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Sample records for neoplastic cervical lesions

  1. Prevalence of cervical neoplastic lesions and Human Papilloma Virus infection in Egypt: National Cervical Cancer Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Abd El All, Howayda S; Refaat, Amany; Dandash, Khadiga

    2007-01-01

    Background Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of pre-malignant and malignant cervical abnormalities and human papilloma virus (HPVs) infection. To define the prevalence and risk factors of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer (cacx), a community based full-scale cross sectional, household survey including 5453 women aged between 35 and 60 years was conducted. Methods The study period was between February 2000 and December 2002. Initially, conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were evaluated using the Bethesda system (TBS), followed by colposcopic guided biopsy (CGB) for all epithelial abnormalities (EA). In a third step, HPV was tested on all EA by in-situ hybridization (ISH) using first the broad spectrum HPV probe recognizing HPVs 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 35, 45, 51 and 52 followed by subtyping with probes 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33. Lastly, unequivocal cases were immunostained for herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results EA representing 7.8% (424/5453), were categorized into atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (34.4%), atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance (AGCUS) (15.3%), combined ASCUS and AGCUS (3.1%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) (41.0%), high grade SIL (5.2%) and invasive lesions (1%). CGB of EA (n = 281) showed non neoplastic lesions (12.8%), atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM) (19.2%), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN) (44.4%), CIN II (4.4%), CINIII (2.8%), endocervical lesions (5.2%), combined squamous and endocervical lesions (10.0%), invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (0.02%) and extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MZBCL) (0.02%). The overall predictive value of cytology was 87% while the predictive value for high grade lesions was 80%. On histological basis, HPVs were present in 94.3% of squamous lesions while it was difficult to be identified in endocervical ones. ISH

  2. P16(INK4a) expression as a potential prognostic marker in cervical pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Conceição; Silva, Tânia Correia; Alves, Venâncio A F; Villa, Luisa L; Costa, Maria Cecília; Travassos, Ana Gabriela; Filho, José Bouzas Araújo; Studart, Eduardo; Cheto, Tatiana; de Freitas, Luiz Antonio R

    2006-01-01

    An immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibody p16(INK4a) was performed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of 60 cases. The aim was to investigate in biopsies the expression of p16(INK4a) of normal uterine cervical tissue, pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions, and their relation with human papilloma virus (HPV) and HIV status. Three parameters were evaluated: percentage of p16(INK4a) positive cells, reaction intensity, and cell staining pattern. All of these parameters were statistically different when compared among different histological groups. However, logistic regression model showed that the reaction intensity was the best indicator of the expression of p16(INK4a). This expression increases from normal to invasive squamous carcinoma. Sixty-six percent of the patients with CIN grade 1 (CIN1) expressed p16(INK4a) (all these cases were infected with high risk HPV). Our study supports the hypothesis that p16(INK4a) expression in pre-cancerous lesions and cancers can be used to identify HPV-transformed cells. Of great interest for routine diagnostic use is the fact that immunohistochemical testing for p16(INK4a) seems to be capable of identifying HPV-positive cells and potentially recognizing those lesions with an increased risk of progression to high-grade lesions. PMID:16376485

  3. Local immunosuppression induced by high viral load of human papillomavirus: characterization of cellular phenotypes producing interleukin-10 in cervical neoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Prata, Thiago Theodoro Martins; Bonin, Camila Mareti; Ferreira, Alda Maria Teixeira; Padovani, Cacilda Tezelli Junqueira; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; Machado, Ana Paula; Tozetti, Inês Aparecida

    2015-09-01

    A specific immune response to human papillomavirus (HPV) in the cervical microenvironment plays a key role in eradicating infection and eliminating mutated cells. However, high-risk HPVs modulate immune cells to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment, and induce these immune cells to produce interleukin 10 (IL-10). This production of IL-10, in conjunction with HPV infection, contributes to the appearance of cervical neoplastic lesions. We sought to characterize the IL-10-producing cellular phenotype, and investigate the influence of host and HPV factors upon the induction of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated an increase in IL-10 production by keratinocytes, macrophages and Langerhans cells in high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer. This increase was more pronounced in patients older than 30 years, and was also correlated with high viral load, and infection with a single HPV type, particularly high-risk HPVs. Our results indicate the existence of a highly immunosuppressive microenvironment composed of different IL-10-producing cellular phenotypes in cervical cancer samples, and samples classified as high-grade cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stages II and III). The immunosuppressive microenvironment that developed for these different cellular phenotypes favours viral persistence and neoplastic progression. PMID:26059395

  4. [Non-neoplastic lesions of the mediastinum].

    PubMed

    Tzankov, A

    2016-09-01

    The mediastinum is a complex body region of limited space but containing numerous organs of different embryonic origins. A variety of lesions that are difficult to distinguish from each other can occur here. Non-neoplastic lesions of the mediastinum represent important differential diagnostic pitfalls to mediastinal tumors, clinically, radiologically and histopathologically. It is important to bear these lesions in mind and to adequately verify or exclude them before starting further differential diagnostic considerations on mediastinal neoplasms. The most common non-neoplastic lesions in this region include cysts and lymphadenopathies. Mediastinal cysts result from abnormal events in the branching of the tracheobronchial tree, the pharyngeal pouches, the primary intestines, the pleuropericardial membranes and the brain meninges or are complications of inflammatory and hydrostatic processes. The histogenesis of the lining epithelium and the cyst wall structure are decisive for the exact classification. The histopathologically most prevalent patterns of mediastinal lymphadenopathies are those accompanied by increased histiocytes and Castleman's disease. Sclerosis is a non-specific reaction pattern of the mediastinum and can be associated with many processes; therefore, when establishing the diagnosis of sclerosing mediastinitis, several differential diagnoses have to be excluded. Simple thymic hyperplasia can be accompanied by considerable increase in organ size with severe local symptoms, while follicular thymic hyperplasia is often associated with myasthenia gravis and represents the most common findings in non-thymoma thymectomy specimens. PMID:27465275

  5. Non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions: a 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Tahlan, Anita; Mundi, Irneet; Punia, R P S; Dass, Arjun

    2011-08-01

    The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. A series of non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions is reviewed to analyze their spectrum and their relative frequency. This is a retrospective study of salivary gland excisions and biopsies received in our department from January 1994 to December 2008. Routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all the salivary gland excisions and biopsies received were analyzed. Of the 393 salivary gland excisions and biopsies received, 216 cases were reported as non-neoplastic (55%) and formed our study group; 177 (45%) were neoplastic. Non-neoplastic lesions were more frequent in major salivary glands (65.7%) and submandibular gland was the most commonly involved (66.2%). Lip was the most frequent site (81.7%) for minor salivary gland lesions. Inflammation was the predominant pathological finding (49.5%), of which non-specific chronic sialadenitis constituted the majority (86.9%). Sialolithiasis was present in 22 cases (20.6%); all of these cases were of non-specific chronic sialadenitis. Cysts were second in frequency (36.6%), of which mucocele was the most common (54.5%). There were 5.6% cases of benign lympho-epithelial lesions, while normal salivary gland tissue was seen in 6.5% cases. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases are more common than neoplastic diseases and have a wide disease spectrum. PMID:21170719

  6. Stress-induced cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Braem, M; Lambrechts, P; Vanherle, G

    1992-05-01

    The increasing occurrence of dental lesions at the cervical surfaces requires more knowledge of the causes of the process. Acidic and abrasive mechanisms have clearly been documented as causes but the stress theory by Lee and Eakle is still controversial. This report describes several incidences of possible stress-induced lesions according to the characteristics described by Lee and Eakle. The occurrences of subgingival lesions lend credence to the stress-induction theory by exclusion of other superimposing etiologic factors. With the current concepts, a perceptive approach to the treatment of cervical lesions can be executed. PMID:1527763

  7. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Mattigatti, Sudha; Managoli, Noopur A; Rairam, Surabhi G; Patil, Ashwini M

    2013-01-01

    Abfraction or Theory of Abfraction is a theory explaining the non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). It suggests that they are caused by flexural forces, usually from cyclic loading; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes this pattern of destruction by separating the enamel rods. Clinical aspect importance of these ineart lesions are at most important to be detected for early intervention and treatment modalities as options during the progression of the disease. How to cite this article: Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Mattigatti S, Managoli NA, Rairam SG, Patil AM. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):142-5. PMID:24324319

