Science.gov

Sample records for neoplasia polmonare con

  1. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancerous (malignant) tumors or grow excessively without forming tumors. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are caused by ... This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names corticotropin H.P. ACTHAR GEL epinephrine ADRENALIN Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia ...

  2. Cervical Neoplasia Probe Control

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-01-24

    This software, which consists of a main executive and several subroutines, performs control of the optics, image acquisition, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) of this image, of an optical based medical instrument that performs fluoresence detection of precancerous lesions (neoplasia) of the human cervix. The hardware portion of this medical instrument is known by the same name Cervical Neoplasia Probe (CNP)

  3. CNP. Cervical Neoplasia Probe Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, T.

    1995-05-17

    This software, which consists of a main executive and several subroutines, performs control of the optics, image acquisition, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) of this image, of an optical based medical instrument that performs fluoresence detection of precancerous lesions (neoplasia) of the human cervix. The hardware portion of this medical instrument is known by the same name Cervical Neoplasia Probe (CNP)

  4. Immunohistochemistry of Pancreatic Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sukhwinder; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Baine, Michael J.; Kumar, Sushil; Batra, Surinder K.

    2013-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a valuable tool to visualize the distribution and localization of specific cellular components within morphologically preserved tissue sections or cell preparations. It combines the histologic morphology of tissues for detecting the actual antigen distribution, specificity of antibody–antigen interaction for optimal detection, and sensitivity of immunochemical methods for assessing the amount of antigen in tissues. It is routinely used clinically to diagnose type (benign or malignant), stage, and grade of cancer using specific tumor markers. The application of IHC ranges from disease diagnosis and prognosis to drug development and analysis of the pathobiological roles of various molecular players during disease development. Due to better availability of highly specific antibodies and optimal methodologies for performing immunohistochemical studies, IHC is being used at an expanding rate to understand pancreatic tumor biology as well as to study the fate of various molecular markers during the initiation, progression, and metastasis of pancreatic neoplasia. Herein, we describe the detailed protocol for IHC analyses of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia in tissues and fine needle aspirates from both human and mouse samples. PMID:23359148

  5. [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].

    PubMed

    de Parades, Vincent; Fathallah, Nadia; Barret, Maximilien; Zeitoun, Jean-David; Lemarchand, Nicolas; Molinié, Vincent; Weiss, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Anal intraepithelial lesions are caused by chronic infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus. Their incidence and prevalence are increasing, especially among patients with HIV infection. Their natural history is not well known, but high-grade intraepithelial lesions seem to have an important risk to progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Their treatment can be achieved by many ways (surgery, coagulation, imiquimod, etc.) but there is a high rate of recurrent lesions. Pretherapeutic evaluation should benefit from high-resolution anoscopy. Periodic physical examination and anal cytology may probably be interesting for screening the disease among patients with risk factors. Vaccine against oncogenic types of papillomavirus may prevent the development of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:23122632

  6. Animal models of pituitary neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lines, K.E.; Stevenson, M.; Thakker, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary neoplasias can occur as part of a complex inherited disorder, or more commonly as sporadic (non-familial) disease. Studies of the molecular and genetic mechanisms causing such pituitary tumours have identified dysregulation of >35 genes, with many revealed by studies in mice, rats and zebrafish. Strategies used to generate these animal models have included gene knockout, gene knockin and transgenic over-expression, as well as chemical mutagenesis and drug induction. These animal models provide an important resource for investigation of tissue-specific tumourigenic mechanisms, and evaluations of novel therapies, illustrated by studies into multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a hereditary syndrome in which ∼30% of patients develop pituitary adenomas. This review describes animal models of pituitary neoplasia that have been generated, together with some recent advances in gene editing technologies, and an illustration of the use of the Men1 mouse as a pre clinical model for evaluating novel therapies. PMID:26320859

  7. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  8. Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Hirsch, Pierre PL; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O; Keep, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the most common pre-malignant lesion. Atypical squamous changes occur in the transformation zone of the cervix with mild, moderate or severe changes described by their depth (CIN 1, 2 or 3). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is treated by local ablation or lower morbidity excision techniques. Choice of treatment depends on the grade and extent of the disease. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of alternative surgical treatments for CIN. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to April 2009). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings and reference lists of included studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of alternative surgical treatments in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risks of bias. Risk ratios that compared residual disease after the follow-up examination and adverse events in women who received one of either laser ablation, laser conisation, large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ), knife conisation or cryotherapy were pooled in random-effects model meta-analyses. Main results Twenty-nine trials were included. Seven surgical techniques were tested in various comparisons. No significant differences in treatment failures were demonstrated in terms of persistent disease after treatment. Large loop excision of the transformation zone appeared to provide the most reliable specimens for histology with the least morbidity. Morbidity was lower than with laser conisation, although the trials did not provide data for every outcome measure. There were not enough data to assess the effect on morbidity when compared with laser ablation. Authors’ conclusions The evidence

  9. Marine mammal neoplasia: a review.

    PubMed

    Newman, S J; Smith, S A

    2006-11-01

    A review of the published literature indicates that marine mammal neoplasia includes the types and distributions of tumors seen in domestic species. A routine collection of samples from marine mammal species is hampered, and, hence, the literature is principally composed of reports from early whaling expeditions, captive zoo mammals, and epizootics that affect larger numbers of animals from a specific geographic location. The latter instances are most important, because many of these long-lived, free-ranging marine mammals may act as environmental sentinels for the health of the oceans. Examination of large numbers of mortalities reveals incidental proliferative and neoplastic conditions and, less commonly, identifies specific malignant cancers that can alter population dynamics. The best example of these is the presumptive herpesvirus-associated metastatic genital carcinomas found in California sea lions. Studies of tissues from St. Lawrence estuary beluga whales have demonstrated a high incidence of neoplasia and produced evidence that environmental contamination with high levels of polychlorinated biphenols and dichlorophenyl trichloroethane might be the cause. In addition, viruses are suspected to be the cause of gastric papillomas in belugas and cutaneous papillomas in Florida manatees and harbor porpoises. While experimental laboratory procedures can further elucidate mechanisms of neoplasia, continued pathologic examination of marine mammals will also be necessary to follow trends in wild populations. PMID:17099143

  10. New concepts in neoplasia as applied to diagnostic pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Fenoglio-Preiser, C.M.; Weinstein, R.S.; Kaufman, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Cellular Aspects of Neoplasia; Oncogenes and Cancer; Chromosome and Oncogene Rearrangements in Leukemia and Lymphoma; Ionizing Radiation and Neoplasia; and Papillomaviruses and Neoplasia in Man.

  11. Emerging Entities in Renal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rohit; Smith, Steven C; Divatia, Mukul; Amin, Mahul B

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews emerging entities in renal epithelial neoplasia, including tubulocystic carcinoma, clear-cell-papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), thyroid-like follicular RCC, ALK-related RCC, translocation RCC, acquired cystic disease-related RCC, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, and hereditary leiomyomatosis-RCC syndrome-associated RCC. Many of these rarer subtypes of RCC were recently studied in more depth and are included in the upcoming version of the World Health Organization classification of tumors. Emphasis is placed on common gross and morphologic features, differential diagnoses, use of ancillary studies for making accurate diagnoses, molecular alterations, and predicted biologic behavior based on previous studies. PMID:26612218

  12. Fractal Analysis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizii, Markus; Moinfar, Farid; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) represent precursor lesions of cervical cancer. These neoplastic lesions are traditionally subdivided into three categories CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3, using microscopical criteria. The relation between grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and its fractal dimension was investigated to establish a basis for an objective diagnosis using the method proposed. Methods Classical evaluation of the tissue samples was performed by an experienced gynecologic pathologist. Tissue samples were scanned and saved as digital images using Aperio scanner and software. After image segmentation the box counting method as well as multifractal methods were applied to determine the relation between fractal dimension and grades of CIN. A total of 46 images were used to compare the pathologist's neoplasia grades with the predicted groups obtained by fractal methods. Results Significant or highly significant differences between all grades of CIN could be found. The confusion matrix, comparing between pathologist's grading and predicted group by fractal methods showed a match of 87.1%. Multifractal spectra were able to differentiate between normal epithelium and low grade as well as high grade neoplasia. Conclusion Fractal dimension can be considered to be an objective parameter to grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:25302712

  13. Neither Neoplasia Nor Tuberculosis, but Francisella

    PubMed Central

    Mambie, Adeline; Wallet, Frédéric; Scherman, Laurine; Armand, Sylvie; Vervelle, Christine; Faure, Karine; Guery, Benoit; Titécat, Marie; Loïez, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Tularaemia is an emerging anthropozoonosis transmitted by contact with infected animals and through arthropod bites, inhalation, or ingestion. We describe a pulmonary nodule suggesting cancer in a 70-year-old man. Histological analysis excluded neoplasia, and bacteriological culture excluded tuberculosis. Serological testing and PCR Francisella were positive for this hunter patient, then treated by ciprofloxacin with a favourable outcome. PMID:27419157

  14. Primary lung neoplasia in a beagle colony.

    PubMed

    Hahn, F F; Muggenburg, B A; Griffith, W C

    1996-11-01

    As part of long-term pulmonary carcinogenesis studies in dogs, it is important to analyze the incidence of spontaneous lung neoplasia. Primary lung carcinoma incidence was determined in two control populations of Beagle dogs observed for their life spans. One population comprised 216 dogs (112 males and 104 females) that were controls for life span studies, and another comprised 182 dogs (50 males and 132 females) that were retirees from a breeding colony. Forty lung neoplasms were noted in the 398 dogs; 35 neoplasms were carcinomas classified as papillary adenocarcinoma (20), bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (9), adenosquamous carcinoma (5), or bronchial gland carcinoma (1). The other five neoplasms were a malignant fibrous histiocytoma, three adenomas, and a fibroma. The crude incidence of lung carcinomas averaged for both populations was 8.8% (35/398) and was dominated by a relatively high incidence of lung neoplasia in aged dogs, those dying after the median life span of 13.6 years. PMID:8952021

  15. Endoscopic Treatment of Early Barrett's Neoplasia: Expanding Indications, New Challenges.

    PubMed

    Pech, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic therapy of early Barrett's neoplasia is nowadays the treatment of choice and recommended over surgery in most current guidelines. Recent data suggest radiofrequency ablation of low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia when confirmed by an expert pathologist. Endoscopic therapy of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and mucosal Barrett's adenocarcinoma consists of two steps: first endoscopic resection of all visible lesions, and second ablation of the remaining flat Barrett's mucosa to reduce the rate of recurrences and metachronous neoplasia. The preferred ablation method is radiofrequency ablation. In case of Barrett's adenocarcinoma with incipient submucosal invasion, endoscopic treatment can be considered curative when there are no further risk factors present. PMID:27573769

  16. Management of hemopoietic neoplasias during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Paydas, Semra

    2016-08-01

    Hemopoietic neoplasias are unique cancers generally affecting bone marrow, and requires a special attention for disease control and also their complications. When these neoplastic disorders accompany to pregnancy there are many risks both for mother and foetus. Diagnostic difficulties due to the limited use of imaging modalities is essential in pregnant women. On the other hand suboptimal using of the anti-neoplastic drugs and their higher toxicity in mother and foetus must be considered in the management of these neoplastic disorders. Due to the lack of therapeutic guidelines in these cases, team approach is essential and therapy requires to the use the art of medicine. PMID:27283927

  17. Red-flag technologies in gastric neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Given its morbidity and mortality, the early detection and diagnosis of gastric cancer is an area of intense research focus. This article reviews the emerging use of enhanced endoscopic imaging technologies in the detection and management of gastric cancer. The combined use of white-light endoscopy with enhanced imaging technologies, such as magnification narrow-band imaging, chromoendoscopy, and autofluorescence endoscopy, demonstrates promise in the improved ability to detect and delineate gastric neoplasia. However, widespread clinical use is still limited, mainly because of the restricted availability of the technologies. PMID:23735104

  18. Thrombocytopenia associated with neoplasia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Grindem, C B; Breitschwerdt, E B; Corbett, W T; Page, R L; Jans, H E

    1994-01-01

    Ten percent (214/2,059) of all dogs with cancer at North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital had thrombocytopenia. The thrombocytopenia was associated with infectious/inflammatory etiologies in 4%, miscellaneous disorders (therapy, bone marrow failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation) in 35%, and neoplasia without identifiable secondary factors in 61% of cancer-bearing dogs. Classifying these dogs by tumor groups revealed the following proportionate ratios: lymphoid, 29%; carcinoma, 28%; sarcoma, 20%; hemic neoplasia, 7%; multiple, 5%; unclassified, 3%; benign, 3%; brain, 3%; and endocrine, 3%. Dogs with hemangiosarcoma, lymphoma, and melanoma were at increased risk of developing thrombocytopenia. Cytotoxic therapy was the major factor increasing the risk of thrombocytopenia in dogs with melanoma. Golden Retrievers were the only breed recognized with a predisposition to develop thrombocytopenia. If thrombocytopenia is identified in a dog with cancer, we recommend thorough evaluation of the coagulation system before surgery or therapy, and careful consideration of the risks and potential benefits of myelosuppressive or L-asparaginase therapy. PMID:7884725

  19. Image analysis for discrimination of cervical neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Harper, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Colposcopy involves visual imaging of the cervix for patients who have exhibited some prior indication of abnormality, and the major goals are to visually inspect for any malignancies and to guide biopsy sampling. Currently colposcopy equipment is being upgraded in many health care centers to incorporate digital image acquisition and archiving. These permanent images can be analyzed for characteristic features and color patterns which may enhance the specificity and objectivity of the routine exam. In this study a series of images from patients with biopsy confirmed cervical intraepithelia neoplasia stage 2/3 are compared with images from patients with biopsy confirmed immature squamous metaplasia, with the goal of determining optimal criteria for automated discrimination between them. All images were separated into their red, green, and blue channels, and comparisons were made between relative intensity, intensity variation, spatial frequencies, fractal dimension, and Euler number. This study indicates that computer-based processing of cervical images can provide some discrimination of the type of tissue features which are important for clinical evaluation, with the Euler number being the most clinically useful feature to discriminate metaplasia from neoplasia. Also there was a strong indication that morphology observed in the blue channel of the image provided more information about epithelial cell changes. Further research in this field can lead to advances in computer-aided diagnosis as well as the potential for online image enhancement in digital colposcopy.

  20. Thyroid neoplasia in captive raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    McCain, Stephanie L; Allender, Matthew C; Bohling, Mark; Ramsay, Edward C; Morandi, Federica; Newkirk, Kimberly M

    2010-03-01

    Two adult, spayed, female raccoons were diagnosed with thyroid neoplasia. One raccoon had a palpable, left-sided, nonfunctional thyroid adenocarcinoma which was treated with a thyroidectomy twice with local recurrence both times. After the second recurrence, pulmonary metastases were identified. A third thyroidectomy was performed, and a vascular access port was placed for administration of intravenous doxorubicin. The raccoon developed pancytopenia and became anorexic after chemotherapy, and the owner elected humane euthanasia. The second raccoon had nonpalpable, bilateral, functional follicular thyroid adenomatous hyperplasia and was treated with a right thyroidectomy and a partial left thyroidectomy, leaving behind the grossly normal portion of the left thyroid. However, the animal was still hyperthyroid after surgery and was then successfully managed with topical methimazole gel. Thyroid pathology has been documented in raccoons in Europe, but is not reported in the United States. Thyroid neoplasia in raccoons can occur as a nonfunctional adenocarcinoma, as is commonly reported in dogs, or as a functional adenoma, as is commonly reported in cats. Raccoons with adenocarcinomas should be evaluated for pulmonary metastasis. Methimazole gel may be a viable treatment option for raccoons with hyperthyroidism. PMID:20722264

  1. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs. PMID:18817002

  2. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; Leite, Marieli F. M.; Trujillo, Jose R.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors, especially in Gynecology. The photodynamic reaction is based on the production of reactive oxygen species after the activation of a photosensitizer. Advantages of the PDT in comparison to the surgical resection are: ambulatory treatment and tissue recovery highly satisfactory, through a non-invasive procedure. The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I and II presents potential indications for PDT. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PDT for the diagnostics and treatment of CIN I and II. The equipment and the photosensitizer are produced in Brazil with a representative low cost. It is possible to visualize the fluorescence of the cervix and to treat the lesions, without side effects. The proposed clinical protocol shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  3. Genitoanal human papillomavirus infection and associated neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Gross, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus infection; about 40 out of 150 known HPV genotypes have been associated with genitoanal lesions in the female and male. They have been divided into low-risk (LR) and high-risk (HR) HPV types according to the association of each HPV genotype with genitoanal benign warts, genitoanal cancer and precursor lesions. For the most part, genitoanal HPV infection is equally common in men and in women. Genitoanal HPVs are predominantly transmitted by sexual intercourse. In a minor number of individuals where HR HPV infection has persisted, malignant squamous-cell tumors may develop. There are 15 mucosal oncogenic HPV types which are the etiological factor of cervical cancer and other genitoanal cancers. DNAs of HR HPV types are present in 100% of all cervical carcinomas and in 100% of the precursor lesions, the cervical intraepithelial neoplasias 2 and 3. HPV-16 and -18 alone account for 70% of the oncogenic mucosal HPV types identified. HR HPV types, mostly HPV-16 and -18, are the causes of vaginal and vulvar cancers in females, anal cancers in both genders and cancer of the penis in men. While anal cancers are linked to HR HPVs in more than 80% of cases, only 40% of vulvar cancers and 50% of penile cancers are HPV positive. Genitoanal cancers have a similar anatomy, histology and similar risk factors as well as natural histories. About 60% of vulvar and 50% of penile cancers are HPV negative, but associated with chronic inflammatory disorders, mainly lichen sclerosus. Clinical manifestations of LR HPVs in both sexes are genitoanal warts (condylomata acuminata), which are benign highly infectious tumors. The highest rate of warts is observed in females 16-24 years of age. In males the peak is at the age of 20-24 years. Diagnosis of genitoanal warts should exclude other sexually transmitted infections and diseases. A high number of genitoanal dermatoses, benign tumors, malignant squamous

  4. The evolving classification of renal cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R

    2015-03-01

    The classification of renal cell neoplasia is morphologically based; however, this has evolved over the last 35 years with the incorporation of genetic characteristics into the diagnostic features of some tumors. The 2013 Vancouver classification recognized 17 morphotypes of renal parenchymal malignancy and two benign tumors. This classification included the newly established entities tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC)), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo) papillary RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor family translocation RCC and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. In addition to these newly described forms of RCC there are a number of novel tumors that are currently recognized as emerging entities. These are likely to be incorporated into subsequent classifications and include thyroid-like follicular RCC, succinate dehydrogenase B mutation-associated RCC, ALK translocation RCC, tuberous sclerosis complex-associated RCC, and RCC with (angio) leiomyomatous stroma. PMID:25753529

  5. T cells, precocious aging, and familial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Fudenberg, H H; Schuman, S H; Goust, J M; Jorgenson, R

    1978-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl presented with precocious aging and was found to have low levels of active and total T cells. Family history revealed a high familial incidence of cancer on both the maternal and paternal sides, and activ T cell levels were found to be low in several living family members. The patient developed osteogenic sarcoma 13 months after initial study. Since our previous studies have reported low active and total T cells in patients with cancer, the present results suggest that subjects with low active T cells should be monitored frequently to detect possible neoplasia in it early stages. They also suggest that impaired cellular immunity in humans is associated with, if not the cause of, accelerated aging. PMID:304823

  6. Anal Warts and Anal Intradermal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Echenique, Ignacio; Phillips, Benjamin R.

    2011-01-01

    For the last five millennia we have been dealing with the annoyance of verrucas. Anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States and is increasing in incidence. As in other gastrointestinal conditions, HPV infection can lead to a stepwise transition from normal cells to dysplastic cells and then to invasive anal cancer. Knowledge of the natural history of HPV infection, risk factors, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic methods gives us the tools to adequately prevent, evaluate, treat, and counsel our patients. In this review, the authors detail the diagnosis, management, and treatment of anal condyloma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia with a focus on prevention, early detection, and treatment using current data and technology. PMID:22379403

  7. Neoplasia in fast neutron-irradiated beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.W.; Zook; B.C.; Casarett, G.W.

    1981-09-01

    One hundred fifty-one beagle dogs were irradiated with either photons or fast neutrons (15 MeV) to one of three dose-limiting normal tissues - spinal cord, lung, or brain. The radiation was given in four fractions per week for 5 weeks (spinal cord), 6 weeks (lung), 7 weeks (brain) to total doses encompassing those given clinically for cancer management. To date, no nonirradiated dogs or photon-irradiated dogs have developed neoplasms within the irradiated field. Of the neutron-irradiated dogs at risk, the incidence of neoplasia was 15%. The latent period for radiation-induced cancers has varied from 1 to 4 1/2 years at this time in the study.

  8. Neoplasia in fast neutron-irradiated beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.W.; Zook, B.C.; Casarett, G.W.; Deye, J.A.; Adoff, L.M.; Rogers, C.C.

    1981-09-01

    One hundred fifty-one beagle dogs were irradiated with either photons or fast neutrons (15 MeV) to one of three dose-limiting normal tissues--spinal cord, lung, or brain. The radiation was given in four fractions per week for 5 weeks (spinal cord), 6 weeks (lung), or 7 weeks (brain) to total doses encompassing those given clinically for cancer management. To date, no nonirradiated dogs or photon-irradiated dogs have developed any neoplasms. Seven dogs receiving fast neutrons have developed 9 neoplasms within the irradiated field. Of the neutron-irradiated dogs at risk, the incidence of neoplasia was 15%. The latent period for radiation-induced cancers has varied from 1 to 4 1/2 years at this time in the study.

  9. Modeling human endothelial cell transformation in vascular neoplasias

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Victoria W.; MacKenzie, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC)-derived neoplasias range from benign hemangioma to aggressive metastatic angiosarcoma, which responds poorly to current treatments and has a very high mortality rate. The development of treatments that are more effective for these disorders will be expedited by insight into the processes that promote abnormal proliferation and malignant transformation of human ECs. The study of primary endothelial malignancy has been limited by the rarity of the disease; however, there is potential for carefully characterized EC lines and animal models to play a central role in the discovery, development and testing of molecular targeted therapies for vascular neoplasias. This review describes molecular alterations that have been identified in EC-derived neoplasias, as well as the processes that underpin the immortalization and tumorigenic conversion of ECs. Human EC lines, established through the introduction of defined genetic elements or by culture of primary tumor tissue, are catalogued and discussed in relation to their relevance as models of vascular neoplasia. PMID:24046386

  10. Relationship of ECL cells and gastric neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, H. L.; Brenna, E.; Sandvik, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    The enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell in the oxyntic mucosa has a key role in the regulation of gastric secretion since it synthesizes and releases the histamine regulating the acid secretion from the parietal cell. Gastrin is the main regulator of the ECL cell function and growth. Long-term hypergastrinemia induces ECL cell hyperplasia, and if continued, neoplasia. ECL cell carcinoids occur in man after long-term hypergastrinemia in conditions like pernicious anemia and gastrinoma. There is also accumulating evidence that a proportion of gastric carcinomas of the diffuse type is derived from the ECL cell. Furthermore, the ECL cell may, by producing substances with angiogenic effects (histamine and basic fibroblast growth factor), be particularly prone to develop malignant tumors. Although the general opinion is that gastrin itself has a direct effect on the oxyntic mucosal stem cell, it cannot be excluded that the general trophic effect of gastrin on the oxyntic mucosa is mediated by histamine or other substances from the ECL cell, and that the ECL cell, therefore, could play a role also in the tumorigenesis/carcinogenesis of gastric carcinomas of intestinal type. PMID:10461363

  11. Optical coherence tomography in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Ronni; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Boven, Hester H.; Vincent, Andrew D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; van Beurden, Marc; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2012-11-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a gynecological cancer with an incidence of two to three per 100,000 women. VSCC arises from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), which is diagnosed through painful punch biopsy. In this study, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to differentiate between normal and VIN tissue. We hypothesize that (a) epidermal layer thickness measured in OCT images is different in normal tissue and VIN, and (b) quantitative analysis of the attenuation coefficient (μoct) extracted from OCT data differentiates VIN from normal vulvar tissue. Twenty lesions from 16 patients are imaged with OCT. Directly after data acquisition, a biopsy is performed. Epidermal thickness is measured and values of μoct are extracted from 200 OCT scans of normal and VIN tissue. For both methods, statistical analysis is performed using Paired Mann-Whitney-test. Correlation between the two methods is tested using a Spearman-correlation test. Both epidermal layer thickness as well as the μoct are different between normal vulvar tissue and VIN lesions (p<0.0001). Moreover, no correlation is found between the epidermal layer thickness and μoct. This study demonstrates that both the epidermal thickness and the attenuation coefficient of vulvar epithelial tissue containing VIN are different from that of normal vulvar tissue.

  12. Neoplasia of the male reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Brinsko, S P

    1998-12-01

    Genital neoplasms in the male horse are relatively uncommon. Squamous cell carcinomas and squamous papillomas are the most commonly diagnosed neoplasms of the penis and prepuce. Geldings appear to be overrepresented for these types of neoplasms, and accumulation of smegma may be a contributing factor. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for salvaging these organs before lesions become excessively large and invasive or are allowed to metastasize. Newer treatment modalities such as 5-fluorouracil appear to be promising alternatives to surgical excision. Although generally considered to be uncommon, testicular tumors may occur more frequently than previously thought and have the potential for devastating effects on stallion fertility. Cryptorchidism appears to play a role in the development of equine testicular tumors, especially teratomas. Seminoma is by far the most common testicular tumor of the mature stallion. Seminomas are rapidly growing tumors with a greater potential to metastasize in the horse than in other domestic species. Leydig cell and Sertoli cell tumors have been reported but are relatively rare in the stallion. Orchiectomy is the standard treatment for most testicular tumors. In certain circumstances, however, such as neoplasia occurring in the only functional testis, local cryotherapy of testicular tumors may prolong the breeding career of an affected stallion. PMID:9891722

  13. [Clinical characteristics of multiple endocrine neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Conte-Devolx, Bernard; Niccoli, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and type 2 (MEN2) are autosomal dominant inherited multiglandular diseases with familial and individual age-related penetrance and variable expression. The most frequent endocrine features of MEN1 are parathyroid involvement (> 95%), duodeno-pancreatic endocrine tissue involvement (80%), pituitary adenoma (30%), and adrenal cortex tumors (25%), with no clear syndromic variants. Identification of the germline MEN1 mutation confirms the diagnosis, but there is no phenotype-genotype correlation. All patients with MEN2 have medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The most distinctive MEN2 variants are MEN2A (MTC+pheochromocytoma+hyperparathyroidism), MEN2B (MTC+pheo), and isolated familial MTC (FMTC). The prognosis of MEN2 is linked to the progression of MTC, which depends mainly on the stage at diagnosis and the quality of initial surgical treatment. This emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and management. The specific RET codon mutation correlates with the MEN2 syndromic variant and with the age of onset and aggressiveness of MTC. Consequently, RET mutational status should guide major management decisions, such as whether and when to perform thyroidectomy. PMID:20669560

  14. Anal intraepitelial neoplasia: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Elorza, Garazi; Saralegui, Yolanda; Enríquez-Navascués, Jose María; Placer, Carlos; Velaz, Leyre

    2016-01-01

    Anal intraepitelial neoplasia (AIN) constitutes a major health problem in certain risk groups, such as patients with immunosuppression of varied origin, males who have sexual relations with other males, and females with a previous history of vaginal or cervical abnormalities in cytology. Its relationship with the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been well documented; however, many of the factors involved in the progression and regression of the viral infection to dysplasia and anal carcinoma are unknown. AIN can be diagnosed through cytology of the anal canal or biopsy guided by high-resolution anoscopy. However, the need for these techniques in high-risk groups remains controversial. Treatment depends on the risk factors and given the high morbidity and high recurrence rates the utility of the different local treatments is still a subject of debate. Surgical biopsy is justified only in the case of progression suggesting lesions. The role of the vaccination in high-risk patients as primary prevention has been debated by different groups. However, there is no general consensus on its use or on the need for screening this population. PMID:26765233

  15. Quantitative architectural analysis of bronchial intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaud, Martial; MacAulay, Calum E.; Le Riche, Jean C.; Dawe, Chris; Korbelik, Jagoda; Lam, Stephen

    2000-04-01

    Considerable variation exists among pathologist in the interpretation of intraepithelial neoplasia making it difficult to determine the natural history of these lesion and to establish management guidelines for chemoprevention. The aim of the study is to evaluate architectural features of pre-neoplastic progression in lung cancer, and to search for a correlation between architectural index and conventional pathology. Quantitative architectural analysis was performed on a series of normal lung biopsies and Carcinoma In Situ (CIS). Centers of gravity of the nuclei within a pre-defined region of interest were used as seeds to generate a Voronoi Diagram. About 30 features derived from the Voronoi diagram, its dual the Delaunay tessellation, and the Minimum Spanning Tree were extracted. A discriminant analysis was performed to separate between the two groups. The architectural Index was calculated for each of the bronchial biopsies that were interpreted as hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild, moderate or severe dysplasia by conventional histopathology criteria. As a group, lesions classified as CIS by conventional histopathology criteria could be distinguished from dysplasia using the architectural Index. Metaplasia was distinct from hyperplasia and hyperplasia from normal. There was overlap between severe and moderate dysplasia but mild dysplasia could be distinguished form moderate dysplasia. Bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions can be degraded objectively by architectural features. Combination of architectural features and nuclear morphometric features may improve the quantitation of the changes occurring during the intra-epithelial neoplastic process.

  16. Development and progression of colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Upender; Shanmugam, Chandrakumar; Katkoori, Venkat R.; Bumpers, Harvey L.; Grizzle, William E.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of genetic and molecular alterations underlie the development and progression of colorectal neoplasia (CRN). Most of these cancers arise sporadically due to multiple somatic mutations and genetic instability. Genetic instability includes chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI), which is observed in most hereditary non-polyposis colon cancers (HNPCCs) and accounts for a small proportion of sporadic CRN. Although many biomarkers have been used in the diagnosis and prediction of the clinical outcomes of CRNs, no single marker has established value. New markers and genes associated with the development and progression of CRNs are being discovered at an accelerated rate. CRN is a heterogeneous disease, especially with respect to the anatomic location of the tumor, race/ethnicity differences, and genetic and dietary interactions that influence its development and progression and act as confounders. Hence, efforts related to biomarker discovery should focus on identification of individual differences based on tumor stage, tumor anatomic location, and race/ethnicity; on the discovery of molecules (genes, mRNA transcripts, and proteins) relevant to these differences; and on development of therapeutic approaches to target these molecules in developing personalized medicine. Such strategies have the potential of reducing the personal and socio-economic burden of CRNs. Here, we systematically review molecular and other pathologic features as they relate to the development, early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, progression, and prevention of CRNs, especially colorectal cancers (CRCs). PMID:22112479

  17. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1991-05-31

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. During the end of the last grant year and the first half of the current grant year, we have completed analyses and summarized for publication: investigations on the relationship between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamicpituitary axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH- (thyrotropin-) responsive sub-population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and the results of the large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. We are testing new techniques for the culture, cytofluorescent analysis and characterization mammary epithelial cells and of clonogens in a parallel project, and plan to apply similar technology to the thyroid epithelial cells and clonogen population. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cells interactions during the neoplastic process.

  18. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1992-05-20

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. Previous results indicated that these clonogens are the precursor cells of radiogenic cancer, and that initiation, is common event at the clonegenic cell level. Detailed information on the physiologic control of clonogen proliferation, differentiation, and total numbers is thus essential to an understanding of the carcinogenic process. We report here studies on investigations on the relationships between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary feedback axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH-(thyrotropin-) responsive sub- population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and a large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cell interactions during the neoplastic process.

