Sample records for neon flying squid

  1. Feeding habits of neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii in the transitional region of the central North Pacific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hikaru Watanabe; Tsunemi Kubodera; Taro Ichii; Shigeyuki Kawahara

    2004-01-01

    We examined the feeding habits of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii from late spring to mid-summer in relation to its northward migration in the transitional waters of the cen- tral North Pacific. The winter-spring cohort (ca. 15 to 25 cm in May and 20 to 35 cm in July) and the autumn cohort (ca. 30 to 45 cm in

  2. [Trace elements in the statoliths of neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua-Jie; Chen, Xin-Jun; Ma, Jin

    2014-08-01

    Statolith is one of the most important hard tissues of cephalopods which is widely used in the research of fisheries ecology including population structure, life history reconstruction and so on. Trace elements of 18 statoliths of neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii collected in the Northwest Pacific Ocean in 2007 by Chinese jigging fishing fleets were analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results indicated that the statoliths of O. bartramii mainly contained 55 elements, and calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), silicon (Si), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), iron (Fe), barium (Ba) were the 10 most abundant elements. The analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference in each element distribution between different sexual squid except for P, Si and B. Significant differences existed in the contents of Sr and Na but no significant difference was found in the contents of Ca, P, K, Si, Mg, B, Fe and Ba between different hatching populations. There were significant differences in the contents of Ca, Sr, Na, P, Mg and Ba, but no significant difference was found in the contents of K, Fe, B and Si in the statoliths among different growth zones. This study presented Sr and Na could be the best two trace elements used in the research on the population structure and life history reconstruction for O. bartramii. PMID:25509097

  3. Influence of El Nin~o/La Nin~a on the western winterspring cohort of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yong

    (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the northwestern Pacific Ocean Xin Jun Chen, Xiao Hu Zhao, and Yong Chen Chen, X. J of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. ­ ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64: 00­00. Ommastrephes bartramii is an oceanic squid distributed widely in the North Pacific

  4. Characteristic of lipids and fatty acid compositions of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    The lipids and fatty acids of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) were an-alyzed to clarify its lipid physiology and health benefit as marine food. Triacylglycerols were the only major component in the digestive gland (liver). In all other organs (mantle, arm, integument, and ovary), sterols and phospholipids were the major components with noticeable levels of ceramide aminoethyl phosphonate and sphingomyelin. The significant levels of sphingolipids suggest the O. bartramii lipids is a useful source for cosmetics. Although the lipid content between the liver and all other tissues markedly differed from each other, the same nine dominant fatty acids in the triacylglycerols were found in all organs; 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 20:1n-9, 20:1n-11, 22:1n-11, 20:5n-3 (icosapentaenoic acid, EPA), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Unusually high 20:1n-11 levels in the O. bartramii triacylglycerols were probably characteristic for western Pacific animal depot lipids, compared with non-detectable levels of 20:1n-11 reported in other marine animals. O. bartramii concurrently has high levels of DHA in their triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in the phospholipids were 16:0, 18:0, 20:1n-9, EPA, and DHA without 20:1n-11. Markedly high levels of both EPA and DHA were observed in phosphatidylethanolamine, while only DHA was found as the major one in phosphatidylcholine. In particular, high levels of DHA were found both in its depot triacylglycerols and tissue phospholipids in all organs of O. bartramii, similar to that in highly migratory fishes. The high DHA levels in all its organs suggest that O. bartramii lipids is a healthy marine source for DHA supplements. PMID:23018852

  5. Fishery biology of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas off Costa Rica Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjun; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Bilin; Li, Gang; Lu, Huajie

    2014-06-01

    The jumbo flying squid ( Dosidicus gigas) population was surveyed with the help of Chinese squid jigging vessels off the Costa Rica Dome (4-11N, 90-100W) in 2009 and 2010. The daily catch of D. gigas in the two survey cruises ranged from 0 to 5.5 t and was mostly obtained from the areas bounded by 6-9N and 91-94W and by 630'-730'N and 96-97W. The sea surface temperature in the areas yielding the most catch ranged from 27.5 to 29C. The sex ratio of the total catch was 3.75:1 (female: male). The mantle length of the squid ranged from 211 to 355 mm (male) and from 204 to 429 mm (female) with an average of 297.9 and 306.7 mm, respectively. In the relationship of the mantle length (mm) and body weight (g) of the squid, there was no significant difference between sexes. The female and male were at a similar maturity, and most individuals are maturing or have matured with a few females being spent. The size (mantle length) and age at the first sexual maturity were 297 mm and 195 d in females, and less than 211 mm and 130 d in males, respectively. Most of the sampled stomachs (70.6%) had no food remains. The major preys of the squids were fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, with the most abundant Myctophum orientale and D. gigas. The preys in more than 65% of the non-empty sampled stomachs evidenced the cannibalism of D. gigas. The results improved current understanding of the fishery biology of D. gigas off the Costa Rica Dome, which may facilitate the assessment and management of relative fishery resources.

  6. Age and growth of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartrami, in the North Pacific ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiko Yatsu; Satoshi Midorikawa; Takahiro Shimada; Yuji Uozumi

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal sections of statoliths were observed by light microscopy on 237 individuals (158510 mm mantle length, ML) of Ommastrephes bartrami, obtained from the North Pacific (26 46 N, 143 E149 W) during 19911994. The width of each increment sharply decreased from 57 ?m to about 12 ?m between the 80th and 100th increment, with a transition zone where increments were

  7. A comparison of fishery biology of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas outside three Exclusive Economic Zones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian

    2013-05-01

    Although many studies on the fishery biology of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, have been conducted in the coastal areas within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of various countries due to its commercial and ecological importance, limited biological information is available from waters outside these EEZs. In this paper, we examined D. gigas fishery biology from waters outside Chilean, Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs, based on the fishery data collected by Chinese jigging vessels during 2006 to 2010. The dominant mantle lengths of D. gigas were 350-450 mm, 250-400 mm and 250-350 mm outside Chilean, Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs, respectively. Size structure analysis show that a medium-sized group existed mostly in the waters outside the Chilean and Peruvian EEZs, whereas a small-sized group occurred mainly in the waters outside the Costa Rican EEZ. The longevity of the squid outside the Costa Rican EEZ was less than 10 months, while most of those outside Chilean and Peruvian EEZs were about 1-1.5 years and very few large individuals were 1.5-2 years old. A higher percentage of mature individuals existed outside Costa Rican EEZ implying the region as a potential spawning ground, while lower proportions of mature squid outside the Peruvian and Chilean EEZs indicated that spawning may be occurring outside our study area. Spatial differences in sizes at maturity of the squid are thought to be result from different environmental factors especially different temperature and nutrition among the three areas. Stomach-content analysis showed that cannibalism was important in the diet of D. gigas. Stress generated by jigging may increase the incidence of cannibalism.

  8. A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid. Biting Flies of the Coastal Region. Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 227, 231, 232. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. The units are: (1) A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid; (2) Biting Flies of the Coastal Region; and (3) Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. All three units were designed for secondary school students. Each unit contains teacher background materials, student activity materials,

  9. Identification of the first major allergen of a squid (Todarodes pacificus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Miyazawa; Hiromi Fukamachi; Yoshimasa Inagaki; Gerald Reese; Carolyn B. Daul; Samuel B. Lehrer; Sakae Inouye; Masahiro Sakaguchi

    1996-01-01

    Background: In Japan, squid is an important seafood, and some patients with food allergies are sensitive to squid. There has been no report, however, describing the major allergens of squid. Objective: To characterize squid allergens, we isolated a major allergen from the Pacific flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) and compared it with a major allergen from a shrimp (Penaeus orientalis). Methods:

  10. FLIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flies constitute a major group of nuisance species world wide in rural and urban situations. The public and health care officials can become more aware of the potential risks from flies and other urban pests by compiling the available information into an easily readable book form. Scientists from ...

  11. Squid Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Aquarium in Baltimore

    This online handbook features a downloadable PDF of pre-and post-visit activities for the Squid Lab, a traveling outreach program hosted by the National Aquarium in Baltimore. The hands-on activities and student sheets may be incorporated into any life science classroom. The Squid Lab begins with an overview of the cephalopods, with a particular emphasis on squid. The overall anatomy of the squid is also discussed to provide students with a preview of what they will see when the dissection begins. Students will learn about the adaptations, defense mechanisms, feeding habits, predators and reproductive strategies of squid. Step by step directions are given to guide the students through the dissection.

  12. New observations on airborne jet propulsion (flight) in squid, with a review of previous reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Maci; Michael P. Robinson; Paul Craze; Robert Dalton; James D. Thomas; Drake Circus

    2004-01-01

    water. 4 Jet propulsion in squids is used primarily as an escape response and most often occurs entirely under water. In many species of squid, however, the propulsive force is sufficient to launch the squid completely out of the water, after which it may fly or glide for some distance. Some researchers do not use the term 'fly', but prefer

  13. Giant Squid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    How do you get two dead Giant Squid the size of a school bus from a fishing boat in Spain to a museum in Washington, DC, USA? Call in the Navy! Find out how Operation Calamari unfolded and how the museum managed to put their new Giant Squid on display. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

  14. Fly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-07-11

    Fly is a seamless way to edit videos quickly and with little fuss, all from your iPhone. This application can be used to make simple edits, dissolve transitions, add split screens, and much more. Additionally, users can videos to four different devices. The site contains several helpful demos and a thorough FAQ area. This version is compatible with all devices running iOS 7.0 and newer.

  15. Holographic SQUID

    E-print Network

    Takeuchi, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    We propose a holographic model of the SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) composed of two Josephson junctions connected each other in a circle with the magnetic flux penetrating the circuit of the SQUID and the supercurrents flowing in both Josephson junction. The gravity in this paper is the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar field model on the four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild black brane geometry in which one space direction is compactified into a circle, and we arrange the profile of the coefficient of the time component of the gauge field having the role for the chemical potential of the cooper pair. The magnetic flux is involved by the rewriting of the surface integral of the magnetic field to the contour integral of the gauge field.

  16. Industrial Applications of SQUIDs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Koch

    1998-01-01

    This talk will review the problems and progress being made in using high-Tc SQUIDs in unshielded applications. These problems represent hurdles to be overcome in most industrial SQUID applications. While there are a growing number of shielded laboratory applications of SQUIDs that are commercially successful, major technical and commercial challenges remain - those of designing and building SQUID sensors and

  17. The Squid Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an approach to the study of squid that helps students of all ages develop richer ideas about the structure of living things, how living things are adapted to their habitats, and how they interact with other organisms. Highlights include the external and internal features of the squid, squid statements and statistics, and writing

  18. NEON Airborne Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is the continental-scale research platform that will collect information on ecosystems across the United States to advance our understanding and ability to forecast environmental change at the continental scale. One of NEON's observing systems, the Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), will fly an instrument suite consisting of a high-fidelity visible-to-shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer, a full waveform small footprint LiDAR, and a high-resolution digital camera on a low-altitude aircraft platform. NEON AOP is focused on acquiring data on several terrestrial Essential Climate Variables including bioclimate, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and land use products. These variables are collected throughout a network of 60 sites across the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico via ground-based and airborne measurements. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON AOP plays the role of bridging the spatial scales from that of individual organisms and stands to the scale of satellite-based remote sensing. NEON is building 3 airborne systems to facilitate the routine coverage of NEON sites and provide the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The first NEON imaging spectrometer, a next-generation VSWIR instrument, was recently delivered to NEON by JPL. This instrument has been integrated with a small-footprint waveform LiDAR on the first NEON airborne platform (AOP-1). A series of AOP-1 test flights were conducted during the first year of NEON's construction phase. The goal of these flights was to test out instrument functionality and performance, exercise remote sensing collection protocols, and provide provisional data for algorithm and data product validation. These test flights focused the following questions: What is the optimal remote sensing data collection protocol to meet NEON science requirements? How do aircraft altitude, spatial sampling, spatial resolution, and LiDAR instrument configuration affect data retrievals? What are appropriate algorithms to derive ECVs from AOP data? What methodology should be followed to validate AOP remote sensing products and how should ground truth data be collected? Early test flights were focused on radiometric and geometric calibration as well as processing from raw data to Level-1 products. Subsequent flights were conducted focusing on collecting vegetation chemistry and structure measurements. These test flights that were conducted during 2012 have proved to be extremely valuable for verifying instrument functionality and performance, exercising remote sensing collection protocols, and providing data for algorithm and science product validation. Results from these early flights are presented, including the radiometric and geometric calibration of the AOP instruments. These 2012 flight campaigns are just the first of a series of test flights that will take place over the next several years as part of the NEON observatory construction. Lessons learned from these early campaigns will inform both airborne and ground data collection methodologies for future campaigns as well as guide the AOP sampling strategy before NEON enters full science operations.

  19. Science Nation: Glowing Squid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In deep ocean waters, it's sometimes difficult to hide from predators. That's why so many sea creatures have evolved extraordinary methods of disguise. Cephalopods, such as octopus, squid and cuttlefish, are big on camouflage, by day or night. In fact, the Hawaiian bobtail squid has several means of stealthy self- preservation. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), a team from the University of Wisconsin-Madison study one bobtail squid camouflage scheme; one that glows in the dark!

  20. Sex in giant squid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Norman; C. C. Lu

    1997-01-01

    Recent captures of two female giant squid ( Architeuthis ) off southern Australia have provided the first record of a mated female specimen of these almost mythical deepsea creatures. We found sperm packages (spermatophores) embedded within the skin of both ventral arms of the larger of the two specimens. It seems that male giant squids may use their muscular elongate

  1. In Search of Giant Squid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, an online exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), provides a wealth of background information on Giant Squids. The largest invertebrates on the planet, Giant Squids have aroused human curiosity for centuries. This site offers a plethora of general information about squids and includes a long list of squid links as well.

  2. City Lights: Vancouver's Neon Heritage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based on a physical exhibit earlier this year and walking tour developed by the city of Vancouver, this site explores the art and science of neon lights. The site is composed of three sections. The first takes visitors through an electronic version of the exhibit, with twenty-nine images which include brief captions. The tour section of the site offers a virtual stroll through neon Vancouver with twenty-three images. Finally, the neon science section explains what neon is and how neon lights are made.

  3. The neon sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampere, Samuel M.

    1999-03-01

    What are a crumpled 55-gallon steel barrel and a tavern-style neon sign doing in the hallway of the physics building at a renowned and revered educational institution? It's attracting attention, stopping people in their tracks, and sending a message: physics is about size and color, motion and interaction; it's fun and it's interesting, something to experience for yourself.

  4. Helium Neon Laser

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Zollman, Dean

    This resource, part of the Spectroscopy Lab Suite, illustrates the physics of a Helium-Neon Laser. Students can create energy levels for both the He and Ne atoms. The basic processes for light emission, including collisions and level transitions, are shown. The atomic energy levels and the pumping energy can be adjusted to achieve an output spectrum similar to the measured physical spectrum.

  5. Positron excitation of neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parcell, L. A.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    The differential and total cross section for the excitation of the 3s1P10 and 3p1P1 states of neon by positron impact were calculated using a distorted-wave approximation. The results agree well with experimental conclusions.

  6. SQUID voltage - controlled - oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, A.; Sandell, R.; Wilcox, J.

    1983-05-01

    The authors have investigated the SQUID as a voltage-controlled source of microwaves. The low impedance ''resistive'' SQUID can be a relatively high power (about nW), tunable, and monochromatic source for both on-chip and off-chip applications. Studies of the time-dependent junction phase and the available power spectra as they vary with such device parameters as loaded Q and the SQUID-BETA=2..pi..Li /SUB c/ //phi/ /SUB o/ establish design rules for a well-behaved oscillator. For a VCO BETA Q<2; for BETA Qgreater than or equal to2 degenerate parametric subharmonic oscillations and chaotic instabilities are observed. Power increase is suggested by the use of voltage-clamped dc SQUIDs and arrays.

  7. Future Medicine From Squid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charmaine Millot

    This news article reports an exciting discovery about a toxic molecule found in both humans and in the Hawaiian bobtail squid that may hold the medical key for critical organ development and the immune system. Margaret McFall-Ngai, funded by the National Institute of Health, is studying the toxic molecule that causes tissue damage in human diseases such as whooping cough and gonorrhea and, is found to generate the light-producing organ in the Hawaiian bobtail squid.

  8. Squids and Octopuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick G. Hochberg; Yolanda E. Camacho-Garca

    The squid and octopus fauna (Cephalopoda) in the waters of Costa Rica is poorly known. In this part we summarize the species\\u000a of cephalopods known to occur along the coasts of Costa Rica. Due to the lack of distributional and presence data in Costa\\u000a Rican waters, we do not include small oceanic squids and octopuses nor do we include new

  9. Chimeras in SQUID Metamaterials

    E-print Network

    N. Lazarides; G. Neofotistos; G. P. Tsironis

    2014-11-24

    Regular lattices comprising Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) form magnetic metamaterials exhibiting extraordinary properties, including tuneability, dynamic multistability, and negative magnetic permeability. The SQUIDs in a metamaterial interact through non-local, magnetic dipole-dipole forces, that makes it possible for counter-intuitive dynamic states referred to as {\\em chimera states} to appear; the latter feature clusters of SQUIDs with synchronous dynamics which coexist with clusters exhibiting asynchronous behaviour. The spontaneous appearance of {\\em chimera states} is demonstrated numerically for SQUID metamaterials driven by an alternating magnetic field in which the fluxes threading the SQUID rings are randomly initialized; then, chimera states appear generically for sufficiently strong initial excitations, which exhibit relatively long life-times. The synchronization and metastability levels of the chimera states are discussed in terms of appropriate measures. Given that SQUID metamaterials have been already fabricated and investigated in the lab, the presence of a chimera state could in principle be detected with presently available experimental set-ups.

  10. Chimeras in SQUID metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarides, N.; Neofotistos, G.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2015-02-01

    Regular lattices comprising superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) form magnetic metamaterials exhibiting extraordinary properties, including tunability, dynamic multistability, and negative magnetic permeability. The SQUIDs in a metamaterial interact through nonlocal, magnetic dipole-dipole forces that makes it possible for counterintuitive dynamic states referred to as chimera states to appear; the latter feature clusters of SQUIDs with synchronous dynamics which coexist with clusters exhibiting asynchronous behavior. The spontaneous appearance of chimera states is demonstrated numerically for one-dimensional SQUID metamaterials driven by an alternating magnetic field in which the fluxes threading the SQUID rings are randomly initialized; then, chimera states appear generically for sufficiently strong initial excitations, which exhibit relatively long lifetimes. The synchronization and metastability levels of the chimera states are discussed in terms of appropriate measures. Given that both one- and two-dimensional SQUID metamaterials have been already fabricated and investigated in the laboratory, the presence of a chimera state could in principle be detected with presently available experimental setups.

  11. Chimeras in SQUID Metamaterials

    E-print Network

    N. Lazarides; G. Neofotistos; G. P. Tsironis

    2015-04-21

    Regular lattices comprising superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) form magnetic metamaterials exhibiting extraordinary properties, including tunability, dynamic multistability, and negative magnetic permeability. The SQUIDs in a metamaterial interact through nonlocal, magnetic dipole-dipole forces that makes it possible for counter-intuitive dynamic states referred to as chimera states to appear; the latter feature clusters of SQUIDs with synchronous dynamics which coexist with clusters exhibiting asynchronous behavior. The spontaneous appearance of chimera states is demonstrated numerically for one-dimensional SQUID metamaterials driven by an alternating magnetic field in which the fluxes threading the SQUID rings are randomly initialized; then, chimera states appear generically for sufficiently strong initial excitations, which exhibit relatively long lifetimes. The synchronization and metastability levels of the chimera states are discussed in terms of appropriate measures. Given that both one- and two-dimensional SQUID metamaterials have been already fabricated and investigated in the laboratory, the presence of a chimera state could in principle be detected with presently available experimental setups.

  12. Subranging scheme for SQUID sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A readout scheme for measuring the output from a SQUID-based sensor-array using an improved subranging architecture that includes multiple resolution channels (such as a coarse resolution channel and a fine resolution channel). The scheme employs a flux sensing circuit with a sensing coil connected in series to multiple input coils, each input coil being coupled to a corresponding SQUID detection circuit having a high-resolution SQUID device with independent linearizing feedback. A two-resolution configuration (course and fine) is illustrated with a primary SQUID detection circuit for generating a fine readout, and a secondary SQUID detection circuit for generating a course readout, both having feedback current coupled to the respective SQUID devices via feedback/modulation coils. The primary and secondary SQUID detection circuits function and derive independent feedback. Thus, the SQUID devices may be monitored independently of each other (and read simultaneously) to dramatically increase slew rates and dynamic range.

  13. The Squid Squad

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, hosted by the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (the regional research arm of the National Marine Fisheries Service) in collaboration with NMNH, serves as "a multimedia appendix to traditional scientific publications on squids, octopods and their relatives." The site contains color images (JPEG) and video clips (AVI) of squids and their relatives, as well as a keyword-searchable database of references on cephalopods. For information on systematics, follow the links to the Cephalopoda section of the Tree-of-Life project (of the University of Arizona).

  14. NEON: a hierarchically designed national ecological network

    E-print Network

    Hargrove, William W.

    NEON: a hierarchically designed national ecological network 59 David Schimel, NEON Inc, Boulder, CO.frontiersinecology.org In the past year, planning for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON; www.neoninc.org/) has made science questions was released, and responses were received. This February, NEON Inc released its site

  15. Low-noise SQUID

    DOEpatents

    Dantsker, Eugene (Torrance, CA); Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high-transition-temperature superconducting device having low-magnitude low-frequency noise-characteristics in magnetic fields comprising superconducting films wherein the films have a width that is less than or equal to a critical width, w.sub.C, which depends on an ambient magnetic field. For operation in the Earth's magnetic field, the critical width is about 6 micrometers (.mu.m). When made with film widths of about 4 .mu.m an inventive high transition-temperature, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) excluded magnetic flux vortices up to a threshold ambient magnetic field of about 100 microTesla (.mu.T). SQUIDs were fabricated having several different film strip patterns. When the film strip width was kept at about 4 .mu.m, the SQUIDs exhibited essentially no increase in low-frequency noise, even when cooled in static magnetic fields of magnitude up to 100 .mu.T. Furthermore, the mutual inductance between the inventive devices and a seven-turn spiral coil was at least 85% of that for inductive coupling to a conventional SQUID.

  16. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  17. Japan's Squid Fishing Industry WILLIAM G. COURT

    E-print Network

    Japan's Squid Fishing Industry WILLIAM G. COURT .. Introduction Dried-squid (surume) has been, Japan's squid imports are increasing and its squid fishing in- dustry is actively seeking and par- ticipating in joint ventures overseas. What opportunities does Japan's squid market offer the U.S. fishing in

  18. The Microwave SQUID Multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mates, John Arthur Benson

    2011-12-01

    This thesis describes a multiplexer of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) with low-noise, ultra-low power dissipation, and great scalability. The multiplexer circuit measures the magnetic flux in a large number of unshunted rf SQUIDs by coupling each SQUID to a superconducting microwave resonator tuned to a unique resonance frequency and driving the resonators from a common feedline. A superposition of microwave tones measures each SQUID simultaneously using only two coaxial cables between the cryogenic device and room temperature. This multiplexer will enable the instrumentation of arrays with hundreds of thousands of low-temperature detectors for new applications in cosmology, materials analysis, and nuclear non-proliferation. The driving application of the Microwave SQUID Multiplexer is the readout of large arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors, by some figures of merit the most sensitive detectors of electromagnetic signals over a span of more than nine orders of magnitude in energy, from 40 GHz microwaves to 200 keV gamma rays. Modern transition-edge sensors have noise-equivalent power as low as 10-20 W / Hz1/2 and energy resolution as good as 2 eV at 6 keV. These per-pixel sensitivities approach theoretical limits set by the underlying signals, motivating a rapid increase in pixel count to access new science. Compelling applications, like the non-destructive assay of nuclear material for treaty verification or the search for primordial gravity waves from inflation use arrays of these detectors to increase collection area or tile a focal plane. We developed three generations of SQUID multiplexers, optimizing the first for flux noise 0.17 muPhi0 / Hz1/2, the second for input current noise 19 pA / Hz1/2, and the last for practical multiplexing of large arrays of cosmic microwave background polarimeters based on transition-edge sensors. Using the last design we demonstrated multiplexed readout of prototype polarimeters with the performance required for the future development of a large-scale astronomical instrument.

  19. Crustal neon - A striking uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, B. M.; Hiyagon, H.; Reynolds, J. H.

    1990-06-01

    As part of the effort to characterize terrestrial fluid reservoirs in terms of their noble gas content, several methane-rich natural gases collected throughout Alberta (Canada) and the Tucamari and San Juan Basins of New Mexico (USA) were analyzed. A well-defined nucleogenic (crustal) neon component was identified. This neon component was produced from (alpha, n) and (n, alpha) nuclear interactions involving nuclei of O and F, as was shown by Wetherill (1954). The inferred upper limit isotopic composition is Ne-21/Ne-22 = 0.47 + or - 0.01, for the case of Ne-20/Ne-22 = 0.0. The composition is distinct from the air neon and from neon observed in MORB basalts.

  20. Dissect Your Squid and Eat It Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a science lab activity in which students dissect fresh squids in groups of four and observe the anatomy. Parent volunteers cook the squid mantle for kids to taste. Includes directions for squid dissection. (YDS)

  1. SQUID With Integral Flux Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Sisk, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    In improved superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), change in size and shape of superconducting ring improves coupling to external signal coil and eases coil-positioning tolerances. More rugged and easier to manufacture than conventional SQUID's with comparable electrical characteristics. Thin-film superconducting flux concentrator utilizes Meissner effect to deflect magnetic field of signal coil into central hole of SQUID. Used in magnetometers, ammeters, analog-to-digital converters, and related electronic applications in which high signal-to-noise ratios required.

  2. Drain Flies (Moth Flies or Filter Flies)

    E-print Network

    Sansone, Chris; Minzenmayer, Rick

    2003-07-21

    Drain Flies (Moth Flies or Filter Flies) E-184 7-03 Chris Sansone, Rick Minzenmayer and Bastiaan M. Drees* S mall flies in the home can be a common problem. Scientifically, the word ?fly? refers to insects in the order Diptera, which typi- cally...

  3. What NEON Is The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale

    E-print Network

    Patterson, Bruce D.

    What NEON Is The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale research species on ecology. NEON will gather long-term data on ecological responses of the biosphere to changes in land use and climate, and on feedbacks with the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. NEON

  4. Laboratory Astrophysics: Spectral Analysis of Photoionized Neon

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    Laboratory Astrophysics: Spectral Analysis of Photoionized Neon James MacArthur Advisor: David Cohen March 14, 2011 #12;Abstract A curve of growth analysis was applied to photoionized neon absorption, designed to pho- toionize neon up to helium and hydrogen-like species, produce a photoionized plasma

  5. Mining Helium programs with Neon Jurriaan Hage

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Mining Helium programs with Neon Jurriaan Hage Peter van Keeken Department of Information developed a sizable library in Haskell, called Neon, for computing characteristics of this collec- tion that turned out to be useful when such is attempted, discuss the Neon library to deal effectively

  6. The Neon DSEL for mining Helium programs

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    The Neon DSEL for mining Helium programs Jurriaan Hage Peter van Keeken Department of Information with the Helium compiler. In this paper we demonstrate a DSEL called Neon written in Haskell, for computing.g., are there parts of Haskell that students avoid. Central in this paper is the Neon domain specific embedded

  7. Controlled Spawning of the Neon Tetra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Chapman; Douglas E. Colle; Roger W. Rottmann; Jerome V. Shireman

    1998-01-01

    The neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi is one of the most valuable species in the ornamental fish trade. Most neon tetras available in the United States are imported from Southeast Asia, where they are farm raised, or from South America, where they are collected from the wild. In this study, we describe a method for artificially breeding the neon tetra that

  8. Squid technology and brain research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olli V. Lounasma; Jukka Knuutila; Riitta Salmelin

    1994-01-01

    Since 1968, SQUIDs have been used in many low temperature laboratories as ultrasensitive detectors of magnetic flux. Multi-SQUID applications, however, have materialized only recently. Neuromagnetometers are now available covering the whole head in a helmet-like fashion with over 100 superconducting sensors. These instruments are used in magnetoencephalography (MEG) for recording the very weak fields, on the order of 100 fT,

  9. dc SQUID: Noise and optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia D. Tesche; John Clarke

    1977-01-01

    A computer model is described for the dc SQUID in which the two Josephson junctions are nonhysteretic, resistively shunted tunnel junctions. In the absence of noise, current-voltage(IV) characteristics are obtained as functions of the applied flux, Fa, SQUID inductanceL, junction critical currentI0, and shunt resistanceR. The effects of asymmetry inL, I0, andR are discussed.IV characteristics, flux-voltage transfer functions, and low-frequency

  10. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  11. Chromophores in photoproteins of a glowing squid and mollusk.

    PubMed

    Kuse, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Bioluminescence is a chemical reaction process for light emission in vivo. An organic substance is normally oxidized in the protein to obtain the energy required for the light emission. Determination of the structure of the substance is one of the most important parts of bioluminescent research. Photoproteins of a flying squid and a mollusk contain chromophores that are formed by connecting an apo-protein and dehydrocoelenterazine. The chromophore has a chemical structure that can emit light in a photoprotein. The structural analysis of the chromophores in the photoproteins is described. PMID:25035971

  12. Neon isotopes in submarine basalts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Sarda; Thomas Staudacher; Claude J. Allgre

    1988-01-01

    Very large neon isotopic anomalies have been accurately measured in mid-ocean ridge basalt glassy samples from diverse locations worldwide. Values for 20Ne\\/22Ne range up to ~ 13 and 21Ne\\/22Ne values range up to ~ 0.07 (present atmospheric values are 20Ne\\/22Ne = 9.8 and 21Ne\\/22Ne = 0.029). The data are highly correlated in the 20Ne\\/22Ne-21Ne\\/22Ne diagram, independent of sample location. Loihi

  13. Paleomagnetic Analysis Using SQUID Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Lima, Eduardo A.; Fong, Luis E.; Baudenbacher, Franz J.

    2007-01-01

    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopes are a new generation of instruments that map magnetic fields with unprecedented spatial resolution and moment sensitivity. Unlike standard rock magnetometers, SQUID microscopes map magnetic fields rather than measuring magnetic moments such that the sample magnetization pattern must be retrieved from source model fits to the measured field data. In this paper, we presented the first direct comparison between paleomagnetic analyses on natural samples using joint measurements from SQUID microscopy and moment magnetometry. We demonstrated that in combination with apriori geologic and petrographic data, SQUID microscopy can accurately characterize the magnetization of lunar glass spherules and Hawaiian basalt. The bulk moment magnitude and direction of these samples inferred from inversions of SQUID microscopy data match direct measurements on the same samples using moment magnetometry. In addition, these inversions provide unique constraints on the magnetization distribution within the sample. These measurements are among the most sensitive and highest resolution quantitative paleomagnetic studies of natural remanent magnetization to date. We expect that this technique will be able to extend many other standard paleomagnetic techniques to previously inaccessible microscale samples.

  14. SQUID holder with high magnetic shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, K. W.; Marek, D.; Chui, T. C. P.

    1990-01-01

    A SQUID holder designed for high magnetic shielding is discussed. It is shown how to estimate the attenuation of the magnetic field from the normal magnetic modes for an approximate geometry. The estimate agrees satisfactorily with the attenuation measured with a commercial RF SQUID installed in the holder. The holder attenuates external magnetic fields by more than 10 to the 9th at the SQUID input. With the SQUID input shorted, the response to external fields is 0.00001 Phi(0)/G.

  15. Developments in South American Squid Fisheries

    E-print Network

    Developments in South American Squid Fisheries Marcelo Juanico is with the Museo Nacional deI., 1975). Up to now squids have been only a minor and scarce resource in the Chilean fisheries, recorded gigante," Humboldt squid) with a man- tle length of up to I m and a weight of 35 kg. It is fished mainly

  16. The Philippines Squid Fishery: A Review

    E-print Network

    The Philippines Squid Fishery: A Review ANICETO M. HERNANDO, Jr. and EFREN ED. C. FLORES Aniceto M not necessarily reflect the position of the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. Introduction Squids were increasing squid production, it cannot meet the increasing demand of local, national, and foreign markets

  17. Tracking Electromagnetic Energy With SQUIDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a gadget used to measure extremely weak signals, specifically magnetic flux. It can detect subtle changes in energy, up to 100 billion times weaker than the electromagnetic energy required to move a compass needle. SQUIDs are used for a variety of testing procedures where extreme sensitivity is required and where the test instrument need not come into direct contact with the test subject. NASA uses SQUIDs for remote, noncontact sensing in a variety of venues, including monitoring the Earth s magnetic field and tracking brain activity of pilots. Scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have been making extensive use of this technology, from astrophysical research, to tracking the navigational paths of bees in flight to determine if they are using internal compasses. These very sensitive measurement devices have a wide variety of uses within NASA and even more uses within the commercial realm.

  18. A holographic model of SQUID

    E-print Network

    Rong-Gen Cai; Yong-Qiang Wang; Hai-Qing Zhang

    2013-12-16

    We construct a holographic model of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar theory with a negative cosmological constant. The SQUID ring consists of two Josephson junctions which sit on two sides of a compactified spatial direction of a Schwarzschild-AdS black brane. These two junctions interfere with each other and then result in a total current depending on the magnetic flux, which can be deduced from the phase differences of the two Josephson junctions. The relation between the total current and the magnetic flux is obtained numerically.

  19. A holographic model of SQUID

    E-print Network

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2013-01-01

    We construct a holographic model of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar theory with a negative cosmological constant. The SQUID ring consists of two Josephson junctions which sit on two sides of a compactified spatial direction of a Schwarzschild-AdS black brane. These two junctions interfere with each other and then result in a total current depending on the magnetic flux, which can be deduced from the phase differences of the two Josephson junctions. The relation between the total current and the magnetic flux is obtained numerically.

  20. Rearing of Cuttlefishes and Squids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Choe; YASUO OHSHIMA

    1963-01-01

    WE have succeeded (through improving the feed during the earlier stages after hatching) in rearing three species of the cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta Hoyle, Sepia subaculeata Sasaki and Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune) and two species of the squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson and Euprymna beryii Sasaki)1. The main points to note in rearing these animals are as follows:

  1. Cold SQUIDs and hot samples

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; [Lawrence Berkeley national Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

    1997-05-01

    Low transition temperature (low-{Tc}) and high-{Tc} Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) have been used to perform high-resolution magnetic measurements on samples whose temperatures are much higher than the operating temperatures of the devices. Part 1 of this work focuses on measurements of the rigidity of flux vortices in high-{Tc} superconductors using two low-{Tc} SQUIDs, one on either side of a thermally-insulated sample. The correlation between the signals of the SQUIDs is a direct measure of the extent of correlation between the movements of opposite ends of vortices. These measurements were conducted under the previously-unexplored experimental conditions of nominally-zero applied magnetic field, such that vortex-vortex interactions were unimportant, and with zero external current. At specific temperatures, the authors observed highly-correlated noise sources, suggesting that the vortices moved as rigid rods. At other temperatures, the noise was mostly uncorrelated, suggesting that the relevant vortices were pinned at more than one point along their length. Part 2 describes the design, construction, performance, and applications of a scanning high-{Tc} SQUID microscope optimized for imaging room-temperature objects with very high spatial resolution and magnetic source sensitivity.

  2. Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

    2000-09-01

    Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

  3. An Illuminating Partnership for Squid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Travis

    This online news article features insights into understanding aspects of the relationship between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its bioluminescent symbiont Vibrio fischeri. The ideas in this article highlight the work of Margaret McFall-Ngai and collaborators at the Symbiosis 96! meeting.

  4. Bright Squid Found In Hawaii

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Randolph E. Schmid

    This 2004 CBS news article gives a brief summary of the initial discovery of a Hawaiian bobtail squid with reflective plates that form a built-in light, which is thought to confuse predators. The article also discusses possible mechanisms for the light production.

  5. Improved Sensing Coils for SQUIDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob; Eom, Byeong Ho

    2007-01-01

    An improvement in the design and fabrication of sensing coils of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers has been proposed to increase sensitivity. It has been estimated that, in some cases, it would be possible to increase sensitivity by about half or to reduce measurement time correspondingly. The pertinent aspects of the problems of design and fabrication can be summarized as follows: In general, to increase the sensitivity of a SQUID magnetometer, it is necessary to maximize the magnetic flux enclosed by the sensing coil while minimizing the self-inductance of this coil. It is often beneficial to fabricate the coil from a thicker wire to reduce its self-inductance. Moreover, to optimize the design of the coil with respect to sensitivity, it may be necessary to shape the wire to other than a commonly available circular or square cross-section. On the other hand, it is not practical to use thicker superconducting wire for the entire superconducting circuit, especially if the design of a specific device requires a persistent-current loop enclosing a remotely placed SQUID sensor. It may be possible to bond a thicker sensing-coil wire to thinner superconducting wires leading to a SQUID sensor, but it could be difficult to ensure reliable superconducting connections, especially if the bonded wires are made of different materials. The main idea is to mold the sensing coil in place, to more nearly optimum cross sectional shape, instead of making the coil by winding standard pre-fabricated wire. For this purpose, a thin superconducting wire loop that is an essential part of the SQUID magnetometer would be encapsulated in a form that would serve as a mold. A low-melting-temperature superconducting metal (e.g., indium, tin, or a lead/tin alloy) would be melted into the form, which would be sized and shaped to impart the required cross section to the coil thus formed.

