensor SQUID (series technique). Balance levels achieved are 2000 and 1000 at 20 Hz for the parallel and series methods respectively. The balance level as a function of frequency is also presented. The effect which time delays in the two sets of SQUID electronics have on this balance level is presented and discussed.

Espy, M.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Matlachov, A.

1998-12-31

319

Quantum logical gates with four-level SQUIDs coupled to a superconducting resonator  

E-print Network

We propose a way for realizing a two-qubit controlled phase gate with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) coupled to a superconducting resonator. In this proposal, the two lowest levels of each SQUID serve as the logical states and two intermediate levels of each SQUID are used for the gate realization. We show that neither adjustment of SQUID level spacings during the gate operation nor uniformity in SQUID parameters is required by this proposal. In addition, this proposal does not require the adiabatic passage or a second-order detuning and thus the gate is much faster.

Xiao-Ling He; Chui-Ping Yang; Sheng Li; Jun-Yan Luo; Siyuan Han

2010-02-06

320

Single fly tethered paradigms.  

PubMed

The most successful approaches for studying visual perception and visual learning in Drosophila have been single fly paradigms in which tethered individuals respond to different visual stimuli, as described here. The equipment and protocols involved are quite sophisticated and differ depending on whether behavior or electrophysiology will be pursued. For either approach, flies must first be secured to a metal wire. This is typically performed by first cooling flies down to 4C and then gluing them to a copper or tungsten wire with ultraviolet (UV)-activated cement. For electrophysiology, tethering requires a few extra steps to accommodate the placement of electrodes. Prepared individuals are then placed inside a cylindrical arena where images can be presented, or in front of a computer screen or even in front of a laptop. Flight dynamics or brain activity in response to visual stimuli is recorded by using a variety of specialized and/or commercially available electronic devices. PMID:22135659

van Swinderen, Bruno

2011-12-01

321

Cured of fear of flying.  

PubMed

A woman is described who developed fear of flying because she took mefloquine as malaria prophylaxis prior to the flight. Mefloquine, because of its potential neurotoxicity, should not be used for persons with fear of flying. PMID:21310662

Colebunders, R

2011-03-01

322

Interactive Fly: Maternally transcribed genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The maternally transcribed genes section of the award-winning and comprehensive site: Interactive fly. It thoroughly discusses genes, tissues, biochemical paths, and developmental processes in the fruit fly, Drosophila.

PhD Thomas B Brody (NIH Laboratory of Neurochemistry)

2006-11-13

323

The Laminar Flame Speedup by Neon-22 Enrichment in White Dwarf Supernovae  

E-print Network

Carbon-oxygen white dwarfs contain neon-22 formed from alpha-captures onto nitrogen during core He burning in the progenitor star. In a white dwarf (type Ia) supernova, the neon-22 abundance determines, in part, the neutron-to-proton ratio and hence the abundance of radioactive nickel-56 that powers the lightcurve. The neon-22 abundance also changes the burning rate and hence the laminar flame speed. We tabulate the flame speedup for different initial carbon and neon-22 abundances and for a range of densities. This increase in the laminar flame speed--about 30% for a neon-22 mass fraction of 6%--affects the deflagration just after ignition near the center of the white dwarf, where the laminar speed of the flame dominates over the buoyant rise, and in regions of lower density ~ 10^7 g/cm3 where a transition to distributed burning is conjectured to occur. The increase in flame speed will decrease the density of any transition to distributed burning.

David A. Chamulak; Edward F. Brown; Francis X. Timmes

2006-12-18

324

Neon and Sulfur Abundances of Planetary Nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds  

E-print Network

The chemical abundances of neon and sulfur for 25 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Magellanic Clouds are presented. These abundances have been derived using mainly infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope. The implications for the chemical evolution of these elements are discussed. A comparison with similarly obtained abundances of Galactic PNe and HII regions and Magellanic Clouds HII regions is also given. The average neon abundances are 6.0x10(-5) and 2.7x10(-5) for the PNe in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds respectively. These are ~1/3 and 1/6 of the average abundances of Galactic planetary nebulae to which we compare. The average sulfur abundances for the LMC and SMC are respectively 2.7x10(-6) and 1.0x10(-6). The Ne/S ratio (23.5) is on average higher than the ratio found in Galactic PNe (16) but the range of values in both data sets is similar for most of the objects. The neon abundances found in PNe and HII regions agree with each other. It is possible that a few (3-4) of the PNe in the sample have experienced some neon enrichment, but for two of these objects the high Ne/S ratio can be explained by their very low sulfur abundances. The neon and sulfur abundances derived in this paper are also compared to previously published abundances using optical data and photo-ionization models.

J. Bernard-Salas; S. R. Pottasch; S. Gutenkunst; P. W. Morris; J. R. Houck

2007-09-20

325

A YBCO RF-SQUID magnetometer and its applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An applicable RF-superconducting quantum interference detector (SQUID) magnetometer was made using a bulk sintered yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO). The temperature range of the magnetometer is 77 to 300 K and the field range 0 to 0.1T. At 77 K, the equivalent flux noise of the SQUID is 5 x 10 to minus 4 power theta sub o/square root of Hz at the frequency range of 20 to 200 Hz. The experiments show that the SQUID noise at low-frequency end is mainly from 1/f noise. A coil test shows that the magnetic moment sensitivity delta m is 10 to the minus 6th power emu. The RF-SQUID is shielded in a YBCO cylinder with a shielding ability B sub in/B sub ex of about 10 to the minus 6th power when external dc magnetic field is about a few Oe. The magnetometer is successfully used in characterizing superconducting thin films.

Luwei, Zhou; Jingwu, Qiu; Xienfeng, Zhang; Zhiming, Tank; Yongjia, Qian

1990-01-01

326

Squid Fishery in Texas: Biological, Economic, and Market Considerations  

E-print Network

market develop- Raymond F. Hixon and Roger T. Hanlon are with The Marine Biomedical Institute, University of Mexico is not new. Voss (1960, 1971, 1973) and Rathjen et al. (1977, 1979) stated that squid stocks of unknown size exist in the Gulf of Mexico. Three species occurring over the continental shelf and one

327

A Numerical Treatment of the Rf SQUID: II. Noise Temperature  

SciTech Connect

We investigate rf SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices), coupled to a resonant input circuit, a readout tank circuit and a preamplifier, by numerically solving the corresponding Langevin equations and optimizing model parameters with respect to noise temperature. We also give approximate analytic solutions for the noise temperature, which we reduce to parameters of the SQUID and the tank circuit in the absence of the input circuit. The analytic solutions agree with numerical simulations of the full circuit to within 10%, and are similar to expressions used to calculate the noise temperature of dc SQUIDs. The best device performance is obtained when {beta}{sub L}{prime} {triple_bond} 2{pi}LI{sub 0}/{Phi}{sub 0} is 0.6-0.8; L is the SQUID inductance, I{sub 0} the junction critical current and F{sub 0} the flux quantum. For a tuned input circuit we find an optimal noise temperature T{sub N,opt} {approx} 3Tf/f{sub c}, where T, f and f{sub c} denote temperature, signal frequency and junction characteristic frequency, respectively. This value is only a factor of 2 larger than the optimal noise temperatures obtained by approximate analytic theories carried out previously in the limit {beta}{sub L}{prime} << 1. We study the dependence of the noise temperature on various model parameters, and give examples using realistic device parameters of the extent to which the intrinsic noise temperature can be realized experimentally.

Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter; Clarke, John

2007-01-15

328

The SQUID approach to defining a quality model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an attempt to use the approach developed by the SQUIDproject, which was part of the ESPRIT 3 programme, to define the software quality requirements of the Telescience project. The SQUID project developed its approach to quality modelling in parallel with ongoing feedback from testing that approach on the Telescience project, which was both large and software intensive.

Barbara Kitchenham; Stephen G. Linkman; Alberto Pasquini; Vincenzo Nanni

1997-01-01

329

Introduction Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish, octopus) can produce a variety of  

E-print Network

2133 Introduction Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish, octopus) can produce a variety of body patterns to the behavior of these animals (Young, 1971). Indeed, Octopus vulgaris can quickly learn to visually eye resembles a vertebrate eye in that it has a lens, pupil and retina containing photoreceptors

Hanlon, Roger T.

330

Quorum Sensing in the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is an intercellular form of communication that bacteria use to coordinate group behaviors such as biofilm formation and the production of antibiotics and virulence factors. The term quorum sensing was originally coined to describe the mechanism underlying the onset of luminescence production in cultures of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Luminescence and, more generally, quorum sensing are important for V. fischeri to form a mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The symbiosis is established when V. fischeri cells migrate via flagella-based motility from the surrounding seawater into a specialized structure injuvenile squid called the light organ. The cells grow to high cell densities within the light organ where the infection persists over the lifetime of the animal. A hallmark of a successful symbiosis is the luminescence produced by V. fischeri that camouflages the squid at night by eliminating its shadow within the water column. While the regulatory networks governing quorum sensing are critical for properly regulating V. fischeri luminescence within the squid light organ, they also regulate luminescence-independent processes during symbiosis. In this review, we discuss the quorum-sensing network of V. fischeri and highlight its impact at various stages during host colonization. PMID:23965960

Verma, Subhash C.; Miyashiro, Tim

2013-01-01

331

Vampire squid: detritivores in the oxygen minimum zone  

PubMed Central

Vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) are considered phylogenetic relics with cephalopod features of both octopods and squids. They lack feeding tentacles, but in addition to their eight arms, they have two retractile filaments, the exact functions of which have puzzled scientists for years. We present the results of investigations on the feeding ecology and behaviour of Vampyroteuthis, which include extensive in situ, deep-sea video recordings from MBARI's remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), laboratory feeding experiments, diet studies and morphological examinations of the retractile filaments, the arm suckers and cirri. Vampire squid were found to feed on detrital matter of various sizes, from small particles to larger marine aggregates. Ingested items included the remains of gelatinous zooplankton, discarded larvacean houses, crustacean remains, diatoms and faecal pellets. Both ROV observations and laboratory experiments led to the conclusion that vampire squid use their retractile filaments for the capture of food, supporting the hypothesis that the filaments are homologous to cephalopod arms. Vampyroteuthis' feeding behaviour is unlike any other cephalopod, and reveals a unique adaptation that allows these animals to spend most of their life at depths where oxygen concentrations are very low, but where predators are few and typical cephalopod food is scarce. PMID:23015627

Hoving, Hendrik J. T.; Robison, Bruce H.

2012-01-01

332

Kendall Hunt Dissection of a Squid: Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this 9-minute video is to illustrate notable anatomical structures of the market squid (Loligo opalescens) to prepare teachers to lead a dissection of this species; however, this video is not meant to be viewed by students. Presented as a workshop at the NMEA Annual Conference, July 2010.

2012-01-01

333

A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid.  

PubMed

Giant and colossal deep-sea squid (Architeuthis and Mesonychoteuthis) have the largest eyes in the animal kingdom [1, 2], but there is no explanation for why they would need eyes that are nearly three times the diameter of those of any other extant animal. Here we develop a theory for visual detection in pelagic habitats, which predicts that such giant eyes are unlikely to evolve for detecting mates or prey at long distance but are instead uniquely suited for detecting very large predators, such as sperm whales. We also provide photographic documentation of an eyeball of about 27 cm with a 9 cm pupil in a giant squid, and we predict that, below 600 m depth, it would allow detection of sperm whales at distances exceeding 120 m. With this long range of vision, giant squid get an early warning of approaching sperm whales. Because the sonar range of sperm whales exceeds 120 m [3-5], we hypothesize that a well-prepared and powerful evasive response to hunting sperm whales may have driven the evolution of huge dimensions in both eyes and bodies of giant and colossal squid. Our theory also provides insights into the vision of Mesozoic ichthyosaurs with unusually large eyes. PMID:22425154

Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Warrant, Eric J; Johnsen, Snke; Hanlon, Roger; Shashar, Nadav

2012-04-24

334

High-Resolution Displacement Sensor Using a SQUID Array Amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvement in the measurement of displacement has profound implications for both exploration technologies and fundamental physics. For planetary exploration, the new SQUID-based capacitive displacement sensor will enable a more sensitive gravity gradiometer for mapping the interior of planets and moons. A new concept of a superfluid clock to be reported by Penanen and Chui at this workshop is also based on a high-resolution displacement sensor. Examples of high-impact physics projects that can benefit from a better displacement sensor are: detection of gravitational waves, test of the equivalence principle, search for the postulated "axion" particle, and test of the inverse square law of gravity. We describe the concept of a new displacement sensor that makes use of a recent development in the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) technology. The SQUID array amplifier, invented by Welty and Martinis (IEEE Trans. Appl. Superconductivity 3, 2605, 1993), has about the same noise as a conventional SQUID; however, it can work at a much higher frequency of up to 5 MHz. We explain how the higher bandwidth can be translated into higher resolution using a bridge-balancing scheme that can simultaneously balance out both the carrier signal at the bridge output and the electrostatic force acting on the test mass.

Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin; Barmatz, M.; Paik, Ho Jung

2004-01-01

335

Single channel recordings of K+ currents in squid axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic currents from individual K+ channels in squid axon membrane have been recorded. At hyperpolarizing membrane voltages, unit events occur as widely spaced rectangular pulses with short interruptions. The frequency of occurrence of the units increases strongly when the membrane is depolarized.

Franco Conti; Erwin Neher

1980-01-01

336

Quorum sensing in the squid-Vibrio symbiosis.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing is an intercellular form of communication that bacteria use to coordinate group behaviors such as biofilm formation and the production of antibiotics and virulence factors. The term quorum sensing was originally coined to describe the mechanism underlying the onset of luminescence production in cultures of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Luminescence and, more generally, quorum sensing are important for V. fischeri to form a mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The symbiosis is established when V. fischeri cells migrate via flagella-based motility from the surrounding seawater into a specialized structure injuvenile squid called the light organ. The cells grow to high cell densities within the light organ where the infection persists over the lifetime of the animal. A hallmark of a successful symbiosis is the luminescence produced by V. fischeri that camouflages the squid at night by eliminating its shadow within the water column. While the regulatory networks governing quorum sensing are critical for properly regulating V. fischeri luminescence within the squid light organ, they also regulate luminescence-independent processes during symbiosis. In this review, we discuss the quorum-sensing network of V. fischeri and highlight its impact at various stages during host colonization. PMID:23965960

Verma, Subhash C; Miyashiro, Tim

2013-01-01

337

Surface Charge of Giant Axons of Squid and Lobster  

PubMed Central

A method is described for the determination of the electrophoretic mobility of single, isolated, intact, giant axons of squid and lobster. In normal physiological solutions, the surface of hydrodynamic shear of these axons is negatively charged. The lower limit of the estimated surface charge density is -1.9 10-8 coul cm-2 for squid axons, -4.2 10-8 coul cm-2 for lobster axons. The electrophoretic mobility of squid axons decreases greatly when the applied transaxial electric field is made sufficiently intense; action potential propagation is blocked irreversibly by transaxial electric fields of the same intensity. The squid axon recovers its mobility hours later and is then less affected by transaxial fields. Eventually, a state is reached in which the transaxial field irreversibly reverses the sign of the surface charge. In contrast, there is no obvious effect of electric field on the mobility of lobster axons. The mobility of lobster axons becomes undetectable in the presence of Th4+ at a concentration which blocks the action potential, and in the presence of La3+ at a concentration which does not affect propagation. Quinine does not alter lobster axon mobility at a concentration which blocks action potential conduction. Replacement of extracellular Na+ by K+ is without effect upon lobster axon mobility. The electrophysiological implications of the results are discussed. PMID:5643276

Segal, John R.

1968-01-01

338

Vampire squid: detritivores in the oxygen minimum zone.  