  19. Pathophysiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gichuhi, Stephen; Ohnuma, Shin-ichi; Sagoo, Mandeep S.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is strongly associated with solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, HIV and human papilloma virus (HPV). Africa has the highest incidence rates in the world. Most lesions occur at the limbus within the interpalpebral fissure particularly the nasal sector. The nasal limbus receives the highest intensity of sunlight. Limbal epithelial crypts are concentrated nasally and contain niches of limbal epithelial stem cells in the basal layer. It is possible that these are the progenitor cells in OSSN. OSSN arises in the basal epithelial cells spreading towards the surface which resembles the movement of corneo-limbal stem cell progeny before it later invades through the basement membrane below. UV radiation damages DNA producing pyrimidine dimers in the DNA chain. Specific CC → TT base pair dimer transformations of the p53 tumour-suppressor gene occur in OSSN allowing cells with damaged DNA past the G1-S cell cycle checkpoint. UV radiation also causes local and systemic photoimmunosuppression and reactivates latent viruses such as HPV. The E7 proteins of HPV promote proliferation of infected epithelial cells via the retinoblastoma gene while E6 proteins prevent the p53 tumour suppressor gene from effecting cell-cycle arrest of DNA-damaged and infected cells. Immunosuppression from UV radiation, HIV and vitamin A deficiency impairs tumour immune surveillance allowing survival of aberrant cells. Tumour growth and metastases are enhanced by; telomerase reactivation which increases the number of cell divisions a cell can undergo; vascular endothelial growth factor for angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that destroy the intercellular matrix between cells. Despite these potential triggers, the disease is usually unilateral. It is unclear how HPV reaches the conjunctiva. PMID:25447808

  20. Development of germ cell neoplasia in situ in chinchilla rabbits.

    PubMed

    Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Montelongo Solís, Paola; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Oscar; Cortés Trujillo, Lucero; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to describe the development of germ cell neoplasia in situ in Chinchilla rabbit by administration of estradiol. The study was performed in rabbits distributed into two groups: control and 17 β-estradiol. The determination of histological alterations and POU5F1 and c-kit proteins employed as biomarkers for the diagnosis of this neoplasia was carried out. Testicular descent and complete spermatogenesis were observed in the control group. The protein biomarkers were negative. However, in the rabbits treated with estradiol, the testes remained undescended with the gonocytes undifferentiated to spermatogonia. There were histological lesions owing to germ cell neoplasia in situ and positive to POU5F1 and c-kit proteins. These findings indicate that the chinchilla rabbit is an ideal model to study this neoplasia in which the histological characteristics and biomarkers of the disease could be clearly observed. Using this model we suggested that the persisting gonocytes could be responsible for the development of germ cell neoplasia in situ. PMID:26617392

  1. Diagnosis by Endoscopy and Advanced Imaging of Barrett's Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Swager, Anne-Fré; Curvers, Wouter L; Bergman, Jacques J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) using dye-based chromoendoscopy, optical chromoendoscopy, autofluorescence imaging, or confocal laser endomicroscopy does not significantly increase the number of patients with a diagnosis of early neoplasia compared with high-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE) with random biopsy analysis. These newer imaging techniques are not more effective in standard surveillance of patients with BE because the prevalence of early neoplasia is low and HD-WLE with random biopsy analysis detects most cases of neoplasia. The evaluation and treatment of patients with BE and early stage neoplasia should be centralized in tertiary referral centers, where procedures are performed under optimal conditions, by expert endoscopists. Lesions that require resection are almost always detected by HD-WLE, although advanced imaging techniques can detect additional flat lesions. However, these are of limited clinical significance because they are effectively eradicated by ablation therapy. No endoscopic imaging technique can reliably assess submucosal or lymphangio invasion. Endoscopic resection of early stage neoplasia in patients with BE is important for staging and management. Optical chromoendoscopy can also be used to evaluate lesions before endoscopic resection and in follow-up after successful ablation therapy. PMID:27573768

  2. Inflammatory bowel disease associated neoplasia: A surgeon’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    Althumairi, Azah A; Lazarev, Mark G; Gearhart, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The risk is known to increase with longer duration of the disease, family history of CRC, and history of primary sclerosing cholangitis. The diagnosis of the neoplastic changes associated with IBD is difficult owing to the heterogeneous endoscopic appearance and inter-observer variability of the pathological diagnosis. Screening and surveillance guidelines have been established which aim for early detection of neoplasia. Several surgical options are available for the treatment of IBD-associated neoplasia. Patients’ morbidities, risk factors for CRC, degree and the extent of neoplasia must be considered in choosing the surgical treatment. A multidisciplinary team including the surgeon, gastroenterologist, pathologist, and the patient who has a clear understanding of the nature of their disease is needed to optimize outcomes. PMID:26811640

  3. Gastrointestinal Neoplasia Associated with Bowel Parasitosis: Real or Imaginary?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Michael R.; Weidner, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Several parasitic species are well known to have carcinogenic properties, namely; Schistosoma hematobium (squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder) and the liver flukes Opisthorchis and Chlonorchis (cholangiocarcinoma). A large number of parasites are known to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. We sought to review the evidence that implicates these parasites in gastrointestinal neoplasia. Schistosoma japonicum, which is endemic primarily in east Asia, has been shown in multiple studies to convey a mildly increased risk of colorectal adenocarcinoma. The data supporting a causative role for Schistosoma mansoni in colorectal or other neoplastic processes are less convincing, limited primarily to small case-control studies and case series. Reports of possible associations between other gastrointestinal parasites (e.g., E. histolytica and A. lumbricoides) and neoplasia may be found in the literature but are limited to individual cases. We conclude that, other than S. japonicum and to a lesser extent S. mansoni, there is little evidence of an association between gastrointestinal parasites and neoplasia. PMID:22174720

  4. In vivo and in vitro hyperspectral imaging of cervical neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaojian; Zheng, Wenli; Bu, Yanggao; Chang, Shufang; Tong, Qingping; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

    2014-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a prevalent disease in many developing countries. Colposcopy is the most common approach for screening cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, its clinical efficacy heavily relies on the examiner's experience. Spectroscopy is a potentially effective method for noninvasive diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. In this paper, we introduce a hyperspectral imaging technique for noninvasive detection and quantitative analysis of cervical neoplasia. A hyperspectral camera is used to collect the reflectance images of the entire cervix under xenon lamp illumination, followed by standard colposcopy examination and cervical tissue biopsy at both normal and abnormal sites in different quadrants. The collected reflectance data are calibrated and the hyperspectral signals are extracted. Further spectral analysis and image processing works are carried out to classify tissue into different types based on the spectral characteristics at different stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The hyperspectral camera is also coupled with a lab microscope to acquire the hyperspectral transmittance images of the pathological slides. The in vivo and the in vitro imaging results are compared with clinical findings to assess the accuracy and efficacy of the method.

  5. Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    MUÑOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJÓN, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969

  6. HISTOLOGICAL PROGRESSION OF HEPATIC NEOPLASIA IN RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI')

    EPA Science Inventory

    The histological progression of hepatic neoplasia has not been as systematically studied in rainbow trout as it has been in rodents. Two putative preneoplastic lesions have been identified, the eosinophilic focus and the basophilic focus, but whether these correspond to similar l...

  7. Innate immunity gene polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cindy M; Chia, Victoria M; Gunter, Marc J; Zanetti, Krista A; Ryan, Bríd M; Goodman, Julie E; Harris, Curtis C; Weissfeld, Joel; Huang, Wen-Yi; Chanock, Stephen; Yeager, Meredith; Hayes, Richard B; Berndt, Sonja I

    2013-11-01

    Inherited variation in genes that regulate innate immunity and inflammation may contribute to colorectal neoplasia risk. To evaluate this association, we conducted a nested case-control study of 451 colorectal cancer cases, 694 colorectal advanced adenoma cases and 696 controls of European descent within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. A total of 935 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 98 genes were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association with colorectal neoplasia. Sixteen SNPs were associated with colorectal neoplasia risk at P < 0.01, but after adjustment for multiple testing, only rs2838732 (ITGB2) remained suggestively associated with colorectal neoplasia (OR(per T allele) = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.57-0.83, P = 7.7 × 10(-5), adjusted P = 0.07). ITGB2 codes for the CD18 protein in the integrin beta chain family. The ITGB2 association was stronger for colorectal cancer (OR(per T allele) = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.30-0.55, P = 2.4 × 10(-) (9)) than for adenoma (OR(per T allele) = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.69-1.03, P = 0.08), but it did not replicate in the validation study. The ITGB2 rs2838732 association was significantly modified by smoking status (P value for interaction = 0.003). Among never and former smokers, it was inversely associated with colorectal neoplasia (OR(per T allele) = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.37-0.69 and OR(per T allele) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54-0.95, respectively), but no association was seen among current smokers. Other notable findings were observed for SNPs in BPI/LBP and MYD88. Although the results need to be replicated, our findings suggest that genetic variation in inflammation-related genes may be related to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. PMID:23803696

  8. Innate immunity gene polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Sonja I.

    2013-01-01

    Inherited variation in genes that regulate innate immunity and inflammation may contribute to colorectal neoplasia risk. To evaluate this association, we conducted a nested case–control study of 451 colorectal cancer cases, 694 colorectal advanced adenoma cases and 696 controls of European descent within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. A total of 935 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 98 genes were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association with colorectal neoplasia. Sixteen SNPs were associated with colorectal neoplasia risk at P < 0.01, but after adjustment for multiple testing, only rs2838732 (ITGB2) remained suggestively associated with colorectal neoplasia (ORper T allele = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.57–0.83, P = 7.7 × 10–5, adjusted P = 0.07). ITGB2 codes for the CD18 protein in the integrin beta chain family. The ITGB2 association was stronger for colorectal cancer (ORper T allele = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.30–0.55, P = 2.4 × 10− 9) than for adenoma (ORper T allele = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.69–1.03, P = 0.08), but it did not replicate in the validation study. The ITGB2 rs2838732 association was significantly modified by smoking status (P value for interaction = 0.003). Among never and former smokers, it was inversely associated with colorectal neoplasia (ORper T allele = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.37–0.69 and ORper T allele = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54–0.95, respectively), but no association was seen among current smokers. Other notable findings were observed for SNPs in BPI/LBP and MYD88. Although the results need to be replicated, our findings suggest that genetic variation in inflammation-related genes may be related to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. PMID:23803696

  9. Early Detection of and Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There are approximately one million new cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) per year worldwide, with substantial associated morbidity and mortality. The long natural history of colorectal neoplasia affords the opportunity to use preventive measures to improve survival in this disease. Currently screening for adenomatous polyps and early-stage cancers is the best methodology for improving survival. The increasing knowledge of CRC pathogenesis and its natural history is allowing the development of new tools to identify patients who will benefit most from colon cancer screening and the defining of appropriate surveillance intervals. The guidelines for screening for colorectal neoplasia have recently been substantially revised by several organizations based on developing technologies and a growing body of data on the efficacy of CRC screening. PMID:20431727

  10. Homozygotes for the autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome (MEN1)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandi, M.L.; Falchetti, A.; Tonelli, F. ); Weber, G.; Svensson, A.; Larsson, C. ); Castello, R.; Furlani, L.; Scappaticci, S.; Fraccaro, M.

    1993-12-01

    Families in which both parents are heterozygotes for the same autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome are extremely unusual. Recently, the authors had the unique opportunity to evaluate three symptomatic siblings from the union between two unrelated individuals affected by multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). When the three siblings and their parents and relatives were genotyped for 12 markers tightly linked to the MEN1 locus, at 11q13, two of the siblings were found to be homozygotes, and one a heterozygote, for MEN1. With regard to the MEN1 syndrome, no phenotypic differences were observed between the two homozygotes and the heterozygotes. However, the two homozygotes showed unexplained infertility, which was not the case for any of the heterozygotes. Thus, MEN1 appears to be a disease with complete dominance, and the presence of two MEN1 alleles with mutations of the type that occur constitutionally may be insufficient for tumor development. 28 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: review and recommendations for screening and management.

    PubMed

    Smyczek, Petra; Singh, Ameeta E; Romanowski, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Anal cancer is a rare malignancy of the distal gastrointestinal tract, often associated with human papillomavirus, the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Currently available screening methods for anal intraepithelial neoplasia, a precursor for anal cancer, combine anal Papanicolaou cytology and high resolution anoscopy with biopsy of suspicious lesions. Significant barriers to establishing anal cancer screening programmes include the small number of healthcare professionals performing high resolution anoscopy and the lack of data showing that anal cancer screening can reduce morbidity and mortality related to anal carcinoma. Despite several controversies surrounding anal cancer screening, the rising incidence of this disease in some groups supports routine screening programmes in high-risk populations, especially in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. This review outlines the epidemiology of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer and summarizes issues related to the introduction of anal cancer screening programmes. PMID:23970583

  12. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: achievements and current challenges.

    PubMed

    Machens, Andreas; Dralle, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Incremental advances in medical technology, such as the development of sensitive hormonal assays for routine clinical care, are the drivers of medical progress. This principle is exemplified by the creation of the concept of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, encompassing medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperparathyroidism, which did not emerge before the early 1960s. This review sets out to highlight key achievements, such as joint biochemical and DNA-based screening of individuals at risk of developing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, before casting a spotlight on current challenges which include: (i) ill-defined upper limits of calcitonin assays for infants and young children, rendering it difficult to implement the biochemical part of the integrated DNA-based/biochemical concept; (ii) our increasingly mobile society in which different service providers are caring for one individual at various stages in the disease process. With familial relationships disintegrating as a result of geographic dispersion, information about the history of the origin family may become sketchy or just unavailable. This is when DNA-based gene tests come into play, confirming or excluding an individual's genetic predisposition to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 even before there is any biochemical or clinical evidence of the disease. However, the unrivaled molecular genetic progress in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 does not come without a price. Screening may uncover unknown gene sequence variants representing either harmless polymorphisms or pathogenic mutations. In this setting, functional characterization of mutant cells in vitro may generate helpful ancillary evidence with regard to the pathogenicity of gene variants in comparison with established mutations. PMID:22584715

  13. Acetic acid chromoendoscopy: Improving neoplasia detection in Barrett's esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Chedgy, Fergus J Q; Subramaniam, Sharmila; Kandiah, Kesavan; Thayalasekaran, Sreedhari; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is an important condition given its significant premalignant potential and dismal five-year survival outcomes of advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is therefore suggested that patients with a diagnosis of BE undergo regular surveillance in order to pick up dysplasia at an earlier stage to improve survival. Current “gold-standard” surveillance protocols suggest targeted biopsy of visible lesions followed by four quadrant random biopsies every 2 cm. However, this method of Barrett’s surveillance is fraught with poor endoscopist compliance as the procedures are time consuming and poorly tolerated by patients. There are also significant miss-rates with this technique for the detection of neoplasia as only 13% of early neoplastic lesions appear as visible nodules. Despite improvements in endoscope resolution these problems persist. Chromoendoscopy is an extremely useful adjunct to enhance mucosal visualization and characterization of Barrett’s mucosa. Acetic acid chromoendoscopy (AAC) is a simple, non-proprietary technique that can significantly improve neoplasia detection rates. This topic highlight summarizes the current evidence base behind AAC for the detection of neoplasia in BE and provides an insight into the direction of travel for further research in this area. PMID:27433088

  14. Hydrogen Peroxide Producing Lactobacilli in Women with Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Min; Kim, Chol Hong; Kim, Seok Mo; Oh, Jong Seok

    2006-01-01

    Purpose It is well known that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical neoplasia, and hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli are the most important microorganisms for maintaining the balance of the vaginal ecosystem. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship of hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli, cervical neoplasia and high-risk HPV. Materials and Methods We enrolled 1138 women with abnormal cervical smears or cervicograms who were referred to the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Chonnam National University Medical School. In all of them, 1,138 vaginal swabs were collected for the qualitative assay of hydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli and 150 cervical swabs were used for the HPV hybrid capture II test without regard to the subjects' pregnancy status. In the non-pregnant women, 880 cervical biopsies and/or loop electrosurgical excision procedures were performed for making the histological diagnosis. Results There was no significant difference not only between the distribution of H2O2 producing lactobacilli and the cervical histology, but also between the distribution of H2O2 producing lactobacilli and the positivity for high-risk HPV. Conclusions Both cervical neoplasia and high-risk HPV may not be influenced by the existence of hydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli in the vagina. PMID:19771268

  15. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. )

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  16. Slow progression of periampullary neoplasia in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Moozar, Kouros L; Madlensky, Lisa; Berk, Terri; Gallinger, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Variable endoscopic surveillance protocols and treatment strategies have been proposed for periampullary neoplasia in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), primarily because of the lack of long-term, prospective natural history data. A total of 115 patients with FAP were followed prospectively for 10 years with periodic side-viewing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy by a single surgeon. The appearance of the duodenum was classified as stages 1 to 5. Statistical analysis included one-way analysis of variance for age comparisons between stage groupings and Kaplan-Meier analysis for the lifetime risks of having a particular stage of duodenal polyposis. Eighty-seven patients had multiple endoscopies over an average of 6.6 years. Thirty-three subjects had a change in stage, within an average time of 3.9 years at an average age of 41 years. The risk of having stage 3 or 4 duodenal neoplasia increased exponentially after the age of 40. The degree of dysplasia did not correlate with stage at initial classification. Progression of neoplasia in the duodenum of patients with FAP is slow. The severity of duodenal polyposis increases with age and is not influenced by the initial stage. The average time for progression of adenoma to carcinoma is likely long. PMID:12504221

  17. Acetic acid chromoendoscopy: Improving neoplasia detection in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Chedgy, Fergus J Q; Subramaniam, Sharmila; Kandiah, Kesavan; Thayalasekaran, Sreedhari; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2016-07-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is an important condition given its significant premalignant potential and dismal five-year survival outcomes of advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is therefore suggested that patients with a diagnosis of BE undergo regular surveillance in order to pick up dysplasia at an earlier stage to improve survival. Current "gold-standard" surveillance protocols suggest targeted biopsy of visible lesions followed by four quadrant random biopsies every 2 cm. However, this method of Barrett's surveillance is fraught with poor endoscopist compliance as the procedures are time consuming and poorly tolerated by patients. There are also significant miss-rates with this technique for the detection of neoplasia as only 13% of early neoplastic lesions appear as visible nodules. Despite improvements in endoscope resolution these problems persist. Chromoendoscopy is an extremely useful adjunct to enhance mucosal visualization and characterization of Barrett's mucosa. Acetic acid chromoendoscopy (AAC) is a simple, non-proprietary technique that can significantly improve neoplasia detection rates. This topic highlight summarizes the current evidence base behind AAC for the detection of neoplasia in BE and provides an insight into the direction of travel for further research in this area. PMID:27433088

  18. Unregulated smooth-muscle myosin in human intestinal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Alhopuro, Pia; Phichith, Denis; Tuupanen, Sari; Sammalkorpi, Heli; Nybondas, Miranda; Saharinen, Juha; Robinson, James P; Yang, Zhaohui; Chen, Li-Qiong; Orntoft, Torben; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Järvinen, Heikki; Eng, Charis; Moeslein, Gabriela; Shibata, Darryl; Houlston, Richard S; Lucassen, Anneke; Tomlinson, Ian P M; Launonen, Virpi; Ristimäki, Ari; Arango, Diego; Karhu, Auli; Sweeney, H Lee; Aaltonen, Lauri A

    2008-04-01

    A recent study described a recessive ATPase activating germ-line mutation in smooth-muscle myosin (smmhc/myh11) underlying the zebrafish meltdown (mlt) phenotype. The mlt zebrafish develops intestinal abnormalities reminiscent of human Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) and juvenile polyposis (JP). To examine the role of MYH11 in human intestinal neoplasia, we searched for MYH11 mutations in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), PJS and JP. We found somatic protein-elongating frameshift mutations in 55% of CRCs displaying microsatellite instability and in the germ-line of one individual with PJS. Additionally, two somatic missense mutations were found in one microsatellite stable CRC. These two missense mutations, R501L and K1044N, and the frameshift mutations were functionally evaluated. All mutations resulted in unregulated molecules displaying constitutive motor activity, similar to the mutant myosin underlying mlt. Thus, MYH11 mutations appear to contribute also to human intestinal neoplasia. Unregulated MYH11 may affect the cellular energy balance or disturb cell lineage decisions in tumor progenitor cells. These data challenge our view on MYH11 as a passive differentiation marker functioning in muscle contraction and add to our understanding of intestinal neoplasia. PMID:18391202

  19. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barbacid, M. ); Sukumar, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The identification of ras oncogenes in human and animal cancers including precancerous lesions indicates that these genes participate in the early stages of neoplastic development. Yet, these observations do not define the timing of ras oncogene activation in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. To ascertain the timing of ras oncogene activation, an animal model system was devised that involves the induction of mammary carcinomas in rats exposed at birth to the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea. High-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ras sequences revealed the presence of both H-ras and K-ras oncogenes in normal mammary glands 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and at least 2 months before the onset of neoplasia. These ras oncogenes can remain latent within the mammary gland until exposure to estrogens, demonstrating that activation of ras oncogenes can precede the onset of neoplasia and suggesting that normal physiological proliferative processes such as estrogen-induced mammary gland development may lead to neoplasia if the targeted cells harbor latent ras oncogenes.

  20. Dermatology clinics: what's new in dermatopathology: news in nonmelanocytic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Harleen K; Patel, Rita V; Goldenberg, Gary

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews the recent dermatopathology literature involving nonmelanocytic neoplasia, with a focus on important work done over the last 5 years. The discussion includes advances in the understanding of Merkel cell carcinoma pathogenesis and prognosis; changes in the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee of Cancer staging manual in reference to staging of squamous cell carcinoma and Merkel cell carcinoma; newly described or rare histopathologic patterns and entities including squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, rippled-pattern adnexal neoplasms, onychomatricoma, spindle cell predominant trichodiscoma/neurofollicular hamartoma, and myoepithelioma; and microsatellite instability in sebaceous neoplasms of Muir-Torre syndrome and other tumors. PMID:23021050

  1. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes: A Comprehensive Imaging Review.

    PubMed

    Grajo, Joseph R; Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Sahani, Dushyant V; Kambadakone, Avinash

    2016-05-01

    MEN1, MEN2, and MEN4 comprise a series of familial disorders involving the simultaneous occurrence of tumors in more than one endocrine organ, collectively known as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Patients with this family of disorders develop tumors of the parathyroid gland, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, and thyroid gland, along with miscellaneous neuroendocrine tumors of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Although some patients undergo early prophylactic surgical management, particularly in the setting of familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, many develop tumors later in life. These tumors are often discovered at imaging for screening purposes. Recognition of the imaging features of the known tumors is important for appropriate patient management. PMID:27153782

  2. [New challenges to the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Sun, J H

    2016-07-01

    Due to the progress of intracavitary afterloading technology and dosage of brachytherapy, a similar dose distribution as that of cervical conization can be achieved and can be applied to the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), it is called "afterloading conization" . Being adjusted the radioactive source movement and weight, low exposure doses to the ovary, endometrium and vagina can be assured. So a high quality of life after treatment could be maintained and overcomes the shortcomings of cervical conization and hysterectomy, such as anesthesia, bleeding, over or insufficient treatment, early ovarian ageing and operative complications. PMID:27531273

  3. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using hexaminolevulinate and methylaminolevulinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soergel, Philipp; Staboulidou, Ismini; Hertel, Herrmann; Schippert, Cordula; Hillemanns, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the precursor of invasive cervical cancer. Previous studies indicated that photodynamic therapy (PDT) represents an effective treatment modality in CIN. In 28 patients with CIN 1 - 3, 1 - 2 cycles of PDT were conducted using hexaminolevulinate (HAL) or methylaminolevulinate (MAL) and a special light delivery system. After 6 months, biopsies were obtained to assess response. The overall response rate for complete or partial response was 65%. Photodynamic therapy using new ALA esters is effective and may offer unique advantages in the therapy of CIN.

  4. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early Barrett’s neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Barret, Maximilien; Cao, Dalhia Thao; Beuvon, Frédéric; Leblanc, Sarah; Terris, Benoit; Camus, Marine; Coriat, Romain; Chaussade, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The possible benefit of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early neoplasia arising in Barrett’s esophagus remains controversial. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ESD for the treatment of early Barrett’s neoplasia. Methods All consecutive patients undergoing ESD for the resection of a visible lesion in a Barrett’s esophagus, either suspicious of submucosal infiltration or exceeding 10 mm in size, between February 2012 and January 2015 were prospectively included. The primary endpoint was the rate of curative resection of carcinoma, defined as histologically complete resection of adenocarcinomas without poor histoprognostic factors. Results Thirty-five patients (36 lesions) with a mean age of 66.2 ± 12 years, a mean ASA score of 2.1 ± 0.7, and a mean C4M6 Barrett’s segment were included. The mean procedure time was 191 ± 79 mn, and the mean size of the resected specimen was 51.3 ± 23 mm. En bloc resection rate was 89%. Lesions were 12 ± 15 mm in size, and 81% (29/36) were invasive adenocarcinomas, six of which with submucosal invasion. Although R0 resection of carcinoma was 72.4%, the curative resection rate was 66% (19/29). After a mean follow-up of 12.9 ± 9 months, 16 (45.7%) patients had required additional treatment, among whom nine underwent surgical resection, and seven further endoscopic treatments. Metachronous lesions or recurrence of cancer developed during the follow-up period in 17.2% of the patients. The overall complication rate was 16.7%, including 8.3% perforations, all conservatively managed, and no bleeding. The 30-day mortality was 0%. Conclusion In this early experience, ESD yielded a moderate curative resection rate in Barrett’s neoplasia. At present, improvements are needed if ESD is to replace piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection in the management of Barrett’s neoplasia. PMID:27087948

  5. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Type 1: Imaging Solutions to Clinical Questions.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Christopher M; Patronas, Nicholas J; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Short, Tyler K; Smirniotopoulos, James G

    2016-01-01

    The common clinical presentations of multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1 (MEN1) often lead to predictable clinical questions that can be answered with imaging. From pituitary adenomas to parathyroid adenoms and pancreaticoduodenal neuroendocrine tumors, the multiple faces of MEN1 require an understanding of the basic disease characteristics and an understanding of multiple imaging modalities. We attempt to provide the reader with a basic understanding of the common clinical questions raised by patients with MEN1 and how radiologists can provide critical management information. PMID:26547632

  6. Integumentary Disorders Including Cutaneous Neoplasia in Older Horses.

    PubMed

    Knottenbelt, Derek C

    2016-08-01

    Few skin diseases specifically or exclusively affect older horses and donkeys. Hypertrichosis (hirsutism) associated with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction is probably the most recognized and best understood exception and is the most common age-related skin condition in equids. Many other conditions are known to be more serious in older horses. Horses affected with immune-compromising conditions can be more severely affected by infectious diseases of the skin or heavy and pathologically significant parasitism. Neoplasia of the skin is probably more prevalent and worse in older horses, although many of the more serious skin tumors develop initially at a younger age. PMID:27329491

  7. Diagnosis and therapies for gastric non-invasive neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great discrepancy of pathological diagnosis for gastric non-invasive neoplasia/dysplasia between Japanese and western pathologists. In Japan, lesions that most western pathologists diagnose as dysplasia are often considered adenocarcinoma based on nuclear and structural atypia regardless of the presence of invasion. In the Vienna classification, gastric non-invasive intraepithelial neoplasia (NIN) were divided into low grade and high grade (including intra-mucosal cancer of Japanese criteria). The diagnosis by both endoscopy and pathology of biopsy specimen is difficult. Recent advances of diagnostic modality such as magnified endoscopy and imaged enhanced endoscopy is expected to improve the diagnostic yield for NIN. There are two treatment strategies for NIN, observation and diagnostic therapy by endoscopic resection (ER). ER is acceptable because of its less invasiveness and high local control rate, on the other hand, cancer-developing rate of low-grade NIN is reported to be low. Therefore there is controversy for the treatment of gastric NIN. Prospective study based on unified pathological definition is required in the future. PMID:26640329

  8. The Role of MicroRNAs in Myeloproliferative Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Shaban; Azizi, Seyed Ghader; Soleimani, Masoud; Farshi, Yadollah; Kashani Khatib, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    MiRs are 17-25 nucleotide non-coding RNAs. These RNAs target approximately 80% of protein coding mRNAs. MiRs control gene expression and altered expression of them affects the development of cancer. MiRs can function as tumor suppressor via down-regulation of proto-oncogenes and may function as oncogenes by suppressing tumor suppressors. Myeloproliferative neoplasias (formerly known as chronic myeloproliferative disorders) form a class of hematologic malignancies demonstrating the expansion of stem cells in one or more hematopoietic cell lines. CML results from an acquired translocation known as BCR-ABL (Philadelphia chromosome). JAK2V617F mutation is present in over 95% of PV, 55% of ET and 65% of PMF cases. Aberrant expression of miR is associated with myeloproliferative neoplasias, pathogenesis, disease progress and response to treatment. MiRs can also be potential therapeutic targets. CML is mainly treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as Imatinib. In addition, altered function of miRs may be used as a prognostic factor in treatment. Resistance to Imatinib is currently a major clinical problem. The role of a number of miRs has been demonstrated in this resistance. Changing expression pattern of miRs can be effective in response to treatment and inhibition of drug resistance. In this paper, we set out to evaluate the effect of miRs in pathogenesis and treatment of MPN. PMID:27489593

  9. A Multiscale Model Evaluates Screening for Neoplasia in Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Curtius, Kit; Hazelton, William D; Jeon, Jihyoun; Luebeck, E Georg

    2015-05-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients are routinely screened for high grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) through endoscopic screening, during which multiple esophageal tissue samples are removed for histological analysis. We propose a computational method called the multistage clonal expansion for EAC (MSCE-EAC) screening model that is used for screening BE patients in silico to evaluate the effects of biopsy sampling, diagnostic sensitivity, and treatment on disease burden. Our framework seamlessly integrates relevant cell-level processes during EAC development with a spatial screening process to provide a clinically relevant model for detecting dysplastic and malignant clones within the crypt-structured BE tissue. With this computational approach, we retain spatio-temporal information about small, unobserved tissue lesions in BE that may remain undetected during biopsy-based screening but could be detected with high-resolution imaging. This allows evaluation of the efficacy and sensitivity of current screening protocols to detect neoplasia (dysplasia and early preclinical EAC) in the esophageal lining. We demonstrate the clinical utility of this model by predicting three important clinical outcomes: (1) the probability that small cancers are missed during biopsy-based screening, (2) the potential gains in neoplasia detection probabilities if screening occurred via high-resolution tomographic imaging, and (3) the efficacy of ablative treatments that result in the curative depletion of metaplastic and neoplastic cell populations in BE in terms of the long-term impact on reducing EAC incidence. PMID:26001209

  10. The Role of MicroRNAs in Myeloproliferative Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Shaban; Azizi, Seyed Ghader; Soleimani, Masoud; Farshi, Yadollah; Kashani Khatib, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    MiRs are 17-25 nucleotide non-coding RNAs. These RNAs target approximately 80% of protein coding mRNAs. MiRs control gene expression and altered expression of them affects the development of cancer. MiRs can function as tumor suppressor via down-regulation of proto-oncogenes and may function as oncogenes by suppressing tumor suppressors. Myeloproliferative neoplasias (formerly known as chronic myeloproliferative disorders) form a class of hematologic malignancies demonstrating the expansion of stem cells in one or more hematopoietic cell lines. CML results from an acquired translocation known as BCR-ABL (Philadelphia chromosome). JAK2V617F mutation is present in over 95% of PV, 55% of ET and 65% of PMF cases. Aberrant expression of miR is associated with myeloproliferative neoplasias, pathogenesis, disease progress and response to treatment. MiRs can also be potential therapeutic targets. CML is mainly treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as Imatinib. In addition, altered function of miRs may be used as a prognostic factor in treatment. Resistance to Imatinib is currently a major clinical problem. The role of a number of miRs has been demonstrated in this resistance. Changing expression pattern of miRs can be effective in response to treatment and inhibition of drug resistance. In this paper, we set out to evaluate the effect of miRs in pathogenesis and treatment of MPN. PMID:27489593

  11. Analysis of digitized cervical images to detect cervical neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Daron G.

    2004-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. If diagnosed in the premalignant stage, cure is invariably assured. Although the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented, the test is only moderately sensitive, highly subjective and skilled-labor intensive. Newer optical screening tests (cervicography, direct visual inspection and speculoscopy), including fluorescent and reflective spectroscopy, are fraught with certain weaknesses. Yet, the integration of optical probes for the detection and discrimination of cervical neoplasia with automated image analysis methods may provide an effective screening tool for early detection of cervical cancer, particularly in resource poor nations. Investigative studies are needed to validate the potential for automated classification and recognition algorithms. By applying image analysis techniques for registration, segmentation, pattern recognition, and classification, cervical neoplasia may be reliably discriminated from normal epithelium. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), has embarked on a program to begin this and other similar investigative studies.

  12. Microtopographic Inspection and Fractal Analysis of Skin Neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Hipolito, Alberto Valencia; Gutierrez, Gustavo Fidel; Chanona, Jorge; Gallegos, Eva Ramón

    2008-04-01

    ) corresponding to some neoplasia is higher (1.334+/-0.072) than those for healthy skin (1.091+/-0.082). A significant difference between the fractal dimensions of neoplasia and healhty skin (>0.001) was registered. The FD of microtopography maps (FDm) can also distinguish between healthy and malignant tissue in general (2.277+/-0.070 to 2.309+/-0.040), but not discriminate the different types of skin neoplasias. The combination of the rugometric evaluation and fractal geometry characterization provides valuable information about the malignity of skin lesions and type of lesion.