  8. Expression of Cytokeratin-19 and Thyroperoxidase in Relation to Morphological Features in Non-Neoplastic and Neoplastic Lesions of Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Rajamani, Revathishree; Noorunnisa, Naseen; Durairaj, Manimaran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is a protein involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. TPO gene suppression and mutation were involved in thyroid tumours. CK-19 plays important role in the structural integrity of epithelial cells. Reduced TPO expression with increased CK-19 immunoreactivity has been implicated as a marker for differentiating non neoplastic and neoplastic thyroid lesions. Aim To study the histopathological features of thyroid lesions and to evaluate the diagnostic role of thyroperoxidase and CK-19 in non-neoplastic and neoplastic thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods Prospective observational study of 65 thyroid specimens was studied for detailed histopathological examination and Expression of Immunohistochemical Markers Cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) and Thyroperoxidase. Results TPO IHC marker was expressed by non-neoplastic and benign lesions of thyroid but not in malignancy. CK-19 was expressed 100% in papillary carcinoma of thyroid and its variants, focal and weak staining noted in goitre and hyperplastic areas. Conclusion Most of the non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions were diagnosed based on histopathological features. When the histopathological diagnosis are equivocal, immunohistochemical markers aids in diagnosing malignancy. Diffuse and strong TPO expression indicates non-neoplastic thyroid lesions whereas diffused and strong CK-19 expression indicates thyroid malignancy. PMID:27504290

  9. A Fuzzy-C-Means-Clustering Approach: Quantifying Chromatin Pattern of Non-Neoplastic Cervical Squamous Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jing Rui; Mat Isa, Nor Ashidi; Ch’ng, Ewe Seng

    2015-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of Pap-smear test in reducing the mortality rate due to cervical cancer, the criteria of the reporting standard of the Pap-smear test are mostly qualitative in nature. This study addresses the issue on how to define the criteria in a more quantitative and definite term. A negative Pap-smear test result, i.e. negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), is qualitatively defined to have evenly distributed, finely granular chromatin in the nuclei of cervical squamous cells. To quantify this chromatin pattern, this study employed Fuzzy C-Means clustering as the segmentation technique, enabling different degrees of chromatin segmentation to be performed on sample images of non-neoplastic squamous cells. From the simulation results, a model representing the chromatin distribution of non-neoplastic cervical squamous cell is constructed with the following quantitative characteristics: at the best representative sensitivity level 4 based on statistical analysis and human experts’ feedbacks, a nucleus of non-neoplastic squamous cell has an average of 67 chromatins with a total area of 10.827μm2; the average distance between the nearest chromatin pair is 0.508μm and the average eccentricity of the chromatin is 0.47. PMID:26560331

  10. Nuclear Division Index may Predict Neoplastic Colorectal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    IONESCU, Mirela E.; CIOCIRLAN, Mihai; BECHEANU, Gabriel; NICOLAIE, Tudor; DITESCU, Cristina; TEIUSANU, Adriana G.; GOLOGAN, Serban I.; ARBANAS, Tudor; DICULESCU, Mircea M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops by accumulation of multiple genetic damages leading to genetic instability that can be evaluated by cytogenetic methods. In the current study we used Cytokinesis-Blocked Micronucleus Assay (CBMN) technique to assess the behavior of Nuclear Division Index(NDI) in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with CRC and polyps versus patients with normal colonoscopy. Methods: Blood samples were collected from patients after informed consent. By CBMN technique we assessed the proportion of mono-nucleated, bi-nucleated, tri-nucleated and tetra-nucleated cells/500 cells, to calculate NDI. Data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS 11.0 package. Results: 45 patients were available for analysis, 23 men and 22 women, with a mean age of 58.7±13.5. 17 had normal colonoscopy, 17 colonic polyps and 11 CRC. The mean NDI values were significantly smaller for patients with CRC or polyps than in patients with normal colonoscopy (1.57 vs 1.73, p=0.013). The difference persisted for patients with neoplastic lesions (adenomas and carcinomas) when compared with patients with normal colonoscopy or non neoplastic (hyperplastic) polyps (1.56 vs.1.71, p=0.018). The NDI cut-off value to predict the presence of adenomas or carcinomas was equal to 1.55 with a 54.2% sensitivity and 81% specificity of lower values (p=0.019). The NDI cut off value to predict the presence of advanced adenomas or cancer was 1.525 for a sensitivity of 56.3% and a specificity of 82.8% (p=0.048). Conclusion: NDI may be useful in screening strategies for colorectal cancer as simple, noninvasive, inexpensive cytogenetic biomarker. PMID:22368693

  11. Differential expression of immune-modulatory molecule HLA-E in non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, B R; Carvalho-Galano, D F; Feitosa, N L F; Hassumi-Fukasawa, M K; Miranda-Camargo, F A; Maciel, L M Z; Ribeiro-Silva, A; Soares, E G

    2013-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)–E is a non-classical molecule of the histocompatibility complex that functions as one of the main ligands of the Natural Killer (NK) cell inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A and inhibits its potent cytotoxic activity. Due to the important role of NK cells in combating neoplasm, we hypothesized that the differential expression of HLA-E could favor the progression of heterogeneous thyroid tumors.Using an immunohistochemistry technique in 143 biopsies of thyroid tumors, including benign and malignant neoplasms and goiters, we evaluated the expression of HLA-E among various tumor types and its association with the clinicopathological factors of diseases. We verified high HLA-E expression in all types of neoplastic tumors, although no significant differences between the groups were found. Low expression was observed in 95 percent of the goiter samples, showing significant differences between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Furthermore, a significant result was found with regard to the tumor size, with high HLA-E expression being related to smaller tumors. Therefore, our data suggest that an increase in HLA-E may be associated with the establishment of thyroid neoplasms, with either benign or malignant features. PMID:24355224

  12. Diagnosis and management of neoplastic lesions of the submandibular triangle.

    PubMed

    Munir, Nazia; Bradley, Patrick J

    2008-03-01

    Review of submandibular triangle neoplasms (benign and malignant) treated at a tertiary referral centre in the United Kingdom (1986-2004). One hundred and seven cases identified via computerised search of histopathology records over the 18 year review period. Retrospective review clinical notes and collation with data maintained prospectively by the senior author. Forty nine benign and 58 malignant neoplasms of the submandibular triangle were reviewed. Definitive diagnosis was by excision and pathological examination. Pleomorphic adenoma (n=37) were the most common benign neoplasms. For malignant lesions (n=58), 48 were primary malignancies and 10 metastatic lesions. The most frequent primary lesions were malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n=22), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n=9) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=9). The mainstay treatment for both benign and malignant lesions was surgical either by extracapsular excision of the gland/lesion or selective levels I, IIa and III neck dissection. The main post-operative complication was temporary weakness of the marginal mandibular nerve (13%). Submandibular triangle neoplasms are rare and pose many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. There is a relatively high incidence of malignant neoplasms in this region (54%). Benign tumours manifest a mild course of disease and have an excellent prognosis following adequate excision. Malignant tumours have a poor symptomatology that can result in late (often post-operative) diagnosis. The adequacy of primary surgery is crucial and would support the approach of a more radical excision primarily with a selective levels I, IIa and III neck dissection; ensuring a definitive operation for benign lesions, avoiding the risks of tumour spillage associated with a more limited excision; and removing the primary echelon of lymph nodes at risk of metastasis if the pathology in fact turns out to be malignant; without a significantly higher morbidity in comparison with an extracapsular gland/lesion

  13. Neoplastic lesions in CADASIL syndrome: report of an autopsied Japanese case

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Wael Abdo; Udaka, Naoka; Ueda, Akihiko; Ando, Yukio; Ito, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is one of the most common heritable causes of stroke and dementia in adults. The gene involved in the pathogenesis of CADASIL is Notch3; in which mutations affect the number of cysteine residues in its extracellular domain, causing its accumulation in small arteries and arterioles of the affected individuals. Besides the usual neurological and vascular findings that have been well-documented in CADASIL patients, this paper additionally reports multiple neoplastic lesions that were observed in an autopsy case of CADASIL patient; that could be related to Notch3 mutation. The patient was a 62 years old male, presented with a past history of neurological manifestations, including gait disturbance and frequent convulsive attacks. He was diagnosed as CADASIL syndrome with Notch3 Arg133Cys mutation. He eventually developed hemiplegia and died of systemic convulsions. Autopsy examination revealed-besides the vascular and neurological lesions characteristic of CADASIL- multiple neoplastic lesions in the body; carcinoid tumorlet and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuro-endocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) in the lungs, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), prostatic adenocarcinoma (ADC) and adenomatoid tumor of the epididymis. This report describes a spectrum of neoplastic lesions that were found in a case of CADASIL patient that could be related to Notch3 gene mutations. PMID:26261665

  14. Noninvasive monitoring of photodynamic therapy on skin neoplastic lesions using the optical attenuation coefficient measured by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulart, Viviane P.; dos Santos, Moisés O.; Latrive, Anne; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise M.