PubMed

Vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) are considered phylogenetic relics with cephalopod features of both octopods and squids. They lack feeding tentacles, but in addition to their eight arms, they have two retractile filaments, the exact functions of which have puzzled scientists for years. We present the results of investigations on the feeding ecology and behaviour of Vampyroteuthis, which include extensive in situ, deep-sea video recordings from MBARI's remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), laboratory feeding experiments, diet studies and morphological examinations of the retractile filaments, the arm suckers and cirri. Vampire squid were found to feed on detrital matter of various sizes, from small particles to larger marine aggregates. Ingested items included the remains of gelatinous zooplankton, discarded larvacean houses, crustacean remains, diatoms and faecal pellets. Both ROV observations and laboratory experiments led to the conclusion that vampire squid use their retractile filaments for the capture of food, supporting the hypothesis that the filaments are homologous to cephalopod arms. Vampyroteuthis' feeding behaviour is unlike any other cephalopod, and reveals a unique adaptation that allows these animals to spend most of their life at depths where oxygen concentrations are very low, but where predators are few and typical cephalopod food is scarce. PMID:23015627

Hoving, Hendrik J T; Robison, Bruce H

2012-11-22

339

Maasvlakte Fly Ash processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995 Vliegasunie put the Maasvlakte Fly Ash Processing Plant in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, in operation. With a capacity of 250.000 tonnes per annum, this installation has an important role in maintaining a record of 100% use of Dutch fly ash by continuing to meet the customer's need for fly ash of constant quality and quantity. The main objectives of

Jos B. M. Moret; Jan W. van den Berg

1997-01-01

340

Sorptivity of fly ash concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A factorial experiment was designed to measure the sorptivity of cement and fly ash concretes in order to compare the durability of fly ash concrete against the cement concrete. Sorptivity measurements based on the capillary movement of water was made on three grades of cement concrete and six grades of fly ash mixes. The effect of curing was also studied

M. K. Gopalan

1996-01-01

341

Selenium in fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium, at concentrations exceeding 200 parts per million (ppM) (dry weight), has been found in white sweet clover voluntarily growing on beds of fly ash in central New York State. Guinea pigs fed such clover concentrated selenium in their tissues. The contents of the honey stomachs of bees foraging on this seleniferous clover contained negligible selenium. Mature vegetables cultured on

W. H. Gutenmann; C. A. Bache; W. D. Youngs; D. J. Lisk

1976-01-01

342

Selenium in Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium, at concentrations exceeding 200 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight), has been found in white sweet clover voluntarily growing on beds of fly ash in central New York State. Guinea pigs fed such clover concentrated selenium in their tissues. The contents of the honey stomachs of bees foraging on this seleniferous clover contained negligible selenium. Mature vegetables cultured on

Walter H. Gutenmann; Carl A. Bache; William D. Youngs; Donald J. Lisk

1976-01-01

343

Go Fly a Kite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity, children create their own kites that can fly indoors. Learners are exposed to basic concepts of gravity and air resistance. Children build their own paper kite structures based on a template (see Activity Sheet Link below) and use the design process to test and revise their kites.

Wgbh

2006-01-01

344

Cockroaches, House flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chapters 5-10 of a World Health Organization PDF on medical pests of importance in PDF format. Chatpers 5,6 cover Cockroaches and House flies respectively, remaining chapters go on to discuss guinea worm, fresh water snails, and proper pesticide application. These are extremely thorough control strategy texts with a great deal of information.

0002-11-30

345

Go Fly a Kite  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an "art kite" activity. The idea is to construct and decorate a non-flying kite that they could display for an art exhibit. Through the activity, students learn to give and take suggestions from one another, improve the quality of their work and set a wonderful atmosphere of collaboration. (Contains 1 online resource.)

Klopack, Ken

2009-01-01

346

The Microstrip SQUID Amplifier: Searching for the Axion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axion detector [1] at LLNL requires a very low noise amplifier in the 1-GHz frequency range. In the first generation detector, the cavity was cooled to 1.5 K and the amplifier was a HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) with a noise temperature TN of 1.7 K. Thus, the system noise temperature Ts was 3.2 K. In an attempt to achieve significantly lower noise temperatures, we fabricated amplifiers based on the dc SQUID [2] (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device). The theory [3] for SQUID amplifiers with a resonant input circuit predicts that an optimized device at sufficiently low temperatures should be quantum limited, that is, TN = hf/k at frequency f. To extend the operating frequency to the gigahertz range, we developed the Microstrip SQUID Amplifier (MSA) in which the input coil forms a microstrip with the SQUID washer [4, 5]. When the length of the coil corresponds to a half-wavelength of the signal, the gain is typically 20 dB. We measured the gain and noise [6] of an MSA in which the resistive shunts of the junctions were coupled to cooling fins to reduce hot electron effects [7]. At 0.62 GHz, we achieved a minimum noise temperature TN = 485mK for a bath temperature of 50 mK and at a frequency below resonance, as predicted. The quantum limit is 30 mK. Since the time for the axion detector to scan a given frequency range scales as Ts2, replacing the HEMT with a SQUID and cooling the cavity to 50 mK potentially reduces the scan time by three orders of magnitude.

Clarke, John

2009-12-01

347

Angle-resolved auger electron spectra induced by neon ion impact on aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auger electron emission from aluminum bombarded with 1 to 5 keV neon ions was studied by angle-resolved electron spectroscopy. EN( E) spectra were acquired by a cylindrical mirror analyzer with a rotatable aperture in the entrance annulus. Auger signals from both neon and aluminum atoms were obtained. The position and shape of the spectral features depended on the incident ion energy, angle of ion incidence, and electron take-off angle with respect to the aluminum surface. These spectral dependencies were interpreted in terms of the Doppler shift given to the Auger electron velocity by the excited atom ejected into the vacuum. For oblique ion incidence it is concluded that a flux of high energy atoms are ejected in a direction close to the projection of the ion beam on the target surface. In addition, a new spectral feature was found and identified as due to Auger emission from excited neon in the aluminum matrix.

Pepper, Stephen V.; Aron, Paul R.

1986-04-01

348

Double rf-SQUIDs Operating in a Non-Adiabatic Regime: A Dream Comes True?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a time when the supremacy of SQUIDs as the most sensitive magnetometers is being challenged by the recent progress of optically pumped atomic magnetometers operating at room temperature, looking into new opportunities to further improve SQUIDs sensitivity would probably be most welcomed by the SQUID community. By far the most promising such opportunity is to operate a double (D) rf SQUID (an rf-SQUID in which a dc-SQUID is used instead of a single Josephson junction) in a non-adiabatic regime at frequencies of about a few GHz. At these relatively high frequencies required to assure an ultra-high SQUID sensitivity the SQUID-design complexity and the cost of the electronics involved (current generator and SQUID amplifier) are still kept at reasonable levels. The advantages of using this concept, as presented in my contribution in more detail now, are overwhelming. Ironically, although this idea in its preliminary shape has been around for some time now [1], the opportunity has never been explored experimentally! I am just wondering what else needs to be done to get this message across the SQUID community and have this concept finally tested experimentally?

Chesca, Boris

349

Development of Robust HTS-SQUID for Non-destructive Inspection System in Unshielded Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross-shaped YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) film was overlapped on directly-coupled multi-pickup-coil HTS-dc-SQUID magnetometer in flip-chip configuration as a superconducting shield, and the characterestics of the SQUID were examined in DC and AC magnetic fields. We created slots in the YBCO film and pickup-coil of HTS-SQUID magnetometer for suppression of flux trapping. In low magnetic field environment, we measured the characteristics of the SQUID without and with HTS film. The most of the parameters were same with and without the HTS films, while S1/2phi with the HTS film was a bit smaller than that of the bare SQUID. In the DC field, Ic of the HTS-SQUID covered with the HTS film did not change until a DC field over 140 ?T was applied to the SQUID, while the bare SQUID's Ic decreased with the increase of the applied DC field. In the AC fields at 10 MHz, the SQUID with the HTS film showed degradation of the parameters such as Vpp and S12phi at lower field amplitude than the bare SQUID.

Yoshida, K.; Kage, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hatsukade, Y.; Tanaka, S.

2014-05-01

350

Excess noise in the dc SQUID; 4. 2K to 20mK  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction, operation, and behavior of low-noise dc SQUID measuring systems are described for temperatures from 0.020 to 4.2 K. Evidence is presented for four different types of excess noise in dc SQUIDs operated in this temperature range. At temperatures between about 1 and 4 K, the spectral density of the low-frequency flux noise of a wide variety of thin-film dc SQUIDs scales as 1/f{sup m} where m - 1.0 {plus minus} 0.1. The origin of this noise depends upon the construction of the SQUID. In SQUIDs with Pb or PbIn bodies, the noise originates in critical-current fluctuations. In SQUIDs with Nb bodies, the nature of the noise depends upon the detailed manner in which the NB is deposited. One deposition technique produces a large level of flux noise, while another produces only the usual level of critical-current noise. When a SQUID is cooled below about 1 K, the behavior of the excess noise changes. Theoretical calculations are presented for the use of SQUIDs in high-sensitivity applications. The emphasis is on the optimal detection of pulse signals by a dc SQUID, taking into account the effect of the input circuit on the SQUID behavior, and making use of optimal filter theory.

Wellstood, F.C.

1988-01-01

351

Fear of flying: an overview.  

PubMed

Flying gives the aviator a sense of power and control. Aviators challenge their own skills and test the physical limitations of the plane. They must maintain the balance between fear and joy, sacrifice and love, and risks and rewards of flying in order to continue to fly without reservation. Flying is dangerous. The danger is both real and symbolic, generating fears and anxiety. Interpretation of fear of flying spans from the psychoanalytic-endogenous on one side to the behaviouristic-exogenous on the other side. Unless strictly understood, both models should be taken to consider the interaction between the endogenous and exogenous factors. The therapy of the fear of flying is based on the correlation between the symptoms and underlying dynamics. The prognosis depends on the ability to work through those psychodynamic conflicts. Aviators may continue to fly if the symptoms are minor and the motivation to resolve conflicts is high. PMID:11276969

Jureti?, Z

2000-12-01

352

Soft X-ray imaging using a neon filled plasma focus X-ray source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3 kJ Mather-type UNU\\/ICTP plasma focus device with neon filling is\\u000a used, for the first time, as a soft X-ray source for imaging of thin\\u000a biological samples including insects. A charge-coupled-device (CCD)\\u000a based pinhole projection system, placed in a differentially pumped\\u000a chamber, is used for radiography using neon soft X-rays. The image\\u000a brightness, contrast and resolution have been optimized

R. S. Rawat; T. Zhang; G. J. Lim; W. H. Tan; S. J. Ng; A. Patran; S. M. Hassan; S. V. Springham; T. L. Tan; M. Zakaullah; P Lee; S. Lee

2004-01-01

353

Liquid neon heat transfer as applied to a 30 tesla cryomagnet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 30-tesla magnet design is studied which calls for forced convection liquid neon heat transfer in small coolant channels. The design also requires suppressing boiling by subjecting the fluid to high pressures through use of magnet coils enclosed in a pressure vessel which is maintained at the critical pressure of liquid neon. This high pressure reduces the possibility of the system flow instabilities which may occur at low pressures. The forced convection heat transfer data presented were obtained by using a blowdown technique to force the fluid to flow vertically through a resistance heated, instrumented tube.

Papell, S. S.; Hendricks, R. C.

1975-01-01

354

Test What You Fly?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

Margolies, Don

2002-01-01

355

Origami Flying Disk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this three-part activity, learners use paper to explore Bernoulli's Principle fast-moving air has lower pressure than non-moving air. First, learners observe what happens when they hold a paper strip between their lips and blow. Then, learners conduct another test to examine how airplane wings provide lift. Finally, learners make an origami flying disc using only paper, tape, and their newfound knowledge of Bernoulli's Principle.

Tymony, Cy

2011-01-01

356

Fly like a Bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development of a new aircraft based on a bird's flying principle. As currently envisioned, the ultra-slim vehicle would be unmanned, solar-powered, and made of strong, lightweight materials. Rather than a metal framework covered by riveted plates and hydraulically actuated parts, the plane's body and wings would consist of a plastic-like material called an ionic polymer-metal composite,

Anthony Colozza

2007-01-01

357

Large Flying-Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A FLYING-FISH flew on to the lower deck last night about 8.30 p.m. The deck is 20 feet above the water-line, and the railing is 4 feet 6 inches above the deck, but it is possible for it to have flown through the railing; the fish measured 17 inches from tip of nose to tip of tail. I forgot to

C. Howard Tripp

1909-01-01

358

Flying-Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

JUNE 11, 1873, at sea 300 miles south of Panama, I saw a man-of-war hawk and a school of bonitos in pursuit of a school of flying-fish. As one of the latter came out of the water, closely pursued by his enemy, the hawk swooped down, not fifty yards from the ship, but missed his prey, the fish apparently turning

Allan D. Broun

1881-01-01

359

Wide-band tuneability, nonlinear transmission, and dynamic multistability in SQUID metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting metamaterials comprising rf SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) have been recently realized and investigated with respect to their tuneability, permeability and dynamic multistability properties. These properties are a consequence of intrinsic nonlinearities due to the sensitivity of the superconducting state to external stimuli. SQUIDs, made of a superconducting ring interrupted by a Josephson junction, possess yet another source of nonlinearity, which makes them widely tuneable with an applied dc dlux. A model SQUID metamaterial, based on electric equivalent circuits, is used in the weak coupling approximation to demonstrate the dc flux tuneability, dynamic multistability, and nonlinear transmission in SQUID metamaterials comprising non-hysteretic SQUIDs. The model equations reproduce the experimentally observed tuneability patterns, and predict tuneability with the power of an applied ac magnetic magnetic field. Moreover, the results indicate the opening of nonlinear frequency bands for energy transmission through SQUID metamaterials, for sufficiently strong ac fields.

Tsironis, G. P.; Lazarides, N.; Margaris, I.

2014-09-01

360

Some phenomena due to SQUID input properties when local feedback is present  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a two-stage SQUID amplifier, in which series-mixing local feedback has been used to screen the SQUID input inductances and hence to boost the power gain of the amplifier. 2.9 pA/Hz1/2 current noise and 2.9 nH input inductance of the lower SQUID stage imply energy resolution of 18 times Planck constant at 4.2 K, which, arguably, can be further improved by input inductance screening. The upper stage consists of a 184-series 4-parallel SQUID array, which, when used alone, shows lower than 0.03 ??0/Hz2 flux noise, but which as a part of the two-stage amplifier is operated at a higher flux noise level to provide robust, EMI-tolerant output signal. The series-mixing feedback also facilitates negative SQUID input impedance, which would allow self-oscillating SQUID-based frequency domain multiplexing.

Kiviranta, Mikko; Grnberg, Leif; Beev, Nikolai; van der Kuur, Jan

2014-05-01

361

Design consideration for dc SQUIDs fabricated in deep sub-micron technology  

SciTech Connect

Design rules for scaling dc SQUID junctions to optimize SQUID performance have been well known for over a decade, and verified down to the sub-micron regime. Practical SQUIDs having well coupled input coils of usable inductance have generally been fabricated at the 2-5 {mu}m level of lithography. Other technologies, silicon in particular, are now routinely practiced at the 0.5 {mu}m level of lithography with impressive demonstrations at the 0.1-0.25 {mu}m level not uncommon. In this paper the implications of applying such fabrication capability to advance dc SQUID technology are explored. In particular the issues of scaling practical dc SQUIDs down to the 0.1-0.25 {mu}m regime are examined, using as a prototype design the basic washer SQUID with a spiral input coil.

Ketchen, M.B. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center)

1991-03-01

362

Evidence of weak plasma series resonance heating in the H-mode of neon and neon/argon inductively coupled plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in low-temperature plasmas governs the relative rates of electron-impact processes that determine key discharge properties. Comparison of EEDFs measured with probes and optical emission [1] in argon and neon inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) has revealed a surplus of high-energy electrons in neon-containing plasmas. The abundance of these extra high energy electrons is correlated with the sheath thickness near the rf antenna and can be reduced by either adding a Faraday shield or increasing the plasma density. These trends suggest an association of the surplus high-energy electrons with stochastic heating of electrons in capacitively-coupled electric fields in the sheath adjacent to the antenna. Conventional stochastic heating, however, is found to be insufficient to account for the EEDF observations, and a comparison of modeled and experimental values of the 13.56 MHz time modulation of select neon emission lines strongly suggests plasma series resonance (PSR) heating adjacent to the ICP antenna as the source of the extra high-energy electrons. [4pt] [1] Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 20, (2011) 055006.

Wendt, A. E.; Boffard, John B.; Jung, R. O.; Lin, Chun C.; Aneskavich, L. E.