  13. Surgical interventions for high grade vulval intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Sonali; Pepas, Litha; Nordin, Andy; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a pre-malignant condition of the vulval skin. This uncommon chronic skin condition of the vulva is associated with a high risk of recurrence and the potential to progress to vulval cancer. The condition is complicated by its’ multicentric and multifocal nature. The incidence of this condition appears to be rising particularly in the younger age group. There is a lack of consensus on the optimal surgical treatment method. However, the rationale for surgical treatment of VIN has been to treat symptoms and exclude underlying malignancy with the continued aim of preservation of vulval anatomy and function. Repeated treatments affect local cosmesis and cause psychosexual morbidity thus impacting on the patients’ quality of life. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgical interventions for high grade VIN. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 3, 2010, Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, MEDLINE and EMBASE up to September 2010. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared surgical interventions, in adult women diagnosed with high grade vulval intraepithelial neoplasia. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Main results We found only one RCT which included 30 women that met our inclusion criteria and this trial reported data on carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) versus ultrasonic surgical aspiration (USA). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of disease recurrence after one year follow-up, pain, presence of scarring, dysuria or burning, adhesions, infection, abnormal discharge and eschar between women who received CO2 laser and those who received USA. The trial

  14. Use of tamoxifen in the control of canine mammary neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Morris, J S; Dobson, J M; Bostock, D E

    1993-11-27

    Ninety-three bitches which had undergone mammary tumour surgery were entered into a clinical trial to examine the effects of ovariohysterectomy (spaying) at the time of mammary surgery and the use of the drug tamoxifen in preventing the recurrence of the tumour and/or the development of new mammary tumours. Twenty-three of the bitches which had been spayed were allocated tamoxifen but only 18 of them complied with the treatment and in nine of these the treatment was stopped owing to side effects (mostly oestrogenic). Too few animals were studied to draw conclusions about the possible preventative effects of tamoxifen on mammary neoplasia, but the high percentage of bitches affected by oestrogen-like side effects may reduce the compliance of owners and prevent tamoxifen being widely used in dogs. PMID:8116156

  15. Is bacterial vaginosis associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia?

    PubMed

    Boyle, D C M; Barton, S E; Uthayakumar, S; Hay, P E; Pollock, J W; Steer, P J; Smith, J R

    2003-01-01

    Previous research has produced conflicting results regarding the association of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). These studies have been weakened in their conclusions mainly by failure to adequately control for the presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). One proposed mechanism suggesting that carcinogenic nitrosamines acting either independently or via human papilloma virus (HPV) has not been fully tested previously. We undertook a prospective, case-controlled, cross-sectional study where the presence of STIs, in particular human papillomavirus (HPV) which is known to be associated with the development of CIN, was controlled for. Women with BV were not found to have CIN more frequently than women with normal vaginal flora and the quantities of nitrosamines produced by women with BV did not differ significantly from women without BV. We thus found that BV is not associated with CIN. PMID:12657117

  16. Photodynamic therapy of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) high grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Belotto, Renata; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-02-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the precursor of invasive cervical cancer and associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors. PDT is based on the accumulation of a photosensitizer in target cells that will generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species upon illumination, inducing the death of abnormal tissue and PDT with less damaging to normal tissues than surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy and seems to be a promising alternative procedure for CIN treatment. The CIN high grades (II and III) presents potential indications for PDT due the success of PDT for CIN low grade treatment. The patients with CIN high grade that were treated with new clinic protocol shows lesion regression to CIN low grade 60 days after the treatment. The new clinical protocol using for treatment of CIN high grade shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  17. Optical diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia: A Western perspective.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Kheir, Ammar O; Hewett, David G

    2016-04-01

    Optical diagnosis is an emerging paradigm in Western endoscopic practice for the colonoscopic management of diminutive polyps, and includes two complementary clinical strategies: 'resect and discard', in which diminutive high-confidence adenomas are identified, and then removed and discarded without pathological assessment; and 'diagnose and leave', where diminutive high-confidence hyperplastic polyps are identified in the rectosigmoid and then left without resection or biopsy. Like other aspects of colonoscopy performance, adoption of optical diagnosis in Western practice is limited by operator dependency and variation in clinical effectiveness. There is substantial potential for optical diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia during colonoscopy to alleviate the rising costs of health care in the West. However, operator dependence in diagnostic performance together with critical system factors such as informed consent, credentialing, medical legal support and reimbursement incentives must be overcome before optical diagnosis of diminutive lesions is considered for widespread adoption in Western clinical practice. PMID:26841371

  18. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 509: Management of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is an increasingly common problem, particularly among women in their 40s. The term VIN is used to denote high-grade squamous lesions and is subdivided into usual-type VIN (including warty, basaloid, and mixed VIN) and differentiated VIN. Usual-type VIN is commonly associated with carcinogenic genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) and other HPV persistence risk factors, such as cigarette smoking and immunocompromised status, whereas differentiated VIN usually is not associated with HPV and is more often associated with vulvar dermatologic conditions, such as lichen sclerosus. Biopsy is indicated for any pigmented vulvar lesion. Treatment is indicated for all cases of VIN. When occult invasion is not a concern, VIN can be treated with surgical therapy, laser ablation, or medical therapy. After resolution, women should be monitored at 6 and 12 months and annually thereafter. PMID:22015906

  19. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b associated with lichen nitidus.

    PubMed

    Altaykan, Asli; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Emre, Serap; Orhan, Diclehan; Güçer, Safak; Erkin, Gül

    2007-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2B syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited endocrine disorder with rare skin manifestations. We report the case of a 19-year-old Turkish girl who presented with skin-colored flat papules scattered all over the trunk and extremities. Additionally, she had marfanoid habitus, thick lips, and multiple flesh-colored papules over the inner eyelids and oral mucosa. Histopathological examination of one of the trunk lesions was consistent with lichen nitidus. Her past medical history was significant for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Genetic testing showed a point mutation in exon 16 at codon 918 (M918T) in the RET proto-oncogene. Based on all these findings, MEN type 2B was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge we report the first case of MEN type 2B associated with lichen nitidus. PMID:17540634

  20. Post-genomics of bone metabolic dysfunctions and neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Giulia; Braconi, Daniela; Spreafico, Adriano; Santucci, Annalisa

    2012-02-01

    Post-genomic research on osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells, in contrast to that on many other cell types, has only been undertaken recently. Nevertheless, important information has been gained from these investigations on the mechanisms involved in osteoblast differentiation and on markers relevant for tissue regeneration and therapeutic validation of drugs, hormones and growth factors. These protein indicators may also have a diagnostic and prognostic value for bone dysfunctions and tumors. Some reviews have already focused on the application of transcriptomics and/or proteomics for exploring skeletal biology and related disorders. The main goal of the present review is to systematically summarize the most relevant post-genomic studies on various metabolic bone diseases (osteoporosis, Paget's disease and osteonecrosis), neoplasias (osteosarcoma) and metabolic conditions that indirectly affect bone tissue, such as alkaptonuria. PMID:22246652

  1. A metastatic ovarian angiosarcoma mimicking hematologic neoplasia at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gaiolla, Rafael Dezen; Duarte, Ivison Xavier; Bacchi, Carlos Eduardo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Angiosarcomas are rare aggressive neoplasms of vascular endothelial origin with a high metastatic rate and poor prognosis. Involvement of the bone marrow by the angiosarcoma is exceedingly uncommon, and there have only been a few cases reported in the literature to date. Clinical manifestations and common laboratory findings of bone marrow involvement can mimic other more common bone marrow-replacing neoplasias such as lymphomas and acute leukemia. A definitive diagnosis is difficult to make from cytologic material, probably due to an associated bone marrow fibrosis, and requires bone marrow trephine biopsy with an immunohistochemical profile. Here we had the opportunity to study a case of metastatic angiosarcoma with positive cytologic findings and an unusual presentation that challenged its primary diagnosis. PMID:24847252

  2. A Metastatic Ovarian Angiosarcoma Mimicking Hematologic Neoplasia at Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gaiolla, Rafael Dezen; Duarte, Ívison Xavier; Bacchi, Carlos Eduardo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Angiosarcomas are rare aggressive neoplasms of vascular endothelial origin with a high metastatic rate and poor prognosis. Involvement of the bone marrow by the angiosarcoma is exceedingly uncommon, and there have only been a few cases reported in the literature to date. Clinical manifestations and common laboratory findings of bone marrow involvement can mimic other more common bone marrow-replacing neoplasias such as lymphomas and acute leukemia. A definitive diagnosis is difficult to make from cytologic material, probably due to an associated bone marrow fibrosis, and requires bone marrow trephine biopsy with an immunohistochemical profile. Here we had the opportunity to study a case of metastatic angiosarcoma with positive cytologic findings and an unusual presentation that challenged its primary diagnosis. PMID:24847252

  3. Relationship between duodenal bile acids and colorectal neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Moorehead, R J; Campbell, G R; Donaldson, J D; McKelvey, S T

    1987-01-01

    To investigate a possible relationship between bile acids and colorectal neoplasia duodenal bile acids were analysed in 50 patients with colorectal adenomas and 14 with carcinoma. Using gas liquid and high performance liquid chromatography a small, but significant increase in the proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid was found in the bile of adenoma patients compared with controls (mean % +/- SD 31.0 +/- 10.8, 26.4 +/- 8.3, p = 0.01). The difference in the proportions of chenodeoxycholic acid correlated with increasing malignant potential of the adenomas as determined by increasing size, histological type, degree of dysplasia and number present. In carcinoma patients an increase in the proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid was also observed compared with controls (mean % +/- SD, 47.2 +/- 9.6, 28.0 +/- 4.5, p less than 0.01). The proportions of other bile acids in those with adenoma or carcinoma were normal. PMID:3428671

  4. Cerebral oligodendroglioma mimicking intraventricular neoplasia in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Levine, Jonathan M; Eden, Kristin B; Watson, Victoria E; Griffin, John F; Edwards, John F; Porter, Brian F

    2015-05-01

    Oligodendroglioma is one of the most common primary central nervous system neoplasms of dogs. It is often diagnosed in older, brachycephalic breeds, and although its typical clinical features and neuroanatomic location have been well described, less common presentations may hinder its diagnosis. We describe 3 cases of canine cerebral oligodendroglioma that clinically and grossly present as intraventricular tumors. Histologic findings in all cases were typical of oligodendroglioma. Neoplastic cells were uniformly immunoreactive for Olig2 and negative for neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. In addition to the immunopositivity for Olig2, a cluster of morphologically distinct neoplastic cells in one of the cases was immunoreactive for synaptophysin, and the case was diagnosed as an oligodendroglioma with neurocytic differentiation. Based on these findings, oligodendroglioma should be included as a differential diagnosis for intraventricular neoplasia in dogs. Furthermore, oligodendroglioma with ventricular involvement should be differentiated from central neurocytoma by immunohistochemistry. PMID:25943126

  5. Histological inflammation increases the risk of colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Ruben J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients are at greater risk for the development of colorectal neoplasia. Several individual studies have demonstrated associations between severity of histologic inflammation and colorectal neoplasia. However, a comprehensive systematic review has not been completed. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relationship between histologic inflammation and risk for neoplasia among available observational studies. Methods Three databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library) were systematically searched. Studies were included if they included UC patients who underwent colonoscopic assessment and when histologic inflammation and colorectal neoplasia were both reported. Colorectal neoplasia rates were compared. Quantitative meta-analysis was attempted. Results Four of 1,422 records found were eligible. Results from 2 case-control studies reported a 3.5-fold increased risk for colorectal neoplasia associated with a single point increase in histologic inflammation. This result was further corroborated by one cohort study that demonstrated increased hazard ratios. The second cohort study reported outcomes for patients with normal gross endoscopy, but had increased histological inflammation when neoplasia was assessed. Finally, this study reported increased risk for neoplastic progression by histological inflammation among patients who were normal by gross endoscopic evaluation. Quantitative meta-analysis was unsuccessful due to heterogeneity between study measures. Conclusions There is strong evidence that histologic inflammation among patients with UC increases the risk of colorectal neoplasia. The depth and nature of assessment of additional clinical variables was varied and may have resulted in greater outcome discrepancy. Additional study related to mechanisms of inflammation-related neoplasia and therapeutic modification is needed.

  6. Predictive cytogenetic biomarkers for colorectal neoplasia in medium risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, EM; Nicolaie, T; Ionescu, MA; Becheanu, G; Andrei, F; Diculescu, M; Ciocirlan, M

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: DNA damage and chromosomal alterations in peripheral lymphocytes parallels DNA mutations in tumor tissues. Objective: The aim of our study was to predict the presence of neoplastic colorectal lesions by specific biomarkers in “medium risk” individuals (age 50 to 75, with no personal or family of any colorectal neoplasia). Methods and Results: We designed a prospective cohort observational study including patients undergoing diagnostic or opportunistic screening colonoscopy. Specific biomarkers were analyzed for each patient in peripheral lymphocytes - presence of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB) and the Nuclear Division Index (NDI) by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN). Of 98 patients included, 57 were “medium risk” individuals. MN frequency and NPB presence were not significantly different in patients with neoplastic lesions compared to controls. In “medium risk” individuals, mean NDI was significantly lower for patients with any neoplastic lesions (adenomas and adenocarcinomas, AUROC 0.668, p 00.5), for patients with advanced neoplasia (advanced adenoma and adenocarcinoma, AUROC 0.636 p 0.029) as well as for patients with adenocarcinoma (AUROC 0.650, p 0.048), for each comparison with the rest of the population. For a cut-off of 1.8, in “medium risk” individuals, an NDI inferior to that value may predict any neoplastic lesion with a sensitivity of 97.7%, an advanced neoplastic lesion with a sensitivity of 97% and adenocarcinoma with a sensitivity of 94.4%. Discussion: NDI score may have a role as a colorectal cancer-screening test in “medium risk” individuals. Abbreviations: DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid; CRC = colorectal cancer; EU = European Union; WHO = World Health Organization; FOBT = fecal occult blood test; CBMN = cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay; MN = micronuclei; NPB = nucleoplasmic bridges; NDI = Nuclear Division Index; FAP = familial adenomatous polyposis; HNPCC = hereditary non

  7. Laparoscopic wedge resection of synchronous gastric intraepithelial neoplasia and stromal tumor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mou, Yi-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Wu; Xie, Kun; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Ke

    2010-10-21

    Synchronous occurrence of epithelial neoplasia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the stomach is uncommon. Only rare cases have been reported in the literature. We present here a 60-year-old female case of synchronous occurrence of gastric high-level intraepithelial neoplasia and GIST with the features of 22 similar cases and detailed information reported in the English-language literature summarized. In the present patient, epithelial neoplasia and GIST were removed en bloc by laparoscopic wedge resection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case treated by laparoscopic wedge resection. PMID:20954290

  8. Malignant Neoplasia of the Sex Skin in 2 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Beck, Amanda P; Magden, Elizabeth R; Buchl, Stephanie J; Baze, Wallace B

    2016-04-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous malignant neoplasia within the sex skin of aged female chimpanzees. In both cases, the initial presentation resembled nonhealing traumatic wounds to the sex skin, with different degrees of infection, ulceration, and tissue necrosis. Histopathology of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in one case and of adenocarcinoma with metastasis in the other. Advanced age and previous trauma likely contributed to the development of the neoplasias in both cases; long-term sun exposure may also have contributed to the development of the squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, these 2 cases represent the first reports of sex skin neoplasia in chimpanzees. PMID:27053571

  9. The Spatial Predilection for Early Esophageal Squamous Cell Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Lun; Chang, I.-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Chang, Chi-Yang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Mo, Lein-Ray; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Lee, Ching-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early esophageal squamous cell neoplasias (ESCNs) are easily missed with conventional white-light endoscopy. This study aimed to assess whether early ESCNs have a spatial predilection and the patterns of recurrence after endoscopic treatment. We analyzed the circumferential and longitudinal location of early ESCNs, as well as their correlations with exposure to carcinogens in a cohort of 162 subjects with 248 early ESCNs; 219 of which were identified by screening and 29 by surveillance endoscopy. The circumferential location was identified using a clock-face orientation, and the longitudinal location was identified according to the distance from the incisor. The most common circumferential and longitudinal distributions of the early ESCNs were found in the 6 to 9 o’clock quadrant (38.5%) and at 26 to 30 cm from the incisor (41.3%), respectively. A total of 163 lesions (75%) were located in the lower hemisphere arc, and 149 (68.4%) were located at 26 to 35 cm from the incisor. One hundred eleven (51%) early ESCNs were centered within the “hot zone” (i.e., lower hemisphere arc of the esophagus at 26 to 35 cm from the incisor), which comprised 20% of the esophageal area. Exposure to alcohol, betel nut, or cigarette was risk factors for the development of early ESCNs in the lower hemisphere. After complete endoscopic treatment, the mean annual incidence of metachronous tumors was 10%. In addition, 43% of the metachronous recurrent neoplasias developed within the “hot zone.” Cox regression analysis revealed that the index tumor within the hot zone (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–8.68; P = 0.02) and the presence of numerous Lugol-voiding lesions in the esophageal background mucosa were independent predictors for metachronous recurrence (HR: 4.61; 95% CI: 1.36–15.56; P = 0.01). We identified a hot zone that may be used to enhance the detection of early ESCNs during endoscopic screening and surveillance

  10. Cytopathological Features of a Severe Type of Corneal Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Hideki; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Yokoi, Norihiko; Yamasaki, Kenta; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the cytopathological features of corneal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) through the investigation of cytokeratin expression pattern, keratinization, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and epithelial mesenchymal transition. Patient and Methods Corneal tissue excised from a CIN patient was examined in this study. Cryosections of the excised CIN epithelial tissue were examined by immunostaining analysis using antibodies against cytokeratins, keratinization-related proteins, Ki-67, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins. Subcellular localization of F-actin was also analyzed using phalloidin. For the detection of apoptotic cells, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify the expression level of hTERT in the CIN epithelium. Results The CIN epithelium exhibited a significantly altered cytokeratin expression pattern compared to normal corneas with an upregulated expression of keratinization-related proteins. The CIN epithelium also demonstrated an increased number of Ki-67-positive cells with an upregulated expression of hTERT, while exhibiting an increased number of apoptotic cells. EMT did not occur in the CIN epithelium. Conclusion CIN epithelium seems to be slightly dedifferentiated from the corneal epithelial lineage. The status of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the CIN epithelium was significantly altered from that of normal corneal epithelium, but its malignancy level does not appear to be as high as that of metastasis-competent malignant cancers. PMID:27462252

  11. Pharmacological Intervention through Dietary Nutraceuticals in Gastrointestinal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Mohammad F; Bhat, Showket H; Husain, Eram; Abu-Duhier, Faisel; Hadi, S M; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Ahmad, Aamir

    2016-07-01

    Neoplastic conditions associated with gastrointestinal (GI) tract are common worldwide with colorectal cancer alone accounting for the third leading rate of cancer incidence. Other GI malignancies such as esophageal carcinoma have shown an increasing trend in the last few years. The poor survival statistics of these fatal cancer diseases highlight the need for multiple alternative treatment options along with effective prophylactic strategies. Worldwide geographical variation in cancer incidence indicates a correlation between dietary habits and cancer risk. Epidemiological studies have suggested that populations with high intake of certain dietary agents in their regular meals have lower cancer rates. Thus, an impressive embodiment of evidence supports the concept that dietary factors are key modulators of cancer including those of GI origin. Preclinical studies on animal models of carcinogenesis have reflected the pharmacological significance of certain dietary agents called as nutraceuticals in the chemoprevention of GI neoplasia. These include stilbenes (from red grapes and red wine), isoflavones (from soy), carotenoids (from tomatoes), curcuminoids (from spice turmeric), catechins (from green tea), and various other small plant metabolites (from fruits, vegetables, and cereals). Pleiotropic action mechanisms have been reported for these diet-derived chemopreventive agents to retard, block, or reverse carcinogenesis. This review presents a prophylactic approach to primary prevention of GI cancers by highlighting the translational potential of plant-derived nutraceuticals from epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical studies, for the better management of these cancers through consumption of nutraceutical rich diets and their intervention in cancer therapeutics. PMID:25365584

  12. In vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia by multimodal colposcopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wenqi; Qu, Yingjie; Pei, Jiaojiao; Xiao, Linlin; Zhang, Shiwu; Chang, Shufang; Smith, Zachary J.; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in developing countries. Colposcopy plays an important role in early screening and detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In this paper, we developed a multimodal colposcopy system that combines multispectral reflectance, autofluorescence, and RGB imaging for in vivo detection of CIN, which is capable of dynamically recording multimodal data of the same region of interest (ROI). We studied the optical properties of cervical tissue to determine multi-wavelengths for different imaging modalities. Advanced algorithms based on the second derivative spectrum and the fluorescence intensity were developed to differentiate cervical tissue into two categories: squamous normal (SN) and high grade (HG) dysplasia. In the results, the kinetics of cervical reflectance and autofluorescence characteristics pre and post acetic acid application were observed and analyzed, and the image segmentation revealed good consistency with the gold standard of histopathology. Our pilot study demonstrated the clinical potential of this multimodal colposcopic system for in vivo detection of cervical cancer.

  13. Xiphophorus interspecies hybrids as genetic models of induced neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Walter, R B; Kazianis, S

    2001-01-01

    Fishes of the genus Xiphophorus (platyfishes and swordtails) are small, internally fertilizing, livebearing, and derived from freshwater habitats in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. Scientists have used these fishes in cancer research studies for more than 70 yr. The genus is presently composed of 22 species that are quite divergent in their external morphology. Most cancer studies using Xiphophorus use hybrids, which can be easily produced by artificial insemination. Phenotypic traits, such as macromelanophore pigment patterns, are often drastically altered as a result of lack of gene regulation within hybrid fishes. These fish can develop large exophytic melanomas as a result of upregulated expression of these pigment patterns. Because backcross hybrid fish are susceptible to the development of melanoma and other neoplasms, they can be subjected to potentially deleterious chemical and physical agents. It is thus possible to use gene mapping and cloning methodologies to identify and characterize oncogenes and tumor suppressors implicated in spontaneous or induced neoplasia. This article reviews the history of cancer research using Xiphophorus and recent developments regarding DNA repair capabilities, mapping, and cloning of candidate genes involved in neoplastic phenotypes. The particular genetic complexity of melanoma in these fishes is analyzed and reviewed. PMID:11581522

  14. Pregnancy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 equals multiple complications

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Megha; Gupta, Manish

    2014-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is a rare inherited disorder caused by mutations in the tumour suppressor gene MEN 1. It is characterised by a predisposition towards the development of parathyroid, anterior pituitary and entero-pancreatic tumours. Clinically, MEN 1 is defined following development of two out of these three tumours. There have been no published cases of the management of MEN 1 in pregnancy. We report the first case of a 31-year-old primigravida with a confirmed diagnosis of MEN 1 prior to conception. Due to the rare nature of MEN 1, there are no guidelines on how such women should be managed. The main issues were to assess and manage potential complications, such as hypercalcaemia, diabetes mellitus and the symptoms from a pituitary tumour as well the issues around a gastrinoma and monitor fetal well-being. A Caesarean section was performed at 35 weeks gestation for a growth-restricted fetus with raised umbilical artery Dopplers. The neonate was treated with intravenous calcium secondary to hypocalcaemia. The patient and neonate recovered well. We have demonstrated successful management of a woman with MEN 1 who completed her pregnancy with few complications and a healthy neonate. It is vital for such women to be managed in the context of a multidisciplinary team setting to optimise maternal and fetal outcomes.

  15. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    PubMed

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-14

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  16. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  17. A Drosophila Model of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Read, Renee D.; Goodfellow, Paul J.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Novak, Nancy; Armstrong, Jon R.; Cagan, Ross L.

    2005-01-01

    Dominant mutations in the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase lead to the familial cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2). Mammalian tissue culture studies suggest that RetMEN2 mutations significantly alter Ret-signaling properties, but the precise mechanisms by which RetMEN2 promotes tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. To determine the signal transduction pathways required for RetMEN2 activity, we analyzed analogous mutations in the Drosophila Ret ortholog dRet. Overexpressed dRetMEN2 isoforms targeted to the developing retina led to aberrant cell proliferation, inappropriate cell fate specification, and excessive Ras pathway activation. Genetic analysis indicated that dRetMEN2 acts through the Ras-ERK, Src, and Jun kinase pathways. A genetic screen for mutations that dominantly suppress or enhance dRetMEN2 phenotypes identified new genes that are required for the phenotypic outcomes of dRetMEN2 activity. Finally, we identified human orthologs for many of these genes and examined their status in human tumors. Two of these loci showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) within both sporadic and MEN2-associated pheochromocytomas, suggesting that they may contribute to Ret-dependent oncogenesis. PMID:15965261

  18. Imiquimod in cervical, vaginal and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a review.

    PubMed

    de Witte, C J; van de Sande, A J M; van Beekhuizen, H J; Koeneman, M M; Kruse, A J; Gerestein, C G

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is in the vast majority of patients accountable for the development of vulvar, cervical and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN, CIN, VAIN); precursors of vulvar, cervical and vaginal cancers. The currently preferred treatment modality for high grade VIN, CIN and VAIN is surgical excision. Nevertheless surgical treatment is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and recurrence is not uncommon. The aim of this review is to present evidence on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of imiquimod (an immune response modifier) in HPV-related VIN, CIN and VAIN. A search for papers on the use of imiquimod in VIN, CIN and VAIN was performed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Data was extracted and reviewed. Twenty-one articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed; 16 on VIN, 3 on CIN and 2 on VAIN. Complete response rates in VIN ranged from 5 to 88%. Although minor adverse effects were frequently reported, treatment with imiquimod was well tolerated in most patients. Studies on imiquimod treatment of CIN and VAIN are limited and lack uniformly defined endpoints. The available evidence however, shows encouraging effect. Complete response rates for CIN 2-3 and VAIN 1-3 ranged from 67 to 75% and 57 to 86% respectively. More randomized controlled trials on the use of imiquimod in CIN, VAIN and VIN with extended follow-up are necessary to determine the attributive therapeutic value in these patients. PMID:26335596

  19. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  20. Screening, Surveillance, and Treatment of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Long, Kevin C; Menon, Raman; Bastawrous, Amir; Billingham, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia has been increasing, especially in high-risk patients, including men who have sex with men, human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, and those who are immunosuppressed. Several studies with long-term follow-up have suggested that rate of progression from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to invasive anal cancer is ∼ 5%. This number is considerably higher for those at high risk. Anal cytology has been used to attempt to screen high-risk patients for disease; however, it has been shown to have very little correlation to actual histology. Patients with lesions should undergo history and physical exam including digital rectal exam and standard anoscopy. High-resolution anoscopy can be considered as well, although it is of questionable time and cost-effectiveness. Nonoperative treatments include expectant surveillance and topical imiquimod or 5-fluorouracil. Operative therapies include wide local excision and targeted ablation with electrocautery, infrared coagulation, or cryotherapy. Recurrence rates remain high regardless of treatment delivered and surveillance is paramount, although optimal surveillance regimens have yet to be established. PMID:26929753

  1. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review.

    PubMed

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-27

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  2. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia--is treatment better than observation?

    PubMed

    Orchard, M; Roman, A; Parvaiz, A C

    2013-01-01

    Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN) is an increasingly common condition for which the best treatment has not been well established. Traditional management was based on a 'watch and wait' strategy, but as the natural history of AIN and its progression to anal cancer is becoming better understood, more active treatment strategies are warranted. A best evidence topic in surgery was written according to a structured protocol to address the question whether treatment is indicated in patients with AIN. A total of 169 papers were identified using the defined search criteria. This included only one randomised controlled trial. Case series were therefore also included to help answer the question. The details of the papers were tabulated including relevant outcomes and study weaknesses. We conclude that treatment of high grade AIN, particularly in high risk groups is recommended to try to avoid progression to anal cancer. Treatment options that have shown some benefit include topical use of imiquimod cream or ablation directed by high resolution anoscopy. PMID:23643642

  3. Brain metastases from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: review of pertinent literature.

    PubMed

    Piura, E; Piura, B

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastasis from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is rare with about 222 cases documented in the literature and an incidence of about 11% in living GTN patients. Brain metastasis from GTN was part of a disseminated disease in 90% of patients, single metastases in the brain - 80% and located in the cerebrum - 90%. Brain metastasis was the only manifestation of metastatic GTN in 11.3% of patients, appeared synchronously with metastatic GTN in other sites of the body - 30.6% and was diagnosed from 0.3 to 60 months after diagnosis of metastatic GTN in other sites (most often in the lung) - 58.1%. Overall, 83.9% of patients with brain metastases from GTN had also lung metastases from GTN. Brain metastases from GTN showed a greater tendency to be hemorrhagic compared to brain metastases from other primaries. In patients with brain metastases from GTN, the best outcome was achieved with multimodal therapy including craniotomy, whole brain radiotherapy, and EP-EMA or EMA-CO chemotherapy. Nonetheless, brain metastasis from GTN is a grave disease with a median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastasis of about 12 months. PMID:25118474

  4. Oncogenic Ras/Src cooperativity in pancreatic neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Shields, DJ; Murphy, EA; Desgrosellier, JS; Mielgo, A; Lau, SKM; Barnes, LA; Lesperance, J; Huang, M; Schmedt, C; Tarin, D; Lowy, AM; Cheresh, DA

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies and is characterized by activating mutations of Kras, present in 95% of patients. More than 60% of pancreatic cancers also display increased c-Src activity, which is associated with poor prognosis. Although loss of tumor suppressor function (for example, p16, p53, Smad4) combined with oncogenic Kras signaling has been shown to accelerate pancreatic duct carcinogenesis, it is unclear whether elevated Src activity contributes to Kras-dependent tumorigenesis or is simply a biomarker of disease progression. Here, we demonstrate that in the context of oncogenic Kras, activation of c-Src through deletion of C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) results in the development of invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) by 5–8 weeks. In contrast, deletion of CSK alone fails to induce neoplasia, while oncogenic Kras expression yields PDA at low frequency after a latency of 12 months. Analysis of cell lines derived from Ras/Src-induced PDA’s indicates that oncogenic Ras/Src cooperativity may lead to genomic instability, yet Ras/Src-driven tumor cells remain dependent on Src signaling and as such, Src inhibition suppresses growth of Ras/Src-driven tumors. These findings demonstrate that oncogenic Ras/Src cooperate to accelerate PDA onset and support further studies of Src-directed therapies in pancreatic cancer. PMID:21242978

  5. Challenges in automated detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Yeshwanth; Yang, Shuyu; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda; Phillips, Benny; Long, Rodney

    2007-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) is a precursor to invasive cervical cancer, which annually accounts for about 3700 deaths in the United States and about 274,000 worldwide. Early detection of CIN is important to reduce the fatalities due to cervical cancer. While the Pap smear is the most common screening procedure for CIN, it has been proven to have a low sensitivity, requiring multiple tests to confirm an abnormality and making its implementation impractical in resource-poor regions. Colposcopy and cervicography are two diagnostic procedures available to trained physicians for non-invasive detection of CIN. However, many regions suffer from lack of skilled personnel who can precisely diagnose the bio-markers due to CIN. Automatic detection of CIN deals with the precise, objective and non-invasive identification and isolation of these bio-markers, such as the Acetowhite (AW) region, mosaicism and punctations, due to CIN. In this paper, we study and compare three different approaches, based on Mathematical Morphology (MM), Deterministic Annealing (DA) and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM), respectively, to segment the AW region of the cervix. The techniques are compared with respect to their complexity and execution times. The paper also presents an adaptive approach to detect and remove Specular Reflections (SR). Finally, algorithms based on MM and matched filtering are presented for the precise segmentation of mosaicism and punctations from AW regions containing the respective abnormalities.

  6. Thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to nuclear fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.E.; van Belle, G.; LoGerfo, J.P.

    1987-08-07

    We studied the risk of thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to radioiodines in nuclear fallout from the 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test. We screened 7266 Marshall Islanders for thyroid nodules; the islanders were from 14 atolls, including several southern atolls, which were the source of the best available unexposed comparison group. Using a retrospective cohort design, we determined the prevalence of thyroid nodularity in a subgroup of 2273 persons who were alive in 1954 and who therefore were potentially exposed to fallout from the BRAVO test. For those 12 atolls previously thought to be unexposed to fallout, the prevalence of thyroid nodules ranged from 0.9% to 10.6%. Using the distance of each atoll from the test site as a proxy for the radiation dose to the thyroid gland, a weighted linear regression showed an inverse linear relationship between distance and the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid nodules. Distance was the strongest single predictor in logistic regression analysis. A new absolute risk estimate was calculated to be 1100 excess cases/Gy/y/1 X 10(6) persons (11.0 excess cases/rad/y/1 million persons), 33% higher than previous estimates. We conclude that an excess of thyroid nodules was not limited only to the two northern atolls but extended throughout the northern atolls; this suggests a linear dose-response relationship.