    2015-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a promising alternative for treatment of skin lesions such as squamous cell carcinoma. We propose a method to monitor the effects of PDT in a noninvasive way by using the optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) calculated from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. We conducted a study on mice with chemically induced neoplastic lesions and performed PDT on these lesions using homemade photosensitizers. The response of neoplastic lesions to therapy was monitored using, at the same time, macroscopic clinical visualization, histopathological analysis, OCT imaging, and OCT-based attenuation coefficient measurement. Results with all four modalities demonstrated a positive response to treatment. The attenuation coefficient was found to be 1.4 higher in skin lesions than in healthy tissue and it decreased after therapy. This study shows that the OAC is a potential tool to noninvasively assess the evolution of skin neoplastic lesions with time after treatment.

  15. Treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Barna, Julie Ann; Strober, Brad; Matthews, Abigail G.; Collie, Damon; Vena, Donald; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network conducted a three-armed randomized clinical study to determine the comparative effectiveness of three treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs): use of a potassium nitrate dentifrice for treatment of hypersensitivity, placement of a resin-based composite restoration and placement of a sealant. Methods Seventeen trained practitioner-investigators (P-Is) in the PEARL Network enrolled participants (N = 304) with hypersensitive posterior NCCLs who met enrollment criteria. Participants were assigned to treatments randomly. Evaluations were conducted at baseline and at one, three and six months thereafter. Primary outcomes were the reduction or elimination of hypersensitivity as measured clinically and by means of patient-reported outcomes. Results Lesion depth and pretreatment sensitivity (mean, 5.3 on a 0- to 10-point scale) were balanced across treatments, as was sleep bruxism (present in 42.2 percent of participants). The six-month participant recall rate was 99 percent. Treatments significantly reduced mean sensitivity (P < .01), with the sealant and restoration groups displaying a significantly higher reduction (P < .01) than did the dentifrice group. The dentifrice group’s mean (standard deviation) sensitivity at six months was 2.1 (2.1); those of the sealant and restoration groups were 1.0 (1.6) and 0.8 (1.4), respectively. Patient-reported sensitivity (to cold being most pronounced) paralleled clinical measurements at each evaluation. Conclusions Sealing and restoration treatments were effective overall in reducing NCCL hypersensitivity. The potassium nitrate dentifrice reduced sensitivity with increasing effectiveness through six months but not to the degree offered by the other treatments. Practical Implications Sealant or restoration placement is an effective method of immediately reducing NCCL sensitivity. Although a potassium nitrate dentifrice

  16. Cervical demyelinating lesion presenting with choreoathetoid movements and dystonia.

    PubMed

    de Pasqua, Silvia; Cevoli, Sabina; Calbucci, Fabio; Liguori, Rocco

    2016-09-15

    Pseudoathetosis and dystonia are rare manifestations of spinal cord disease that have been already reported in lesions involving the posterior columns at the cervical level. We report two patients with a cervical demyelinating lesion at C3-C4 level presenting with hand dystonia and pseudoathetoid movements. The movement disorder disappeared after steroid treatment. The cases we described highlight the importance of identifying secondary causes of movement disorders that can be reversible with appropriate therapy. PMID:27538633

  17. Scanning acoustic microscopy for characterization of neoplastic and inflammatory lesions of lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Miura, Katsutoshi; Nasu, Hatsuko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) imaging system calculates and color codes speed of sound (SOS). We evaluated the SAM results for lymph node imaging and compared these results with those of light microscopy (LM). SAM showed normal structures and localized/diffuse lesions of the lymph node. Our results revealed that as a rule, soft areas such as cystic necrosis presented less SOS while harder areas such as coagulative necrosis, granulomas, and fibrosis exhibited greater SOS. SOS increased according to stromal desmoplastic reactions and cellular concentration. In neoplastic lesions, statistically significant differences in SOS were observed among scirrhous carcinomas, lymphomas, and medullary carcinomas. SAM provided the following benefits over LM: (1) images reflected the tissue elasticity of each lesion, (2) digitized SOS data could be statistically comparable, (3) images were acquired in a few minutes without special staining, (4) SAM images and echographic images were comparable for clinical ultrasound imaging study. PMID:23409246

  18. Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 expression in normal and neoplastic cervical epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Troncone, G; Vetrani, A; de Rosa, G; Gerbasio, D; Palombini, L

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether there is loss of the p27Kip1 protein in developing cervical cancer and whether p27Kip1 immunoreactivity has any relation to the proliferative indicator Ki-67. METHODS: The expression of p27Kip1 and Ki-67 was assessed by immunohistochemistry in serial sections from normal epithelium (13), low grade (27) and high grade (19) squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, HSIL), and invasive cervical cancer (23). In the SIL cases the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genomic sequences was assessed by in situ hybridisation. The results were evaluated by image analysis, and reported as mean score of the percentage of p27Kip1 and of Ki-67 positive cells in each histological group. RESULTS: In general, p27Kip1 immunostaining was related to squamous differentation, and was intense in normal epithelium (47%), while it was reduced in SIL lesions as an effect of the decreased number of differentiating cells. However, decrease in the p27Kip1 expression was more evident in LSIL (36%) than in HSIL (39%); in the latter, p27Kip1 had a different intraepithelial distribution in that the staining extended to the basal cells. The average levels of p27Kip1 were similar in SIL lesions associated to low, intermediate, and high risk HPV types. Compared with normal epithelium and dysplasia, invasive cancer showed significantly lower p27Kip1 levels (23%). There was no relation between p27Kip1 and Ki-67 labelling indices in any of the histological groups examined. CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in p27Kip1 protein occurs in cervical cancer independently of the proliferative status. The changes in p27Kip1 expression may be related to the unregulated kinetics of developing cervical cancer. Images PMID:10711250

  19. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for the treatment of neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Białek, Andrzej; Wiechowska-Kozłowska, Anna; Pertkiewicz, Jan; Karpińska, Katarzyna; Marlicz, Wojciech; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Starzyńska, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the indications, resection rate, and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract at a European referral center. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of the ESD procedures performed in our center for mucosal neoplastic and submucosal lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The duration of the procedure, en bloc and complete (R0) resection rates, and complication rates were evaluated. Variables were reported as mean ± SD or simple proportions. Univariate analysis and comparisons of procedure times and resection rates were performed using Mann-Whitney U tests, or χ2 tests for dichotomous variables. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2011, ESD was performed in a total of 103 patients (46.7% male, mean age 64.0 ± 12.7 years). The indications for the procedure were epithelial tumor (n = 54), submucosal tumor (n = 42), or other (n = 7). The total en bloc resection rate was 90.3% (93/103) and R0 resection rate 80.6% (83/103). The median speed of the procedure was 15.0 min/cm2. The complete resection rate was lower for submucosal tumors arising from the muscle layer (68%, 15/22, P < 0.05). Resection speed was quicker for submucosal tumors localized in the submucosal layer than for lesions arising from the muscularis propria layer (8.1 min/cm2 vs 17.9 min/cm2, P < 0.05). The R0 resection rate and speed were better in the last 24 mo (90.1%, 49/54 and 15.3 min/cm2) compared to the first 3 years of treatment (73.5%, 36/49, P < 0.05 and 22.0 min/cm2, P < 0.05). Complications occurred in 14.6% (n = 15) of patients, including perforation in 5.8% (n = 6), pneumoperitoneum in 3.9% (n = 4), delayed bleeding in 1.9% (n = 2), and other in 2.9% (n = 3). Only one patient with delayed perforation required surgical treatment. During the mean follow-up of 26 ± 15.3 mo, among patients with R0 resection, recurrence occurred in one patient (1.2%). CONCLUSION: ESD is an effective and safe method for resection of

  20. Human papillomavirus infection in non-neoplastic uterine cervical disease in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, C N; Cavanagh, H M; Lo, S T; Ng, C S

    2001-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect and identify human papillomavirus (HPV) in 108 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, non-neoplastic uterine cervical biopsy tissue retrieved from the surgical pathology archives of the Department of Pathology, Caritas Medical Centre, Hong Kong. After DNA extraction, HPV L1 gene primers were used to detect the presence of HPV, and type-specific primers (to HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33) were used to identify the specific HPV type on HPV L1-positive cases. PCR amplification of the beta-globin gene was used to ensure the quality of amplifiable DNA extracted. Of 94 cases that yielded sufficient good-quality DNA for PCR analysis, three (one endocervical polyp, one chronic inflammation with erosion, and a normal biopsy) had detectable HPV infection. Two of these had high-risk HPV type 16; the other had an uncommon HPV type. In view of the low incidence of HPV found in these patients, large-scale population screening of clinical samples using PCR to detect the presence of HPV and identify high-risk asymptomatic patients would not be cost-effective. PMID:11440211