2012-10-01

363

Superconducting analog-to-digital converter with grounded four-junction SQUID bidirectional counter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a superconducting counting analog-to-digital converter. It comprises: a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) quantizer; means for applying a varying analog signal to the SQUID quantizer; and a bidirectional binary counter having a plurality of stages of grounded four-junction SQUID flip-flops connected together in a cascade arrangement from the least significant bit (LOB) to the most significant bit

1991-01-01

364

Reducing systematic errors in measurements made by a SQUID magnetometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple method is described which reduces those systematic errors of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer that arise from possible radial displacements of the sample in the second-order gradiometer superconducting pickup coil. By rotating the sample rod (and hence the sample) around its axis into a position where the best fit is obtained to the output voltage of the SQUID as the sample is moved through the pickup coil, the accuracy of measuring magnetic moments can be increased significantly. In the cases of an examined Co1.9Fe1.1Si Heusler alloy, pure iron and nickel samples, the accuracy could be increased over the value given in the specification of the device. The suggested method is only meaningful if the measurement uncertainty is dominated by systematic errors - radial displacement in particular - and not by instrumental or environmental noise.

Kiss, L. F.; Kapts, D.; Balogh, J.

2014-11-01

365

TES Detector Noise Limited Readout Using SQUID Multiplexers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The availability of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) with large numbers of individual detector pixels requires multiplexers for efficient readout. The use of multiplexers reduces the number of wires needed between the cryogenic electronics and the room temperature electronics and cuts the number of required cryogenic amplifiers. We are using an 8 channel SQUID multiplexer to read out one-dimensional TES arrays which are used for submillimeter astronomical observations. We present results from test measurements which show that the low noise level of the SQUID multiplexers allows accurate measurements of the TES Johnson noise, and that in operation, the readout noise is dominated by the detector noise. Multiplexers for large number of channels require a large bandwidth for the multiplexed readout signal. We discuss the resulting implications for the noise performance of these multiplexers which will be used for the readout of two dimensional TES arrays in next generation instruments.

Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Khan, S. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

2004-01-01

366

Neurofilament protein is phosphorylated in the squid giant axon  

PubMed Central

We have observed the phosphorylation of neurofilament protein from squid axoplasm. Phosphorylation is demonstrated by 32P labeling of protein during incubation of axoplasm with [gamma-32P]ATP. When the labeled proteins are separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two bands, at 2.0 x 10(5) daltons and greater than 4 x 10(5) daltons, contain the bulk of the 32P. The 2.0 x 10(5)-dalton phosphorylated polypeptide comigrates on SDS-PAGE with one of the subunits of squid neurofilament protein. Both major phosphorylated polypeptides co-fractionate with neurofilaments in discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation and on gel filtration chromatography on Sepharose 4B. The protein-phosphate bond behaves like a phospho-ester, and labeled phospho-serine is identified in an acid hydrolysate of the protein. The generality of this phenomenon in various species and its possible physiological significance are discussed. PMID:690167

Pant, H. C.; Shecket, G.; Gainer, H.; Lasek, R. J.

1978-01-01

367

Measurement of the Energy Relaxation Time in rf SQUID Flux Qubits  

E-print Network

2 1.2 The Josephson Effect 3 1.3 RF SQUID 4 1.4 Quantum Computation 6 1.4.1 Quantum Bit (Qubit) 6 1.4.2 Quantum logic gate 6 1.5 Tunable ? rf SQUID as flux qubit 10 1.5.1 The Two-level qubit 13 1... energy levels as a function of 0Z 20 2.4 Measured dc SQUID transfer function 22 2.5 dc SQUID single shot measurement 24 2.6 Assembled Nb sample cell and CPF 28 2.7 Measured transmission coefficient of the CPF 29 2.8 Dilution...

Qiu, Wei

2007-12-17

368

Correlation between SQUID and Fluxgate Magnetometer Data-sets for Geomagnetic Storms: Hermanus.  

E-print Network

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are fairly recent types of magnetometers that use flux quantization combined with Josephson tunnelling to detect very faint (more)

Matladi, Thabang-Kingsley

2014-01-01

369

Statistical characterization of voltage-biased SQUIDs with weakly damped junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it has been shown that voltage-biased readout of SQUIDs with weakly damped junctions (large Stewart-McCumber parameter ?c, due to high shunt resistance) is useful for suppression of preamplifier noise. We experimentally studied the characteristics of 53 planar niobium-SQUID magnetometers with junction shunt resistors RJ nominally of 30 ? fabricated on 5 5 mm2 chips. The field-to-flux transfer coefficient ?B/?? of the magnetometers was 1.5 nT/?0, with a SQUID loop inductance Ls of about 350 pH. The distributions of important SQUID parameters, such as the current swing Iswing, the dynamic resistance Rd, and the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficient ?V/??, are given. Nearly all the SQUIDs could be stably operated in the voltage bias mode and their ?V/?? reached a large mean value of 380 ?V/?0. In this case, the SQUIDs can be read out directly by a commercial operational amplifier without any additional means to suppress preamplifier noise. The mean flux noise of the SQUIDs was found to be 4.5 ??0 Hz-1/2, corresponding to a field resolution of 7 fT Hz-1/2. To demonstrate the applicability of these SQUIDs in the direct readout scheme, a simple four-channel SQUID gradiometer system was set up to perform magnetocardiography and magnetoencephalography measurements in a magnetically shielded room.

Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Mck, Michael; Zhang, Shulin; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Braginski, Alex I.; Zhang, Guofeng; Wang, Yongliang; Kong, Xiangyan; Xie, Xiaoming; Offenhusser, Andreas; Jiang, Mianheng

2013-06-01

370

The Winnowing: Establishing the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nature Reviews Microbiology article examines the symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminous bacterial symbiont, Vibrio fischeri. Using image-rich illustrations, it depicts the progression of light-organ colonization as a series of steps and discusses the advent of genomic approaches used to study this model system. A subscription is required to access the full-text version of this article.

Nyholm, Spencer V.; Mcfall-Ngai, Margaret; Microbiology, Nature R.

371

HighT(c) squid application in medicine and geophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our laboratory of high-T(sub c), a one-hole squid was built from Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-x) ceramics obtained by a standard procedure of solid state reaction. The ceramics with critical current density J(sub c) is greater than 100 A\\/sq cm was selected. In the middle of a 10 x 10 x 2 mm ceramics pellet, a 0.8 mm hole was drilled in which

V. N. Polushkin; S. V. Uchaikin; B. V. Vasiliev

1991-01-01

372

Modeling and Simulation of a Microstrip-SQUID Amplifier  

E-print Network

Using a simple lumped-circuit model, we numerically study the dependence of the voltage gain and noise on the amplifier's parameters. Linear, quasi-linear, and nonlinear regimes are studied. We have shown that the voltage gain of the amplifier cannot exceed a characteristic critical value, which decreases with the increase of the input power. We have also shown that the spectrum of the voltage gain depends significantly on the level of the Johnson noise generated by the SQUID resistors.

G. P. Berman; O. O. Chumak; D. I. Kamenev; D. Kinion; V. I. Tsifrinovich

2011-09-23

373

Detecting damage in steel with scanning SQUID microscopy  

SciTech Connect

A ''Holy Grail'' of NDE research is a non-destructive method for measuring fatigue damage prior to crack initiation. High-Tc scanning SQUID microscopy may be a useful tool. Because of the exceptional magnetic sensitivity of this technique, fatigue damage can be detected well before microcrack initiation, and in the absence of other obvious microstructure or property changes. Given the spatial resolution of the technique, undamaged material can be located and used to set internal standards.

Lee, Tae-Kyu; Clatterbuck, David; Morris Jr., J.W.; Shaw, T.J.; McDermott R.; Clarke, John

2001-09-04

374

Modeling and Simulation of a Microstrip-SQUID Amplifier  

E-print Network

Using a simple lumped-circuit model, we numerically study the dependence of the voltage gain and noise on the amplifier's parameters. Linear, quasi-linear, and nonlinear regimes are studied. We have shown that the voltage gain of the amplifier cannot exceed a characteristic critical value, which decreases with the increase of the input power. We have also shown that the spectrum of the voltage gain depends significantly on the level of the Johnson noise generated by the SQUID resistors.

Berman, G P; Kamenev, D I; Kinion, D; Tsifrinovich, V I

2011-01-01

375

Some Factors Influencing Sodium Extrusion by Internally Dialyzed Squid Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squid giant axons were internally dialyzed by a technique pre- viously described. In an axon exposed to cyanide seawater for 1 hr and dialyzed with an ATP-free medium, the Na efflux had a mean value of 1.3 pmole\\/cm~sec when (Na)~ was 88 re_M, in quantitative agreement with flux ratio calculations for a purely passive Na movement. When ATP at a

L. J. Mullins; F. J. BRINLEY

1967-01-01

376

High-Tc SQUID Magnetometers for Industrial Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed high-Tc SQUID magnetometers for use in a variety of industrial applications. Relatively inexpensive direct-coupled magnetometers have been developed for low-frequency applications including fetal-magnetocardiography. A manufacturable process has been developed to reproducibly fabricate high-resistance (up to 6 Omega) SNS step-edge junctions with YBa_2Cu_3O_7-x as the superconductor and Ag-Au alloy as the normal metal. Magnetic field sensitivities at 77K

Mark Diiorio; Kai-Yueh Yang; Shozo Yoshizumi; Steven Haupt; Don Haran; Roger Koch; Dan Lathrop; Hoke Trammel

1998-01-01

377

Electronic absorption spectra of linear and cyclic Cn in a neon matrix  

E-print Network

, spectroscopic data are scarce and limited to C2 + in the gas phase27,28 and C60 + and C70 + in neon matrices.29 not only attracted attention as intermediates in combustion, as building units for fullerenes and nanotubes

Maier, John Paul

378

Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with Helium, Carbon and Neon beams.  

E-print Network

Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with Helium, Carbon beam dosimetry, tested with Helium, Carbon and Neon ions having an equivalent range in water of 150 mm and the relative dose. Keywords: Scintillation detectors, dosimetry, ion radiation effects, ion

Boyer, Edmond

379

Design constraints for a liquid neon detector for dark matter and pp solar neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a dual-purpose liquid neon detector for dark matter and low-energy solar neutrino interactions was evaluated using detailed Monte-Carlo calculations. A maximum-likelihood scintillation event vertex fitter including PMT time information was developed, which improves position resolution over spatial-only algorithms, and substantially decreases the required detector size and the analysis energy threshold possible. The ultimate sensitivity to dark matter and solar pp flux uncertainty are evaluated as a function of detector size, and the dependence on the neon scintillation and PMT properties are considered. Detector response and background calibration requirements for the precision pp measurement are defined. Internal radioactivity requirements for uranium, thorium, and krypton are specified, and it is shown that at these levels the PMT data could be used for an in-situ calibration of these backgrounds. A set of measurements of neon scintillation properties and PMT characteristics are outlined, and the required precision evaluated, which will be needed in order to fully optimize the design of a neon-based detector.

Boulay, Mark; Hime, Andrew; Lidgard, Jeff

2004-05-01

380

Continental-Scale Stable Isotope Measurements at NEON to Address Ecological Processes Across Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform. The overarching goal of NEON is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology (such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, ecohydrology, etc.). NEON focuses explicitly on questions that relate to grand challenges in environmental science, are relevant to large regions, and would otherwise be very difficult to address with traditional ecological approaches. The use of stable isotope approaches in ecological research has grown steadily during the last two decades. Stable isotopes at natural abundances in the environment trace and integrate the interaction between abiotic and biotic components across temporal and spatial scales. In this poster, we will present the NEON data products that incorporate stable isotope measurements in atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems in North America. We further outline current questions in the natural sciences community and how these data products can be used to address continental-scale ecological questions, such as the ecological impacts of climate change, terrestrial-aquatic system linkages, land-atmosphere exchange, landscape ecohydrological processes, and linking biogeochemical cycles across systems. Specifically, we focus on the use of stable isotopes to evaluate water availability and residence times in terrestrial systems, as well as nutrient sources to terrestrial systems, and cycling across ecosystem boundaries.

Luo, H.; Goodman, K. J.; Hinckley, E. S.; West, J. B.; Williams, D. G.; Bowen, G. J.

2013-12-01

381

Neon isotopes constrain convection and volatile origin in the Earth's mantle.  

PubMed

Identifying the origin of primordial volatiles in the Earth's mantle provides a critical test between models that advocate magma-ocean equilibration with an early massive solar-nebula atmosphere and those that require subduction of volatiles implanted in late accreting material. Here we show that neon isotopes in the convecting mantle, resolved in magmatic CO2 well gases, are consistent with a volatile source related to solar corpuscular irradiation of accreting material. This contrasts with recent results that indicated a solar-nebula origin for neon in mantle plume material, which is thought to be sampling the deep mantle. Neon isotope heterogeneity in different mantle sources suggests that models in which the plume source supplies the convecting mantle with its volatile inventory require revision. Although higher than accepted noble gas concentrations in the convecting mantle may reduce the need for a deep mantle volatile flux, any such flux must be dominated by the neon (and helium) isotopic signature of late accreting material. PMID:15635402

Ballentine, Chris J; Marty, Bernard; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Cassidy, Martin

2005-01-01

382

is attributed to the presence of a solar neon component in the Earth410  

E-print Network

by direct trapping from a gas- rich solar nebula, whereas the primordial Ne, rather than by capture of dust grains from the solar nebula -- or at least that's the inference fromis attributed to the presence of a solar neon component in the Earth4­10 . A major goal

Graham, David W.

383

Light-sensitive motile iridophores and visual pigments in the neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi.  

PubMed

Although motile iridophores in the longitudinal stripes of neon tetra skin are under control of the sympathetic nervous system, they also respond to light directly and show circadian color changes. Using neon tetra skin, we found that the photoresponse of iridophores depends on light intensity, and that light near 500 nm is most effective. RT-PCR demonstrated the expression of mRNAs encoding rhodopsin and two kinds of cone opsins (Pi-green1 and Pi-green2) in neon tetra skin where the light-sensitive iridophores exist. These mRNAs are also expressed in the lateral eyes. The cone opsin genes, Pi-green1 and Pi-green2, show high similarity with the g101 and g103 genes of unique green cone opsins (belonging to the MWS/LWS group) of the blind Mexican cavefish. These results show that Pi-green1, Pi-green2, and/or rhodopsin may play important roles in the photoresponse of neon tetra iridophores, which are most sensitive to light near 500 nm. PMID:17043404

Kasai, Akiko; Oshima, Noriko

2006-09-01

384

Helium and neon implantation and memory observed in a quadrupole mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

High accuracy static quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) measurement of helium and neon may be impaired by implantation and long lasting thermal desorption effects of the previously trapped atoms. A QMS produces only moderately accelerated ions of 100200 eV. The ions decelerate at stainless steel surfaces somewhere in the QMS and a part of them will be trapped in surface near

Ingo Rau; Alfred Putzka

1999-01-01

385

Pest Control on the "Fly"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

2002-01-01

386

Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID  

SciTech Connect

Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

Chang, J.W.

1991-07-01

387

SQUID array for magnetic inspection of prestressed concrete bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For detection of tendon ruptures in prestressed members of bridges, a four-channel SQUID system was developed. The tendons are magnetized by scanning a yoke electromagnet over the concrete surface along the hidden member. Four HTS dc-SQUID magnetometers with ramp-type junctions, optimized for high-field performance, are mounted in an orientation-independent liquid nitrogen cryostat. The SQUIDs are integrated as a linear array within the yoke and operated in magnetic fields up to 15 mT, recording the stray field during magnetization as well as the remanent field after switching off the excitation. Unwanted signals from stirrups of the mild steel reinforcement are suppressed with two types of techniques: either the comparison of remanent field signals after changing the magnetization direction of the stirrups, or a best fit of typical stirrup signals to the stray field signal and their subtraction. Subsequent correlation analysis with the dipolar signal of a typical void yields rupture signal amplitudes. A finite element program was written to simulate stray field and remanent field traces of typical steel configurations. Excellent agreement with measured data was found. Results of measurements on a prestressed highway bridge are presented. Signal amplitudes above the threshold values were verified as originating from ruptures of the steel tendon by opening the bridge deck.

Krause, H.-J.; Wolf, W.; Glaas, W.; Zimmermann, E.; Faley, M. I.; Sawade, G.; Mattheus, R.; Neudert, G.; Gampe, U.; Krieger, J.