  7. A Possible New Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Mutation in a Patient with a Prototypic Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Buzzola, Rino; Kurukulasuriya, Lilamani Romayne; Touza, Mariana; Litofsky, Norman S.; Brietzke, Stephen; Sowers, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 syndrome is an uncommon inherited disorder characterized by the occurrence of tumors involving two or more endocrine glands. These tumors include pheochromocytoma, adrenal cortical and neuroendocrine tumors including (bronchopulmonary, thymic, gastric), lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas, and meningiomas. MEN-4 is very rare and has been characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid and anterior pituitary tumors in association with tumors of the adrenals, kidneys, and reproductive organs. Summary We report the case of a 40-year-old male without significant family history of endocrine disease who was found to have primary hyperparathyroidism, a pituitary tumor causing acromegaly, thyroid cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and pancreatic cysts. We posit that this represents a new version of MEN-4. While renal tumors (angiomyolipoma) have been reported as part of the MEN-4 phenotype, to our knowledge, this is the first case reported of the association of MEN-1 and/or MEN-4 phenotype with this unique constellation of tumors, including renal cell carcinoma. Interestingly, this patient tested negative (DNA sequencing/deletion) for MEN-1 (menin), MEN-4 (CDKN1B) and VHL genes. Key Message Thus, while this case has clinical characteristics consistent with either MEN-1 or MEN-4, it may represent a unique genetic variant. PMID:26989398

  8. [The premalignant disease of the endometrium: endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Francz, Mónika

    2008-03-01

    The WHO 1994 classification for endometrial hyperplasias is based on the morphologic features of the lesions. This system characterizes the nuclear cytologic morphology as typical or atypical and describes the glandular architectural pattern as simple or complex. The main problem of this classification is the poor reproducibility. Although the predictive value of the atypical category is high, there are many typical hyperplasia cases with cancer progression. Modern molecular data related to endometrial tumorigenesis and precise computerized morphometric analysis have identified the lesion that may be considered as a precursor of endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By definition, this endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) is a clonal proliferation of architecturally and cytologically altered endometrial glands which are prone to malignant transformation to endometrioid (type I) endometrial adenocarcinoma. The morphometric basis of EIN diagnosis is the D-score (DS), which is a logical combination of three morphometric features that represent the glandular complexity, glandular volume and cytological alterations. PTEN inactivation and K-ras mutation are the earliest genetic changes that can be revealed in these lesions. Hyperplasia cases that do not fit into the EIN categories are considered as benign or hormonal endometrial hyperplasia. This is the theoretical basis of a new classification system in premalignant endometrial diseases. Retrospective clinical data proved the high predictive value of the EIN scheme, so the decision on therapy can be more established. The reproducibility is excellent with application of precise definitions and PTEN immunohistochemistry. In the "Blue book" published in 2003 the WHO introduces the new morphometric- and molecular-based EIN system, and recommends it as an alternative classification method. PMID:18403295

  9. Association between folate status and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, W; Hao, M; Wang, Y; Feng, N; Wang, Z; Wang, W; Wang, J; Ding, L

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To investigate the effect of folate status on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) progression and its relationship with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV). Subjects/Methods: We evaluated 20 000 sexually active women aged <65 years in Yangqu County by using a questionnaire; the subjects were also screened using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT). Patients with abnormal TCT results (other than glandular cell abnormalities) who were willing to provide informed consent were further diagnosed using colposcopy and histopathological examination. We investigated 247 cases of low-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 125 cases of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 877 controls. A 24-item food frequency questionnaire was filled out by the investigator to estimate the consumption of dietary folate. Positivity for hrHPV from residual exfoliated cervical cells was tested; serum folate was also measured. Results: The hrHPV infection rate in HSIL patients (77.6%) was higher than that in LSIL (33.2%) and control (32.0%) patients. Dietary folate intakes in controls, LSIL and HSIL were 306.9±176.6, 321.8±168.0 and 314.7±193.8 μg/kcal, respectively. The levels of serum folate in controls, LSIL and HSIL were 18.2±7.9, 15.9±7.1 and 14.3±7.5 nmol/l, respectively. Increased CIN correlated with higher rates of hrHPV infection and lower levels of serum folate. Conclusions: Low levels of serum folate may increase the risk of CIN progression. Furthermore, potential synergy may exist between low serum folate levels and hrHPV infection to promote CIN development. PMID:27026426

  10. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Griffin, Heather; Doorbar, John

    2015-07-01

    Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted. PMID:26193301

  11. Diagnosis of gastric epithelial neoplasia: Dilemma for Korean pathologists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Mee; Cho, Mee-Yon; Sohn, Jin Hee; Kang, Dae Young; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Woo Ho; Jin, So-Young; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Chang, Hee Kyung; Yu, Eunsil; Jung, Eun Sun; Chang, Mee Soo; Joo, Jong Eun; Joo, Mee; Kim, Youn Wha; Park, Do Youn; Kang, Yun Kyung; Park, Sun Hoo; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Young Bae; Park, Ho Sung; Chae, Yang Seok; Kwon, Kye Won; Chang, Hee Jin

    2011-06-01

    The histopathological diagnosis of gastric mucosal biopsy and endoscopic mucosal resection/endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens is important, but the diagnostic criteria, terminology, and grading system are not the same in the East and West. A structurally invasive focus is necessary to diagnose carcinoma for most Western pathologists, but Japanese pathologists make a diagnosis of cancer based on severe dysplastic cytologic atypia irrespective of the presence of invasion. Although the Vienna classification was introduced to reduce diagnostic discrepancies, it has been difficult to adopt due to different concepts for gastric epithelial neoplastic lesions. Korean pathologists experience much difficulty making a diagnosis because we are influenced by Japanese pathologists as well as Western medicine. Japan is geographically close to Korea, and academic exchanges are active. Additionally, Korean doctors are familiar with Western style medical terminology. As a result, the terminology, definitions, and diagnostic criteria for gastric intraepithelial neoplasia are very heterogeneous in Korea. To solve this problem, the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has made an effort and has suggested guidelines for differential diagnosis: (1) a diagnosis of carcinoma is based on invasion; (2) the most important characteristic of low grade dysplasia is the architectural pattern such as regular distribution of crypts without severe branching, budding, or marked glandular crowding; (3) if nuclear pseudostratification occupies more than the basal half of the cryptal cells in three or more adjacent crypts, the lesion is considered high grade dysplasia; (4) if severe cytologic atypia is present, careful inspection for invasive foci is necessary, because the risk for invasion is very high; and (5) other structural or nuclear atypia should be evaluated to make a final decision such as cribriform pattern, papillae, ridges, vesicular nuclei

  12. Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Weis, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor of anal cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for anal dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of anal stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed anal cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod. Topical therapies have the advantage of being nonsurgical and are well suited for treating widespread multifocal disease. Topical treatments have the disadvantage of requiring extended treatment courses and causing a symptomatic

  13. Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor of anal cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for anal dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of anal stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed anal cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod. Topical therapies have the advantage of being nonsurgical and are well suited for treating widespread multifocal disease. Topical treatments have the disadvantage of requiring extended treatment courses and causing a symptomatic

  14. High Resolution Microendoscopy for Quantitative Diagnosis of Esophageal Neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongsuk

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the world. Cancers of the esophagus account for 3.8% of all cases of cancers, with approximately 482,300 new cases reported in 2008 worldwide. In the United States alone, it is estimated that approximately 18,000 new cases will be diagnosed in 2013, and 15,210 deaths are expected. Despite advances in surgery and chemoradiation therapy, these advances have not led to a significant increase in survival rates, primarily because diagnosis often at an advanced and incurable stage when treatment is more difficult and less successful. Accurate, objective methods for early detection of esophageal neoplasia are needed. Here, quantitative classification algorithms for high resolution miscroendoscopic images were developed to distinguish between esophageal neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissue. A clinical study in 177 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the classification algorithm in collaboration with the Mount Sinai Medical Center in the United States, the First Hospital of Jilin University in China, and the Cancer Institute and Hospital, the Chinese Academy of Medical Science in China. The study reported a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 92%, respectively, in the training set, 87% and 97%, respectively, in the test set, and 84% and 95%, respectively, in an independent validation set. Another clinical study in 31 patients with Barrett's esophagus resulted in a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 85%. Finally, a compact, portable version of the high resolution microendoscopy (HRME) device using a consumer-grade camera was developed and a series of biomedical experimental studies were carried out to assess the capability of the device.

  15. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Griffin, Heather; Doorbar, John

    2015-01-01

    Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted. PMID:26193301

  16. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF PHARYNGEAL NEOPLASIA IN 25 DOGS.

    PubMed

    Carozzi, Gregorio; Zotti, Alessandro; Alberti, Monica; Rossi, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to investigate head tumors in dogs, however little information is available for lesions of the pharyngeal area. The purpose of this multicentric, retrospective, cross-sectional study was to describe the CT findings in a sample of dogs with pathologically confirmed pharyngeal neoplasia and determine whether any CT features allowed differentiation of tumor type. Location of lesions, size and shape, margins, relationship with surrounding structures and vessels, attenuation characteristics and enhancement pattern, regional lymph node changes, and presence of metastasis were recorded by three observers (1 DECVDI). The effect of final diagnosis on each CT feature was tested. A total of 25 dogs were included: 15 with carcinomas, five sarcomas, four melanomas, and one lymphoma. The oropharynx and laryngopharynx were more frequently involved. Among tumor groups, lesions were of similar size, irregularly shaped, had ill-defined margins, and had moderate-to-marked heterogeneous contrast enhancement. Lysis of hyoid bones was recorded in two carcinomas and infiltration of the lingual artery occurred in one case. Marked medial retropharyngeal lymphoadenomegaly was recorded in 11 of 14 carcinomas, in all sarcomas and in two of four melanomas. The single lymphoma case showed ill-defined thickening of the oropharyngeal and laryngeal wall with retropharyngeal and mandibular lymphadenomegaly. Lung metastases were found in two of five sarcomas and two of four melanomas. Findings from the current study did not support the hypothesis that CT features could be used to predict pharyngeal tumor type in dogs. However, CT was helpful for determining mass extension, lymph node involvement, and distant metastatic spread. PMID:26173553

  17. Combining large area fluorescence with multiphoton microscopy for improved detection of oral epithelial neoplasia (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Qiu, Suimin; McCammon, Susan; Resto, Vicente; Vargas, Gracie

    2016-03-01

    Volumetric Multiphoton Autofluorescence Microscopy (MPAM) and Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy (SHGM) show promise for revealing indicators of neoplasia representing the complex microstructural organization of mucosa, potentially providing high specificity for detection of neoplasia, but is limited by small imaging area. Large area fluorescence methods on the other hand show high sensitivity appropriate for screening but are hampered by low specificity. In this study, we apply MPAM-SHGM following guidance from large area fluorescence, by either autofluorescence or a targeted metabolic fluorophore, as a potentially clinically viable approach for detection of oral neoplasia. Sites of high neoplastic potentially were identified by large area red/green autofluorescence or by a fluorescently labelled deoxy-glucose analog, 2-deoxy-2-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]-D-glucose (2-NBDG) to highlight areas of high glucose uptake across the buccal pouch of a hamster model for OSCC. Follow-up MPAM-SHGM was conducted on regions of interests (ROIs) to assess whether microscopy would reveal microscopic features associated with neoplasia to confirm or exclude large area fluorescence findings. Parameters for analysis included cytologic metrics, 3D epithelial connective tissue interface metrics (MPAM-SHGM) and intensity of fluorescence (widefield). Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histology and graded by a pathologist. A small sample of human ex vivo tissues were also imaged. A generalized linear model combining image metrics from large area fluorescence and volumetric MPAM-SHGM indicated the ability to delineate normal and inflammation from neoplasia.

  18. Association of Intrauterine Device (IUD) and Cervical Neoplasia - A Study in a Poor Nigerian Population

    PubMed Central

    Chigbu, Chibuike Ogwuegbu; Ozumba, Benjamin Chukwuma; Oguanuo, Theophilus Chimezie; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a contraceptive method used by women of reproductive age group. However, there are conflicting reports on the association between IUD and cervical neoplasia. These controversies may further hamper the poor uptake of modern contraception in Nigeria. Aim This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the association between IUD and cervical neoplasia. Materials and Methods This was a case control study in which Pap smear results of 156 participants on IUD were compared with those of 156 non-users of modern contraception. The participants who were found to have abnormal cervical smear cytology results were further subjected to colposcopy. Biopsy specimens for histology were collected from the participants with obvious cervical lesions or those with suspicious lesions on colposcopy. The results were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Results Seven (4.5%) and 2(1.3%) of participants using IUD had Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) 1 and CIN 2 respectively. Also, 5(3.2%) and 1(0.6%) of non-users of modern contraception had CIN 1 and CIN 2 respectively. The prevalence of cervical neoplasia among all the participants was 4.8%. Although, the proportion of women who had CIN was more among participants using IUD than non-users of modern contraception, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion There was no significant association between IUD and cervical neoplasia in this study. PMID:27504358

  19. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  20. Development of a Novel Scoring System for Predicting the Risk of Colorectal Neoplasia: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a novel scoring system to screen subjects who have a high risk for colorectal neoplasia. Study Design and Setting We retrospectively analyzed 1061 subjects undergoing total colonoscopy (TCS) for the first time at Gihoku Kosei Hospital. The characteristics and habits of the subjects were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The risk score was established according to each odds ratio of the individual risk factors, and the correlations between the sum of the risk scores and the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia for each individual were evaluated. Results Age 45–59 (risk score: 2 points) and ≥60 (3 points), male gender (1 point), and habitual alcohol consumption ≥21g daily (1 point) were extracted as the significant risk factors for colorectal neoplasia. When the risk groups were determined by summing up these risk scores, the prevalence rates of colorectal neoplasia were 8.8% for the low risk group (0–2 points), 30.5% for the low-moderate risk group (3 points), 39.1% for the high-moderate risk group (4 points), and 57.6% for the high risk group (5 points). In comparison with the low risk group, the odds ratio of the low-moderate risk, the high-moderate risk, and the high risk groups were 4.6, 6.7, and 14.1 folds, respectively. Conclusion Our scoring system, which linearly correlates with the prevalence rate of colorectal neoplasia, may be an effective tool for screening the subjects who have a high risk for colorectal neoplasia. These subjects, therefore, should be recommended to undergo TCS. PMID:27284907

  1. Active and Passive Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Cornelia L.; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Burke, Alyce E.; Hoffman, Sandra C.; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Diener-West, Marie; Comstock, George W.; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evidence links active cigarette smoking to cervical neoplasia, but much less is known about the role of passive smoking. Using a prospective cohort design, we examined personal cigarette smoking and household passive smoke exposure in relation to the risk of cervical neoplasia. METHODS Cohorts were established based on data collected on the smoking status of all household members during private censuses of Washington County, Maryland in 1963 (n = 24,792) and 1975 (n = 26,381). Using the Washington County Cancer Registry, the occurrence of cervical neoplasia in the two cohorts was ascertained from 1963–1978 and from 1975–1994. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate the relative risk of developing cervical neoplasia associated with active and passive smoking in both cohorts. The referent category for all comparisons was never smokers not exposed to passive smoking. RESULTS The adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence limits for passive smoking was 2.1 (1.3, 3.3) in the 1963 cohort and 1.4 (0.8, 2.4) in the 1975 cohort. The adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence limits for current smoking were 2.6 (1.7, 4.1) and 1.7 (1.1, 2.6) in the 1963 and 1975 cohort, respectively. CONCLUSION The associations were in the direction of increased risk for both passive smoking and current active smoking in both the 1963 and 1975 cohorts, but were stronger in the 1963 cohort. The results of this long-term, prospective cohort study corroborate the association between active cigarette smoking and cervical neoplasia and provide evidence that passive smoking is a risk factor for cervical neoplasia. PMID:15625160

  2. Association of HPV infection and Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity in cases of cervical neoplasia in Midwest Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Barros, Narriman Kennia; Costa, Maria Cecília; Alves, Rosane Ribeiro Figueiredo; Villa, Luísa Lina; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Dos Santos Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena

    2012-07-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the main etiological agent for cervical neoplasia. However, the presence of a single type HPV infection alone is unlikely to be sufficient to cause cervical cancer. There is epidemiologic evidence suggesting that HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis play a central role in the etiology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and subsequent cervical cancer. To evaluate the HPV prevalence and the seropositivity for C. trachomatis in women referred to the colposcopy clinic due to an abnormal cervical smear and to examine the effect of this association on the severity of cervical neoplasia. Following enrollment, 131 patients underwent colposcopy and biopsies when necessary. HPV DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping was performed by reverse line-blot hybridization assay. C. trachomatis seropositivity was tested by ELISA for the detection of IgG antibodies. The prevalence of HPV infection was 86.3%. Seropositivity for C. trachomatis was 26%. Thirty-one women (27.4%) were positive for C. trachomatis antibodies and HPV-DNA. The most prevalent HPV type in C. trachomatis-seropositive women were HPV 16 (51.6%) and this HPV type was present mainly in neoplasia cases. Positivity for HPV, particularly HPV types 16 and 18, and C. trachomatis seropositivity was significantly associated with a diagnosis of high grade neoplasia. Borderline significance was observed after adjustment for HPV. C. trachomatis seropositivity is associated with high grade neoplasia in women infected with HPV, mainly when the types 16 and 18 were involved. PMID:22585734

  3. Medical interventions for high grade vulval intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pepas, Litha; Kaushik, Sonali; Bryant, Andrew; Nordin, Andy; Dickinson, Heather O

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a pre-malignant condition of the vulval skin; its incidence is increasing in women under 50 years. VIN is graded histologically as low grade or high grade. High grade VIN is associated with infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and may progress to invasive disease. There is no consensus on the optimal management of high grade VIN. The high morbidity and high relapse rate associated with surgical interventions call for a formal appraisal of the evidence available for less invasive but effective interventions for high grade VIN. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medical interventions for high grade VIN. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to September 2010). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed medical interventions, in adult women diagnosed with high grade VIN. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where possible the data were synthesised in a meta-analysis. Main results Four trials met our inclusion criteria: three assessed the effectiveness of topical imiquimod versus placebo in women with high grade VIN; one examined low versus high dose indole-3-carbinol in similar women. Meta-analysis of three trials found that the proportion of women who responded to treatment at 5 to 6 months was much higher in the group who received topical imiquimod than in the group who received placebo (relative risk (RR) = 11.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.21 to 44.51). A single trial showed similar results at 12 months in (RR = 9.10, 95% CI 2.38 to 34.77). Only one trial reported

  4. Total vaginectomy for refractory vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia III of the vaginal vault

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Ju Hyun; Lee, Min Ah; Ju, Woong; Kim, Seoung Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia III, is a relatively rare disease. Consequently standard treatments for this disease were not established until recently. Although several convenient methods, such as laser ablation, 5-fluorouracil topical injection, and radiation therapy, have been applied for treating these lesions, surgical treatments, including vaginectomy, have not yet been attempted, as they would likely be accompanied by technical difficulties and various complications. Herein, we report a case of refractory vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia III in the vaginal vault that was successfully treated with a total vaginectomy. PMID:26866041

  5. [Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin in patient with partial hydatidiform mole].

    PubMed

    Matos, Michelle; Ferraz, Leda; Lopes, Patrícia de Fátima; Lozoya, Consuelo; Amim Junior, Joffre; Rezende-Filho, Jorge; Braga, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    We report here a case of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin in a patient with a partial hydatidiform mole. This is the second occurrence of this event to be reported and the first one with proven immunohistochemical evidence. Besides showing the treatment for this pregnancy complication, this case report discusses the possibility of reducing the duration of post-molar follow-up, as well as strategies for early recognition of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous remission of molar pregnancy. PMID:26247255

  6. Brain metastasis from pheochromocytoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A.

    PubMed

    Gentile, S; Rainero, I; Savi, L; Rivoiro, C; Pinessi, L

    2001-12-01

    Neurological involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome is uncommon. Notalgia paresthetica (pruritus localized in an area between D2 and D6 dermatomes) is the neurological symptom more frequently described in patients with MEN 2A. The authors report the unusual case of a MEN 2A patient with a brain metastasis from a pheochromocytoma. PMID:11677427

  7. Folate-genetics and colorectal neoplasia: What we know and need to know next

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolism of folate involves a complex network of polymorphic enzymes that may explain a proportion of the risk associated with colorectal neoplasia. Over 60 observational studies primarily in non-Hispanic White populations have been conducted on selected genetic variants in specific genes, MTH...

  8. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  9. Image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy in 4 dogs with intracranial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Moon, Alaina Burkard; Heller, Heidi Barnes; Forrest, Lisa

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the use, and side effects, of a novel stereotactic radiotherapy protocol using TomoTherapy(®) in 4 dogs with confirmed or suspected primary extra-axial intracranial neoplasia. Three fractions of 8 Gy were prescribed. Acute side effects were noted in 1 dog; no late effects were noted. PMID:27152041

  10. A rare presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weledji, Elroy Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Peptic ulcer disease may be a manifestation of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. A case of an intractable complicated peptic ulcer disease secondary to hypercalcaemia from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A is presented. Hypercalcaemia should always be excluded as a cause of recurrent, or complicated peptic ulcer disease. PMID:26858832

  11. Neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonocíticas crónicas o juveniles, y la LMC atípica.

  12. Genetics of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Neoplasias (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of endocrine and neuroendocrine neoplasias. This summary contains information about the MEN1 gene, the RET gene, genetic testing, and clinical interventions. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have a hereditary medullary thyroid cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  13. A rare presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Weledji, Elroy Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease may be a manifestation of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. A case of an intractable complicated peptic ulcer disease secondary to hypercalcaemia from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A is presented. Hypercalcaemia should always be excluded as a cause of recurrent, or complicated peptic ulcer disease. PMID:26858832

  14. Prostaglandin E2-induced colonic secretion in patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis for colorectal cancer remains unresolved. A growing body of evidence suggests a direct correlation between cyclooxygenase enzyme expression, prostaglandin E2 metabolism and neoplastic development. Thus further understanding of the regulation of epithelial functions by prostaglandin E2 is needed. We hypothesized that patients with colonic neoplasia have altered colonic epithelial ion transport and express functionally different prostanoid receptor levels in this respect. Methods Patients referred for colonoscopy were included and grouped into patients with and without colorectal neoplasia. Patients without endoscopic findings of neoplasia served as controls. Biopsy specimens were obtained from normally appearing mucosa in the sigmoid part of colon. Biopsies were mounted in miniaturized modified Ussing air-suction chambers. Indomethacin (10 μM), various stimulators and inhibitors of prostanoid receptors and ion transport were subsequently added to the chamber solutions. Electrogenic ion transport parameters (short circuit current and slope conductance) were recorded. Tissue pathology and tissue damage before and after experiments was assessed by histology. Results Baseline short circuit current and slope conductance did not differ between the two groups. Patients with neoplasia were significantly more sensitive to indomethacin with a decrease in short circuit current of 15.1 ± 2.6 μA·cm-2 compared to controls, who showed a decrease of 10.5 ± 2.1 μA·cm-2 (p = 0.027). Stimulation or inhibition with theophylline, ouabain, bumetanide, forskolin or the EP receptor agonists prostaglandin E2, butaprost, sulprostone and prostaglandin E1 (OH) did not differ significantly between the two groups. Histology was with normal findings in both groups. Conclusions Epithelial electrogenic transport is more sensitive to indomethacin in normal colonic mucosa from patients with previous or present colorectal neoplasia compared to colonic mucosa from

  15. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the human testis: heterogeneous protein expression and relation to invasive potential

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rod T; Camacho-Moll, Maria; Macdonald, Joni; Anderson, Richard A; Kelnar, Christopher JH; O’Donnell, Marie; Sharpe, Richard M; Smith, Lee B; Grigor, Ken M; Wallace, W Hamish B; Stoop, Hans; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Donat, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer develops from pre-malignant intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified cells that are believed to arise from failure of normal maturation of fetal germ cells from gonocytes (OCT4+/ MAGEA4−) into pre-spermatogonia (OCT4−/MAGEA4+). Intratubular germ cell neoplasia cell subpopulations based on stage of germ cell differentiation have been described, however the importance of these subpopulations in terms of invasive potential has not been reported. We hypothesised that cells expressing an immature (OCT4+/MAGEA4−) germ cell profile would exhibit an increased proliferation rate compared to those with a mature profile (OCT4+/ MAGEA4+). Therefore, we performed triple immunofluorescence and stereology to quantify the different intratubular germ cell neoplasia cell subpopulations, based on expression of germ cell (OCT4, PLAP, AP2γ, MAGEA4, VASA) and proliferation (Ki67) markers, in testis sections from patients with pre-invasive disease, seminoma and non-seminoma. We compared these subpopulations with normal human fetal testis and with seminoma cells. Heterogeneity of protein expression was demonstrated in intratubular germ cell neoplasia cells with respect to gonocyte and spermatogonial markers. It included an embryonic/fetal germ cell subpopulation lacking expression of the definitive intratubular germ cell neoplasia marker OCT4, that did not correspond to a physiological (fetal) germ cell subpopulation. OCT4+/MAGEA4- cells showed a significantly increased rate of proliferation compared with the OCT4+/MAGEA4+ population (12.8 v 3.4%, p<0.0001) irrespective of histological tumour type, reflected in the predominance of OCT4+/MAGEA4− cells in the invasive tumour component. Surprisingly, OCT4+/MAGEA4− cells in patients with pre-invasive disease showed significantly higher proliferation compared to those with seminoma or non-seminoma (18.1 v 10.2 v 7.2%, p<0.05 respectively). In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that OCT4+/MAGEA4

  16. Insulin-like growth factor I and the development of colorectal neoplasia in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, P J; Frajese, V; Jones, A M; Camacho-Hubner, C; Lowe, D G; Fairclough, P D; Chew, S L; Grossman, A B; Monson, J P; Besser, G M

    2000-09-01

    Patients with acromegaly are at increased risk of colorectal neoplasia and, by analogy with high-risk nonacromegalic patients, may require regular colonoscopic screening. However, it is unknown whether the risk is equal in all patients or whether some should be regarded as carrying a particularly high risk. The aims of this study were: 1) to establish the natural history of colorectal neoplasia in acromegaly; 2) to establish which patients are at increased risk of developing neoplasia; and 3) to elucidate the influence of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in adenoma formation. A prospective colonoscopic evaluation of the development of new premalignant adenomas in the colon was performed in 66 patients with biochemically proven acromegaly who had previously undergone colonoscopic screening and removal of all visible polyps. Twenty-five patients (38%) had a total of 37 polyps detected at the second colonoscopy: nine (14%) had at least one adenoma, and 18 (27%) had one or more hyperplastic polyps (2 patients had both). The development of new adenomas, but not hyperplastic polyps, was associated both with elevated serum IGF-I (P < 0.005) and, to a lesser extent, with a previous adenoma at the original colonoscopy (P < 0.07). In summary, patients with acromegaly and in whom serum IGF-I remains elevated and/or who have had a previous adenoma should be regarded as having an especially high risk for the development of subsequent colorectal neoplasia. Serum IGF-I seems to be implicated in the development of colorectal neoplasia in acromegaly, although the exact mechanisms remain uncertain. PMID:10999811

  17. Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia: results from an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coghlan, Lezlee; Utzinger, Urs; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Heintzelmann, Doug; Zuluaga, Andres F.; Brookner, Carrie; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Gimenez-Conti, Irma; Follen, Michele

    2000-12-01

    Using the hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, we explore which fluorescence excitation wavelengths are useful for the detection of neoplasia. 42 hamsters were treated with DMBA to induce carcinogenesis, and 20 control animals were treated only with mineral oil. Fluorescence excitation emission matrices were measured from the cheek pouches of the hamsters weekly. Results showed increased fluorescence near 350-370 nm and 410 nm excitation and decreased fluorescence near 450-470 nm excitation with neoplasia. The optimal diagnostic excitation wavelengths identified using this model - 350-370 nm excitation and 400-450 nm excitation - are similar to those identified for detection of human oral cavity neoplasia.

  18. Neoplasias mieloproliferativas y síndromes mielodisplásicos—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de las neoplasias mieloproliferativas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  19. Immunomodulatory effects of alpha interferon and thymostimulin in patients with neoplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Munno, I; Marinaro, M; Gesario, A; Cannuscio, B; Michel, Y; Paulling, E

    1995-01-01

    In this report, we have evaluated the immunological effects following administration of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) in combination with thymostimulin (TP-1), as well as of IFN-alpha and TP-1 alone in patients with neoplasias who underwent surgery and were subsequently treated with conventional chemotherapy. Data suggest that the combination of IFN-alpha and TP-1 is the most effective in the up-regulation of some immune parameters such as the CD4(+)-CD8+ cell-dependent antibacterial activity. Since this immune function plays an important role in the host protection against different targets such as invading microorganisms and/or neoplastic cells, the administration of TP-1-IFN-alpha is advisable for patients with neoplasias under chemotherapy. PMID:7583935

  20. Abraham Lincoln's marfanoid mother: the earliest known case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B?

    PubMed

    Sotos, John G

    2012-07-01

    The nature and cause of President Abraham Lincoln's unusual physical features have long been debated, with the greatest attention directed at two monogenic disorders of the transforming growth factor β system: Marfan syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. The present report examines newly discovered phenotypic information about Lincoln's biological mother, Nancy Hanks Lincoln, and concludes that (a) Lincoln's mother was skeletally marfanoid, (b) the President and his mother were highly concordant for the presence of numerous facial features found in various transforming growth factor β disorders, and (c) Lincoln's mother, like her son, had hypotonic skeletal muscles, resulting in myopathic facies and 'pseudodepression'. These conclusions establish that mother and son had the same monogenic autosomal dominant marfanoid disorder. A description of Nancy Hanks Lincoln as coarse-featured, and a little-known statement that a wasting disease contributed to her death at age 34, lends support to the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B hypothesis. PMID:22504423

  1. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced neoplasia in the urinary bladder: a missing link?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Riley E; Wang, Lisha; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Emerson, Robert E; Montironi, Rodolfo; Pedrosa, Jose A; Kaimakliotis, Hristos Z; Koch, Michael O; Cheng, Liang

    2016-06-01

    The discovery that the role human papillomavirus (HPV) plays in the induction of human cancer represents an important achievement in oncologic research. It has taken on even greater importance since the development of vaccines, which promise the hope of preventing these cancers from ever occurring. Because of these important implications, many have attempted to determine a possible role for the virus in cancers of the urinary bladder-an organ in close anatomic proximity to the primary sites of HPV-induced neoplasia and one which already has an established oncogenic infectious agent in Schistosoma haematobium. Here we review the current literature exploring this possible role in the most common subtype of cancer of the urinary bladder, urothelial carcinoma, and two much more rare histologic subtypes that have well established roles for HPV-induced neoplasia in other anatomic sites-squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. PMID:26687533

  2. 2006 Bethesda International Consensus recommendations on the immunophenotypic analysis of hematolymphoid neoplasia by flow cytometry: optimal reagents and reporting for the flow cytometric diagnosis of hematopoietic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Wood, Brent L; Arroz, Maria; Barnett, David; DiGiuseppe, Joseph; Greig, Bruce; Kussick, Steven J; Oldaker, Teri; Shenkin, Mark; Stone, Elizabeth; Wallace, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry has become standard practice in the evaluation and monitoring of patients with hematopoietic neoplasia. However, despite its widespread use, considerable variability continues to exist in the reagents used for evaluation and the format in which results are reported. As part of the 2006 Bethesda Consensus conference, a committee was formed to attempt to define a consensus set of reagents suitable for general use in the diagnosis and monitoring of hematopoietic neoplasms. The committee included laboratory professionals from private, public, and university hospitals as well as large reference laboratories that routinely operate clinical flow cytometry laboratories with an emphasis on lymphoma and leukemia immunophenotyping. A survey of participants successfully identified the cell lineage(s) to be evaluated for each of a variety of specific medical indications and defined a set of consensus reagents suitable for the initial evaluation of each cell lineage. Elements to be included in the reporting of clinical flow cytometric results for leukemia and lymphoma evaluation were also refined and are comprehensively listed. The 2006 Bethesda Consensus conference represents the first successful attempt to define a set of consensus reagents suitable for the initial evaluation of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:17803189

  3. Notalgia Paresthetica and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome 2A: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Francisco; Feito, Marta; Albizuri, Fátima; Beato, María; De Lucas, Raúl

    2016-09-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is characterized by a hyperpigmented macular pruritic skin lesion most commonly localized unilaterally in the middle and upper back region. This condition has been reported in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2A (MEN 2A) in several families; it rarely affects children and it may serve as an early marker of MEN 2A. We report a 9-year-old girl diagnosed with MEN 2A and notalgia paresthetica. PMID:27396529

  4. Pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIB and pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Christopher; Fishbane, Steven; Shapiro, Lawrence; Courgi, Robert G; Kostadinov, Stefan; Donovan, Virginia; Epstein, David

    2002-06-01

    A patient with pyelonephritis developed multiorgan failure resulting in death. Clinical findings were consistent with multiple endocrine neoplasia type II, with bilateral pheochromocytomas identified by computed tomography scan. We hypothesize that either the infection or the administration of radiocontrast media led to a massive release of catecholamines from the pheochromocytomas. As a result, tissue perfusion was severely compromised, and multiorgan failure developed. This exceedingly rare complication of pheochromocytoma has been termed pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis. PMID:12046054

  5. Is there any association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia in a poor Nigerian setting?

    PubMed Central

    Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Chigbu, Chibuike Ogwuegbu; Ozumba, Benjamin Chukwuma; Oguanuo, Theophilus Chimezie; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hormonal contraception and cervical cancer is controversial. These controversies may hamper the uptake of hormonal contraceptives. Objective To determine the association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia. Materials and methods This was a case-control study in which Pap-smear results of 156 participants on hormonal contraceptives were compared with those of 156 participants on no form of modern contraception. Modern contraception is defined as the use of such contraceptives as condoms, pills, injectables, intrauterine devices, implants, and female or male sterilization. Those found to have abnormal cervical smear cytology results were subjected further to colposcopy. Biopsy specimens for histology were collected from the participants with obvious cervical lesions or those with suspicious lesions on colposcopy. The results were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 71 (45.5%), 60 (38.5%), and 25 (16.0%) of the participants on hormonal contraceptives were using oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives, and implants, respectively. Cervical neoplasia was significantly more common among participants who were ≥35 years old (6% versus 1%, P<0.0001), rural dwellers (6% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001), unmarried (7.6% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001), unemployed (6.8% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001), less educated (6% versus 3.8%, P<0.0001), and had high parity (6.8% versus 3.6%, P<0.0001). There was no statistical significant difference in cervical neoplasia between the two groups of participants (7 [4.5%] versus 6 [3.8%], P=1.0). Conclusion There was no association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia in this study. PMID:26251619

  6. Cloning and characterization of neoplasia-related genes in flat oyster Ostrea edulis.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gómez, Laura; Villalba, Antonio; Carballal, María Jesús; Abollo, Elvira

    2014-04-01

    Bonamiosis and disseminated neoplasia (DN) are the most important diseases affecting cultured flat oysters Ostrea edulis in Galicia (NW Spain). Previous research using suppresive substraction hybridisation that had been performed addressing the molecular basis of DN as well as the induction and development of the disease in oysters, yielded the whole open reading frame of nine genes: XBP-1, RACK, NDPk, C1qTNF, RPA3, SAP18, p23, ubiquitin and ferritin. These nine genes were characterized in this study. The phylogenetic relationships for each gene were studied using minimum-evolution methods. Quantitative-PCR assays were also developed to analyse the modulation of the expression of these genes by bonamiosis and disseminated neoplasia. Gene expression profiles were studied in haemolymph cells and in various organs (gill, gonad, mantle and digestive gland) of oysters affected by bonamiosis, disseminated neoplasia, both diseases and in non-affected oysters (control). The expression of XBP-1, NDPk, RPA3, SAP18 and ferritin increased in haemolymph cells of oysters with heavy bonamiosis. The expression of C1qTNF; SAP18 and p23 increased in haemolymph cells of oysters with DN. The expression of XBP-1, RACK, NDPk, RPA3 and p23 significantly increased in haemolymph cells of oysters affected by both diseases. There were changes in the expression of a number of genes in different organs depeding on disease stage: RACK expression increased in gills of oysters with bonamiosis, XBP-1 increased in mantle and digestive organs of oysters with light DN and RPA3 expression increased in gonads of oysters with heavy bonamiosis and heavy neoplasia. PMID:24560728

  7. Inflammation and Atrophy Precede Prostate Neoplasia in PhIP Induced Rat Model

    SciTech Connect

    Borowsky, A D; Dingley, K; Ubick, E; Turteltaub, K; Cardiff, R D; DeVere-White, R

    2006-06-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) has been implicated as a major mutagenic heterocyclic amine in the human diet and is carcinogenic in the rat prostate. In order to validate PhIP induced rat prostate neoplasia as a model of human prostate cancer progression, we sought to study the earliest histologic and morphologic changes in the prostate and to follow the progressive changes over time. We fed 67 male Fischer F344 5 week old rats with PhIP (400 PPM) or control diets for 20 weeks, and then sacrificed animals for histomorphologic examination at age 25 weeks, 45 weeks, and 65 weeks. Animals treated with PhIP showed significantly more inflammation (P=.002 (25wk), >.001(45wk), .016(65wk)) and atrophy (P=.003(25wk), >.001(45wk), .006 (65wk)) in their prostate glands relative to controls. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) occurred only in PhIP treated rats. PIN lesions arose in areas of glandular atrophy, most often in the ventral prostate. Atypical cells in areas of atrophy show loss of glutathione S-transferase pi immunostaining preceding development of PIN. None of the animals in this study developed invasive carcinomas differing from previous reports. Overall, these findings suggest that the pathogenesis of prostatic neoplasia in the PhIP treated rat prostate proceeds from inflammation to post-inflammatory proliferative atrophy to PIN.