  1. Gene Signature Distinguishes Patients with Chronic Ulcerative Colitis Harboring Remote Neoplastic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pekow, Joel; Dougherty, Urszula; Huang, Yong; Gometz, Edward; Nathanson, Jeff; Cohen, Greg; Levy, Shawn; Kocherginsky, Masha; Venu, Nanda; Westerhoff, Maria; Hart, John; Noffsinger, Amy E.; Hanauer, Stephen B; Hurst, Roger D.; Fichera, Alessandro; Joseph, Loren J; Liu, Qiang; Bissonnette, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. The standard method of surveillance for neoplasia in UC by colonoscopy is invasive and can miss flat lesions. We sought to identify a gene expression signature in non-dysplastic mucosa without active inflammation that could serve as a marker for remote neoplastic lesions. Methods Gene expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray in 5 normal controls, 4 UC patients without dysplasia, and 11 UC patients harboring remote neoplasia. Common gene ontology pathways of significantly differentially expressed genes were identified. Expression of genes which were progressively and significantly up-regulated from controls, to UC without neoplasia, to UC with remote neoplasia were evaluated by real time PCR. Several gene products were also examined by immunohistochemistry. Results 468 genes were significantly up-regulated and 541 genes were significantly down-regulated in UC patints with neoplasia compared to UC patients without neoplasia. Nine genes (ACSL1, BIRC3, CLC, CREM, ELTD1, FGG, S100A9, THBD, and TPD52L1) were progressively and significantly up-regulated from controls to non-dysplastic UC to UC with neoplasia. Immunostaining of proteins revealed increased expression of S100A9 and REG1α in UC-associated cancer and in non-dysplastic tissue from UC patients harboring remote neoplasia, compared to UC patients without neoplasia and controls. Conclusions Gene expression changes occurring as a field effect in the distal colon of patients with chronic UC identify patients harboring remote neoplastic lesions. These markers may lead to a more accurate and less invasive method of detection of neoplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23388545

  2. Seminal plasma induces the expression of IL-1α in normal and neoplastic cervical cells via EP2/EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology usually presenting in sexually active women. Exposure of neoplastic cervical epithelial cells to seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to promote the growth of cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo by inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators including pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-1α is a pleotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine induced in several human cancers and has been associated with virulent tumor phenotype and poorer prognosis. Here we investigated the expression of IL-1α in cervical cancer, the role of SP in the regulation of IL-1α in neoplastic cervical epithelial cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation. Methods and results Real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the elevated expression of IL-1α mRNA in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma tissue explants, compared with normal cervix. Using immunohistochemistry, IL-1α was localized to the neoplastically transformed squamous, columnar and glandular epithelium in all cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas explants studied. We found that SP induced the expression of IL-α in both normal and neoplastic cervical tissue explants. Employing HeLa (adenocarcinoma) cell line as a model system we identified PGE2 and EGF as possible ligands responsible for SP-mediated induction of IL-1α in these neoplastic cells. In addition, we showed that SP activates EP2/EGFR/PI3kinase-Akt signaling to induce IL-1α mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in normal cervical tissue explants the induction of IL-1α by SP is via the activation of EP2/EGFR/PI3 kinase-Akt signaling. Conclusion SP-mediated induction of IL-1α in normal and neoplastic cervical epithelial cells suggests that SP may promote cervical inflammation as well as progression of cervical cancer in sexually active women. PMID:25237386

  3. Expression of p53 in preneoplastic and early neoplastic bronchial lesions.

    PubMed

    Martin, B; Verdebout, J-M; Mascaux, C; Paesmans, M; Rouas, G; Verhest, A; Ninane, V; Sculier, J-P

    2002-01-01

    p53 alteration has been reported to be an early event in bronchial carcinogenesis. Our study purpose was to determine the rate of p53 expression in the various preneoplastic and early neoplastic bronchial lesions obtained by biopsy during fluorescence bronchoscopy and to analyse its association with patients characteristics. Various stages of preneoplastic lesions as well as radio-occult lung cancer were studied in biopsies obtained by fluorescence bronchoscopy. We assessed the expression of p53 by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody clone DO7. The p53 expression was considered as positive if > or = 1% of cells were positive and the level of positivity was expressed in percentage of positive cells. Fourteen patients were included in each category of preneoplastic lesions. At the threshold of 1% of positive cells p53 expression was observed in 28.5% of the patients with a histologically normal epithelium. This number of positive patients increased with the severity of preneoplastic lesions and reached 100% in the mild dysplasia. The mean rates of p53 positive cells for normal epithelium, hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild and severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive radio-occult carcinoma were respectively 0.9, 3.4, 9.1, 20.5, 50.2, 34.7 and 42.5%. There was no statistically significant correlation between p53 expression and patient characteristics such as sex, age, smoking habits and indication for fluorescence bronchoscopy. The alteration of p53 expression in patients with high risk of lung cancer was an early event: this abnormality increased with the severity of the lesions, without significant correlation with patient characteristics. PMID:11836584

  4. Hyaluronidases and hyaluronan synthases expression is inversely correlated with malignancy in lung/bronchial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions, affecting prognosis

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, V.K.; Rocha, T.P.; Moreira, AL.; Soares, F.A.; Takagaki, T.; Carvalho, L.; Nicholson, A.G.; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    We collected a series of 136 lung/bronchial and 56 matched lung parenchyma tissue samples from patients who underwent lung/bronchial biopsies and presented invasive carcinoma after lung surgery. The lung/bronchial samples included basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, moderate dysplasia, adenomatous hyperplasia, severe dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Matched lung parenchyma tissue samples included 25 squamous cell carcinomas and 31 adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze for the distribution of hyaluronidase (Hyal)-1 and −3, and hyaluronan synthases (HAS)-1, −2, and −3. Hyal-1 showed significantly higher expression in basal cell hyperplasia than in moderate dysplasia (P=0.01), atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (P=0.0001), or severe dysplasia (P=0.03). Lower expression of Hyal-3 was found in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia than in basal cell hyperplasia (P=0.01) or moderate dysplasia (P=0.02). HAS-2 was significantly higher in severe dysplasia (P=0.002) and in squamous metaplasia (P=0.04) compared with basal cell hyperplasia. HAS-3 was significantly expressed in basal cell hyperplasia compared with atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (P=0.05) and severe dysplasia (P=0.02). Lower expression of HAS-3 was found in severe dysplasia compared with squamous metaplasia (P=0.01) and moderate dysplasia (P=0.01). Epithelial Hyal-1 and −3 and HAS-1, −2, and −3 expressions were significantly higher in pre-neoplastic lesions than in neoplastic lesions. Comparative Cox multivariate analysis controlled by N stage and histologic tumor type showed that patients with high HAS-3 expression in pre-neoplastic cells obtained by lung/bronchial biopsy presented a significantly higher risk of death (HR=1.19; P=0.04). We concluded that localization of Hyal and HAS in lung/bronchial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions was inversely related to malignancy, which implied that visualizing these factors could be a useful diagnostic

  5. Hyaluronidases and hyaluronan synthases expression is inversely correlated with malignancy in lung/bronchial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions, affecting prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sá, V K de; Rocha, T P; Moreira, Al; Soares, F A; Takagaki, T; Carvalho, L; Nicholson, A G; Capelozzi, V L

    2015-11-01

    We collected a series of 136 lung/bronchial and 56 matched lung parenchyma tissue samples from patients who underwent lung/bronchial biopsies and presented invasive carcinoma after lung surgery. The lung/bronchial samples included basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, moderate dysplasia, adenomatous hyperplasia, severe dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Matched lung parenchyma tissue samples included 25 squamous cell carcinomas and 31 adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze for the distribution of hyaluronidase (Hyal)-1 and -3, and hyaluronan synthases (HAS)-1, -2, and -3. Hyal-1 showed significantly higher expression in basal cell hyperplasia than in moderate dysplasia (P=0.01), atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (P=0.0001), or severe dysplasia (P=0.03). Lower expression of Hyal-3 was found in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia than in basal cell hyperplasia (P=0.01) or moderate dysplasia (P=0.02). HAS-2 was significantly higher in severe dysplasia (P=0.002) and in squamous metaplasia (P=0.04) compared with basal cell hyperplasia. HAS-3 was significantly expressed in basal cell hyperplasia compared with atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (P=0.05) and severe dysplasia (P=0.02). Lower expression of HAS-3 was found in severe dysplasia compared with squamous metaplasia (P=0.01) and moderate dysplasia (P=0.01). Epithelial Hyal-1 and -3 and HAS-1, -2, and -3 expressions were significantly higher in pre-neoplastic lesions than in neoplastic lesions. Comparative Cox multivariate analysis controlled by N stage and histologic tumor type showed that patients with high HAS-3 expression in pre-neoplastic cells obtained by lung/bronchial biopsy presented a significantly higher risk of death (HR=1.19; P=0.04). We concluded that localization of Hyal and HAS in lung/bronchial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions was inversely related to malignancy, which implied that visualizing these factors could be a useful diagnostic procedure for