2002-03-01

388

Belowground Biomass Sampling to Estimate Fine Root Mass across NEON Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of belowground biomass is an important and relatively uncharacterized component of the net primary productivity (NPP) of ecosystems. Fine root productivity makes up a significant portion of total belowground production because fine roots turn over rapidly, and therefore contribute disproportionately to annual estimates of belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). One of the major goals of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is to quantify above- and below-ground NPP at 60 sites within 20 different eco-climactic regions. NEON's Terrestrial Observation System will carry out belowground biomass sampling throughout the life of the observatory to estimate fine root production. However, belowground biomass sampling during NEON operations will be constrained to a maximum depth of 50cm. This limited depth range leaves the question of what proportion of total fine root mass is being collected and how to optimally characterize belowground biomass given sampling depth limitations. During the construction period, NEON is characterizing fine root biomass distribution at depth down to 2m at each site, as well as physical and chemical properties in each soil horizon. Each sampling unit is a pit (2m deep and approximately 1.5m wide), dug in the site's dominant vegetation type where fine root biomass sampling will also occur during Operations. To sample fine root biomass in each pit, soil samples of a known volume are taken from three vertical profiles down the face of the pit. Samples are then wet sieved to extract fine root mass, and roots are dried at 65C for 48 hours and then weighed. The soil pit data are used to estimate the proportion of total fine root biomass from each site as a function of depth. Non-linear curves are fitted to the data to calculate total fine root mass at depth and to provide estimates of the proportion of the total fine root mass that is sampled at each site during NEON's 30 year operational sampling. The belowground biomass sampling effort during construction informs logistical constraints of sampling and generates a baseline estimate for belowground biomass across all NEON sites. In addition to informing NEON's sampling design, this continental-scale dataset will be available to the public, along with the per-horizon soil physical and chemical data. Independent researchers could use this novel resource, for example, in quantifying the contribution of fine root mass to NPP or provide insight into the relationship between soil's physical and chemical properties and belowground biomass.

Spencer, J. J.; Meier, C. L.; Abercrombie, H.; Everhart, J. C.

2013-12-01

389

NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML team surveyed three sites in the Sierras with their terrestrial waveform lidar (DWEL) and collected Trac measurements of LAI, while UMB collected additional discrete ground-based lidar scans and additional forestry measures at San Joaquin and the Sierras; A team from the UWM collected leaf-level reflectance and transmission spectra and measured leaf-level gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. This multifaceted collaboration, funded by the NSF NEON and NASA HyspIRI Preparatory Science programs, will support key scientific developments by combining the expertise from multiple sensing modalities. This experiment highlights the advantages of data and skills sharing in remote sensing applications. An overview of the larger effort and individual early science will be presented.

Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

2013-12-01

390

Build a Fruit Fly Trap  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this construction activity, students use a 2-liter bottle to build a fly trap. There is not much supporting information besides the directions, but the trap can be used to examine fly behavior, and it might also be redesigned by students. In the construction part of the activity, younger learners will need help and supervision from an older learner or adult, but any age learner can do independent observation of fly behavior once insects are inside the trap.

Wisconsin-Madison, Universitiy O.

2007-01-01

391

[Medical supply of long flies].  

PubMed

The article presents a characteristics of main negative factors, disimproving a functional condition and working capacity of airmen in long flies: long stay in a working pose, necessity of using of summer form, of defense form and oxygen-breath means, peculiarities of eating in fly, solving of nature-imposed necessity, relative sensor deprivation, sameliness of environment, high level of noise, hypokinesia, high nervous-emotional tension in conditions of air refueling, temperature fall, difference of barometric pressure, desynchronisms. Were given practical recommendations on maintenance of functional and working capacity of members of flying staff, realizing long flies. PMID:20698321

Belevitin, A B; Tsygan, V N; Blagitin, A A; Lizogub, I N

2010-05-01

392

Solar wind helium, neon, and argon in Genesis aluminum collectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun contains over 99% of the mass of the solar system and so, to fully develop a model of how the solar system formed and evolved what the starting composition was and how it evolved, it is crucial to know the isotopic composition of the sun. The Genesis mission collected samples of solar wind (SW) for 853 days and returned them to Earth for analysis. Making these measurements on earth-based instruments is currently the only way to get sufficient precision to differentiate between different solar system components, and SW is the only source of solar material available for sampling. However, there are several processes that have the potential to significantly alter the composition between the time when SW ions are accelerated away from the sun, to the time the laboratory measurements are made. This work attempts to constrain these sources of fractionation and present the best estimate of the isotopic composition of SW helium, neon, and argon implanted into two different aluminum SW collectors on board the Genesis Mission, Al on sapphire and polished Al. First, during the collection phase of the Genesis mission, diffusion can alter the initial implantation profiles of the SW ions in the collector targets and cause losses of shallowly implanted species. These losses preferentially affect the lighter isotopes, which in turn means the measured ratios of the remaining reservoir will be heavier, both isotopically and elementally. I have conducted a diffusion experiment on a similar time scale as the Genesis mission to determine the diffusion parameters of the two different aluminum collector materials and to quantify the changes in the measured ratios due to diffusive losses for the light noble gases. The results of this experiment show that the polished Al collector is not sufficiently retentive of the light noble gases to be a reliable collector for the light gases, but that the composition of the light gases implanted in the Al on sapphire collector does not show a measurable effect due to thermal diffusion. Isotopic fractionation can also occur even before implantation of the SW ions, if the processes which accelerate the SW away from the sun are mass-dependent. In an effort to quantify this effect, the Genesis mission collected separate samples of different types ('regimes') of SW: low-speed, high-speed, and coronal mass ejections, in addition to collecting bulk SW. Compositional differences between the different SW regimes (especially the low-speed and high-speed SW) are thought to provide a measure of this fractionation. By making high-precision isotopic measurements on collectors of the three SW regimes, we have put strict upper limits on the difference between the low- speed and high-speed SW regimes: 20 Ne/ 22 Ne < 0.24 0.37% and 36 Ar/ 38 Ar < 0.11 0.26%. Both of these differences are less than 1s statistical errors. Helium isotopes are much more susceptible to modification which prevents us from putting a strict upper limit as for Ne and Ar. And finally we have made isotopic measurements of the light noble gases of the bulk SW (without selective collection of different SW regimes) from the aluminum collectors. Accounting for the sources of fractionation discussed above, I propose the following as the best current bulk SW isotopic values: 20 Ne/ 22 Ne = 13.75 0.02, 21 Ne/ 22 Ne = 0.0329 0.0002, and 36 Ar / 38 Ar = 5.501 0.005 (all errors are 1s).

Mabry, Jennifer Christine

2009-11-01

393

Hydrodynamic fin function of brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis.  

PubMed

Although the pulsed jet is often considered the foundation of a squid's locomotive system, the lateral fins also probably play an important role in swimming, potentially providing thrust, lift and dynamic stability as needed. Fin morphology and movement vary greatly among squid species, but the locomotive role of the fins is not well understood. To begin to elucidate the locomotive role of the fins in squids, fin hydrodynamics were studied in the brief squid Lolliguncula brevis, a species that exhibits a wide range of fin movements depending on swimming speed. Individual squid were trained to swim in both the arms-first and tail-first orientations against currents in a water tunnel seeded with light-reflective particles. Particle-laden water around the fins was illuminated with lasers and videotaped so that flow dynamics around the fins could be analyzed using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). Time-averaged forces generated by the fin were quantified from vorticity fields of the fin wake. During the low swimming speeds considered in this study [<2.5 dorsal mantle lengths (DML) per second], L. brevis exhibited four unique fin wake patterns, each with distinctive vortical structures: (1) fin mode I, in which one vortex is shed with each downstroke, generally occurring at low speeds; (2) fin mode II, an undulatory mode in which a continuous linked chain of vortices is produced; (3) fin mode III, in which one vortex is shed with each downstroke and upstroke, and; (4) fin mode IV, in which a discontinuous chain of linked double vortex structures is produced. All modes were detected during tail-first swimming but only fin modes II and III were observed during arms-first swimming. The fins produced horizontal and vertical forces of varying degrees depending on stroke phase, swimming speed, and swimming orientation. During tail-first swimming, the fins functioned primarily as stabilizers at low speeds before shifting to propulsors as speed increased, all while generating net lift. During arms-first swimming, the fins primarily provided lift with thrust production playing a reduced role. These results demonstrate the lateral fins are an integral component of the complex locomotive system of L. brevis, producing lift and thrust forces through different locomotive modes. PMID:20511514

Stewart, William J; Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S

2010-06-15

394

NOVA: Spies that Fly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spies that Fly is a NOVA episode that originally aired in January 2003. This page of the television broadcast's online companion provides a fascinating historical account of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's). It will probably come as a surprise that the earliest UAV listed on this site was flown over four decades before the first manned airplane took off. From their modest beginnings, UAV's have evolved into extremely high tech instruments; the six-inch Black Widow UAV is one of the most extraordinary items described online. The Web site also shows some of the records for UAV technology.

395

[Otorhinolaryngologic diseases and flying].  

PubMed

Physiological and pathological aspects of pressure changes, noise, acceleration, variation of temperature, low humidity, stress and time differences in flight passengers and aircrew are discussed. Typical ear, nose, and throat clinic (ENT)-cases such as tubal function disturbances, barotrauma, hypacusis, sudden hearing loss, tinnitus, acute and chronic middle ear diseases, post ear surgery conditions, hearing aids, vertigo and motion sickness are described. The influence on flying of acute and chronic affections of the paranasal sinuses, nasal septal deviation and allergy are listed. The problem of transport of ENT-incapacitated passengers in commercial aircrafts and ambulance jets are dealt with. PMID:12385068

Moser, M

2002-01-01

396

Robber Flies (Asilidae)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site focuses on "one of the largest and most abundant families of present day insects" -- the Robber Flies. Maintained by Fritz Geller-Grimm of the Museum Wiesbaden in Germany and Cornell University graduate student Torsten Dikow, the site includes a variety of information on many aspects of these insects. The Asilidae section contains many resources that are most appropriate for an advanced or research audience, including identification keys, species and distribution databases, and literature references. The Dipterology and Entomology sections include plenty of more general information suitable for a variety of audiences.

2008-09-15

397

Flying wires at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

1989-03-01

398

Flying tryps: survival and maturation of trypanosomes in tsetse flies.  

PubMed

Survival in and colonization of the tsetse fly midgut are essential steps in the transmission of many species of African trypanosomes. In the fly, bloodstream trypanosomes transform into the procyclic stage within the gut lumen and later migrate to the ectoperitrophic space, where they multiply, establishing an infection. Progression of the parasite infection in the fly depends on factors inherent to the biology of trypanosomes, tsetse, and the bloodmeal. Flies usually eradicate infection early on with both pre-existing and inducible factors. Parasites, in contrast, respond to these stimuli by undergoing developmental changes, allowing a few to both survive and migrate within the tsetse. Here we discuss parasite and fly factors determining trypanosome colonization of the tsetse, focusing mainly on the midgut. PMID:23507033

Dyer, Naomi A; Rose, Clair; Ejeh, Nicholas O; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

2013-04-01

399

The Flying University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

Friesen, Catherine

400

Wasps as Fly-Killers  

Microsoft Academic Search

YOUR correspondent at p. 385, vol. xxx., may be informed that in this part of the world wasps enter dwellings by the open windows in summer-time, and hunt house-flies unmercifully, leaving the dead flies in hundreds on the floors, ready to be swept into a dustpan. This occurs only in the country, and where wasps' nests are near by. Westwood

George Lawson

1884-01-01

401

Hessian Fly in Texas Wheat  

E-print Network

The Hessian fly came from Russia and may have been introduced into the United States during the Revolutionary War. It has since spread to many parts of the country. By 2005, more than 67 counties in Texas reported Hessian fly infestations...

Morgan, Gaylon; Sansone, Chris; Knutson, Allen E.

2005-07-01

402

The first occurrence of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) in Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) during a toxic  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The first occurrence of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) in Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas in pelagic ecosystems influenced by the California Current System. INTRODUCTION The Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas is a large nerito- oceanic squid and an important link between lower trophic levels and apex

403

Controlled and in situ target strengths of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas and identification of potential acoustic scattering  

E-print Network

of potential acoustic scattering sources Kelly J. Benoit-Birda College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences and freshly dead squid. Potential scattering mechanisms in squid have been long debated. Here may be an important source of squid acoustic scattering. The beak, eyes, and arms, probably via

Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

404

SQUID DETECTION OF EPR IN DILUTE CMN* R.V.Chamberlin, L.A. Moberly and O.G. Symko  

E-print Network

SQUID DETECTION OF EPR IN DILUTE CMN* R.V.Chamberlin, L.A. Moberly and O.G. Symko Dept. of Physios, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, U.S.A. Abstract.- We demonstrate the applicability of SQUID-lattice relaxation times. The very high sensitivity of a SQUID magne- tometer makes it an ideal instrument for every

Boyer, Edmond

405

Extreme plasticity in life-history strategy allows a migratory predator (jumbo squid) to cope with a changing  

E-print Network

Extreme plasticity in life-history strategy allows a migratory predator (jumbo squid) to cope (jumbo or Humboldt squid) is a semelparous, major predator of the eastern Pacific that is ecologically years. An El Ni~no event in 2009­2010, was accompanied by a collapse of this fishery, and squid

Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

406

Range Expansion of the Jumbo Squid in the NE Pacific: N Decrypts Multiple Origins, Migration and Habitat  

E-print Network

Range Expansion of the Jumbo Squid in the NE Pacific: d15 N Decrypts Multiple Origins, Migration perturbations, the highly voracious jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas reached unprecedented northern latitudes along geographic origins that were initially detected by highly variable bulk d15 N values in gladii for squid

407

76 FR 3044 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY...directed fishing for sculpins, sharks, squid, and octopus in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA...allowable catch (TAC) of sculpins, sharks, squid, and octopus in the GOA. DATES:...

2011-01-19

408

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 23, NO. 3, JUNE 2013 1600705 High-Tc DC SQUIDs for Magnetoencephalography  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 23, NO. 3, JUNE 2013 1600705 High-Tc DC SQUIDs interference device (SQUID) magnetometers intended for magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurement systems. The high-Tc SQUID magnetometers also incorporate 16 mm multilayer superconducting flux transformers

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

409

Many squid rely on jet propulsion for locomotion, which is inherently less efficient than the undulatory/oscillatory  

E-print Network

Many squid rely on jet propulsion for locomotion, which is inherently less efficient than to be inefficient because jetters, such as squid, fill a cavity of limited volume with water and eject that water, such as Salmo spp., and certain squid that rely heavily on jet propulsion for locomotion, such as Illex

Hynes, Wayne L.

410

BOHDAN M. SLABYJ, GORDON E. RAMSDELL, and RUTH H. TRUE Quality of Squid, II/ex illecebrosus,  

E-print Network

BOHDAN M. SLABYJ, GORDON E. RAMSDELL, and RUTH H. TRUE Quality of Squid, II/ex illecebrosus, Mantles Canned in Oil Introduction Squid meat is equal to fish meat in protein content (16-20 percent). Compared with other marine ani- mals eaten by man, squid provide a relatively higher yield of edible parts

411

77 FR 44172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...to the initial total allowable catch of squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of squid in the BSAI was established as 361...

2012-07-27

412

Graphoepitaxial Josephson junctions and DC SQUIDs M. I. Faley, D. Meertens, U. Poppe and R. E. Dunin-Borkowski  

E-print Network

F6 Graphoepitaxial Josephson junctions and DC SQUIDs M. I. Faley, D. Meertens, U. Poppe and R. E-Tc superconducting heterostructures for DC SQUIDs with graphoepitaxial step edge Josephson junctions on single) films on the tilted surfaces of step edges on MgO substrates was observed. We also combined the SQUIDs

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

413

Enlightenment of old ideas from new investigations: more questions regarding the evolution of bacteriogenic light organs in squids  

E-print Network

regarding the evolution of bacteriogenic light organs in squids M. K. Nishiguchi,a,? J. E. Lopez,a and S. V species in two families of squids, the Loliginidae and the Sepiolidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) harbor). These luminescent organs are used for the production of light ventral to the squid mantle cavity, otherwise known

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

414

Ontogeny of Squid Mantle Function: Changes in the Mechanics of Escape-Jet Locomotion in the Oval  

E-print Network

Ontogeny of Squid Mantle Function: Changes in the Mechanics of Escape-Jet Locomotion in the Oval Squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson, 1830 JOSEPH T. THOMPSON* AND WILLIAM M. KIER Department. In Sepioteuthis lessoniana, the oval squid, on- togenetic changes in the kinematics of the mantle during escape

Kier, William M.