  8. (1)H NMR Spectroscopy of Fecal Extracts Enables Detection of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Amiot, Aurelien; Dona, Anthony C; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Tournigand, Christophe; Baumgaertner, Isabelle; Lebaleur, Yann; Sobhani, Iradj; Holmes, Elaine

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing cause of mortality in developing countries, warranting investigation into its etiopathogenesis and earlier diagnosis. Here, we investigated the fecal metabolic phenotype of patients with advanced colorectal neoplasia and controls using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate modeling. The fecal microbiota composition was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR as well as Wif-1 methylation levels in stools, serum, and urine and correlated to the metabolic profile of each patient. The predictivity of the model was 0.507 (Q(2)Y), and the explained variance was 0.755 (R(2)Y). Patients with advanced colorectal neoplasia demonstrated increased fecal concentrations of four short-chain fatty acids (valerate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) and decreased signals relating to β-glucose, glutamine, and glutamate. The predictive accuracy of the multivariate (1)H NMR model was higher than that of the guaiac-fecal occult blood test and the Wif-1 methylation test for predicting advanced colorectal neoplasia. Correlation analysis between fecal metabolites and bacterial profiles revealed strong associations between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Clostridium leptum species with short-chain fatty acids concentration and inverse correlation between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and glucose. These preliminary results suggest that fecal metabonomics may potentially have a future role in a noninvasive colorectal screening program and may contribute to our understanding of the role of these dysregulated molecules in the cross-talk between the host and its bacterial microbiota. PMID:26211820

  9. Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: First in-human results

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Matthew B.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Lu, Shaoying; Piraka, Cyrus; Khondee, Supang; Elmunzer, B. Joseph; Kwon, Richard S.; Beer, David G.; Appelman, Henry; Turgeon, D. Kim; Wang, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is rising rapidly in incidence, and usually develops from Barrett’s esophagus, a precursor condition commonly found in patients with chronic acid reflux. Pre-malignant lesions are challenging to detect on conventional screening endoscopy because of their flat appearance. Molecular changes can be used to improve detection of early neoplasia. We have developed a peptide that binds specifically to high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. We first applied the peptide ex vivo to esophageal specimens from 17 patients to validate specific binding. Next, we performed confocal endomicroscopy in vivo in 25 human subjects after topical peptide administration and found 3.8-fold greater fluorescence intensity for esophageal neoplasia compared with Barrett’s esophagus and squamous epithelium with 75% sensitivity and 97% specificity. No toxicity was attributed to the peptide in either animal or patient studies. Therefore, our first-in-humans results show that this targeted imaging agent is safe, and may be useful for guiding tissue biopsy and for early detection of esophageal neoplasia and potentially other cancers of epithelial origin, such as bladder, colon, lung, pancreas, and stomach. PMID:23658246

  10. Identifying constituent spectra sources in multispectral images to quantify and locate cervical neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Kevin C.; Bambot, Shabbir

    2011-02-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been shown to be an effective method for detecting neoplasia. Guided Therapeutics has developed LightTouch, a non invasive device that uses a combination of reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for identifying early cancer of the human cervix. The combination of the multispectral information from the two spectroscopic modalities has been shown to be an effective method to screen for cervical cancer. There has however been a relative paucity of work in identifying the individual spectral components that contribute to the measured fluorescence and reflectance spectra. This work aims to identify the constituent source spectra and their concentrations. We used non-negative matrix factorization (NNMF) numerical methods to decompose the mixed multispectral data into the constituent spectra and their corresponding concentrations. NNMF is an iterative approach that factorizes the measured data into non-negative factors. The factors are chosen to minimize the root-mean-squared residual error. NNMF has shown promise for feature extraction and identification in the fields of text mining and spectral data analysis. Since both the constituent source spectra and their corresponding concentrations are assumed to be non-negative by nature NNMF is a reasonable approach to deconvolve the measured multispectral data. Supervised learning methods were then used to determine which of the constituent spectra sources best predict the amount of neoplasia. The constituent spectra sources found to best predict neoplasia were then compared with spectra of known biological chromophores.

  11. Synchronous Nesidioblastosis, Endocrine Microadenoma, and Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasia in a Man Presenting With Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Haghighi, Koroush S; Qiu, Min Ru; Greenfield, Jerry R; Chen, Daniel L T

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report the first case of concomitant nesidioblastosis, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia. The combination is significant as each of these pathological entities is independently very rare. The patient was a 33-year-old man who presented with symptomatic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and no risk factors for pancreatic disease. Abdominal imaging showed an isolated 12 mm pancreatic lesion, whilst selective arterial calcium stimulation testing demonstrated multiple territories of insulin excess. He proceeded to subtotal pancreatectomy. Histopathology revealed an endocrine microadenoma, α and β cell nesidioblastosis, and multifocal intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia. The endocrine microadenoma and nesidioblastosis stained for insulin, suggesting both likely contributed to hypoglycemia. Glucagon immunohistochemistry was also positive, though there were no clinical features of glucagon excess. Hypoglycemia resolved postoperatively. This case and other evidence from the literature suggest that hyperplasia and neoplasia may occur sequentially in the pancreas, and that endocrine and exocrine tumorigenesis may be linked in some individuals. Further study is required to identify a unifying mechanism, and to elucidate potential ramifications in the management of patients with pancreatic neoplasms. PMID:26658039

  12. Immunophenotypic and antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis in T cell neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews the immunophenotypic profiles displayed by the major clinicopathologic categories of T cell neoplasia, the immunophenotypic criteria useful in the immunodiagnosis of T cell neoplasia, and the contributions made by antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis to the understanding of T cell neoplasia. Neoplasms belonging to distinct clinicopathologic categories of T cell neoplasia often exhibit characteristic immunophenotypic profiles. Approximately 80% of lymphoblastic lymphomas and 20% of acute lymphoblastic leukemias express phenotypes consistent with prethymic and intrathymic stages of T cell differentiation, including intranuclear terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas of mycosis fungoides type usually express pan-T cell antigens CD2, CD5, and CD3, often lack the pan-T cell antigen CD7, and usually express the mature, peripheral helper subset phenotype, CD4+ CD8-. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas of nonmycosis fungoides type and peripheral T cell lymphomas often lack one or more pan-T cell antigens and, in addition, occasionally express the anomalous CD4+ CD8+ or CD4- CD8- phenotypes. T gamma-lymphoproliferative disease is divisable into two broad categories: those cases that are CD3 antigen positive and exhibit clonal T cell receptor beta chain (TCR-beta) gene rearrangements and those cases that are CD3 antigen negative and exhibit the TCR-beta gene germline configuration. Human T cell lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) associated Japanese, Carribean, and sporadic adult T cell leukemia/lymphomas usually express pan-T cell antigens, the CD4+ CD8- phenotype, and various T cell-associated activation antigens, including the interleukin-2 receptor (CD25). Immunophenotypic criteria useful in the immunodiagnosis of T cell neoplasia include, in increasing order of utility, T cell predominance, T cell subset antigen restriction, anomalous T cell subset antigen expression, and deletion of one or more pan-T cell antigens. Only in

  13. Correlation between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases and colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Ying; Wang, Min; Lin, Ying-Min; Wu, Dong; Zhu, Jing-Yu; Gao, Lang; Liu, Yan-Yan; Yin, Teng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore the correlation between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastric diseases and colorectal neoplasia. METHODS: Patients included in this study underwent a colonoscopy and esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) along with histopathological measurement between March 2012 and March 2015 at Qi-Lu Hospital of Shandong University, who also had results of H. pylori detection. A total of 233 cases were selected. Demographic data, H. pylori infection status (including results of rapid urease tests and gastric mucosa pathological examinations) and histopathological examination results of gastric and colorectal mucosa were gathered and analyzed. The statistical analysis focused on the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms among patients with various histopathological categories of the stomach. ORs and their 95%CI were calculated to describe the strengths of the associations. RESULTS: The incidence rates of colorectal adenoma without high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIEN) (OR = 2.400, 95%CI: 0.969-5.941), adenoma with HGIEN (5.333, 1.025-27.758) and adenocarcinoma (1.455, 0.382-5.543) were all higher for patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis than for those in the control group. The incidence rate of colorectal adenoma with HGIEN (3.218, 0.767-13.509) was higher in patients with intestinal metaplasia than in the control group, while the incidence rates of adenoma without HGIEN (0.874, 0.414-1.845) and adenocarcinoma (0.376, 0.096-1.470) were lower in the intestinal metaplasia group than in the control group. The incidence rate of colorectal adenoma without HGIEN (3.111, 1.248-7.753) was significantly higher in the gastric intraepithelial neoplasia group than in the control group, while the rates of adenoma with HGIEN (1.481, 0.138-15.941) and adenocarcinoma (2.020, 0.561-7.272) were higher in the gastric intraepithelial neoplasia group. Incidence rates of colorectal adenoma without HGIEN (1.067, 0.264-4.314), adenoma with HGIEN (2.667, 0

  14. Quantitative evaluation of in vivo vital-dye fluorescence endoscopic imaging for the detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thekkek, Nadhi; Lee, Michelle H.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Rosen, Daniel G.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-05-01

    Current imaging tools are associated with inconsistent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia. Optical imaging has shown promise in improving the classification of neoplasia in vivo. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate whether in vivo vital dye fluorescence imaging (VFI) has the potential to improve the accuracy of early-detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia. In vivo endoscopic VFI images were collected from 65 sites in 14 patients with confirmed Barrett's esophagus (BE), dysplasia, or esophageal adenocarcinoma using a modular video endoscope and a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME). Qualitative image features were compared to histology; VFI and HRME images show changes in glandular structure associated with neoplastic progression. Quantitative image features in VFI images were identified for objective image classification of metaplasia and neoplasia, and a diagnostic algorithm was developed using leave-one-out cross validation. Three image features extracted from VFI images were used to classify tissue as neoplastic or not with a sensitivity of 87.8% and a specificity of 77.6% (AUC=0.878). A multimodal approach incorporating VFI and HRME imaging can delineate epithelial changes present in Barrett's-associated neoplasia. Quantitative analysis of VFI images may provide a means for objective interpretation of BE during surveillance.

  15. Modular video endoscopy for in vivo cross-polarized and vital-dye fluorescence imaging of Barrett's-associated neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thekkek, Nadhi; Pierce, Mark C.; Lee, Michelle H.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Flores, Raja M.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

    2013-02-01

    A modular video endoscope is developed and tested to allow imaging in different modalities. This system incorporates white light imaging (WLI), cross-polarized imaging (CPI), and vital-dye fluorescence imaging (VFI), using interchangeable filter modules. CPI and VFI are novel endoscopic modalities that probe mucosal features associated with Barrett's neoplasia. CPI enhances vasculature, while VFI enhances glandular architecture. In this pilot study, we demonstrate the integration of these modalities by imaging areas of Barrett's metaplasia and neoplasia in an esophagectomy specimen. We verify that those key image features are also observed during an in vivo surveillance procedure. CPI images demonstrate improved visualization of branching blood vessels associated with neoplasia. VFI images show glandular architecture with increased glandular effacement associated with neoplasia. Results suggests that important pathologic features seen in CPI and VFI are not visible during standard endoscopic white light imaging, and thus the modalities may be useful in future in vivo studies for discriminating neoplasia from Barrett's metaplasia. We further demonstrate that the integrated WLI/CPI/VFI endoscope is compatible with complementary high-resolution endomicroscopy techniques such as the high-resolution microendoscope, potentially enabling two-step ("red-flag" widefield plus confirmatory high-resolution imaging) protocols to be enhanced.

  16. DNA Methylation Profiling across the Spectrum of HPV-Associated Anal Squamous Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Bridget; Eschrich, Steven; Elahi, Abul; Qu, Xiaotao; Ajidahun, Abidemi; Berglund, Anders; Coppola, Domenico; Grady, William M.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Shibata, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in host tumor genome DNA methylation patterns are among the molecular alterations associated with HPV-related carcinogenesis. However, there is little known about the epigenetic changes associated specifically with the development of anal squamous cell cancer (SCC). We sought to characterize broad methylation profiles across the spectrum of anal squamous neoplasia. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples from 24 patients were evaluated and included adjacent histologically normal anal mucosa (NM; n = 3), SCC-in situ (SCC-IS; n = 11) and invasive SCC (n = 15). Thirteen women and 11 men with a median age of 44 years (range 26–81) were included in the study. Using the SFP10 LiPA HPV-typing system, HPV was detected in at least one tissue from all patients with 93% (27/29) being positive for high-risk HPV types and 14 (93%) of 15 invasive SCC tissues testing positive for HPV 16. Bisulfite-modified DNA was interrogated for methylation at 1,505 CpG loci representing 807 genes using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array. When comparing the progression from normal anal mucosa and SCC-IS to invasive SCC, 22 CpG loci representing 20 genes demonstrated significant differential methylation (p<0.01). The majority of differentially methylated gene targets occurred at or close to specific chromosomal locations such as previously described HPV methylation “hotspots” and viral integration sites. Conclusions We have identified a panel of differentially methlylated CpG loci across the spectrum of HPV-associated squamous neoplasia of the anus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported application of large-scale high throughput methylation analysis for the study of anal neoplasia. Our findings support further investigations into the role of host-genome methylation in HPV-associated anal carcinogenesis with implications towards enhanced diagnosis and screening strategies. PMID:23226306

  17. Early identification of cervical neoplasia with Raman spectroscopy and advanced methods for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Phillip R. T.; Smith, Daniel D. W.; Mazilu, Michael; Cormack, Iain; Riches, Andrew C.; Herrington, C. Simon; Dholakia, Kishan

    2008-02-01

    Early detection of malignant tumours, or their precursor lesions, can dramatically improve patient outcome. High risk human Papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16, infection can lead to the initiation and development of uterine cervical neoplasia. Bearing this in mind the identification of the effects of HPV infection may have clinical value. In this manuscript we investigate the application of Raman microspectroscopy to detect the presence of HPV in cultured cells when compared with normal cells. We also investigate the effect of sample fixation, which is a common clinical practice, on the ability of Raman spectroscopy to detect the presence of HPV. Raman spectra were acquired from Primary Human Keratinocytes (PHK), PHK expressing the E7 gene of HPV 16 (PHK E7) and CaSki cells, an HPV16 containing cervical carcinoma derived cell line. The average Raman spectra display variations, mostly in peaks relating to DNA and proteins, consistent with HPV gene expression and the onset of neoplasia in both live and fixed samples. Principle component analysis was used to objectively discriminate between the cells types giving sensitivities up to 100% for the comparison between PHK and CaSki. These results show that Raman spectroscopy can discriminate between cell lines representing different stages of cervical neoplasia. Furthermore Raman spectroscopy was able to identify cells expressing the HPV 16 E7 gene suggesting the approach may be of value in clinical practice. Finally this technique was also able to detect the effects of the virus in fixed samples demonstrating the compatibility of this technique with current cervical screening methods. However if Raman spectroscopy is to make a significant impact in clinical practice the long acquisition times must be addressed. In this report we examine the potential for beam shaping and advanced to improve the signal to noise ration hence subsequently facilitating a reduction in acquisition time.

  18. Diagnosis of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus using vital-dye enhanced fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Perl, Daniel P; Parikh, Neil; Chang, Shannon; Peng, Paul; Thekkek, Nadhi; Lee, Michelle H; Polydorides, Alexandros D; Mitcham, Josephine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    The ability to differentiate benign metaplasia in Barrett's Esophagus (BE) from neoplasia in vivo remains difficult as both tissue types can be flat and indistinguishable with white light imaging alone. As a result, a modality that highlights glandular architecture would be useful to discriminate neoplasia from benign epithelium in the distal esophagus. VFI is a novel technique that uses an exogenous topical fluorescent contrast agent to delineate high grade dysplasia and cancer from benign epithelium. Specifically, the fluorescent images provide spatial resolution of 50 to 100 μm and a field of view up to 2.5 cm, allowing endoscopists to visualize glandular morphology. Upon excitation, classic Barrett's metaplasia appears as continuous, evenly-spaced glands and an overall homogenous morphology; in contrast, neoplastic tissue appears crowded with complete obliteration of the glandular framework. Here we provide an overview of the instrumentation and enumerate the protocol of this new technique. While VFI affords a gastroenterologist with the glandular architecture of suspicious tissue, cellular dysplasia cannot be resolved with this modality. As such, one cannot morphologically distinguish Barrett's metaplasia from BE with Low-Grade Dysplasia via this imaging modality. By trading off a decrease in resolution with a greater field of view, this imaging system can be used at the very least as a red-flag imaging device to target and biopsy suspicious lesions; yet, if the accuracy measures are promising, VFI may become the standard imaging technique for the diagnosis of neoplasia (defined as either high grade dysplasia or cancer) in the distal esophagus. PMID:24893592

  19. Comparison of computed tomographic and pathologic findings in 17 dogs with primary adrenal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Tommaso; Mantis, Panagiotis; Benigni, Livia; Priestnall, Simon L; Lamb, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    The CT appearance of canine adrenal masses has been reported, but associations between imaging features and pathologic features of these lesions have not been investigated in detail. The purpose of this study was to test associations between different types of adrenal neoplasia and their CT and pathologic features. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed and inclusion criteria were histologic diagnosis of primary adrenal neoplasia, contrast-enhanced CT examination of the abdomen and surgical resection of the mass or necropsy examination. For all included dogs, CT images and histopathologic specimens were reviewed independently by two veterinary radiologists and a veterinary pathologist, respectively. Seventeen dogs met inclusion criteria. Diagnoses were adenocarcinoma in nine (53%) dogs, pheochromocytoma in five (29%) dogs, and adenoma in three (18%) dogs. Pheochromocytoma was associated with CT signs of vascular invasion (likelihood ratio = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.3-18.3, P = 0.03) and macroscopic vascular invasion (likelihood ratio = 9.6, 95% CI = 1.4-65.9, P = 0.02). There was excellent agreement between signs of vascular invasion in CT images and vascular invasion at surgery or necropsy (kappa = 0.86, P = 0.001). A peripheral contrast-enhancing rim in delayed postcontrast CT images was associated with fibrous encapsulation of the tumor (kappa = 0.53, P = 0.05), and a heterogeneous pattern of contrast distribution in delayed postcontrast CT images was associated with adrenal hemorrhage or infarction on histological examination (kappa = 0.45, P = 0.05). Findings indicated that CT enabled assessment of adrenal neoplasia features that reflected their biological behavior and pathological findings, however overlapping characteristics between tumor types limited the potential for reliably distinguishing them based on CT alone. PMID:25139015

  20. Fatal Cases of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia in a National Trophoblastic Disease Reference Center in Dakar Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Gueye, Mamour; Ndiaye-Gueye, Mame Diarra; Kane Gueye, Serigne Modou; Moreau, Jean Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to analyze deaths after gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and to determine the factors of treatment failure. Methods: This is a retrospective study in Aristide Le Dantec teaching Hospital in Dakar, Senegal, between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2014. We took into account socio-epidemiological characteristics of patients, initial diagnosis, time between uterine evacuation and admission, time to onset of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), treatment received (deadlines, protocols), difficulties experienced in the diagnosis and the initiation of treatment and survival. Results: In total, 1044 patients were admitted during the study period; 164 cases of GTN were diagnosed (15.7%); and 21 deaths occurred leading to a specific lethality of 12.8%. The average age was 30 years. Almost all patients (n = 18; 85.7%) had low income or no income. Eight out of 21 patients (38.1%) were seen in our department after GTN onset. The mean time to onset of GTN of all patients was 22.1 weeks. For 66.6%, histology was not available; the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole was made on the clinical history and sonographic features and GTN on human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) evolution and ultrasound findings. None of the patients had regular chemotherapy due to financial reasons. Patients who died within 3 months after diagnosis had metastatic tumors (7 of 21). All these women had resistance to treatment or progressed after three courses of chemotherapy. Ten of the 12 women with high-risk GTN were not treated with multi-agent chemotherapy (EMA-CO) for purely financial reasons. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: The high incidence and mortality require a profound reorganization of our health system and a high awareness of practitioners to refer to time or to declare all suspected cases of hydatidiform mole or gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:27622010

  1. Diagnosis of Neoplasia in Barrett’s Esophagus using Vital-dye Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Daniel P.; Parikh, Neil; Chang, Shannon; Peng, Paul; Thekkek, Nadhi; Lee, Michelle H.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Mitcham, Josephine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    The ability to differentiate benign metaplasia in Barrett’s Esophagus (BE) from neoplasia in vivo remains difficult as both tissue types can be flat and indistinguishable with white light imaging alone. As a result, a modality that highlights glandular architecture would be useful to discriminate neoplasia from benign epithelium in the distal esophagus. VFI is a novel technique that uses an exogenous topical fluorescent contrast agent to delineate high grade dysplasia and cancer from benign epithelium. Specifically, the fluorescent images provide spatial resolution of 50 to 100 μm and a field of view up to 2.5 cm, allowing endoscopists to visualize glandular morphology. Upon excitation, classic Barrett’s metaplasia appears as continuous, evenly-spaced glands and an overall homogenous morphology; in contrast, neoplastic tissue appears crowded with complete obliteration of the glandular framework. Here we provide an overview of the instrumentation and enumerate the protocol of this new technique. While VFI affords a gastroenterologist with the glandular architecture of suspicious tissue, cellular dysplasia cannot be resolved with this modality. As such, one cannot morphologically distinguish Barrett’s metaplasia from BE with Low-Grade Dysplasia via this imaging modality. By trading off a decrease in resolution with a greater field of view, this imaging system can be used at the very least as a red-flag imaging device to target and biopsy suspicious lesions; yet, if the accuracy measures are promising, VFI may become the standard imaging technique for the diagnosis of neoplasia (defined as either high grade dysplasia or cancer) in the distal esophagus. PMID:24893592

  2. Applications and Advancements in the use of High-Resolution Microendoscopy for Detection of Gastrointestinal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Justin S.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    The high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) is a novel imaging modality that allows real-time epithelial imaging at subcellular resolution. Used in concert with any standard endoscope, this portable, low cost, ‘optical biopsy’ technology has the ability to provide images of cellular morphology during a procedure. This technology has been the subject of a number of studies investigating its use in screening and surveillance of a range of gastrointestinal neoplasia, including esophageal adenocarcinoma(EAC), esophageal squamous cell cancer(ESCC), colorectal neoplasia(CRC) and anal neoplasia. These studies have shown that HRME is a modality that consistently provides high specificity, negative predictive value, and accuracy across different diseases. In addition, they have illustrated that HRME users can be relatively easily trained in a short period of time and that users have demonstrated solid inter-rater reliability. These features make HRME a potential complement to high definition white light imaging, narrow band imaging and other ‘red flag technologies’ in facilitating real-time clinical diagnosis, endoscopic therapy and margin determination. Further clinical validation is needed to determine whether this translates to reduced procedure times, pathology costs, and follow up procedures. Finally, the HRME has a relatively simple design compared to other similar technologies, making it portable, simple to maintain, and low cost. This may allow the HRME device to function in both advanced care settings as well as in places with less resources and specialized support systems. As a whole, the HRME device has shown good performance along with low-cost and portable construction, and its application in different conditions and settings has been promising. PMID:25108219

  3. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia: A Genetically Diverse Group of Familial Tumor Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, M Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome is a familial cancer syndrome characterized by neuroendocrine tumors. The syndrome encompasses four major subtypes: MEN1, MEN2A, MEN2B, and MEN4. MEN1 is caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene, MEN2A and MEN2B are caused by mutations in RET, and MEN4 is caused by mutations in CDKNB1. All are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, but de novo cases do arise. While all subtypes are associated with neuroendocrine tumors, each has characteristic organ involvement. Identifying patients with the syndrome can aid in proper screening and treatment. PMID:27617149

  4. Xeroderma pigmentosum with bilateral ocular surface squamous neoplasia and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kalamkar, Charudutt; Radke, Nishant; Mukherjee, Amrita; Radke, Snehal

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare genetic disorder associated with various ocular malignancies. Here we report a single paediatric case of xeroderma pigmentosum with bilateral ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) presenting with diffuse lesion in one eye and a large mass in the other eye. Diffuse OSSN in one eye was treated with topical chemotherapy using mitomycin-C (0.04%) and the large OSSN in the other eye was treated with a combination of surgery and topical chemotherapy. Long-term follow-up and a multimodality treatment approach are necessary to identify and manage recurrences of OSSN in XP. PMID:27166000

  5. Nonfunctional Metastatic Parathyroid Carcinoma in the Setting of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Posada-González, María; Gómez-Ramírez, Joaquín; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Guijarro, Mercedes; Martín-Pérez, Elena; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Ana; García-Sanz, Iñigo; Larrañaga, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare malignancy. It has been associated with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome, familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and 2A (MEN-2A) syndromes. We report a 54-year-old man with a MEN-2A which presents with a nonfunctional metastatic parathyroid carcinoma and a pheochromocytoma in the absence of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Only a few cases of parathyroid carcinoma have been reported in the literature associated with this syndrome. PMID:25374962

  6. Germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS): evolution of the current nomenclature for testicular pre-invasive germ cell malignancy.

    PubMed

    Berney, Daniel M; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Idrees, Muhammad; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Ulbright, Thomas M; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2016-07-01

    The pre-invasive lesion associated with post-pubertal malignant germ cell tumours of the testis was first recognized in the early 1970s and confirmed by a number of observational and follow-up studies. Until this year, this scientific story has been confused by resistance to the entity and disagreement on its name. Initially termed 'carcinoma in situ' (CIS), it has also been known as 'intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified' (IGCNU) and 'testicular intraepithelial neoplasia' (TIN). In this paper, we review the history of discovery and controversy concerning these names and introduce the reasoning for uniting behind a new name, endorsed unanimously at the World Health Organization (WHO) consensus classification 2016: germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS). PMID:26918959

  7. Implementation of a program to improve the quality of colonoscopy increases the neoplasia detection rate: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Luis Alberto; Cassella, Federico; Wonaga, Andrés; Arnao Dellamea, Gloria; Di Paola, Leandro; Ubeira Salim, Rodrigo; Fernández, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopists worldwide have been encouraged to report quality indicators in order to evaluate their performance. We aimed to determine whether a program to improve the quality of colonoscopy results in better rates of neoplasia detection. Patients and methods: This is a prospective study set in a private endoscopy center. From May 2009 to March 2010, we evaluated 1573 consecutive colonoscopies (group 1). After the implementation of a quality program, from February 2011 to January 2012, we prospectively evaluated 1583 colonoscopies (group 2). Our quality-enhancing intervention consisted of instructing both patients and endoscopists. We measured the cecal intubation rate and the neoplasia detection rate. Overall neoplasias, high-risk adenomas, carcinomas, right colon adenomas, and adenomas detected in screening studies were analyzed. Results: Cecal intubation was documented in 1384 cases from group 1 (88 %) and 1534 from group 2 (96.9 %) (P < 0.0001). The neoplasia detection rates in groups 1 and 2 were, respectively: neoplasias 288 (18.3 %) and 427 (27 %) (P < 0.0001), high-risk adenomas 76 (4.8 %) and 142 (9 %) (P < 0.0001), carcinomas 16 (1 %) and 21 (1.3 %) (P = 0.52), right colon adenomas 112 (7.1 %) and 154 (9.7 %) (P = 0.01), and adenomas 141 (16.5 %) and 233 (28 %) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Implementation of a quality program improves the neoplasia detection rate. Because of the small number of cancerous lesions found in both groups, we were unable to identify differences in the carcinoma detection rate. PMID:26793787

  8. Clinical value of tumor doubling estimations in multiple endocrine neoplasia type II.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C E; Talpos, G B; Block, M A; Norum, R A; Lloyd, R V; Tashjian, A H

    1984-12-01

    Experience with children with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb has emphasized that medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in MEN IIb is more aggressive than in MEN IIa. Earlier ages of onset and apparently more rapid growth of MTC in MEN IIb suggest that these tumors have earlier ages of conversion to malignant states and/or shorter doubling times. The age at which a hyperplastic C cell becomes a malignant cell and the true doubling time cannot be estimated presently. Maximum volume-doubling times of 35 and 75 days (21 to 26 doublings) were calculated from tumor size and age at operation in five patients with MEN IIb aged 2 to 5 years. Calculations in 20 patients with MEN IIa revealed maximum doubling times of 110 to 440 days, with ages ranging from 7 to 29 years and number of doubling ranging from 18 to 38. Positive provocative calcitonin tests in two adult patients with MEN IIa after 10 to 11 years of repeated negative tests suggest a minimum doubling time of 190 to 210 days. Such experience emphasizes that negative stimulated calcitonin tests less than 11 years after operation do not provide assurance of cures for MTC in MEN IIa although negative tests after more than 5 years for MEN IIb are encouraging. Calculations of volume doublings accounting for various-sized tumors are compatible with Knudson's two-mutational-event theory on the initiation of neoplasia. PMID:6150555

  9. Hyperspectral wide gap second derivative analysis for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wenli; Wang, Chaojian; Chang, Shufang; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique has been used for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. However, the clinical outcome of this technique is suboptimal owing to multiple limitations such as nonuniform illumination, high-cost and bulky setup, and time-consuming data acquisition and processing. To overcome these limitations, we acquired the hyperspectral data cube in a wavelength ranging from 600 to 800 nm and processed it by a wide gap second derivative analysis method. This method effectively reduced the image artifacts caused by nonuniform illumination and background absorption. Furthermore, with second derivative analysis, only three specific wavelengths (620, 696, and 772 nm) are needed for tissue classification with optimal separability. Clinical feasibility of the proposed image analysis and classification method was tested in a clinical trial where cervical hyperspectral images from three patients were used for classification analysis. Our proposed method successfully classified the cervix tissue into three categories of normal, inflammation and high-grade lesion. These classification results were coincident with those by an experienced gynecology oncologist after applying acetic acid. Our preliminary clinical study has demonstrated the technical feasibility for in vivo and noninvasive detection of cervical neoplasia without acetic acid. Further clinical research is needed in order to establish a large-scale diagnostic database and optimize the tissue classification technique.