  6. SPIN EXCHANGE OPTICAL PUMPING OF NEON AND ITS APPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Romalis, Mike

    SPIN EXCHANGE OPTICAL PUMPING OF NEON AND ITS APPLICATIONS RAJAT K. GHOSH A DISSERTATION PRESENTED to neon would instigate an order of magnitude gain in sensitivity over 3He. In order to realize calculated. There are no quantitative predictions of the neon-neon quadrupolar relaxation rate quad

  7. MFR PAPER 1257 Care and Maintenance of Squid Quality

    E-print Network

    MFR PAPER 1257 Care and Maintenance of Squid Quality INTRODUCTION The squid resources in the proper handling of squid at sea and through the processing and dis- tribution stages. Typically, squid for squid is primarily a small-boat fishery, and the catch is sometimes not iced at sea. In southern New

  8. NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Gardiner, L. S.; Ward, D.; Gram, W.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be a national resource for ecological research and education. NEON citizen science projects are being designed to increase awareness and educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecological processes as well as expand NEON data collection capacity by enabling laypersons to collect geographically distributed data. The citizen science area of the NEON web portal will enable citizen scientists to collect, contribute, interpret, and visualize scientific data, as well as access training modules, collection protocols and targeted learning experiences related to citizen science project topics. For NEON, citizen science projects are a means for interested people to interact with and contribute to NEON science. Investigations at vast spatial and temporal scales often require rapid acquisition of large amounts of data from a geographically distributed population of "human sensors." As a continental-scale ecological observatory, NEON is uniquely positioned to develop strategies to effectively integrate data collected by non-scientists into scientific databases. Ultimately, we plan to work collaboratively to transform the practice of science to include "citizens" or non-scientists in the process. Doing science is not limited to scientists, and breaking down the barriers between scientists and citizens will help people better understand the power of using science in their own decision making. In preparation for fully developing the NEON citizen science program, we are partnering with Project BudBurst (PBB), a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology. The educational goals of PBB are to: (1) increase awareness of climate change, (2) educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change on plants and the environment, and (3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. Phenology was chosen as the focus of this citizen science campaign because it is a visible and comprehensible way of demonstrating the effects of climate change. In addition, plants are readily accessible in nearly every neighborhood and park, and wild area across the continent, so people can make observations whether they live near an inner city park or in the rural countryside. Recently, NEON developed data visualization tools for Project BudBurst to engage citizen science participants in "doing science" beyond data collection. By prototyping NEON citizen science through Project BudBurst, NEON is developing a better understanding of how to build a citizen science program that addresses areas of awareness, mastery, and leadership of scientific information like that which NEON will produce over the next 30 years.

  9. The Gravity Probe B SQUID Readout Detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Muhlfelder; Bruce Clarke; Gregory Gutt; James Lockhart; Ming Luo

    2007-01-01

    We describe the DC SQUID-based readout system used on-orbit to measure the spin axis orientation of the GP-B gyroscopes. This system uses thin-film four-turn superconductive pickup loops to inductively couple the London moment signals of the spinning gyroscopes to the SQUID detectors. The SQUID detectors were mounted within niobium packages that provided magnetic shielding and allowed for active temperature control

  10. Microwave-free manipulation of a SQUID qubit

    E-print Network

    Fominov, Yakov

    Microwave-free manipulation of a SQUID qubit S. Poletto1, J. Lisenfeld1, A. Lukashenko1 M/2 0=2.07·10-15 Wb 1-junction SQUID (rf SQUID) #12;I Vs JJ with tunable critical current 0 2I0 I0 l I0 s V I 2I0 s=0 2-junction SQUID (dc SQUID) #12;Qubit (double SQUID) x For x = 0/2 the potential

  11. Solar helium and neon in the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, M.; Mcdougall, I.; Patterson, D. B.

    1994-01-01

    Neon isotopic compositions in mantle-derived samples commonly are enriched in (20)Ne and (21)Ne relative to (22)Ne compared with atmospheric neon ((20)Ne/(22)Ne and (21)Ne/(22)Ne ratios in atmospheric neon are 9.8 and 0.029, respectively), together with significant primordial (3)He. Such results have been obtained on MORB's, intraplate plume-related oceanic island basalts, backarc basin basalts, mantle xenoliths, ancient diamonds and CO2 well gases (e.g., 1 - 8). The highest (20)Ne/(22)Ne ratio observed in MORB glasses (= 13.6 plus or minus 1.3 is close to the solar value (= 13.6, as observed in solar wind). In order to explain the enrichment of (20)Ne and (21)Ne relative to atmospheric neon for samples derived from the mantle, it is necessary to postulate the presence of at least two distinct non-atmospheric components. The two most likely candidates are solar and nucleogenic ((20)Ne/(22)Ne solar = 13.6 (21)Ne/(22)Ne solar = 0.032, (20)Ne/(22)Ne nucleogenic = 2.5 and (21)Ne/(22)Ne nucleogenic = 32). This is because solar neon is the only known component with a (20)Ne/(22)Ne ratio greater than both the atmospheric value and that observed in samples derived from the mantle. Nucleogenic neon is well known to elevate (21)Ne/(22)Ne ratios. Neon isotopic signatures observed in mantle-derived samples can be accounted for by mixing of the three neon end members: solar, nucleogenic and atmospheric.

  12. Black Flies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Information about the common annoyance pest the Black Fly. The flies life cycle and control strategy are covered. While the information is specific to Los Angeles California, the same strategies are effective elsewhere. Personal protection information is also offered and is universally effective.

  13. NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gram, W.

    2010-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be a national resource for ecological research and education. NEON citizen science projects are being designed to increase awareness and educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecological processes as well as expand NEON data collection capacity by enabling laypersons to collect geographically distributed data. The citizen science area of the NEON web portal will enable citizen scientists to collect, contribute, interpret, and visualize scientific data, as well as access training modules, collection protocols and targeted learning experiences related to citizen science project topics. For NEON, citizen science projects are a means for interested people to interact with and contribute to NEON science. Investigations at vast spatial and temporal scales often require rapid acquisition of large amounts of data from a geographically distributed population of human sensors. As a continental-scale ecological observatory, NEON is uniquely positioned to develop strategies to effectively integrate data collected by non-scientists into scientific databases. Ultimately, we plan to work collaboratively to transform the practice of science to include citizens or non-scientists in the process. Doing science is not limited to scientists, and breaking down the barriers between scientists and citizens will help people better understand the power of using science in their own decision making. In preparation for fully developing the NEON citizen science program, we are partnering with Project BudBurst (PBB), a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology. The educational goals of PBB are to: (1) increase awareness of climate change, (2) educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change on plants and the environment, and (3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. Phenology was chosen as the focus of this citizen science campaign because it is a visible and comprehensible way of demonstrating the effects of climate change. In addition, plants are readily accessible in nearly every neighborhood and park, and wild areas across the continent, so people can make observations whether they live near an inner city park or in the rural countryside. Recently, NEON built 3 web tools that enable users to visualize PBB data. The tools include a mapping function that displays selected PBB distributional data on a map, an animated map that shows green up through time and space, and a graphing tool that compares number of species flowering or leafing out with day length. This prototyping will help NEON better understand how to engage citizen science participants in doing science beyond data collection.

  14. The House Fly and Other Filth Flies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A primer on recognizing and controlling so-called "filth flies". Diptera commonly associated with trash, waste, and decay. The article covers common larger flies muscids, calliphorids, sarcophagids, as well as smaller fungus gnats, drain flies, and humpbacked flies (conspicuously missing are the soldier flies). Fly development, and biology are covered. No links, and no bibliography are offered.

  15. Mystery of the squid beak solved

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2008-03-27

    A squid's mouth has a sharp beak that it uses to slice through the spinal cord of fish and tear them into pieces for an easy-to-eat meal. The squid beak is made out of some of the hardest material found in nature.

  16. A series array of DC SQUIDs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Welty; J. M. Martinis

    1991-01-01

    A series array of 100 DC SQUIDs has been fabricated using trilayer Nb-AlOx-Nb junctions. The SQUIDs are modulated with a common flux bias line and produce an output voltage swing of several millivolts across the array. The large output voltage will allow direct connection to room temperature electronics without the transformer coupling and resulting frequency limitations commonly associated with DC

  17. Biofunctional Properties of Enzymatic Squid Meat Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-01-01

    Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 ?g/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 ?g/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics.

  18. SQUID Multiplexers for Cryogenic Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Kent; Beall, James; Deiker, Steve; Doriese, Randy; Duncan, William; Hilton, Gene; Moseley, S. Harvey; Reintsema, Carl; Stahle, Caroline; Ullom, Joel; Vale, Leila

    2004-01-01

    SQUID multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of cryogenic detectors with a manageable number of readout channels. We are developing time-division SQUID multiplexers based on Nb trilayer SQUIDs to read arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors. Our first-generation, 8-channel SQUID multiplexer was used in FIBRE, a one-dimensional TES array for submillimeter astronomy. Our second-generation 32-pixel multiplexer, based on an improved architecture, has been developed for instruments including Constellation-X, SCUBA-2, and solar x-ray astronomy missions. SCUBA-2, which is being developed for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, will have more than 10,000 pixels. We are now developing a third-generation architecture based on superconducting hot-electron switches. The use of SQUID multiplexers in instruments operating at above 2 K will also be discussed.

  19. Biofunctional properties of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-03-01

    Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 ?g/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 ?g/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics. PMID:25866752

  20. Squid Fishery in Texas: Biological, Economic, and Market Considerations

    E-print Network

    Squid Fishery in Texas: Biological, Economic, and Market Considerations RAYMOND F. HIXON, ROGER T. HANLON, SAMUEL M. GILLESPIE, and WADE L. GRIFFIN Introduction Squids are considered to be one for squids have provided the impetus to reexamine the squid resources of the U.S. continental shelf. Most

  1. A Taste of Crispy Squid Syam Gadde, Jeff Chase

    E-print Network

    Rabinovich, Michael "Misha"

    A Taste of Crispy Squid Syam Gadde, Jeff Chase Dept. of Computer Science Duke University Durham NC cache structures in Crispy Squid, an extension to the Squid Internet Object Cache. We are evaluating] and the publicdomain Squid caches [20]. Hierarchical Web caches are built as a collective of independent proxy

  2. Experimental Jigging for Squid off the Northeast United States

    E-print Network

    Experimental Jigging for Squid off the Northeast United States Figure 1.- Polish research vessel attraction jigging is a fishing technique specifically developed for catching squid. Jigging for squid is one of the most important methods used in coastal squid fisheries in Japan. In Japan about 95 percent

  3. Biological Considerations Relevant to the Management of Squid

    E-print Network

    Biological Considerations Relevant to the Management of Squid (Loligo pealei and IIlex illecebrosus squid) and lllex illecebrosus (short-finned squid) are found in com- mercially exploited quantities aspects of the biology and population dynamics of these species relevant to the management of squid

  4. A Mechanical Device to Sort Market Squid, Loligo opalescens

    E-print Network

    A Mechanical Device to Sort Market Squid, Loligo opalescens Introduction Squid is an excellent. Indeed, high quality squid is regarded as a gourmet food in many countries, particularly in the Orient and Mediterranean Europe. However, U.S. consumers are hesitant to buy whole squid because of its ap pearance

  5. A MINIATURE SQUID MAGNETOMETER FOR BIOMAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS WITH IMPROVED SELECTIVITY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A MINIATURE SQUID MAGNETOMETER FOR BIOMAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS WITH IMPROVED SELECTIVITY J.A. Overweg a conventional gradiometer, so that a better flux transfer to the SQUID is possible. INTRODUCTION.- In most SQUID-magnetometer systems the external magnetic fields to be measured are coupled into the SQUID by a fluxtransformer

  6. A 200 # twostage dc SQUID amplifier for resonant detectors

    E-print Network

    A 200 # two­stage dc SQUID amplifier for resonant detectors . In a resonant GW detector/2 ) and the Bandwidth (µ[S vv /S ii ] 1/2 ) . The two­stage dc SQUID amplifier, based on commercial (Quantum Design . A feedback damping network suitable for both the resonator­SQUID system and the GW detector­SQUID system

  7. Low field electron paramagnetic resonance imaging with SQUID detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob (Inventor); Day, Peter K. (Inventor); Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Cohen, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    In one embodiment, a flux transformer with a gradiometer pickup coil is magnetically coupled to a SQUID, and a SQUID array amplifier comprising a plurality of SQUIDs, connected in series, is magnetically coupled to the output of the SQUID. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  8. Fly School

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-04-14

    The processes used by humans to perform certain forms of learning are the same as those in many other species. Even the humble fruit fly is an excellent model of how genes affect our ability to learn.

  9. ARM NEON support in the ARM compiler September 2008

    E-print Network

    Whaley, R. Clint

    - 1 - ARM NEON support in the ARM compiler September 2008 Introduction This paper provides a simple support for SIMD, both through automatic recognition and through the use of intrinsic functions. The NEON the same operation for all data. The NEON unit is positioned within the processor to enable it to share

  10. NEON crypto Daniel J. Bernstein1 and Peter Schwabe2

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Daniel

    NEON crypto Daniel J. Bernstein1 and Peter Schwabe2 1 Department of Computer Science University Sinica, 128 Section 2 Academia Road, Taipei 115-29, Taiwan peter@cryptojedi.org Abstract. NEON shows that NEON supports high-security cryptography at surprisingly high speeds; normally data arrives

  11. Electronic absorption spectra of CCS and CCS in neon matrices

    E-print Network

    Maier, John Paul

    Electronic absorption spectra of CCS? and CCS in neon matrices Evgueni Riaplov,a Muriel Wyss,a John 2002; in revised form 30 October 2002 Abstract Mass selected C2S? ions have been co-deposited with neon is the most stable [13]. In this contribution electronic absorption spectra of C2S? and C2S in a neon matrix

  12. Montgomery Modular Multiplication on ARM-NEON Revisited

    E-print Network

    Montgomery Modular Multiplication on ARM-NEON Revisited Hwajeong Seo1 , Zhe Liu2 , Johann Gro?sch NEON) has initiated a massive body of research on vector-parallel implementations of Montgomery modular modular multiplication on ARM-NEON platforms. Detailed benchmarking results obtained on an ARM Cortex-A9

  13. Aperture effects in squid jet propulsion.

    PubMed

    Staaf, Danna J; Gilly, William F; Denny, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    Squid are the largest jet propellers in nature as adults, but as paralarvae they are some of the smallest, faced with the inherent inefficiency of jet propulsion at a low Reynolds number. In this study we describe the behavior and kinematics of locomotion in 1 mm paralarvae of Dosidicus gigas, the smallest squid yet studied. They swim with hop-and-sink behavior and can engage in fast jets by reducing the size of the mantle aperture during the contraction phase of a jetting cycle. We go on to explore the general effects of a variable mantle and funnel aperture in a theoretical model of jet propulsion scaled from the smallest (1 mm mantle length) to the largest (3 m) squid. Aperture reduction during mantle contraction increases propulsive efficiency at all squid sizes, although 1 mm squid still suffer from low efficiency (20%) because of a limited speed of contraction. Efficiency increases to a peak of 40% for 1 cm squid, then slowly declines. Squid larger than 6 cm must either reduce contraction speed or increase aperture size to maintain stress within maximal muscle tolerance. Ecological pressure to maintain maximum velocity may lead them to increase aperture size, which reduces efficiency. This effect might be ameliorated by nonaxial flow during the refill phase of the cycle. Our model's predictions highlight areas for future empirical work, and emphasize the existence of complex behavioral options for maximizing efficiency at both very small and large sizes. PMID:24501132

  14. First demonstration of transcontinental SQUID magnetometry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourie, C.; Febvre, P.; Pozzo di Borgo, E.; Waysand, G.; Gouws, D.; Saunderson, E.; Henry, S.; Gaffet, S.; Janse van Vuuren, L.; Lochner, E. T.; Matladi, T.; Kwisanga, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first simultaneous measurements from an ultra-sensitive dual-node transcontinental SQUID magnetometer network, available in real time on the internet. A three-axis low temperature SQUID sensor at LSBB Underground Research Laboratory, Rustrel, France (43.841 N, 5.484 E) and a two-axis high temperature SQUID sensor at SANSA Space Science in Hermanus, South Africa (34.424 S, 19.223 E), form the sensitive nodes of the network. Data are measured and GPS time stamped continuously at 125 Hz. The low-Tc SQUID at LSBB URL (known as a [SQUID]2 system) is inside a shielded steel capsule underneath 500 meters of karstic rock, which allows a low magnetic noise floor. The less sensitive high-Tc SQUID at SANSA Space Science is completely unshielded, and housed only in a magnetically neutral hut, 50 metres from a calibrated fluxgate node of the INTERMAGNET network, to protect it against the weather. The network, which is more sensitive than observatory fluxgate magnetometers, detects Earth's magnetosphere pulsations, Schumann waves, mesopause resonance, breathing modes of the Earth and oceanic swell. Our goal is further to extract directional or polarization information if earthquake precursors are observed again, as with the Sichuan-Wenchuan earthquake on 12 May 2008. In the medium term, we are exploring the possibility to extend the network with more spatially distributed SQUID sensors, such as at the South African National Antarctic Expedition's SANAE IV base in Antarctica.

  15. Squid based beam current meter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.

    1983-11-25

    A SQUID based beam current meter has the capability of measuring the current of a beam with as little as 30 x 155 antiprotons (with a signal to noise ratio of 2). If low noise dc current is used to cancel most of the beam or an up-down counter is used to count auto-resets this sensitivity will be available at any time in the acumulation process. This current meter will therefore be a unique diagnostic tool for optimizing the performance of several Tev I components. Besides requiring liquid helium it seems that its only drawback is not to follow with the above sensitivity a sudden beam change larger than 16 ..mu..A, something that could be done using a second one in a less sensitive configuration.

  16. Reef Squid at USGS Monitoring Station

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A curious reef squid hovers over a calcification-monitoring station used to measure calcification rates to determine impact of ocean acidification on coral growth at Fowey Rocks Light Reef in Biscayne National Park....

  17. High Tc SQUID systems for magnetophysiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarte, E. J.; Magnelind, P. E.; Tzalenchuk, A. Ya; Lhmus, A.; Ansell, D. A.; Blamire, M. G.; Ivanov, Z. G.; Dyball, R. E.

    2002-03-01

    Magnetophysiology is the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) based instrument to detect neuromagnetic fields evoked by electrical stimulation of brain tissue slices. In this paper we show that a SQUID based on high temperature superconductors (HTSs) would have considerable advantages over a low Tc device in this application. We construct a model of electrical activity in a hippocampal brain slice, which enables the neuromagnetic field to be determined as a function of position and distance from the tissue. We then describe the design of HTS SQUID systems for magnetophysiology and the two styles of system we are developing. Finally we use our model to show that an existing HTS SQUID magnetometer would give a superior signal to noise ratio compared to a low Tc system for the hippocampal brain slice preparation at least.

  18. THE RHODOPSIN SYSTEM OF THE SQUID

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Ruth; St. George, Robert C. C.

    1958-01-01

    Squid rhodopsin (?max 493 m)like vertebrate rhodopsinscontains a retinene chromophore linked to a protein, opsin. Light transforms rhodopsin to lumi- and metarhodopsin. However, whereas vertebrate metarhodopsin at physiological temperatures decomposes into retinene and opsin, squid metarhodopsin is stable. Light also converts squid metarhodopsin to rhodopsin. Rhodopsin is therefore regenerated from metarhodopsin in the light. Irradiation of rhodopsin or metarhodopsin produces a steady state by promoting the reactions, See PDF for Equation Squid rhodopsin contains neo-b (11-cis) retinene; metarhodopsin all-trans retinene. The interconversion of rhodopsin and metarhodopsin involves only the stereoisomerization of their chromophores. Squid metarhodopsin is a pH indicator, red (?max 500 m) near neutrality, yellow (?max 380 m) in alkaline solution. The two formsacid and alkaline metarhodopsinare interconverted according to the equation, Alkaline metarhodopsin + H+ ?acid metarhodopsin, with pK 7.7. In both forms, retinene is attached to opsin at the same site as in rhodopsin. However, metarhodopsin decomposes more readily than rhodopsin into retinene and opsin. The opsins apparently fit the shape of the neo-b chromophore. When light isomerizes the chromophore to the all-trans configuration, squid opsin accepts the all-trans chromophore, while vertebrate opsins do not and hence release all-trans retinene. Light triggers vision by affecting directly the shape of the retinene chromophore. This changes its relationship with opsin, so initiating a train of chemical reactions. PMID:13491819

  19. Neon and oxygen in stellar coronae A unification with the Sun

    E-print Network

    Robrade, Jan

    Neon and oxygen in stellar coronae A unification with the Sun Jan Robrade Hamburger Sternwarte From Atoms to Stars, July 2011, Oxford #12;O v e r v i e w 1 Neon and the solar modeling problem 2 Data;Neon and oxygen Increase neon by a factor of 3 ­ 4 !! (e.g. Antia & Basu 2005, Bahcall 2005) Why neon

  20. ASA's Chandra Neon Discovery Solves Solar Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-07-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory survey of nearby sun-like stars suggests there is nearly three times more neon in the sun and local universe than previously believed. If true, this would solve a critical problem with understanding how the sun works. "We use the sun to test how well we understand stars and, to some extent, the rest of the universe," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "But in order to understand the sun, we need to know exactly what it is made of," he added. It is not well known how much neon the sun contains. This is critical information for creating theoretical models of the sun. Neon atoms, along with carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, play an important role in how quickly energy flows from nuclear reactions in the sun's core to its edge, where it then radiates into space. Chandra X-ray Spectrum of II Pegasi Chandra X-ray Spectrum of II Pegasi The rate of this energy flow determines the location and size of a crucial stellar region called the convection zone. The zone extends from near the sun's surface inward approximately 125,000 miles. The zone is where the gas undergoes a rolling, convective motion much like the unstable air in a thunderstorm. "This turbulent gas has an extremely important job, because nearly all of the energy emitted at the surface of the sun is transported there by convection," Drake said. The accepted amount of neon in the sun has led to a paradox. The predicted location and size of the solar convection zone disagree with those deduced from solar oscillations. Solar oscillations is a technique astronomers previously relied on to probe the sun's interior. Several scientists have noted the problem could be fixed if the abundance of neon is in fact about three times larger than currently accepted. Attempts to measure the precise amount of neon in the Sun have been frustrated by a quirk of nature; neon atoms in the Sun give off no signatures in visible light. However, in a gas heated to millions of degrees, neon shines brightly in X-rays. Stars like the sun are covered in this super-heated gas that is betrayed by the white corona around them during solar eclipses. However, observations of the sun's corona are very difficult to analyze. Labeled Illustration of Convection in Sun-like Star Labeled Illustration of Convection in Sun-like Star To probe the neon content, Drake and his colleague Paola Testa of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Mass., observed 21 sun-like stars within a distance of 400 light years from Earth. These local stars and the sun should contain about the same amount of neon when compared to oxygen. However, these close stellar kin were found to contain on average almost three times more neon than is believed for the sun. "Either the sun is a freak in its stellar neighborhood, or it contains a lot more neon than we think," Testa said. These Chandra results reassured astronomers the detailed physical theory behind the solar model is secure. Scientists use the model of the sun as a basis for understanding the structure and evolution of other stars, as well as many other areas of astrophysics. "If the higher neon abundance measured by Drake and Testa is right, then it is a simultaneous triumph for Chandra and for the theory of how stars shine," said John Bahcall of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, N.J. Bahcall is an expert in the field who was not involved in the Chandra study. Drake is lead author of the study published in this week's issue of the journal Nature. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  1. ICP and the Squid Web Cache \\Lambda Duane Wessels

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    ICP and the Squid Web Cache \\Lambda Duane Wessels k claffy August 13, 1997 Abstract We describe the structure and functionality of the Internet Cache Protocol (ICP) and its implementation in the Squid Web

  2. Boundary Field Theory Approach to the Renormalization of SQUID Devices

    E-print Network

    Domenico Giuliano; Pasquale Sodano

    2006-12-14

    We show that the quantum properties of some Josephson SQUID devices are described by a boundary sine Gordon model. Our approach naturally describes multi-junction SQUID devices and, when applied to a single junction SQUID (the rf-SQUID), it reproduces the known results of Glazman and Hekking. We provide a detailed analysis of the regimes accessible to an rf-SQUID and to a two-Josephson junction SQUID device (the dc-SQUID). We then compute the normal component of the current-response of a SQUID device to an externally applied voltage and show that the equation describing the current-voltage characteristic function reduces to well-known results when the infrared cutoff is suitably chosen. Our approach helps in establishing new and interesting connections between superconducting devices, quantum brownian motion, fermionic quantum wires and, more generally, quantum impurity problems.

  3. Diffusion of neon in white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughto, J.; Schneider, A. S.; Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Sedimentation of the neutron rich isotope N22e may be an important source of gravitational energy during the cooling of white dwarf stars. This depends on the diffusion constant for N22e in strongly coupled plasma mixtures. We calculate self-diffusion constants Di from molecular dynamics simulations of carbon, oxygen, and neon mixtures. We find that Di in a mixture does not differ greatly from earlier one component plasma results. For strong coupling (coulomb parameter ?> few), Di has a modest dependence on the charge Zi of the ion species, Di?Zi-2/3 . However, Di depends more strongly on Zi for weak coupling (smaller ? ). We conclude that the self-diffusion constant DNe for N22e in carbon, oxygen, and neon plasma mixtures is accurately known so that uncertainties in DNe should be unimportant for simulations of white dwarf cooling.

  4. DC-SQUID electronics based on adaptive positive feedback: experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Seppa; A. Ahonen; J. Knuutila; J. Simola; V. Volkman

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that DC-SQUID read-out electronics can be realized utilizing positive feedback without deteriorating the SQUID noise performance. The required gain rise is achieved by interconnecting the SQUID output and a flux modulation coil via a cooled FET acting as a voltage-controlled resistor; different SQUIDs with different types of FETs have been studied experimentally. Possible ways of adaptively controlling

  5. Powering neon lamps through piezoelectric transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. M. Smidt; J. L. Duarte

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the piezoelectric high-voltage ratio transformer as a potential component for powering neon lamps is discussed. The attractiveness of the piezoelectric technology is primarily the extreme simplicity of the resulting components, which are easy to reproduce in mass production, compared to the widely-used wire-wound ferrite transformers. Furthermore, on account of the electric network behaviour of a piezotransformer, the

  6. The NEON Soil Archive - A community resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, E.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a 30-year National Science Foundation-funded facility for understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, and ecohydrology. NEON will measure a wide range of properties at 60 terrestrial and 36 aquatic sites throughout the US using in situ sensors, sample collection/lab analysis, and remote sensing, and all data will be made freely available. The Observatory is currently under construction and will be fully operational by 2017, however, limited data collection and release will begin in 2013. In addition, NEON is archiving large numbers of samples, including surface soils (top ~30 cm) collected from locations across each site, and soils collected by horizon to 2 m deep from a single soil pit at each site. Here I present information about the latter, focusing on sampling and processing, metadata, and currently available samples. At each terrestrial site the soil pit is dug in the locally dominant soil type and soil is collected by horizon, mixed, and ~4-8 liters soil is sent for processing. Soil samples are air-dried and sieved (mineral soil) or air-dried (organic soil) and 1.2 kg is split between 4 glass jars for archiving (protocol available upon request). To date 15 soil pits have been sampled, representing 7 soil orders, and soils from 110 horizons have been archived or are being processed. Metadata associated with each archive sample include a soil profile description, photos, and soil properties (total C, N, S, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, Sr, Ti, Zr, bulk density, pH, and texture). The procedure for requesting samples from the archive is under development and I encourage scientists to use the archive in their future research. Collecting and processing samples for the NEON Soil Archive

  7. Dc SQUID based on unshunted Josephson junctions: experimental results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Seppa; M. Kiviranta; L. Gronberg

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that a new SQUID type be constructed by using unshunted Josephson junctions instead of resistively shunted junctions. Using this approach we are able to present a SQUID having a high output dynamic resistance and a device characterized by a negative output resistance and an extremely low noise. The first mentioned is called a high-gain SQUID, the

  8. Paleomagnetic analysis using SQUID microscopy Benjamin P. Weiss,1

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Benjamin P.

    Paleomagnetic analysis using SQUID microscopy Benjamin P. Weiss,1 Eduardo A. Lima,1,2 Luis E. Fong; published 19 September 2007. [1] Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopes are a new sensitivity. Unlike standard rock magnetometers, SQUID microscopes map magnetic fields rather than measuring

  9. Development of a Squid Skinning and Eviscerating System

    E-print Network

    Development of a Squid Skinning and Eviscerating System R. PAUL SINGH and DANIEL E. BROWN Introduction Despite its excellent food value, a North American market for squid is vir- tually non-existent. The appearance of whole squid is unappetizing to many in the market place despite its relatively low retail price

  10. Many loliginid squid populations depend entirely upon the reproduc-

    E-print Network

    306 Many loliginid squid populations depend entirely upon the reproduc- tive output- mens, 2000; Semmens and Moltschani- wskyj, 2000). In California waters, Loligo opalescens (market squid, also known as the opalescent inshore squid [FAO]) live only 6-12 months (Butler et al., 1999) and die

  11. Experimental Pair Trawling for Squid in New England

    E-print Network

    Experimental Pair Trawling for Squid in New England ALAN J. BLOTT Introduction In pair trawling was to test the feasibility of harvesting winter or longfin squid, Loligo pealei, in inshore waters with a bottom pair trawl. Procedure Two pair trawlers which had pre- viously been used in the squid fishery

  12. The Foreign Squid Fishery Off the Northeast United States Coast

    E-print Network

    The Foreign Squid Fishery Off the Northeast United States Coast DAVID J. KOLATOR and DOUGLAS P LONG Introduction Squid has long been a popular food fish in the foreign market and thus a highly sought marine resource by the foreign fishing fleet. Foreign vessels began reporting incidental catches of squid off

  13. Orientation dependence of broadband acoustic backscattering from live squid

    E-print Network

    Stanton, Tim

    Orientation dependence of broadband acoustic backscattering from live squid Wu-Jung Lee, Andone C squid (Loligo pealeii) was conducted using linear chirp signals (60103 kHz) with data collected over with an analytical prolate spheroid model and a three-dimensional numerical model with randomized squid shape, both

  14. 100 h SQUID AMPLIFIERS FOR THE ULTRACRYOGENIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS

    E-print Network

    100 ?h SQUID AMPLIFIERS FOR THE ULTRACRYOGENIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS PAOLO FALFERI, MICHELE of the cryogenic resonant de­ tectors is the noise temperature of the dc SQUID amplifier used to detect the signal matching between SQUID amplifier and displacement transducer, this limit can be approached also with finite

  15. INTRODUCTION Squid employ a complex locomotive approach involving two

    E-print Network

    Stewart, William J.

    2009 INTRODUCTION Squid employ a complex locomotive approach involving two separate systems, the pulsed jet and movement of the lateral fins (Bartol et al., 2001b). However, many studies involving squid of squid may play important roles in lift and thrust production at various speeds. In fact, based on force

  16. Information Panel The Embryonic Development of the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Information Panel The Embryonic Development of the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes the growing interest in Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) as a contemporary cephalopod developmental, and potential uses of E. scolopes as model organisms, see The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes

  17. J.Z. AND THE DISCOVERY OF SQUID GIANT NERVE

    E-print Network

    Fullard, James H.

    179 J.Z. AND THE DISCOVERY OF SQUID GIANT NERVE FIBRES Richard Keynes writes about J. Z. Young's 1938 ground-breaking publication on the function of squid giant nerve fibres. A PDF file of Young to further studies at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory of some structures in the mantles of squid that he

  18. "Saki-ika": Dried Squid Processing Equipment and Markets

    E-print Network

    "Saki-ika": Dried Squid Processing Equipment and Markets DANIEL J SHEEHY and SUSAN F. VIK Introduction Squid has been widely recognized as an underutilized food fishery in the United States. Only 18. In northwest Atlantic waters, most squid landings are incidental to trawl effort for finfishes (Lux et a

  19. "SQUID Susceptometry Imaging of Magnetic Nanoparticles" Solomon Diamond

    E-print Network

    Shepherd, Simon

    "SQUID Susceptometry Imaging of Magnetic Nanoparticles" Solomon Diamond 2010-2011 We have completed for synchronized recording of the SQUID system, encoder, and a fluxgate magnetometer and also developed software for magnetic field simulation and data analysis. We have demonstrated experimentally that the SQUID system can

  20. Abstract--Three experiments were performed in an estuarine squid-

    E-print Network

    533 Abstract--Three experiments were performed in an estuarine squid- trawl fishery in New South to reduce nontargeted catches of fish, while maintaining catches of the targeted broad squid (Photololigo etheridgei) and bottle squid (Loliolus noctiluca). Compared to conventional codends made with 41-mm diamond

  1. BRIEF COMMUNICATION ON THE SQUID AXON MEMBRANE'S RESPONSE TO

    E-print Network

    BRIEF COMMUNICATION ON THE SQUID AXON MEMBRANE'S RESPONSE TO SEQUENTIAL VOLTAGE AND CURRENT CLAMPS ofvoltage in a membrane. However, they failed to find such a match in experiments on either squid axons and second halves of the cycle. In their experiments on squid axons, the Starzaks were unable to recover

  2. SQUID technology and its coming impact on communication systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Tesche

    1982-01-01

    The superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), a low noise flux to voltage transducer used in sensitive superconducting magnetometer systems, is discussed. The dc SQUID consists of a superconducting loop interrupted by two Josephson junctions. A lumped circuit element model for the dc SQUID is presented. The magnetic field resolution of a pick up coil coupled inductively to the device is

  3. Squid Pax-6 and eye?development

    PubMed Central

    Tomarev, Stanislav I.; Callaerts, Patrick; Kos, Lidia; Zinovieva, Rina; Halder, Georg; Gehring, Walter; Piatigorsky, Joram

    1997-01-01

    Pax-6 in vertebrates and its homolog eyeless in Drosophila are known to be essential for eye development. Here we investigate the role of Pax-6 in eye development in another major systematic group, molluscs. We demonstrate that alternatively spliced RNAs derived from a single Pax-6 gene in the squid (Loligo opalescens) are expressed in the embryonic eye, olfactory organ, brain, and arms. Despite significant sequence differences between squid Pax-6 and Drosophila eyeless in the region outside the paired- and homeodomains, squid Pax-6 is able to induce the formation of ectopic eyes in Drosophila. Our results support the idea that Pax-6 related genes are necessary for eye and olfactory system formation throughout the animal kingdom. PMID:9122210

  4. Squid Pax-6 and eye development.

    PubMed

    Tomarev, S I; Callaerts, P; Kos, L; Zinovieva, R; Halder, G; Gehring, W; Piatigorsky, J

    1997-03-18

    Pax-6 in vertebrates and its homolog eyeless in Drosophila are known to be essential for eye development. Here we investigate the role of Pax-6 in eye development in another major systematic group, molluscs. We demonstrate that alternatively spliced RNAs derived from a single Pax-6 gene in the squid (Loligo opalescens) are expressed in the embryonic eye, olfactory organ, brain, and arms. Despite significant sequence differences between squid Pax-6 and Drosophila eyeless in the region outside the paired- and homeodomains, squid Pax-6 is able to induce the formation of ectopic eyes in Drosophila. Our results support the idea that Pax-6 related genes are necessary for eye and olfactory system formation throughout the animal kingdom. PMID:9122210

  5. OpenSQUID: a flexible open-source software framework for the control of SQUID electronics

    E-print Network

    Jaeckel, Felix T; Boyd, S T P

    2012-01-01

    Commercially available computer-controlled SQUID electronics are usually delivered with software providing a basic user interface for adjustment of SQUID tuning parameters, such as bias current, flux offset, and feedback loop settings. However, in a research context it would often be useful to be able to modify this code and/or to have full control over all these parameters from researcher-written software. In the case of the STAR Cryoelectronics PCI/PFL family of SQUID control electronics, the supplied software contains modules for automatic tuning and noise characterization, but does not provide an interface for user code. On the other hand, the Magnicon SQUIDViewer software package includes a public application programmer's interface (API), but lacks auto-tuning and noise characterization features. To overcome these limitations, we are developing an open-source framework for controlling SQUID electronics which should provide maximal interoperability with user software, a unified user interface for electron...