  6. A novel autoantibody test for the detection of pre-neoplastic lung lesions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) and squamous cell dysplasia (SCD) are associated with the development of malignant lesions in the lung. Accurate diagnosis of AAH and SCD could facilitate earlier clinical intervention and provide useful information for assessing lung cancer risk in human populations. Detection of AAH and SCD has been achieved by imaging and bronchoscopy clinically, but sensitivity and specificity remain less than satisfactory. We utilized the ability of the immune system to identify lesion specific proteins for detection of AAH and SCD. Methods AAH and SCD tissue was surgically removed from six patients of Chinese descent (3 AAH and 3 SCD) with corresponding serum samples. Total RNA was extracted from the tissues and a cDNA library was generated and incorporated into a T7 bacteriophage vector. Following enrichment to remove "normal" reactive phages, a total of 200 AAH related and 200 SCD related phage clones were chosen for statistical classifier development and incorporation into a microarray. Microarray slides were tested with an independent double-blinded population consisting of 100 AAH subjects, 100 SCD subjects and 200 healthy control subjects. Results Sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 70% were achieved in the detection of AAH using a combination of 9 autoantibody biomarkers. Likewise, 86% sensitivity and 78% specificity were achieved in the detection of SCD using a combination of 13 SCD-associated markers. Sequencing analysis identified that most of these 22 autoantibody biomarkers had known malignant associations. Conclusions Both diagnostic values showed promising sensitivity and specificity in detection of pre-neoplastic lung lesions. Hence, this technology could be a useful non-invasive tool to assess lung cancer risk in human populations. PMID:24708840

  7. Promotional effects of CO2 laser on neoplastic lesions in hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsbury, Jeffrey S.; Margarone, Joseph E., III; Satchidanand, S.; Liebow, Charles

    1991-06-01

    Surgical incision may have promotional effects on neoplastic lesions, possibly through release of tissue growth factors (e.g., EGF, FGF(beta) , IGF, TGF(alpha) ). The CO2 laser may precipitate altered release of these factors. To test this, .5 cm laser, and scalpel incisions were made into fields treated by application of .5% DMBA in acetone, 3 times a week for 6 weeks (group 1) and 12 weeks (group 2). DMBA is a complete carcinogen (initiator and promoter). At 6 weeks, chemically, but not histologically, definable premalignant lesions are seen. Treatment for 12 weeks causes histologic neoplasia which can be graded with T-N-M classification. For both groups, the surgical sites were examined clinically and histologically 4 weeks post-op in a blind fashion. Standard criteria were utilized for defining neoplasia. For group 1, 3 out of 6 laser treated animals developed large exophytic squamous cell carcinomas, but no lesions developed in 12 contralateral, 3 control and 3 scalpel treated pouches. For group 2, 12 of 16 laser treated animals developed tumor with mean grade of 1.75 and mean size of 7.4 mm, 5 of 6 scalpel treated animals developed tumor with mean grade of 1.83 and mean size of 3.6 mm and 3 of 6 control animals developed tumor with mean grade of 1.00 and mean size of 1.5 mm. By the Student 't' test on the binomial distribution lasers cause significant promotion (p < .01). These results suggest that laser surgery may have earlier and more profound promotional effects than scalpel on initiated cells relative to tumor size in the vicinity of the wound site by increased release of growth factors.

  8. Promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes in pre-neoplastic lesions; potential marker of disease recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epigenetic alterations of specific genes have been reported to be related to colorectal cancer (CRC) transformation and would also appear to be involved in the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. Little data are available on the role of these alterations in determining a different risk of colorectal lesion recurrence. The aim of the present study was to verify whether epigenetic alterations present in pre-neoplastic colorectal lesions detected by colonoscopy can predict disease recurrence. Methods A retrospective series of 78 adenomas were collected and classified as low (35) or high-risk (43) for recurrence according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Methylation alterations were analyzed by the methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe assay (MS-MLPA) which is capable of quantifying methylation levels simultaneously in 24 different gene promoters. MS-MLPA results were confirmed by pyrosequencing and immunohistochemistry. Results Higher levels of methylation were associated with disease recurrence. In particular, MLH1, ATM and FHIT gene promoters were found to be significantly hypermethylated in recurring adenomas. Unconditional logistic regression analysis used to evaluate the relative risk (RR) of recurrence showed that FHIT and MLH1 were independent variables with an RR of 35.30 (95% CI 4.15-300.06, P = 0.001) and 17.68 (95% CI 1.91-163.54, P = 0.011), respectively. Conclusions Histopathological classification does not permit an accurate evaluation of the risk of recurrence of colorectal lesions. Conversely, results from our methylation analysis suggest that a classification based on molecular parameters could help to define the mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis and prove an effective method for identifying patients at high risk of recurrence. PMID:25091577

  9. Diagnostic cellular abnormalities in neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of the epidermis: a morphological and statistical study

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Saurabh; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Andres, Christian; Gui, Jiang; Elston, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Distinguishing cellular abnormalities in reactive and malignant lesions is challenging. We compared the incidence and severity of cytological abnormalities in malignant/premalignant and benign epidermal lesions. Methods One hundred fifty-two biopsies representing 69 malignant/premalignant squamous lesions and 83 benign conditions were studied. Cytological features, including nuclear hyperchromasia, nuclear overlap (crowding), irregular nuclei, high nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio, conspicuous nucleoli, delicate inconspicuous nucleoli, clumped chromatin, pleomorphic parakeratosis, normal and abnormal mitotic figures and necrotic keratinocytes, were evaluated and graded. Statistical analysis was performed. Results Irregular nuclei, increased N/C ratio, conspicuous single prominent nucleoli, nuclear overlap (crowding), pleomorphic parakeratosis, nuclear hyperchromasia, necrotic keratinocytes, normal and abnormal mitotic figures and coarse chromatin were seen more frequently in malignant neoplasms (p < 0.05). Abnormal mitotic figures, although uncommon (20.3%), were only noted in the malignant/premalignant group. Certain cytological features were common among both malignant and benign lesions, suggesting that they are of little value. Conclusion In the setting of an atypical cutaneous squamous proliferation, nuclear irregularity, increased N/C ratio, conspicuous nucleoli, crowding and hyperchromasia are the most useful indicators of malignancy. In contrast, mitotic figures, necrotic cells and coarse chromatin are less useful. The presence of abnormal mitotic figures is very helpful when present; however, their overall rarity limits their utility. PMID:23398548

  10. Ultrasonographic Differentiation Between Nodular Hyperplasia and Neoplastic Follicular-Patterned Lesions of the Thyroid Gland.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong Sub; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Min, Hye Sook; Won, Jae-Kyung; Yun, Tae Jin; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul-Ho

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the gray-scale ultrasonographic characteristics that differentiate between nodular hyperplasia (NH) and neoplastic follicular-patterned lesions (NFPLs) of the thyroid gland. Ultrasonographic features of 750 patients with 832 thyroid nodules (NH, n = 361; or NFPLs, follicular adenoma, n = 123; follicular carcinoma, n = 159; and follicular variant papillary carcinoma, n = 189) were analyzed. Except for echogenicity, over two-thirds of the cases of NH and NFPLs share the ultrasonographic characteristics of solid internal content, a well-defined smooth margin and round-to-ovoid shape. Independent predictors for NH were non-solid internal content (sensitivity 27.1%, specificity 90.2%), isoechogenicity (sensitivity 69.5%, specificity 63.5%) and an ill-defined margin (sensitivity 18.8%, specificity 94.5%). Independent predictors for NFPLs were hypoechogenicity (sensitivity 60.5%, specificity 70.4%), marked hypoechogenicity (sensitivity 2.8%, specificity 99.4%) and taller-than-wide shape (sensitivity 6.6%, specificity 98.1%). Although NH and NFPLs commonly share ultrasonographic characteristics, non-solid internal content and ill-defined margin are specific to NH and marked hypoechogenicity and taller-than-wide shape are specific to NFPLs. PMID:27166018

  11. Decreased RARβ expression induces abundant inflammation and cervical precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Albino-Sanchez, M E; Vazquez-Hernandez, J; Ocadiz-Delgado, R; Serafin-Higuera, N; León-Galicia, I; Garcia-Villa, E; Hernandez-Pando, R; Gariglio, P

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that vitamin A and its receptors protect against cancer development and that Retinoid Acid Receptor β (RARβ) is epigenetically silenced during tumoral progression. Cervical Cancer (CC) has been causally linked to high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection. However, host factors are important in determining the outcome of persistent HR-HPV infection as most cervical precancerous lesions containing HR-HPVs do not progress to invasive carcinomas. Increasing evidence suggests that low diet in vitamin A and their receptors participate in the development of CC. The aim of this study has been to investigate the effects of abated RARβ expression in the development of cervical premalignant lesions in 4 month-old conditional mice (RARβ(L-/L-)). Results demonstrated the development of spontaneous squamous metaplasia, inflammatory infiltrate, enhanced mitotic activity, loss of cell differentiation, as well as decreased apoptosis and p16(INK4a) protein levels in RARβ(L-/L-) mice cervix. All these changes are hallmarks of moderate dysplasia. Importantly, our results suggest that the low expression of RARβ, may induce the down regulation of p16(INK4a), chronic inflammation and decreased apoptosis and may be involved in vulnerability to HR-HPV and early stage cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:27207583

  12. Effect of carcinogen release rate on the incidence of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the respiratory tract epithelium in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shiba, M.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.; Marchok, A.C.; Pal, B.C.; Nettesheim, P.