  10. Anal Neoplasia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is Associated With HPV and Perianal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ruel, Joannie; Ko, Huaibin Mabel; Roda, Giulia; Patil, Ninad; Zhang, David; Jharap, Bindia; Harpaz, Noam; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Literature describing the risk factors predisposing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients to anal squamous neoplasia is very scarce. Case reports and small case series have implicated perianal Crohn's disease (CD), long-standing IBD, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and immunosuppressive treatment. In this study, we retrospectively examined the association between HPV infection and anal squamous neoplastic lesions among IBD patients from our center. METHODS: We reviewed the pathology records and slides of IBD patients diagnosed with anal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) who presented at our center between 1 March 1994 and 9 September 2014. The HPV status of the neoplasms was assessed histologically, by immunohistochemical staining for p16 overexpression, and by global and type-specific HPV PCR. RESULTS: SCCs, HSILs, LSILs, and small cell carcinoma were identified, respectively, in six, nine, two, and one IBD patients. All six patients with SCC had CD with perianal involvement. HPV-related neoplasia was identified in 3/6 cases of SCC (all HPV-16), 1/1 small cell carcinoma (HPV-18), and 9/9 HSIL (7 HPV-16, 2 not typed); 2/2 LSILs were negative for high-risk HPV. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, anal squamous neoplastic lesions in IBD are associated with HPV infection and SCC seem to be associated with perianal CD. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26938479

  11. Effects of the multikinase inhibitors Sorafenib and Regorafenib in PTEN deficient neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Mirantes, Cristina; Dosil, Maria Alba; Eritja, Núria; Felip, Isidre; Gatius, Sònia; Santacana, Maria; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) axis is frequently dysregulated in cancer due to mutations in different nodes of the pathway or constitutive activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Multikinase inhibitors as sorafenib and regorafenib represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of these types of tumours. In the present study, we have evaluated the anti-tumoural effects of Sorafenib and Regorafenib on endometrial, prostate and thyroid neoplasias. Both inhibitors reduced cell viability in vitro and lead to a disruption of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. In vivo, we have demonstrated that Sorafenib and Regorafenib reduce thyroid hyperplasias induced by the loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), although none of the treatments eliminated the disease. Altogether, we present the first study that correlates the response to multikinase inhibitors with a specific mutation. Moreover, this is the first report characterising the response to Regorafenib in thyroid, prostate and endometrial neoplasias. PMID:27288872

  12. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  13. p120 Catenin Suppresses Basal Epithelial Cell Extrusion in Invasive Pancreatic Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Hendley, Audrey M; Wang, Yue J; Polireddy, Kishore; Alsina, Janivette; Ahmed, Ishrat; Lafaro, Kelly J; Zhang, Hao; Roy, Nilotpal; Savidge, Samuel G; Cao, Yanna; Hebrok, Matthias; Maitra, Anirban; Reynolds, Albert B; Goggins, Michael; Younes, Mamoun; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Leach, Steven D; Bailey, Jennifer M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant regulation of cellular extrusion can promote invasion and metastasis. Here, we identify molecular requirements for early cellular invasion using a premalignant mouse model of pancreatic cancer with conditional knockout of p120 catenin (Ctnnd1). Mice with biallelic loss of p120 catenin progressively develop high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and neoplasia accompanied by prominent acute and chronic inflammatory processes, which is mediated, in part, through NF-κB signaling. Loss of p120 catenin in the context of oncogenic Kras also promotes remarkable apical and basal epithelial cell extrusion. Abundant single epithelial cells exit PanIN epithelium basally, retain epithelial morphology, survive, and display features of malignancy. Similar extrusion defects are observed following p120 catenin knockdown in vitro, and these effects are completely abrogated by the activation of S1P/S1pr2 signaling. In the context of oncogenic Kras, p120 catenin loss significantly reduces expression of genes mediating S1P/S1pr2 signaling in vivo and in vitro, and this effect is mediated at least, in part, through activation of NF-κB. These results provide insight into mechanisms controlling early events in the metastatic process and suggest that p120 catenin and S1P/S1pr2 signaling enhance cancer progression by regulating epithelial cell invasion. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3351-63. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27032419

  14. Isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase deficiency exacerbates KRAS-driven pancreatic neoplasia via Notch suppression.

    PubMed

    Court, Helen; Amoyel, Marc; Hackman, Michael; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Xu, Ruliang; Miller, George; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Bach, Erika A; Bergö, Martin O; Philips, Mark R

    2013-11-01

    RAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers. Despite decades of effort, anti-RAS therapies have remained elusive. Isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase (ICMT) methylates RAS and other CaaX-containing proteins, but its potential as a target for cancer therapy has not been fully evaluated. We crossed a Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D mouse, which is a model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), with a mouse harboring a floxed allele of Icmt. Surprisingly, we found that ICMT deficiency dramatically accelerated the development and progression of neoplasia. ICMT-deficient pancreatic ductal epithelial cells had a slight growth advantage and were resistant to premature senescence by a mechanism that involved suppression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16INK4A) expression. ICMT deficiency precisely phenocopied Notch1 deficiency in the Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D model by exacerbating pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, promoting facial papillomas, and derepressing Wnt signaling. Silencing ICMT in human osteosarcoma cells decreased Notch1 signaling in response to stimulation with cell-surface ligands. Additionally, targeted silencing of Ste14, the Drosophila homolog of Icmt, resulted in defects in wing development, consistent with Notch loss of function. Our data suggest that ICMT behaves like a tumor suppressor in PDA because it is required for Notch1 signaling. PMID:24216479

  15. Phenotypic characterisation of immune cell infiltrates in testicular germ cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Hvarness, Tine; Nielsen, John E; Almstrup, Kristian; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Claesson, Mogens H

    2013-12-01

    Immune cells often infiltrate testicular germ cell neoplasms, including pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS), but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. The composition and distribution of infiltrating immune cells were examined by immunohistochemistry in testis samples with CIS and overt seminoma, in comparison to biopsies from infertile men without neoplasia. The composition of immune cells was similar across all the groups studied. Macrophages, CD8⁺ and CD45R0⁺ T lymphocytes constituted the majority of infiltrates, B lymphocytes were present in an intermediate proportion and very few CD4⁺ and FoxP3⁺ T cells were detected. HLA-I antigen was more abundant in Sertoli cells in tubules containing CIS than in those with normal spermatogenesis. This study showed a phenotypically comparable composition of infiltrating immune cells independently of the presence of neoplasia, suggesting the absence of active immune surveillance in testicular germ cell cancer. PMID:24290033

  16. Targeted therapy of colorectal neoplasia with rapamycin in peptide-labeled pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles.

    PubMed

    Khondee, Supang; Rabinsky, Emily F; Owens, Scott R; Joshi, Bishnu P; Qiu, Zhen; Duan, Xiyu; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Thomas D

    2015-02-10

    Many powerful drugs have limited clinical utility because of poor water solubility and high systemic toxicity. Here, we formulated a targeted nanomedicine, rapamycin encapsulated in pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles labeled with a new ligand for colorectal neoplasia, LTTHYKL peptide. CPC;Apc mice that spontaneously develop colonic adenomas were treated with free rapamycin, plain rapamycin micelles, and peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles via intraperitoneal injection for 35days. Endoscopy was performed to monitor adenoma regression in vivo. We observed complete adenoma regression at the end of therapy. The mean regression rate for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles was significantly greater than that for plain rapamycin micelles, P<0.01. On immunohistochemistry, we observed a significant reduction in phospho-S6 but not β-catenin expression and reduced tumor cell proliferation, suggesting greater inhibition of downstream mTOR signaling. We observed significantly reduced renal toxicity for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles compared to that of free drug, and no other toxicities were found on chemistries. Together, this unique targeted micelle represents a potential therapeutic for colorectal neoplasia with comparable therapeutic efficacy to rapamycin free drug and significantly less systemic toxicity. PMID:25483425

  17. Low-grade mucinous neoplasia in a cecal diverticulum: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Kazuyoshi; Tokuhara, Katsuji; Sakaguchi, Tatsuma; Ryota, Hironori; Yoshioka, Kazuhiko; Kon, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-grade mucinous neoplasia is an uncommon benign tumor that develops in the appendix. The development of mucocele disease has never been reported in a colonic diverticulum. We present a case developing low-grade mucinous neoplasia in a cecal diverticulum. Presentation of case A tumor in the ileocecal region was found during a medical examination of a 66-year-old woman. Three months later, the tumor was still present and the patient developed abdominal pain. Laparoscopic ileocecal resection with D2 lymph node dissection was performed. Histopathological examination revealed a low-grade mucinous neoplasm in a cecal diverticulum. Discussion Colonic mucoceles reportedly originate from the appendix. There are no previous reports of mucocele disease in a colonic diverticulum worldwide. This report reviews and discusses the management of the appendiceal mucoceles. Conclusion The incidence of colonic diverticula has recently begun to increase in Japan. The possibility of a mucocele within a colonic diverticulum should be considered in patients with submucosal colonic tumors. PMID:26318130

  18. Neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonocítica crónica o juvenil y la LMC atípica.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of sexually transmitted infections and cervical neoplasia in women from a rural area of southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Clara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Renom, Montse; Sacarlal, Jahit; Quintó, Llorenç; Lloveras, Belen; Klaustermeier, Joellen; Kornegay, Janet R; Sigauque, Betuel; Bosch, F Xavier; Alonso, Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    There is limited information on the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and the prevalence of cervical neoplasia in rural sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the prevalence and the etiology of STIs and the prevalence of cervical neoplasia among women in southern Mozambique. An age-stratified cross-sectional study was performed where 262 women aged 14 to 61 years were recruited at the antenatal clinic (59%), the family-planning clinic (7%), and from the community (34%). At least one active STI was diagnosed in 79% of women. Trichomonas vaginalis was present in 31% of all study participants. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis were 14% and 8%, respectively, and Syphilis was diagnosed in 12% of women. HPV DNA was detected in 40% of women and cervical neoplasia was diagnosed in 12% of all women. Risk factors associated with the presence of some of the STIs were being divorced or widowed, having more than one sexual partner and having the partner living in another area. A higher prevalence was observed in the reproductive age group and some of the STIs were more frequently diagnosed in pregnant women. STI control programs are a priority to reduce the STIs burden, including HIV and cervical neoplasia. PMID:20706691

  20. Comparing Benign and Malignant Neoplasia and DSB Induction for Low-and High-LET Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Fredric; (Eric) Tang, Moon-Shong; Wu, Feng

    One-and 2-stage models based on DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) have been developed to describe the dose and LET dependence of cancer induction in rat skin exposed to the Bragg plateau of several ion beams or electron radiation. Data are presented showing that carcinomas (malignant) and fibromas (benign) are induced differently by low and high LET radiation. DSBs are subject to complex repair processes, including homologous and non-homologous end joining, that slowly eliminate broken chromosome ends but at the expense of elevating genomic instability that increases the risk of neoplasia. In this formulation the initial molecular lesion in radiation carcinogenesis is assumed to be a DNA double strand break (DSB). The 2-event model assumes that pairs of DSBs join to create cellular genomic instability that eventually progresses to malignancy. The 1-event model assumes that joining is insignificant but that unrepaired DSBs remain and are sufficiently destabilizing to produce low-grade neoplasias. The respective expected relationships between neoplasia yield (Y), radiation dose (D) and LET (L) are: Y(D) = CLD + BD2 (A) for 2-events and Y(D) = CLD (B) for 1-event. Respective B and C values have been evaluated empirically for carcinomas, fibromas and DSBs, the latter via the -H2Ax technique in surrogate keratinocytes, for several types of radiations, including, 40Ar ions, 56Fe ions, 20Ne ions, protons, electrons and x-rays. Fibromas outnumber carcinomas by about 6:1 but are more sensitive than carcinomas to the cytolethal effect of the radiations. The 2-event model agrees well with carcinoma yields in rat skin but fails to model fibromas correctly. Instead the fibroma yields best fitted with the 1-event model for the high LET ion radiations, but at very low LET (electron radiation), an empirical D3 component becomes apparent which is not currently incorporated into the theoretical model. At higher LET values, the D3 component was not detected. The overall results are

  1. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Srigley, John R; Delahunt, Brett; Eble, John N; Egevad, Lars; Epstein, Jonathan I; Grignon, David; Hes, Ondrej; Moch, Holger; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tickoo, Satish K; Zhou, Ming; Argani, Pedram

    2013-10-01

    The classification working group of the International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference on renal neoplasia was in charge of making recommendations regarding additions and changes to the current World Health Organization Classification of Renal Tumors (2004). Members of the group performed an exhaustive literature review, assessed the results of the preconference survey and participated in the consensus conference discussion and polling activities. On the basis of the above inputs, there was consensus that 5 entities should be recognized as new distinct epithelial tumors within the classification system: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo) papillary RCC, the MiT family translocation RCCs (in particular t(6;11) RCC), and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. In addition, there are 3 rare carcinomas that were considered as emerging or provisional new entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC; succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC; and ALK translocation RCC. Further reports of these entities are required to better understand the nature and behavior of these highly unusual tumors. There were a number of new concepts and suggested modifications to the existing World Health Organization 2004 categories. Within the clear cell RCC group, it was agreed upon that multicystic clear cell RCC is best considered as a neoplasm of low malignant potential. There was agreement that subtyping of papillary RCC is of value and that the oncocytic variant of papillary RCC should not be considered as a distinct entity. The hybrid oncocytic chromophobe tumor, which is an indolent tumor that occurs in 3 settings, namely Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome, renal oncocytosis, and as a sporadic neoplasm, was placed, for the time being, within the chromophobe RCC category. Recent advances related to collecting duct carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, and mucinous spindle cell and tubular RCC

  2. Chromosomal instability in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Cytogenetic evaluation with DEB test.

    PubMed

    Tomassetti, P; Cometa, G; Del Vecchio, E; Baserga, M; Faccioli, P; Bosoni, D; Paolucci, G; Barbara, L

    1995-02-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant condition with high penetrance and variable expressivity, in which tumors or hyperplasia occur in two or more endocrine organs. Some authors have investigated chromosomal instability in MEN 1 and MEN 2; the results are controversial. Chromosome analyses were performed on lymphocytes from seven patients with MEN 1, four healthy first-degree relatives (three of whom were children), six phenotypically normal volunteers, and three patients with Fanconi's anemia. To evaluate chromosomal instability we analyzed phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocyte cultures with and without diepoxibutane. We observed an increase in the frequency of spontaneous chromosomal alterations in four patients. After the DEB test we found an increase in chromatid breakages, gaps, and exchange figures. These findings support the inclusion of the MEN 1 syndrome among the disorders with "chromosomal instability." PMID:7889502

  3. [Combined endoscopic diagnostics with catheter confocal endomicroscopy for gastric neoplasia detection].

    PubMed

    Shuleshova, A G; Zav'ialov, M O; Ul'ianov, D N; Kanareĭtseva, T D

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of combined endoscopic diagnostics with catheter confocal laser endomicroscopy (CCLE) for detection of gastric neoplasia in 103 patients is presented in the article. It was described the main principles of catheter confocal laser endomicroscopy by using of Cellvizio-system ("Mauna Kea Technologies", France). All patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy before catheter confocal laser endomicroscopy. Such modes as HRE-endoscopy, NBI-endoscopy and Zoom-endoscopy were used. It was revealed different neoplastic changes of stomach mucous coat and early cancer forms of stomach in 185 cases. It was noted expediency and high informational content of CCLE which leads to detect the foci of intestinal metaplasia by colonic type, foci of dysplasia and early cancer of stomach mucous coat. The role of conventional morphological study for verification of changes detected with CCLE was shown. PMID:25327669

  4. BCR-ABL negative myeloproliferative neoplasia: a review of involved molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Suzanne M; Schouten, Harry C; van Marion, Ariënne M W

    2015-02-01

    The clonal bone marrow stem cell disorders essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) belong to the group of Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasia (Ph- MPN). In 2005 the JAK2(V617F) mutation was discovered which has generated more insight in the pathogenetic mechanism of the MPNs. More mutations have been detected in MPN patients since. However, the underlying cause of MPN has not been discovered so far. The mechanism of increased angiogenesis in MPNs and the development of fibrosis in the bone marrow in PMF patients and in some ET and PV patients is still not known. This review will focus on the most important molecular pathogenetic mechanisms in MPN patients. PMID:25196073

  5. Current concepts in the diagnosis and pathobiology of intraepithelial neoplasia: A review by organ system.

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Bishop, Justin A; Argani, Pedram; Cuda, Jonathan D; Epstein, Jonathan I; Hruban, Ralph H; Netto, George J; Stoler, Mark H; Taube, Janis M; Vang, Russell; Westra, William H; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE In this report, a team of surgical pathologists has provided a review of intraepithelial neoplasia in a host of (but not all) anatomic sites of interest to colleagues in various medical specialties, namely, uterine cervix, ovary, breast, lung, head and neck, skin, prostate, bladder, pancreas, and esophagus. There is more experience with more readily accessible sites (such as the uterine cervix and skin) than with other anatomic sites, and the lack of uniform terminology, together with divergent biology in various sites, makes it difficult to paint a unifying, relevant portrait. The authors' aim was to provide a framework from which to move forward as we care for patients with such precancerous lesions. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:408-436. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27270763

  6. Protein kinase D1 drives pancreatic acinar cell reprogramming and progression to intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Geou-Yarh; Döppler, Heike; Braun, Ursula B.; Panayiotou, Richard; Scotti Buzhardt, Michele; Radisky, Derek C.; Crawford, Howard C.; Fields, Alan P.; Murray, Nicole R.; Wang, Q. Jane; Leitges, Michael; Storz, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The transdifferentiation of pancreatic acinar cells to a ductal phenotype (acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, ADM) occurs after injury or inflammation of the pancreas and is a reversible process. However, in the presence of activating Kras mutations or persistent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signalling, cells that underwent ADM can progress to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually pancreatic cancer. In transgenic animal models, ADM and PanINs are initiated by high-affinity ligands for EGF-R or activating Kras mutations, but the underlying signalling mechanisms are not well understood. Here, using a conditional knockout approach, we show that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is sufficient to drive the reprogramming process to a ductal phenotype and progression to PanINs. Moreover, using 3D explant culture of primary pancreatic acinar cells, we show that PKD1 acts downstream of TGFα and Kras, to mediate formation of ductal structures through activation of the Notch pathway.

  7. Neoplasia in adoptively immunosuppressed rats. A possible model for tumorigenesis in transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsch, S.E.; Cook, E.P.

    1983-07-01

    An extremely high incidence of malignant tumors was observed in groups of rats that had previously been exposed to whole body irradiation, grafted with allogeneic tissue, and injected with lymphocytes capable of specifically suppressing the rejection of the grafted tissue. Neoplasia in these adoptively immunosuppressed rats had features in common with that in therapeutically immunosuppressed transplant recipients. Increased tumor incidence could not be accounted for on the basis of the effects of whole body irradiation or failure of immune surveillance, nor could it be a direct effect of lymphoid tissue stimulation. It is suggested that cell mediated suppressor responses play a critical role in tumorigenesis. The mechanism of this is not simply direct stimulation of lymphoid tissue proliferation.

  8. VIPoma with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 identified as an atypical gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Fujiya, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto; Shibata, Taiga; Sobajima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old man presented with persistent diarrhoea and hypokalaemia. CT revealed 4 pancreatic tumours that appeared to be VIPomas, because the patient had an elevated plasma vasoactive intestinal polypeptide level. MRI showed a low-intensity area in the pituitary suggestive of a pituitary tumour, and a parathyroid tumour was detected by ultrasonography and 99Tc-MIBI scintigraphy. Given these results, the patient was diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and scheduled for surgery. MEN1 is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with MEN1 mutations. Genetic testing indicated that the patient had a MEN1 gene mutation; his 2 sons had the same mutations. Most MEN1 tumours are benign, but some pancreatic and thymic tumours could become malignant. Without treatment, such tumours would result in earlier mortality. Despite its rarity, we should perform genetic testing for family members of patients with MEN1 to identify mutation carriers and improve the patients' prognosis. PMID:26564120

  9. [Early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in high-risk patients].

    PubMed

    Sendagorta, E; Herranz, P; Guadalajara, H; Zamora, F X

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma has increased alarmingly, particularly in high-risk groups such as men who have sex with men and immunosuppressed patients. Infection with an oncogenic strain of the human papillomavirus in the anal canal or perianal skin leads to anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN), progressive dysplastic intraepithelial lesions that are the precursors of anal squamous cell carcinoma. AIN can be diagnosed through cytological screening and biopsy guided by high-resolution anoscopy and can be treated using a range of procedures in an effort to prevent progression to invasive anal carcinoma. Given the recent advances in the understanding of this disease, and the increasing calls from experts for the establishment of screening programs to identify AIN, we review current knowledge on the condition, its diagnosis, and treatment from the point of view of dermatology. PMID:21764027

  10. Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastrinomas in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN-1)

    PubMed Central

    Plöckinger, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) is a rare autosomal-dominant disease. It is associated with a broad range of endocrine tumours, most frequently arising in the parathyroid glands, the pituitary and the pancreas. Most neuroendocrine tumours will be diagnosed in the pancreas as non-functioning neuroendocrine tumours or insulinomas. Forty-two percent of the patients will develop a gastrin-secreting neuroendocrine tumour, a gastrinoma. Gastrinomas in MEN-1 tend to be small, multiple and preferentially located in the duodenum. This paper will focus on the specific characteristics of gastrinomas in the setting of MEN-1 compared to sporadic gastrinomas. The developments in understanding the tumorigenesis of these tumours and the consequences for diagnosis and therapy will be discussed. PMID:24213225

  11. Oncogenic Kras-induced GM-CSF production promotes the development of pancreatic neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pylayeva-Gupta, Yuliya; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Hajdu, Cristina H.; Miller, George; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2013-01-01

    Summary Stromal responses elicited by early stage neoplastic lesions can promote tumor growth. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the early recruitment of stromal cells to sites of neoplasia remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate an oncogenic KrasG12D-dependent upregulation of GM-CSF in mouse pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDEC). An enhanced GM-CSF production is also observed in human PanIN lesions. KrasG12D-dependent production of GM-CSF in vivo is required for the recruitment of Gr1+CD11b+ myeloid cells. The suppression of GM-CSF production inhibits the in vivo growth of KrasG12D-PDECs and, consistent with the role of GM-CSF in Gr1+CD11b+ mobilization, this effect is mediated by CD8+ T cells. These results identify a pathway that links oncogenic activation to the evasion of anti-tumor immunity. PMID:22698407

  12. Volumetric imaging of oral epithelial neoplasia by MPM-SHGM: epithelial connective tissue interface (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2016-03-01

    The majority of oral cancers are comprised of oral squamous cell carcinoma in which neoplastic epithelial cells invade across the epithelial connective tissue interface (ECTI). Invasion is preceded by a multi-component process including epithelial hyperproliferation, loss of cell polarity, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Multiphoton Autofluorescence Microscopy (MPAM) and Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy (SHGM) show promise for revealing indicators of neoplasia. In particular, volumetric imaging by these methods can reveal aspects of the 3D microstructure that are not possible by other methods and which could both further our understanding of neoplastic transformation and be explored for development of diagnostic approaches in this disease having only 55% 5-year survival rate. MPAM-SHG were applied to reveal the 3D structure of the critical ECTI interface that plays an integral part toward invasion. Epithelial dysplasia was induced in an established hamster model. MPAM-SHGM was applied to lesion sites, using 780 nm excitation (450-600nm emission) for autofluroescence of cellular and extracellular components; 840 nm using 420 nm bandpass filter for SHG. The ECTI surface was identified as the interface at which SHG signal began following the epithelium and was modeled as a 3D surface using Matlab. ECTI surface area and cell features at sites of epithelial expansion where ECTI was altered were measured; Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histology. ROC analysis using ECTI image metrics indicated the ability to delineate normal from neoplasia with high sensitivity and specificity and it is noteworthy that inflammation did not significantly alter diagnostic potential of MPAM-SHGM .

  13. Epigenetic alteration of Wnt pathway antagonists in progressive glandular neoplasia of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Licchesi, Julien D.F.; Westra, William H.; Hooker, Craig M.; Machida, Emi O.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) is now recognized as a precursor lesion from which lung adenocarcinomas arise and thus represents an ideal target for studying the early genetic and epigenetic alterations associated with lung tumorigenesis such as alterations of the Wnt pathway. Methods: We assessed the level of Wnt signaling activity in lung cancer cell lines by determining the level of active β-catenin and determined the level of expression of Wnt antagonists APC, DKK1, DKK3, LKB1, SFRP1, 2, 4, 5, WIF1 and RUNX3 using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Using multiplex nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed promoter region methylation of these genes in resected lung tissue in the histopathologic sequence of glandular neoplasia (normal lung parenchyma, low-grade and high-grade AAH, adenocarcinoma). Results: The majority of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (11 of 16, 69%) have evidence of active Wnt signaling and silencing of Wnt antagonists correlated with promoter hypermethylation. Promoter region methylation of Wnt antagonists was common in primary lung adenocarcinoma and there was a significant increase in the frequency of methylation for Wnt antagonist genes and the number of genes methylated with each stage of tumorigenesis (test for rend P ≤ 0.01). Additionally, odds ratios for promoter hypermethylation of individual or multiple Wnt antagonist genes and adenocarcinomas were statistically significantly elevated and ranged between 3.64 and 48.17. Conclusion: These results show that gene silencing of Wnt antagonists by promoter hypermethylation occurs during the earliest stages of glandular neoplasia of the lung and accumulates with progression toward malignancy. PMID:18308762

  14. Association of human papilloma virus with pterygia and ocular-surface squamous neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, N

    2012-02-01

    There are more microorganisms that colonize the human body than resident cells; some are commensal whereas others are pathogenic. Pathogenic microorganisms are sensed by the innate or adaptive immune system, an immune response is initiated, and the infection is often cleared. Some microorganisms have developed strategies to evade immune defenses, ensuring their long-term survival with potentially devastating consequences for the host. Approximately 18% of all cancers can be attributed to infective agents; the most common being Helicobacter pylori, Human papilloma virus (HPV) and Hepatitis B and C virus in causing stomach, cervical and liver carcinoma, respectively. This review focuses on whether HPV infection is necessary for initiating pterygia, a common benign condition and ocular-surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), a rare disease with metastatic potential. The search engine PubMed was used to identify articles from the literature related to HPV and pterygium or conjunctival neoplasia. From 34 investigations that studied HPV in pterygia and OSSN, a prevalence rate of 18.6% (136/731) and 33.8% (144/426), respectively, was recorded. The variation in HPV prevalence (0-100%) for both disease groups may have arisen from study-design faults and the techniques used to identify the virus. Overall, the data suggest that HPV is not necessary for initiating either condition but may be a co-factor in susceptible hosts. Currently, over 60 million people worldwide have been immunized with HPV vaccines, but any effect on pterygium and OSSN development may not be known for some time as these lesions can evolve over decades or occur in older individuals. PMID:22134594

  15. Epidemiological evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia without the presence of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Burger, M. P.; Hollema, H.; Pieters, W. J.; Schröder, F. P.; Quint, W. G.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide epidemiological evidence to support the notion that cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) without human papillomavirus (HPV) is a true entity. If a diagnosis of HPV-negative cervical neoplasia is erroneous, one would not expect there to be any differences in risk factors between HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients. Patients at a gynaecological outpatient clinic of a university hospital [a total of 265 consecutive women with dyskaryotic cervical smears who were subsequently diagnosed with CIN I (n=37), CIN II (n=48) or CIN III (n=180)] completed a structured questionnaire regarding smoking habits and sexual history. Analysis of an endocervical swab for Chlamydia trachomatis, analysis of a cervical scrape for HPV, and morphological examination of cervical biopsy specimens were also performed. HPV was found in 205 (77.4%) out of the 265 women. Univariate analysis showed that current age (P=0.02), current smoking behaviour (P=0.002) and the number of sexual partners (P=0.02) were significantly associated with the presence of HPV. Age at first sexual intercourse, a past history of venereal disease or genital warts, and current infection with Chlamydia trachomatis were not associated with the presence of HPV. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the number of sexual partners and current smoking behaviour showed an independent significant association with HPV. HPV-negative and HPV-positive CIN patients differ with respect to the risk factors for HPV. These findings suggest that HPV-negative CIN is a separate true entity. PMID:8611390

  16. Medication Usage and the Risk of Neoplasia in Patients with Barrett's Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dang M.; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Henderson, Louise; Stein, Daniel; Bhattacharyya, Achyut; Sampliner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Experimental evidence indicates that proton pump inhibitors (PPI), non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAID)/aspirin and statins can protect patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) from developing neoplasias. However, only limited data are available on chemoprevention in patients with BE. Methods A retrospective observational study was performed using data from patients with documented BE. Prescription information was collected from pharmacy records. Cox regression analyses were performed to examine the association between prescriptions for PPI, NSAID/aspirin or statins and the risk of developing esophageal dysplasia or adenocarcinoma during follow-up (from 1982 to 2005). Results We examined data from 344 patients diagnosed with BE (mean age 61 years, 90.4% Caucasian, 94.2% male). After BE diagnosis, 67.2% of the patients were prescribed PPI for a mean duration of 5.1 years; 49.1% were prescribed NSAID for a mean duration of 3.6 years and 25.3% were prescribed statins for a mean duration of 2.8 years. During 2,620 patient-years following BE diagnosis, high-grade dysplasia or esophageal adenocarcinoma developed in 33 patients. PPI treatment after BE diagnosis was associated with a reduced risk of high-grade dysplasia or cancer; this association persisted after adjustment for gender, age, and the length of BE at time of the diagnosis. NSAID and/or aspirin therapy were associated with a non-significant trend toward lower incidence of high-grade dysplasia or esophageal cancer. Conclusions PPI therapy reduces the risk of neoplasms in patients with BE. NSAID/aspirin appear to reduce cancer risk whereas statin use is not significantly associated with the risk of neoplasia in patients with BE. PMID:19523538

  17. Application of quantitative estimates of fecal hemoglobin concentration for risk prediction of colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chao-Sheng; Lin, Yu-Min; Chang, Hung-Chuen; Chen, Yu-Hung; Chong, Lee-Won; Chen, Chun-Hao; Lin, Yueh-Shih; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Shih, Chia-Hui

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of the fecal immunochemical test (FIT), used to evaluate fecal hemoglobin concentration, in the prediction of histological grade and risk of colorectal tumors. METHODS: We enrolled 17881 individuals who attended the two-step colorectal cancer screening program in a single hospital between January 2010 and October 2011. Colonoscopy was recommended to the participants with an FIT of ≥ 12 ngHb/mL buffer. We classified colorectal lesions as cancer (C), advanced adenoma (AA), adenoma (A), and others (O) by their colonoscopic and histological findings. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender was used to determine the association between the FIT results and colorectal tumor grade. The risk of adenomatous neoplasia was estimated by calculating the positive predictive values for different FIT concentrations. RESULTS: The positive rate of the FIT was 10.9% (1948/17881). The attendance rate for colonoscopy was 63.1% (1229/1948). The number of false positive results was 23. Of these 1229 cases, the numbers of O, A, AA, and C were 759, 221, 201, and 48, respectively. Regression analysis revealed a positive association between histological grade and FIT concentration (β = 0.088, P < 0.01). A significant log-linear relationship was found between the concentration and positive predictive value of the FIT for predicting colorectal tumors (R2 > 0.95, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Higher FIT concentrations are associated with more advanced histological grades. Risk prediction for colorectal neoplasia based on individual FIT concentrations is significant and may help to improve the performance of screening programs. PMID:24363529

  18. The Applicability of a Human Immunohistochemical Panel to Mouse Models of Hepatocellular Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Salleng, Kenneth J; Revetta, Frank L; Deane, Natasha G; Washington, M Kay