  6. Chromogenic behaviors of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) studied in situ with an animal-borne video package.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Hannah; Gilly, William; Bell, Lauren; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg

    2015-01-15

    Dosidicus gigas (Humboldt or jumbo flying squid) is an economically and ecologically influential species, yet little is known about its natural behaviors because of difficulties in studying this active predator in its oceanic environment. By using an animal-borne video package, National Geographic's Crittercam, we were able to observe natural behaviors in free-swimming D. gigas in the Gulf of California with a focus on color-generating (chromogenic) behaviors. We documented two dynamic displays without artificial lighting at depths of up to 70 m. One dynamic pattern, termed 'flashing' is characterized by a global oscillation (2-4 Hz) of body color between white and red. Flashing was almost always observed when other squid were visible in the video frame, and this behavior presumably represents intraspecific signaling. Amplitude and frequency of flashing can be modulated, and the phase relationship with another squid can also be rapidly altered. Another dynamic display termed 'flickering' was observed whenever flashing was not occurring. This behavior is characterized by irregular wave-like activity in neighboring patches of chromatophores, and the resulting patterns mimic reflections of down-welled light in the water column, suggesting that this behavior may provide a dynamic type of camouflage. Rapid and global pauses in flickering, often before a flashing episode, indicate that flickering is under inhibitory neural control. Although flashing and flickering have not been described in other squid, functional similarities are evident with other species. PMID:25609785

  7. Intracellular Perfusion of Chilean Giant Squid Axons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ichiji Tasaki; Mario Luxoro

    1964-01-01

    Axons of the Chilean giant squid were subjected to continuous intracellular perfusion with either potassium- or sodium-rich salt solutions. In axons immersed in natural sea water and internally perfused with potassium glutamate solution, action potentials which exceeded 160 millivolts were often observed. The resting potential did not vary appreciably with the internal concentration of potassium glutamate. With perfusing solutions containing

  8. Multichannel SQUID systems for brain research

    SciTech Connect

    Ahonen, A.I.; Hamalainen, M.S.; Kajola, M.J.; Knuutila, J.E.F.; Lounasmaa, O.V.; Simola, J.T.; Vilkman, V.A. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Low Temperature Lab.); Tesche, C.D. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center)

    1991-03-01

    This paper reviews basis principles of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and neuromagnetic instrumentation. The authors' 24-channel system, based on planar gradiometer coils and dc-SQUIDs, is then described. Finally, recent MEG-experiments on human somatotopy and focal epilepsy, carried out in the authors' laboratory, are presented.

  9. ICP and the Squid Web Cache

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duane Wessels

    1997-01-01

    We describe the structure and functionality of the Internet Cache Protocol (ICP) and itsimplementation in the Squid Web Caching software. ICP is a lightweight message format usedfor communication among Web caches. Caches exchange ICP queries and replies to gatherinformation to use in selecting the most appropriate location from which to retrieve an object.We present background on the history of ICP,

  10. Sodium Extrusion by Internally Dialyzed Squid Axons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Brinley; L. J. MULLINS

    1967-01-01

    A method has been developed which allows a length of elec- trically excitable squid axon to be internally dialyzed against a continuously flowing solution of defined composition. Tests showed that diffusional exchange of small molecules in the axoplasm surrounding the dialysis tube occurred with a half-time of 2-5 rain, and that protein does not cross the wall of the dialysis

  11. One Period of Exploration with the Squid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, James V.; Ng, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Presents a lab that can be offered after students have learned the basic anatomy and physiology of the various phyla, the primary objective of which is to explore and apply their acquired knowledge to a new situation. Involves exploring the anatomy and life-style of the squid. (JRH)

  12. Patch voltage clamp of squid axon membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harvey M. Fishman

    1975-01-01

    Summary A small area (patch) of the external surface of a squid axon can be isolated electrically from the surrounding bath by means of a pair of concentric glass pipettes. The seawater-filled inner pipette makes contact with the axon and constitutes the external access to the patch. The outer pipette is used to direct flowing sucrose solution over the area

  13. ICP and the Squid web cache

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duane Wessels; K. Claffy

    1998-01-01

    We describe the structure and functionality of the Internet cache protocol (ICP) and its implementation in the Squid web caching software. ICP is a lightweight message format used for communication among Web caches. Caches exchange ICP queries and replies to gather information to use in selecting the most appropriate location from which to retrieve an object. We present background on

  14. Squid Dissection: From Pen to Ink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cindy; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Introduces students to dissection, which is an important part of scientific discovery. Students not only gain an understanding of the anatomy of a squid, but also develop a sense of responsibility and respect for the animal that they are using as a learning tool. (Author/SOE)

  15. Dietary protein source and level alters growth in neon tetras.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional studies for aquarium fish like the neon tetra are sparse in comparison with those for food fish. To determine the optimum dietary protein level and source for growth of neon tetras, diets were formulated to contain 25, 35, 45 and 55% dietary protein from either marine animal protein or ...

  16. NEON: Transforming Environmental Data into Free, Open Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wee

    2010-01-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data across the United States on the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on natural resources and biodiversity. NEON is a project of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), with many other U.S. agencies and NGOs cooperating. The Observatory's construction plans call for 60 sites distributed across 20

  17. The performance analysis of ARM NEON technology for mobile platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minwoo Jang; Kukhyun Kim; Kanghee Kim

    2011-01-01

    Mobile platforms have compute-bound applications, which will be executed on top of ARM processors in many cases. For such applications, the use of the ARM NEON technology should be considered since it can significantly increase the computing power of the underlying processor for vector operations. The ARM NEON technology is a media processing architecture based on SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple

  18. Dietary Protein Source and Level Affects Growth in Neon Tetras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy M. Sealey; Frederic T. Barrows; Mike Casten; Ronald W. Hardy

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional studies for aquarium fishes like the neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi are sparse in comparison with those for food fish. To determine the optimum dietary protein level and source for growth of neon tetras, diets were formulated to contain 25, 35, 45, and 55% dietary protein from either marine animal protein or plant protein sources in a 4 2

  19. Scattering of electrons from neon atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, A.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    Scattering of electrons from neon atoms is investigated by the polarized-orbital method. The perturbed orbitals calculated with use of the Sternheimer approximation lead to the polarizability 2.803 a(0)-cube in fairly good agreement with the experimental value 2.66 a(0)-cube. Phase shifts for various partial waves are calculated in the exchange, exchange-adiabatic, and polarized-orbital approximations. They are compared with the previous results. The calculated elastic differential, total, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared with the experimental results. The polarized-orbital approximation yields results which show general improvement over the exchange-adiabatic approximation.

  20. High-gain weakly nonlinear flux-modulated Josephson parametric amplifier using a SQUID-array

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    High-gain weakly nonlinear flux-modulated Josephson parametric amplifier using a SQUID-array X devices (SQUIDs). This amplifier is parametrically pumped by modulating the flux threading the SQUIDs be obtained with a single SQUID of the same inductance, due to the smaller nonlinearity of the SQUID array. 1

  1. Moderately shielded high-Tc SQUID system for rat MCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechstein, S.; Kim, I.-S.; Drung, D.; Novikov, I.; Schurig, Th

    2010-06-01

    Recently, we have developed a 5-channel high-Tc SQUID system with one signal channel intended for rat magnetocardiography (MCG) in moderately shielded or "quiet" real environment. This system is an adapted version of a human MCG system which has been improved with respect to user-friendliness and stability. A dewar with a cold-warm distance of 7 mm and a refill cycle time of up to one week is utilized. The implemented high-Tc SQUIDs are single-layer devices with grain boundary junctions fabricated at KRISS with laser ablation on 10 mm 10 mm STO substrates. In order to cancel environmental magnetic noise, three of the five SQUIDs are arranged to build an axial software first-order or second-order gradiometer with a base line of 35 mm. The other two SQUIDs are used for balancing. To overcome previous system instabilities, we have implemented an Earth field compensation for each SQUID. For this, the SQUIDs were mounted in capsules containing integrated field compensation coils. The three Earth field components are measured with an additional triaxial fluxgate, and compensated at the SQUID locations using the low-noise current source of the SQUID readout electronics. This way, the SQUIDs can be cooled and operated in a low residual field that improves system stability and reduces low-frequency SQUID noise. It is even possible to slowly move the dewar in the Earth field (dynamic field compensation). Different noise cancellation procedures were optimized and compared employing a periodic signal source.

  2. Collisional Properties of Cold Spin-Polarized Metastable Neon Atoms P. Spoden,1

    E-print Network

    Birkl, Gerhard

    Collisional Properties of Cold Spin-Polarized Metastable Neon Atoms P. Spoden,1 M. Zinner,1 N-polarized neon atoms in the metastable 3P2 state for 20Ne and 22Ne in a magnetic trap. From particle loss, we of neon. Compared to helium, neon has a more complex internal structure. This causes, for example

  3. Molecular simulation of the vapourliquid phase coexistence of neon and argon using ab initio potentials

    E-print Network

    Molecular simulation of the vapour­liquid phase coexistence of neon and argon using ab initio are reported for the vapour?liquid phase coexistence of neon and argon. For neon two dierent quantum chemical interactions. In addition calculations are also reported for neon using a potential that includes three

  4. is attributed to the presence of a solar neon component in the Earth410

    E-print Network

    Graham, David W.

    is attributed to the presence of a solar neon component in the Earth4­10 . A major goal.04). The primordial neon- isotope composition for the upper mantle strongly resembles the neon component (Ne such intense irradiation is likely to have occurred during an active phase of the Geochemistry Neon illuminates

  5. Diffusion of Neon in White Dwarf Stars

    E-print Network

    C. J. Horowitz; J. Hughto; A. S. Schneider; D. K. Berry

    2010-11-29

    Sedimentation of the neutron rich isotope $^{22}$Ne may be an important source of gravitational energy during the cooling of white dwarf stars. This depends on the diffusion constant for $^{22}$Ne in strongly coupled plasma mixtures. We calculate self-diffusion constants $D_i$ from molecular dynamics simulations of carbon, oxygen, and neon mixtures. We find that $D_i$ in a mixture does not differ greatly from earlier one component plasma results. For strong coupling (coulomb parameter $\\Gamma>$ few), $D_i$ has a modest dependence on the charge $Z_i$ of the ion species, $D_i \\propto Z_i^{-2/3}$. However $D_i$ depends more strongly on $Z_i$ for weak coupling (smaller $\\Gamma$). We conclude that the self-diffusion constant $D_{\\rm Ne}$ for $^{22}$Ne in carbon, oxygen, and neon plasma mixtures is accurately known so that uncertainties in $D_{\\rm Ne}$ should be unimportant for simulations of white dwarf cooling.

  6. Damage accumulation in neon implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliviero, E.; Peripolli, S.; Amaral, L.; Fichtner, P. F. P.; Beaufort, M. F.; Barbot, J. F.; Donnelly, S. E.

    2006-08-01

    Damage accumulation in neon-implanted silicon with fluences ranging from 51014to51016Necm-2 has been studied in detail. As-implanted and annealed samples were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry under channeling conditions and by transmission electron microscopy in order to quantify and characterize the lattice damage. Wavelength dispersive spectrometry was used to obtain the relative neon content stored in the matrix. Implantation at room temperature leads to the amorphization of the silicon while a high density of nanosized bubbles is observed all along the ion distribution, forming a uniform and continuous layer for implantation temperatures higher than 250C. Clusters of interstitial defects are also present in the deeper part of the layer corresponding to the end of range of ions. After annealing, the samples implanted at temperatures below 250C present a polycrystalline structure with blisters at the surface while in the other samples coarsening of bubbles occurs and nanocavities are formed together with extended defects identified as {311} defects. The results are discussed in comparison to the case of helium-implanted silicon and in the light of radiation-enhanced diffusion.

  7. Fly on the Ceiling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-30

    In this math lesson, learners play two different games to help them understand coordinates. First, learners read the book, "The Fly on the Ceiling," by Julie Glass. Then, learners play "Fly Tic-Tac-Toe," a game similar to tic-tac-toe but with coordinates, and "Swat the Flies," a game similar to Battleship but with flies. Each game requires two players.

  8. Coupled Serial and Parallel Non-uniform SQUIDs

    SciTech Connect

    Longhini, Patrick; In, Visarath [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Berggren, Susan; Palacios, Antonio [Nonlinear Dynamics Group Department of Mathematics and Statistics San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Leese de Escobar, Anna

    2011-04-19

    In this work we numerical model series and parallel non-uniform superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) array. Previous work has shown that series SQUID array constructed with a random distribution of loop sizes, (i.e. different areas for each SQUID loop) there exists a unique 'anti-peak' at the zero magnetic field for the voltage versus applied magnetic field (V-B). Similar results extend to a parallel SQUID array where the difference lies in the arrangement of the Josephson junctions. Other system parameter such as bias current, the number of loops, and mutual inductances are varied to demonstrate the change in dynamic range and linearity of the V-B response. Application of the SQUID array as a low noise amplifier (LNA) would increase link margins and affect the entire communication system. For unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), size, weight and power are limited, the SQUID array would allow use of practical 'electrically small' antennas that provide acceptable gain.

  9. A sensor configuration for a 304 SQUID vector magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, A; Burghoff, M; Hartwig, S; Petsche, F; Steinhoff, U; Drung, D; Koch, H

    2004-01-01

    A novel SQUID vector magnetometer system is introduced which has been specially designed for the use inside the strongly magnetically shielded room BMSR-2 of PTB. The system is housed in a dewar with a flat bottom and an inner diameter of 250 mm. The SQUIDs are arranged so that in addition to the usually measured Z-component of the field the horizontal magnetic fields are measured too. A total of 304 DC-SQUID magnetometers are divided up into 19 identical modules. The 16 low-Tc SQUIDs of each module are located in such a way that an estimation of the magnetic field in all three dimensions is possible at three points inside the module. The 57 SQUIDs of the lowest Z plane of all modules form a hexagonal grid with a base length of 29 mm. The design criteria and the physical principle behind the complex SQUID arrangement are explained. PMID:16012698

  10. A method for simulating a flux-locked DC SQUID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutt, G. M.; Kasdin, N. J.; Condron, M. R., II; Muhlfelder, B.; Lockhart, J. M.; Cromar, M. W.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a computationally efficient and accurate method for simulating a dc SQUID's V-Phi (voltage-flux) and I-V characteristics which has proven valuable in evaluating and improving various SQUID readout methods. The simulation of the SQUID is based on fitting of previously acquired data from either a real or a modeled device using the Fourier transform of the V-Phi curve. This method does not predict SQUID behavior, but rather is a way of replicating a known behavior efficiently with portability into various simulation programs such as SPICE. The authors discuss the methods used to simulate the SQUID and the flux-locking control electronics, and present specific examples of this approach. Results include an estimate of the slew rate and linearity of a simple flux-locked loop using a characterized dc SQUID.

  11. 77 FR 22678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Trimester 1 Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...closure of the directed fishery for longfin squid (longfin) in the Exclusive Economic...

  12. Characterizing the Host and Symbiont Proteomes in the Association between the Bobtail Squid, Euprymna

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Characterizing the Host and Symbiont Proteomes in the Association between the Bobtail Squid Abstract The beneficial symbiosis between the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes within a natural microenvironment. Colonization of the squid light organ by V. fischeri begins a lifelong

  13. 50 CFR 648.27 - Observer requirements for the longfin squid fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Observer requirements for the longfin squid fishery. 648.27 Section 648.27...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries 648.27 Observer requirements for the longfin squid fishery. (a) A vessel issued a...

  14. 76 FR 51272 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2011 Trimester 2 Directed Loligo Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...that 90 percent of the Trimester 2 Loligo squid (Loligo) quota is projected to be...

  15. 75 FR 37739 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Adjustment...Fishing Year (FY) Trimester 2 and 3 Loligo squid quotas. This action complies with the...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries Management...

  16. 77 FR 23635 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications...Specifications for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish fisheries. DATES: Effective...measures for the Atlantic mackerel and squid fisheries, and the interim final...

  17. 50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession...

  18. 50 CFR 648.27 - Observer requirements for the longfin squid fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Observer requirements for the longfin squid fishery. 648.27 Section 648.27...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries 648.27 Observer requirements for the longfin squid fishery. (a) A vessel issued a...

  19. 50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession...

  20. 77 FR 40527 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2012 Trimester 2 Directed Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...that 90 percent of the Trimester 2 longfin squid (longfin) quota is projected to be...

  1. 50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions...Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession...

  2. Supersensitive SQUID/magnetostrictor detecting system

    SciTech Connect

    Golovashkin, Aleksander I; Zherikhina, L N; Tskhovrebov, Andrei M; Izmailov, G N

    2012-12-31

    It is shown that using the state-of-the-art quantum interferometer (SQUID) with the resolution 10{sup -6} {Phi}{sub 0} Hz{sup -1/2} = 2.07 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -21} Wb Hz{sup -1/2}, coupled to a magnetostrictor, playing the role of tensomagnetic transducer, it is possible to construct a system for detecting pressure variations with the ultimate sensitivity of 10{sup -13} Pa Hz{sup -1/2} and for measuring specific elongation with the sensitivity of 10{sup -24} Hz{sup -1/2}. The analysis of physical grounds of the inverse magnetostriction effect demonstrates concrete ways to essentially higher efficiency of tensomagnetic conversion. The estimates performed demonstrate the possibility of using the SQUID/magnetostrictor system as a detector of gravitational waves. Other possibilities of using this system for solving both fundamental and applied problems are also considered. (experimental techniques)

  3. Low Temperature SQUID for NDE Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz (Technical Monitor); Selim, Raouf

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a low temperature SuperConducting Quantum Interference Device - SQUID measurement system for detection of defects deep under the surface of aluminum structures using eddy current techniques. The system uses a two dimensional planar inducer with two different excitation frequencies to induce a current in the sample. We have developed a data analysis software program that enabled us to distinguish between round defects (holes), straight defects (slots) and slots close to holes simulating cracks starting from rivets in aluminum structures. We were able to detect defects that are 8mm below the surface. We have also measured the change in phase of the detected signal as a function of depth of the defect. This relationship can be used to determine the depth of hidden flaws. Using this analysis software with the high temperature SQUID system at NASA Langley we were able to detect slots close to holes in layered aluminum sample.

  4. SQUID-based multichannel system for Magnetoencephalography

    E-print Network

    Rombetto, S; Vettoliere, A; Trebeschi, A; Rossi, R; Russo, M

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a multichannel system based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) for magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements, developed and installed at Istituto di Cibernetica (ICIB) in Naples. This MEG system, consists of 163 full integrated SQUID magnetometers, 154 channels and 9 references, and has been designed to meet specifications concerning noise, dynamic range, slew rate and linearity through optimized design. The control electronics is located at room temperature and all the operations are performed inside a Magnetically Shielded Room (MSR). The system exhibits a magnetic white noise level of approximatively 5 fT/Hz1=2. This MEG system will be employed for both clinical and routine use. PACS numbers: 74.81.Fa, 85.25.Hv, 07.20.Mc, 85.25.Dq, 87.19.le, 87.85.Ng

  5. Practical SQUID Instrument for Nondestructive Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tralshawala, N.; Claycomb, J. R.; Miller, John H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    We report on the development of a scanning eddy-current imaging system designed to detect deep subsurface flaws in conducting materials. A high transition temperature (high-T c) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer is employed to provide the required sensitivity at low frequencies, while a combination of small cylindrical high-Tc superconducting and A-metal shields enable the instrument to be scanned in a magnetically noisy environment, rather than the object under test. The shields are arranged to prevent unwanted excitation and ambient noise fields from reaching the SQUID, and to enhance spatial resolution and minimize undesirable edge effects. Thus far, the instrument has successfully detected cracks and pits through 10 layers of aluminum, with a combined thickness of 5 cm at room temperature.

  6. Virtual fly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    3D virtual image of a blow fly (Family Calliphoridae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ?Help? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

  7. A 64-channel DC-SQUID magnetometer system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Okajima; T. Komuro; N. Harada; A. Adachi; M. Ueda; A. Kandori; G. Uehara; H. Kado

    1993-01-01

    A modular 64-channel SQUID magnetometer system has been developed for biomagnetic applications. The square-shaped double washer DC-SQUIDs are fabricated by thin film technology based on the Nb metal process. The signal is detected by a first-order planar gradiometer with counter-wound 10 mm square-shaped coils and a baseline length of 40 mm. The SQUIDs are operated in a flux locked mode.

  8. The Renormalization Effects in the Microstrip-SQUID Amplifier

    E-print Network

    G. P. Berman; A. A. Chumak; V. I. Tsifrinovich

    2011-10-25

    The peculiarities of the microstrip-DC SQUID amplifier caused by the resonant structure of the input circuit are analyzed. It is shown that the mutual inductance, that couples the input circuit and the SQUID loop, depends on the frequency of electromagnetic field. The renormalization of the SQUID parameters due to the screening effect of the input circuit vanishes when the Josephson frequency is much greater than the signal frequency.

  9. MFR PAPER 1023 While the world squid etch octupl d

    E-print Network

    MFR PAPER 1023 While the world squid etch octupl d between 1938 and 1968, th r"SOlJrC potent/aIls stili enormous Northwest Atlantic Squids WARREN F. RATHJEN In 19 the \\\\{ fld \\..,Idl II qUId ,1Il1l" FAO f'isheries ircular o. 1~9) re- \\Ie\\\\ of v. orld squid ..Inu ,)CIl'PU" potentials. \\ oss andlcateu

  10. Optimized SQUID sensors for low frequency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttil, J.; Grnberg, L.; Hassel, J.; Kiviranta, M.

    2009-03-01

    We have fabricated and measured optimized SQUID sensors (superconducting quantum interference device) for low frequency measurements of magnetic field. We have also investigated the dependence of flux trapping field on the position of Josephson junctions with respect to the Ketchen-type washer. The sensors are measured using direct room temperature readout utilizing noise cancellation techniques based on negative and positive feedback. A superconducting magnesium diboride can is used to shield the sample in pulse-tube cryocooler measurements.

  11. A high performance integrated DC SQUID magnetometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cantor; K. Enpuku; T. Ryhanen; H. Seppa

    1993-01-01

    The authors have carried out extensive mappings of the DC characteristics and flux noise of an integrated, DC superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as functions of bias current and applied flux. The open-loop white flux noise at 1 kHz measured without flux modulation is ?n<710-7 ?0\\/?Hz throughout a broad region of operation where the current-voltage and voltage-flux characteristics are

  12. Odorant Responsiveness of Squid Olfactory Receptor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Arie Sitthichai; Michel, William C.; Lucero, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    In the olfactory organ of the squid, Lolliguncula brevis there are five morphological types of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Previous work to characterize odor sensitivity of squid ORNs was performed on only two of the five types in dissociated primary cell cultures. Here we sought to establish the odorant responsiveness of all five types. We exposed live squid or intact olfactory organs to excitatory odors plus the activity marker, agmatine (AGB), an arginine derivative that enters cells through non-selective cation channels. An antibody against AGB was used to identify odorant-activated neurons. We were able to determine the ORN types of AGB-labeled cells based on their location in the epithelium, morphology and immunolabeling by a set of metabolites: arginine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine and glutathione. Of 389 neurons identified from metabolite-labeled tissue, 3% were type 1, 32% type 2, 33% type 3, 15% type 4 and 17% type 5. Each ORN type had different odorant specificity with type 3 cells showing the highest percentages of odorant-stimulated AGB labeling. Type 1 cells were rare and none of the identified type 1 cells responded to the tested odorants, which included glutamate, alanine and AGB. Glutamate is a behaviorally attractive odorant and elicited AGB labeling in types 2 and 3. Glutamate-activated AGB labeling was significantly reduced in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor, SQ22536 (80 ?M). These data suggest that the five ORN types differ in their relative abundance and odor responsiveness and that the adenylate cyclase pathway is involved in squid olfactory transduction. PMID:18484602

  13. Sodium Fluxes in Internally Dialyzed Squid Axons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Brinley; L. J. MULLINS

    1968-01-01

    The effects which alterations in the concentrations of internal sodium and high energy phosphate compounds had on the sodium influx and efflux of internally dialyzed squid axons were examined. Nine naturally occurring high energy phosphate compounds were ineffective in supporting significant sodium extrusion. These compounds were: AcP, PEP, G-3-P, ADP, AMP, GTP, CTP, PA, and UTP. 1 The compound d-ATP

  14. Brave New Biosphere: Story of a Squid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Why Files

    This Why Files informative page is part of a series that features the narrative of Bob, the bobtail squid. Bob describes the symbiotic relationship formed between his ancestors and the bioluminescent bacteria that offer him protection from predators. The next page in this series describes the relationship from the enslaved bacteria's perspective and features scientist Margaret McFall-Ngai. Links are provided to glossary terms and a bibliography.

  15. Have a question? Ask anyone in a neon green or neon orange T-shirt , head over to an information tent, or call 732-445-info (4636). Saturday, April 26, 2014

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    1 Have a question? Ask anyone in a neon green or neon orange T-shirt , head over to an information and Stops Livingston Shuttle #12;3 Have a question? Ask anyone in a neon green or neon orange T-shirt , head Immediately report a lost person to the nearest information tent or to any Rutgers Day staff member in a neon

  16. Fabrication and characterization of shunted ?-SQUID

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nikhil, E-mail: knikhil@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur - 208016 (India); Fournier, T.; Courtois, H.; Gupta, Anjan K. [Institute Neel, CNRS and Universit Joseph Fourier, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042, Grenoble (France)

    2014-04-24

    In order to eliminate hysteresis, we have fabricated and characterized niobium based shunted micron size superconducting quantum interference devices (?-SQUIDs). We find a wide temperature range where these ?-SQUIDs are non-hysteretic in nature and show a very good I{sub c} vs. B oscillations in hysteretic regime and V vs. B oscillations in non-hysteretic regime. Here we report the characteristics of a shunted- ?-SQUID (Wf38LS72D5). In this device we have achieved a large voltage modulation, in non-hysteretic regime, at various temperatures including such as 1.1 mV at 6.62 K with a transfer function V{sub ?}?=?7.2mV/?{sub 0}. The figures within the original article PDF file, as supplied to AIP Publishing, were affected by a PDF-processing error. Consequently, the article re-flowed and pagination increased from 3 to 4 pages. This article was updated on 14 May 2014 to correct the PDF-processing error, with the scientific content remaining unchanged. Readers are advised that the replacement article PDF file contains an additional blank page to preserve the original pagination.

  17. Low Field Squid MRI Devices, Components and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.

  18. Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.

  19. Low Field Squid MRI Devices, Components and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.

  20. Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.

  1. A nanoscale SQUID operating at high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Simon K. H.; Clem, John R.; Yang, Wenrong

    2011-10-13

    A washer-free Nb nanoSQUID has been developed for measuring magnetization changes from nanoscale objects. The SQUID loop is etched into a 250 nm wide Au/Nb bilayer track and the diameter of the SQUID hole is ~ 70 nm. In the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the SQUID, vortex penetration into the 250 nm wide track can be observed via the critical currentapplied field characteristic and the value at which vortex first penetrates is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Upon removing the applied field, the penetrated vortices escape the track and the critical current at zero field is restored.

  2. A nanoscale SQUID operating at high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Simon K. H.; Clem, John R.; Yang, Wenrong

    2011-10-13

    A washer-free Nb nanoSQUID has been developed for measuring magnetization changes from nanoscale objects. The SQUID loop is etched into a 250 nm wide Au/Nb bilayer track and the diameter of the SQUID hole is {approx} 70 nm. In the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the SQUID, vortex penetration into the 250 nm wide track can be observed via the critical current-applied field characteristic and the value at which vortex first penetrates is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Upon removing the applied field, the penetrated vortices escape the track and the critical current at zero field is restored.

  3. 77 FR 67305 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications...managed as part of the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan...Page 67306

  4. Neon and Oxygen Abundances in M33

    E-print Network

    N. R. Crockett; D. R. Garnett; P. Massey; G. Jacoby

    2005-10-10

    We present new spectroscopic observations of 13 H II regions in the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. The regions observed range from 1 to 7 kpc in distance from the nucleus. Of the 13 H II regions observed, the [O III] 4363 Angstrom line was detected in six regions. Electron temperatures were thus able to be determined directly from the spectra using the [O III] 4959,5007 A/4363 A line ratio. Based on these temperature measurements, oxygen and neon abundances and their radial gradients were calculated. For neon, a gradient of -0.016 +/- 0.017 dex/kpc was computed, which agrees with the Ne/H gradient derived previously from ISO spectra. A gradient of -0.012 +/- 0.011 dex/kpc was computed for O/H, much shallower than was derived in previous studies. The newly calculated O/H and Ne/H gradients are in much better agreement with each other, as expected from predictions of stellar nucleosynthesis. We examine the correlation between the WC/WN ratio and metallicity, and find that the new M33 abundances do not impact the observed correlation significantly. We also identify two new He II-emitting H II regions in M33, the first to be discovered in a spiral galaxy other than the Milky Way. In both cases the nebular He II emission is not associated with Wolf-Rayet stars. Therefore, caution is warranted in interpreting the relationship between nebular He II emission and Wolf-Rayet stars when both are observed in the integrated spectrum of an H II region.

  5. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...intended to measure the concentration of neon in a gas mixture exhaled by a patient. The device may use techniques such as mass spectrometry or thermal conductivity. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...intended to measure the concentration of neon in a gas mixture exhaled by a patient. The device may use techniques such as mass spectrometry or thermal conductivity. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...intended to measure the concentration of neon in a gas mixture exhaled by a patient. The device may use techniques such as mass spectrometry or thermal conductivity. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...intended to measure the concentration of neon in a gas mixture exhaled by a patient. The device may use techniques such as mass spectrometry or thermal conductivity. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  9. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...intended to measure the concentration of neon in a gas mixture exhaled by a patient. The device may use techniques such as mass spectrometry or thermal conductivity. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  10. 8. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION SHOWING NEON TWA SIGN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION SHOWING NEON TWA SIGN AND ROOF MASTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. NEON's Mobile Deployment Platform: Seeking Input on a Community Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SanClements, M.; Loescher, H. W.

    2012-12-01

    We seek input from the AGU community on the National Ecological Observatory Network's (NEON) PI and agency requestable Mobile Deployment Platform (MDP). The NEON MDPs will provide the means to observe stochastic or spatially important events, gradients, or quantities that cannot be reliably observed using fixed location sampling (e.g. fires and floods). Due to the transient temporal and spatial nature of such events, the MDPs will be designed to accommodate rapid deployment for time periods up to ~ 1 year. Broadly, the MDPs will be comprised of infrastructure and instrumentation capable of functioning individually or in conjunction with one another to support observations of ecological change, as well as education, training and outreach. We aim to glean input on selecting infrastructure and instrumentation relevant to meeting the needs of NEON and the broader scientific community. This poster will be formatted to allow for direct commentary on the MDP. Comments will be compiled and made available on the NEON website for further discussion.

  12. Neon time-of-flight backscattering spectrometry for surface analysis

    E-print Network

    Garcia, Richard Michael

    2001-01-01

    Several time-of-flight backscattering spectrometry experiments using singly ionized neon for purposes of analyzing a bismuth coated silicon target were conducted. This work builds upon prior work, done with lighter ions, with the goal of comparing...

  13. Scintillation of liquid neon from electronic and nuclear recoils

    E-print Network

    J. A. Nikkel; R. Hasty; W. H. Lippincott; D. N. McKinsey

    2006-12-04

    We have measured the time dependence of scintillation light from electronic and nuclear recoils in liquid neon, finding a slow time constant of 15.4+-0.2 us. Pulse shape discrimination is investigated as a means of identifying event type in liquid neon. Finally, the nuclear recoil scintillation efficiency is measured to be 0.26+-0.03 for 387 keV nuclear recoils.

  14. Acceleration of neon pellets to high speeds for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combs, S. K.; Love, T. L.; Jernigan, T. C.; Milora, S. L.; Frattolillo, A.; Migliori, S.

    1996-03-01

    The injection of impurity pellets into the plasmas of tokamak fusion reactors has been proposed as a technique to lessen the deleterious effects of plasma disruptions. Equipment and techniques that were previously developed for pneumatic hydrogen pellet injection systems and used for plasma fueling applications were employed for a limited experimental study with neon pellets. Isotopic hydrogen pellets doped with neon have previously been used for injection into fusion plasmas to study impurity particle transport, and pure neon pellets are applicable for disruption studies. Using a repeating pneumatic injector in the laboratory, it was found that the formation and acceleration of 2.7-mm-diam neon pellets were relatively straightforward; reliable operation was demonstrated with both a single- and a two-stage light gas gun, including velocities of 700 m/s with a single-stage injector and up to 1740 m/s with a two-stage injector. Based on the operating sequences and successful tests demonstrated in the laboratory experiments, a three-barrel repeating pneumatic injector installed on the DIII-D tokamak was equipped with the necessary components for neon operation and has been used in initial disruption experiments with 1.8-mm-diam neon pellets.

  15. Black Flies: Simulium spp.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A thorough resource about this annoying biting fly, including distribution, life cycle, damage caused, management, and some selected references. Several images are included, and personal recommendations for avoiding them. There is also a link to general biting fly management.

  16. Controlling Blow Flies

    E-print Network

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2005-10-05

    Blow flies lay their eggs on animal remains and can spread disease. To control blow flies, it is important to remove dead animals and dispose of them properly, and to use effective insecticides when necessary....

  17. Giant squid skin gelatin: Chemical composition and biophysical characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario H. Uriarte-Montoya; Hisila Santacruz-Ortega; Francisco J. Cinco-Moroyoqui; Ofelia Rouzaud-Sndez; Maribel Plascencia-Jatomea; Josafat M. Ezquerra-Brauer

    2011-01-01

    Gelatin was extracted from the skin of giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) with a yield of 7.5% on a wet weight basis through a novel cold maturation process and it was chemical, physicochemical and structurally characterized. Squid skin gelatin (SSG) had high protein content (89%) with an amino acid profile similar to that of interstitial collagen. Infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism

  18. Giant squids may die when exposed to warm water currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Brix

    1983-01-01

    Strandings of the giant squid, Architeuthis monachus (Steen-strup), have always stirred attention because of the rarity and enormous size of these cephalopods. These animals have never been observed in their natural habitat and little is known about their physiology and ecology. Stranding of giant squids in Newfoundland waters has been correlated with the inflow of warm water, suggesting that increased

  19. Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

    2002-01-01

    Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

  20. Swimming dynamics and propulsive efficiency of squids throughout ontogeny

    E-print Network

    Hynes, Wayne L.

    Swimming dynamics and propulsive efficiency of squids throughout ontogeny Ian K. Bartol,1,? Paul S Synopsis Squids encounter vastly different flow regimes throughout ontogeny as they undergo critical and propulsive efficiency change throughout ontogeny, digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and kinematic

  1. SQUID magnetometry from nanometer to centimeter length scales

    SciTech Connect

    Hatridge, Michael J.

    2010-06-28

    The development of Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID)-based magnetometer for two applications, in vivo prepolarized, ultra-low field MRI of humans and dispersive readout of SQUIDs for micro- and nano-scale magnetometery, are the focus of this thesis.

  2. Fat Fruit Flies

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-08-11

    have hundreds of them, that each control a wide range of functions. When they removed a strand of this material from the fat cells of both male and female fruit flies, the flies became smaller. When the RNA was injected back into the flies...

  3. A SQUID gradiometer module with large junction shunt resistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Shu-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Wang, Yong-Liang; Li, Hua; Zeng, Jia; Kong, Xiang-Yan; Xie, Xiao-Ming

    2014-08-01

    A dual-washer superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with a loop inductance of 350 pH and two on-washer integrated input coils is designed according to conventional niobium technology. In order to obtain a large SQUID flux-to-voltage transfer coefficient, the junction shunt resistance is selected to be 33 ?. A vertical SQUID gradiometer module with a baseline of 100 mm is constructed by utilizing such a SQUID and a first-order niobium wire-wound antenna. The sensitivity of this module reaches about 0.2 fT/(cmHz1/2) in the white noise range using a direct readout scheme, i.e., the SQUID is directly connected to an operational amplifier, in a magnetically shielded room. Some magnetocardiography (MCG) measurements with a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are demonstrated.

  4. Metal-oxide ceramic RF SQUID operating at 77 K

    SciTech Connect

    Zakosarenko, V.M.; Ilyichyou, E.V.; Tulin, V.A.

    1989-03-01

    The authors have fabricated several versions of Zimmerman-type RF SQUIDs from bulk ceramic YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/ samples and studied their characteristics. The SQUIDs operated reliably at liquid nitrogen temperature and proved to be stable in time. In some features their properties were similar to those of RF SQUIDs based on conventional superconductors, but there were also some principle distinctions. The latter may be due to the fact that because of the macroscopic size of the weak link, the magnetic flux vortex enters reversible with respect to RF current the body of the weak link without crossing it. One of the SQUIDs operated as a conventional nonhysteretic SQUID, but the small value of the critical current of the weak link led to a lower operating temperature (Tgreater than or equal to 60K).

  5. Planar thin film SQUID with integral flux concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N. (inventor); Sisk, Robert C. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A thin film SQUID is disclosed having improved flux concentration combined with simplicity of design and fabrication. The SQUID starts with a wafer like substrate having simple planar geometry. A large area of superconducting film is coated on the substrate, with a small open or uncoated area remaining at its center to define a SQUID loop, and a gap in the film formed, beginning at the outer circumferential edge of the substrate and extending radially inward to the open area. A Josephson junction is formed across the gap near the open area to interrupt the electrical continuity of the SQUID loop. A coil is attached to the surface of the substrate, electrically insulated from the superconducting film, and is energized to induce flux within the SQUID which is concentrated within the open area.

  6. Capacitively-Coupled SQUID Bias for Time Division Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prle, D.; Voisin, F.; Piat, M.; Martino, J.; Decourcelle, T.; Chapron, C.