    1982-11-01

    Inbred F344 rat tracheal transplants were exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) delivered at different release rates from intraluminal pellets made of various matrices to study the effect of carcinogen dose rate on the induction of lesions in the epithelium. These matrices were beeswax, beeswax-stearyl alcohol, and beeswax-cholesterol. In addition, DMBA adsorbed onto carbon particles was dispersed in beeswax-stearyl alcohol. The fastest release was obtained from beeswax pellets from which 99% of the carcinogen (198 ..mu..g) was released in 4 weeks, and the slowest release was from DMBA adsorbed on carbon at a ratio of 1:9 from which only 56% (113 ..mu..g) was released in 16 weeks. Morphometry of histologic sections showed marked differences in the percentage of luminal surface covered by dysplastic-neoplastic epithelium (i.e., 7.5% in the tracheas exposed to the fastest releasing pellets and 46.3% in the tracheas exposed to the slowest releasing pellets). An inverse linear correlation was found between the cumulative amount of DMBA release from the different pellet matrices at 2 weeks and the incidence of dysplastic plus neoplastic lesions of tracheal epithelium at 16 weeks. The results indicated that lower doses of carcinogen delivered slowly are more effective in producing dysplastic plus neoplastic lesions than higher doses delivered rapidly.

  13. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Methods Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Results Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Conclusion Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression. PMID:22443139

  14. A modified method for the culture of naturally HPV-infected high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia keratinocytes from human neoplastic cervical biopsies

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YU-ZHEN; WANG, TIAN-TIAN; ZHANG, YOU-ZHONG

    2016-01-01

    Few studies on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) keratinocyte cultures are available due to the numerous technical and methodological problems associated with the in vitro cultivation of these cells. The present study investigated an applicable and effective method for the in vitro cultivation of high-grade CIN keratinocytes from human neoplastic cervical biopsies. Human neoplastic cervical tissue sections were obtained and digested using type I collagen in order to dissociate the cells. The cells were seeded in tissue culture plastic plates that were coated with rat tail collagen type I and contained modified keratinocyte serum-free medium (K-SFM) supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. The medium was replaced with K-SFM on days 3, 5 and 7, respectively. The unattached cells were recovered and the cell viability was determined accurately using the Trypan Blue exclusion method. The expression of keratin 14 (K14), keratin 19 (K19), keratin 17 (K17) and P63 was assayed using immunofluorescence in order to identify the presence of CIN keratinocytes. The present results indicated that the attachment rate of CIN keratinocytes significantly increased between 56.75±1.76% on day 3 and 77.09±3.55% on day 5, and became relatively stable between days 5 and 7. The cell viability significantly decreased between 83.00±0.50% on day 5 and 68.17±1.04% on day 7. The passaged CIN keratinocytes maintained the original unequally sized, abnormally shaped morphology and did not undergo differentiation. In addition, the passaged CIN keratinocytes exhibited the same human papilloma virus (HPV) genotype that was detected in the original primary cells. K14 and K19 were expressed in the majority of the normal and CIN keratinocytes, whereas K17 and P63 were expressed only in high-grade CIN keratinocytes. The present study proposes a simple and practical method for rapidly obtaining highly purified naturally HPV-infected high-grade CIN keratinocytes from small neoplastic cervical

  15. Human Papillomavirus in Brazilian women with and without cervical lesions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) high-risk (HR) types are the causal factor for cervical cancer and premalignant dysplasia. Data on frequency of HPV types provide a basis to design and evaluate HPV prevention programs. Taking into account the heterogeneity of HPV types across and within populations this study aims to access the HPV frequency in Brazilian women. Results We identified 24 different types of HPV, including a Betapapillomavirus and a likely new type, previously reported, from 132 women positive for the virus analysed by Hybrid Capture II assay. These women were infected by a single or multiple HPV types and 142 HPV strains were identified. HR types were found in 75% of women and HPV types 16, 18, 45, 58, and 66 had the highest frequency. Significant differences in frequency of HR HPV types were found for presence of cervical lesions, and for different HPV species and women age. Conclusions Compared with previous studies in Brazil, our data indicated differences in frequency and HPV type diversity, a significant association of other HR-types but HPV16 and 18 and cervical lesions, and a trend for distinct distribution of HPV types by age. PMID:21208414

  16. Extra-prostatic Transgene-associated Neoplastic Lesions in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Berman-Booty, Lisa D.; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Bolon, Brad; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih; La Perle, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice are frequently used in prostate cancer research because their prostates consistently develop a series of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Disease progression in TRAMP mouse prostates culminates in metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinomas with neuroendocrine features. The androgen dependence of the rat probasin promoter largely limits transgene expression to the prostatic epithelium. However, extra-prostatic transgene-positive lesions have been described in TRAMP mice, including renal tubulo-acinar carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urethra, and phyllodes-like tumors of the seminal vesicle. Here we describe the histologic and immunohistochemical features of two novel extra-prostatic lesions in TRAMP mice: primary anaplastic tumors of uncertain cell origin in the midbrain, and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas of the submandibular salivary gland. These newly characterized tumors apparently result from transgene expression in extra-prostatic locations rather than representing metastatic prostate neoplasms because lesions were identified in both male and female mice as well as in male TRAMP mice without histologically apparent prostate tumors. In this paper we also calculate the incidences of the urethral carcinomas and renal tubulo-acinar carcinomas, further elucidate the biological behavior of the urethral carcinomas, and demonstrate the critical importance of complete necropsies even when evaluating presumably well characterized phenotypes in genetically engineered mice. PMID:24742627

  17. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of cystic cervical lesions: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Lenghel, Lavinia Manuela; Băciuţ, Grigore; Băciuţ, Mihaela; Rotaru, Horaţiu; Bran, Simion; Dinu, Cristian; Botar-Jid, Carolina; Gersak, Mirela; Dudea, Sorin M

    2016-06-01

    The importance of ultrasonographic (US) examination in the evaluation of the superficial structures of the head and neck region is increasing due to the widespread availability of modern equipment (such as high-frequency transducers) and modern techniques. In the case of a cervical lesion, ultrasound is usually the first imaging method used to assess the changes. First of all, US is capable of differentiating between cystic and solid structures, and based on the US appearance correlated with the age of the patient, location and growing pattern, the appropriate diagnosis is possible with a high accuracy. The aim of the present paper is to describe the US features of the most common cystic lesions encountered in the head and neck region. PMID:27239661

  18. Evaluation of autofluorescence and toluidine blue in the differentiation of oral dysplastic and neoplastic lesions from non dysplastic and neoplastic lesions: a cross-sectional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruzzi, Massimo; Lucchese, Alberta; Nardi, Gianna Maria; Lauritano, Dorina; Favia, Gianfranco; Serpico, Rosario; Grassi, Felice Roberto

    2014-07-01

    The objective was to compare toluidine blue (TB) and autofluorescence (AF) for the detection of oral dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in clinically suspicious lesions according to conventional examination. Fifty-six clinically suspicious lesions were subjected to AF and TB examination. Data were compared using two different scenarios: in the first, mild dysplasia was considered as positive, while in the second, it was considered as negative. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), accuracy, and concordance were calculated. AF sensitivity and specificity were 70.0 and 57.7%, respectively, while TB showed a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 61.5%. The sensitivity increased in the second scenario in both AF (76.5%) and TB (88.2%). The specificity decreased in AF and TB, showing the same value (51.3%). PPV was higher in TB than in AF (70.6 versus 65.6%) and similarly for NPV (72.7 versus 62.5%). In the second scenario, TB PPV was 44.1% and NPV was 90.9% AF PPV was 40.6% and NPV was 83.3%. TB showed greater accuracy than AF in the first scenario (62.5 versus 58.9%). AF and TB are both sensitive but not specific in OSCC and dysplasia diagnosis.