    2015-10-01

    Various immunohistochemical panels are used as aids to distinguish between primary hepatocellular malignancies and metastatic tumors and between benign lesions and carcinomas. We compared the immunohistochemical spectrum of hepatocellular lesions in mice with that of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Specifically, we compared the staining parameters of 128 murine foci of cellular alteration (FCA) and tumors (adenoma and HCC) from archival tissue blocks of 3 transgenic mouse models (LFABP-cyclin D1, Alb1-TGFβ1, and LFABP-cyclin D1 × Alb1-TGFβ1) with those of archival human HCC (n = 5). Antibodies were chosen according to their published performance and characterization in human hepatocellular tumor diagnosis and included: arginase 1 (Arg1), β-catenin, glutamine synthetase (GS), glypican 3, hepatocyte paraffin 1 (HepPar1), and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). GS was the single best immunostain for identifying hepatocellular tumors in mice, with 100% positive staining. Data showed a trend toward loss of normal function (staining) with Arg1, with a higher percentage of positive staining in FCA than in adenomas and HCC. All FCA lacked murine β-catenin nuclear translocation, which was present in 2 of the 7 adenomas and 22 of the 96 HCC tested. HepPar1 staining was lower than anticipated, except in trabecular HCC (16 of 22 samples were positive). Glyp3 stained very lightly, and only scattered CK19-positive cells were noted (4 of 44 cases of mouse trabecular HCC). Thus, GS appears to be the most useful marker for identifying neoplasia in the transgenic mouse models we tested and should be included in immunohistochemistry assessing hepatocellular neoplasia development. PMID:26473343

  19. The Applicability of a Human Immunohistochemical Panel to Mouse Models of Hepatocellular Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Salleng, Kenneth J; Revetta, Frank L; Deane, Natasha G; Washington, M Kay

    2015-01-01

    Various immunohistochemical panels are used as aids to distinguish between primary hepatocellular malignancies and metastatic tumors and between benign lesions and carcinomas. We compared the immunohistochemical spectrum of hepatocellular lesions in mice with that of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Specifically, we compared the staining parameters of 128 murine foci of cellular alteration (FCA) and tumors (adenoma and HCC) from archival tissue blocks of 3 transgenic mouse models (LFABP–cyclin D1, Alb1–TGFβ1, and LFABP–cyclin D1 × Alb1–TGFβ1) with those of archival human HCC (n = 5). Antibodies were chosen according to their published performance and characterization in human hepatocellular tumor diagnosis and included: arginase 1 (Arg1), β-catenin, glutamine synthetase (GS), glypican 3, hepatocyte paraffin 1 (HepPar1), and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). GS was the single best immunostain for identifying hepatocellular tumors in mice, with 100% positive staining. Data showed a trend toward loss of normal function (staining) with Arg1, with a higher percentage of positive staining in FCA than in adenomas and HCC. All FCA lacked murine β-catenin nuclear translocation, which was present in 2 of the 7 adenomas and 22 of the 96 HCC tested. HepPar1 staining was lower than anticipated, except in trabecular HCC (16 of 22 samples were positive). Glyp3 stained very lightly, and only scattered CK19-positive cells were noted (4 of 44 cases of mouse trabecular HCC). Thus, GS appears to be the most useful marker for identifying neoplasia in the transgenic mouse models we tested and should be included in immunohistochemistry assessing hepatocellular neoplasia development. PMID:26473343

  20. Novel multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variations in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Birla, S; Malik, E; Jyotsna, VP; Sharma, A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) can occur either as a sporadic case or in association with syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal-dominant disease resulting from mutations in MEN1 gene encoding a 621 amino acid long tumor suppressor protein “menin.” We report here the results of MEN1 screening in 31 patients diagnosed with sporadic PHPT. Materials and Methods: Diagnosis of sporadic PHPT was made when blood urea and serum creatinine were normal, serum parathyroid hormone was high, and parathyroid enlargement could be localized on ultrasound and/or parathyroid scan. A total of 31 patients and 50 healthy volunteers were recruited for molecular analysis after taking informed consent. Results: Major symptoms at presentation were bone pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and renal stones. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the presence of two novel intronic variations, c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A which by human splicing finder are predicted to cause potential alteration of splicing by either activating an intronic cryptic acceptor site or converting a conserved exonic splicing silencer sequence to an exonic splicing enhancer site. Apart from these, two reported polymorphisms rs144677807 and rs669976 were seen only in patients and none of the controls. Other reported polymorphisms rs2071313 and rs654440 were identified both in controls and patients. Conclusions: This is the first study of MEN1 gene screening in sporadic PHPT in India reporting on the clinical and genetic findings, wherein two novel intronic variations c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A were identified showing their possible role in disease causation. PMID:27366707

  1. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  2. Warty/basaloid penile intraepithelial neoplasia is more prevalent than differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia in nonendemic regions for penile cancer when compared with endemic areas: a comparative study between pathologic series from Paris and Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Soskin, Ana; Vieillefond, Anicke; Carlotti, Agnes; Plantier, Francoise; Chaux, Alcides; Ayala, Gustavo; Velazquez, Elsa F; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-02-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma shows an ample geographic variation in its prevalence with regions of low (North America, Europe, Japan, and Israel) and high (Africa, Asia, and South America) incidence. However, the geographic variation in the distribution of penile intraepithelial neoplasia is not well established. The aim of the present study was to compare the distribution of in situ and invasive lesions between geographic areas with low (France) and high (Paraguay) penile cancer incidence using a series of consecutive cases. The French series included 86 cases (57 in situ and 29 in situ + invasive squamous cell carcinoma), and the Paraguayan series, 117 cases (31 in situ and 86 in situ + invasive squamous cell carcinoma). Incidence of invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the overall samples was higher in the Paraguayan series (P < .00001). Comparing the Paraguayan and the French series, differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was more prevalent in the former (65.0% versus 19.8%), whereas lesions showing warty and/or basaloid features predominated in the latter (35.0% versus 80.2%) to a significant level (P < .00001). This distinctive pattern of differential distribution was maintained when cases with associated invasive squamous cell carcinoma were excluded. The pattern of distribution of lichen sclerosus was also distinctive, with a significantly higher prevalence in the Paraguayan population when compared with the French series (32.5% versus 12.8%, P = .0015). In summary, there appears to be a distinctive distribution of penile precursor lesions depending on the geographic region in consideration. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia with warty and/or basaloid features predominated in low-incidence areas, whereas differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was more prevalent in endemic regions for penile cancer. Further prospective studies in matched populations and from different geographic regions are needed to further clarify the reasons for this

  3. Evaluation of intracranial neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis in dogs by use of short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3.0 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Inés; Richter, Henning; Beckmann, Katrin; Meier, Dieter; Dennler, Matthias; Kircher, Patrick R

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate metabolite concentrations of the brains of dogs with intracranial neoplasia or noninfectious meningoencephalitis by use of short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3.0 T. ANIMALS 29 dogs with intracranial lesions (14 with neoplasia [3 oligodendromas, 3 glioblastomas multiformes, 3 astrocytomas, 2 lymphomas, and 3 meningiomas] and 15 is with noninfectious meningoencephalitis) and 10 healthy control dogs. PROCEDURES Short echo time, single voxel (1)H-MRS at 3.0 T was performed on neoplastic and noninfectious inflammatory intracranial lesions identified with conventional MRI. Metabolites of interest included N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), total choline, creatine, myoinositol, the glutamine-glutamate complex (Glx), glutathione, taurine, lactate, and lipids. Data were analyzed with postprocessing fitting algorithm software. Metabolite concentrations relative to brain water content were calculated and compared with results for the healthy control dogs, which had been previously evaluated with the same (1)H MRS technique. RESULTS NAA, creatine, and Glx concentrations were reduced in the brains of dogs with neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis, whereas choline concentration was increased. Concentrations of these metabolites differed significantly between dogs with neoplasia and dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis. Concentrations of NAA, creatine, and Glx were significantly lower in dogs with neoplasia, whereas the concentration of choline was significantly higher in dogs with neoplasia. Lipids were predominantly found in dogs with high-grade intra-axial neoplasia, meningioma, and necrotizing meningoencephalitis. A high concentration of taurine was found in 10 of 15 dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE (1)H MRS provided additional metabolic information about intracranial neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis in dogs. PMID:27111012

  4. Differential Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Dilip Kumar; Veena, Uppala; Kaliki, Swathi; Kethiri, Abhinav Reddy; Sangwan, Virender S; Ali, Mohammed Hasnat; Naik, Milind N; Singh, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasm (OSSN) is the neoplasia arising from the conjunctiva, cornea and limbus. OSSN ranges from mild, moderate, severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ (CIS) to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recent findings on cancer stem cells theory indicate that population of stem-like cell as in neoplasia determines its heterogeneity and complexity leading to varying tumor development of metastatic behavior and recurrence. Cancer stem cell markers are not much explored in the cases of OSSN. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the expression of stem cells using stem cell markers mainly p63, ABCG2, c-KIT (CD117) and CD44 in OSSN tissue, which could have prognostic significance. The present study tries for the first time to explore expression of these stem markers in the cases of OSSN. These cases are subdivided into two groups. One group comprises of carcinoma in situ (n = 6) and the second group comprises of invasive carcinoma (n = 6). The mean age at presentation was 52 years; with 53 years for CIS group and 52 years for SCC group. From each group section from the paraffin block were taken for the IHC staining of p63, c-Kit, ABCG2 and CD44. Our experiments show high expression of P63 and CD44 in the cases of CIN and SCC. Both CIS and SCC displayed positive staining with p63, with more than 80% cells staining positive. However minimal expression of c-kit in both CIN and SCC. But surprisingly we got high expression of ABCG2 in cases of carcinoma in situ as compared to that of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. More than 50% of cells showed CD44 positivity in both CIS and SCC groups. Our results show for the first time that these four stem cells especially the limbal epithelium stem cells play a vital role in the genesis of OSSN but we need to explore more cases before establishing its clinical and biological significance. PMID:27584160

  5. Mortality, neoplasia, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in patients treated with human pituitary growth hormone in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, C R; Preece, M A; Milner, R D

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the cause of death and incidence of neoplasia in patients treated with human pituitary growth hormone. DESIGN--A long term cohort study established to receive details of death certification and tumour registrations through the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys and NHS central register. PATIENTS--All patients (1246 male, 662 female) treated for short stature with pituitary growth hormone under the Medical Research Council working party and health services human growth hormone committee. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Death or development of neoplasia. RESULTS--110 patients died (68 male, 42 female; aged 0.9-57 years) from 1972 to 1990. Fifty three death were from neoplasia responsible for growth hormone deficiency (27 craniopharyngioma, 24 other intracranial tumour, two leukaemia); two from histiocytosis X; and 13 from pituitary insufficiency. Six patients died of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, six of other neurological disorders, and eight of acute infection. Other deaths were apparently unrelated to growth hormone deficiency or its treatment. Seventeen tumours (in 16 patients) were identified during or after growth hormone treatment. Four were in patients with previous intracranial neoplasia and two were after cranial irradiation. Thirteen were intracranial, the others being Hodgkin's lymphoma, osteosarcoma, carcinoma of colon, and basal cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS--Recurrence or progression of intracranial tumours and potentially avoidable metabolic consequences of hypopituitarism were the main causes of death. Growth hormone treatment probably did not contribute to new tumour development. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease after pituitary growth hormone treatment continues to occur in the United Kingdom. This cohort must remain under long term review. PMID:2025705

  6. Transvaginal specimen extraction in a laparoscopic anterior resection of a sigmoid colon neoplasia with en bloc right salpingo-oophorectomy.

    PubMed

    García Flórez, L J; Argüelles, J; Quijada, B; Alvarez, V; Galarraga, M A; Graña, J L

    2010-06-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery has well-known benefits. However, an abdominal incision, albeit much smaller than conventional surgery, is still needed. A transvaginal extraction of a sigmoid colon neoplasia with en bloc salpingo-oophorectomy and colorectal mechanical anastomosis is described. The technique is feasible and safe. The excellent recovery of the 86-year-old patient shows the potential future of the natural orifices endoscopic surgery. PMID:20135188

  7. Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: lichen amyloidosis or notalgia paresthetica?

    PubMed

    Chabre, O; Labat, F; Pinel, N; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Bachelot, I

    1992-01-01

    Three patients of a French family demonstrated an association of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) with a pruritic scapular skin lesion. The lesions are similar to those described as familial cutaneous lichen amyloidosis in unrelated MEN 2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma families, but histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of skin biopsies from each patient in the French family did not show amyloid deposition. The topography of the lesion follows dermatomes C8-D3. The patients report not only pruritus but also paresthesia and hyperalgesia, and one showed touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia in the area of the lesion. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features suggests notalgia paresthetica (NP), a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal rami nerves. We thus suggest that the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A might be secondary to pathology in the neural crest-derived dorsal sensory nerves. The amyloid, when present, would be secondary to scratching. We propose that patients presenting with familial NP be suspect for MEN 2A. PMID:1362414

  8. [Iscador QuS and human recombinant interferon alpha (Intron A) in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)].

    PubMed

    Jach, R; Basta, A

    1999-01-01

    For several years there has been the association between the persistent HPV infection (especially with high oncogenic potency i.e. 16, 18) and the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The pathomechanism is probably considered with spread of the early virus gene E1, E2 and the suppressor protein p53 complexes. Further on these complexes cause the neoplastic cell transformation. There has also been described the role of impaired immune response in these cases. The abnormalities cover malformation of antigen presenting system APC, decrease of MHC-I and MHC-II heavy chains rate, decrease of the Langer-hans cells and decrease of count and cytotoxic activities of lymphocytes B and NK cells. The invasive and destructive techniques of HPV associated CIN treatment do not respect its pathogenesis. Therefore the new non surgical methods of treatment would play a major role in treatment and prevention of women especially in their reproductive period. The aim of this work was the evaluation of the Iscador QuS and Intron A role in the management of HPV associated CIN. The 60 patients with CIN and HPV have been diagnosed and treated in our clinic for 12 months. Early results present increase of regression and significant decrease of progression rates in both groups of examined women, comparing to the control group. The stationery state rates in this groups of women were similar to the control group. PMID:10375935

  9. c-Jun promotes whereas JunB inhibits epidermal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jane Y; Ke, Hengning; Hall, Russell P; Zhang, Jennifer Y

    2011-05-01

    Deregulation of the activator protein 1 (AP1) family gene regulators has been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including cancer. In this study we report that c-Jun was activated in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and coexpression of c-Jun with oncogenic Ras was sufficient to transform primary human epidermal cells into malignancy in a regenerated human skin grafting model. In contrast, JunB was not induced in a majority of human SCC cells. Moreover, exogenous expression of JunB inhibited tumorigenesis driven by Ras or spontaneous human SCC cells. Conversely, the dominant-negative JunB mutant (DNJunB) promoted tumorigenesis, which is in contrast to the tumor-suppressor function of the corresponding c-Jun mutant. At the cellular level, JunB induced epidermal cell senescence and slowed cell growth in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistently, coexpression of JunB and Ras induced premature epidermal differentiation concomitant with upregulation of p16 and filaggrin and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). These findings indicate that JunB and c-Jun differentially regulate cell growth and differentiation and induce opposite effects on epidermal neoplasia.JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article, please go to http://www.nature.com/jid/journalclub. PMID:21289643

  10. HIRA orchestrates a dynamic chromatin landscape in senescence and is required for suppression of neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cole, John J.; Nelson, David M.; Dikovskaya, Dina; Faller, William J.; Vizioli, Maria Grazia; Hewitt, Rachael N.; Anannya, Orchi; McBryan, Tony; Manoharan, Indrani; van Tuyn, John; Morrice, Nicholas; Pchelintsev, Nikolay A.; Ivanov, Andre; Brock, Claire; Drotar, Mark E.; Nixon, Colin; Clark, William; Sansom, Owen J.; Anderson, Kurt I.; King, Ayala; Blyth, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferation arrest that suppresses tumorigenesis. Cellular senescence and associated tumor suppression depend on control of chromatin. Histone chaperone HIRA deposits variant histone H3.3 and histone H4 into chromatin in a DNA replication-independent manner. Appropriately for a DNA replication-independent chaperone, HIRA is involved in control of chromatin in nonproliferating senescent cells, although its role is poorly defined. Here, we show that nonproliferating senescent cells express and incorporate histone H3.3 and other canonical core histones into a dynamic chromatin landscape. Expression of canonical histones is linked to alternative mRNA splicing to eliminate signals that confer mRNA instability in nonproliferating cells. Deposition of newly synthesized histones H3.3 and H4 into chromatin of senescent cells depends on HIRA. HIRA and newly deposited H3.3 colocalize at promoters of expressed genes, partially redistributing between proliferating and senescent cells to parallel changes in expression. In senescent cells, but not proliferating cells, promoters of active genes are exceptionally enriched in H4K16ac, and HIRA is required for retention of H4K16ac. HIRA is also required for retention of H4K16ac in vivo and suppression of oncogene-induced neoplasia. These results show that HIRA controls a specialized, dynamic H4K16ac-decorated chromatin landscape in senescent cells and enforces tumor suppression. PMID:25512559

  11. HPV-Based Screening, Triage, Treatment, and Followup Strategies in the Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Deas, Jessica; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; García-Suastegui, Wendy Argelia; Fierros-Zárate, Geny Del Socorro; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia Judith

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop immunotherapy and gene therapy strategies to treat cervical cancer. HPV genotyping has potentially valuable applications in triage of low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, assessment of prognosis and followup of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and in treatment strategies for invasive cervical cancer. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, the identification and subsequent functional evaluation of host proteins associated with HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins may provide useful information in understanding cervical carcinogenesis, identifying cervical cancer molecular markers, and developing specific targeting strategies against tumor cells. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the main diagnostic methods, management strategies, and followup of HPV-associated cervical lesions and review clinical trials applying gene therapy strategies against the development of cervical cancer. PMID:23690785

  12. Adverse Psychosexual Impact Related to the Treatment of Genital Warts and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Vespa Junior, Nelson; Giraldo, Paulo César; Leal Passos, Mauro Romero

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare the psychosexual impact related to the treatment of genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women. Methods. 75 patients presenting with HPV-induced genital lesions, belonging to one of two patient groups, were included in the study: 29 individuals with genital warts (GWs) and 46 individuals with CIN grades 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3). Initially, medical charts of each woman were examined for extraction of data on the type of HPV-induced infection and treatment administered. Subjects were interviewed to collect sociodemographic data as well as personal, gynecologic, obstetric, and sexual history. After this initial anamnesis, the Sexual Quotient-Female Version (SQ-F) questionnaire was applied to assess sexual function. After application of the questionnaire, patients answered specific questions produced by the researchers, aimed at assessing the impact of the disease and its treatment on their sexual lives. Results. It is noteworthy that patients with CIN 2/3 had statistically similar classification of sexual quotient to patients with GWs (P = 0.115). However, patients with GWs more frequently gave positive answers to the specific questions compared to patients with CIN 2/3. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is clear that GWs have a greater impact on sexual behavior compared to CIN 2/3. PMID:26316956

  13. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens. Progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1993-07-30

    The induction of cancer by ionizing radiation is a matter of great practical importance to the nuclear industry, to national defense, to radiological medicine and to the general public. It is increasingly apparent that carcinogenesis is one of the leading dose-limiting effects of radiation exposure (Co90). Quantitative information at the cellular level is essential to an understanding of the mechanisms of radiogenic neoplastic initiation and the stages of promotion and progression to overt neoplasia. We have developed two experimental models, the rat thyroid and rat mammary clonogen transplant systems, for the quantitative study of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level in vivo (C185). The most important steps taken or completed during the current grant year include: (a) demonstration of the high age-dependent radiosensitivity of prepubertal rat mammary clonogens to radiogenic damage which may influence their susceptibility to neoplastic initiation, and (b) demonstration of the feasibility of using a molecular test for clonogenicity in which Simple Sequence Repeats in the DNA serve as identifying signals of the genotypic origin of the cells. We have also (c) set up a large carcinogenesis experiment to test the effect of close intercellular contact in thyroid glands in situ on promotion-progression of radiogenically initiated clonogens, (d) achieved considerable further concentration of thyroid clonogens, and (e) begun to explore whether thyroid cells can be induced to give rise to three dimensional multicellular structures in culture in reconstituted basement membrane. These are discussed in this report.

  14. Novel markers of gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia in the mouse and ferret

    PubMed Central

    Schillebeeckx, Maximiliaan; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Gretzinger, Elisabeth; Yang, Wei; Thol, Franziska; Hiller, Theresa; Löbs, Ann-Kathrin; Röhrig, Theresa; Schrade, Anja; Cochran, Rebecca; Jay, Patrick Y.; Heikinheimo, Markku; Mitra, Robi D.; Wilson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Gonadectomy (GDX) induces sex steroid-producing adrenocortical tumors in certain mouse strains and in the domestic ferret. Transcriptome analysis and DNA methylation mapping were used to identify novel genetic and epigenetic markers of GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasia in female DBA/2J mice. Markers were validated using a combination of laser capture microdissection, quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Microarray expression profiling of whole adrenal mRNA from ovariectomized vs. intact mice demonstrated selective upregulation of gonadal-like genes including Spinlw1 and Insl3 in GDX-induced adrenocortical tumors of the mouse. A complementary candidate gene approach identified Foxl2 as another gonadal-like marker expressed in GDX-induced neoplasms of the mouse and ferret. That both “male-specific” (Spinlw1) and “female-specific” (Foxl2) markers were identified is noteworthy and implies that the neoplasms exhibit mixed characteristics of male and female gonadal somatic cells. Genome-wide methylation analysis showed that two genes with hypomethylated promoters, Igfbp6 and Foxs1, are upregulated in GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasms. These new genetic and epigenetic markers may prove useful for studies of steroidogenic cell development and for diagnostic testing. PMID:25289806

  15. Evaluation of PpIX formation in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia I (CIN) using widefield fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Fortunato, Thereza C.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Vollet Filho, José D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Optical techniques has been described as auxiliary technology for screening of neoplasia because shows the potential for tissues differentiation in real-time and it is a noninvasive detection and safe. However, only endogenous fluorophores presents the lesion may be insufficient and needed of the administration of the fluorophores synthesized, such as, precursor molecule of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by 5- aminolevulinic acid and your derivatives. Topical application of methylaminolevulinate (MAL), induces formation of the endogenous photosensitizer, PpIX in tissues where carcinogenesis has begun. The PpIX tend to accumulate in premalignant and malignant tissues and the illumination with light with appropriate wavelength beginning to excitation of PpIX fluorescence, which helps to localize PpIX-rich areas and identify potentially malignant tissues. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of PpIX in the cervix with CIN I through of the fluorescence images captured after 1 hour of cream application. It was possible to visualize PpIX fluorescence in cervix and it was possible to observe the selectivity in fluorescence in squamous-columnar junction, which a pre-cancerous condition (CIN) and usually is localized. Through the image processing it was possible to quantify the increase of red fluorescence. For the CIN I the increase of red fluorescence was approximately of 4 times indicating a good PpIX formation.

  16. [Pituitary syndrome caused by neoplasia in a 17-month-old Holstein Friesian heifer].

    PubMed

    Wippermann, Wolf; Schöniger, Sandra; Gerlach, Kerstin; Schusser, Gerald Fritz; Köller, Gabor; Starke, Alexander

    2016-06-16

    A 17-month-old Holstein Friesian heifer was presented after one day with dysphagia, slight paralysis of the tongue and swelling of the eyelids. Clinical examination of the animal revealed an extended posture of the head and neck, severely increased salivation, reduced lingual tone and mandibular paralysis with complete absence of the swallowing reflex. The right eye showed a drooping eyelid, mucopurulent discharge, exposure keratitis, corneal opacity and miosis. On the left side, a moderate exophthalmos and slight mucous discharge from the nostril were observed. Neurological examination revealed the absence of multiple cranial nerve reflexes suggesting a pituitary syndrome. On X-rays, a soft-tissue opacity with sharp margins and a diameter of approximately 5 cm was seen. It was located ventral to the ethmoid bone with possible intraneurocranial origin. Rhinoscopically, a mass located distal to the ethmoid bone with an uneven, slightly reddish surface partly covered by purulent exudate was visualised. Post-mortem examination of the euthanized animal confirmed neoplasia, which ranged from the fossa hypophysialis of the corpus ossis basisphenoidalis to the ethmoid bone. Histopathologic findings matched a small, round, blue cell tumour. PMID:27172846

  17. Plasminogen activators in experimental colorectal neoplasia: a role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence?

    PubMed Central

    Gelister, J S; Lewin, M R; Driver, H E; Savage, F; Mahmoud, M; Gaffney, P J; Boulos, P B

    1987-01-01

    An important step in the transition from adenomatous polyp to invasive carcinoma is the degradation of the epithelial basement membrane. By the generation of plasmin, plasminogen activators may play an important role in regulating the extracellular protease activity required for this event to occur. The production of biofunctional urokinase and of tissue plasminogen activator was therefore investigated in the dimethylhydrazine induced rat model of colorectal neoplasia. Both adenomatous polyps (p values less than 0.001) and colorectal carcinomas (p values less than 0.001) were demonstrated to produce a significant excess of both urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator when compared with macroscopically normal colon. There was, however, no increased production of either enzyme by macroscopically normal preneoplastic colon when compared with control colon. This enhanced capacity of colorectal tumours to produce plasminogen activators and generate plasmin is thus a feature of both the premalignant as well as the malignant phenotype. These enzymes may contribute to the malignant potential of adenomatous polyps and to the invasive capacity of established carcinomas. PMID:3115868

  18. Clinical significance of RET mutation screening in a pedigree of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A.

    PubMed

    Ying, Rongbiao; Feng, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The clinical characteristics and RET proto-oncogene (RET‑PO) mutation status of a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A pedigree (MEN2A) was analyzed with the aim of preliminarily exploring the molecular mechanisms and clinical significance of the disease. Clinical characteristics of a single MEN2A patient were analyzed. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of the proband and 10 family members. The 21 exons of RET‑PO were PCR amplified and the amplified products were sequenced. Of the family members, 5 exhibited a C634Y (TGC→TAC) missense mutation in exon 11 of RET‑PO, among which 2 family members were screened as mutation carriers, while the others did not exhibit clinical symptoms of the mutation. The screening and analysis of RET‑PO mutations for the MEN2A proband and the family members suggests potential clinical phenotypes and enables assessment of the risk of disease development, thus providing useful information for determining the surgical timing of preventive thyroid gland removal. PMID:27277749

  19. Combined use of optical coherence tomography and fluorescence cystoscopy to detect bladder neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagaynova, Elena V.; Streltsova, Olga S.; Orlova, Anna G.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Unusova, Ekaterina E.; Iksanov, Rashid R.; Feldchtein, Felix I.

    2006-02-01

    Introduction: Early detection of bladder carcinoma is very important clinical problem. Diagnostic yield of white light cystoscopy with random biopsies remains poor. The use of exogenous fluorescence significantly increases the sensitivity, but specificity remains low. We analyzed diagnostic efficacy of OCT during white light cystoscopy and combined use of OCT and fluorescence cystoscopy. Materials and methods: An OCT device (1280 nm wavelength with 3 mW power, 8 Fr endoscopic probe, in-depth resolution 15 μm in tissue, lateral resolution 30 μm, acquisition time 1.5 sec for a 200x200 pixels image) was used in combination with a standard Karl Storz fluorescence cystoscope. A 3% solution of 5-ALA was instilled intravesically for 2 hours before the procedure. Initial examination was made under white light. OCT imaging and biopsy of all fluorescence zones were performed in blue light. 20 patients were studied. The study is ongoing. Results: 80 fluorescence zones (16 exophytic and 64 flat lesions) were analyzed with OCT. All exophytic zones were correctly detected by OCT and white light cystoscopy. Out of 64 flat fluorescent areas, 56 had benign histopathology readings, with 45 of them having the benign type of OCT images. Of 8 fluorescent zones with neoplastic histopathology, OCT correctly detected all 8. Based on this preliminary data, OCT could help to avoid 80% of unnecessary biopsies/resections. Conclusion: Combined use of OCT imaging and fluorescence cystoscopy can substantially improve diagnostic yield of bladder neoplasia detection.

  20. HIRA orchestrates a dynamic chromatin landscape in senescence and is required for suppression of neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Rai, Taranjit Singh; Cole, John J; Nelson, David M; Dikovskaya, Dina; Faller, William J; Vizioli, Maria Grazia; Hewitt, Rachael N; Anannya, Orchi; McBryan, Tony; Manoharan, Indrani; van Tuyn, John; Morrice, Nicholas; Pchelintsev, Nikolay A; Ivanov, Andre; Brock, Claire; Drotar, Mark E; Nixon, Colin; Clark, William; Sansom, Owen J; Anderson, Kurt I; King, Ayala; Blyth, Karen; Adams, Peter D

    2014-12-15

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferation arrest that suppresses tumorigenesis. Cellular senescence and associated tumor suppression depend on control of chromatin. Histone chaperone HIRA deposits variant histone H3.3 and histone H4 into chromatin in a DNA replication-independent manner. Appropriately for a DNA replication-independent chaperone, HIRA is involved in control of chromatin in nonproliferating senescent cells, although its role is poorly defined. Here, we show that nonproliferating senescent cells express and incorporate histone H3.3 and other canonical core histones into a dynamic chromatin landscape. Expression of canonical histones is linked to alternative mRNA splicing to eliminate signals that confer mRNA instability in nonproliferating cells. Deposition of newly synthesized histones H3.3 and H4 into chromatin of senescent cells depends on HIRA. HIRA and newly deposited H3.3 colocalize at promoters of expressed genes, partially redistributing between proliferating and senescent cells to parallel changes in expression. In senescent cells, but not proliferating cells, promoters of active genes are exceptionally enriched in H4K16ac, and HIRA is required for retention of H4K16ac. HIRA is also required for retention of H4K16ac in vivo and suppression of oncogene-induced neoplasia. These results show that HIRA controls a specialized, dynamic H4K16ac-decorated chromatin landscape in senescent cells and enforces tumor suppression. PMID:25512559

  1. The histologic features of intratubular germ cell neoplasia and its correlation with tumor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Abbas; Movahhed, Saeed; Parvin, Mahmood; Salimi, Maziar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) in patients with concurrent testis tumor and its correlation with histologic features and serum tumor markers. Materials and Methods From 2003 to 2015, 179 patients underwent radical orchiectomy due to testicular mass. Tissue specimens were evaluated by an expert uro-pathologist using immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, in addition to light microscopy, to identify presence of ITGCN. Patients' demographic characteristics, histologic subtypes, pathologic stage of tumor and serum tumor markers were gathered and analyzed. Results Eighty-five out of 179 patients (47.5%) had concomitant ITGCN according to IHC staining. There was not statistically significant difference in histologic type, histologic components, cryptorchidism, and lymphovascular invasion between the 2 groups (p=0.151, p=0.11, p=0.233, p=0.413, and p=0.14, respectively). The prevalence of ITGCN was significantly higher in patients with stage T2 and T3 of tumor than those with stage T1. Elevated serum alpha feto protein level is much common in patients with ITGCN (p<0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of concurrent ITGCN in our region is lower than previous data from western countries. ITGCN is more common in higher tumor stages and is accompanied with elevated serum alpha feto protein levels before surgery. Presence of ITGCN in adjacent tissue may suggest a negative cancer behavior. PMID:27195317

  2. Metachronous pancreatic cancer originating from disseminated founder pancreatic intraductal neoplasias (PanINs).

    PubMed

    Imai, Koji; Karasaki, Hidenori; Ono, Yusuke; Sasajima, Junpei; Chiba, Shin-Ichi; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Muraki, Miho; Hanaoka, Hideki; Furukawa, Takahisa; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Kono, Toru; Nagashima, Kazuo; Mizukami, Yusuke

    2015-04-01

    Clonal populations originated from benign-looking 'founder cells' may spread widely within pancreas instead of being localized in situ before frank pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) can be detected. Metachronous PDA is not common event, and we here sought to define potent origin of multiple PDAs developed in a woman using advanced genetics technologies. Curative resection of pancreatic head tumour was performed; however, 'recurrent' lesions in the remnant pancreas were found 3.5 years later and total pancreatectomy was subsequently performed. The metachronous lesions were morphologically similar to the primary PDA. Using a next-generation sequencing and digital PCR, all three PDAs were shown to possess rare somatic mutations in KRAS (p.T58I & p.Q61H). Curiously, identical KRAS mutations were found in low-grade 'intraepithelial' lesions, which localized in normal area of the pancreas and one of them possessed p53 mutation, which was also found in the PDAs. The footprint of the tumour evolution marked by mutational profiling supports a human correlate to the mouse models of 'dissemination' occurring at the earliest stages of pancreatic neoplasia. PMID:27499895

  3. Metachronous pancreatic cancer originating from disseminated founder pancreatic intraductal neoplasias (PanINs)

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Koji; Karasaki, Hidenori; Ono, Yusuke; Sasajima, Junpei; Chiba, Shin‐ichi; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Muraki, Miho; Hanaoka, Hideki; Furukawa, Takahisa; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Kono, Toru; Nagashima, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clonal populations originated from benign‐looking ‘founder cells' may spread widely within pancreas instead of being localized in situ before frank pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) can be detected. Metachronous PDA is not common event, and we here sought to define potent origin of multiple PDAs developed in a woman using advanced genetics technologies. Curative resection of pancreatic head tumour was performed; however, ‘recurrent' lesions in the remnant pancreas were found 3.5 years later and total pancreatectomy was subsequently performed. The metachronous lesions were morphologically similar to the primary PDA. Using a next‐generation sequencing and digital PCR, all three PDAs were shown to possess rare somatic mutations in KRAS (p.T58I & p.Q61H). Curiously, identical KRAS mutations were found in low‐grade ‘intraepithelial' lesions, which localized in normal area of the pancreas and one of them possessed p53 mutation, which was also found in the PDAs. The footprint of the tumour evolution marked by mutational profiling supports a human correlate to the mouse models of ‘dissemination' occurring at the earliest stages of pancreatic neoplasia.