    2014-08-01

    The multiplexing scheme presented in this paper is part of the readout chain of the QUBIC instrument devoted to cosmic microwave background polarization observations. It is based on time domain multiplexing using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to read out a large array of superconducting bolometers. The originality of the multiplexer presented here lies in the use of capacitors for the SQUID addressing. Capacitive coupling allows us to bias many SQUIDs in parallel (in a 2D topology), with low crosstalk and low power dissipation of the cryogenic front-end readout. However, capacitors in series with the SQUID require a modification of the addressing strategy. This paper presents a bias reversal technique adopted to sequentially address the SQUIDs through capacitors using a cryogenic SiGe integrated circuit. We further present the different limitations of this technique and how to choose the proper capacitance for a given multiplexing frequency and current source compliance.

  7. Enhancements to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) Multiplexer Readout and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, J.; Benford, D. J.; Buchanan, E. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rebar, J.; Shafer, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Far-infrared detector arrays such as the 16x32 superconducting bolometer array for the SAFIRE instrument (flying on the SOFIA airborne observatory) require systems of readout and control electronics to provide translation between a user-driven, digital PC and the cold, analog world of the cryogenic detector. In 2001, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed their Mark III electronics for purposes of control and readout of their 1x32 SQUID Multiplexer chips. We at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center acquired a Mark 111 system and subsequently designed upgrades to suit our and our collaborators purposes. We developed an arbitrary, programmable multiplexing system that allows the user to cycle through rows in a SQUID array in an infinite number of combinations. We provided hooks in the Mark III system to allow readout of signals from outside the Mark 111 system, such as telescope status information. Finally, we augmented the heart of the system with a new feedback algorithm implementation, flexible diagnostic tools, and informative telemetry.

  8. Science Explorations: Investigate the Giant Squid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Explorations is a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. The Investigate the Giant Squid: Mysterious Cephalopod of the Sea exploration includes a documentary-style introduction, three online activities for students in grades 6-10, a glossary of related terms, a collection of articles, captioned photos, short videos, and informative links, off-line activities that challenge students to apply what they've learned, and advice and step-by-step tools to help students prepare research presentations.

  9. Presynaptic calcium currents in squid giant synapse.

    PubMed Central

    Llins, R; Steinberg, I Z; Walton, K

    1981-01-01

    A voltage clamp study has been performed in the presynaptic terminal of the squid stellate ganglion. After blockage of the voltage-dependent sodium and potassium conductances, an inward calcium current is demonstrated. Given a step-depolarization pulse, this voltage- and time-dependent conductance has an S-shaped onset. At the "break" of the voltage step, a rapid tail current is observed. From these results a kinetic model is generated which accounts for the experimental results and predicts for the time course and amplitude a possible calcium entry during presynaptic action potentials. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7225510

  10. Laying the groundwork for NEON's continental-scale ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, G.; Denslow, M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is designed to examine a suite of ecological issues. Field-collected data from 96 terrestrial and aquatic sites across the U.S. will be combined with remotely sensed data and existing continental-scale data sets. Field collections will include a range of physical and biological types, including soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, precipitation, plants, animals, insects, and microbes as well as biological sub-samples such as leaf material, blood and tissue samples, and DNA extracts. Initial data analyses and identifications of approximately 175,000 samples per year will occur at numerous external laboratories when all sites are fully staffed in 2017. Additionally, NEON will archive biotic and abiotic specimens at collections facilities where they will be curated and available for additional analyses by the scientific community. The number of archived specimens is currently estimated to exceed 130,000 per year by 2017. We will detail how NEON is addressing the complexities and challenges around this set of analyses and specimens and how the resulting high-quality data can impact ecological understanding. The raw data returned from external laboratories that is quality checked and served by NEON will be the foundation for many NEON data products. For example, sequence-quality nucleic acids extracted from surface waters, benthic biofilms, and soil samples will be building blocks for data products on microbial diversity. The raw sequence data will also be available for uses such as evolutionary investigations, and the extracts will be archived so others can acquire them for additional research. Currently, NEON is establishing contracts for the analysis and archiving of field-collected samples through 2017. During this period, NEON will gather information on the progress and success of this large-scale effort in order to determine the most effective course to pursue with external facilities. Two areas that NEON already knows to evaluate are the need for geographic expertise in taxonomic identifications and the capacity necessary to handle the volume of samples. NEON is also addressing challenges associated with external entities and the logistics of sample movement, data formatting, data ingestion, and reporting. For example, NEON is considering tools, such as web APIs, which could allow efficient transfer of data from external facilities. Having a standard format in place for that data will be critical to transfer success and quality assessment. NEON is also working on the implementation of quality control measures for diverse analytical and taxonomic processes across laboratories, and is developing an external audit process. Additionally, given NEON's open access approach, the Network is focused on selecting a sample identification protocol that aids in tracking samples with more involved analytical needs and also allows maximum utility for the scientific community. Given the complex nature and breadth of the project, NEON will be developing novel sample management systems as well as metadata schemas. These efforts insure integrity and quality from field to external facility to archive for each sample taken, providing high-quality data now and confidence in future research stemming from raw data generated by NEON and its collection specimens.

  11. CORRESPONDENCE Open Access The giant eyes of giant squid are indeed

    E-print Network

    Johnsen, Snke

    CORRESPONDENCE Open Access The giant eyes of giant squid are indeed unexpectedly large of giant and colossal squid can grow to three times the diameter of the eyes of any other animal, including of giant and colossal squid are not unexpectedly large for the size of the squid, and (2) a revision

  12. The market squid (Loligo opalescens) (also known as the opalescent inshore

    E-print Network

    661 The market squid (Loligo opalescens) (also known as the opalescent inshore squid, FAO [Roper et with declines in other fisheries off the U.S. West Coast. Market squid is a short-lived species (Jackson, 1994. For exam- ple, squid landings plummeted during the 1997-98 El Nio but reached a record high

  13. Intrapopulation structure of winter-spawned Argentine shortfin squid, Illex argentinus

    E-print Network

    1 Intrapopulation structure of winter-spawned Argentine shortfin squid, Illex argentinus of the important commercial squid Illex argentinus were studied by using bio- logical data from about 25 thousand until April, composed predominantly of June- and July-hatched squid. Squid grow and mature rapidly

  14. Multistage Zeeman deceleration of metastable neon

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederkehr, Alex W.; Motsch, Michael; Hogan, Stephen D.; Andrist, Markus; Schmutz, Hansjuerg; Lambillotte, Bruno; Agner, Josef A.; Merkt, Frederic [Laboratorium fuer Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-12-07

    A supersonic beam of metastable neon atoms has been decelerated by exploiting the interaction between the magnetic moment of the atoms and time-dependent inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a multistage Zeeman decelerator. Using 91 deceleration solenoids, the atoms were decelerated from an initial velocity of 580 m/s to final velocities as low as 105 m/s, corresponding to a removal of more than 95% of their initial kinetic energy. The phase-space distribution of the cold, decelerated atoms was characterized by time-of-flight and imaging measurements, from which a temperature of 10 mK was obtained in the moving frame of the decelerated sample. In combination with particle-trajectory simulations, these measurements allowed the phase-space acceptance of the decelerator to be quantified. The degree of isotope separation that can be achieved by multistage Zeeman deceleration was also studied by performing experiments with pulse sequences generated for {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne.

  15. Electron Impact Excitation and Ionization of Neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    We have further developed the B-Spline R-matrix (BSR) code [1] to allow for a large number of pseudo-states in the close-coupling expansion. In the present work, the BSRMPS approach [2] was employed to perform semi-relativistic (Breit-Pauli) close-coupling calculations for elastic scattering, excitation, and ionization of neon from both the ground state and the metastable excited states. Coupling to the ionization continuum through the pseudo-states is important for low-energy elastic scattering (to represent polarizability effects), for excitation in the ``intermediate'' energy regime of about 1-5 times the ionization potential, and to allow for the calculation of ionization processes by transforming the results obtained for excitation of the positive-energy pseudo-states. The current results represent a significant extension of our earlier near-threshold work [3] and previous non-relativistic RMPS calculations [4,5].[4pt] [1] O. Zatsarinny, Comp. Phys. Commun. 174 (2006) 273.[0pt] [2] O. Zatsarinny and K. Bartschat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 023203.[0pt] [3] O. Zatsarinny and K. Bartschat, J. Phys. B 37 (2004) 2173.[0pt] [4] C. P. Ballance and D. C. Griffin, J. Phys. B 37 (2004) 2943.[0pt] [5] C. P. Ballance et al., J. Phys. B 37 (2004) 4779.

  16. The curvy photonics of squid camouflage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Alison; Holt, Amanda; Daniel, Morse; Stramski, Dariusz

    2013-03-01

    Cephalopods (squids and octopuses) ubiquitously possess reflective structures in their skin composed of ``reflectin'' proteins. Although a few simple laminar, Bragg-stack type optical structures have been known in a handful of common squid species for some time, our extensive survey of optically active tissues of exotic deep-sea species has revealed complex, extended curvatures and topologies in dermal reflectors of these rarely-studied animals. Molecular deep-sequencing has revealed these structures also to be composed of reflectin-like proteins. Here we show a survey of some of these deep-sea reflector structures, and present evidence that each novel structure may be a transform of the radiance in the optical niche in the ocean where each of these species live, such that light reflecting off the sides of these animals in their specific ocean habitat resembles the light that would be transmitted through the animals if they were transparent, from many different viewing angles and possible ocean depths.

  17. CRISSY PASCUAL / Union-Tribune Bruce Nauman's sculpture in neon, "Vices and

    E-print Network

    Bewley, Thomas

    CRISSY PASCUAL / Union-Tribune Bruce Nauman's sculpture in neon, "Vices and Virtues," switches configuration of seven pairs of words in seven- foot high neon letters, like FAITH/LUST and HOPE/ENVY, flash

  18. Development of airborne remote sensing instrumentations for NEON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brian R.; Kampe, Thomas U.; Kuester, Michele

    2010-08-01

    Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role in the scaling strategy underpinning the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) design. Airborne spectroscopy and waveform LiDAR will quantify plant species type and function, and vegetation structure and heterogeneity at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants (1-3 meters) over hundreds of square kilometers. Panchromatic photography at better than 30 cm resolution will retrieve fine-scale information regarding land use, roads, impervious surfaces, and built structures. NEON will build three airborne systems to allow for routine coverage of NEON sites (60 sites nationally) and the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The system design achieves a balance between performance, and development cost and risk. The approach takes full advantage of existing commercial airborne LiDAR and camera components. However, requirements for the spectrometer represent a significant advancement in technology. A pushbroom imaging spectrometer design is being proposed to simultaneously achieve high spatial, spectral and signal-to-noise ratio and a high degree of uniformity in response across wavelength and a wide field of view. To reduce risk during NEON construction, a spectrometer design verification unit is under development by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to demonstrate that the design and component technologies meet operational and performance requirements. This paper presents an overview of system design, key requirements and development status of the NEON airborne instrumentation.

  19. Recent Results of a New Microwave SQUID Multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob; Limketkai, B.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a proof-of-concept microwave SQUID multiplexer containing four SQUIDs coupled to GHz frequency resonant circuits and fed with a single microwave readout line. The resonators are half-wave coplanar waveguide sections and are similar to the structures used for the microwave kinetic inductance detectors developed in our group. Optimal values for the interdigital gap capacitors were determined to maximize the sensitivity of the transmitted and reflected microwave signal with respect to changes in the dynamic resistance of the SQUID. The dc current-bias line for the SQUID has an in-line inductive high frequency filter to minimize coupling between the bias line and resonator. A high frequency modulation scheme is proposed to eliminate the need for individual flux biasing of the SQUIDs, which extends the dynamic range of the readout. In this scheme a common modulation signal is imposed on each SQUID and the received signal is demodulated at one and two times the modulation frequency to maintain sensitivity at any flux state. We present the recent results of the microwave SQUID multiplexer system operating at a readout frequency range of 10 - 11GHz.

  20. A Slice of Apple Fly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Nye and Nye Labs, LLC

    2001-01-01

    In this activity, learners build an instrument for catching and observing flies. Learners act as entomologists, attract flies into a jar using a slice of apple, and then observe the flies' behavior. Learners distinguish between male and female flies and study fly reproduction. The learning time for this activity can vary significantly, depending on how long learners want to observe the flies. Learners release the flies outside at the end of the activity.

  1. X-ray absorption in neon modulated by a strong laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertlein, M. P.; Glover, T. E.; Allison, T. K.; van Tilborg, J.; Rude, B. S.; Belkacem, A.; Southworth, S. H.; Kanter, E. P.; Krssig, B.; Varma, H. R.; Santra, R.; Young, L.

    2009-11-01

    We have measured the absorption of x-rays in neon gas in the presence of a strong laser pulse. The femtosecond x-rays were tuned to energies near the neon 1s-3p resonance, and the laser intensity of 1013 W/cm2 was below the intensity required to alone ionize neon. We observed strong modification of the x-ray absorption when the neon was subjected to laser light that was temporally overlapped with the x-rays.

  2. NeOn-project.org NeOn: Lifecycle Support for Networked Ontologies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NeOn-project.org NeOn: Lifecycle Support for Networked Ontologies Integrated Project (IST-2005 in a NeOn toolkit plug-in, OntoSim, which is a library of distances that can be used for recontextualising. Document Identifier: NEON/2009/D3.3.4/v1.1 Date due: August 31st, 2009 Class Deliverable: NEON EU-IST-2005

  3. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  4. Flying Robots and Flying Cars Heinrich H. Blthoff

    E-print Network

    Flying Robots and Flying Cars Heinrich H. Blthoff Biological Cybernetics Research at the Max Flying Robots -- Human Robot Interaction group at MPI Tbingen Flying Cars -- European Project (my. Robuffo Giordano Human Robot Interaction group Bilateral shared control of Flying Robots M. Cognetti, V

  5. Effects of pulse shape on rf SQUID quantum gates

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Zhongyuan; Chu, Shih-I; Han, Siyuan

    2003-06-01

    ). The flux bias 120 61 04858534849. where the potential energy is given by [2] (2) Here, is the mass of the fictitious flux particle, is the particles position, is the total magnetic flux enclosed in the SQUID loop, is the flux quantum; is the normalized... applications, J. Appl. Phys., vol. 39, p. 2503, 1968. [2] Z. Zhou, S. I. Chu, and S. Han, Quantum computing with supercon- ducting devices: A three-level SQUID qubit, Phys. Rev. B, vol. 66, p. 054 527, 2002. [3] S. Han and R. Rouse, SQUID qubits and quantum...

  6. Complex inductance, excess noise, and surface magnetism in dc SQUIDs.

    PubMed

    Sendelbach, S; Hover, D; Mck, M; McDermott, R

    2009-09-11

    We have characterized the complex inductance of dc SQUIDs cooled to millikelvin temperatures. The SQUID inductance displays a rich, history-dependent structure as a function of temperature, with fluctuations of order 1 fH. At a fixed temperature, the SQUID inductance fluctuates with a 1/f power spectrum; the inductance noise is highly correlated with the conventional 1/f flux noise. The data are interpreted in terms of the reconfiguration of clusters of surface spins, with correlated fluctuations of effective magnetic moments and relaxation times. PMID:19792393

  7. Decoherence and Recoherence in a Vibrating RF SQUID

    E-print Network

    Eyal Buks; M. P. Blencowe

    2006-09-19

    We study an RF SQUID, in which a section of the loop is a freely suspended beam that is allowed to oscillate mechanically. The coupling between the RF SQUID and the mechanical resonator originates from the dependence of the total magnetic flux threading the loop on the displacement of the resonator. Motion of the latter affects the visibility of Rabi oscillations between the two lowest energy states of the RF SQUID. We address the feasibility of experimental observation of decoherence and recoherence, namely decay and rise of the visibility, in such a system.

  8. Plumeridge interaction along the Galapagos Spreading Center: discerning between gas loss and source effects using neon

    E-print Network

    Graham, David W.

    and source effects using neon isotopic compositions and 4 He­40 Ar*­CO2 relative abundances A. Colin a, , P­ridge interaction at the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC), we present neon 3-isotope analyses performed on vesicles- sing effects. Neon isotopic compositions are in the MORB range with 21 Ne/22 Ne ratios extrapolated

  9. Electronic Transitions of C6H4 Isomers: Neon Matrix and Theoretical

    E-print Network

    Maier, John Paul

    Electronic Transitions of C6H4 + Isomers: Neon Matrix and Theoretical Studies Jan Fulara,*, Adam detected following mass-selective trapping in 6 K neon matrixes. The open-chain cations 5-hexene-1,3-diyne in neon matrixes and in the gas phase.21,22 The geometry was established from the analysis

  10. Objects of the experiment To record a Franck-Hertz curve for neon.

    E-print Network

    Mahapatra, Rupak

    Objects of the experiment To record a Franck-Hertz curve for neon. To measure the discontinuous as representing discrete energy absorption by neon atoms. To observe the Ne-spectral lines resulting from the electron-collision excitation of neon atoms. To identify the luminance phenomenon as layers with a high

  11. PHYSICAL REVIE%' 8 VOLUME 37, NUMBER 2 15 JANUARY 1988-I Dynamics of solid neon monolayers

    E-print Network

    Glyde, Henry R.

    PHYSICAL REVIE%' 8 VOLUME 37, NUMBER 2 15 JANUARY 1988-I Dynamics of solid neon monolayers T. M July 1987) The dynamics of two-dimensional solid neon is investigated within the self-consistent phonon anharmonic term added. Two-dimensional solid neon is found to be highly anhar- monic. It becomes mechanically

  12. Experimental and simulation study of neon collision dynamics with a 1-decanethiol monolayer

    E-print Network

    Sibener, Steven

    Experimental and simulation study of neon collision dynamics with a 1-decanethiol monolayer N. Isa October 2003 A study of the energy accommodation of neon colliding with a crystalline self-assembled 1 of the scattered neon as a function of incident angle and energy were experimentally measured. Scattering

  13. NeOn-project.org NeOn: Lifecycle Support for Networked Ontologies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NeOn-project.org NeOn: Lifecycle Support for Networked Ontologies Integrated Project (IST-2005 server and the NeOn toolkit. This integration uses a web service connection from the Alignment server to an OntoLight web service interface. Document Identifier: NEON/2008/D3.3.3/v1.0 Date due: October 31st

  14. NeOn-project.org NeOn: Lifecycle Support for Networked Ontologies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NeOn-project.org NeOn: Lifecycle Support for Networked Ontologies Integrated Project (IST-2005 on the actual results of context-based matching. Document Identifier: NEON/2010/D3.3.5/v1.0 Date due: January 31st, 2010 Class Deliverable: NEON EU-IST-2005-027595 Submission date: January 31st, 2010 Project start

  15. The Compton profile of neon : comparison between experiment and the impulse approximation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    E 1333 The Compton profile of neon : comparison between experiment and the impulse approximation A Compton profiles of neon are measured using high-energy (25 keV) electron scattering. Their symmetrical a very sensitive test ofthe wavefunction used to describe this system. The neon atom was chosen

  16. DOPPLER-FREE TWO-PHOTON SPECTROSCOPY OF NEON. II. LINE INTENSITIES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    629 DOPPLER-FREE TWO-PHOTON SPECTROSCOPY OF NEON. II. LINE INTENSITIES G. GRYNBERG, F. BIRABEN, E the experimental hyperfine spectra obtained on the neon 21 atom for the transitions between the 3s[3/2] 2- ments of hyperfine structure in neon using Doppler- free two-photon spectroscopy. These measurements

  17. Electronic Spectra and Reversible Photoisomerization of Protonated Naphthalenes in Solid Neon

    E-print Network

    Maier, John Paul

    Electronic Spectra and Reversible Photoisomerization of Protonated Naphthalenes in Solid Neon Iryna and fluorescence spectroscopies in 6 K neon matrixes using a mass-selected C10H9 + ion beam. The absorption spectra-phase measurements are available.16-19 Recently, a number of H-PAH+ s have been isolated in 6 K neon matrixes

  18. DOPPLER-FREE TWO-PHOTON SPECTROSCOPY OF NEON I. FINE STRUCTURE AND HYPERFINE CONSTANTS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    623 DOPPLER-FREE TWO-PHOTON SPECTROSCOPY OF NEON I. FINE STRUCTURE AND HYPERFINE CONSTANTS of the 4d' subconfiguration of neon and the hyperfine constants of the four levels of this subconfigu preliminary results concerning Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in Neon. Hyperfine structures in 2INe

  19. Electronic and infrared absorption spectra of linear and cyclic C6 in a neon matrix

    E-print Network

    Maier, John Paul

    Electronic and infrared absorption spectra of linear and cyclic C6 ¿ in a neon matrix Jan Fulara electron impact ionization of C6Cl6 and C6Br6 , have been recorded in 6 K neon matrices. Linear and cyclic transitions of mass-selected C6 ions isolated in 6 K neon matrices. EXPERIMENT The experimental setup has been

  20. LOW-ENERGY METASTABLE AUTOIONIZING STATES IN NITROGEN, OXYGEN, AND NEON (*)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-7 LOW-ENERGY METASTABLE AUTOIONIZING STATES IN NITROGEN, OXYGEN, AND NEON (*) K. O. GROENEVELD, G (ls 2s 2p) 4P5/2-state in nitrogen, oxygen, and neon a triple peak structure is observed. The peak, oxygen and neon. The present work will deal with metastable auto- ionizing states which yield energies

  1. 2012 National Ecological Observatory Network, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. An inside-out look at NEON

    E-print Network

    at NEON: Where are we and what challenges and opportuni3es lie ahead? Scott Research Equipment and Facili3es Construc3on) investment in biology. What is NEON areas NEON is designed to address NRC (National Research Council). 2001. Grand Challenges

  2. HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY IN NEON USING A TUNABLE LASER AND AN EXCITED ATOMIC BEAM

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-161 HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY IN NEON USING A TUNABLE LASER AND AN EXCITED ATOMIC BEAM absorption lines of neon have been investigated using a single mode tunable dye laser illuminating an atomic or near U.V.) the method cannot be applied. Neon and other noble gases are examples of this situation

  3. Measurement of dissolved neon by isotope dilution using a quadrupole mass spectrometer

    E-print Network

    Emerson, Steven R.

    Measurement of dissolved neon by isotope dilution using a quadrupole mass spectrometer Roberta C with improved precision for measuring the concentration of neon dissolved in water. Measurements were calibrated in the estimate of the Ne concentration of air. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Neon

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 022713 (2012) Heteronuclear collisions between laser-cooled metastable neon atoms

    E-print Network

    Birkl, Gerhard

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 022713 (2012) Heteronuclear collisions between laser-cooled metastable neon-cooled metastable (3 P2) neon. Experiments are performed with spin-polarized atoms in a magnetic trap for all two-isotope combinations of the stable neon isotopes 20 Ne, 21 Ne, and 22 Ne. We determine the rate coefficients

  5. Neon abundances in normal late-B and mercurymanganese stars M. M. Dworetsky1w

    E-print Network

    Dworetsky, Mike

    q 2000 RAS Neon abundances in normal late-B and mercury±manganese stars M. M. Dworetsky1w ² and J equilibrium calculations to deduce the abundances of neon from visible-region echelle spectra of selected Ne i potentially useful Ne i lines are found in the red region of the spectra of these stars. The mean neon

  6. Enhanced connement discharges in DIII-D with neon and argon induced radiation

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Enhanced con®nement discharges in DIII-D with neon and argon induced radiation G.L. Jackson a,*, M in the DIII-D tokamak with neon and argon gas pung. These radiating mantle enhanced con®nement discharges have operations; Neon; Graphite 1. Introduction Reactor operating scenarios where a substantial fraction

  7. NeOn-project.org NeOn: Lifecycle Support for Networked Ontologies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NeOn-project.org NeOn: Lifecycle Support for Networked Ontologies Integrated Project (IST-2005 for context: The NeOn Alignment plug-in Deliverable Co-ordinator: Chan Le Duc Deliverable Co) This deliverable presents the software support provided by the NeOn toolkit for matching ontolo- gies

  8. Author's personal copy Neon diffusion kinetics in olivine, pyroxene and feldspar

    E-print Network

    Shuster, David L.

    Author's personal copy Neon diffusion kinetics in olivine, pyroxene and feldspar: Retentivity of cosmogenic and nucleogenic neon Loraine Gourbet a,b , David L. Shuster b,c, , Greg Balco b , William S, pyroxene and feldspar to study diffusion kinetics of neon. This is important in evaluating the utility

  9. Laminar Cortical Dynamics of 3D Surface Perception: Stratification, Transparency, and Neon Color Spreading

    E-print Network

    Guenther, Frank

    Laminar Cortical Dynamics of 3D Surface Perception: Stratification, Transparency, and Neon Color, transparency, and neon color spreading in response to 2D pictures and 3D scenes. Such percepts are sensitive, Neon Color Spreading #12;2 1. Introduction 1.1 Depthful grouping of 2D cues. Refinement of the 3D

  10. LBNL-42730 1 Collisional Perturbation of States in Atomic Ytterbium by Helium and Neon

    E-print Network

    Pines, Alexander

    LBNL-42730 1 Collisional Perturbation of States in Atomic Ytterbium by Helium and Neon D in atomic ytterbium by helium and neon buffer gases are reported. We find upper limits for the quenching and neon. PACS numbers: 34, 11.30.Er, 42.62.Fi (Submitted to Phys. Rev. A) 1. INTRODUCTION The 6s2 1 S0 6s

  11. Chemical abundances of planetary nebulae from optical recombination lines II. The neon abundance of NGC 7009

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaowei

    Chemical abundances of planetary nebulae from optical recombination lines ­ II. The neon abundance to determine the abundances of both heavy elements involved in the ratio. For NGC 7009, the total neon:84 ^ 0:25, respectively. The latter is about a factor of 5.5 higher than the solar neon abundance. Key

  12. Crystal structure and encapsulation dynamics of ice II-structured neon hydrate

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Crystal structure and encapsulation dynamics of ice II-structured neon hydrate Xiaohui Yua. Francisco, June 9, 2014 (sent for review April 24, 2014) Neon hydrate was synthesized and studied by in situ knowledge, we demonstrate that neon atoms can be enclathrated in water molecules to form ice II

  13. Mantle hotspot neon in basalts from the Northwest Lau Back-arc Basin

    E-print Network

    Graham, David W.

    Mantle hotspot neon in basalts from the Northwest Lau Back-arc Basin J. E. Lupton,1 R. J. Arculus,2 2012; published 28 April 2012. [1] The neon isotope compositions of basalts from the Northwest Lau Back is present in the neon isotopes of both the Rochambeau Rifts and the Northwest Lau Spreading Center (NWLSC

  14. The melting curve of neon at high pressure W. L. Vos and J. A. Schouten

    E-print Network

    Vos, Willem L.

    The melting curve of neon at high pressure W. L. Vos and J. A. Schouten van der Waals Laboratorium October 1990; accepted 19 November 1990) We have measured the melting curve of neon to 54.5 kbar and 328 K and of these the most im- portant are helium and neon, which can achieve the highest reduced temperatures and pressures

  15. Mechanisms controlling the global oceanic distribution of the inert gases argon, nitrogen and neon

    E-print Network

    Emerson, Steven R.

    Mechanisms controlling the global oceanic distribution of the inert gases argon, nitrogen and neon formation. We present argon, nitrogen, and neon data from the subtropical and subpolar North Pacific of the inert gases argon, nitrogen and neon, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(23), 2120, doi:10.1029/2002GL015273, 2002

  16. Fluorescence of protonated pyrene and coronene in neon matrices Iryna Garkusha, Jan Fulara 1

    E-print Network

    Maier, John Paul

    Fluorescence of protonated pyrene and coronene in neon matrices Iryna Garkusha, Jan Fulara 1 , John pyrene and coronene in solid neon have been observed. Laser excita- tion of the Sn S0 transitions in the gas phase and in neon matrices [1620]. Recently, the electronic spectrum of an astrophysically model

  17. NEON INSIGHTS FROM OLD SOLAR X-RAYS: A PLASMA TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE CORONAL NEON CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Jeremy J., E-mail: jdrake@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS-3, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    An analysis using modern atomic data of fluxes culled from the literature for O VIII and Ne IX lines observed in solar active regions by the P78 and Solar Maximum Mission satellites confirms that the coronal Ne/O abundance ratio varies by a factor of two or more, and finds an increase in Ne/O with increasing active region plasma temperature. The latter is reminiscent of evidence for increasing Ne/O with stellar activity in low-activity coronae that reaches a 'neon saturation' in moderately active stars at approximately twice the historically accepted solar value of about 0.15 by number. We argue that neon saturation represents the underlying stellar photospheric compositions, and that low-activity coronae, including that of the Sun, are generally depleted in neon. The implication would be that the solar Ne/O abundance ratio should be revised upward by a factor of about two to n(Ne)/n(O) {approx} 0.3. Diverse observations of neon in the local cosmos provide some support for such a revision. Neon would still be of some relevance for reconciling helioseismology with solar models computed using recently advocated chemical mixtures with lower metal content.

  18. Helium and neon isotopes in deep Pacific Ocean sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    Helium and neon concentration measurements, along with isotope ratio determinations, have been made for particles collected in the deep Pacific with a magnetic sled, and they are believed to be of extraterrestrial origin. Analyses were made for samples consisting of composites of many extremely fine particles and for several individual particles large enough to contain sufficient gas for analysis but small enough to escape melting in their passage through the atmosphere. Step-heating was employed to extract the gas. Cosmic-ray spallation products or solar-wind helium and neon, if present, were not abundant enough to account for the isotopic compositions measured. In the case of the samples of magnetic fines, the low temperature extractions provided elemental and isotopic ratios in the general range found for the primordial gas in carbonaceous chondrites and gas-rich meteorites. The isotopic ratios found in the high temperature extractions suggest the presence of solar-flare helium and neon.

  19. Neon and Xenon adsorption on opened carbon nanohorns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Carl; Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Migone, Aldo; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio

    2013-03-01

    Adsorption isotherms were measured for neon adsorbed on opened (oxidized) carbon nanohorn aggregates. The isotherms were performed at eleven different temperatures between 19 to 40 K. Two distinct substeps are present in logarithmic plots of the adsorption data. The two substeps correspond to high and low binding energy sites present in the nanohorn aggregates. The values of the isosteric heat as a function of substrate loading was calculated; it shows features corresponding to the two adsorption isotherm substeps. The results for neon will be compared to those from ongoing measurements for xenon adsorbed on the same sample of open carbon nanohorn aggregates as well as to a previous study of neon on closed carbon nanohorns.

  20. Purification and Liquefacttion of Neon Using a Helium Refrigeration Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeck, S.

    2010-04-01

    The cryogenic plant developed by Linde Kryotechnik is used to extract neon out of a crude gas flow coming from an air separation plant. The crude gas is cooled down by a two stage helium refrigeration process using the Linde Kryotechnik dynamic gas bearing turbines. After the first cooling stage, nitrogen is liquefied and separated from the crude gas. The Cryogenic adsorbers located at a temperature level below 80 K clean the crude gas from remaining nitrogen traces before the neon-helium mixture enters the final cooling stage. In the second cooling stage neon is liquefied and separated from the helium. The final product quality will be achieved within a rectification column at low pressure level.

  1. Experimental study on neon refrigeration system using commercial helium compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Junseok; Kim, Hyobong; Hong, Yong-Ju; Yeom, Hankil; Koh, Deuk-Yong; Park, Seong-Je

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we developed neon refrigeration system using commercial helium compressor which was originally designed for GM cryocooler. We performed this research as precedent study before developing neon refrigeration system for small-scale hydrogen liquefaction system. The developed system is based on precooled Linde-Hampson system with liquid nitrogen as precoolant. Design parameters of heat exchangers are determined from thermodynamic cycle analysis with operating pressure of 2 MPa and 0.4 MPa. Heat exchangers have concentric-tube heat exchanger configuration and orifice is used as Joule- Thomson expansion device. In experiments, pressure, temperature, mass flow rate and compressor input power are measured as charging pressure. With experimental results, the characteristics of heat exchanger, Joule-Thomson expansion and refrigeration effect are discussed. The developed neon refrigeration system shows the lowest temperature of 43.9 K.

  2. Glycine fluxes in squid giant axons.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, P C; Lea, T J

    1978-05-01

    1. The influx of a number of amino acids into squid giant axons has been studied. Particular emphasis has been placed on glycine and to a lesser extent glutamate. 2. To facilitate the study of the uptake of 14C-labelled amino acids a technique was devised in which the 14C taken up was measured directly in the intact axon with a glass scintillator fibre. This technique gave results similar to the usual technique in which the axoplasm was extruded for the assay of radioactivity. 3. The changes in glycine influx with extracellular glycine concentration suggests that two saturating components are present, one with high affinity and one with low affinity. 4. The glycine influx does not seem normally to be sensitive to the removal of extracellular sodium by replacement with choline. A Na-sensitive component appeared, however, after a period of immersion in artificial sea water. There was also some depression of glycine influx if Na were replaced by Li. 5. Glutamate uptake was greatly reduced by removal of extracellular Na in confirmation of work by Baker & Potashner (1973). Orthophosphate uptake was also greatly reduced by removal of extracellular Na. 6. CN reversibly inhibited glycine uptake after a delay, indicating that part of the uptake mechanism may require ATP. 7. 14C-labelled glycine injected into squid axons was found not to exchange to any serious extent with other compounds over periods of a few hours. The glycine efflux could therefore be studied. This was found to be markedly increased by extracellular glycine and by certain other neutral amino acids applied extracellularly in the artificial sea water. 8. The enhanced glycine efflux in extracellular glycine was not affected by ouabain and CN. 9. It is suggested that glycine uptake in squid axons involves two components. One is sensitive to CN and ouabain and probably derives energy from ATP break-down. The other is probably an ATP independent exchange diffusion system in which other amino acids as well as glycine can exchange for glycine. Both these systems are independent of extracellular Na concentration. A third Na-dependent system may appear under certain conditions. PMID:671272

  3. Anatomical atlas of flies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A novel and beautifully done way to identify or learn fly anatomy. Developed by CSIRO Entomology, this atlas uses high resolution digital images of flies to allow users to highlight anatomical parts of a fly to learn the name or click on the part name to identify where it is positioned on the fly. There are four images representing the lower Diptera, lower Brachycera, Acalyptrate and Calyptrate with a dragable lens that allows 1X, 2x and 3X magnification of the regions. Users can click the parts on the image or click on the part name, broken into regions of the fly. The selected part is highlighted in blue to aid easy study. There is a useful help section to guide in the use of this tool. This is an excellent tool for those looking for definitions of Diptera anatomical terms and fly anatomy.

  4. Fast Imaging of Intact and Shattered Cryogenic Neon Pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL] [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL] [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL] [ORNL; Lyttle, Mark S [ORNL] [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100- m- and sub- s-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of m to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  5. Boiling incipience and convective boiling of neon and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. S.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Forced convection and subcooled boiling heat transfer data for liquid nitrogen and liquid neon were obtained in support of a design study for a 30 tesla cryomagnet cooled by forced convection of liquid neon. The cryogen data obtained over a range of system pressures, fluid flow rates, and applied heat fluxes were used to develop correlations for predicting boiling incipience and convective boiling heat transfer coefficients in uniformly heated flow channels. The accuracy of the correlating equations was then evaluated. A technique was also developed to calculate the position of boiling incipience in a uniformly heated flow channel. Comparisons made with the experimental data showed a prediction accuracy of + or - 15 percent.

  6. Fast imaging of intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhehui; Combs, S K; Baylor, L R; Foust, C R; Lyttle, M S; Meitner, S J; Rasmussen, D A

    2014-11-01

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100-m- and sub-s-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of m to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development. PMID:25430370

  7. The isotopic composition of solar flare accelerated neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Spalding, J. D.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The individual isotopes of neon in energetic solar-flare particles have been clearly resolved with a rms mass resolution of 0.20 amu. The ratios found are Ne-20/Ne-22 = 7.6 (+2.0, -1.8) and Ne-21/Ne-22 of no more than about 0.11 in the 11-26 MeV per nucleon interval. This isotopic composition is essentially the same as that of meteoritic planetary neon-A and is significantly different from that of the solar wind.

  8. Fast imaging of intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui, E-mail: zwang@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Foust, C. R.; Lyttle, M. S.; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, D. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100-m- and sub-s-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of m to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  9. Flying Over Atoms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Flying Over Atoms provides tools for teaching about atoms and solid surfaces in an introductory chemistry course. Flying Over Atoms introduces and stimulates interest in atomic surfaces and current methods for imaging at the atomic scale. Flying over Atoms uses Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) data and the software program Vistapro, published by Rom Tech, Inc. (not provided) to allow students to create QuickTime movies of atomic landscapes.

  10. Baseline optimization of SQUID gradiometer for magnetocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Zhang, Shu-Lin; Qiu, Yang; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Chao-Xiang; Kong, Xiang-Yan; Xie, Xiao-Ming

    2015-02-01

    SQUID gradiometer techniques are widely used in noise cancellation for biomagnetic measurements. An appropriate gradiometer baseline is very important for the biomagnetic detection with high performance. By placing several magnetometers at different heights along the vertical direction, we could simultaneously obtain the synthetic gradiometers with different baselines. By using the traditional signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a performance index, we successfully obtain an optimal baseline for the magnetocardiography (MCG) measurement in a magnetically shielded room (MSR). Finally, we obtain an optimal baseline of 7 cm and use it for the practical MCG measurement in our MSR. The SNR about 38 dB is obtained in the recorded MCG signal. Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No.XDB04020200) and the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No.KGCX2-EW-105).