  19. Vimentin metaplasia in renal cortical tubules of preneoplastic, neoplastic, aging, and regenerative lesions of rats and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J. M.; Stevens, J. L.; Konishi, N.; Kurata, Y.; Uno, H.; Diwan, B. A.; Ohmori, T.

    1992-01-01

    Vimentin expression was studied immunohistochemically in renal cortical tubules of untreated male rats of various ages, rats exposed to toxins (barbital sodium, folic acid) and carcinogens (streptozotocin, N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine, barbital sodium, and in humans of various ages with or without renal epithelial tumors. Fetal, neonatal, and young adult rats did not express vimentin in renal cortical tubules. Regenerative renal tubular lesions from rats with aging nephropathy and from rats with toxic nephropathy both expressed vimentin. Mitogenic lesions induced by folic acid at 24 hours, however, were not immunoreactive for vimentin. Carcinogen-induced preneoplastic renal cortical tubular lesions in rats were most often focally immunoreactive whereas strong vimentin expression was found in almost all induced renal tumors. In kidneys of three children (younger than 2 years of age), vimentin was not found in renal cortical tubular cells except in rare individual cells in one case. Vimentin was abundant in basophilic regenerative tubules in kidneys of aged individuals, however. Most (7/10) human renal carcinomas and latent preneoplastic or neoplastic renal tubular lesions found incidentally at autopsy (2/4) showed vimentin expression. The authors suggest that the switching to vimentin expression in phenotypically normal renal cortical tubular cells in rats and humans, which do not usually express the intermediate filament protein vimentin, should be considered vimentin metaplasia. Vimentin expression is dissociated from increased cell proliferation in hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions, however. Instead the degree of dedifferentiation of the tubule cells and changes in phenotype were associated with vimentin expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1415487

  20. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Baneet; Gupta, Parikshaa; Gupta, Nalini; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year) were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA) during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4). The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears. PMID:27014363

  1. Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Cervical Lesions: Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Areas of Henan Province China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingwei; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong Hong; Cui, Lina; Wang, Huifen; Fu, Xiuhong; Song, Jiayu

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cervical lesions and evaluate risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women taking part in cervical cancer screening in rural areas of Henan province, China. Material/Methods Cervical cancer screening using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT) and gynecologic exam was conducted on 1315 women age 20–68 years in rural areas of Henan province, China. Colposcopy and biopsies were carried out for histopathologic diagnosis when indicated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical lesions. Results Among 1315 women screened, CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 1.22% (0.38% of CIN 1, 0.76% of CIN 2, and 0.08% of CIN 3). Cervical cancer prevalence was 2.66%. Multivariate analysis confirmed risk factors for cervical lesions included older age (the 21–40 age group vs. the 41–66 age group, OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03~0.57), postmenopause (OR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03~0.45), cervical inflammation (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01~0.31), and smoking (OR=6.78, 95% CI: 1.20~38.23). Conclusions Older age (41–66 years), presence of HPV infection, postmenopause, cervical inflammation, and smoking are strong risk factors for cervical lesions among women in rural areas of Henan province, China. Particular efforts should be made to provide cervical cancer screening for these women. PMID:27249229

  2. Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Cervical Lesions: Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Areas of Henan Province China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingwei; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong Hong; Cui, Lina; Wang, Huifen; Fu, Xiuhong; Song, Jiayu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cervical lesions and evaluate risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women taking part in cervical cancer screening in rural areas of Henan province, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cervical cancer screening using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT) and gynecologic exam was conducted on 1315 women age 20-68 years in rural areas of Henan province, China. Colposcopy and biopsies were carried out for histopathologic diagnosis when indicated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical lesions. RESULTS Among 1315 women screened, CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 1.22% (0.38% of CIN 1, 0.76% of CIN 2, and 0.08% of CIN 3). Cervical cancer prevalence was 2.66%. Multivariate analysis confirmed risk factors for cervical lesions included older age (the 21-40 age group vs. the 41-66 age group, OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03~0.57), postmenopause (OR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03~0.45), cervical inflammation (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01~0.31), and smoking (OR=6.78, 95% CI: 1.20~38.23). CONCLUSIONS Older age (41-66 years), presence of HPV infection, postmenopause, cervical inflammation, and smoking are strong risk factors for cervical lesions among women in rural areas of Henan province, China. Particular efforts should be made to provide cervical cancer screening for these women. PMID:27249229

  3. Endoscopic therapy with curative intent for neoplastic epithelial lesions: indications rewiew and the role of "water-jet" technology.

    PubMed

    Ciocîrlan, M; Lupu, A; Ciora, C; Fanică, Dana; Ispas, Maria; Preda, Carmen; Mănuc, M; Diculescu, M

    2013-01-01

    Neoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract have a large prevalence worldwide and in Romania. Their therapy is tailored to their TNM stage, which can be estimated using non invasive or minimally invasive imaging studies. Precursor lesions and superficial carcinomas are amenable to endoscopic therapy, providing that their endoscopic and/or endoscopic ultrasound aspect suggest a maximal extension to the submucosal layer. Polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are ablative techniques used for their curative intent treatment. Large superficial carcinomas are to be removed by ESD as "en bloc" resection is essential to post procedure histological appraisal of the curative oncology nature of their resection. ESD complications rates and duration are nowadays reduced with the aid of "water-jet" technology, by combining submucosal fluid jet injection and electro-resection in a single knife. PMID:24502069

  4. A novel stem cell associated marker identified by monoclonal antibody HESC5:3 differentiates between neoplastic lesions in follicular thyroid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Annukka; Fermér, Christian; Hagström, Jaana; Louhimo, Johanna; Mäenpää, Hanna; Siironen, Päivi; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Nilsson, Olle; Arola, Johanna; Haglund, Caj

    2015-07-01

    Follicular thyroid lesions are the bane of cytopathology. Differentiation between adenoma and carcinoma is impossible, and often these neoplasms are indistinguishable even from uninodular goitre. In other cancers as well, a theory of stem cells as the origin of cancer has been discussed in thyroid carcinogenesis. We aimed to examine a novel stem cell associated marker identified by monoclonal antibody HESC5:3 in follicular lesions in an attempt to find a marker for differential diagnosis in thyroid cytopathology. HESC5:3 was raised against and is specific for undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. The epitope of this novel antibody is to be defined. Immunohistochemical expression of HESC5:3 was examined in clinical material comprised of follicular neoplasms (83 adenomas, 43 carcinomas) and non-neoplastic lesions (41 goitrous, 22 hyperplastic, 23 normal tissue specimens). Staining differed significantly between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Nuclear staining was increased in non-neoplastic cells, whereas in neoplastic cells expression was mainly cytoplasmic. There was no difference between benign and malignant lesions, suggesting a role in early tumourigenesis. In conclusion, the HESC5:3 epitope may be of benefit as a neoplasia marker in distinguishing between uninodular goitre and neoplasia. Characterization of the epitope would increase the interest in this promising new stem cell associated marker. PMID:25960045

  5. Restoration of Noncarious Cervical Lesions: When, Why, and How

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Cesar dos Reis; Gonzalez, Mariana Rodrigues; Prado, Natália Aráujo Silva; de Miranda, Marianna Sorozini Ferreira; Macêdo, Mariana de Andrade; Fernandes, Bárbara Monteiro Pessôa

    2012-01-01

    At this time, restoration of noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) is a common occurrence in clinics nowadays. Some reasons for this are the growth of the elderly population, a smaller rate of tooth loss, and possibly the increase of some etiologic factors. These factors include inadequate brushing techniques in gingival recession cases, corrosive food and drink consumption, and occlusal stress concentrating factors (occlusal interferences, premature contacts, habits of bruxism, and clenching). Unfortunately, Class V restorations also represent one of the less durable types of restorations and have a high index of loss of retention, marginal excess, and secondary caries. Some causes for these problems include difficulties in isolation, insertion, contouring, and finishing and polishing procedures. This work aims to help dentists in choosing the best treatment strategy, which necessarily involves steps of problem identification, diagnosis, etiological factor removal or treatment, and, if necessary, restoration. Finally, appropriate restorative techniques are suggested for each situation. PMID:22216032