415

Evaluating the potential for trophodynamic control of fish by the longfin inshore squid ( Loligo pealeii ) in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many marine apex predator populations have been depleted via targeted fishing, potentially enhancing the pro- ductivity of lower trophic-level species such as squid. Squid may be predators of juvenile stages of fish stocks, so fishing could induce depensatory juvenile mortality. Here we evaluate the energetic potential of the longfin inshore squid (Loligo pealeii) to exert trophodynamic control on recruitment of

Mary E. Hunsicker; Timothy E. Essington

2008-01-01

416

JUMBO SQUID ( DOSIDICUS GIGAS ) BIOMASS OFF CENTRAL CHILE: EFFECTS ON CHILEAN HAKE ( MERLUCCIUS GAY I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas ) off central Chile (32 ?00'S-41 ?30'S) was estimated using data collected from July to November during 2005 and 2006 on board the commercial bottom trawl fleet, where D. gigas is part of the bycatch. A geostatistical approach was ap - plied to estimate the jumbo squid biomass in Chilean hake ( Merluccius gay i)

RUBEN ALARCN-MUOZ; LUIS CUBILLOS; CLAUDIO GATICA

2008-01-01

417

A review of the biology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomy, functional morphology, evolutionary biology and ecology of the jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas, were reviewed using the data from many Soviet\\/Russian expeditions and all available literature. D. gigas is one of the largest and most abundant of the nektonic squid in the epipelagic zone of the world Ocean. It occurs in the eastern Pacific with its species range limited

Ch. M. Nigmatullin; K. N. Nesis; A. I. Arkhipkin

2001-01-01

418

Population structure between environmentally transmitted vibrios and bobtail squids using nested clade analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squids from the genus Euprymna (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) and their symbiotic bacteria Vibrio fischeri form a mutualism in which vibrios inhabit a complex light organ within the squid host. A host-mediated daily expulsion event seeds surrounding seawater with symbiotically capable V. fischeri that environmentally colonize newly hatched axenic Euprymna juveniles. Competition experiments using native and non-native Vibrio have shown that this

B. W. JONES; J. E. LOPEZ; J. HUTTENBURG; M. K. NISHIGUCHI

2006-01-01

419

ELIZABETH H. AMARAL and H. ARNOLD CARR Experimental Fishing for Squid  

E-print Network

- tucket Sound; 3) a concentrated effort to catch squid in the Sound using prior experience with weather. Artificial lights have pro- vided a means to concentrate these squid near the surface frequently enough to allow for commercial exploitation. The first documented attempt to use artificial lights to attract

420

In Search of Giant Squid: An Expedition Into the Depths of the Last Frontier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plumbing the depths of the world's oceans for a creature that has historically touched the depths of human fears, the In Search of Giant Squid site chronicles the Smithsonian expeditions to learn more about the elusive Giant Squid, which has never been observed in its natural habitat.

421

Halide peroxidase in tissues that interact with bacteria in the host squidEuprymna scolopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme with similarities to myeloperoxidase, the antimicrobial halide peroxidase in mammalian neutrophils, occurs abundantly in the light organ tissue of Euprymna scolopes, a squid that maintains a beneficial association with the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Using three independent assays typically applied to the analysis of halide peroxidase enzymes, we directly compared the activity of the squid enzyme with that

Andrea L. Small

1999-01-01

422

A YBCO RF-squid variable temperature susceptometer and its applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) susceptibility using a high-temperature radio-frequency (rf) SQUID and a normal metal pick-up coil is employed in testing weak magnetization of the sample. The magnetic moment resolution of the device is 1 x 10(exp -6) emu, and that of the susceptibility is 5 x 10(exp -6) emu/cu cm.

Zhou, Luwei; Qiu, Jinwu; Zhang, Xianfeng; Tang, Zhimin; Cai, Yimin; Qian, Yongjia

1991-01-01

423

Sinusoidal Response of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) for rf Power Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current, power, and attenuation measurements with rf SQUIDs are based on the fact that the voltage from the microwave readout circuit can be made a nearly sinusoidal function of the magnetic flux threading the SQUID. The authors point out here that an asy...

R. L. Peterson

1987-01-01

424

A Monoclonal Antibody Against Kinesin Inhibits Both Anterograde and Retrograde Fast Axonal Transport in Squid Axoplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of our monoclonal antibodies against the heavy chain of bovine kinesin (H2) also recognized the heavy chain of squid kinesin. The immunofluorescence pattern of H2 in axoplasm was similar to that seen in mammalian cells with antibodies specific for kinesin light and heavy chains, indicating that squid kinesin is also concentrated on membrane-bounded organelles. Although kinesin is assumed to

Scott T. Brady; K. Kevin Pfister; George S. Bloom

1990-01-01

425

Shattering the myth of the resonantly photo-pumped neon-like titanium laser  

SciTech Connect

Several years ago neon-like titanium (Z = 22) was made to lase at 326 {angstrom} on the 3p {yields} 3s (J = 0 {yields} 1) transition. At the time it was suggested that the lasing may be due to resonantly photo-pumping the neon-like titanium 2p {yields} 4d lines using 3s {yields} 2p and 3d {yields} 2p lines in carbon-like and nitrogen-like titanium which results in lasing on the 3p {yields} 3s transition in neon-like titanium. The strongest argument for this explanation was that adjacent elements (scandium and vanadium) did not lase while titanium was unique in having the above mentioned resonance. In addition a prepulse was required to make the titanium lase, suggestive of the formation of a low density plasma, and the plasma was very overstripped, so the above mentioned pump lines should be quite strong for photo-pumping. We have reinvestigated this laser system and will present results which show lasing on the 3p {yields} 3s (J = 0 {yields} 1) transition in neon-like chromium (Z = 24), iron (Z = 26), and nickel (Z = 28) at 285, 255, and 231 {angstrom} respectively. This destroys the myth of titanium being unique and makes highly unlikely that the previously mentioned photo-pumping mechanism is playing a significant role in the titanium laser. The chromium, iron, and nickel experiments all require a prepulse in order to lase and our calculations suggest that the prepulse is an exciting new way to create a uniform low density plasma when illuminating a thick slab target. This allows the proper conditions for gain and laser propagation for low Z neon-like ions and may also be applicable to other systems such as low Z nickel-like ions. We also will present experiments done on other low-Z materials and offer an explanation as to how the hyperfine effect is destroying the gain of neon-like ions with odd Z.

Nilsen, J.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.; Koch, J.A.

1993-08-01

426

Quantum analysis of a nonlinear microwave cavity-embedded dc SQUID displacement detector  

E-print Network

We carry out a quantum analysis of a dc SQUID mechanical displacement detector, comprising a SQUID with mechanically compliant loop segment, which is embedded in a microwave transmission line resonator. The SQUID is approximated as a nonlinear, current dependent inductance, inducing an external flux tunable, nonlinear Duffing self-interaction term in the microwave resonator mode equation. Motion of the compliant SQUID loop segment is transduced inductively through changes in the external flux threading SQUID loop, giving a ponderomotive, radiation pressure type coupling between the microwave and mechanical resonator modes. Expressions are derived for the detector signal response and noise, and it is found that a soft-spring Duffing self-interaction enables a closer approach to the displacement detection standard quantum limit, as well as cooling closer to the ground state.

P. D. Nation; M. P. Blencowe; E. Buks

2008-06-25

427

High- Tc dc SQUID readout electronics with low noise and high bandwidth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using AD797 low noise op amps and 2SA1048 low noise transistors, we have developed a composite preamplifier for use in dc SQUID readout electronics. This preamplifier has a small dc drift and super low noise at high frequencies. The equivalent input voltage noise of the preamplifier is about 0.35 nV/?Hz from 100 kHz to 10 MHz. Using this preamplifier, we developed dc SQUID readout electronics having low noise and high bandwidth. Used with a 3 mm 2 high- Tc dc SQUID, the white flux noise was about 18 ?? 0/?Hz above 100 kHz and the FLL bandwidth was about 2 MHz. This readout electronics can be used for the applications of SQUID-based NDE and SQUID-based NQR.

He, D. F.; Itozaki, H.

2006-10-01

428

Quantum entanglement of two flux qubits induced by an auxiliary SQUID  

E-print Network

We revisit a theoretical scheme to create quantum entanglement of two three-levels superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with the help of an auxiliary SQUID. In this scenario, two three-levels systems are coupled to a quantized cavity field and a classical external field and thus form dark states. The quantum entanglement can be produced by a quantum measurement on the auxiliary SQUID. Our investigation emphasizes the quantum effect of the auxiliary SQUID. For the experimental feasibility and accessibility of the scheme, we calculate the time evolution of the whole system including the auxiliary SQUID. To ensure the efficiency of generating quantum entanglement, relations between the measurement time and dominate parameters of the system are analyzed according to detailed calculations.

T. Shi; Z. Song

2006-11-01

429

The flying radiation case  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum.

Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Applied Theoretical and Computational Physics Div.

1997-04-01

430

Bending to fly  

E-print Network

Wing flexibility governs the flying performance of flapping wing flyers. Here we use a self-propelled flapping-wing model mounted on a "merry-go-round" to investigate the effect of wing compliance on the propulsive efficiency of the system. Our measurements show that the elastic nature of the wings can lead not only to a substantial reduction of the consumed power, but also to an increment of the propulsive force. A scaling analysis using a flexible plate model for the wings points out that, for flapping flyers in air, the time-dependent shape of the elastic bending wing is governed by the wing inertia. Based on this prediction, we define the ratio of the inertial forces deforming the wing to the elastic restoring force that limits the deformation as the 'elasto-inertial number'. Our measurements with the self-propelled model confirm that it is the appropriate structural parameter to describe flapping flyers with flexible-wings.

Thiria, Benjamin

2010-01-01

431

The new SQUID biosusceptometer at Oakland: first year of experience.  

PubMed

Liver iron measurements using biosusceptometers have been validated on two low-TC SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) systems (New York and Hamburg) built in the 1980's. Recently, two new instruments have been installed in Torino, Italy (2001), and Oakland, California (2003). The design of the Oakland system is similar to those in Hamburg and Torino. Improvements were made to adjust for significant environmental noise, moreover, an active electronic noise cancellation, a computer controlled water coupling reference system using a pressure feedback and a faster data acquisition system using software lockin amplifiers have been implemented. All 3 systems (Hamburg, Torino, Oakland) are using the same standardized operational protocol. Presented herein are the data collected from 276 patients measured with the SQUID biosusceptometer at Oakland since installation. The results from 149 patients with beta-thalassemia (beta-Thal, age: 2-66 y), 76 patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD, age: 5-55 y), 35 patients with various rare diseases (RD, age: 2-80 y), and 16 patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC, age: 6-74 y) are reported. The liver iron concentration in the different groups are 222 - 7570 (beta-Thal), 518 - 7918 (SCD), 511 - 6234 (RD), 258 - 2041 (HHC) microg/g-liver (in vivo wet weight). The long-term reproducibility (12 months) in a patient on constant treatment regimen demonstrated a mean liver iron of 1141 +/- 133 microg/g-liver. The new SQUID Ferritometer located on the US West coast will give more patients access to this non-invasive liver iron assessment. PMID:16012600

Fung, E B; Fischer, R; Pakbaz, Z; Fagaly, R L; Vichinsky, E; Starr, T N; Ewing, T; Paulson, D N; Hassenzahl, W V; Harmatz, P

2004-01-01

432

Pupil light reflex in the Atlantic brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis.  

PubMed

Coleoid behavioral ecology is highly visual and requires an eye capable of forming images in a variety of photic conditions. A variable pupil aperture is one feature that contributes to this visual flexibility in most coleoids, although pupil responses have yet to be quantitatively documented for squid. The pupil light reflex (PLR) of the Atlantic brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, was analyzed by directly exposing one eye of individual squid to light stimuli of varying irradiance and imaging the reflex, while simultaneously recording from the opposite, indirectly stimulated eye to determine whether the constriction was consensual between eyes. A PLR was measured in L. brevis, with an asymmetrical constriction observed under increasing irradiance levels that was not consensual between eyes, although a response of some level was observed in both eyes. Response thresholds ranged between 12.56 and 12.66 log photons cm(-2) s(-1). The PLR was rapid and dependent upon the stimulus irradiance, achieving half-maximum constriction within 0.49-1.2 s. The spectral responsivity of the PLR was analyzed by measuring the magnitude of the reflex in the eye directly stimulated by light of equal quantal intensity at wavelengths from 410 to 632 nm. The responsivity curve showed a maximum at 500 nm, indicating the eye is especially well suited for vision at twilight. These results, when considered in the context of the ambient light characteristics, show that the PLR of L. brevis contributes to a dynamic visual system capable of adjusting to the highly variable composition of light in its estuarine habitat. PMID:22786645

McCormick, Lillian R; Cohen, Jonathan H

2012-08-01

433

Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 110, Nos. 5/6, 1998 The Superfluid 4He Analog of the RF SQUID  

E-print Network

SQUID K. Schwab, N. Bruckner, and Richard Packard Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, fabrication, and performance of a superfluid 4He device which is the analog of the superconducting RF SQUID. INTRODUCTION This paper describes a superfluid analog of the superconducting RF SQUID.1 Whereas an RF SQUID

Packard, Richard E.

434

Removal of Potassium Negative Resistance in Perfused Squid Giant Axons  

PubMed Central

Squid giant axons, internally and externally perfused with solutions having potassium as the only cation, exhibit an approximately linear steady-state current-voltage relation. When small amounts of calcium and magnesium are present in the external potassium solution, the current-voltage curve is markedly nonlinear, exhibiting the rectification and negative resistance which have been observed for intact axons in isosmotic potassium solutions. The effects of perfusion and removal of external divalent cations are interpreted in terms of two components of current, a linear component and a nonlinear time-varying component. The former is increased and the latter diminished by the removal of the external divalent cations. PMID:6034755

Lecar, Harold; Ehrenstein, Gerald; Binstock, Leonard; Taylor, Robert E.

1967-01-01

435

Quantum dynamics in a camelback potential of a dc SQUID.  

PubMed

We investigate a quadratic-quartic anharmonic oscillator formed by a potential well between two potential barriers. We realize this novel potential with a dc SQUID at near-zero current bias and flux bias near half a flux quantum. Escape out of the central well can occur via tunneling through either of the two barriers. We find good agreement with a generalized double-path macroscopic quantum tunneling theory. We also demonstrate an "optimal line" in current and flux bias along which the oscillator, which can be operated as a phase qubit, is insensitive to decoherence due to low-frequency current fluctuations. PMID:19392556

Hoskinson, E; Lecocq, F; Didier, N; Fay, A; Hekking, F W J; Guichard, W; Buisson, O; Dolata, R; Mackrodt, B; Zorin, A B

2009-03-01

436

One-shot quantum measurement using a hysteretic dc SQUID.  

PubMed

We propose a single shot quantum measurement to determine the state of a Josephson charge quantum bit (qubit). The qubit is a Cooper pair box and the measuring device is a two junction superconducting quantum interference device (dc SQUID). This coupled system exhibits a close analogy with a Rydberg atom in a high Q cavity, except that in the present device we benefit from the additional feature of escape from the supercurrent state by macroscopic quantum tunneling, which provides the final readout. We test the feasibility of our idea against realistic experimental circuit parameters and by analyzing the phase fluctuations of the qubit. PMID:12857295

Buisson, O; Balestro, F; Pekola, J P; Hekking, F W J

2003-06-13

437

Sensitive RF-SQUIDs and magnetometers operating at 77 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large 6-mm6-mm and 8-mm8-mm flux-focusing washer structures with inductances LS between 25 pH and 500 pH were fabricated from epitaxial, c-axis YBa2Cu3O7 films. Double step-edge junctions having a low 1\\/f noise were incorporated in these washers to form RF-SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices). A high tank circuit frequency near 150 MHz was chosen to reduce noise and improve the sensitivity

Y. Zhang; M. Miick; K. Herrmann; W. Zander; A. i. Braginski; C. Heiden

1993-01-01

438

Resonance eigenstates of the SQUID-qubit system  

E-print Network

We study the complex-valued resonance spectrum of a dc-SQUID coupled to a flux qubit, where the former is treated in the cubic and the latter in the two-level approximation. It is shown that this spectrum is well-defined and contains most of the relevant information on the escape process. Thus, the language of resonance states is precise and well-adapted to switching- (or trigger-) type qubit readout, and a worthwhile complement to the various descriptions of continuous qubit measurement. Initial progress is analytic, but nonperturbative numerical methods have been formulated and should soon yield accurate results for all parameter values.

Alec Maassen van den Brink

2006-06-14

439

Crystal structure and encapsulation dynamics of ice II-structured neon hydrate.  