  11. Reducing decoherence in dc SQUID phase qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybysz, Anthony J.

    This thesis examines sources of dissipation and dephasing in a dc SQUID phase qubit. Coupling of the qubit to the bias lines and lossy dielectrics causes the qubit to lose quantum information through a process known generally as decoherence. Using knowledge of the possible sources of decoherence, a dc SQUID phase qubit is designed with parameters that should have made it resistant to dissipation and dephasing from those sources. Device PB9 was a dc SQUID with one small area 0.23 (mum)2 Josephson junction with a critical current of 130 nA, which was meant to be the qubit junction, and a larger area 5 (mum)2 junction with a critical current of 8.6 muA, which acted as part of an inductive isolation network. The qubit junction was shunted by a 1.5 pF low-loss interdigitated capacitor. The dc current bias line had an on-chip LC filter with a cutoff frequency of 180 MHz. The other control lines were also designed to minimize coupling of dissipative elements to the qubit. According to a theoretical model of the dissipation and dephasing, the qubit was expected to have an energy relaxation T1 ? 8.4 mus and dephasing time To 1 mus. Because of the relatively high Josephson inductance of the qubit junction, the device did not act perform like a conventional isolated single-junction phase qubit. Instead, the resonant modes that I observed were the normal modes of the entire SQUID. At 20 mK and a frequency of 4.047 GHz, the maximum energy relaxation time of the device was found to be 350 +/- 70 ns, despite the optimized design. Through a study of T1 versus applied flux, T1 was found to depend on the strength of the coupling of the microwave drive line to the qubit. When the line was more coupled, T1 was shorter. This was evidence that the microwave line was overcoupled to the qubit, and was limiting the lifetime of the excited state T1. Through a study of the spectroscopic coherence time T2* , which measured the effects of low-frequency inhomogeneous broadening and higher frequency dephasing from noise, I discovered that device PB9 has several sweet spots. In particular, the presence of a sweet spot with respect to critical current fluctuations allowed me to identify critical current noise as a major source of broadening and dephasing in the qubit. From the spectroscopy I estimated the 1/f critical current noise power density at 1 Hz was SI01 (1Hz) ? 10 (nA) 2/Hz and the 1/f flux noise power spectral density at 1 Hz was Sphi (1Hz) ? (110 muphi 0)2/Hz. Both of these values were quite high, possibly due to switching of the device between measurements.

  12. Development of a colorimetric sensor array for squid spoilage assessment.

    PubMed

    Zaragoz, Patricia; Fuentes, Ana; Ruiz-Rico, Mara; Vivancos, Jos-Luis; Fernndez-Segovia, Isabel; Ros-Lis, Jos V; Barat, Jos M; Martnez-Mez, Ramn

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a rapid, easy-to-use optoelectronic system for the shelf-life assessment of squid in cold storage. For this purpose, an optoelectronic nose was designed, which consisted of an array containing six sensing materials prepared by combining different dyes and two inorganic supports (aluminium oxide and silica gel). Samples were packaged with the colorimetric array and kept in cold storage for 12 days. Squid spoilage was monitored simultaneously by the colorimetric array and by the physico-chemical and microbial analyses during storage. Samples exceeded the acceptability limits for microbial counts on the third day. PCA analysis carried out with CIELab showed that the colorimetric array was able to discriminate between fresh squid fit for consumption and spoiled squid. The statistical models obtained by PLS, with the optoelectronic nose, successfully predicted CO2 and O2 content in the headspace as well as microbial growth. PMID:25577086

  13. Dc-SQUID sensor system for multichannel neuromagnetometry

    SciTech Connect

    Houwman, E.P.; Veldhuis, D.; Flokstra, ter Brake, H.J.M.; Jaszczuk, W.; Rogalla, H. (Univ. of Twente, Faculty of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (NL)); Martinez, A. (Universidad de Zaragoza, E.T.S.I.I. Maria Zambrano 50, 50015 Zaragoza (ES))

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on various DC-SQUID sensor configurations developed for use in the authors' 19-channel neuromagetometer. Apart from the standard type, resistively and indictively shunted SQUIDs were made, allowing for a large screening factor {beta} ({gt}1). In this way signal coupling from the pick-up coil to the SQUID is facilitated and capactive coupling between the input coil and the SQUID washer can be decreased. The number of turns of the input coil is decreased further by allowing for an inductance mismatch in the input circuit. Although theoretically both measures give rise to an increased field noise of the sensor, they may lead to a reduction of the excess noise and the noise balance may become positive.

  14. Multiplexed Phase qubit readout using SQUID-resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Jed; Allman, Michael; Altomare, Fabio; Cicak, Katarina; Li, Dale; Park, Jae; Sirois, Adam; Strong, Joshua; Simmonds, Raymond

    2009-03-01

    Flux biased phase qubits have traditionally been read out using a critical current switching technique of a coupled DC SQUID. This method has three limitations: it is extremely slow (orders of magnitude longer than typical energy relaxation times), difficult to multiplex, and by exceeding the critical current, it is dissipative and feeds broadband radiation back into the qubit, decohering its state. We are developing a SQUID-resonator readout method that addresses all three of these limitations. By operating the SQUID as a resonator, we can measure the state of the qubit quickly (on the order of its coherence time), we can multiplex resonant readout lines, and we can operate on the SQUID's supercurrent branch eliminating dissipation and decohering radiation. This faster, quieter readout should allow us to use measured results for real-time quantum feedback.

  15. SCHOOL STRUCTURE OF THE SQUID LOLIGO OPALESCENS ANN C. HURLEY!

    E-print Network

    . They were fed irregularly on small fish (either mosquitofish, Gambusia affinus, or goldfish, Carassius aura/us). Mosquitofish were taken much more readily than were the goldfish. Occasionally, the squid could be trained

  16. Squid as nutrient vectors linking Southwest Atlantic marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.

    2013-10-01

    Long-term investigations of three abundant nektonic squid species from the Southwest Atlantic, Illex argentinus, Doryteuthis gahi and Onykia ingens, permitted to estimate important population parameters including individual growth rates, duration of ontogenetic phases and mortalities. Using production model, the productivity of squid populations at different phases of their life cycle was assessed and the amount of biomass they convey between marine ecosystems as a result of their ontogenetic migrations was quantified. It was found that squid are major nutrient vectors and play a key role as transient 'biological pumps' linking spatially distinct marine ecosystems. I. argentinus has the largest impact in all three ecosystems it encounters due to its high abundance and productivity. The variable nature of squid populations increases the vulnerability of these biological conveyers to overfishing and environmental change. Failure of these critical biological pathways may induce irreversible long-term consequences for biodiversity, resource abundance and spatial availability in the world ocean.

  17. Signal and noise characteristics of bi-SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornev, V. K.; Sharafiev, A. V.; Soloviev, I. I.; Mukhanov, O. A.

    2014-11-01

    We present an improved analytic theory, numerical simulation, and analysis of noise characteristics of a bi-SQUID in comparison with those of a dc SQUID in an open loop configuration. The analytic theory which had been developed earlier, neglecting a pulse component of the difference of the phases of Josephson junctions, is now completed taking into account the pulse component. In the bi-SQUID, the additional Josephson junction introduces another source of fluctuations and changes its transfer function, nonlinear dynamics, and the noise spectrum transformation. Some increase in the reduced-to-input noise at low values of applied magnetic flux comes from the nonlinear flux to phase difference transformation that was introduced in bi-SQUID as a way to linearize its voltage response.

  18. Weld quality evaluation using a high temperature SQUID array

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. D. (David D.); Espy, M. A. (Michelle A.); Kraus, Robert H., Jr.; Matlachov, A. N. (Andrei N.); Lamb, J. S. (Jessica S.)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary data for evaluating weld quality using high temperature SQUIDS. The SQUIDS are integrated into an instrument known as the SQUID Array Microscope, or SAMi. The array consists of ll SQUIDs evenly distributed over an 8.25 mm baseline. Welds are detected using SAMi by using an on board coil to induce eddy currents in a conducting sample and measuring the resulting magnetic fields. The concept is that the induced magnetic fields will differ in parts of varying weld quality. The data presented here was collected from three stainless steel parts using SAMi. Each part was either solid, included a good weld, or included a bad weld. The induced magnetic field's magnitude and phase relative to the induction signal were measured. For each sample considered, both the magnitude and phase data were measurably different than the other two samples. These results indicate that it is possible to use SAMi to evaluate weld quality.

  19. Introduction Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish, octopus) can produce a variety of

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    2133 Introduction Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish, octopus) can produce a variety of body patterns to the behavior of these animals (Young, 1971). Indeed, Octopus vulgaris can quickly learn to visually

  20. Nonstandard applications of superconducting quantum interferometers: SQUIDS (Review)

    SciTech Connect

    Odegnal, M.

    1985-01-01

    Some applications of superconducting quantum interferometers are studied. The problems of quantum noise in the Josephson junction are discussed, theoretical estimates of their magnitude are given, and ways for achieving the limiting sensitivity of SQUIDs are indicated. Applications of SQUIDs in checking some basic physical laws (Newton's law, the principle of equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses, general relativity), in elementary particle physics (search for quarks and magnetic monopoles), in geophysics (magnetotelluric measurements, gradiometric measurements, gravimetric experiments, etc.), and in ultra-low-temperature physics (nuclear gyroscope, SQUIDs and NMR, ultra-low-temperature thermometry) are described. Both past and future experiments are studied and some further applications of SQUID-based magnetometers are indicated.

  1. Vampire squid reproductive strategy is unique among coleoid cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Laptikhovsky, Vladimir V; Robison, Bruce H

    2015-04-20

    Coleoid cephalopods are thought to go through only one reproductive cycle in their life. We here report that vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) show evidence of multiple reproductive cycles. Female vampire squid spawn their eggs, then return to a resting reproductive state, which is followed by the development of a new batch of eggs. This reproductive cycle is likely to be repeated more than twenty times. This combination of reproductive traits is different from that of any other extant coleoid cephalopod. PMID:25898098

  2. Strongly coupled, low noise DC-SQUID amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Pleikies

    2009-01-01

    The dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (dc-SQUID) is one of the most sensitive magnetic\\u000afield sensors available. In this thesis we concentrate on its application as an amplifier. In this configuration,\\u000aan input circuit of interest can be connected by means of a coupling coil. The intended application of\\u000aour developed low-Tc SQUID amplifiers is the readout of the first

  3. A coupled DC SQUID with low 1\\/f noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Seppa; M. Kiviranta; A. Satrapinski; L. Gronberg; J. Salmi; I. Suni

    1993-01-01

    A low-noise coupled DC superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) especially optimized for low frequency is discussed. Using large Josephson junctions and a low loop inductance the contribution of the critical current fluctuation to 1\\/f noise can be minimized. To minimize the inductance the Josephson junctions are placed in the center of the washer close to the SQUID loop. A scaled-up

  4. High transition-temperature SQUID magnetometers and practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dantsker, E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

    1997-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of SQUID magnetometers based on thin films of the high-transition temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) are described. Essential to the achieving high magnetic field resolution at low frequencies is the elimination of 1/f flux noise due to thermally activated hopping of flux vortices between pinning sites in the superconducting films. Through improvements in processing, 1/f noise in single layer YBCO thin films and YBCO-SrTiO{sub 3}-YBCO trilayers was systematically reduced to allow fabrication of sensitive SQUID magnetometers. Both single-layer directly coupled SQUID magnetometers and multilayer magnetometers were fabricated, based on the dc SQUID with bicrystal grain boundary Josephson junctions. Multilayer magnetometers had a lower magnetic field noise for a given physical size due to greater effective sensing areas. A magnetometer consisting of a SQUID inductively coupled to the multiturn input coil of a flux transformer in a flip-chip arrangement had a field noise of 27 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 1 Hz and 8.5 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 1 kHz. A multiloop multilayer SQUID magnetometer had a field noise of 37 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 1 Hz and 18 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 1 kHz. A three-axis SQUID magnetometer for geophysical applications was constructed and operated in the field in the presence of 60 Hz and radiofrequency noise. Clinical quality magnetocardiograms were measured using multilayer SQUID magnetometers in a magnetically shielded room.

  5. Characterization of thermal aging of duplex stainless steel by SQUID

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, Y.; Kamimura, A.; Aoki, K.; Nakayasu, F. [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    Thermal aging is a growing concern for long-term-aged duplex stainless steel piping in nuclear power plants. Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) was used for the detection of thermal aging of SUS329 rolled duplex stainless steel and SCS16 cast duplex stainless steel. It was found that the SQUID output signal pattern in the presence of AC magnetic field applied to the specimen was sensitive to the changes in electromagnetic properties due to thermal aging.

  6. Quantum analysis of a linear DC SQUID mechanical displacement detector

    E-print Network

    M. P. Blencowe; E. Buks

    2007-07-19

    We provide a quantum analysis of a DC SQUID mechanical displacement detector within the sub-critical Josephson current regime. A segment of the SQUID loop forms the mechanical resonator and motion of the latter is transduced inductively through changes in the flux threading the loop. Expressions are derived for the detector signal response and noise, which are used to evaluate the position and force detection sensitivity. We also investigate cooling of the mechanical resonator due to back reaction noise from the detector.

  7. Giant Squid: One Gigantic Mystery (ScienceWorld)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article is from the Museum's Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy. Written for students in grades 6-10, this article from Science World magazine has an interview with AMNH paleontologist Neal Landman, in which he discusses the giant squid and what scientists have been able to learn by studying only dead specimens. There are Web links that offer further opportunities for learning about the giant squid.

  8. High-T(c) squid application in medicine and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polushkin, V. N.; Uchaikin, S. V.; Vasiliev, B. V.

    1991-01-01

    In our laboratory of high-T(sub c), a one-hole squid was built from Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-x) ceramics obtained by a standard procedure of solid state reaction. The ceramics with critical current density J(sub c) is greater than 100 A/sq cm was selected. In the middle of a 10 x 10 x 2 mm ceramics pellet, a 0.8 mm hole was drilled in which the superconducting loop of the squid was located. Between the hole and the edge of the pellet, a cut was mechanically filed out with a bridge inside it connecting the superconducting ring. A scheme of the magnetometer is presented. The resonant frequency shift of the tank circuit, the connection of the squid with this circuit, and the squid inductance are evaluated. One of the most interesting fields of the squid-based magnetometer application is biomagnetism, particularly, the human heart magnetocardiogram measuring. The low-temperature squids were used in this area and many interesting and important scientific results have been obtained. The observations have shown that the main noise contribution was not due to the squid but to the Earth's magnetic field variations, industrial inductions, and mainly to the vibrations caused by liquid nitrogen boiling and by vibrations of the box. Further attempts are needed to reduce the magnetic noise inductions. Nevertheless, the estimations promise the maximum signal/noise relation of the high-T(sub c) squid-magnetocardiometer to be not less than 10:1 in a bandwidth of 60 Hz. Apparently, such resolution would be enough not only for steady cardiogram reading but even for thin structure investigation at average technique application.

  9. DC and RF Measurements of Serial Bi-SQUID Arrays

    E-print Network

    Prokopenko, G V; de Escobar, A Leese; Taylor, B; de Andrade, M C; Berggren, S; Longhini, P; Palacios, A; Nisenoff, M; Fagaly, R L

    2012-01-01

    SQUID arrays are promising candidates for low profile antennas and low noise amplifier applications. We present the integrated circuit designs and results of DC and RF measurements of the wideband serial arrays based on integration of linear bi-SQUID cells forming a Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter (bi-SQUID SQIF). Various configurations of serial arrays designs are described. The measured linearity, power gain, and noise temperature are analyzed and compared. The experimental results are matched to results of mathematical modeling. A serial bi-SQUID SQIF arrays are mounted into a coplanar waveguide (CPW) and symmetrically grounded to corresponding sides of CPW. The RF output comes out from the central common line, which is also used for DC biasing and forms a symmetrical balanced output. The signal and DC flux biasing line is designed as coplanar lines passed in parallel over each bi-SQUID cell in a bidirectional fashion concentrating magnetic flux inside of each cell. Serial bi-SQUID SQIF arrays ...

  10. A scanning SQUID microscope with 200 MHz bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talanov, Vladimir V.; Lettsome, Nesco M., Jr.; Borzenets, Valery; Gagliolo, Nicolas; Cawthorne, Alfred B.; Orozco, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    We developed a scanning DC SQUID microscope with novel readout electronics capable of wideband sensing of RF magnetic fields from 50 to 200 MHz and simultaneously providing closed-loop response at kHz frequencies. To overcome the 20 MHz bandwidth limitation of traditional closed-loop SQUIDs, a flux-modulated closed-loop simultaneously locks the SQUID quasi-static flux and flux-biases the SQUID for amplification of the RF flux up to ?0/4 in amplitude. Demodulating the SQUID voltage with a double lock-in technique yields a signal representative of both the amplitude and phase of the RF flux. This provides 80 dB of a linear dynamic range with a flux noise density of 4 ??0 Hz-1/2 at 200 MHz for a Y Ba2Cu3O7 bi-crystal SQUID at 77 K. We describe the electronics performance and present images for RF magnetic field of the travelling wave in a coplanar waveguide, the standing wave in an open-circuited microstrip, and a surface mounted device antenna.

  11. Study of a Neon Discharge by Use of Collectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifton G. Found; Irving Langmuir

    1932-01-01

    Experiments are described from which it is concluded that electrons are emitted from a negatively charged collector in the positive column of a neon discharge. The influences of conditions in the plasma and conditions in the sheath are separated and their influence on the formation of a cold cathode discharge considered. Measurements of currents to a negatively charged collector in

  12. Circuit minimizes current drain caused by neon indicator lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drylie, C. D.; Shaw, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    Circuit lights neon lamp by back leakage current of the driving transistor, rather than by the transistors saturation or ''on-state'' current, thereby eliminating lowering of the voltage necessary for indication. Circuit has operating speed greater than indication circuit using a saturation principle and aids in power rationing.

  13. Binding energies of neon and krypton cluster ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajuli, R.; Matt, S.; Echt, O.; Stamatovic, A.; Scheier, P.; Mrk, T. D.

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the kinetic energy released in the metastable fragmentation of mass selected neon and krypton cluster ions, produced by electron impact ionization of a neutral cluster beam. Finite heat bath theory is applied to determine the transition state temperatures and binding energies of the metastable cluster ions.

  14. Cosmogenic neon and helium at Reunion: Measurement of erosion rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Sarda; Thomas Staudacher; Claude J. Allegre; Andre Lecomte

    1993-01-01

    We report analyses of both helium and neon for olivine separates from a drill core at an altitude of 2330 m in oceanic at Piton de la Fournaise volcano. We show for the first time that cosmogenic Ne-21, like cosmogenic He-3, decreases exponentially with core depth. We obtain an attenuation length of 165 +\\/- 6 g\\/sq cm (1 sigma) for

  15. Functional theory of illusory conjunctions and neon colors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Prinzmetal; Boaz Keysar

    1989-01-01

    Illusory conjunctions are the incorrect perceptual combination of briefly presented colors and shapes. In the neon colors illusion, achromatic figures take on the color of an overlaid grid of colored lines. Both illusions are explained by a theory that assumes (a) poor location information or poor spatial resolution for some aspects of visual information and (b) that the spatial location

  16. A portable iodine stabilized helium-neon laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard P. Layer

    1980-01-01

    A newly designed iodine stabilized helium-neon (He-Ne) laser is described which is stable to 3 x 10 to the -13th (1000-s sample time) but which exhibits an intensity dependent shift of about 8 kHz\\/W-sq cm. Closer agreement between dissimilar lasers is attained when the internal power densities are approximately equal.

  17. Diel colour changes in the neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John N. Lythgoe; Julia Shand

    1983-01-01

    In the daytime the neon tetraParacheirodon innesi has an iridescent blue-green lateral stripe and a red ventral area. At night the lateral stripe becomes deep violet and the ventral area fades. The iridescent colours are produced by constructive interference from regular stacks of thin reflecting plates in dermal iridophores. Colour changes of the reflected light result from changes in the

  18. The abundances of neon, sulfur, and argon in planetary nebulae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Beck; J. H. Lacy; C. H. Townes; L. H. Aller; T. R. Geballe; F. Baas

    1981-01-01

    New infrared observations of Ne II, Ar III, and S IV are used in optical observations of other ionization states of the considered elements to evaluate the abundances of neon, argon, and sulfur in 18 planetary nebulae. Attention is also given to one or more of the infrared lines in 18 other nebulae. It is pointed out that S IV

  19. Molecular Iodine Fluorescence Using a Green Helium-Neon Laser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Excitation of molecular iodine vapor with a green (543.4 nm) helium-neon laser produces a fluorescence spectrum that is well suited for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. Application of standard evaluation techniques to the spectrum yields ground electronic-state molecular parameters in good agreement with literature

  20. On the Appearance of Helium and Neon in Vacuum Tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Thomson; HUBERT S. PATTERSON

    1913-01-01

    AT the last meeting of the Chemical Society, Sir William Ramsay, Prof. Collie, and Mr. Patterson described some experiments which they regard as proving the transmutation of other elements into helium and neon. I have been making experiments of a somewhat similar character for some time, and though the investigation is not yet finished, the results I have obtained up

  1. Infrared absorption spectra of methylidene radicals in solid neon.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Lo, Jen-Iu; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Ogilvie, J F

    2014-07-28

    Infrared absorption lines of methylidene--(12)C(1)H, (13)C(1)H, and (12)C(2)H--dispersed in solid neon at 3 K, recorded after photolysis of methane precursors with vacuum-ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm, serve as signatures of these trapped radicals. PMID:24912563

  2. Elemental abundances of flaring solar plasma - Enhanced neon and sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmelz, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Elemental abundances of two flares observed with the SMM Flat Crystal Spectrometer are compared and contrasted. The first had a gradual rise and a slow decay, while the second was much more impulsive. Simultaneous spectra of seven bright soft X-ray resonance lines provide information over a broad temperature range and are available throughout both flares, making these events unique in the SMM data base. For the first flare, the plasma seemed to be characterized by coronal abundances but, for the second, the plasma composition could not be coronal, photospheric, or a linear combination of both. A good differential emission measure fit required enhanced neon such that Ne/O = 0.32 +/- 0.02, a value which is inconsistent with the current models of coronal abundances based on the elemental first-ionization potential. Similar values of enhanced neon are found for flaring plasma observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, in (He-3)-rich solar energetic particle events, and in the decay phase of several long duration soft X-ray events. Sulfur is also enhanced in the impulsive flare, but not as dramatically as neon. These events are compared with two models which attempt to explain the enhanced values of neon and sulfur.

  3. Cosmogenic neon from precompaction irradiation of Kapoeta and Murchison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caffee, M. W.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Swindle, T. D.; Goswami, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    Neon from hand-picked Murchison and Kapoeta grains, selected on the basis of the presence or absence of solar flare particle tracks, was analyzed in order to delineate the precompaction history of this material. The irradiated grains showed large enrichments of cosmogenic neon relative to the unirradiated grains. Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure ages for the unirradiated grains yield the nominal values reported for the recent exposure history of these meteorites. Apparent minimum precompaction galactic exposure ages of 28 m.y. and 56 m.y. would have been obtained for Murchison and Kapoeta, respectively, if the cosmogenic effects in the irradiated grains were due to GCR irradiation. Since this seems unreasonably long, the cosmogenic neon in the irradiated grains may be due to spallation by solar cosmic rays. This, however, would require a more active early sun. The isotopic composition of the cosmogenic neon in these grains suggests a harder energy spectrum than is characteristic of present solar flares. Lack of apparent solar wind effects may require some kind of shielding, such as nebular gas.

  4. A Closed Neon Liquefier System for Testing Superconducting Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchetti, M.; Al-Mosawi, M. K.; Yang, Y.; Beduz, C.; Giunchi, G.

    2006-04-01

    A Neon liquefier system has been developed by Southampton University (UK) and EDISON (Italy) with the aim to provide a facility for testing HTS superconducting devices using Magnesium Diboride materials, in the range 25-30K. The system consists of a liquid Neon cryostat coupled to a two stages cryocooler and a recovery system. The first stage of the cryocooler is connected to the thermal shield of the cryostat and a copper station positioned at mid point along the access neck to the liquid Neon bath to reduce heat leak and to provide pre-cooling of samples. The second stage, capable of 20W cooling power at 22K, is used to provide the cooling power for liquefaction and to refrigerate the liquid Neon bath and the superconducting device/sample during the steady state operation. The recovery system has been designed to automatically compress excess boil-off generated by a quench or a transient heating into a storage gas container. Transport measurement up to 900A can be carried out in the Ne cryostat using purposely build hybrid current leads. These leads have a copper upper section cooled by liquid Nitrogen and a superconducting lower section of Ag/AuBi2223 tapes. In this paper we report on the performance of the system and the initial measurement of superconducting samples.

  5. Flying with Respiratory Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiota Tzani; Giovanna Pisi; Marina Aiello; Dario Olivieri; Alfredo Chetta

    2010-01-01

    Patients with respiratory diseases may be at risk during flight because at cruising altitude an important hypobaric hypoxia may occur. The only absolute contraindications to flying in these patients are pneumothorax, bronchogenic cyst and severe pulmonary hypertension. In order to evaluate the risks related to air travel in patients with respiratory diseases, an evaluation of their fitness to fly, including

  6. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of

  7. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  8. A Better Fly Trap

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1979-01-01

    In this activity, learners observe fly behavior and then build a flytrap. They make more observations, compare the effectiveness of different traps, and modify their traps to increase their effectiveness. In doing so, learners consider what variables make for an effective trap as well as learning how to study the behavior of an animal. Even pesky flies provide an interesting challenge.

  9. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R. (New Castle, DE); Velenyi, Louis J. (Lyndhurst, OH); Pepera, Marc A. (Northfield, OH); Dolhyj, Serge R. (Parma, OH)

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  10. The NEON Aquatic Network: Expanding the Availability of Biogeochemical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, J. M.; Bohall, C.; Fitzgerald, M.; Utz, R.; Parker, S. M.; Roehm, C. L.; Goodman, K. J.; McLaughlin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing unprecedented pressure from climate change and land-use practices. Invasive species, whether plant, animal, insect or microbe present additional threat to aquatic ecosystem services. There are significant scientific challenges to understanding how these forces will interact to affect aquatic ecosystems, as the flow of energy and materials in the environment is driven by multivariate and non-linear biogeochemical cycles. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect and provide observational data across multiple scales. Sites were selected to maximize representation of major North American ecosystems using a multivariate geographic clustering method that partitioned the continental US, AK, HI, and Puerto Rico into 20 eco-climatic domains. The NEON data collection systems and methods are designed to yield standardized, near real-time data subjected to rigorous quality controls prior to public dissemination through an online data portal. NEON will collect data for 30 years to facilitate spatial-temporal analysis of environmental responses and drivers of ecosystem change, ranging from local through continental scales. Here we present the NEON Aquatic Network, a multi-parameter network consisting of a combination of in situ sensor and observational data. This network will provide data to examine biogeochemical, biological, hydrologic and geomorphic metrics at 36 sites, which are a combination of small 1st/2nd order wadeable streams, large rivers and lakes. A typical NEON Aquatic site will host up to two in-stream sensor sets designed to collect near-continuous water quality data (e.g. pH/ORP, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CDOM) along with up to 8 shallow groundwater monitoring wells (level, temp., cond.), and a local meteorological station (e.g. 2D wind speed, PAR, barometric pressure, temperature, net radiation). These coupled sensor suites will be complemented by observational data (e.g. water/sediment chemistry, aquatic organisms, geomorphology). The aquatic network will produce ~212 low-level data products for each site. NEON will produce several higher level data products such as measurements of whole-stream metabolism, gross primary productivity, ecosystem respiration, and fluxes of nitrogen, phosphorous and carbon that will enable users to analyze processes on a gross scale. These data may be integrated with NEON's terrestrial and airborne networks to bridge the gap between aquatic and terrestrial biogeochemical research. The NEON Aquatic Network is poised to greatly expand our ability to create more robust biogeochemical models. For example, hydrologic and stable isotope data will allow investigation of terrestrial-aquatic carbon flux. Constraints provided by NEON's terrestrial and atmospheric data concurrent with remotely sensed data will facilitate the scaling to regional and continental scales, potentially leading to greater accuracy in the global carbon budget. The NEON Aquatic Network represents a powerful tool that will give the scientific community access to standardized data over spatiotemporal scales that are needed to answer fundamental questions about natural ecological variability and responses to changes in the environment.

  11. Direct detection of dark matter with liquid argon and neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippincott, W. Hugh

    2010-12-01

    There is a great deal of observational evidence across a wide variety of scales that a large fraction of the universe and most of the matter in the universe is made up of some form of non-baryonic, dark matter. The most prominent candidate for dark matter is the weakly interacting massive particle or WIMP, with a mass between 1 GeV to a few TeV, and there are many current experiments aiming to detect these particles directly. The DEAP/CLEAN program seeks to detect dark matter and pp-solar neutrinos using liquid argon and liquid neon as targets. When ionizing radiation interacts in these liquids, scintillation light is produced. The timing or pulse shape of scintillation provides pulse shape discrimination (PSD) with which to identify the type of recoil that occurred in the liquid. As WIMP-nucleus scattering events would produce nuclear recoils but most of the backgrounds produce electronic recoils, PSD provides background rejection, allowing liquid argon- and neon-based detectors to achieve excellent sensitivity to dark matter. In this work, I describe the evidence for dark matter and review the state of current detection efforts. I then discuss observations of scintillation in liquid argon and liquid neon performed in prototype detectors at Yale and underground at SNOLAB in Ontario, Canada, focusing on measurements of PSD, the nuclear recoil scintillation efficiency and alpha backgrounds in these detectors. I describe the implications of these measurements for both the argon and neon components of the DEAP/CLEAN program, including simulations of a possible 10-tonne liquid neon detector. In the first appendix, I describe efforts at Yale to build a thermal column for the separation of isotopes, with applications to both dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay searches. In the second appendix, I describe operation of an evaporator system.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with dc SQUID amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, M.B. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The development and fabrication of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) with Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb Josephson junctions is described. A theory of the dc SQUID as a radio-frequency amplifier is presented, with an optimization strategy that accounts for the loading and noise contributions of the postamplifier and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the total system. The high sensitivity of the dc SQUID is extended to high field NMR. A dc SQUID is used as a tuned radio-frequency amplifier to detect pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance at 32 MHz from a metal film in a 3.5 Tesla static field. A total system noise temperature of 11 K has been achieved, at a bath temperature of 4.2 K. The minimum number of nuclear Bohr magnetons observable from a free precession signal after a single pulse is about 2 {times} 10{sup 17} in a bandwidth of 25 kHz. In a separate experiment, a dc SQUID is used as a rf amplifier in a NQR experiment to observe a new resonance response mechanism. The net electric polarization of a NaClO{sub 3} crystal due to the precessing electric quadrupole moments of the Cl nuclei is detected at 30 MHz. The sensitivity of NMR and NQR spectrometers using dc SQUID amplifiers is compared to the sensitivity of spectrometers using conventional rf amplifiers. A SQUID-based spectrometer has a voltage sensitivity which is comparable to the best achieved by a FET-based spectrometer, at these temperatures and operating frequencies.

  13. Fractionation of terrestrial neon by hydrodynamic hydrogen escape from ancient steam atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric neon is isotopically heavier than mantle neon. By contrast, nonradiogenic mantle Ar, Kr, and Xe are not known to differ from the atmosphere. These observations are most easily explained by selective neon loss to space; however, neon is much too massive to escape from the modern atmosphere. Steam atmospheres are a likely, if intermittent, feature of the accreting Earth. They occur because, on average, the energy liberated during accretion places Earth above the runaway greenhouse threshold, so that liquid water is not stable at the surface. It is found that steam atmospheres should have lasted some ten to fifty million years. Hydrogen escape would have been vigorous, but abundant heavy constituents would have been retained. There is no lack of plausible candidates; CO2, N2, or CO could all suffice. Neon can escape because it is less massive than any of the likely pollutants. Neon fractionation would have been a natural byproduct. Assuming that the initial Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio was solar, it was found that it would have taken some ten million years to effect the observed neon fractionation in a 30 bar steam atmosphere fouled with 10 bars of CO. Thicker atmospheres would have taken longer; less CO, shorter. This mechanism for fractionating neon has about the right level of efficiency. Because the lighter isotope escapes much more readily, total neon loss is pretty minimal; less than half of the initial neon endowment escapes.

  14. SQUIDs Fabrication with the Weak Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzi, Abdelaziz; Charlebois, Serge A.

    2013-03-01

    We present a new technique to fabricate SQUIDs nanobridges as the weak links. We have shown that these chemical-mechanical polishing based process has minimal impact on Al and Nb superconducting properties as demonstrated on long microstructures. This process allows realizing ``2D nanobridges'' formed of the same material as the electrodes and with same thickness. The Nb nanobridges are approximately 100 nm wide and long and 20 nm thick. Similar structures have been fabricated in Ti and Al. We are working at increasing the quality of the deposited films especially in the initial phase for this is the material that remains after CMP and forms these very thin nanobridges. In these very thin structures, it is critical to have high quality material being deposited from the very start of the deposition process as it is those initial layers that are left as a device after CMP [1]. Also allows producing ``3D structures'' with nanobridges thinner (e.g. 20 nm) than the leads (e.g. 100 nm) in a single lithography step. In this case, we also show that the nanobridge can be made of a material other than the leads thus allow SS'S or SNS type of weak links.[4pt] [1] A. Ramzi et al., Physics Procedia, Volume 36, (2012), 211--216.

  15. Fruit Fly Phlebotomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2008-04-21

    The tiny fruit fly is a popular guinea pig for genetic research but just try strapping one of them down for a blood sample. Until now, researchers have had to squeeze dozens of flies at once to get enough blood to study. But now, scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have extracted blood from a single fruit fly larva, collecting as little as 50 billionths of a liter with an ultra-thin vacuum tube. Analytical chemist Scott Shippy says the technique could help scientists study human tissue as well, like the retinal cells in the eye.

  16. How Things Fly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    Provided by the National Air and Space Museum, this site allows users to visit the special exhibit How Things Fly. In How Do Things Fly? the following topics are discussed in a question and answer format: Can you fly?, Air is "stuff"!, Balloons, Animal flight, Airplanes, and Spacecraft. The physics behind flight for each topic is at a general level, making this site an excellent source for K-12 education. Specific science activities, along with recommended reading, are found in the Resource Center. Additional links contain interesting comments and activities for particular topics.

  17. 77 FR 51853 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 6 and Specifications and Management...Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Framework Adjustment 6 AGENCY: National Marine...stocks without an overfishing limit. Framework Adjustment 6 was initiated by the...

  18. Quantum entanglement and controlled logical gates using coupled SQUID flux qubits

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Zhongyuan; Han, Siyuan; Chu, Shih-I

    2005-06-01

    We present an approach to realize universal two-bit quantum gates using two SQUID flux qubits. In this approach the basic unit consists of two inductively coupled SQUIDs with realistic device parameters. Quantum logical gates are implemented...

  19. 76 FR 39313 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish...fishing for the species managed under the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The...

  20. 75 FR 51683 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish...fishing for the species managed under the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The...

  1. Neon Line Emission Observed in Keck/HIRES Sky Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosby, P. C.; Huestis, D. L.; Slanger, T. G.

    2000-12-01

    Over the last three years, detailed studies of the sky spectra from the W. M. Keck (I) 10-meter telescope and the HIRES echelle spectrometer have been carried out. Many atomic and molecular emissions have been observed in the nightglow for the first time. For O2 in particular, an entire new range of molecular bands in the Atmospheric Band system has been found, following initial identifications by D.E. Osterbrock and collaborators. At the beginning co-added spectra were used, so as to optimize the identification of weak spectral features [Osterbrock et al. PASP, 110, 1499 (1998)]. We are now using individual 50-minute spectra, making it possible to use time as a variable. Of spectral lines normally associated with light pollution, by far the most prominent in Keck/HIRES sky spectra are those of neon, of which 36 have so far been identified, in the spectral range 5800-8100 . They exhibit a great deal of variability with time, but during a given night the variation is not random. At the most intense the summed intensity of the neon lines is on the order of 30 rayleighs (R), with the strong 5852 line having an intensity of ~ 2 R. At other times, the 5852 line is weaker by a factor of 50. The mercury line at 5461 is typically weaker than the Ne [5852] line, and at its maximum does not exceed 1 R. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that the neon and mercury lines are not correlated in time, as would be expected if they originate with a city source. Urban mercury radiation normally outshines that from neon by two orders of magnitude (cf. Lick Observatory observations). The highest neon intensities are observed when the telescope is pointed in a southerly direction, and no significant neon emission is observed at the azimuth of the closest city, Hilo. Approximately one-hundred 50-minute sky spectra, taken in 1993-1997, have been evaluated for this study. Continuing analysis reveals that argon and xenon lines also appear in some spectra; noteworthy is the fact that emission from the three atoms is uncorrelated in time. This work has been supported by the NSF Aeronomy program.