  4. Hypermutation in the E2 gene of human papillomavirus type 16 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Kukimoto, Iwao; Mori, Seiichiro; Aoyama, Satoru; Wakae, Kousho; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Kondo, Kazunari

    2015-10-01

    Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer. However, viral genetic changes during cervical carcinogenesis are not fully understood. Recent studies have revealed the presence of adenine/thymine-clustered hypermutation in the long control region of the HPV16 genome in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions, and suggested that apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) proteins, which play a key role in innate immunity against retroviral infection, potentially introduce such hypermutation. This study reports for the first time the detection of adenine/thymine-clustered hypermutation in the E2 gene of HPV16 isolated from clinical specimens with low- and high-grade CIN lesions (CIN1/3). Differential DNA denaturation PCR, which utilizes lower denaturation temperatures to selectively amplify adenine/thymine-rich DNA, identified clusters of adenine/thymine mutations in the E2 gene in 4 of 11 CIN1 (36.4%), and 6 of 27 CIN3 (22.2%) samples. Interestingly, the number of mutations per sample was higher in CIN3 than in CIN1. Although the relevance of E2 hypermutation in cervical carcinogenesis remains unclear, the observed hypermutation patterns strongly imply involvement of APOBEC3 proteins in editing the HPV16 genome during natural viral infection. PMID:25914233

  5. Morphological and morphometric measurements in colorectal mucosa of subjects at increased risk for colonic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Yang, K; Richter, F; Lynch, H T; Lipkin, M

    1993-10-15

    Measurements of intermediate biomarkers have recently increased, attempting to provide useful information about cancer risk. We report morphological findings in rectal mucosal biopsies from patients at low risk and at high risk for colorectal cancer. Rectal biopsies were analyzed from fourteen Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) subjects at low risk and from twenty-seven members of families with hereditary nonpolyposis colonic cancer (HNPCC) at higher risk. The following measurements were made on rectal crypts: length of crypts, numbers of cells, diameter of the surface, middle and base of the crypts and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lamina propria. Findings indicated morphological differences in normal-appearing rectal mucosa of individuals in the HNPCC group compared with SDA subjects (P < 0.05). They included shorter crypts with fewer epithelial cells and increased cellular infiltration in the mucosa of HNPCC subjects compared with SDA subjects, suggesting minimal inflammation, and an early stage of crypt atrophy in the rectal mucosa of subjects at higher risk for colonic neoplasia. PMID:8287373

  6. Cytomorphology and PCNA expression pattern in bivalves Mytilus galloprovincialis and Cerastoderma edule with haemic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Carella, Francesca; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz; De Vico, Gionata

    2013-07-01

    Haemic neoplasia (HN) is a pathologic condition reported in several bivalve species in different geographic areas. In this study we describe the cytomorphological features and the proliferative behaviour, assessed by the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), of HN in common cockle Cerastoderma edule and Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovicialis. In mussels the presence of at least 5 types of atypical haemocytes was detected, including A- and B-type cells, previously described in M. edulis and Mytilus sp., with predominance of A-type cells in early phases of the disease and B-type cells in more advanced stages. PCNA immunostaining was positive for 97 to 100% of the neoplastic cells, with both cytoplasmic (A cells) and nuclear patterns (B cells). Conversely, in C. edule there was no distinctive morphological cell sub-population, and staining atypical haemocytes with PCNA (range 93 to 100%) showed nuclear expression in early phases of disease and cytoplasmic expression in more advanced stages. The above findings suggest distinct histo-pathogenetic pathways for HN in mussels and common cockles. PMID:23836773

  7. Disseminated neoplasia causes changes in ploidy and apoptosis frequency in cockles Cerastoderma edule.

    PubMed

    Díaz, S; Villalba, A; Insua, A; Soudant, P; Fernández-Tajes, J; Méndez, J; Carballal, M J

    2013-07-01

    A proliferative disease, usually referred as disseminated neoplasia (DN), shows high prevalence in some cockle Cerastoderma edule beds of Galicia (NW Spain). Chromosome counts, examination of chromosome morphology, DNA quantification by flow cytometry and estimation of apoptosis frequency by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry were performed in cockles with different DN severity. Metaphases obtained from gills of DN-affected cockles displayed a chromosome number ranging from 41 to 145, while normal number is 38; changes in chromosome morphology were also evident, with numerous microchromosomes occurring. Haemolymph flow cytometry analysis revealed difference in DNA content between healthy and DN-affected cockles. Aneuploid peaks ranged from 1.3n to 8.9n. Apoptosis frequency was determined on histological sections (TUNEL assay) and haemolymph samples (flow cytometry). Both techniques revealed neoplastic cells in apoptosis. The higher DN severity, the lower the percentage of apoptotic cells. According to flow cytometry results, the negative association between DN severity and apoptosis frequency only affected the neoplastic cells, whereas DN did not significantly affect the percentage of apoptotic hyalinocytes or apoptotic granulocytes. PMID:23583807

  8. [International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia 2012].

    PubMed

    Hes, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Kidney tumours form a broad spectrum of distinguished histopathological and molecular genetic entities. The last WHO classification is dated to 2004. Current classification has been published in October 2013 by ISUP (International Society of Urological Pathology). There were 5 new epithelials tumours: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo-)papillary RCC, the MiT family translocation RCCs (in particular t(6;11) RCC), and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. Another 3 subtypes of RCC were added as "provisional" entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC; succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC; and ALK translocation RCC. Modifications were performed in already existing entities: multicystic clear cell RCC (formerly multilocular cystic RCC) is newly included as a subcategory of clear cell RCC with low malignant potential. Oncocytic papillary RCC (PRCC) has not been recognized as a distinctive subcategory of PRCC yet. Hybrid oncocytic-chromophobe tumour was placed within the chromophobe RCC category. Recent advances related to collecting duct carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, and mucinous spindle cell and tubular RCC were elucidated. Outside of the epithelial category, current approach to our understanding of angiomyolipoma, including the epithelioid variant and angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts was clarified. Cystic nephroma and mixed epithelial and stromal tumour were considered as a spectrum of one entity. Synovial sarcoma was placed within the sarcoma group. The new classification is to be referred to as the International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia. PMID:25418900

  9. Management of colorectal neoplasia during pregnancy and in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Aytac, Erman; Ozuner, Gokhan; Isik, Ozgen; Gorgun, Emre; Stocchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report our experience on management of colorectal neoplasia during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer during pregnancy or in the postpartum period (< 6 mo), between 8/1997 and 4/2013, in our department were reviewed. Patient characteristics, operations, fetal health and follow-up during pregnancy, type of delivery and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Eight patients met our study criteria. Median age at the time of diagnosis of colorectal cancer was 31 years. Median follow-up after surgery was 36 mo. Median duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 16 wk. Three patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer during pregnancy and underwent surgery prior to delivery. None of the patients received adjuvant treatment during pregnancy. Five patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer within a median of 2.1 mo after delivery and underwent surgery. No adverse neonatal outcomes were noted. All deliveries were at term (2 cesarean sections) except for one preterm delivery following low anterior resection on the 34th week of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: There has been a significant delay in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer which is probably due to overlap of symptoms and signs between these tumors and a normal pregnancy. Surgery for colorectal cancer during pregnancy can be performed safely without compromising maternal and fetal outcomes.

  10. Reduced keratin expression in colorectal neoplasia and associated fields is reversible by diet and resection

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Caroline A; Rosser, Ria; Waby, Jennifer S; Noirel, Josselin; Lai, Daphne; Wright, Phillip C; Williams, Elizabeth A; Riley, Stuart A; Bury, Jonathan P; Corfe, Bernard M

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with adenomatous colonic polyps are at increased risk of developing further polyps suggesting field-wide alterations in cancer predisposition. The current study aimed to identify molecular alterations in the normal mucosa in the proximity of adenomatous polyps and to assess the modulating effect of butyrate, a chemopreventive compound produced by fermentation of dietary residues. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in patients with adenomatous polyps: biopsy samples were taken from the adenoma, and from macroscopically normal mucosa on the contralateral wall to the adenoma and from the mid-sigmoid colon. In normal subjects biopsies were taken from the mid-sigmoid colon. Biopsies were frozen for proteomic analysis or formalin-fixed for immunohistochemistry. Proteomic analysis was undertaken using iTRAQ workflows followed by bioinformatics analyses. A second dietary fibre intervention study arm used the same endpoints and sampling strategy at the beginning and end of a high-fibre intervention. Results Key findings were that keratins 8, 18 and 19 were reduced in expression level with progressive proximity to the lesion. Lesional tissue exhibited multiple K8 immunoreactive bands and overall reduced levels of keratin. Biopsies from normal subjects with low faecal butyrate also showed depressed keratin expression. Resection of the lesion and elevation of dietary fibre intake both appeared to restore keratin expression level. Conclusion Changes in keratin expression associate with progression towards neoplasia, but remain modifiable risk factors. Dietary strategies may improve secondary chemoprevention. Trial registration number ISRCTN90852168. PMID:26462274

  11. Neoplasia and granulomas surrounding microchip transponders in Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis).

    PubMed

    Sura, R; French, R A; Goldman, B D; Schwartz, D R

    2011-07-01

    Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis) are among the longest-living rodents, with a maximum longevity of approximately 16 years. As one of the few mammals termed eusocial, these animals have been used in behavioral, genetic, metabolic, and physiologic research at the University of Connecticut since 1997. For individual identification at 3 to 4 months of age, mole rats were subcutaneously implanted with microchip transponders (11 mm in length) in the dorsal cervical region. In 2007, 2 of the 90 implanted adults, 10-year-old and 9-year-old females, developed subcutaneous masses at the site of the implant. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed amelanotic melanoma and fibrosarcoma, respectively, with metastasis of the amelanotic melanoma. In 2008, a total of 3 adult males were castrated as part of a sex behavior study; 3 months later, all 3 castrated males developed subcutaneous masses around their implants, whereas none of the noncastrated males had masses. After an additional 9 months, these masses were found to be granulomas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of neoplasia in this species. Both the tumors and the granulomas surrounded the microchip transponder. PMID:20724516

  12. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Gastric Neoplasia Occurring in the Remnant Stomach after Distal Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Young; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jung Gyu; Noh, Donghyo; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for tumors occurring in the remnant stomach is technically difficult to perform because of limited working space and severe fibrosis and staples present around the suture line. We aimed to elucidate the feasibility and clinical outcomes of performing ESD for tumors in the remnant stomach. Methods: Between December 2007 and January 2013, 18 patients underwent ESD for tumors (six adenomas and 12 differentiated-type early gastric cancers [EGCs]) occurring in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy. Clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes after ESD were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Two-thirds of the lesions were located on the body, and half were located on the suture line. En bloc resection, R0 resection, and en bloc with R0 resection rates were 88.9%, 100%, and 88.9%, respectively. Curative resection rate for EGC was 91.7%. Perforation occurred in one patient (5.6%) and was successfully managed by endoscopic closure with metallic clips and conservative management. There was no significant bleeding after ESD. During a median follow-up of 47.5 months, no local, metachronous, or extragastric recurrence was seen for either EGC or adenoma lesions. Conclusions: ESD is a feasible and effective treatment modality and can be considered a primary intervention for early gastric neoplasia occurring in the remnant stomach. PMID:26879552

  13. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Intestinal Neoplasia in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Indicates Epithelial Origin

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Colleen E.; Kent, Michael L.; Peterson, Tracy S.; Wang, Rong; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Löhr, Christiane V.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous neoplasia of the intestinal tract in sentinel and moribund zebrafish (Danio rerio) is common in some zebrafish facilities. We previously classified these tumors as adenocarcinoma, small-cell carcinoma, or carcinoma otherwise unspecified based on histomorphologic characteristics. Based on histological presentation, the primary differential diagnosis for the intestinal carcinomas was tumor of neuroendocrine cells (e.g., carcinoids). To further characterize the phenotype of the neoplastic cells, select tissue sections were stained with a panel of antibodies directed toward human epithelial (Cytokeratin Wide Spectrum Screening [WSS], AE1/AE3) or neuroendocrine (S100, chromogranin A) markers. We also investigated antibody specificity by Western blot analysis, using a human cell line and zebrafish tissues. Nine of the intestinal neoplasms (64%) stained for AE1/AE3, seven (50%) also stained for WSS. None of the intestinal neoplastic cells were stained for chromogranin A or S100. Endocrine cells of the pituitary gland and neurons and axons of peripheral nerves and ganglia stained for Chromogranin A, whereas perineural and periaxonal cells of peripheral intestinal ganglia, and glial and ependymal cells of the brain stained for S100. Immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins confirmed the majority of intestinal neoplasms in this cohort of zebrafish as carcinomas. PMID:26503773

  14. Induction of Cervical Neoplasia in the Mouse by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Donald D.; Budd Wentz, W.; Reagan, James W.; Heggie, Alfred D.

    1989-06-01

    Induction of cervical neoplasia in the mouse cervix by herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) has been reported. The present study was done to determine if transfection with DNA of HSV-2 can induce carcinogenesis in this animal model. Genomic HSV-2 DNA was isolated from infected HEp-2 cells and separated from host cell DNA by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. The DNA was applied to mouse cervix for periods of 80-100 weeks. Experimental controls were treated with uninfected genomic HEp-2 cell DNA or with calf thymus DNA. Vaginal cytological preparations from all animals were examined monthly to detect epithelial abnormalities. Animals were sacrificed and histopathology studies were done when cellular changes indicative of premalignant or malignant lesions were seen on vaginal smears. Cytologic and histologic materials were coded and evaluated without knowledge of whether they were from animals treated with virus or control DNA. Premalignant and malignant cervical lesions similar to those that occur in women were detected in 61% of the histologic specimens obtained from animals exposed to HSV-2 DNA. The yield of invasive cancers was 21% in animals treated with HSV-2 DNA. No cancers were detected in mice treated with either HEp-2 or calf thymus DNA. Dysplasia was detected in only one of these control animals.

  15. Electron beam radiotherapy for the management of recurrent extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia with orbital extension

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Ramesh; Gupta, Himika; Krishnatry, Rahul; Laskar, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) with orbital invasion can be successfully managed with external radiotherapy using electrons resulting in eye and vision salvage. We report a case of right eye recurrent OSSN in an immunocompetent adult Indian male, with extensive orbital involvement. The patient had two previous surgical excisions with recurrent disease. At this stage, conventionally exenteration is considered the treatment modality. However, he was treated with 5040 cGy radiotherapy (15eV electrons) resulting in complete disease regression. At the end of 3 years follow-up, the patient was disease free, maintained a vision of 20/25, with mild dry eye, well-managed with topical lubricants. Extensive OSSN with orbital invasion does not always need exenteration. External beam electron radiotherapy provides a noninvasive cure with organ and vision salvage and should be considered in extensive OSSN not amenable to simple excision biopsies. Long-term studies to evaluate the effect of radiation on such eyes are suggested. PMID:26576526

  16. Angiogenesis is associated with vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, S. P.; Hewett, P. W.; Johnson, I. R.; Carmichael, J.; Murray, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCC) is preceded by a premalignant condition known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The majority of cases of CIN regress spontaneously; however, methods are needed to identify those lesions likely to progress. Increased blood vessel density, signifying angiogenesis, is an independent prognostic indicator in a number of cancers, although little is known about its significance in premalignant lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between vessel density, expression of the potent angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CIN grade. Using immunohistochemistry, mean vessel density (MVD) and VEGF expression were assessed in samples from 54 patients who had undergone cone biopsy for CIN or hysterectomy for SCC and from 16 patients with no cervical pathology. There were significant increases in MVD and VEGF expression from normal cervix through CIN I to CIN III to invasive SCC, but no difference in mean vessel diameter between groups. There was a strong correlation between mean vessel density and VEGF expression, and both were associated with histological grade of CIN. The original MVDs for a small group of patients later presenting with recurrent disease were found to be equal to or greater than the mean for their histological grade. We conclude that the onset of angiogenesis is an early event in premalignant changes of the cervix due, in part, to enhanced expression of VEGF by the abnormal epithelium. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:9400935

  17. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Presenting as Hypoglycemia due to Insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hwal Rim; Shim, Young Seok; Lee, Hae Sang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) mutation is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet, and anterior pituitary tumors. The incidence of insulinoma in MEN is relatively uncommon, and there have been a few cases of MEN manifested with insulinoma as the first symptom in children. We experienced a 9-year-old girl having a familial MEN1 mutation. She complained of dizziness, occasional palpitation, weakness, hunger, sweating, and generalized tonic-clonic seizure that lasted for 5 minutes early in the morning. At first, she was only diagnosed with insulinoma by abdominal magnetic resonance images of a 1.3 x 1.5 cm mass in the pancreas and high insulin levels in blood of the hepatic vein, but after her father was diagnosed with MEN1. We found she had familial MEN1 mutation, and she recovered hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after enucleation of the mass. Therefore, the early genetic identification of MEN1 mutation is considerable for children with at least one manifestation. PMID:27247513

  18. Scintigraphic portrayal of the syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Yobbagy, J.J.; Levatter, R.; Sisson, J.C.; Shulkin, B.L.; Polley, T.

    1988-06-01

    The scintigraphic appearance of the neoplasms in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN-2B) and the interpretations of the image patterns are described. An 18-year-old male patient with the MEN-2B syndrome underwent TI-201 imaging that showed concentrations of TI-201 in the primary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) tumor and in cervical lymph node metastases. After total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection, the TI-201 image was normal. Catecholamine levels in the blood and urine were only borderline elevated. Yet, greater than normal concentrations of I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) were present in both adrenal glands. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed normal adrenal glands. These results were consistent with the diagnosis of adrenal medullary hyperplasia, a precursor of pheochromocytoma. No operation was indicated to remove the adrenal glands. Imaging with TI-201 appears to be useful in identifying sites of MTC in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome. I-131 MIBG imaging, in conjunction with computed tomography of the adrenal glands and appropriate catecholamine measurements, should be performed in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome to determine the status of the adrenal medullae, which then may be classified as normal, hyperplastic, or tumorous with pheochromocytoma.

  19. HPV-Based Screening, Triage, Treatment, and Followup Strategies in the Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Deas, Jessica; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; García-Suastegui, Wendy Argelia; Fierros-Zárate, Geny del Socorro; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia Judith

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop immunotherapy and gene therapy strategies to treat cervical cancer. HPV genotyping has potentially valuable applications in triage of low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, assessment of prognosis and followup of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and in treatment strategies for invasive cervical cancer. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, the identification and subsequent functional evaluation of host proteins associated with HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins may provide useful information in understanding cervical carcinogenesis, identifying cervical cancer molecular markers, and developing specific targeting strategies against tumor cells. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the main diagnostic methods, management strategies, and followup of HPV-associated cervical lesions and review clinical trials applying gene therapy strategies against the development of cervical cancer. PMID:23690785

  20. SCRIB expression is deregulated in human prostate cancer, and its deficiency in mice promotes prostate neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Helen B.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Dow, Lukas E.; Ryan, Andrew; Tennstedt, Pierre; Bogani, Debora; Elsum, Imogen; Greenfield, Andy; Tuveson, David A.; Simon, Ronald; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of cellular polarity is a hallmark of epithelial cancers, raising the possibility that regulators of polarity have a role in suppressing tumorigenesis. The Scribble complex is one of at least three interacting protein complexes that have a critical role in establishing and maintaining epithelial polarity. In human colorectal, breast, and endometrial cancers, expression of the Scribble complex member SCRIB is often mislocalized and deregulated. Here, we report that Scrib is indispensable for prostate homeostasis in mice. Scrib heterozygosity initiated prostate hyperplasia, while targeted biallelic Scrib loss predisposed mice to prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. Mechanistically, Scrib was shown to negatively regulate the MAPK cascade to suppress tumorigenesis. Further analysis revealed that prostate-specific loss of Scrib in mice combined with expression of an oncogenic Kras mutation promoted the progression of prostate cancer that recapitulated the human disease. The clinical significance of the work in mice was highlighted by our observation that SCRIB deregulation strongly correlated with poor survival in human prostate cancer. These data suggest that the polarity network could provide a new avenue for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21965329

  1. Incisal margin condition after LEEP for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia patients and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Liu, Xiufeang; Xu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between incisal condition after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) operation for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients and prognosis. A study of high-risk incisal margin positive cases was also performed. We compared the differences in the prognosis of the 1-year follow-up visit in the 120 CIN patients admitted to the hospital during the period from April 2013 to April 2014. A total of 43 cases of positive incisal margin (35.8%), and 77 negative cases were included in the study. The differences in age, course of disease, and CIN level between the two groups showed no statistical significance (P>0.05). In the positive group, the positive ratio was significantly higher than that of the negative group (P<0.05). The positive incisal margin showed a significant positive correlation with human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity (r=0.327, P=0.035). The condition of most patients with positive incisal margin and HPV was critical, which was followed by positive incisal margin and negative HPV. The patients with the best prognosis were those with significant negative incisal margin as well as HPV (P<0.05). In conclusion, the positive incisal margin after LEEP operation was associated with relapse of the disease. Thus, considering the HPV test into consideration is valuable for the prognosis of the disease. PMID:27446314

  2. Enhanced expression of PD L1 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancers.

    PubMed

    Mezache, Louisa; Paniccia, Bernard; Nyinawabera, Angelique; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2015-12-01

    Programmed death ligand 1 (PD L1) expression can reduce the immune response in both infectious diseases and cancers. We thus examined PD L1 expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) and cancers since they each reflect infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). PD L1 protein was not evident by immunohistochemistry in histologically normal cervical epithelia (0/55) even when adjacent to CIN or cancer. PD L1 expression was much increased in CINs (20/21=95%) and cervical squamous cell cancer (56/70=80%) and localized to the dysplastic/neoplastic squamous cells and mononuclear cells, respectively. There was also a significant increase (each P<0.001) in PD L1 detection in mononuclear cells when comparing cervical squamous cell cancers to endometrial (22/115=19%) and ovarian adenocarcinomas (5/40=13%). Co-expression analyses showed that the primary inflammatory cell that contained PD L1 was the CD8+ lymphocyte that strongly concentrated around the dysplastic CIN cells and nests of invasive squamous cancer cells. These data show that PD L1 is a solid biomarker of productive HPV infection of the cervix and that it is significantly upregulated in both the carcinoma and surrounding inflammatory cells in cervical cancer when compared with other gynecologic malignancies. This suggests that anti-PD L1 therapy may have a role in the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26403783

  3. Grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using spatial frequency for optical histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Jagtap, Jaidip; Pradhan, Asima; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-03-01

    It is important to detect cervical dysplasia, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN). CIN is the potentially premalignant and abnormal squamous cells on surface of cervix. In this study, the spatial frequency spectra of pre-cancer cervical tissues are used to detect differences among different grades of human cervical tissues. Seven sets of thick tissue sections of human cervix of normal, CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3 tissues are studied. The confocal microscope images of the stromal region of normal and CIN human tissues were analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to generate the spatial spectra. It is observed that higher frequency components exist in CIN tissues than those in normal tissue, as well as those in higher grade CIN tissue than those in lower grade CIN tissue. The width of the spatial frequency of different types of tissues is used to create a criterion for CIN grading by training a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The results show that the randomness of tissue structures from normal to different stages of precancer in cervical tissue can be recognized by fingerprints of the spatial frequency. The efficacy of spatial frequency analysis for CIN grading is evaluated as excellent since high AUC (area under the ROC curve), sensitivity and specificity are obtained by the statistics study. This works lays the foundation of using spatial frequency spectra for a histology evaluation.

  4. MicroRNAs Involved in Tumor Suppressor and Oncogene Pathways; Implications for Hepatobiliary Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Justin L.

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small regulatory RNAs that function to modulate protein expression. This control allows for fine-tuning of the cellular phenotype, including regulation of proliferation, cell signaling, and apoptosis; not surprisingly, microRNAs contribute to liver cancer biology. Recent investigations in human liver cancers and tumor-derived cell lines have demonstrated decreased or increased expression of particular microRNAs in hepatobiliary cancer cells. Based on predicted and validated protein targets as well as functional consequences of altered expression, microRNAs with decreased expression in liver tumor cells may normally aid in limiting neoplastic transformation. Conversely, selected microRNAs that are upregulated in liver tumor cells can promote malignant features, contributing to carcinogenesis. In addition, microRNAs themselves are subject to regulated expression, including regulation by tumor suppressor and oncogene pathways. This review will focus on the expression and function of cancer-related microRNAs, including their intimate involvement in tumor suppressor and oncogene signaling networks relevant to hepatobiliary neoplasia. PMID:19585622

  5. Comparison between two portable devices for widefield PpIX fluorescence during cervical intraepithelial neoplasia treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia Mayumi; Lombardi, Welington; Cossetin, Natália Fernandez; Varoto, Cinthia; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-06-01

    The use of portable electronic devices, in particular mobile phones such as smartphones is increasing not only for all known applications, but also for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring treatments like topical Photodynamic Therapy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of the photosensitizer Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after topical application of a cream containing methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) in the cervix with diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) through the fluorescence images captured after one and three hours and compare the images using two devices (a Sony Xperia® mobile and an Apple Ipod®. Was observed an increasing fluorescence intensity of the cervix three hours after cream application, in both portable electronic devices. However, because was used a specific program for the treatment of images using the Ipod® device, these images presented better resolution than observed by the Sony cell phone without a specific program. One hour after cream application presented a more selective fluorescence than the group of three hours. In conclusion, the use of portable devices to obtain images of PpIX fluorescence shown to be an effective tool and is necessary the improvement of programs for achievement of better results.

  6. Metabonomic changes from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in tissues from rats.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi; Li, Zhishui; Feng, Jianghua; Bai, Jianxi; Lin, Xianchao; Huang, Heguang

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most malignant tumors and is difficult to diagnose in the early phase. This study was aimed at obtaining the metabolic profiles and characteristic metabolites of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and PDAC tissues from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to establish metabonomic methods used in the early diagnosis of PDAC. In the present study, the animal models were established by embedding 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in the pancreas of SD rats to obtain PanIN and PDAC tissues. After the preprocessing of tissues, (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate and univariate statistical analysis was applied to identify the potential metabolic signatures and the corresponding metabolic pathways. Pattern recognition models were successfully established and differential metabolites, including glucose, amino acids, carboxylic acids and coenzymes, were screened out. Compared with the control, the trends in the variation of several metabolites were similar in both PanIN and PDAC. Kynurenate and methionine levels were elevated in PanIN but decreased in PDAC, thus, could served as biomarkers to distinguish PanIN from PDAC. Our results suggest that NMR-based techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis can distinguish the metabolic differences among PanIN, PDAC and normal tissues, and, therefore, present a promising approach for physiopathologic metabolism investigations and early diagnoses of PDAC. PMID:27019331

  7. [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: genetic study of a large family].

    PubMed

    Orellana, C; Palasí, R; Martínez, F; Ponce, J L; Gil Sanz, J; Sancho Fornos, S; Prieto, F

    1999-03-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1) is an inherited disorder characterised by the predisposition of the cells from parathyroid glands, endocrine pancreas and adenohypophysis to develop neoplasms. We report the genetic study of an extended family with at least 8 affected patients and 10 putative carriers of a mutation in MEN-1 gene. One intragenic (Asp418 GAC-->GAT), and five flanking markers were characterised in the family by PCR amplification and polyachrylamide gel electrophoresis. Association of the disease to MEN-1 gene was confirmed for this family: all the affected members show a haplotype in common. Three patients at risk were diagnosed as non-carriers, since they have not inherited that haplotype. The remaining seven members, presymptomatic carriers, are included in a follow-up protocol. The genetic study of families segregating MEN-1 syndrome are useful in avoiding indiscriminate follow-up determinations to those members who have not received the genetic predisposition to develop any of the manifestations of the syndrome. Segregation analysis with linked markers is useful, under certain circumstances, to perform such type of studies. PMID:10207847

  8. [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and 2. 1997 diagnostic guidelines and molecular pathology].

    PubMed

    Komminoth, P

    1997-07-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes (MEN) encompass autosomal dominantly inherited diseases which are characterized by the syn- or metachrone development of neoplastic and hyperplastic neuroendocrine lesions in several glands of an affected patient. In MEN type 1 the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and duodenum and the pituitary and in MEN type 2 the thyroid C-cells, adrenal medulla and parathyroids are involved. Due to the recent identification of the mu gene and RET protooncogene as MEN-1 and MEN-2, respectively, and the elucidation of the genetic defects in affected patients, direct mutational analysis of germline DNA allows for the unambiguous identification of gene carriers and therefore the discrimination of MEN-associated and sporadically occurring neuroendocrine tumors. This is especially helpful in the context of the fairly high de novo mutation rates in MEN, since the discrimination of familial and sporadic neuroendocrine lesions by conventional and immunohistochemical analyses is rather unreliable. While the development of neuroendocrine lesions in young patients, bilateral or multicentricer tumors and the combination of hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions are indicative for a MEN syndrome, such constellations may also occur coincidentally or in association with other inherited diseases. In this overview, most recent findings concerning pathogenesis, molecular features, clinics and therapeutic concepts of MEN-1 and 2 are summarized and discussed. PMID:9380604

  9. Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers in cervical tissue by in vivo light scattering.

    PubMed

    Mourant, Judith R; Bocklage, Thérese J; Powers, Tamara M; Greene, Heather M; Dorin, Maxine H; Waxman, Alan G; Zsemlye, Meggan M; Smith, Harriet O

    2009-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of in vivo elastic light scattering measurements to identify cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) 2/3 and cancers in women undergoing colposcopy and to determine the effects of patient characteristics such as menstrual status on the elastic light scattering spectroscopic measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A fiber optic probe was used to measure light transport in the cervical epithelium of patients undergoing colposcopy. Spectroscopic results from 151 patients were compared with histopathology of the measured and biopsied sites. A method of classifying the measured sites into two clinically relevant categories was developed and tested using five-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: Statistically significant effects by age at diagnosis, menopausal status, timing of the menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptive use were identified, and adjustments based upon these measurements were incorporated in the classification algorithm. A sensitivity of 77±5% and a specificity of 62±2% were obtained for separating CIN 2/3 and cancer from other pathologies and normal tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of both menstrual status and age should be taken into account in the algorithm for classifying tissue sites based on elastic light scattering spectroscopy. When this is done, elastic light scattering spectroscopy shows good potential for real-time diagnosis of cervical tissue at colposcopy. Guiding biopsy location is one potential near-term clinical application area, while facilitating "see and treat" protocols is a longer term goal. Improvements in accuracy are essential. PMID:20694193

  10. Neoplasia of captive yellow sea horses (Hippocampus kuda) and weedy sea dragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus).

    PubMed

    LePage, Véronique; Dutton, Christopher J; Kummrow, Maya; McLelland, David J; Young, Karrie; Lumsden, John S

    2012-03-01

    Syngnathidae is the family of fish that includes sea horses, pipefish, and sea dragons. To date, only a single publication has described neoplasia in syngnathids, a fibrosarcoma of the brood pouch in an aquarium-reared lined sea horse (Hippocampus erectus). From 1998 until 2010, the Toronto Zoo submitted 172 syngnathids for postmortem; species included the spotted or yellow sea horse (Hippocampus kuda), the pot-bellied sea horse (Hippocampus abdominalis) and the weedy sea dragon (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus). Seven neoplasms and two neoplastic-like lesions were identified from these cases. Under light microscopy, the neoplasms had morphological characteristics of a cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma, renal adenocarcinoma, renal adenoma, renal round cell tumors, which were likely lymphomas, exocrine pancreatic carcinoma, and intestinal carcinoma. Of these neoplasms, four had clear evidence of metastasis: the pancreatic and intestinal carcinomas and both round cell tumors. As syngnathids are highly fastidious animals, they can be difficult to maintain in captivity. In order to improve their husbandry, preventative and palliative care, as well as treatment, it is important to investigate and document the types of diseases affecting syngnathids. PMID:22448509