PubMed

Neon hydrate was synthesized and studied by in situ neutron diffraction at 480 MPa and temperatures ranging from 260 to 70 K. For the first time to our knowledge, we demonstrate that neon atoms can be enclathrated in water molecules to form ice II-structured hydrates. The guest Ne atoms occupy the centers of D2O channels and have substantial freedom of movement owing to the lack of direct bonding between guest molecules and host lattices. Molecular dynamics simulation confirms that the resolved structure where Ne dissolved in ice II is thermodynamically stable at 480 MPa and 260 K. The density distributions indicate that the vibration of Ne atoms is mainly in planes perpendicular to D2O channels, whereas their distributions along the channels are further constrained by interactions between adjacent Ne atoms. PMID:25002464

Yu, Xiaohui; Zhu, Jinlong; Du, Shiyu; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C; Han, Jiantao; Germann, Timothy C; Zhang, Jianzhong; Jin, Changqing; Francisco, Joseph S; Zhao, Yusheng

2014-07-22

440

The relative abundance of neon and magnesium in the solar corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is proposed for specifically determining the relative solar coronal abundance of neon and magnesium. The relative abundance is calculated directly from the relative intensity of the resonance lines of Ne X (12.134A) and Mg XI (9.169A) without the need for the development of a detailed model of the thermal structure of the corona. Moderate resolution Bragg crystal spectrometer results from the OVI-10 satellite were used to determine a coronal neon to magnesium relative abundance of 1.47 + or - 0.38. The application of this technique to a recent higher resolution rocket observation gave an abundance ratio of approximately 0.93 + or - 0.15.

Rugge, H. R.; Walker, A. B. C., Jr.

1976-01-01

441

Time series analysis of ionization waves in dc neon glow discharge  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of dc neon glow discharge is examined by calculating a Lyapunov exponent spectrum (LES) and correlation dimension (D{sub corr}) from experimental time series. The embedding theory is used to reconstruct an attractor with the delay coordinate method. The analysis refers to periodic, chaotic, and quasi-periodic attractors. The results obtained are confirmed by a comparison with other methods of time series analysis such as the Fourier power spectrum and autocorrelation function. The main object of the present work is the positive column of a dc neon glow discharge. The positive column is an excellent model for the study of a non-linearity plasma system because it is nonisothermal plasma far from equilibrium.

Hassouba, M. A.; Al-Naggar, H. I.; Al-Naggar, N. M.; Wilke, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University (Egypt); Institute of Physics, E. M. A. University, Domstrasse 10a, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2006-07-15

442

Angle-resolved Auger electron spectra induced by neon ion impact on aluminum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auger electron emission from aluminum bombarded with 1 to 5 keV neon ions was studied by angle-resolved electron spectroscopy. The position and shape of the spectral features depended on the incident ion energy, angle of ion incidence, and electron take-off angle with respect to the aluminum surface. These spectral dependencies were interpreted in terms of the Doppler shift given to the Auger electron velocity by the excited atom ejected into the vacuum. For oblique ion incidence it is concluded that a flux of high energy atoms are ejected in a direction close to the projection of the ion beam on the target surface. In addition, a new spectral feature was found and identified as due to Auger emission from excited neon in the aluminum matrix.

Pepper, S. V.; Aron, P. R.

1986-01-01

443

Design study of steady-state 30-tesla liquid-neon-cooled magnet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design for a 30-tesla, liquid-neon-cooled magnet was reported which is capable of continuous operation. Cooled by nonboiling, forced-convection heat transfer to liquid neon flowing at 2.8 cu m/min in a closed, pressurized heat-transfer loop and structurally supported by a tapered structural ribbon, the tape-wound coils with a high-purity-aluminum conductor will produce over 30 teslas for 1 minute at 850 kilowatts. The magnet will have an inside diameter of 7.5 centimeters and an outside diameter of 54 centimeters. The minimum current density at design field will be 15.7 kA/sq cm.

Prok, G. M.; Brown, G. V.

1976-01-01

444

Sorptivity of fly ash concretes  

SciTech Connect

A factorial experiment was designed to measure the sorptivity of cement and fly ash concretes in order to compare the durability of fly ash concrete against the cement concrete. Sorptivity measurements based on the capillary movement of water was made on three grades of cement concrete and six grades of fly ash mixes. The effect of curing was also studied by treating the samples in two curving conditions. A functional relationship of sorptivity against the strength, curing condition and fly ash content has been presented. The results were useful to analyze the factors influencing the durability of cement and fly ash concretes and to explain why some of the previously reported findings were contradictory. Curing conditions have been found to be the most important factor that affected the durability properties of fly ash concrete. When proper curing was provided, a mix with 40% fly ash was found to reduce the sorptivity by 37%. Under inadequate curing the sorptivity was found to increase by 60%. The influence of curing on cement concrete was found to be of much less importance.

Gopalan, M.K. [Univ. of New South Wales, Campbell, Australian Capital Territory (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of New South Wales, Campbell, Australian Capital Territory (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-08-01

445

Effect of helium-neon and infrared laser irradiation on wound healing in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the biostimulating effects of helium-neon laser radiation (HeNe; 632.8 nm), pulsed infrared laser radiation (IR; 904 nm), and the two combined on skin wound healing in New Zealand white rabbits. Seventy-two rabbits received either (1) no exposure, (2) 1.65 J\\/cm2 HeNe, (3) 8.25 J\\/cm2 pulsed IR, or (4) both HeNe and IR together to one of two dorsal

Berton Braverman; Robert J. McCarthy; Anthony D. Ivankovich; Danon E. Forde; Michael Overfield; Mahapna S. Bapna

1989-01-01

446

Liquid-gas transition of neon in quasi-one-dimensional environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We characterize the behavior of a system of Ne20 atoms in a pure one-dimensional environment between 12 and 30 K by means of path integral Monte Carlo calculations. This is a reasonable model to describe neon absorbed inside a narrow carbon nanotube. When embedded in a bundle of those tubes, this quasi-one-dimensional system can undergo a liquid-gas phase transition if nanotubes are narrow and close enough.

Brualla, L.; Gordillo, M. C.

2003-08-01

447

Liquid-gas transition of neon in quasi-one-dimensional environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize the behavior of a system of Ne20 atoms in a pure one-dimensional environment between 12 and 30 K by means of path integral Monte Carlo calculations. This is a reasonable model to describe neon absorbed inside a narrow carbon nanotube. When embedded in a bundle of those tubes, this quasi-one-dimensional system can undergo a liquid-gas phase transition if

L. Brualla; M. C. Gordillo

2003-01-01

448

Effect of Helium-Neon Laser Irradiation on Hair Follicle Growth Cycle of Swiss Albino Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the effect of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on the hair follicle growth cycle of testosterone-treated and untreated mice. Both histology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used for the measurement of hair follicle length and the relative percentage of hair follicles in different growth phases. A positive

S. Shukla; K. Sahu; Y. Verma; K. D. Rao; A. Dube; P. K. Gupta

2010-01-01

449

Population genetic structure of the neon damselfish ( Pomacentrus coelestis ) in the northwestern Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population genetic structure of the neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) in the northwestern Pacific Ocean was revealed by the hypervariable control region of the mitochondrial gene (343bp). In\\u000a total, 170 individuals were sampled from 8 localities distributed between Taiwan and Japan, and 71 haplotypes were obtained\\u000a through sequence alignment. High haplotype diversity (h=0.9560.008) with low nucleotide diversity (?=0.0100.006) was observed,

Shang-Yin V. Liu; Tomoyuki Kokita; Chang-Feng Dai

2008-01-01

450

University of Virginia Physical Science SOL Activities: Neon Bulbs & Motion of Charge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is a lesson plan featuring the neon bulb, an object that can be lighted either by electric current or by static charge. Accompanied by detailed background information, this lesson promotes conceptual understanding of electron transfer. It includes printable data sheets for use in the physics classroom. No math is required. This lesson is part of a larger collection generated by the University of Virginia Department of Physics outreach program.

Morse, Robert

2006-11-07

451

The infrared spectroscopy and photochemistry of NO{sub 3} trapped in solid neon  

SciTech Connect

NO{sub 3} can be stabilized in solid neon either by codeposition at 4.3 K of a Ne:O{sub 2} mixture with a Ne:NO mixture that has been passed through a microwave discharge or, in higher yield, by codeposition of a Ne:NO mixture with a Ne:O{sub 2} mixture, followed by annealing of the deposit at {approx}7 K and exposure of the solid to near ultraviolet radiation. All of the previously reported bands of NO{sub 3} between 700 and 3000 cm{sup -1} were observed, most with neon-matrix shifts of less than 2.5 cm{sup -1}. The infrared spectra of eight isotopic species of NO{sub 3} were obtained. The observed isotopic shifts demonstrate the occurrence of extensive mixing of ground-state levels of e{sup '} symmetry and their strong vibronic interaction with the B-tilde{sup 2}E{sup '} state. Photodissociation of NO{sub 3} by irradiation of the deposit at wavelengths longer than 520 nm leads to new absorptions near the fundamentals of NO and O{sub 2} and other new absorptions at relatively low frequencies. These absorptions were depleted and NO{sub 3} regenerated by subsequent near ultraviolet irradiation of the deposit, suggesting the stabilization of a weakly bound NO(O{sub 2}) complex in solid neon.

Jacox, Marilyn E.; Thompson, Warren E. [Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8441 (United States)

2008-11-28

452

On the stability of cationic complexes of neon with helium--solving an experimental discrepancy.  

PubMed

Helium nanodroplets are doped with neon and ionized by electrons. The size-dependence of the ion abundance of HenNex(+), identified in high-resolution mass spectra, is deduced for complexes containing up to seven neon atoms and dozens of helium atoms. Particularly stable ions are inferred from anomalies in the abundance distributions. Two pronounced anomalies at n = 11 and 13 in the HenNe(+) series confirm drift-tube data reported by Kojima et al. [T. M. Kojima et al., Z. Phys. D, 1992, 22, 645]. The discrepancy with previously published spectra of neon-doped helium droplets, which did not reveal any abundance anomalies [T. Ruchti et al., J. Chem. Phys., 1998, 109, 10679-10687; C. A. Brindle et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 123, 064312], is most likely due to limited mass resolution, which precluded unambiguous analysis of contributions from different ions with identical nominal mass. However, calculated dissociation energies of HenNe(+) reported so far do not correlate with the present data, possibly because of challenges in correctly treating the linear, asymmetric [He-Ne-He](+) ionic core in HenNe(+). Anomalies identified in the distributions of HenNex(+) for x > 1, including prominent ones at He12Ne2(+) and He14Ne2(+), may help to better understand solvation of Ne(+) and Nex(+) in helium. PMID:23958826

Bartl, Peter; Denifl, Stephan; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

2013-10-21

453

PRESOLAR GRAINS FROM NOVAE: EVIDENCE FROM NEON AND HELIUM ISOTOPES IN COMET DUST COLLECTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Presolar grains in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles carry non-solar isotopic signatures pointing to origins in supernovae, giant stars, and possibly other stellar sources. There have been suggestions that some of these grains condensed in the ejecta of classical nova outbursts, but the evidence is ambiguous. We report neon and helium compositions in particles captured on stratospheric collectors flown to sample materials from comets 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup and 55P/Tempel-Tuttle that point to condensation of their gas carriers in the ejecta of a neon (ONe) nova. The absence of detectable {sup 3}He in these particles indicates space exposure to solar wind irradiation of a few decades at most, consistent with origins in cometary dust streams. Measured {sup 4}He/{sup 20}Ne, {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}Ne, {sup 21}Ne/{sup 22}Ne, and {sup 20}Ne/{sup 21}Ne isotope ratios, and a low upper limit on {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He, are in accord with calculations of nucleosynthesis in neon nova outbursts. Of these, the uniquely low {sup 4}He/{sup 20}Ne and high {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}Ne ratios are the most diagnostic, reflecting the large predicted {sup 20}Ne abundances in the ejecta of such novae. The correspondence of measured Ne and He compositions in cometary matter with theoretical predictions is evidence for the presence of presolar grains from novae in the early solar system.

Pepin, Robert O.; Palma, Russell L. [Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Gehrz, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Starrfield, Sumner, E-mail: pepin001@umn.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

2011-12-01

454

Transmission spectroscopy and atomic kinetics of neon photoionized plasma experiments at Z  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a series of experiments performed at the Z facility in which photoionized plasmas were produced by driving a neon-filled gas cell with the intense x-ray flux emitted at the collapse of a z-pinch. The broad-band radiation flux from the z-pinch is used to both create the neon photoionised plasma and provide a source of backlighting photons to study the atomic kinetics through K-shell transmission spectroscopy. The plasma is contained in cm-scale gas cell and the filling pressure is carefully monitored in situ all the way to shot time since it is the particle number density diagnostic of the plasma. Time-integrated and gated transmission spectra are recorded with a TREX spectrometer equipped with two KAP elliptically-bent crystals and a set of slits to record up to six spatially-resolved spectra per crystal in the same shot. The transmission data shows line absorption transitions in several ionization stages of neon. Detailed modeling calculations are used to interpret the data.

Mancini, R.; Hall, I.; Durmaz, T.; Bailey, J.; Rochau, G.; Cohen, D.; Foord, M.; Heeter, R.

2010-11-01

455

The infrared spectroscopy and photochemistry of NO(3) trapped in solid neon.  

PubMed

NO(3) can be stabilized in solid neon either by codeposition at 4.3 K of a Ne:O(2) mixture with a Ne:NO mixture that has been passed through a microwave discharge or, in higher yield, by codeposition of a Ne:NO mixture with a Ne:O(2) mixture, followed by annealing of the deposit at approximately 7 K and exposure of the solid to near ultraviolet radiation. All of the previously reported bands of NO(3) between 700 and 3000 cm(-1) were observed, most with neon-matrix shifts of less than 2.5 cm(-1). The infrared spectra of eight isotopic species of NO(3) were obtained. The observed isotopic shifts demonstrate the occurrence of extensive mixing of ground-state levels of e(') symmetry and their strong vibronic interaction with the B (2)E(') state. Photodissociation of NO(3) by irradiation of the deposit at wavelengths longer than 520 nm leads to new absorptions near the fundamentals of NO and O(2) and other new absorptions at relatively low frequencies. These absorptions were depleted and NO(3) regenerated by subsequent near ultraviolet irradiation of the deposit, suggesting the stabilization of a weakly bound NO(O(2)) complex in solid neon. PMID:19045863

Jacox, Marilyn E; Thompson, Warren E

2008-11-28

456

Calibration of liquid argon and neon detectors with {sup 83}Kr{sup m}  

SciTech Connect

We report results from tests of {sup 83}Kr{sup m} as a calibration source in liquid argon and liquid neon. {sup 83}Kr{sup m} atoms are produced in the decay of {sup 83}Rb, and a clear {sup 83}Kr{sup m} scintillation peak at 41.5 keV appears in both liquids when filling our detector through zeolite coated with {sup 83}Rb. Based on this scintillation peak, we observe 6.0 photoelectrons/keV in liquid argon with a resolution of 8.2% (sigma/E) and 3.0 photoelectrons/keV in liquid neon with a resolution of 19% (sigma/E). The observed peak intensity subsequently decays with the {sup 83}Kr{sup m} half-life after stopping the fill, and we find evidence that the spatial location of {sup 83}Kr{sup m} atoms in the chamber can be resolved. {sup 83}Kr{sup m} will be a useful calibration source for liquid argon, neon dark matter, and solar neutrino detectors.

Lippincott, W. H.; Cahn, S. B.; Kastens, L. W.; McKinsey, D. N.; Nikkel, J. A. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Gastler, D.; Kearns, E. [Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

2010-04-15

457

NEON's Citizen Science Academy: Exploring online professional development courses for educators to enhance participation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEON Citizen Science Academy (CSA) (citizenscienceacademy.org) was created to explore the need for online professional development (PD) resources and opportunities that explicitly focused on citizen science in diverse educational settings. In the past decade, there has been more widespread acceptance of online PD courses as viable alternatives to face to face classes and workshops. This acceptance, along with the current proliferation of online based citizen science programs, spurred the development of the CSA dedicated to providing online courses and resources to facilitate effective implementation of citizen science programs. For the pilot, an online, self paced course for informal and formal educators was developed based on NEON' Project BudBurst (budburst.org). An intended outcome of this pilot project was the development of best practices based on lessons learned that could be used for the development of future NEON online courses and shared with the citizen science community, The pilot clearly demonstrated the interest in an online citizen science course. Initial registration far exceeded expectations and additional sessions had to be offered to meet demand. A second online course was developed and offered in the fall to similar interest. Additional courses will be offered in the winter of 2013. We will report on lessons learned and early best practices based, in large part, from field testing and feedback of over 400 educators who have taken participated in the CSA to date.