  2. The UT 19-channel DC SQUID based neuromagnetometer.

    PubMed

    ter Brake, H J; Flokstra, J; Jaszczuk, W; Stammis, R; van Ancum, G K; Martinez, A; Rogalla, H

    1991-01-01

    A 19-channel DC SQUID based neuromagnetometer is under construction at the University of Twente (UT). Except for the cryostat all elements of the system are developed at the UT. It comprises 19 wire-wound first-order gradiometers in a hexagonal configuration. The gradiometers are connected to planar DC SQUIDs fabricated with a Nb/Al, AlO kappa/Nb technology. For this connection we developed a method to bond a Nb wire to a Nb thin-film. The SQUIDs are placed in compartmentalised Nb modules. Further, external feedback is incorporated in order to eliminate cross talk between the gradiometers. The electronics basically consist of a phase-locked loop operating with a modulation frequency of 100 kHz. Between SQUID and preamplifier a small transformer is used to limit the noise contribution of the preamplifier. In the paper the overall system is described, and special attention is paid to the SQUID module (bonding, compartments, external-feedback setup, output transformer). PMID:1807878

  3. Collagen from diamondback squid (Thysanoteuthis rhombus) outer skin.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    Collagens (acid-solubilized and pepsin-solubilized collagens) were prepared from diamondback squid outer skin and partially characterized. The yields of acid-solubilized and pepsin-solubilized collagens were about 1.3 and 35.6%, respectively, on a dry weight basis. Pepsin-solubilized collagen was heterotrimer with a chain composition of ala2a3. The patterns of peptide fragments were different from that of porcine skin collagen. Denaturation temperature was 27.5 degrees C, about 10 degrees C lower than that of porcine collagen. The amino acid composition of pepsin-solubilized collagen from diamondback squid outer skin was similar to that from cuttlefish outer skin. This squid is big among squid species, and its skin is thick. It is clear that diamondback squid outer skin has a potential as an alternative source of collagen to bovine skin and bone. At present, collagen using aquatic materials such as skin (cod and a deep-sea fish) and scale (sea bream and anchovy) is the development stage in the related industries. Unless the problem of BSE infection in land animals is resolved aquatic materials as an alternative source of collagen will attract much attention in the cosmetic and medical fields. PMID:15241939

  4. Development of advanced SQUID system for nondestructive evaluation of material degradation in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Otaka, M.; Hayashi, E. [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    A newer and more advanced version of the SQUID sensor system for estimating the degradation of materials in power plants have been developed. The miniaturized SQUID sensor developed for nondestructive measurement is 262 mm high, 152 mm in diameter, and 5 kg in weight, making it only one-twelfth the size and one-tenth the weight of a conventional SQUID sensor. Tests have demonstrated that the new SQUID sensor can successfully estimate fatigue damage in Type 316 stainless steel.

  5. Venus fly trap

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Lenz (None; )

    2006-01-26

    Time-lapse photos or video show progressions from the start of an event to the end of the event. These time-lapse photos illustrate the growth of a single Venus fly trap. Biological processes require time.

  6. Operation MexFly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Susan E. Emerson N:E. Emerson; Susan ORG:Grossmont High School REV:2005-04-11 END:VCARD

    1995-06-30

    This activity is an environmental study of the effects of spraying malathion on Mexican fruit flies. In 1990, the city of El Cajon experienced an infestation of Mexican fruit flies, necessitating an aerial spraying of the insecticide malathion. The local community had a varied and wide-spread reaction to the procedure. A colleague and I collaborated to create a series of lessons about the Mexican fruit fly, the insecticide malathion and risk assessment. It was an opportunity to do cross disciplinary teaching, enabling students to see interrelationships between biology, chemistry and local government. The lesson includes background reading for discussion on the Mexican fruit fly, insecticides, and LD-50s. Students complete a short lab on serial dilutions, with risk analysis application problems and a Town Hall meeting to decide if the spraying should take place or develop alternatives.

  7. Emerging Model Organisms The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes): A Model

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Emerging Model Organisms The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes): A Model to Study@hawaii.edu). INTRODUCTION The Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, is a cephalopod whose small size, short lifespan. BACKGROUND INFORMATION The Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes Berry; Mollusca, Cephalopoda, Coleoidea

  8. Culture of Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes) Embryos and Observation of Normal Development

    E-print Network

    Ruby, Edward G.

    Protocol Culture of Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes) Embryos and Observation of Normal@hawaii.edu). INTRODUCTION The ability to rear Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) embryos under controlled and Husbandry" section of The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes): A Model to Study the Molecular Basis

  9. 77 FR 7544 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ...Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Amendment 11; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...language in the final rule for Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish...Background The final rule for Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and...

  10. RECTIFICATION AND INDUCTANCE IN THE SQUID GIANT AXON BY KENNETH S. COLE

    E-print Network

    Allen, Jont

    RECTIFICATION AND INDUCTANCE IN THE SQUID GIANT AXON BY KENNETH S. COLE (From the Department and inductance elements in the membrane of the squid giant axon (Cole and Baker, 1941a and b; Cole and Curtis.jgp.orgDownloadedfrom #12;30 RECTIFICATION AND INDUCTANCE IN SQUID GIANT AXON Baker, 1941b). This circuit makes many

  11. Seasonal Variation in Conduction Velocity of Action Potentials in Squid Giant Axons

    E-print Network

    Bezanilla, Francisco

    Seasonal Variation in Conduction Velocity of Action Potentials in Squid Giant Axons JOSHUA J. C are not affected by rearing temperature (Treistman and Grant, 1993). The squid giant axon, long a model, Los Angeles, California 90095 Abstract. To determine whether the electrical properties of the squid

  12. RANGE EXPANSION AND TROPHIC INTERACTIONS OF THE JUMBO SQUID, DOSIDICUS GIGAS, IN THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN C. FIELD; KEN BALTZ; A. JASON PHILLIPS

    Although jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) have been oc- casional visitors to the California Current over the last century, their abundance and distribution increased be- tween 2002 and 2006. We report several time series of jumbo squid relative abundance from commercial and recreational fisheries as well as resource surveys and food habits studies. To evaluate the trophic relationships of jumbo squid,

  13. 75 FR 43090 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Adjustment...fishing year (FY) Trimester 2 and 3 Loligo squid quotas. The rule contained a numerical...adjusting the FY 2010 Trimester 2 and 3 Loligo squid quotas. The temporary rule correctly...

  14. Quantum phase transition and Coulomb blockade with one-dimensional SQUID arrays

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    Quantum phase transition and Coulomb blockade with one-dimensional SQUID arrays Michio Watanabe a-dimensional arrays of small-capacitance super- conducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), where an external; Fig. 1. A scanning electron micrograph of a one-dimensional SQUID array. The electromagnetic

  15. Decoherence and recoherence in a vibrating rf SQUID Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 Israel

    E-print Network

    Buks, Eyal

    Decoherence and recoherence in a vibrating rf SQUID Eyal Buks Department of Electrical Engineering; published 3 November 2006 We study an rf SQUID, in which a section of the loop is a freely suspended beam that is allowed to oscillate mechanically. The coupling between the rf SQUID and the mechanical resonator

  16. Stabilization and optimization of a two-stage dc SQUID coupled to a high Q resonator

    E-print Network

    1 Stabilization and optimization of a two-stage dc SQUID coupled to a high Q resonator Andrea Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova, Italy Abstract A two-stage dc SQUID the behaviour of the SQUID on a resonant gravitational wave detector. A capacitive damping network

  17. Physics 6, 123 (2013) A SQUID Analog with a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    E-print Network

    Sato, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Physics 6, 123 (2013) Viewpoint A SQUID Analog with a Bose-Einstein Condensate Yuki Sato Rowland SQUID C. Ryu, P. W. Blackburn, A. A. Blinova, and M. G. Boshier Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 2013 ­ Published November 11, 2013 Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (specifically, dc-SQUIDs) are the world

  18. A 200 h two-stage dc SQUID amplifier for resonant gravitational wave detectors

    E-print Network

    A 200 h two-stage dc SQUID amplifier for resonant gravitational wave detectors Andrea Vinante1 commercial chips a two-stage dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) was developed in order to be used as low noise amplifier on the resonant gravitational wave detector AURIGA. The SQUID was coupled

  19. Reference: Bid. Bull. 192: 364-374. (June. 1997) Laboratory Culture of the Sepiolid Squid

    E-print Network

    Ruby, Edward G.

    Reference: Bid. Bull. 192: 364-374. (June. 1997) Laboratory Culture of the Sepiolid Squid Eupvymna, was cultured through one complete life cycle in 4 months. Paralarval squid hatchlings were actively planktonic and diurnal quiescence. Squids were aggressive predators that preferred actively swimming prey up to 2- 4

  20. FEEDING BEHAVIOR, FOOD CONSUMPTION, GROWTH, AND RESPIRATION OF THE SQUID LOLIGO OPALESCENS RAISED

    E-print Network

    FEEDING BEHAVIOR, FOOD CONSUMPTION, GROWTH, AND RESPIRATION OF THE SQUID LOLIGO OPALESCENS RAISED IN THE LABORATORY ANN C. HURLEY' ABSTRACT The squid Loligo opalescens was raised in the laboratory to a maximum age of 100 days on a diet of Artemia nauplii and adults. Newly hatched squid (2.7 mm mantle length) readily

  1. MFR PAPER 1275 Shortfin Squid, I/lex i/lecebrosus,

    E-print Network

    MFR PAPER 1275 Shortfin Squid, I/lex i/lecebrosus, Attacks on Trawl-Captured Fish SALVATORE A. TESTAVERDE Figure I.-Silver hake. Merluccius bilillearis, with wounds inflicted by shontin squid. commun.) increasingly large catches of shortfin squid, Illex illecebrosus, from the Gulf of Maine

  2. Tunable Electrodynamic Environment and Coulomb Blockade with 1D SQUID Arrays

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    Tunable Electrodynamic Environment and Coulomb Blockade with 1D SQUID Arrays D. B. Haviland, M arrays of small capacitance SQUIDs have been used to make a tunable elec­ trodynamic environment for a single, small capac­ itance Josephson junctions. The tunability of the SQUID arrays when used

  3. Z .Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 11 1998 139156 SQUID detected NMR and NQR

    E-print Network

    Augustine, Mathew P.

    Z .Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 11 1998 139156 SQUID detected NMR and NQR Matthew P dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device SQUID is a sensitive detector of magnetic flux to a thin film superconducting coil deposited on the SQUID to form a flux transformer. With this untuned

  4. Ontogenetic Changes in Mantle Kinematics During Escape-Jet Locomotion in the Oval Squid,

    E-print Network

    Kier, William M.

    Ontogenetic Changes in Mantle Kinematics During Escape-Jet Locomotion in the Oval Squid of Sepioteuthis lessoniana, the oval squid. Changes in mantle diameter during the jet were measured from digi mantle diameter) during an escape jet was significantly greater in hatchlings than in older, larger squid

  5. MFR PAPER 128C Strandings of Shortfin Squid, II/ex

    E-print Network

    MFR PAPER 128C Strandings of Shortfin Squid, II/ex illecebrosus, in New England in Fall 1976 F. E 02642. Figure (.-Shore area of grealest strandings (shaded) of shon fin squid in Cape Cod Bay during fall 1976, and numbers of this squid caught per h-hour low at otter trawl stations in fall I975

  6. A MICROWAVE RESISTIVE SQUID FOR NOISE THERMOMETRY R. J. SOULEN and T. F. FINNEGAN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    305 A MICROWAVE RESISTIVE SQUID FOR NOISE THERMOMETRY R. J. SOULEN and T. F. FINNEGAN Institute for Basic Standards, National Bureau of Standards Washington, DC 20234, USA Résumé. 2014 Un SQUID température plus rapides. On décrit les perfor- mances d'un SQUID résistif travaillant à 10 GHz. La

  7. Ontogenetic Changes in Fibrous Connective Tissue Organization in the Oval Squid, Sepioteuthis

    E-print Network

    Kier, William M.

    Ontogenetic Changes in Fibrous Connective Tissue Organization in the Oval Squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, the oval squid. Outer tunic fiber angle (the angle of a tunic collagen fiber relative to the long axis of the squid) decreased from 33.5 in newly hatched animals to 17.7 in the largest animals

  8. Low field DC SQUID nuclear magnetic resonance on single crystal UPt3

    E-print Network

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Low field DC SQUID nuclear magnetic resonance on single crystal UPt3 R. Koorber a,*, A. Casey a , B, Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin, Germany c Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA Abstract A SQUID pulsed NMR on 195 Pt. The system uses a multiloop DC SQUID with additional positive feedback and operates

  9. TUNABLE ELECTRODYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT AND COULOMB BLOCKADE WITH 1D SQUID ARRAYS

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    TUNABLE ELECTRODYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT AND COULOMB BLOCKADE WITH 1D SQUID ARRAYS M. WATANABE RIKEN, 2 of small-capacitance SQUIDs have been used to make a tunable electrodynamic environment for a single, small-capacitance Josephson junction. The tunability of the SQUID arrays when used in the measurement leads allows us

  10. The squid family Gonatidae plays an important role in the ecosystems

    E-print Network

    733 The squid family Gonatidae plays an important role in the ecosystems of the North Pacific. In the Sea of Okhotsk, the annual production of gonatid squids is more than half that of fish production Pacific and the processes influencing the production of gonatid squids in this region, information

  11. New Perspectives on Collagen Fibers in the Squid Michael Krieg1,3

    E-print Network

    Mohseni, Kamran

    New Perspectives on Collagen Fibers in the Squid Mantle Michael Krieg1,3 and Kamran Mohseni*1,2,3 1, Floriday ABSTRACT The squid mantle is a complex structure which, in conjunction with a highly sensitive sensory sys- tem, provides squid with a wide variety of highly con- trolled movements. This article

  12. ELIZABETH H. AMARAL and H. ARNOLD CARR Experimental Fishing for Squid

    E-print Network

    ELIZABETH H. AMARAL and H. ARNOLD CARR Experimental Fishing for Squid With Lights in Nantucket Sound Nantucket Sound squid survey areas. Elizabeth H. Amaral and H. Arnold Carr consecutive years and has caught squid in them each year. He first be- came interested in this type of project

  13. Squid Catches Resulting From Trawl Surveys off the Southeastern United States

    E-print Network

    Squid Catches Resulting From Trawl Surveys off the Southeastern United States J. DAVID WHITAKER Introduction The importance of the squid fishery off the northeastern United States has grown considerably since 1964 with re- cent squid catches by foreign fleets av- eraging 50,000 t (110,231 ,000 pounds

  14. Motion detection of a micromechanical resonator embedded in a d.c. SQUID

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Motion detection of a micromechanical resonator embedded in a d.c. SQUID S. ETAKI1,2 *, M.s.j.vanderzant@tudelft.nl Published online: 31 August 2008; doi:10.1038/nphys1057 Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs into SQUIDs to achieve controlled entanglement of the resonator ground state and a qubit3 as well

  15. Role of Aerobic and Anaerobic Circular Mantle Muscle Fibers in Swimming Squid: Electromyography

    E-print Network

    Hynes, Wayne L.

    Role of Aerobic and Anaerobic Circular Mantle Muscle Fibers in Swimming Squid: Electromyography IAN muscle of squids and cuttle- fishes consists of distinct zones of aerobic and anaerobic muscle fibers with video footage were recorded from brief squid Lolli- guncula brevis (5.06.8 cm dorsal mantle length, 10

  16. 27 SQUID amplifier operating with high-Q resonant input load Paolo Falferia

    E-print Network

    27 SQUID amplifier operating with high-Q resonant input load Paolo Falferia and Michele Bonaldi characterization of a low-noise two-stage superconducting quantum interference device SQUID amplifier developed. To evaluate the back action voltage noise, the SQUID is strongly coupled to a high-Q macroscopic electrical

  17. Although there are similarities in reproductive behavior among several squid species, our obser-

    E-print Network

    Although there are similarities in reproductive behavior among several squid species, our obser earlier who reported 12-15 pairs of squids in a semicircle (Turcol ), indi- cate that the social structure:53-57. 1965. Observations on the mating behavior of the squid Sepioteuthis sepioidea. Bull. Mar. Sci. 15

  18. Scanning Electron Microscopy of Squid, Loligo peale;: Raw, Cooked, and Frozen Mantle

    E-print Network

    Scanning Electron Microscopy of Squid, Loligo peale;: Raw, Cooked, and Frozen Mantle W. STEVEN The main body portion of a squid is the cone-shaped mantle which encloses the viscera. Early studies of squid man- tle structure (Pierce, 1950; Tanaka, 1958; Wilson, 1960; and Young, 1938) are scant

  19. The Quality of Squid Held in Chilled Seawater Versus Conventional Shipboard Handling

    E-print Network

    The Quality of Squid Held in Chilled Seawater Versus Conventional Shipboard Handling VINCENT G. AMPOLA liest tow of each trip were always placed in Pen A, and the squid/ice/ seawater ratio was adjusted provided a workable slush into which the freshly caught squid were submerged. During each trip, the top

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF AN OBJECTIVE METHOD FOR CLASSIFYING LONG-FINNED SQUID, LOLIGO PEALEI,

    E-print Network

    DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF AN OBJECTIVE METHOD FOR CLASSIFYING LONG-FINNED SQUID, LOLIGO PEALEI, INTO SEXUAL MATURITY STAGES WILLIAM K. MACY III! ABSTRACT An objective method of classifying long-finned squid by an appli- cation of the method. Each summer schools of long-finned squid, Loli- go pealei Lesueur, 1821

  1. Recent Developments in the Squid, II/ex il/ecebrosus, Fishery

    E-print Network

    Recent Developments in the Squid, II/ex il/ecebrosus, Fishery of Newfoundland, Canada GEOFFREY V. HURLEY Introduction Since 1975 the nominal catches of the short-finned squid, fllex illece- brosus (Le was due in part to the worldwide development of fisheries for under- utilized marine species such as squid

  2. The California market squid (Loligo opalescens Berry), also known as the

    E-print Network

    389 The California market squid (Loligo opalescens Berry), also known as the opalescent inshore squid (FAO), plays a central role in the nearshore ecological communities of the west coast Bay, the squids are fished directly on the egg beds, and the con- sequences of this practice

  3. SQUID magnetometers for biomagnetism and nondestructive testing: important questions and initial answers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    For two decades, academic and industrial researchers worldwide have used SQUID magnetometers to measure magnetic signals from the heart, brain, lungs, liver, nerves, skeletal muscle, stomach, intestines, eyes, and other organs, and have invested heavily in developing and promoting this technology. While there are as yet few accepted clinical applications of SQUIDs, various trends are encouraging. The introduction of SQUIDs

  4. Selenium in fly ash.

    PubMed

    Gutenmann, W H; Bache, C A; Youngs, W D; Lisk, D J

    1976-03-01

    Selenium, at concentrations exceeding 200 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight), has been found in white sweet clover voluntarily growing on beds of fly ash in central New York State. Guinea pigs fed such clover concentrated selenium in their tissues. The contents of the honey stomachs of bees foraging on this seleniferous clover contained negligible selenium. Mature vegetables cultured on 10 percent (by weight) fly ash-amended soil absorbed up to 1 ppm of selenium. Fly ashes from 21 states contained total selenium contents ranging from 1.2 to 16.5 ppm. Cabbage grown on soil containing 10 percent (by weight) of these fly ashes absorbed selenium (up to 3.7 ppm) in direct proportion (correlation coefficient r = .89) to the selenium concentration in the respective fly ash. Water, aquatic weeds, algae, dragonfly nymphs, polliwogs, and tissues of bullheads and muskrats from a fly ash-contaminated pond contained concentrations of selenium markedly elevated over those of controls. PMID:1251212

  5. Heteronuclear collisions between laser-cooled metastable neon atoms

    E-print Network

    Jan Schtz; Thomas Feldker; Holger John; Gerhard Birkl

    2012-08-28

    We investigate heteronuclear collisions in isotope mixtures of laser-cooled metastable 3P2 neon. Experiments are performed with spin-polarized atoms in a magnetic trap for all two-isotope combinations of the stable neon isotopes 20Ne, 21Ne, and 22Ne. We determine the rate coefficients for heteronuclear ionizing collisions to beta_{21,20}=(3.9+/-2.7) x 10^{-11} cm^3/s, beta_{22,20}=(2.6+/-0.7) x 10^{-11} cm^3/s, and beta_{21,22}=(3.9+/-1.9) x 10^{-11} cm^3/s. We also study heteronuclear elastic collision processes and give upper bounds for heteronuclear thermal relaxation cross sections. This work significantly extends the limited available experimental data on heteronuclear ionizing collisions for laser-cooled atoms involving one or more rare gas atoms in a metastable state.

  6. A Cyberinfrastructure for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimel, D.; Berukoff, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an NSF-funded project designed to provide physical and information infrastructure to support the development of continental-scale, quantitative ecological sciences. The network consists of sixty sites located in the continental US, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, each site hosting terrestrial and aquatic sensors and observational apparati that acquire data across multiple ecoclimatic domains. As well, an airborne remote sensing platform provides spectral and LiDAR data, and acquisition of data sets from external agencies allows for land-use studies. Together, this data is ingested, vetted, processed, and curated by a standards-based, provenance-driven, metadata-rich cyberinfrastructure, which will provide not only access to but discovery and manipulation of NEON data, and the construction of integrative data products and inputs for ecological forecasting that address fundamental processual questions in climate change, land use change, and invasive species.

  7. Discovery of solar wind neon in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Palma, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Insert gases have been measured in seven sieve fractions of a disaggregated sample of the Allende meteorite. The disaggregation was done by ultrasonic treatment in water and by freeze-thawing. This sample consititutes the first gas-rich portion known to occur in the Allende meteorite. The composition of the trapped neon is solar, i.e., Neon-B, and the gas-rich samples contain more trapped Ne-20 than Ar-36. The set of sieve fractions show an anticorrelation of Ne-20 content and grain size. Gas-richness seems to be quite common among the CV3 meteorites with Allende added to the earlier known cases of Mokoia, Vigarano, and Efremovka.

  8. Boiling incipience and convective boiling of neon and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. S.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Forced convection and subcooled boiling heat transfer data for liquid nitrogen and liquid neon were obtained in support of a design study for a 30 tesla cryomagnet cooled by forced convection of liquid neon. This design precludes nucleate boiling in the flow channels as they are too small to handle vapor flow. Consequently, it was necessary to determine boiling incipience under the operating conditions of the magnet system. The cryogen data obtained over a range of system pressures, fluid flow rates, and applied heat fluxes were used to develop correlations for predicting boiling incipience and convective boiling heat transfer coefficients in uniformly heated flow channels. The accuracy of the correlating equations was then evaluated. A technique was also developed to calculate the position of boiling incipience in a uniformly heated flow channel. Comparisons made with the experimental data showed a prediction accuracy of plus or minus 15 percent

  9. Evidence for Atom Polarization in Tunnel-Ionized Neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerke, Brian; Meyerhofer, David

    2000-06-01

    We report accurate measurements of tunneling (? = 0.2 - 0.5) rates for helium and the first three charge states of neon, ionized by a circularly polarized, 2-ps, 1053-nm laser pulse with a peak intensity of 1.5x10^17 W/cm^2. The most probable intensities for ionization are determined from measured electron spectra using detailed Monte Carlo simulations. Results for helium are in excellent agreement with the semiclassical theory of Ammosov, Delone, and Krainov (ADK) and with exact numerical solutions of the Schrdinger equation. The neon data show small but significant deviations from the predictions of ADK. Good agreement is obtained with ionization rates based on parabolic states of the atom when the DC stark shift is included. The results imply that the initial spherical symmetry of the bound state is broken by the laser field, which polarizes the atom prior to ionization.

  10. nSQUID arrays as conveyers of quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Qiang; Averin, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    We have considered the quantum dynamics of an array of nSQUIDstwo-junction SQUIDs with negative mutual inductance between their two arms. Effective dual-rail structure of the array creates additional internal degree of freedom for the fluxons in the array, which can be used to encode and transport quantum information. Physically, this degree of freedom is represented by electromagnetic excitations localized on the fluxon. We have calculated the spatial profile and frequency spectrum of these excitations. Their dynamics can be reduced to two quantum states, so that each fluxon moving through the array carries with it a qubit of information. Coherence properties of such a propagating qubit in the nSQUID array are characterized by the dynamic suppression of the low-frequency decoherence due to the motion-induced spreading of the noise spectral density to a larger frequency interval.

  11. NMR/MRI with hyperpolarized gas and high Tc SQUID

    DOEpatents

    Schlenga, Klaus (Eggenstein, DE); de Souza, Ricardo E. (Recife, BR); Wong-Foy, Annjoe (Berkeley, CA); Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA); Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals and production of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from samples combines the use of hyperpolarized inert gases to enhance the NMR signals from target nuclei in a sample and a high critical temperature (Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to detect the NMR signals. The system operates in static magnetic fields of 3 mT or less (down to 0.1 mT), and at temperatures from liquid nitrogen (77K) to room temperature. Sample size is limited only by the size of the magnetic field coils and not by the detector. The detector is a high Tc SQUID magnetometer designed so that the SQUID detector can be very close to the sample, which can be at room temperature.

  12. Signal detection in l/f noise of SQUID magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, B.; Anderson, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the variance on the SQUID power spectrum in the l/f low frequency region is well behaved, i.e., any small frequency band may be treated as white noise in standard power spectrum estimation theory. Specifically a calibration signal is examined at 0.017 Hz with an equivalent energy referred to the SQUID input coil of 1 times 10 to the -30th J and a digitally recorded and analyzed record of 140 hr duration obtained an optimum S/N better than 400. The results are in good agreement with theory. In addition no deviation from the l/f dependence of the noise energy spectrum is seen down to frequencies below 10 to the -5th Hz. A commercially available SQUID and electronics system were used.

  13. The PhotoIonization Cross-Section of Neon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po Lee; G. L. Weissler

    1953-01-01

    The absorption of radiation of wave-length between 230 and 800 angstrom in neon was measured photometrically in a grazing incidence vacuum spectrograph. For wave-lengths longer than that corresponding to the first ionization limit the absorption coefficients were found to be zero except for photo-excitation of resonance transitions. Two sharp absorption edges were observed at 575 and 256 angstrom corresponding to

  14. Charge radii of neon isotopes across the sd neutron shell

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, K. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Geithner, W.; Kappertz, S.; Kloos, S.; Kotrotsios, G.; Neugart, R.; Wilbert, S. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Kowalska, M.; Keim, M. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lievens, P. [Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme, K.U.Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Simon, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    We report on the changes in mean square charge radii of unstable neon nuclei relative to the stable {sup 20}Ne, based on the measurement of optical isotope shifts. The studies were carried out using collinear laser spectroscopy on a fast beam of neutral neon atoms. High sensitivity on short-lived isotopes was achieved thanks to nonoptical detection based on optical pumping and state-selective collisional ionization, which was complemented by an accurate determination of the beam kinetic energy. The new results provide information on the structural changes in the sequence of neon isotopes all across the neutron sd shell, ranging from the proton drip line nucleus and halo candidate {sup 17}Ne up to the neutron-rich {sup 28}Ne in the vicinity of the ''island of inversion.'' Within this range the charge radius is smallest for {sup 24}Ne with N=14 corresponding to the closure of the neutron d{sub 5/2} shell, while it increases toward both neutron shell closures, N=8 and N=20. The general trend of the charge radii correlates well with the deformation effects which are known to be large for several neon isotopes. In the neutron-deficient isotopes, structural changes arise from the onset of proton-halo formation for {sup 17}Ne, shell closure in {sup 18}Ne, and clustering effects in {sup 20,21}Ne. On the neutron-rich side the transition to the island of inversion plays an important role, with the radii in the upper part of the sd shell confirming the weakening of the N=20 magic number. The results add new information to the radii systematics of light nuclei where data are scarce because of the small contribution of nuclear-size effects to the isotope shifts which are dominated by the finite-mass effect.

  15. Self-alignment of neon 5d2-level in hollow cathode discharge D. Z. Zhechev

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-67 Self-alignment of neon 5d2- level in hollow cathode discharge D. Z. Zhechev Institute of Solid. 2014 A self-alignment of 5d2-level of neon (configuration 2p5 5d) is detected in a hollow cathode for 5d2-level of the 2p5 5d neon configuration (Paschen's notation). Alignment of this level has

  16. Precision measurement of the metastable 3 P2 lifetime of neon

    E-print Network

    Birkl, Gerhard

    Precision measurement of the metastable 3 P2 lifetime of neon Martin Zinner, Peter Spoden, Tobias of the metastable 3 P2 state of neon has been determined as 14.73(14) s decay rate 0.067 90(64) s 1 ] by measuring of the metastable 3 P2 state 1 of neon with sufficient precision. A selection of research activities profiting from

  17. System noise cancellation by digital signal processing for SQUID measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuta, K.; Mizoguti, K.; Setoguchi, A.; Itozaki, H.

    2006-05-01

    It is important to suppress both environmental noise and system noise as much as possible when a weak magnetic signal is measured by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Environmental noise can be suppressed by using magnetic shielding or a gradiometer. However, we still have system noise produced by the electronics such as coils and amplifiers, even if we use perfect magnetic shielding or a gradiometer. This research has been aimed at reducing this system noise signal in measured data using digital signal processing. Two SQUIDs are placed close together, and the same magnetic field is detected with these two SQUIDs simultaneously. The outputs of these SQUID magnetometers, however, are different from each other, because the system noise included in the signal has random phase, amplitude and frequency for each respective SQUID. By extracting the in-phase components from these two SQUID output signals, the system noise signal can be reduced, and as a result, the signal from the measuring object in which we are interested can be obtained. An adaptive digital filter (ADF) algorithm was used for this extraction of the in-phase components. When the signal-to-noise ratio was 0.5, the noise signal was decreased by about 10 dB by this processing. In addition, the frequency division by the wavelet transform was used to raise the performance of the in-phase component extraction. The noise signal is reduced at each frequency band, and each of the band elements is reconstructed by an inverse wavelet transform to obtain the signal of the object. The noise removal performance was improved to about -20 dB when this method was used. In addition, the waveform distortion became lower than that processed without wavelet transform.

  18. Improved Readout Scheme for SQUID-Based Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin

    2007-01-01

    An improved readout scheme has been proposed for high-resolution thermometers, (HRTs) based on the use of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to measure temperature- dependent magnetic susceptibilities. The proposed scheme would eliminate counting ambiguities that arise in the conventional scheme, while maintaining the superior magnetic-flux sensitivity of the conventional scheme. The proposed scheme is expected to be especially beneficial for HRT-based temperature control of multiplexed SQUIDbased bolometer sensor arrays. SQUID-based HRTs have become standard for measuring and controlling temperatures in the sub-nano-Kelvin temperature range in a broad range of low-temperature scientific and engineering applications. A typical SQUIDbased HRT that utilizes the conventional scheme includes a coil wound on a core made of a material that has temperature- dependent magnetic susceptibility in the temperature range of interest. The core and the coil are placed in a DC magnetic field provided either by a permanent magnet or as magnetic flux inside a superconducting outer wall. The aforementioned coil is connected to an input coil of a SQUID. Changes in temperature lead to changes in the susceptibility of the core and to changes in the magnetic flux detected by the SQUID. The SQUID readout instrumentation is capable of measuring magnetic-flux changes that correspond to temperature changes down to a noise limit .0.1 nK/Hz1/2. When the flux exceeds a few fundamental flux units, which typically corresponds to a temperature of .100 nK, the SQUID is reset. The temperature range can be greatly expanded if the reset events are carefully tracked and counted, either by a computer running appropriate software or by a dedicated piece of hardware.

  19. Absorption Spectrum of Rubidium in a Solid Neon Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Pawan

    We have grown solid neon crystals doped with rubidium atoms. Experiments were performed by depositing mixtures of rubidium with neon onto a sapphire window at cryogenic temperatures. We have grown multiple crystals with different sapphire temperatures, rubidium densities and neon flow rates. Once the crystals were grown, absorption spectra were acquired with white light spectroscopy. We were able to grow 400 ?m thick crystals with densities on the order of 1017 cm-3. We applied narrow band laser light from titanium-sapphire (Ti:Sap) and diode lasers tuned to different peaks and observed modifications of the absorption spectra. We also investigated annealing effects on the absorption spectra of crystals. Anneal- experiments were performed by heating crystals to 5-10 K with an increment of approximately 1 K then cooling to 3.2 K. Annealing crystals at 8 K and lower did not produce any significant change in the spectra. However, annealing crystals higher than 8 K results in significant changes in the spectra.

  20. Rethermalizing collisions between magnetically trapped metastable neon atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogendorff, V. P.; Claessens, B. J.; Kuppens, S. J. M.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.; Beijerinck, H. C. W.

    2002-05-01

    The successful Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) of alkali atoms has stimulated several groups to extend the range to metastable rare gas atoms. In 2001 this resulted in the achievement of BEC with metastable helium atoms (He^*) [1,2]. The only other rare gas atom suitable for achieving BEC is neon. The goal of our group is BEC of metastable neon (Ne^*). A condensate of metastable rare gas atoms is of special interest because their large internal energy enables real time diagnostics of the sample during condensation, giving new insight into the dynamics of the phase transition. Crucial for achieving BEC is a large (positive) scattering length. For He^* a good estimate of the order of magnitude of the scattering length was known. For neon no such theoretical estimate exists, therefore, experimental data on the value of the scattering length is necessary to determine whether or not BEC is feasible for Ne^*. In recent thermalization experiments involving two RF-knives, similar to the scheme used by Aspect et al. [3], we have observed rethermalizing collisions in our magnetic trap. Moreover, preliminary measurements point in the direction of a large absolute value of the scattering length. In this presentation we will discuss these thermalization experiments, and hope to present a value of the scattering length. [1] A. Robert et al., Science 292, 461 (2001). [2] F.P. Dos-Santos et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459 (2001). [3] A. Browaeys et al., Phys. Rev. A. 64, 034703 (2001).

  1. Helium-neon laser improves skin repair in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Peccin, Maria Stella; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; de Oliveira, Flavia; Giusti, Paulo Ricardo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of helium-neon laser on skin injury in rabbits. For this purpose, 15 New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral skin damage in leg. Helium-neon laser light, at a fluence of 6?J?cm2 and wavelength of 632.8?nm, was applied on the left legs (laser group). The right leg lesions (control group) served as negative control. All sections were histopathologically analyzed using HE sections. The results showed little infiltration of inflammatory cells, with proliferation of fibroblasts forming a few fibrous connective tissue after 1 week post-injury. The lesion on the 3rd week was characterized by granulation tissue, which formed from proliferated fibrous connective tissue, congested blood vessels and mild mononuclear cell infiltration. On the 5th week, it was observed that debris material surrounded by a thick layer of connective tissue and dense collage, fibroblasts cells present in the dermis covered by a thick epidermal layer represented by keratinized epithelium. Taken together, our results suggest that helium-neon laser is able to improve skin repair in rabbits at early phases of recovery. PMID:23057697

  2. Nova LMC 1990 no. 1: The first extragalactic neon nova

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Shore, Steven N.; Starrfield, Sumner G.

    1990-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of nova LMC (Large Magellanic Cloud) 1990 No. 1, the first neon (or ONeMg) nova observed outside the Galaxy are presented. The observations were obtained from 17 Jan. to Mar. 1990, with especially dense coverage during the first 25 days of the outburst. (The neon nova categorization is based on the detection of forbidden Ne 3-4 lines in optical spectra; the ultraviolet neon lines were not detected.) During the first 30 days of the outburst, the radiative losses were dominated by the N 5 delta 1240 and C 4 delta 1550 lines. The maximum ejection velocity was approximately 8000 km/s, based on the blue absorption edge of the C 4 P-Cygni profile. Early in the outburst of Nova LMC 1990 No. 1 the UV luminosity alone was approximately 3 times 10 to the 38th power erg/sec, implying that the bolometric luminosity was well in excess of the Eddington luminosity for a one solar mass object.

  3. A Simple Quantum Integro-Differential Solver (SQuIDS)

    E-print Network

    Carlos Alberto Arguelles Delgado; Jordi Salvado; Christopher N. Weaver

    2014-12-11

    Simple Quantum Integro-Differential Solver (SQuIDS) is a C++ code designed to solve semi-analytically the evolution of a set of density matrices and scalar functions. This is done efficiently by expressing all operators in an SU(N) basis. SQuIDS provides a base class from which users can derive new classes to include new non-trivial terms from the right hand sides of density matrix equations. The code was designed in the context of solving neutrino oscillation problems, but can be applied to any problem that involves solving the quantum evolution of a collection of particles with Hilbert space of dimension up to six.

  4. Spins on Metals: Noise in SQUIDs and Spin Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare

    2010-03-01

    Recent experiments at Stanford and Wisconsin have found evidence for magnetic defects on the surface of elemental metals like aluminum, niobium, and gold. Fluctuations of these impurities are the source of flux noise in SQUIDs. Flux noise is a major obstacle to the realization of using superconducting qubits to construct quantum computers. To see if flux noise can be described by spin glass noise, we have used Monte Carlo simulations of a 3D Ising spin glass to produce noise. We find that the noise is a maximum at the critical temperature. We compare our results to experimental measurements of the susceptibility, as well as the flux and inductance noise measured in SQUIDs.

  5. Isolation and characterization of collagen from squid ( Ommastrephes bartrami) skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Mingyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue

    2009-06-01

    Collagen of squid ( Ommastrephes bartrami) skin was examined in the present study. Histology showed that collagen fiber in the skin was partially cross-linked with muscle fiber. Acid-solubilized collagen (ASC) and pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) were extracted from the skin and characterized. The results of amino acid composition and electrophoretic patterns revealed that ASC and PSC were both type I collagen, containing ?1 and ?2 chains. FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) investigations confirmed the existence of helical arrangements in PSC of squid skin. The denaturation temperature (Td) and shrinkage temperature (Ts) of PSC were 29.4C and 52.8C, respectively.

  6. Squid detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John; McDermott, Robert; Pines, Alexander; Trabesinger, Andreas Heinz

    2006-05-30

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

  7. SQUID detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John; McDermott, Robert; Pines, Alexander; Trabesinger, Andreas Heinz

    2006-10-03

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

  8. Squid detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA); Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); McDermott, Robert F. (Monona, WI); Trabesinger, Andreas H. (London, GB)

    2008-12-16

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

  9. Squid detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA); McDermott, Robert (Louisville, CO); Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Trabesinger, Andreas Heinz (CH-8006 Zurich, CH)

    2007-05-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

  10. Post-spawning egg care by a squid.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Brad A; Robison, Bruce H; Haddock, Steven H D

    2005-12-15

    Gonatus onyx is one of the most abundant cephalopods in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and is an important prey species for a variety of vertebrate predators, but a full understanding of its life history has been hampered because spawning occurs at great depths, where observation is difficult. Here we describe post-spawning egg care, or brooding, in this deep-sea squid. Our finding is unexpected because this behaviour differs from the reproductive habits of all other known squid species. PMID:16355206

  11. SQUID detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John; McDermott, Robert; Pines, Alexander; Trabesinger, Andreas Heinz

    2005-04-26

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned de superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

  12. SQUID-based Resonant Detection of Axion Dark Matter

    E-print Network

    Popov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    A new method for searching for Dark Matter axions is proposed. It is shown that a two-contact SQUID can detect oscillating magnetic perturbations induced by the axions in a strong inhomogeneous magnetic field. A resonant signal is a steplike response in the SQUID current-voltage characteristic at a voltage corresponding to the axion mass with a height depending on the axion energy density near the Earth. The proposed experimental technique appears to be sensitive to the axions with masses $m_a\\lesssim 10^{-4}$ eV, which is well-motivated by current researches both in cosmology and in particle physics.

  13. Polarization rotation by an rf-SQUID metasurface

    E-print Network

    Caputo, J -G; Maimistov, A I

    2015-01-01

    We study the transmission and reflection of a plane electromagnetic wave through a two dimensional array of rf-SQUIDs. The basic equations describing the amplitudes of the magnetic field and current in the split-ring resonators are developed. These yield in the linear approximation the reflection and transmission coefficients. The polarization of the reflected wave is independent of the frequency of the incident wave and of its polarization; it is defined only by the orientation of the split-ring. The reflection and transmission coefficients have a strong resonance that is determined by the parameters of the rf-SQUID; its strength depends essentially on the incident angle.

  14. Polarization rotation by an rf-SQUID metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, J.-G.; Gabitov, I.; Maimistov, A. I.

    2015-03-01

    We study the transmission and reflection of a plane electromagnetic wave through a two-dimensional array of rf-SQUIDs. The basic equations describing the amplitudes of the magnetic field and current in the split-ring resonators are developed. These yield in the linear approximation the reflection and transmission coefficients. The polarization of the reflected wave is independent of the frequency of the incident wave and of its polarization; it is defined only by the orientation of the split ring. The reflection and transmission coefficients have a strong resonance that is determined by the parameters of the rf-SQUID; its strength depends essentially on the incident angle.

  15. SQUID-based Resonant Detection of Axion Dark Matter

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Popov

    2014-10-24

    A new method for searching for Dark Matter axions is proposed. It is shown that a two-contact SQUID can detect oscillating magnetic perturbations induced by the axions in a strong inhomogeneous magnetic field. A resonant signal is a steplike response in the SQUID current-voltage characteristic at a voltage corresponding to the axion mass with a height depending on the axion energy density near the Earth. The proposed experimental technique appears to be sensitive to the axions with masses $m_a\\lesssim 10^{-4}$ eV, which is well-motivated by current researches both in cosmology and in particle physics.

  16. SQUID Galvanometer for Measurements of the Quantized Hall Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Yasushi; Endo, Tadashi; Koyanagi, Masao

    1987-07-01

    A SQUID galvanometer composed of an rf SQUID magnetometer and a superconducting flux transformer has been developed in order to improve the measurement resolution of the quantized Hall resistance. The equivalent input noise current of the galvanometer obtained is 4.6 10-13A/\\sqrt{Hz}. The measurement uncertainty of the quantized Hall resistance has been reduced to a few parts in 108 or less by the use of the galvanometer and a Josephson potentiometer. The resolution limit of the measurement is the thermal noise of resistors in the circuit.

  17. Scintillation yield and time dependence from electronic and nuclear recoils in liquid neon

    E-print Network

    W. H. Lippincott; K. J. Coakley; D. Gastler; E. Kearns; D. N. McKinsey; J. A. Nikkel

    2012-08-13

    We have performed measurements of scintillation light in liquid neon, observing a signal yield in our detector as high as (3.5 $\\pm$ 0.4) photoelectrons/keV. We measure pulse shape discrimination efficiency between electronic and nuclear recoils in liquid neon from 50 and 300 keV nuclear recoil energy. We also measure the \\leff\\, parameter in liquid neon between 30 and 370 keV nuclear recoil energy, observing an average \\leff$=0.24$ above 50 keV. We observe a dependence of the scintillation time distribution and signal yield on the pressure and temperature of the liquid neon.

  18. On the mechanism of populating 3p levels of neon under pumping by a hard ioniser

    SciTech Connect

    Khasenov, M U [Fotonika LLC, ul. Utegen batyra 112, 050062 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2011-03-31

    The effect of quenching additives on the luminescence properties of helium - neon mixtures under pumping by {alpha} particles emitted from {sup 210}Po atoms is considered. It is concluded that, under excitation by a heavy charged particle, the population of the 3p'[1/2]{sub 0} level of neon is not related to the dissociative recombination of molecular ions. It is suggested that the most likely channels for populating the 3p level are the excitation transfer from metastable helium atoms to neon atoms and direct excitation of neon by nuclear particles and secondary electrons. (lasers and active media)

  19. Isotopic effects in the neon fixed point: uncertainty of the calibration data correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steur, Peter P. M.; Pavese, Franco; Fellmuth, Bernd; Hermier, Yves; Hill, Kenneth D.; Seog Kim, Jin; Lipinski, Leszek; Nagao, Keisuke; Nakano, Tohru; Peruzzi, Andrea; Sparasci, Fernando; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, Anna; Tamura, Osamu; Tew, Weston L.; Valkiers, Staf; van Geel, Jan

    2015-02-01

    The neon triple point is one of the defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). Although recognizing that natural neon is a mixture of isotopes, the ITS-90 definition only states that the neon should be of natural isotopic composition, without any further requirements. A preliminary study in 2005 indicated that most of the observed variability in the realized neon triple point temperatures within a range of about 0.5?mK can be attributed to the variability in isotopic composition among different samples of natural neon. Based on the results of an International Project (EUROMET Project No. 770), the Consultative Committee for Thermometry decided to improve the realization of the neon fixed point by assigning the ITS-90 temperature value 24.5561?K to neon with the isotopic composition recommended by IUPAC, accompanied by a quadratic equation to take the deviations from the reference composition into account. In this paper, the uncertainties of the equation are discussed and an uncertainty budget is presented. The resulting standard uncertainty due to the isotopic effect (k = 1) after correction of the calibration data is reduced to (4 to 40)??K when using neon of natural isotopic composition or to 30??K when using 20Ne. For comparison, an uncertainty component of 0.15?mK should be included in the uncertainty budget for the neon triple point if the isotopic composition is unknown, i.e. whenever the correction cannot be applied.

  20. Analysis of a dc SQUID readout scheme with voltage feedback circuit and low-noise preamplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jia; Zhang, Yi; Schmelz, Matthias; Mck, Michael; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Braginski, Alex I.; Lee, Yong-Ho; Stolz, Ronny; Kong, Xiangyan; Xie, Xiaoming; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Offenhusser, Andreas; Jiang, Mianheng

    2014-08-01

    We analyzed the dc SQUID with voltage feedback circuit (VFC) and a low-noise room-temperature preamplifier to evaluate the feasibility of a low-noise SQUID direct-coupled readout scheme (DRS), possibly eliminating the need for a two-stage scheme employing a SQUID preamplifier. The passive VFC, connected in parallel to the SQUID, consists of a resistor Rs in series with an inductor L s. This inductor is coupled to the SQUID by a mutual inductance Ms. The purpose of the VFC is to increase the SQUIDs flux-to-voltage transfer coefficient ?V/??, thus reducing the preamplifier noise contribution ??preamp. However, at the same time, VFC introduces the thermal noise of Rs, ??R, which may not be negligible. Generally, the noise of the readout scheme, ??readout, may thus include both ??preamp and ??R, i.e., ??readout2 = ??preamp2 + ??R2. To characterize the SQUID operation with VFC we introduced two dimensionless parameters, r = Rs/Rd and ? = (M s/Mdyn) - (Rs/R d), where Rd and Mdyn = 1/(?i/??) are dynamic properties of the SQUID itself. For assumed intrinsic SQUID parameters, we then numerically analyzed the dependence of ??readout noise components on r and ? to determine their suitable ranges and the minimum of ??readout. To verify our analysis, we experimentally characterized, in liquid helium, three niobium SQUIDs with VFC, having suitably chosen r and ?. The measured SQUID system flux noise was on the order of 1 ??0/?Hz, comparable to the intrinsic noise of the SQUID itself. The deduced equivalent voltage noise was comparable to that of a SQUID preamplifier in the two-stage readout. Simple single-stage ultra-low-noise SQUID DRS readout was thus demonstrated.

  1. Deactivation of 3s levels of the neon atom by collisions with neon, argon, krypton, and xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Zayarnyi, D.A.; Kholin, I.V.; Chugunov, A.Yu. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    The absorption probing method was used in an investigation of the collisional deactivation of the 3s({sup 1}P{sub 1}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}, {sup 3}P{sub 1}, and {sup 3}P{sub 2}) states of the Ne atom in pure Ne and in its mixtures with Ar, Kr, and Xe. The rate constants of the formation of Ne{sub 2}{sup *} excimers in collisions of Ne{sup *}(3s) with two neon atoms, and the total Penning and associative ionisation rate constants of argon, krypton, and xenon were determined. An estimate was obtained of the upper limit of the rate constant of the intramultiplet relaxation of the 3s states in collisions with neon. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. A simple three-channel dc SQUID system using time domain multiplexing M. Mck and M. Korn

    E-print Network

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    A simple three-channel dc SQUID system using time domain multiplexing M. Mck and M. Korn Justus) Conventional multichannel superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) systems require a SQUID read-out circuit for each channel, as well as many wires connecting each individual SQUID and feedback coil

  3. A SIMPLE ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION SQUID RESISTANCE BRIDGE B.R. Barnard and A.D. Caplin

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A SIMPLE ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION SQUID RESISTANCE BRIDGE B.R. Barnard and A.D. Caplin Physics performance improves on that of the conventional SQUID potentiometric circuit by up to two orders of magnitude circuit for the measurement of small resistances with a SQUID is shown in figure la : the SQUID

  4. Applications of Josephson junction SQUIDS and arrays. Quarterly report no. 1, 8 September-25 December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    This is a new contract for a projected multi-year investigation of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) arrays and their application to microwave technology. The focus of this contract is the investigation and demonstration of a SQUID voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The array is then projected to increase the available power and operating impedance. The approach adopted will utilize monolithic superconducting integrated circuits which will be designed, fabricated, and tested at TRW. The project has three tasks: (1) Analysis of dc SQUID Arrays; (2) Design of dc SQUID Generator; and (3) SQUID VCO Fabrication and Measurement which are being carried out.

  5. Hysteresis and intermittency in a nano-bridge based suspended DC-SQUID

    E-print Network

    Eran Segev; Oren Suchoi; Oleg Shtempluck; Fei Xue; Eyal Buks

    2010-10-21

    We study voltage response of nano-bridge based DC-SQUID fabricated on a Si\\_{3}N\\_{4} membrane. Such a configuration may help in reducing 1/f noise, which originates from substrate fluctuating defects. We find that the poor thermal coupling between the DC-SQUID and the substrate leads to strong hysteretic response of the SQUID, even though it is biased by an alternating current. In addition, when the DC-SQUID is biased near a threshold of spontaneous oscillations, the measured voltage has an intermittent pattern, which depends on the applied magnetic flux through the SQUID.

  6. TerraFly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Associated with the School of Computer Science at Florida International University, the High Performance Database Research Center (HPDRC) released TerraFly in November 2001, a Web-based application that allows users to view Geographic Information Systems (GIS) images. In agreement with TerraFly, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) provides the project with many of its satellite images in exchange for a public service: free Web-based access to its application. Through a rather sophisticated Java applet, users have a bird's eye view of the images, much like other Internet services have provided in the past, such as TerraServer (last reviewed in the June 28, 1998 Scout Report). TerraFly, though, improves the still picture delivery of these services by enabling users to view the images continuously and seamlessly, giving the user a feeling of "flying over" the photographed land areas. Different resolutions are available, and the interface is extremely slick though somewhat complicated initially. Users of low bandwidth or active memory should be wary; the applet demands a lot from your computer. Also, even though access to the Web-based application is free through the USGS agreement, users should be aware that the TerraFly Project seems to have mostly commercial motivations. Note: This reviewer had difficulty using Terrafly with Mac Netscape 4.7; however, Mac Internet Explorer functioned properly. This site is also reviewed in the April 5, 2002 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.

  7. Technical and commerical challenges in high Tc SQUIDs and their industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, D.F.

    1995-04-01

    A SQUID is the most sensitive device for measuring changes in magnetic flux. Since its discovery in the sixties, scientists have made consistent efforts to apply SQUID`s to various applications. Instruments that are the most sensitive in their respective categories have been built, such as SQUID DC susceptometer that is now manufactured by Quantum Design, pico-voltmeter which could measure 10(exp {minus}14) volts, and gravitational wave detectors. One of the most successful applications of SQUID`s is in magnetoencephalography, a non-invasive technique for investigating neuronal activity in the living human brain. This technique employs a multi-channel SQUID magnetometer that maps the weak magnetic field generated by small current when information is processed in brain, and its performance is marvelous.

  8. Development of nano and micro SQUIDs based on Al tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Eiichiro; Sakuma, Daisuke; Shinozaki, Tomoya; Tsuchiya, Shogo; Nago, Yusuke; Osato, Hirotaka; Tsuya, Daiju; Kashiwaya, Hiromi; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Nomura, Shintaro; Takayanagi, Hideaki; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2014-12-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with nano (micro)-meter dimensions are called nano (micro)-SQUIDs. The high sensitivity for flux and position of nano (micro)-SQUIDs can be applied to detect local magnetic fields induced by vortices and the magnetization of mesoscopic superconductors. Nano-SQUIDs based on carbon-nanotube junctions and niobium weak junctions are well known. However, such nano-SQUIDs are not suitable for large-scale integrated circuits and mass production. Therefore, we employ a combination of lithography using the Niemeyer-Dolan technique and the inductively coupled plasma reactive-ion etching technique to fabricate nano-SQUIDs. Here, we report the fabrication of nano (micro)-SQUIDs based on superconducting aluminum tunnel junctions and their application for vortex formation into mesoscopic chiral superconducting Sr2RuO4[1-3].

  9. Purification and characterization of squid brain myosin.

    PubMed

    See, Y P; Metuzals, J

    1976-12-10

    Myosin was extracted from frozen squid brain and purified by a modification of the procedure of Pollard et al. (Pollard, T.D., Thomas, S.M., and Niederman, R. (1974) Anal. Biochem. 60, 258-266). Myosin was eluted from Bio-Gel A-15m column as a single peak of (K+-EDTA)-activated ATPase ((K+-EDTA)-ATPase) activity with an average partition coefficient (Kav) of 0.22. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified myosin showed a predominant band with similar electrophoretic mobility as the heavy chain of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin, and two less intense bands near the bottom of the gel. No actin band was seen. The properties of the (K+-EDTA)-ATPase activity were: (a) the time course of the reaction was biphasic at 25 degrees but linear at 32 degrees; (b) the optimum rate of reaction was obtained between 0.3 and 0.8 M KCl; (c) the pH optimum was between 8.0 and 9.0; (d) the reaction was specific for ATP with an apparent Km of 0.19 mM. ATPase activity in 0.06 M KCl and 5 mM MgCl2 was increased about 1.5 times by a 10-fold excess of rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin and about 5 times by a 40-fold excess. The actin activation was inhibited slightly by the addition of 0.2 mM CaCl2 and completely by the addition of 10 mM CaCl2. Myosin formed arrowhead patterns with rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin as observed by electron microscopy of negatively stained samples. It also aggregated in bipolar filaments which attached to decorated actin filaments at different angles, as well as formed cross-connections and ladder-like patterns between actin filaments. These two forms of interactions between myosin and actin were abolished by treatment with MgATP. PMID:137240

  10. SQUID amplifiers for infrared detectors and other applications

    SciTech Connect

    Osterman, D.

    1990-12-14

    The advantages of superconducting processing circuitry for focal plane arrays include low power consumption and the possibility of integrating processing circuitry and detectors on the same substrate. The latter configuration allows for reduction in the number of leads to the readout system and therefore removes a significant bottle neck to processing the massive quantities of data coming from large IR FPAs. All signal processing steps may be executed with superconducting circuit elements. Amplification in superconducting circuitry is performed with the SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) amplifier. The present phase I SBIR is being used to investigate a scheme for multiplexing many inputs into one SQUID amplifier. This will reduce the number of SQUID amplifiers needed which is a significant improvement because typical high-gain, multiturn-input SQUIDs are the largest element of superconductivity circuitry. The anticipated payoff of this research is in shrinking the size needed for superconducting circuitry that will be integrated onto IR FPA's. In addition, this method should add very little or no noise to the intrinsic detector noise, thus avoiding any degradation in sensitivity when individual detectors are integrated into the array.

  11. Anaerobic Glycolysis in Parts of the Giant Axon of Squid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. G. Hoskin

    1966-01-01

    THE giant axon of the squid, Loligo pealii, after careful dissection and removal of auxiliary fibres, can be separated into mitochondrion-poor axoplasm and the relatively mitochondrion-rich envelope1 (axonal membrane plus Schwann cell plus associated cell-wall material) by the simple mechanical operation of extruding the axoplasm by rolling2,3.

  12. Comments about the relationship between temperature and giant squid catches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Morales-Bojrquez

    2002-01-01

    The fishery of the giant squid (Dosidicus gigas D'Orbigny, 1835) is an unstable resource that has shown wide variations in its abundance and availability in the last 20 years, which were tried to be explained by a hypothesis that related the effects of El Nio and the sea temperature on the fishery. Recently, with data obtained in research surveys, the

  13. Vampire squid: detritivores in the oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Hoving, Hendrik J. T.; Robison, Bruce H.

    2012-01-01

    Vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) are considered phylogenetic relics with cephalopod features of both octopods and squids. They lack feeding tentacles, but in addition to their eight arms, they have two retractile filaments, the exact functions of which have puzzled scientists for years. We present the results of investigations on the feeding ecology and behaviour of Vampyroteuthis, which include extensive in situ, deep-sea video recordings from MBARI's remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), laboratory feeding experiments, diet studies and morphological examinations of the retractile filaments, the arm suckers and cirri. Vampire squid were found to feed on detrital matter of various sizes, from small particles to larger marine aggregates. Ingested items included the remains of gelatinous zooplankton, discarded larvacean houses, crustacean remains, diatoms and faecal pellets. Both ROV observations and laboratory experiments led to the conclusion that vampire squid use their retractile filaments for the capture of food, supporting the hypothesis that the filaments are homologous to cephalopod arms. Vampyroteuthis' feeding behaviour is unlike any other cephalopod, and reveals a unique adaptation that allows these animals to spend most of their life at depths where oxygen concentrations are very low, but where predators are few and typical cephalopod food is scarce. PMID:23015627

  14. A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Warrant, Eric J; Johnsen, Snke; Hanlon, Roger; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-04-24

    Giant and colossal deep-sea squid (Architeuthis and Mesonychoteuthis) have the largest eyes in the animal kingdom [1, 2], but there is no explanation for why they would need eyes that are nearly three times the diameter of those of any other extant animal. Here we develop a theory for visual detection in pelagic habitats, which predicts that such giant eyes are unlikely to evolve for detecting mates or prey at long distance but are instead uniquely suited for detecting very large predators, such as sperm whales. We also provide photographic documentation of an eyeball of about 27 cm with a 9 cm pupil in a giant squid, and we predict that, below 600 m depth, it would allow detection of sperm whales at distances exceeding 120 m. With this long range of vision, giant squid get an early warning of approaching sperm whales. Because the sonar range of sperm whales exceeds 120 m [3-5], we hypothesize that a well-prepared and powerful evasive response to hunting sperm whales may have driven the evolution of huge dimensions in both eyes and bodies of giant and colossal squid. Our theory also provides insights into the vision of Mesozoic ichthyosaurs with unusually large eyes. PMID:22425154

  15. The Form and Dimensions of the Giant Synapse of Squids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Martin; R. Miledi

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the distal giant synapse, and of proximal synapses, in the stellate ganglion of the squid, Loligo vulgaris. For this purpose we injected iontophoretically dyes or cobalt ions into the pre- or postsynaptic axon. The intra-axonal movement of visible dyes was measured. Both presynaptic fibres, the main second order giant axon and the largest accessory axon,

  16. Discrimination of multiple sources using a SQUID vector magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Burghoff, M; Schnabel, A; Drung, D; Thiel, F; Knappe-Grneberg, S; Hartwig, S; Kosch, O; Trahms, L; Koch, H

    2004-01-01

    For many biomagnetic applications the discrimination between simultaneously active sources is required. To evaluate the performance of a given SQUID system in this respect, the angle between the signal vectors of different sources is used. If the angle reaches large values, discrimination between the multiple sources is possible. We tested this approach with the first module of a new vector magnetometer system consisting of 19 identical modules. Two examples of measurements illustrate the differentiation of multiple sources, i.e. the fetal and the mother's heart signal, and alpha rhythm and heart signal in MEG recordings. This first module of a vector magnetometer system containing 16 SQUIDs is operated at PTB in the new Berlin Magnetically Shielded Room (BMSR 2) The spatial configuration of the 16 integrated SQUID magnetometers of the module is such that all three vector components of the magnetic field can be calculated in three measurement planes at 1.5 cm, 5 cm, and 10.5 cm above the Dewar bottom, respectively. The SQUID magnetometer channels have a typical white noise level of less than 2.3 fT/square root of Hz1/2 at 1 kHz. PMID:16012672

  17. Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Foley; K. E. Leslie; R. A. Binks; S. H. K. Lam; J. Du; D. L. Tilbrook; E. E. Mitchell; J. C. Macfarlane; J. B. Lee; R. Turner; M. Downey; A. Maddever

    2002-01-01

    Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what

  18. Cephalopod coloration model. I. Squid chromatophores and iridophores

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    Cephalopod coloration model. I. Squid chromatophores and iridophores Richard L. Sutherland,1 in cephalopods, a class of aquatic animals. Cepha- lopods utilize neurological and physiological control underlying cephalopod coloration is expected to yield insights into the be- havioral ecology of these animals

  19. Neritic squid resources and cuttlefish resources in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Natsukari; Masatoki Tashiro

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge concerning biology of two loliginids and three sepiids which are found in the Japanese waters was reviewed including unpublished information of the authors.The swordtip squid, Photololigo edulis, is one of the most important resources for the coastal fisheries of Kyushu and the prefectures facing the southwest Japan Sea. This species is the only species of genus Photololigo found along

  20. High-Tc SQUID magnetometer system with active cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriki, S.; Oyama, H.; Hayashi, A.; Washio, T.; Fujita, M.; Hirata, Y.

    2002-05-01

    Recent developments of high-Tc SQUIDs have enabled high sensitivity magnetometers to be used in wide range of places, such as laboratory and outdoor fields. At the early stage of developing multichannel system for measurement of magnetocardiogram (MCG) in clinical application, we have fabricated a single channel high-Tc SQUID magnetometer system. The system includes a direct-coupled SQUID with slot structure, a simple magnetically shielded room (MSR), and some active compensation electronics for the purpose of reducing various environmental field noises. A novel active noise cancellation was made by using a combination of a normal conducting detection coil that was horizontally wound in the middle height of the MSR, and two compensation coils that were wound at the top and bottom of the MSR. In addition, adaptive noise cancellation was supplemented by means of adaptive digital filter that was implemented in a digital signal processor. A total noise field attenuation of 50-60 dB was attained at 0.5-100 Hz. Low noise signals from the human heart were measured with a high-Tc SQUID in the noise reduced space in the MSR.

  1. A method of background noise cancellation for SQUID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, D. F.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2003-12-01

    When superconducting quantum inference devices (SQUIDs) operate in low-cost shielding or unshielded environments, the environmental background noise should be reduced to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper we present a background noise cancellation method based on a spectral subtraction algorithm. We first measure the background noise and estimate the noise spectrum using fast Fourier transform (FFT), then we subtract the spectrum of background noise from that of the observed noisy signal and the signal can be reconstructed by inverse FFT of the subtracted spectrum. With this method, the background noise, especially stationary inferences, can be suppressed well and the signal-to-noise ratio can be increased. Using high-TC radio-frequency SQUID gradiometer and magnetometer, we have measured the magnetic field produced by a watch, which was placed 35 cm under a SQUID. After noise cancellation, the signal-to-noise ratio could be greatly increased. We also used this method to eliminate the vibration noise of a cryocooler SQUID.

  2. HfTi-nanoSQUID gradiometers with high linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechstein, S.; Ruede, F.; Drung, D.; Storm, J.-H.; Kieler, O. F.; Kohlmann, J.; Weimann, T.; Schurig, T.

    2015-02-01

    We have developed a family of HfTi nanoSQUID gradiometers for different applications. These Nb-based nanoSQUIDs contain overdamped superconductor-normal conductor-superconductor (SNS) Josephson junctions with HfTi as a normal conducting barrier. The lateral dimensions of the junctions are about 200 nm 200 nm, and the barrier thickness is nominally 30 nm. In order to enhance their practical use, the nanoSQUIDs are implemented with gradiometric SQUID and feedback loops, gradiometric transformers, and rf filters. The devices can be operated in an excitation field of up to a few mT with very low levels of nonlinearity. Due to the small loop size and the resulting low loop inductance, a white noise level down to 110 n?0/?Hz was achieved. The 1/f noise with a typical corner frequency below 1 kHz is dominated by critical current fluctuations. It can be reduced by applying bias reversal. A noise level of 600 n?0/?Hz was achieved at 1 Hz in a two-stage flux locked loop with bias reversal.

  3. Detection of Zooplankton Prey in Squid Paralarvae with Immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Venter; S. van Wyngaardt; J. A. Verschoor; M. R. Lipi?ski; H. M. Verheye

    1999-01-01

    Sustainable management of economically important squid requires monitoring of changes in their abundance, which are related inter alia, to their success in the food chain. the highest mortality is expected in the paralarval stages, which are prone to starvation. Causes of starvation may be linked to the lack of suitable prey. A multiple detection system was developed for the simultaneous

  4. Single channel recordings of K+ currents in squid axons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Conti; Erwin Neher

    1980-01-01

    Ionic currents from individual K+ channels in squid axon membrane have been recorded. At hyperpolarizing membrane voltages, unit events occur as widely spaced rectangular pulses with short interruptions. The frequency of occurrence of the units increases strongly when the membrane is depolarized.

  5. A YBCO RF-SQUID magnetometer and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luwei, Zhou; Jingwu, Qiu; Xienfeng, Zhang; Zhiming, Tank; Yongjia, Qian

    1990-01-01

    An applicable RF-superconducting quantum interference detector (SQUID) magnetometer was made using a bulk sintered yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO). The temperature range of the magnetometer is 77 to 300 K and the field range 0 to 0.1T. At 77 K, the equivalent flux noise of the SQUID is 5 x 10 to minus 4 power theta sub o/square root of Hz at the frequency range of 20 to 200 Hz. The experiments show that the SQUID noise at low-frequency end is mainly from 1/f noise. A coil test shows that the magnetic moment sensitivity delta m is 10 to the minus 6th power emu. The RF-SQUID is shielded in a YBCO cylinder with a shielding ability B sub in/B sub ex of about 10 to the minus 6th power when external dc magnetic field is about a few Oe. The magnetometer is successfully used in characterizing superconducting thin films.

  6. Kendall Hunt Dissection of a Squid: Part 2

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this 9-minute video is to illustrate notable anatomical structures of the market squid (Loligo opalescens) to prepare teachers to lead a dissection of this species; however, this video is not meant to be viewed by students. Presented as a workshop at the NMEA Annual Conference, July 2010.

  7. High-Resolution Displacement Sensor Using a SQUID Array Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin; Barmatz, M.; Paik, Ho Jung

    2004-01-01

    Improvement in the measurement of displacement has profound implications for both exploration technologies and fundamental physics. For planetary exploration, the new SQUID-based capacitive displacement sensor will enable a more sensitive gravity gradiometer for mapping the interior of planets and moons. A new concept of a superfluid clock to be reported by Penanen and Chui at this workshop is also based on a high-resolution displacement sensor. Examples of high-impact physics projects that can benefit from a better displacement sensor are: detection of gravitational waves, test of the equivalence principle, search for the postulated "axion" particle, and test of the inverse square law of gravity. We describe the concept of a new displacement sensor that makes use of a recent development in the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) technology. The SQUID array amplifier, invented by Welty and Martinis (IEEE Trans. Appl. Superconductivity 3, 2605, 1993), has about the same noise as a conventional SQUID; however, it can work at a much higher frequency of up to 5 MHz. We explain how the higher bandwidth can be translated into higher resolution using a bridge-balancing scheme that can simultaneously balance out both the carrier signal at the bridge output and the electrostatic force acting on the test mass.

  8. Vampire squid: detritivores in the oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Hoving, Hendrik J T; Robison, Bruce H

    2012-11-22

    Vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) are considered phylogenetic relics with cephalopod features of both octopods and squids. They lack feeding tentacles, but in addition to their eight arms, they have two retractile filaments, the exact functions of which have puzzled scientists for years. We present the results of investigations on the feeding ecology and behaviour of Vampyroteuthis, which include extensive in situ, deep-sea video recordings from MBARI's remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), laboratory feeding experiments, diet studies and morphological examinations of the retractile filaments, the arm suckers and cirri. Vampire squid were found to feed on detrital matter of various sizes, from small particles to larger marine aggregates. Ingested items included the remains of gelatinous zooplankton, discarded larvacean houses, crustacean remains, diatoms and faecal pellets. Both ROV observations and laboratory experiments led to the conclusion that vampire squid use their retractile filaments for the capture of food, supporting the hypothesis that the filaments are homologous to cephalopod arms. Vampyroteuthis' feeding behaviour is unlike any other cephalopod, and reveals a unique adaptation that allows these animals to spend most of their life at depths where oxygen concentrations are very low, but where predators are few and typical cephalopod food is scarce. PMID:23015627

  9. Efficiency of the SQUID ratchet driven by external current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiechowicz, J.; ?uczka, J.

    2015-02-01

    We study theoretically the efficiency of an asymmetric superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) which is constructed as a loop with three capacitively and resistively shunted Josephson junctions. Two junctions are placed in series in one arm and the remaining one is located in the other arm. The SQUID is threaded by an external magnetic flux and driven by an external current of both constant (dc) and time periodic (ac) components. This system acts as a nonequilibrium ratchet for the dc voltage across the SQUID with the external current as a source of energy. We analyze the power delivered by the external current and find that it strongly depends on thermal noise and the external magnetic flux. We explore a space of the system parameters to reveal a set for which the SQUID efficiency is globally maximal. We detect the intriguing feature of the thermal noise enhanced efficiency and show how the efficiency of the device can be tuned by tailoring the external magnetic flux.

  10. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  11. Flies and the mouth.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Yazan; Scully, Crispian; Aguida, Miranda; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2014-05-01

    Oral infections caused by flies are rarely encountered in clinical practice, and consequently, there is a paucity of information in the medical and dental literature about these conditions. In the present article, we present a concise review on oral myiasis or fly-blown disease. A variety of fly species can infest the oral tissues and produce an exotic clinical picture. Oral myiasis is mainly encountered in the tropics and subtropics, but can also be encountered in the western part of the world due to the increase of globalization, immigration, and global warming. Commonly-reported symptoms of oral myiasis include pain, swelling, itchy sensation, and feeling of something moving in the mouth. The surgical debridement of infected tissue with the removal of maggots is the treatment of choice in most cases of oral myiasis. PMID:24574273

  12. Relationship between tissue structural collapse and disappearance of flesh transparency during postmortem changes in squid mantles.

    PubMed

    Kugino, Mutsuko; Kugino, Kenji; Tamura, Tomoko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between squid flesh transparency and muscle tissue microstructure. Squid mantle muscle was stored at 4 degrees C after being transported for 2 h by 4 different transportation methods used commonly in Japan (Group 1: live squid packed in ice-cold seawater; Group 2: live squid packed at 4 degrees C; Group 3: squid killed immediately after harvest and packed at 4 degrees C; Group 4: live squid packed in a fish tank containing seawater). Parameters of muscle tissue transparency were measured by an image analysis of digital images of squid muscle tissue. The mantle muscle tissue was observed under a transmission electron microscope to determine the postmortem structural changes at the cellular level. The ATP content of muscle tissue and rupture energy of squid flesh were also measured. As a result, the transparency of squid flesh and the ATP content of the muscles showed the same pattern of change in degree as time passed. The values of these parameters were highest in the group of squid killed immediately followed in order by those transported live, the refrigerated squid, and squid stored in ice-cold seawater. The mantle muscle tissue started to lose its transparency when the ATP in the muscle tissue started to decline. Disintegration of squid muscle tissue structure at the cellular level during storage under refrigeration for 24 h (4 degrees C) was observed in all methods of transportation. This suggested that destruction of the squid muscle tissue structure by autolysis is remarkably fast. The muscle tissue structure disintegrates due to decomposition of the muscle proteins, and muscle transparency is lost because the entire muscle develops a mixed coarse-minute structure. PMID:20492111

  13. Towards a coronal unification with the SunTowards a coronal unification with the Sun Neon and oxygen in low activity starsNeon and oxygen in low activity stars

    E-print Network

    Robrade, Jan

    Towards a coronal unification with the SunTowards a coronal unification with the Sun Neon and oxygen in low activity starsNeon and oxygen in low activity stars The solar abundance / modeling problem & helioseismology neon not directly measured (no photospheric lines) use suitable reference element (O

  14. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Checkups: What to Expect Flying and Your Child's Ears KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Your Kid's Eyes, Ears, ... Tips for Easing Ear Pain Flying's Effects on Ears Many of us have felt that weird ear- ...

  15. Interactive Fly: Maternally transcribed genes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Thomas B Brody (NIH Laboratory of Neurochemistry)

    2006-11-13

    The maternally transcribed genes section of the award-winning and comprehensive site: Interactive fly. It thoroughly discusses genes, tissues, biochemical paths, and developmental processes in the fruit fly, Drosophila.

  16. Hessian Fly in Texas Wheat

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon; Sansone, Chris; Knutson, Allen E.

    2005-07-01

    Gaylon Morgan, State Extension Small Grains Specialist Chris Sansone, Extension Entomologist Allen Knutson, Extension Entomologist Texas Cooperative Extension The Texas A&M University System H essian Fly In Texas Wheat E-350 07/05 The Hessian fly...

  17. Electronic Spectroscopy of a C7H4 in a Neon Matrix: Methyltriacetylene Cation

    E-print Network

    Maier, John Paul

    mass- selection with matrix isolation spectroscopy.[14] A particular m/z ion is co-depositedwith neon techniques: matrix isolation and mass-selection as described elsewhere.[14] Several cations were producedElectronic Spectroscopy of a C7H4 1 Isomer in a Neon Matrix: Methyltriacetylene Cation Arghya

  18. Electronic absorption spectra of linear and cyclic Cn in a neon matrix

    E-print Network

    Maier, John Paul

    . EXPERIMENT The experimental approach combines mass selection with matrix isolation spectroscopy.33 BareElectronic absorption spectra of linear and cyclic Cn + n=7­9 in a neon matrix Jan Fulara­31 Recently the electronic absorption spectra of linear and cyclic C6 + in a 6 K neon matrix have been

  19. Using NEON to Measure Adaptation of Vegetation to Changes in Environmental Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P. H.; Kao, R.; Gibson, C.

    2009-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform for documenting and analyzing the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON features sensor networks and experiments linked by cyberinfrastructure to record and archive ecological data for at least 30 years. NEON partitions the United States into 20 ecoclimatic domains. Each domain hosts one fully instrumented core site in a wildland area and two re-locatable sites, which aims to capture ecologically significant gradients (e.g. landuse). Using standardized protocols and an open data policy, NEON data will be gathered from the level of the gene and organism to populations and communities, with extrapolations to the continental scale. In conjunction with environmental data, NEON will conduct field observations and analyses of biological specimens to track biodiversity, population dynamics, productivity, phenology, infectious disease, biogeochemistry and ecohydrology. Here we present a few examples of the type of research NEON will enable using this data. The NEON network will measure and scale many environmental factors that affect vegetation, e.g. temperature, precipitation, and nutrient availability. Direct monitoring of vegetation will enable the study of acclimatory and adaptive changes in vegetation properties over different time scales. Such data will improve the representation of vegetation responses to environmental change in models. The vision behind NEON aims to advance our ability to quantitatively predict ecological change.