Henderson, S.; Ward, D.; Wasser, L.; Meymaris, K.; Newman, S. J.

2012-12-01

458

Testing of a Neon Loop Heat Pipe for Large Area Cryocooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryocooling of large areas such as optics, detector arrays, and cryogenic propellant tanks is required for future NASA missions. A cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) can provide a closed-loop cooling system for this purpose and has many advantages over other devices in terms of reduced mass, reduced vibration, high reliability, and long life. A neon CLHP was tested extensively in a thermal vacuum chamber using a cryopump as the heat sink to characterize its transient and steady performance and verify its ability to cool large areas or components. Tests conducted included loop cool-down from the ambient temperature, startup, power cycle, heat removal capability, loop capillary limit and recovery from a dry-out, low power operation, and long duration steady state operation. The neon CLHP demonstrated robust operation. The loop could be cooled from the ambient temperature to subcritical temperatures very effectively, and could start successfully by applying power to both the pump and evaporator without any pre-conditioning. It could adapt to changes in the pump power andor evaporator power, and reach a new steady state very quickly. The evaporator could remove heat loads between 0.25W and 4W. When the pump capillary limit was exceeded, the loop could resume its normal function by reducing the pump power. Steady state operations were demonstrated for up to 6 hours. The ability of the neon loop to cool large areas was therefore successfully verified.

Ku, Jentung; Robinson, Franklin Lee

2014-01-01

459

The infrared spectroscopy and photochemistry of NO3 trapped in solid neon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NO3 can be stabilized in solid neon either by codeposition at 4.3 K of a Ne:O2 mixture with a Ne:NO mixture that has been passed through a microwave discharge or, in higher yield, by codeposition of a Ne:NO mixture with a Ne:O2 mixture, followed by annealing of the deposit at ~7 K and exposure of the solid to near ultraviolet radiation. All of the previously reported bands of NO3 between 700 and 3000 cm-1 were observed, most with neon-matrix shifts of less than 2.5 cm-1. The infrared spectra of eight isotopic species of NO3 were obtained. The observed isotopic shifts demonstrate the occurrence of extensive mixing of ground-state levels of e' symmetry and their strong vibronic interaction with the B~ 2E' state. Photodissociation of NO3 by irradiation of the deposit at wavelengths longer than 520 nm leads to new absorptions near the fundamentals of NO and O2 and other new absorptions at relatively low frequencies. These absorptions were depleted and NO3 regenerated by subsequent near ultraviolet irradiation of the deposit, suggesting the stabilization of a weakly bound NO(O2) complex in solid neon.

Jacox, Marilyn E.; Thompson, Warren E.

2008-11-01

460

Flying qualities criteria for superaugmented aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of Dryden superaugmented aircraft flying qualities research is presented. This includes F-8 digital fly by wire flight experiments, orbiter flying qualities, shuttle improvements, AFTI/F-16, flying qualities and control system alternatives, Vertical Motion Simulator Shuttle evaluation and Total in Flight Simulator pitch rate criteria.

Berry, D. T.

1984-01-01

461

COURSE INFORMATION: Title: Fly Fishing Weekend  

E-print Network

COURSE INFORMATION: Title: Fly Fishing Weekend Department/Number: NONC F040 F01 Credits: 0 to the art and science of fly casting, fishing and tying. Students will learn how use a fly rod to place a fly with pinpoint accuracy, tie fishing knots and construct their own leaders, and, most importantly

Sikes, Derek S.

462

Large Sticky Traps for Capturing House Flies and Stable Flies in Dairy Calf Greenhouse Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large sticky traps were evaluated for stable fly, Sto- moxys calcitrans (L.), and house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) capture under field conditions in 5 dairy calf greenhouse facilities in New York. The farm with the highest stable fly capture had the highest house fly capture, and the farm with the lowest stable fly capture had the lowest house

P. E. Kaufman; D. A. Rutz; S. Frisch

2005-01-01

463

Neural control of tuneable skin iridescence in squid  

PubMed Central

Fast dynamic control of skin coloration is rare in the animal kingdom, whether it be pigmentary or structural. Iridescent structural coloration results when nanoscale structures disrupt incident light and selectively reflect specific colours. Unlike animals with fixed iridescent coloration (e.g. butterflies), squid iridophores (i.e. aggregations of iridescent cells in the skin) produce dynamically tuneable structural coloration, as exogenous application of acetylcholine (ACh) changes the colour and brightness output. Previous efforts to stimulate iridophores neurally or to identify the source of endogenous ACh were unsuccessful, leaving researchers to question the activation mechanism. We developed a novel neurophysiological preparation in the squid Doryteuthis pealeii and demonstrated that electrical stimulation of neurons in the skin shifts the spectral peak of the reflected light to shorter wavelengths (greater than 145 nm) and increases the peak reflectance (greater than 245%) of innervated iridophores. We show ACh is released within the iridophore layer and that extensive nerve branching is seen within the iridophore. The dynamic colour shift is significantly faster (17 s) than the peak reflectance increase (32 s), revealing two distinct mechanisms. Responses from a structurally altered preparation indicate that the reflectin protein condensation mechanism explains peak reflectance change, while an undiscovered mechanism causes the fast colour shift. PMID:22896651

Wardill, T. J.; Gonzalez-Bellido, P. T.; Crook, R. J.; Hanlon, R. T.

2012-01-01

464

Discriminative responses of squid (Loligo pealeii) photoreceptors to polarized light.  

PubMed

Cephalopods behaviorally respond to polarized light. Electrophysiology experiments with the squid, Loligo pealeii, demonstrated that spike responses from individual photoreceptors are a cosine2 function of the e-vector orientation of a polarized stimulus. The discrimination limit to this polarization sensitivity depended upon the difference between the orientation of a polarized stimulus with a preferred e-vector. The limit ranged from 2 degrees to 9.2 degrees with a direct stimulus in the dark or 4.8 degrees -22.1 degrees with non-directed background illumination and the cells were least discriminative at the preferred orientations. This limit can be explained partly by the variability in anatomical alignment of microvilli in the photoreceptors around a dominant axis. A few light-sensitive retinal fibers showed no polarization sensitivity. The coding of polarization information suggests that light intensity is transformed into an average spike rate. This average results from silent periods interspersed between bursts of spikes, each burst possessing a consistent interspike interval. The variations in the length and frequency of silent periods depend upon the difference between the polarization e-vector and a preferred e-vector orientation. The minimal discriminated orientation of a squid photoreceptor agrees well with the minimum behavioral discrimination of polarized light by another cephalopod, the octopus. PMID:16165381

Saidel, William M; Shashar, Nadav; Schmolesky, Matthew T; Hanlon, Roger T

2005-11-01

465

SQUID-Detected In Vivo MRI at Microtesla Magnetic Fields  

SciTech Connect

We use a low transition temperature (T{sub c}) Super-conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) to perform in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at magnetic fields around 100 microtesla, corresponding to proton Larmor frequencies of about 5 kHz. In such low fields, broadening of the nuclear magnetic resonance lines due to inhomogeneous magnetic fields and susceptibility variations of the sample are minimized, enabling us to obtain high quality images. To reduce environmental noise the signal is detected by a second-order gradiometer, coupled to the SQUID, and the experiment is surrounded by a 3-mm thick Al shield. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we prepolarize the samples in a field up to 100 mT. Three-dimensional images are acquired in less than 6 minutes with a standard spin-echo phase-encoding sequence. Using encoding gradients of {approx}100 {micro}T/m we obtain three-dimensional images of bell peppers with a resolution of 2 x 2 x 8 mm{sup 3}. Our system is ideally suited to acquiring images of small, peripheral parts of the human body such as hands and arms. In vivo images of an arm, acquired at 132 {micro}T, show 24-mm sections of the forearm with a resolution of 3 x 3 mm{sup 2} and a SNR of 10. We discuss possible applications of MRI at these low magnetic fields.

Moble, Michael; Myers, Whittier R; Lee, SeungKyun; Kelso, Nathan; Hatridge, Michael; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

2005-06-01

466

Scanning SQUID Microscopy of Local Superconductivity in Inhomogeneous Combinatorial Ceramics.  

PubMed

Although combinatorial solid-state chemistry promises to be an efficient way to search for new superconducting compounds, the problem of determining which compositions are strongly diamagnetic in a mixed-phase sample is challenging. By means of reactions in a system of randomly mixed starting components (Ca, Sr, Ba, La, Y, Pb, Bi, Tl, and Cu oxides), samples were produced that showed an onset of diamagnetic response above 115?K in bulk measurements. Imaging of this diamagnetic response in ceramic samples by scanning SQUID microscopy (SSM) revealed local superconducting areas with sizes down to as small as the spatial resolution of a few micrometers. In addition, locally formed superconducting matter was extracted from mixed-phase samples by magnetic separation. The analysis of single grains (d<80??m) by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and bulk SQUID measurements allowed Tl2 Ca3 Ba2 Cu4 O12 , TlCaBaSrCu2 O7-? , BaPb0.5 Bi0.25 Tl0.25 O3-? , TlBa2 Ca2 Cu3 O9 , Tl2 Ba2 CaCu2 O8 , and YBa2 Cu3 O7 phases to be identified. SSM, in combination with other diagnostic techniques, is therefore shown to be a useful instrument to analyze inhomogeneous reaction products in the solid-state chemistry of materials showing magnetic properties. PMID:25303177

Iranmanesh, Mitra; Stir, Manuela; Kirtley, John R; Hulliger, Jrg

2014-11-24

467

Impact of SQUIDs on functional imaging in neuroscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an overview on the basic principles and applications of magnetoencephalography (MEG), a technique that requires the use of many SQUIDs and thus represents one of the most important applications of superconducting electronics. Since the development of the first SQUID magnetometers, it was clear that these devices could be used to measure the ultra-low magnetic signals associated with the bioelectric activity of the neurons of the human brain. Forty years on from the first measurement of magnetic alpha rhythm by David Cohen, MEG has become a fundamental tool for the investigation of brain functions. The simple localization of cerebral sources activated by sensory stimulation performed in the early years has been successively expanded to the identification of the sequence of neuronal pool activations, thus decrypting information of the hierarchy underlying cerebral processing. This goal has been achieved thanks to the development of complex instrumentation, namely whole head MEG systems, allowing simultaneous measurement of magnetic fields all over the scalp with an exquisite time resolution. The latest trends in MEG, such as the study of brain networks, i.e. how the brain organizes itself in a coherent and stable way, are discussed. These sound applications together with the latest technological developments aimed at implementing systems able to record MEG signals and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head with the same set-up pave the way to high performance systems for brain functional investigation in the healthy and the sick population.

Della Penna, Stefania; Pizzella, Vittorio; Romani, Gian Luca

2014-04-01

468

Fabrication and performance of high T sub c two hole bulk and single hole thick film rf SQUIDs at 77 K  

SciTech Connect

Two hole YBCO bulk and one hole YBCO, BSCCO thick films rf SQUIDs have been fabricated and operated at 77K. RF SQUID behavior has been studied using commercial rf SQUID electronic with external rf and af sources. Flux noise density of these SQUIDs depend on the quality of the microbridge. In this paper flux noise present in various reported high T{sub c} film rf SQUIDs are compared.

Khare, N.; Gupta, A.K.; Chaudhry, S.; Arora, S.K.; Tomar, V.S.; Ojha, V.N. (National Physical Lab., New Delhi (India))

1991-03-01

469

Interactive Fly: Germ Band Extension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In situ images from an award-winning and comprehensive site, The Interactive Fly. Entering through an expression pattern, this site thoroughly discusses each genes and shows its expression relative to other genes at this stage.

PhD Thomas B Brody (NIH Laboratory of Neurochemistry)

2006-12-12

470

[Therapy of fear of flying].  

PubMed

Fear of flying is a widespread phenomenon and therefore, there is no clear-cut borderline between "normal" and "pathological" fear. People who seek help are those whose lives are severely affected by their avoidance behaviour. Fear of flying can be treated, and in particular, procedures for coping with fear, as developed in behavioural therapy are employed in the course of treatment. 'Systematic desensitization' is particularly suitable for dealing with specific flying phobia. 'Exposure according to the reaction management model' is indicated in the case of patients in whom fear of flying is an expression of panic attacks. A variety of pharmacological therapy measures are available which aim at influencing the vegetative reaction to phobic situations (benzodiazepine, antidepressants, beta-blockers). However, the effectiveness of such medications is subject to controversy. PMID:12385065

Gnther, Verena; Haller, Christina; Kinzl, J

2002-01-01

471

Make and Fly a Helicopter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners follow the template to build and fly a paper helicopter. They can attempt many experiments (shortening the blades, adding weight to the helicopter) and see how the flight of the helicopter is affected.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

472

Influence of Squid Liver Powder on Accumulation of Cadmium in Serum, Kidney and Liver of Mice  

PubMed Central

In this study, the effect of squid liver powder intake on accumulation of cadmium in mice was investigated. Subjects were divided into 4 groups including the control group (CON), squid liver powder group with lipids not removed (SLP100), and squid liver powder groups with lipids removed (LFSLP50 and LFSLP100). Feed intake and food efficiency ratio of squid liver powder groups was significantly higher than the CON. As a result of investigating cadmium content in hair, serum, liver, and kidney during intake of squid liver powder, all groups showed increase in cadmium accumulation through consistent, long-term intake. Especially, cadmium content in liver and kidney of LFSLP100 was significantly higher than the content of SLP100 and CON. As a result of pathological observation on liver and kidney tissues according to squid liver powder diet, LFSLP100 showed most serious pathological symptoms. In case of kidney tissues, degeneration was significantly more severe in LFSLP100 compared to other groups. Such results suggest that cadmium concentration in human body can be increased by ingestion of whole squid including internal organs and that tissues can be damaged by increased cadmium concentration. More specific and systematic studies are deemed necessary. PMID:24471103

Kim, Byoung-Mok; Lee, Soo-Young; Jeong, In-Hak

2013-01-01

473

Developing a Scalable Remote Sampling Design for the NEON Airborne Observation Platform (AOP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) airborne observation platform (AOP) will collect co-registered high-resolution hyperspectral imagery, discrete and waveform LiDAR, and high-resolution digital photography for more than 60 terrestrial and 23 aquatic sites spread across the continental United States, Puerto Rico, Alaska and Hawaii on an annual basis over the next 30 years. These data, to be made freely available to the public, will facilitate the scaling of field-based biological, physical and chemical measurements to regional and continental scales, enabling a better understanding of the relationships between climate variability and change, land use change and invasive species, and their ecological consequences in areas not directly sampled by the NEON facilities. However, successful up-scaling of in situ measurements requires a flight sampling design that captures environmental heterogeneity and diversity (i.e., ecological and topographic gradients), is sensitive to temporal system variation (e.g., phenology), and can respond to major disturbance events. Alignment of airborne campaigns - composed of two payloads for nominal science acquisitions and one payload for PI-driven rapid-response campaigns -- with other ground, airborne (e.g., AVIRIS) and satellite (e.g., Landsat, MODIS) collections will further facilitate scaling between sensors and data sources of varying spatial and spectral resolution and extent. This presentation will discuss the approach, challenges and future goals associated with the development of NEON AOP's sampling design, using examples from the 2013 nominal flight campaigns in the Central Plains (NEON Domain 10) and the Pacific Southwest (Domain 17), and the rapid response flight campaign of the High Park Fire site outside of Fort Collins, CO. Determination of the specific flight coverage areas for each campaign involved analysis of the landscape scale ecological, geophysical and bioclimatic attributes and trends most closely associated with the primary science questions NEON data is addressing in each domain. An effort was made to capture the range of spatial and temporal variability at each site and across multiple sites so as to enable the science community to extrapolate across multiple scales, from organisms to landscapes to domain- and continental-scales using a variety of field and remotely sensed data.

Musinsky, J.; Wasser, L. A.; Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Petroy, S. B.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Serbin, S.

2013-12-01

474

Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\\\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\\\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\\\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\\\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\\\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\\\approx 10$.