  20. The solubility of neon, nitrogen and argon in distilled water and seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta C. Hamme; Steven R. Emerson

    2004-01-01

    Large discrepancies in published neon and nitrogen solubility data limit the interpretation of oceanic measurements of these gases. We present new solubility measurements for neon, nitrogen and argon in distilled water and seawater, over a temperature range of 130?C. Water was equilibrated with air at measured temperatures, salinities and pressures. Dissolved Ne concentrations were then determined by isotope dilution using

  1. Helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon in gas emanations from Yellowstone and Lassen volcanic National Parks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Mazor; G. J. Wasserburg

    1965-01-01

    The abundance of helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon were measured in gas emanations from thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming and Lassen National Park, California. The determinations were made using an isotope dilution procedure. The isotopic composition of argon and the relative abundances of argon, neon, krypton and xenon indicate that these gases originated from the atmosphere through

  2. Applications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles in the ocean

    E-print Network

    Hamme, Roberta C.

    Applications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles;#12;University of Washington Abstract Applications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles in the ocean by Roberta Claire Hamme Chair of Supervisory Committee: Professor Steven R

  3. Mass transfer of helium, neon, argon, and xenon through a steady-state upper mantle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Porcelli; G. J. Wasserburg

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the steady-state upper mantle model for helium, neon, argon, and xenon following the mass transfer approach presented by Kellogg and Wasserburg (1990) for helium and Porcelli and Wasserburg (1995a) for xenon. The model explains the available observational data of mantle helium, neon, argon, and xenon isotope compositions and provides specific predictions regarding the rare gas isotopic compositions

  4. PHYSICAL REVIE% B VOLUME 17, NUMBER 6 15 MARCH 1978 Two-phonon scattemig in solid neon

    E-print Network

    Glyde, Henry R.

    PHYSICAL REVIE% B VOLUME 17, NUMBER 6 15 MARCH 1978 Two-phonon scattemig in solid neon %. M neutron scattering from phonons in solid neon at 5 K, is calculated using the self-consistent phonon that the unusually shaped phonon groups they found for high-frequency phonons in neon is due to an unusually large

  5. Electronic absorption spectrum of titanium dioxide in neon matrices I. Garkusha, A. Nagy, Z. Guennoun *, J.P. Maier

    E-print Network

    Maier, John Paul

    Electronic absorption spectrum of titanium dioxide in neon matrices I. Garkusha, A. Nagy, Z t Anions of titanium dioxide produced by sputtering TiO2/graphite composite rods were trapped in 6 K neon these studies, the infrared spectrum of TiO2 in neon matrices was also obtained. Two absorption bands were

  6. Neon abundances in normal late-B and mercurymanganese stars M. M. Dworetsky 1# and J. Budaj 1,2#

    E-print Network

    Dworetsky, Mike

    # 2000 RAS Neon abundances in normal late-B and mercury±manganese stars M. M. Dworetsky 1# ² and J calculations to deduce the abundances of neon from visible-region echelle spectra of selected Ne # lines Ne # lines are found in the red region of the spectra of these stars. The mean neon abundance

  7. Structural Transformations and Melting in Neon Clusters: Quantum versus Classical Mechanics Pavel A. Frantsuzov, Dario Meluzzi, and Vladimir A. Mandelshtam

    E-print Network

    Mandelshtam, Vladimir A.

    Structural Transformations and Melting in Neon Clusters: Quantum versus Classical Mechanics Pavel A nature of neon clusters has a substantial effect on their size-temperature ``phase diagrams using the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method. A particularly interesting case corre- sponds to neon

  8. New constraints on the HIMU mantle from neon and helium isotopic compositions of basalts from the CookAustral Islands

    E-print Network

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    New constraints on the HIMU mantle from neon and helium isotopic compositions of basalts from: helium neon isotopes HIMU mantle Cook­Austral Islands High 4 He/3 He ratios of 100000 to 160 000 found understand the helium isotopic signatures in HIMU basalts, we have measured helium and neon isotopic

  9. Neon: System Support for Derived Data Management Qing Zhang John McCullough Justin Ma Nabil Schear

    E-print Network

    Wang, Deli

    Neon: System Support for Derived Data Management Qing Zhang John McCullough Justin Ma Nabil Schear a virtual machine monitor sys- tem called Neon that transparently labels derived data using byte- level. Our goal with Neon is to explore the viability and utility of transparent information flow tracking

  10. JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS 23 (1967) 75-78. 0 NORTH-HOLLAND PUBLISHING CO., AMSTERDAM NEON DIFFUSION IN SILVER

    E-print Network

    Glyde, Henry R.

    JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS 23 (1967) 75-78. 0 NORTH-HOLLAND PUBLISHING CO., AMSTERDAM NEON. La diffusion du neon dens l'argent a 6th Btudie par bombardement d'une feuille d'argent par des ions Ne Bnergetiques et en observant le degagement du neon pendant des recuits isothermes. La diffusion en

  11. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 59, NUMBER 6 15 SEPTEMBER 1973 Hydrogen bonding between neon and water

    E-print Network

    Stillinger, Frank

    THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 59, NUMBER 6 15 SEPTEMBER 1973 Hydrogen bonding between neon (Received 10 May 1973) Portions of the neon-water ground-state potential hypersurface have been mapped chosen the neon-water and argon-water systems for examination in this paper. ill part, that choice stems

  12. Volume 40, number 4 OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS 15 January 1982 COLOR CENTER LASER OPTOGALVANIC SPECTROSCOPY OF LITHIUM, BARIUM, NEON

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    SPECTROSCOPY OF LITHIUM, BARIUM, NEON AND ARGON RYDBERG STATES IN HOLLOW CATHODE DISCHARGES Marianne H Received 28 August 1981 Numerous infrared transitions between Rydberg states of neon and argon have been of Rydberg transitions in lithium, barium, neon and ar- gon using a color center laser operating

  13. Deep-Sea Research I 51 (2004) 15171528 The solubility of neon, nitrogen and argon in distilled water

    E-print Network

    Emerson, Steven R.

    Deep-Sea Research I 51 (2004) 1517­1528 The solubility of neon, nitrogen and argon in distilled of these gases. We present new solubility measurements for neon, nitrogen and argon in distilled water reserved. Keywords: Gas solubility; Saturation; Neon; Nitrogen; Argon; Inert gases 1. Introduction

  14. One and two photon optogalvanic spectroscopy of argon and neon for the wavelength calibration in the near infrared

    E-print Network

    Miles, Richard

    One and two photon optogalvanic spectroscopy of argon and neon for the wavelength calibration The one photon and two photon optogalvanic spectra of argon and neon have been investigated in the near781 nm region, and there are no detailed reported data for neon optogalvanic lines in this region

  15. FLYING MONSTERS SCRIPT Voice Audio

    E-print Network

    FLYING MONSTERS SCRIPT Voice Audio Narrator There was a time on Earth, millions of years ago, when flying monsters, the stuff of legend, really did exist. Narrator They were the Pterosaurs, the first such success, did they vanish? (Title Card) ("Flying Monsters 3D with David Attenborough") Narrator Around 220

  16. Economic Impact of Stable Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dynamic model was created to estimate the economic impact of stable flies on livestock production. Based upon a nationwide average of 10 stable flies per animal for 3 months per year, the model estimates the impact of stable flies to be $543 million to the dairy industry, $1.34 billion to pasture ...

  17. A Determination of the Thermodynamic Temperature of the Triple Point of Neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, R. C.; Sakurai, H.

    1986-01-01

    A constant-volume gas thermometer has been used to measure the thermodynamic temperature, and also the second virial coefficient of helium 4, at the triple point of neon (24.5 K). This was carried out by measuring a relative isotherm at 24.5 K referenced to the temperature of the boiling point of hydrogen on the NPL75 temperature scale. The thermodynamic temperature values measured for the triple points of natural neon and neon 20 were (24.5570 +/- 0.0011) K and (24.5394 +/- 0.0011) K respectively. The result for natural neon agrees well with the corresponding temperature value of (24.5565 +/- 0.0011) K inferred from NPL75 and may be related to other laboratory realizations of the neon triple point through the recent international intercomparison of sealed triple-point cells.

  18. Toward indoor flying robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-D. Nicoud; J.-C. Zufferey

    2002-01-01

    Developing a research autonomous plane for flying in a laboratory space is a challenge that forces one to understand the specific aerodynamic, power and construction constraints. In order to obtain a very slow flight while maintaining a high maneuverability, ultralight structures and adequate components are required. In this paper we analyze the wing, propeller and motor characteristics and propose a

  19. Go Fly a Kite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopack, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an "art kite" activity. The idea is to construct and decorate a non-flying kite that they could display for an art exhibit. Through the activity, students learn to give and take suggestions from one another, improve the quality of their work and set a wonderful atmosphere of collaboration. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  20. Fly a Leaf

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1982-01-01

    In this outdoor, windy day activity, learners "fly" and race leaves along a line to discover which types of leaves catch the most wind. Which leaves are the best fliers? Why? Learners think about wind as an important environmental and physical factor, and how plants must adapt to its influence. What a fun way to take advantage of a windy day!

  1. Wisdom from the fly.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Leila E; Larschan, Erica N

    2014-11-01

    Arguably, almost all research in Drosophila can be considered basic research, yet many of the most essential and fundamental concepts of human genetics were first decoded in the fly. Although the fly genome, which is organized into only four chromosomes, is approximately one-twentieth the size of the human genome, it contains roughly the same number of genes, and up to 75% of human disease-related genes have Drosophila homologues [1]. The fly was prized for its simplicity and utility even before such compelling homology with humans was apparent. Since Thomas Hunt Morgan began his seminal experiments over a century ago (Table 1), the Drosophila system has revealed countless key mechanisms by which cells function, including the factors that maintain chromatin and the signaling pathways that control cell fate determination and organism development. More recently, the fly has emerged as a critical neurobiological tool and disease model for a range of genetic disorders. In this review, we present a brief retrospective of Drosophila as an indispensable genetic system and discuss some of the many contributions, past and present, of this facile system to human genetics. PMID:25161083

  2. Formation-flying interferometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver P. Lay; Gary H. Blackwood

    2003-01-01

    There are many advantages to space-based interferometry, but monolithic, single-spacecraft platforms set limits on the collecting area and baseline length. These constraints can be overcome by distributing the optical elements of the interferometer over a system of multiple spacecraft flying in precise formation, opening up new realms of angular resolution and sensitivity. While the principles of interferometry are the same

  3. Noble gases in diamonds - Occurrences of solarlike helium and neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, M.; Reynolds, J. H.; Roedder, E.; Epstein, S.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen diamond samples from diverse locations were analyzed for the contents of He, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and of their isotopes, using a Reynolds (1956) type glass mass spectrometer. The results disclosed a large spread in the He-3/He-4 ratios, ranging from values below atmospheric to close to the solar ratio. In particular, solarlike He-3/He-4 ratios were seen for an Australian colorless diamond composite and an Arkansas diamond, which also displayed solarlike neon isotopic ratios. Wide variation was also observed in the He-4/Ar-40 ratios, suggesting a complex history for the source regions and the diamond crystallization processes.

  4. In situ measurements of neon in the thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, W. E.; Kayser, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The open source neutral mass spectrometer on the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite has measured neon in the thermosphere. The absolute density of Ne is close to that predicted by using the ground level fraction by volume of Ne along with the assumption of diffusive equilibrium above 100 km. Data is presented for both geomagnetically quiet and disturbed circular orbits. At 290 km, a typical low latitude value of Ne is 3.0 x 10 to the 4th/cu cm. At this altitude Ne appears to be predominantly controlled by temperature except during magnetic disturbances, when offsetting forces due to wind systems may be present.

  5. The abundances of neon, sulfur, and argon in planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, S. C.; Lacy, J. H.; Townes, C. H.; Aller, L. H.; Geballe, T. R.; Baas, F.

    1981-01-01

    New infrared observations of Ne II, Ar III, and S IV are used in optical observations of other ionization states of the considered elements to evaluate the abundances of neon, argon, and sulfur in 18 planetary nebulae. Attention is also given to one or more of the infrared lines in 18 other nebulae. It is pointed out that S IV was detected in approximately 90% of the observed objects, while Ar III was found in about 80%, and Ne II in roughly one-third. It is noted that optical observations typically include only a limited region of the nebula, while the infrared measurements frequently involve integration over the entire nebular image.

  6. Expected intensities of solar neon-like ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Kastner, S. O.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the expected intensities of the stronger solar neon-like ion emission lines, some not yet observed, is carried out to compare with the observational situation. The potential usefulness of the 2p5 3s(3P2) - 2p6 forbidden line as a density diagnostic is discussed, and new electric quadrupole lines in the soft X-ray range are noted. 'Observability diagrams' are presented as a convenient overview of the known and unobserved lines. The S VII resonance lines appear to have anomalous intensities.

  7. Optimizing Sampling Efficiency for Biomass Estimation Across NEON Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, H. H.; Meier, C. L.; Spencer, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the course of 30 years, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will measure plant biomass and productivity across the U.S. to enable an understanding of terrestrial carbon cycle responses to ecosystem change drivers. Over the next several years, prior to operational sampling at a site, NEON will complete construction and characterization phases during which a limited amount of sampling will be done at each site to inform sampling designs, and guide standardization of data collection across all sites. Sampling biomass in 60+ sites distributed among 20 different eco-climatic domains poses major logistical and budgetary challenges. Traditional biomass sampling methods such as clip harvesting and direct measurements of Leaf Area Index (LAI) involve collecting and processing plant samples, and are time and labor intensive. Possible alternatives include using indirect sampling methods for estimating LAI such as digital hemispherical photography (DHP) or using a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. These LAI estimations can then be used as a proxy for biomass. The biomass estimates calculated can then inform the clip harvest sampling design during NEON operations, optimizing both sample size and number so that standardized uncertainty limits can be achieved with a minimum amount of sampling effort. In 2011, LAI and clip harvest data were collected from co-located sampling points at the Central Plains Experimental Range located in northern Colorado, a short grass steppe ecosystem that is the NEON Domain 10 core site. LAI was measured with a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. The layout of the sampling design included four, 300 meter transects, with clip harvests plots spaced every 50m, and LAI sub-transects spaced every 10m. LAI was measured at four points along 6m sub-transects running perpendicular to the 300m transect. Clip harvest plots were co-located 4m from corresponding LAI transects, and had dimensions of 0.1m by 2m. We conducted regression analyses with LAI and clip harvest data to determine whether LAI can be used as a suitable proxy for aboveground standing biomass. We also compared optimal sample sizes derived from LAI data, and clip-harvest data from two different size clip harvest areas (0.1m by 1m vs. 0.1m by 2m). Sample sizes were calculated in order to estimate the mean to within a standardized level of uncertainty that will be used to guide sampling effort across all vegetation types (i.e. estimated within 10% with 95% confidence). Finally, we employed a Semivariogram approach to determine optimal sample size and spacing.

  8. Development of Robust HTS-SQUID for Non-destructive Inspection System in Unshielded Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Kage, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hatsukade, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2014-05-01

    Cross-shaped YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) film was overlapped on directly-coupled multi-pickup-coil HTS-dc-SQUID magnetometer in flip-chip configuration as a superconducting shield, and the characterestics of the SQUID were examined in DC and AC magnetic fields. We created slots in the YBCO film and pickup-coil of HTS-SQUID magnetometer for suppression of flux trapping. In low magnetic field environment, we measured the characteristics of the SQUID without and with HTS film. The most of the parameters were same with and without the HTS films, while S1/2phi with the HTS film was a bit smaller than that of the bare SQUID. In the DC field, Ic of the HTS-SQUID covered with the HTS film did not change until a DC field over 140 ?T was applied to the SQUID, while the bare SQUID's Ic decreased with the increase of the applied DC field. In the AC fields at 10 MHz, the SQUID with the HTS film showed degradation of the parameters such as Vpp and S12phi at lower field amplitude than the bare SQUID.

  9. Evaluation of a pulse-discharge helium ionisation detector for the determination of neon concentrations by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lasa, J; Mochalski, P; Pusz, J

    2004-05-01

    A pulse-discharge helium ionisation detector, PDHID (Valco, PD-D2-I) with sample introduced to the discharge zone is shown to be applicable for reliable determinations of neon by gas chromatography. The detection level of 80 pg was obtained, but the dependence between detector response and neon mass was non-linear. However, for the discharge gas doped with 33 ppm of neon, a linear response to the neon mass up to 10(-5) g and the detection level of 0.5 ng were obtained. The method can be used for measuring neon concentrations in groundwater systems for hydrogeological purposes. PMID:15124819

  10. Primitive neon isotopes in Terceira Island (Azores archipelago) [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, Pedro; Moreira, Manuel; Mata, Joo; Allgre, Claude Jean

    2005-05-01

    We present the first neon data, as well as new helium data, on Terceira Island (Azores archipelago, Portugal). Clear 20Ne and 21Ne excesses compared to air are observed ( 20Ne/ 22Ne > 11.2) and moreover, the samples show a more primitive 21Ne/ 22Ne ratio than MORB, confirming that the Azores hotspot can be considered as sampling a "primitive", relatively undegassed, reservoir. Most 4He/ 3He isotopic ratios range between 80,000 and 63,500 ( 9 to 11.5 R/Ra), being similar to those previously reported by [1] [M. Moreira, R. Doucelance, B. Dupr, M. Kurz, C.J. Allgre, Helium and lead isotope geochemistry in the Azores archipelago, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 169 (1999) 189-205] . A more primitive 4He/ 3He ratio of 50,000 (R/Ra 15) was obtained in one sample, but we cannot completely exclude the possibility of a cosmogenic 3He contribution for this sample. Our study illustrates that the neon systematics can be more capable than helium to constrain the ultimate origin of hotspots in geodynamic settings dominated by plume-ridge interaction.

  11. Electron Scattering from Neon Via Effective Range Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedus, Kamil

    2014-12-01

    Elastic cross-sections for electron scattering on neon from 0 energy up to 16 eV are analyzed by an analytical approach to the modified effective range theory (MERT). It is shown that energy and angular variations of elastic differential, integral and momentum transfer cross-sections can be accurately parameterized by six MERT coefficients up to the energy threshold for the first Feshbach resonance. MERT parameters are determined empirically by numerical comparison with large collection of available experimental data of elastic total (integral) cross-sections. The present analysis is validated against numerous electron beams and swarm experiments. The comparison of derived MERT parameters with those found for other noble gases, helium, argon and krypton, is done. The derived scattering length (for the s-partial wave) in neon, 0.227 a 0, agrees well with recent theories; it is small but, differently from Ar and Kr, still positive. Analogue parameters for the p-wave and the d-wave are negative and positive respectively for all the four gases compared.

  12. Infrared spectra of small molecular ions trapped in solid neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacox, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    The infrared spectrum of a molecular ion provides a unique signature for that species, gives information on its structure, and is amenable to remote sensing. It also serves as a comparison standard for refining ab initio calculations. Experiments in this laboratory trap molecular ions in dilute solid solution in neon at 4.2 K in sufficient concentration for observation of their infrared spectra between 450 and 4000 cm!1. Discharge-excited neon atoms produce cations by photoionization and/or Penning ionization of the parent molecule. The resulting electrons are captured by other molecules, yielding anions which provide for overall charge neutrality of the deposit. Recent observations of ions produced from C2H4 and BF3 will be discussed. Because of their relatively large possibility of having low-lying excited electronic states, small, symmetric molecular cations are especially vulnerable to breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Some phenomena which can result from this breakdown will be discussed. Ion-molecule reaction rates are sufficiently high that in some systems absorptions of dimer cations and anions are also observed. When H2 is introduced into the system, the initially-formed ion may react with it. Among the species resulting from such ion-molecule reactions that have recently been studied are O4+, NH4+, HOCO+, and HCO2!.

  13. NEON: Transforming Environmental Data into Free, Open Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, B.

    2010-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data across the United States on the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on natural resources and biodiversity. NEON is a project of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), with many other U.S. agencies and NGOs cooperating. The Observatorys construction plans call for 60 sites distributed across 20 ecoclimatic Domains. Data will be collected from strategically selected sites within each Domain and synthesized into information products that can be used to describe changes in the nations ecosystem through space and time. Sites are arrayed across different land-use types in order to understand large-scale environmental drivers affect biodiversity, ecohydrology, biogeochemistry, and disease ecology across the US continent. NEON is an instrument that listens to the pulse of the US continental ecosystem: infrastructure deployed at these sites will collect an average of over 500 primary measurements at each site, including annual high-resolution airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral data. These primary measurements will be transformed by a state-of-the-art cyberinfrastruture into over 100 higher-order data products. All measurements, data products, algorithms used to compute the data products, and protocols used to collect the primary measurements will be freely available to the public and assessable over the internet. The information products, including selected socio-economic datasets from cooperating Federal agencies, will be served in standard formats, grid-sizes, and geographical projections. This type of information is anticipated to have a wide range of uses, including ecological forecasting, education, public engagement, socio-economic analyses, decision support for climate-change adaptation and mitigation, resource management, and environmental risk management. Open data, interoperability, an open and integrated observation infrastructure, public engagement, and a deliberate approach to making sure that research data can be repurposed for operational purposes are the cornerstones of the NEON strategy: they facilitate the repurposing of credible, reliable data and information for multiple purposes. Often, the same data is useful in an undergraduate course on correlations as it is for public discourse on the effects of increased precipitation on stream water quality. This suggests a strategy for evolving an ecosystem of institutions whose primary responsibility is contributing to an open information commons that creates and curates credible sources of data and information products with clearly documented provenance, quality protocols, uncertainty estimates, and other qualitative descriptors. This information commons is deliberately designed to be tapped by another ecosystem of institutions whose individual missions revolve around some combination of discovery (e.g. research, forecasting, innovation), learning (e.g. public engagement, informal and formal learning, education research), and solutions (e.g. science and technology policy). This talk explores how the NEON information commons is envisioned to interact with this other community of institutions, and how the cornerstone principles enable that community to better focus their creative capabilities around their respective core missions.

  14. NEON, Establishing a Standardized Network for Groundwater Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M.; Schroeter, N.; Goodman, K. J.; Roehm, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is establishing a standardized set of data collection systems comprised of in-situ sensors and observational sampling to obtain data fundamental to the analysis of environmental change at a continental scale. NEON will be collecting aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric data using Observatory-wide standardized designs and methods via a systems engineering approach. This approach ensures a wealth of high quality data, data algorithms, and models that will be freely accessible to all communities such as academic researchers, policy makers, and the general public. The project is established to provide 30 years of data which will enable prediction and forecasting of drivers and responses of ecological change at scales ranging from localized responses through regional gradients and up to the continental scale. The Observatory is a distributed system of sites spread across the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, which is subdivided into 20 statistically unique domains, based on a set of 18 ecologically important parameters. Each domain contains at least one core aquatic and terrestrial site which are located in unmanaged lands, and up to 2 additional sites selected to study domain specific questions such as nitrogen deposition gradients and responses of land use change activities on the ecosystem. Here, we present the development of NEON's groundwater observation well network design and the timing strategy for sampling groundwater chemistry. Shallow well networks, up to 100 feet in depth, will be installed at NEON aquatic sites and will allow for observation of localized ecohydrologic site conditions, by providing basic spatio-temporal near-real time data on groundwater parameters (level, temperature, conductivity) collected from in situ high-resolution instrumentation positioned in each well; and biannual sampling of geochemical and nutrient (N and P) concentrations in a subset of wells for each site. These data will be used to calculate several higher level data products such as hydrologic gradients which drive nutrient fluxes and their change over time. When coupled with other NEON data products, these data will allow for examining surface water/groundwater interactions as well as additional terrestrial and aquatic linkages, such as riparian vegetation response to changing ecohydrologic conditions (i.e. groundwater withdraw for irrigation, land use change) and natural sources (i.e. drought and changing precipitation patterns). This work will present the well network arrays designed for the different types of aquatic sites (1st/2nd order streams, larger rivers, and lakes) including variations on the well network designs for sites where physical constraints hinder a consistent design due to topographic (steep topography, wetlands) or physical constraints (such as permafrost). A generalized sampling strategy for each type of environment will also be detailed indicating the time of year, largely governed by hydrologic conditions, when sampling should take place to provide consistent groundwater chemistry data to allow for analyzing geochemical trends spatially across the network and through time.

  15. Closed-cycle refrigerator-cooled scanning SQUID microscope for room-temperature samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleet, E. F.; Chatraphorn, S.; Wellstood, F. C.; Knauss, L. A.; Green, S. M.

    2001-08-01

    We have designed, built, and operated a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope that uses a closed-cycle refrigerator to cool a YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) dc SQUID to 77 K. The SQUID is mounted in custom vacuum housing that has a thin sapphire window that maintains thermal isolation of the SQUID while allowing samples to be imaged in air at room temperature. Samples are mounted on an x-y scanning table and can be brought to within about 60 ?m of the SQUID for magnetic field imaging. The SQUID has an effective pick-up area of 1.210-9 m2 and a level of flux noise of 10.5??0/Hz1/2 in the white noise region (above 500 Hz). We describe the performance of the system and present images of a variety of samples.

  16. Wide-band tuneability, nonlinear transmission, and dynamic multistability in SQUID metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsironis, G. P.; Lazarides, N.; Margaris, I.

    2014-09-01

    Superconducting metamaterials comprising rf SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) have been recently realized and investigated with respect to their tuneability, permeability and dynamic multistability properties. These properties are a consequence of intrinsic nonlinearities due to the sensitivity of the superconducting state to external stimuli. SQUIDs, made of a superconducting ring interrupted by a Josephson junction, possess yet another source of nonlinearity, which makes them widely tuneable with an applied dc dlux. A model SQUID metamaterial, based on electric equivalent circuits, is used in the weak coupling approximation to demonstrate the dc flux tuneability, dynamic multistability, and nonlinear transmission in SQUID metamaterials comprising non-hysteretic SQUIDs. The model equations reproduce the experimentally observed tuneability patterns, and predict tuneability with the power of an applied ac magnetic magnetic field. Moreover, the results indicate the opening of nonlinear frequency bands for energy transmission through SQUID metamaterials, for sufficiently strong ac fields.

  17. RF SQUID detector for single-ion trapping experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskoff, R. M.; Lafyatis, G. P.; Boyce, K. R.; Cornell, E. A.; Flanagan, R. W., Jr.

    1988-05-01

    A novel superconducting detector sensitive enough to detect the axial motion of a single, trapped ion was designed and constructed. This detector employs a tuned, superconducting transformer matched to an RF SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) to yield an effective current sensitivity of 2.7 x 10 to the -15th A/sq rt Hz at 160 kHz. To optimize the detection system, existing small-signal equivalent circuit models were used, and, thus, these models were tested in a new regime. The paper includes details of the superconducting circuitry and of the modifications required to stabilize the commercial SQUID controls at 160 kHz. Finally, typical detected signals from trapped ions are presented.

  18. Transport of cytoskeletal elements in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, M; Schmidek, A; Galbraith, J A; Gallant, P E; Reese, T S

    1995-01-01

    In order to explore how cytoskeletal proteins are moved by axonal transport, we injected fluorescent microtubules and actin filaments as well as exogenous particulates into squid giant axons and observed their movements by confocal microscopy. The squid giant axon is large enough to allow even cytoskeletal assemblies to be injected without damaging the axon or its transport mechanisms. Negatively charged, 10- to 500-nm beads and large dextrans moved down the axon, whereas small (70 kDa) dextrans diffused in all directions and 1000-nm beads did not move. Only particles with negative charge were transported. Microtubules and actin filaments, which have net negative charges, made saltatory movements down the axon, resulting in a net rate approximating that previously shown for slow transport of cytoskeletal elements. The present observations suggest that particle size and charge determine which materials are transported down the axon. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8524791

  19. TES Detector Noise Limited Readout Using SQUID Multiplexers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Khan, S. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) with large numbers of individual detector pixels requires multiplexers for efficient readout. The use of multiplexers reduces the number of wires needed between the cryogenic electronics and the room temperature electronics and cuts the number of required cryogenic amplifiers. We are using an 8 channel SQUID multiplexer to read out one-dimensional TES arrays which are used for submillimeter astronomical observations. We present results from test measurements which show that the low noise level of the SQUID multiplexers allows accurate measurements of the TES Johnson noise, and that in operation, the readout noise is dominated by the detector noise. Multiplexers for large number of channels require a large bandwidth for the multiplexed readout signal. We discuss the resulting implications for the noise performance of these multiplexers which will be used for the readout of two dimensional TES arrays in next generation instruments.

  20. Reducing systematic errors in measurements made by a SQUID magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, L. F.; Kapts, D.; Balogh, J.

    2014-11-01

    A simple method is described which reduces those systematic errors of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer that arise from possible radial displacements of the sample in the second-order gradiometer superconducting pickup coil. By rotating the sample rod (and hence the sample) around its axis into a position where the best fit is obtained to the output voltage of the SQUID as the sample is moved through the pickup coil, the accuracy of measuring magnetic moments can be increased significantly. In the cases of an examined Co1.9Fe1.1Si Heusler alloy, pure iron and nickel samples, the accuracy could be increased over the value given in the specification of the device. The suggested method is only meaningful if the measurement uncertainty is dominated by systematic errors - radial displacement in particular - and not by instrumental or environmental noise.

  1. Effects of dietary defatted squid on cholesterol metabolism and hepatic lipogenesis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazunari Tanaka; Ikuo Ikeda; Hiroko Yoshida; Katsumi Imaizumi

    2001-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a cholesterol-free (Exp. 1) or cholesterol-supplemented (Exp. 2) diet containing 20% casein\\u000a (control group) or 15% defatted squid and 5% casein (defatted squid group), as protein, for 14 d. Serum and hepatic cholesterol\\u000a concentrations were lower in rats fed defatted squid than in those fed casein in both cholesterol-free (?20%, PPPP<0.05, respectively) diets. Hepatic triglyceride

  2. Detection of a Schroedinger's Cat State in an rf-SQUID

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan R. Friedman; Vijay Patel; W. Chen; S. K. Tolpygo; J. E. Lukens

    2000-01-01

    We present experimental evidence for a coherent superposition of macroscopically distinct flux states in an rf-SQUID. When the external flux Phi_x applied to the SQUID is near 1\\/2 of a flux quantum Phi_0, the SQUID has two nearly degenerate configurations: the zero- and one-fluxoid states, corresponding to a few microamperes of current flowing clockwise or counterclockwise, respectively. The system is

  3. Apparatus for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by squid gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    DOEpatents

    Overton, Jr., William C. (Los Alamos, NM); Steyert, Jr., William A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  4. Global bifurcation structure in periodically stimulated giant axons of squid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyuki Takahashi; Yoshiro Hanyu; Toshimitsu Musha; Ryogo Kubo; Gen Matsumoto

    1990-01-01

    The responses of a squid giant axon fell into three categories; phase-locked, quasi-periodic and chaotic. A bifurcation structure of the response patterns was obtained as a function parameters, I\\/It (the current pulse intensity) normalized by threshold current) and T (current pulse intervals). The periodic responses appeared through either tangent bifurcation or type III bifurcation, parameters of I\\/It and T. The

  5. Squid gelatin hydrolysates with antihypertensive, anticancer and antioxidant activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Alemn; E. Prez-Santn; S. Bordenave-Juchereau; I. Arnaudin; M. C. Gmez-Guilln; P. Montero

    2011-01-01

    Gelatin obtained from giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) inner and outer tunics was hydrolyzed by seven commercial proteases (Protamex, Trypsin, Neutrase, Savinase, NS37005, Esperase and Alcalase) to produce bioactive hydrolysates. The Alcalase hydrolysate was the most potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (IC50=0.34mg\\/mL) while the Esperase hydrolysate showed the highest cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, with IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.10mg\\/mL

  6. How long would it take to become a giant squid?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric P. M. Grist; George D. Jackson

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies suggest that cephalopod growth occurs rapidly and is linked to temperature throughout a short\\u000a life span. For giant squid such as Architeuthis, a paucity of size-at-age data means that growth is only inferred from isolated field specimens, based on either statoliths\\u000a or isotopic analyses of tissue. In this study we apply simple growth models to obtain

  7. Axoplasmic RNA species synthesized in the isolated squid giant axon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Rapallino; A. Cupello; A. Giuditta

    1988-01-01

    Isolated squid stellate nerves and giant fiber lobes were incubated for 8 hr in Millipore filtered sea water containing [3H]uridine. The electrophoretic patterns of radioactive RNA purified from the axoplasm of the giant axon and from the giant fiber lobe (cell bodies of the giant axon) demonstrated the presence of RNA species with mobilities corresponding to tRNA and rRNA. The

  8. The Winnowing: Establishing the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Spencer V. Nyholm

    This Nature Reviews Microbiology article examines the symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminous bacterial symbiont, Vibrio fischeri. Using image-rich illustrations, it depicts the progression of light-organ colonization as a series of steps and discusses the advent of genomic approaches used to study this model system. A subscription is required to access the full-text version of this article.

  9. Some Factors Influencing Sodium Extrusion by Internally Dialyzed Squid Axons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Mullins; F. J. BRINLEY

    1967-01-01

    Squid giant axons were internally dialyzed by a technique pre- viously described. In an axon exposed to cyanide seawater for 1 hr and dialyzed with an ATP-free medium, the Na efflux had a mean value of 1.3 pmole\\/cm~sec when (Na)~ was 88 re_M, in quantitative agreement with flux ratio calculations for a purely passive Na movement. When ATP at a

  10. Modeling and Simulation of a Microstrip-SQUID Amplifier

    E-print Network

    G. P. Berman; O. O. Chumak; D. I. Kamenev; D. Kinion; V. I. Tsifrinovich

    2011-09-23

    Using a simple lumped-circuit model, we numerically study the dependence of the voltage gain and noise on the amplifier's parameters. Linear, quasi-linear, and nonlinear regimes are studied. We have shown that the voltage gain of the amplifier cannot exceed a characteristic critical value, which decreases with the increase of the input power. We have also shown that the spectrum of the voltage gain depends significantly on the level of the Johnson noise generated by the SQUID resistors.

  11. Squid's Built-In Light to Inspire New Gadgets?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roach, John

    This National Geographic news article describes a type of nocturnal squid found in the ocean around Hawaii which mates using a built-in flashlight to hide its shadow from predatory fish on the seafloor. Its unique light organ - composed of stacks of silvery reflector plates that surround colonies of luminescent, symbiotic bacteria - may inspire a new generation of high-tech miniature gadgets. This 2-page article includes links to related articles and additional National Geographic resources.

  12. Test What You Fly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-10-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  13. Test What You Fly?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-01-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  14. Predicting helium and neon adsorption and separation on carbon nanotubes by Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Bolboli Nojini, Zabiollah; Abbas Rafati, Amir; Majid Hashemianzadeh, Seyed; Samiee, Sepideh

    2011-04-01

    The adsorption of helium and neon mixtures on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was investigated at various temperatures (subcritical and supercritical) and pressures using canonical Monte Carlo (CMC) simulation. Adsorption isotherms were obtained at different temperatures (4, 40, 77 and 130 K) and pressures ranging from 1 to 16 MPa. Separation factors and isosteric enthalpies of adsorption were also calculated. Moreover, the adsorption isotherms were obtained at constant specific temperatures (4 and 40 K) and pressures (0.2 and 1.0 MPa) as a function of the amount adsorbed. All of the adsorption isotherms for an equimolar mixture of helium and neon have a Langmuir shape, indicating that no capillary condensation occurs. Both the helium and the neon adsorption isotherms exhibit similar behavior, and slightly more of the helium and neon mixture is adsorbed on the inner surfaces of the SWCNTs than on their outer surfaces. More neon is adsorbed than helium within the specified pressure range. The data obtained show that the isosteric enthalpies for the adsorption of neon are higher than those for helium under the same conditions, which means that adsorption of neon preferentially occurs by (15, 15) SWCNTs. Furthermore, the isosteric enthalpies of adsorption of both gases decrease with increasing temperature. PMID:20559855

  15. Fly-scan ptychography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K; Chu, Yong S

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems. PMID:25766519

  16. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  17. Origami Flying Disk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cy Tymony

    2011-01-01

    In this three-part activity, learners use paper to explore Bernoulli's Principle fast-moving air has lower pressure than non-moving air. First, learners observe what happens when they hold a paper strip between their lips and blow. Then, learners conduct another test to examine how airplane wings provide lift. Finally, learners make an origami flying disc using only paper, tape, and their newfound knowledge of Bernoulli's Principle.

  18. Fly-scan ptychography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-01

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  19. Phonotaxis in flying crickets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G. Nolen; Ronald R. Hoy

    1986-01-01

    1.The effects of two-tone stimuli on the high frequency bat-avoidance steering behavior of flying crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) were studied during tethered flight. Similarly, the effects of two-tone stimuli on the ultrasound sensitive auditory interneuron, Int-1, which elicits this behavior, were studied using intracellular staining and recording techniques.2.When a low frequency tone (38 kHz) was presented simultaneously with an aversive high

  20. Fly-scan ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems. PMID:25766519