Laura A. Miller; Steven Harenber; Ty Hedrick; Alice Robinson; Arvind Santhanakrishnan; Audrey Lowe

2011-01-01

475

Are oxygen and neon enriched in PNe and is the current solar Ne/O abundance ratio underestimated?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thorough critical literature survey has been carried out for reliable measurements of oxygen and neon abundances of planetary nebulae (PNe) and HII regions. By contrasting the results of PNe and of HII regions, we aim to address the issues of the evolution of oxygen and neon in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in the late evolutionary phases of low- and intermediate-mass stars (LIMS), as well as the currently hotly disputed solar Ne/O abundance ratio. Through the comparisons, we find that neon abundance and Ne/O ratio increase with increasing oxygen abundance in both types of nebulae, with positive correlation coefficients larger than 0.75. The correlations suggest different enrichment mechanisms for oxygen and neon in the ISM, in the sense that the growth of neon is delayed compared to oxygen. The differences of abundances between PNe and HII regions are mainly attributed to the results of nucleosynthesis and dredge-up processes that occurred in the progenitor stars of PNe. We find that both these ?-elements are significantly enriched at low metallicity (initial oxygen abundance <~8.0) but not at metallicity higher than the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The fact that Ne/O ratios measured in PNe are almost the same as those in HII regions, regardless of the metallicity, suggest a very similar production mechanism of neon and oxygen in intermediate-mass stars (IMS) of low initial metallicities and in more massive stars, a conjecture that requires verification by further theoretical studies. This result also strongly suggests that both the solar neon abundance and the Ne/O ratio should be revised upwards by ~0.22dex from the Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval values or by ~0.14dex from the Grevesse & Sauval values.

Wang, W.; Liu, X.-W.

2008-09-01

476

[Fear of flying].  

PubMed

All reliable data and statistics point to the safety of flying. Nevertheless many opinion surveys indicate that every third in the population is affected by aviophobia in one way or the other. Aviophobia is simply a specific phobia from which men and women suffer the same degree. It can be found in all social strata and all occupational groups. Aviophobia is felt in very subjective manners and different ways. The structure of reasons of aviophobia can be very complex, whereas it is somewhat easier to identify immediately the causes. Depending upon the degree of aviophobia different strategies of treatment are indicated. Next to the confrontation theraphy the most wellknown therapy is the systematic desensibilization, classic relaxation methods and cognitive strategies for overcoming the phobia. A high degree of success has been achieved with workshops on aviophobia. These workshops show an increasing tendency. It can be expected that in the future exposition treatment working with virtual realities will also prove successful in overcoming aviophobia. First case studies on the effectivity are all ready available and further effects towards corroborating the effectivity are being plant. Successful with a reduced and minimal input of therapeutic council are also self-management books. In order to master aviophobia, it may be sufficient in cases of less intensivity to work with self-management books in the sense of bibliotherapy. PMID:10568255

Mller-Ortstein, H; Baumeister, H P

1999-10-01

477

Tempus Fugit: Time Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online exhibit from a prominent American museum explores the character of time -- its impact on our daily lives and its ability to shape and reform human consciousness. Tempus Fugit: Time Flies is a superb exhibit from the Nelson Atkins Museum of Art that uses items from the museum to exemplify different understandings of time. The exhibit features sections on 20th Century Time, World Times, and Conservation Time. Twentieth-century time considers the changing nature of time in the technological age by examining the innovations in graphic and plastic arts inspired by an altered sense of time. The exhibit includes works by Muybridge, Edward Hopper, Salvador Dali, Kandinsky, Rothko, Roy Lichtenstein, and others. The second section, World Times, focuses on the different conceptions of time embodied in art from primitive times to the present and ranges from ancient Native American to Medieval Europe to ancestral Africa to the deeply cosmological perceptions of time in ancient Indian civilizations. Conservation Time takes visitors behind the scenes to see how conservation science can uncover the history of a work's composition and the changes wrought upon it over the course of its lifetime. The Website also offers ideas for teaching using the exhibits. In sum, this is an elegantly constructed and intelligent Website. To be sure, users will want to set aside some time for it as the graphics enforce their own meditative pace upon the viewer.

478

Flying in Two Dimensions  

E-print Network

Diversity and specialization of behavior in insects is unmatched. Insects hop, walk, run, jump, row, swim, glide and fly to propel themselves in a variety of environments. We have uncovered an unusual mode of propulsion of aerodynamic flight in two dimensions in Waterlilly Beetles \\emph{(Galerucella)}. The adult beetles, often found in water lilly ponds, propel themselves strictly in a two-dimensional plane on the surface of water via flapping wing flight. Here we analyze the aerodynamics of this peculiar flight mode with respect to forces exerted on the organism during flight. The complexity of 2-D flight is captured by accounting for additional forces beyond gravitational, thrust, lift and drag, exerted on the insect body in 3D flight. Understanding this constrained propulsion mode requires accounting for viscous drag, surface tension, buoyancy force, and capillary-wave drag. Moreover, dramatic differences exist in the magnitude of the resultant forces in 2D vs. 3D flight. Here, in this fluid dynamics video...

Prakash, Manu

2011-01-01

479

A SQUID-based microwave cavity search for dark-matter axions  

SciTech Connect

Axions in the {mu}eV mass range are a plausible cold dark matter candidate and may be detected by their conversion into microwave photons in a resonant cavity immersed in a static magnetic field. The first result from such an axion search using a superconducting first-stage amplifier (SQUID) is reported. The SQUID amplifier, replacing a conventional GaAs field-effect transistor amplifier, successfully reached axion-photon coupling sensitivity in the band set by present axion models and sets the stage for a definitive axion search utilizing near quantum-limited SQUID amplifiers.

Asztalos, S J; Carosi, G; Hagmann, C; Kinion, D; van Bibber, K; Hotz, M; Rosenberg, L; Rybka, G; Hoskins, J; Hwang, J; Sikivie, P; Tanner, D B; Bradley, R; Clarke, J

2009-10-21

480

Fabrication of NbN Josephson Tunnel Junctions and Their Application to DC-SQUIDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated all hard metal NbN/NbN tunnel junctions. The low dielectic constant of a plasma oxidized a-Si barrier leads to low-capacitance junctions (3 ?F/cm2) which are suitable for SQUID applications. Then, planar dc-SQUIDs have been fabricated with NbN junctions. Higher modulation voltages, as high as 90 ?V, with an applied flux were obtained for the SQUIDs with larger values of the product of the critical current and the shunting resistance. Effects of a damping resistance across the loop inductance have also been examined.

Matsuda, Mizushi; Kuriki, Shinya; Nagano, Yasushi

1986-08-01

481

The Light-Organ Symbiosis of Vibrio Fischeri and the Hawaiian Squid, Euprymna Scolopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This informational web page features the luminescent bacteria that live within the light organs of the bobtailed squid and the Hawaiian squid. The page includes a discussion of how symbionts and host influence each others development, bacterial genes required to successfully colonize the squid, the "venting" microenvironment, evidence for oxidative stress occurring inside the light organ, initiation of symbiosis, and the investigators who study the V. fischeri-E. scolopes symbiosis. It also features color images and links to selected reviews and research publications.

Graf, Joerg

2009-06-24

482

14N nuclear quadrupole resonance of p-nitrotoluene using a high-Tc rf SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a high-Tc radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf SQUID), we successfully detected nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) at about 887 kHz for 14N in p-nitrotoluene (PNT). A normal metal transformer made of copper wire was used to improve the sensitivity of the high-Tc rf SQUID and pulse-controlled rf switches and cross diodes were inserted in the transformer to reduce the influence of the strong excitation field. The preliminary results for NQR detection using the high-Tc SQUID had a similar signal-to-noise ratio to that of using a low noise preamplifier.

He, D. F.; Tachiki, M.; Itozaki, H.

2007-03-01

483

A SQUID readout system for a superconducting gyroscope. [superconducting quantum interference device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design of a read out system for a superconducting gyroscope to be used in an orbiting gyroscope relativity experiment is discussed. The 'London Moment' of the superconducting rotor, which lies along the spin axis of the rotor, will be measured with a SQUID-type magnetometer. The SQUID will be built around the gyro rotor, with a very close spacing to give an inductance between 10 millionths and 1 millionth Hy. A SQUID of this design should resolve 2.07 times 10 to the minus 19th weber. The angular resolution of the gyroscope will then be 0.0035 arc-second, which is sufficient for the intended experiment.

Hendricks, J. B.

1975-01-01

484

Substrate step-edge YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 rf SQUIDs  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a technique which permits high-yield fabrication of microbridges and low noise YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) in epitaxial thin films. These SQUIDs operate over a wide temperature range extending from 4 K to close to the superconducting transition temperature. Measurements of an rf SQUID operating at 77 K give a peak-to-peak flux sensitivity of 36 {mu}V/{Phi}{sub 0} and a flux noise at 10 Hz of 1.5{times} 10{sup {minus}4} {Phi}{sub 0}/{radical}Hz. Device yields over 80% have been obtained.

Daly, K.P.; Dozier, W.D.; Burch, J.F.; Coons, S.B.; Hu, R.; Platt, C.E.; Simon, R.W. (TRW Space Technology Group, One Space Park, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (US))

1991-02-04

485

Generation of N-qubit W states with rf SQUID qubits by adiabatic passage  

SciTech Connect

A simple scheme is presented to generate N-qubit W states with rf superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) in cavity QED through adiabatic passage. Because of the achievable strong coupling for rf SQUID qubits embedded in cavity QED, we can get the desired state with high success probability. Furthermore, the scheme is insensitive to the position inaccuracy of the rf SQUID. Numerical simulation shows that, by using present experimental techniques, we can achieve our scheme with very high success probability, and the fidelity could eventually be unity with the help of dissipation.

Deng, Z. J. [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, and Centre for Cold Atom Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, K. L.; Feng, M. [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, and Centre for Cold Atom Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

2006-12-15

486

Modlisation du SQUID rf en rflectomtrie : impdance la frquence de pompe, influence du bruit de fond  

E-print Network

1389 Modélisation du SQUID rf en réflectométrie : impédance à la fréquence de pompe, influence du, accepté le 29 juillet 1987) . Résumé. 2014 Les échanges d'énergie d'un circuit bouchon et d'un SQUID rf'abord précisée ; cette méthode, valide pour un SQUID largement hystérétique et faiblement couplé (k ~ 1) à un

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

487

Design of frequency domain multiplexing of TES signals by multi-input SQUIDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In frequency-domain Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) multiplexing for Transition Edge Sensor (TES) readout, a magnetic field summation method utilizing multi-input SQUIDs has a fundamental merit of small degradation of signal-to-noise ratio. Independent wiring without common impedance avoids the cross talk current, and the current induced by magnetic coupling between the input coils is suppressed by the direct feedback at the summing point. A multi-input SQUID which has 8 input coils has been fabricated and requirements for Flux Locked Loop (FLL) circuits are summarized.

Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Masui, Kensuke; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Morooka, Toshimitsu; Nakayama, Satoshi; Takei, Yoh

2006-04-01

488

Bloodsucking Insects and Filth-breeding Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on filth flies and insects which bite humans. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers Asian tiger mosquito, black salt marsh mosquito, stable fly, horse flies, deer flies, sand flies, head louse, public louse, bed bug, bloodsucking conenose, house fly, greenbottle flies, bluebottle flies, secondary screwworm fly, vinegar flies, flesh flies, moth flies, eye gnats, humpbacked flies and soldier flies. Requires Windows, and the tutorials must be installed on the computer's hard drive prior to use. Once installed and launched, the tutorials are intuitive to use. Illustrations incorporated into the questions are of high quality and approporiate to the point being illustrated. Some of the illustrated species are of regional significance (southeastern U.S.) and thus may not apply to other geograhic areas. Program includes a tool for recording student performance. These tutorials will be most useful to those particpating in coursework leading to pest management careers, those in general economic entomology courses, and perhaps to students in medical/veterinary courses. $15. Part number SW 156.

0002-11-30

489

Observation of cascaded two-photon-induced transitions between fluxoid states of a SQUID  

E-print Network

We present evidence for transitions between fluxoid wells of a SQUID due to cascaded, two-photon processes. Such transitions are evidenced by an anomalous dependence on the transition rate from the one-photon resonant level ...

Han, Siyuan; Lukens, J. E.; Rouse, R.

2000-02-07

490

Injury-Induced Vesiculation and Membrane Redistribution in Squid Giant Axon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Injury of isolated squid giant axons in sea water by cutting or stretching initiates the following unreported processes: (i) vesiculation in the subaxolemmal region extending along the axon several mm from the site of injury, followed by (ii) vesicular fu...

H. M. Fishman, K. P. Tewari, P. G. Stein

1990-01-01

491

Differential gene expression in bacterial symbionts from loliginid squids demonstrates variation between mutualistic and  

E-print Network

between mutualistic and environmental niches Ricardo C. Guerrero-Ferreira and Michele K. Nishiguchi, and maintenance of bacteria­squid associations. Introduction Bacterial­host interaction during mutualistic

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

492

A shot in the dark: same-sex sexual behaviour in a deep-sea squid.  

PubMed

Little is known about the reproductive habits of deep-living squids. Using remotely operated vehicles in the deep waters of the Monterey Submarine Canyon, we have found evidence of mating, i.e. implanted sperm packages, on similar body locations in males and females of the rarely seen mesopelagic squid Octopoteuthis deletron. Equivalent numbers of both sexes were found to have mated, indicating that male squid routinely and indiscriminately mate with both males and females. Most squid species are short-lived, semelparous (i.e. with a single, brief reproductive period) and promiscuous. In the deep, dark habitat where O. deletron lives, potential mates are few and far between. We suggest that same-sex mating behaviour by O. deletron is part of a reproductive strategy that maximizes success by inducing males to indiscriminately and swiftly inseminate every conspecific that they encounter. PMID:21937492

Hoving, Hendrik J T; Bush, Stephanie L; Robison, Bruce H

2012-04-23

493

High-gain weakly nonlinear flux-modulated Josephson parametric amplifier using a SQUID array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and measured a high-gain quantum-limited microwave parametric amplifier based on a superconducting lumped LC resonator with the inductor L including an array of eight superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). This amplifier is parametrically pumped by modulating the flux threading the SQUIDs at twice the resonator frequency. Around 5 GHz, a maximum gain of 31 dB, a product amplitude gain bandwidth above 60 MHz, and a 1 dB compression point of -123 dBm at 20 dB gain are obtained in the nondegenerate mode of operation. Phase-sensitive amplification-deamplification is also measured in the degenerate mode and yields a maximum gain of 37 dB. The compression point obtained is 18 dB above what would be obtained with a single SQUID of the same inductance, due to the smaller nonlinearity of the SQUID array.

Zhou, X.; Schmitt, V.; Bertet, P.; Vion, D.; Wustmann, W.; Shumeiko, V.; Esteve, D.

2014-06-01

494

Non-linear dynamics, entanglement and the quantum-classical crossover of two coupled SQUID rings  

E-print Network

We explore the quantum-classical crossover of two coupled, identical, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) rings. We note that the motivation for this work is based on a study of a similar system comprising two coupled Duffing oscillators. In that work we showed that the entanglement characteristics of chaotic and periodic (entrained) solutions differed significantly and that in the classical limit entanglement was preserved only in the chaotic-like solutions. However, Duffing oscillators are a highly idealised toy model. Motivated by a wish to explore more experimentally realisable systems we now extend our work to an analysis of two coupled SQUID rings. We observe some differences in behaviour between the system that is based on SQUID rings rather than on Duffing oscillators. However, we show that the two systems share a common feature. That is, even when the SQUID ring's trajectories appear to follow (semi) classical orbits entanglement persists.

M. J. Everitt

2009-09-24

495

Multiplexed readout of MMC detector arrays using non-hysteretic rf-SQUIDs  

E-print Network

Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) are widely used for various experiments in fields ranging from atomic and nuclear physics to x-ray spectroscopy, laboratory astrophysics or material science. Whereas in previous experiments single pixel detectors or small arrays have been used, for future applications large arrays are needed. Therefore, suitable multiplexing techniques for MMC arrays are currently under development. A promising approach for the readout of large arrays is the microwave SQUID multiplexer that operates in the frequency domain and that employs non-hysteretic rf-SQUIDs to transduce the detector signals into a frequency shift of high $Q$ resonators which can be monitored by using standard microwave measurement techniques. In this paper we discuss the design and the expected performance of a recently developed and fabricated 64 pixel detector array with integrated microwave SQUID multiplexer. First experimental data were obtained characterizing dc-SQUIDs with virtually identical washer design.

Kempf, S; Gastaldo, L; Fleischmann, A; Enss, C

2013-01-01

496

The Transition from Stiff to Compliant Materials in Squid Beaks  

PubMed Central

The beak of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas represents one of the hardest and stiffest wholly organic materials known. As it is deeply embedded