  6. Biomechanics of cervical tooth region and noncarious cervical lesions of different morphology; three-dimensional finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jakupović, Selma; Anić, Ivica; Ajanović, Muhamed; Korać, Samra; Konjhodžić, Alma; Džanković, Aida; Vuković, Amra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims to investigate the influence of presence and shape of cervical lesions on biomechanical behavior of mandibular first premolar, subjected to two types of occlusal loading using three-dimensional (3D) finite element method (FEM). Materials and Methods: 3D models of the mandibular premolar are created from a micro computed tomography X-ray image: model of sound mandibular premolar, model with the wedge-shaped cervical lesion (V lesion), and model with saucer-shaped cervical lesion (U lesion). By FEM, straining of the tooth tissues under functional and nonfunctional occlusal loading of 200 (N) is analyzed. For the analysis, the following software was used: CTAn program 1.10 and ANSYS Workbench (version 14.0). The results are presented in von Mises stress. Results: Values of calculated stress in all tooth structures are higher under nonfunctional occlusal loading, while the functional loading is resulted in homogeneous stress distribution. Nonfunctional load in the cervical area of sound tooth model as well as in the sub-superficial layer of the enamel resulted with a significant stress (over 50 [MPa]). The highest stress concentration on models with lesions is noticed on the apex of the V-shaped lesion, while stress in saucer U lesion is significantly lower and distributed over wider area. Conclusion: The type of the occlusal teeth loading has the biggest influence on cervical stress intensity. Geometric shape of the existing lesion is very important in the distribution of internal stress. Compared to the U-shaped lesions, V-shaped lesions show significantly higher stress concentrations under load. Exposure to stress would lead to its progression. PMID:27403064

  7. Extra-prostatic transgene-associated neoplastic lesions in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice.

    PubMed

    Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Bolon, Brad; Oglesbee, Michael J; Clinton, Steven K; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih; La Perle, Krista M D

    2015-02-01

    Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice are frequently used in prostate cancer research because their prostates consistently develop a series of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Disease progression in TRAMP mouse prostates culminates in metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinomas with neuroendocrine features. The androgen dependence of the rat probasin promoter largely limits transgene expression to the prostatic epithelium. However, extra-prostatic transgene-positive lesions have been described in TRAMP mice, including renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urethra, and phyllodes-like tumors of the seminal vesicle. Here, we describe the histologic and immunohistochemical features of 2 novel extra-prostatic lesions in TRAMP mice: primary anaplastic tumors of uncertain cell origin in the midbrain and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas of the submandibular salivary gland. These newly characterized tumors apparently result from transgene expression in extra-prostatic locations rather than representing metastatic prostate neoplasms because lesions were identified in both male and female mice and in male TRAMP mice without histologically apparent prostate tumors. In this article, we also calculate the incidences of the urethral carcinomas and renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, further elucidate the biological behavior of the urethral carcinomas, and demonstrate the critical importance of complete necropsies even when evaluating presumably well characterized phenotypes in genetically engineered mice. PMID:24742627

  8. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia in a complex neoplastic lesion involving anogenital mammary-like glands.

    PubMed

    Vazmitel, Marina; Pavlovsky, Michal; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2009-10-01

    Anogenital mammary-like glands (AMLG) may give rise to various pathologic lesions identical to those known in mammary pathology. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), a relatively frequent hormonal change associated with different benign and malignant processes in the breast, was only once mentioned in the literature concerning the pathology of AMLG. We present here a new case of PASH in a lesion of AMLG. The present case of PASH is remarkable because of its occurrence within a complex lesion evidencing the changes identical to or reminiscent of blunt duct adenosis, fibroadenoma and hidradenoma papilliferum. PMID:19508499

  9. JAM3 methylation status as a biomarker for diagnosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the cervix

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Aijun; Zhang, Qing; Kong, Xiangnan; Jia, Lin; Yang, Ziyan; Meng, Lihua; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao; Qiao, Yunbo; Lu, Nan; Yang, Qifeng; Shen, Keng; Kong, Beihua

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is clinically relevant to important tumorigenic mechanisms. This study evaluated the methylation status of candidate genes in cervical neoplasia and determined their diagnostic performance in clinical practice. Cervical cancer and normal cervix tissue was used to select the top 5 discriminating loci among 27 loci in 4 genes (CCNA1, CADM1, DAPK1, JAM3), and one locus of JAM3 (region M4) was identified and confirmed with 267 and 224 cervical scrapings from 2 independent colposcopy referral studies. For patients with atypical squamous cells of unknown significance and those with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, with JAM3-M4 compared to a triage marker of hrHPV testing, the specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 CIN3 and cancer cases (CIN3+) / no neoplasia and CIN1 (CIN1−) was significantly increased, from 21.88 to 81.82 and 15.38 to 85.18, respectively. The corresponding positive predictive value (PPV) was increased from 26.47 to 57.14 and 18.52 to 63.64, respectively. For hrHPV-positive patients, compared to a triage marker of cytology testing, JAM3-M4 showed increased specificity and PPV, from 30.67 to 87.65 and 38.82 to 82.14, respectively. We assessed whether JAM3-M4 could distinguish productive from transforming CIN2; the coincidence rate of JAM3-M4 and P16 was as high as 60.5%. PMID:26517242

  10. HER2 Status in Premalignant, Early, and Advanced Neoplastic Lesions of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Ieni, A.; Barresi, V.; Rigoli, L.; Caruso, R. A.; Tuccari, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. HER2 expression in gastric cancer (GC) has received attention as a potential target for therapy with Trastuzumab. We reviewed the current knowledge on HER2 status in premalignant gastric lesions and in early (EGC) and advanced (AGC) GC to discuss the possible pathogenetic and prognostic roles of HER2 overexpression in GC. Results. HER2 overexpression was documented in gastric low-grade (LG) and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-IEN), with higher frequency in gastric type dysplasia. HER2 overexpression was significantly associated with disease recurrence and poor prognosis in EGC representing an independent risk factor for lymph node metastases. HER2 overexpression was more frequent in AGC characterized by high grade, advanced stage, and high Ki-67 labeling index. The discordance in HER2 status was evidenced between primitive GC and synchronous or metachronous metastases. Conclusions. HER2 overexpression in premalignant gastric lesions suggests its potential involvement in the early steps of gastric carcinogenesis. The assessment of HER2 status in EGC may be helpful for the identification of patients who are at low risk for developing nodal metastases. Finally, the possible discordance in HER2 status between primary GC and its synchronous metastases support routine assessment of HER2 both in the primary GC and in its metastatic lesions. PMID:26494937

  11. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes Among Women With High-Grade Cervical Lesions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meizhu; Xu, Qiuxiang; Li, Hongyan; Gao, Huiqiao; Bie, Yachun; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) genotypes among Han women with high-grade cervical lesions in Beijing, China.Cervical cell specimens from patients with histopathologically confirmed cervical lesions at 7 hospitals in Beijing were examined with a validated HPV kit for 13 hr-HPV genotypes during the study period. The patients were divided into a low-grade cervical lesions group (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, CIN1) and a high-grade cervical lesions group (CIN2+, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, CIN2; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, CIN3; squamous cervical cancer, SCC; and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, ACC) based on the histopathology results.A total of 2817 eligible patients were enrolled, including 610 cases identified as CIN1 and 2207 as CIN2+. The hr-HPV positive rates in the CIN1 and CIN2+ groups were 78.2% (477/610) and 93.3% (2060/2207), respectively. The most frequently detected genotypes were HPV16, 58, 52 and18 in the CIN1 group and HPV16, 58, 33, and 52 in the CIN2+ group, in descending order of prevalence. In addition, the prevalence of HPV18 among the patients with ACC was 28.6% (14/49), significantly >7.2% (54/752) prevalence among the SCC patients (P < 0.001). Additionally, significantly more women in the CIN2+ group had multiple infections compared with those in the CIN1 group (38.1% and 24.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). However, as the cervical lesion grade increased, the prevalence of multiple hr-HPV infections gradually deceased to 44.2% in the CIN2 patients, 36.7% in the CIN3 patients, and 35.3% in the cervical cancer (CC) patients, which included SCC and ACC patients. In cases of multiple hr-HPV infections in the CIN2+ group, double infections accounted for ∼76.6%, and HPV16+58, HPV16+52, and HPV16+18 were the most common combinations, in descending order. The most frequent combination for triple infections was HPV16+58+31, with

  12. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and promoter methylation in cervical oncogenic lesions and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Botezatu, Anca; Socolov, Demetra; Iancu, Iulia V; Huica, Irina; Plesa, Adriana; Ungureanu, Carmen; Anton, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and MTHFR methylation pattern in cervical lesions development among women from Romania, a country with high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical infections. To achieve this goal, blood samples and cervical cytology specimens (n = 77)/tumour tissue specimens (n = 23) were investigated. As control, blood and negative cytological smears (n = 50) were used. A statistically significant association was found between T allele of C677T polymorphism and cervical lesions, heterozygote women presenting a threefold increased risk (normal/cervical lesions and tumours: wild homozygote 34/41 (0.68/0.41), heterozygote 14/51 (0.28/0.51), mutant homozygote 2/8 (0.04/0.08); OR = 3.081, P = 0.0035). Using χ square test for the control group, the HPV-negative and HPV-positive patients with cervix lesions, a significant correlation between viral infection and T allele of C677T polymorphism (P = 0.0287) was found. The MTHFR promoter was methylated in all HGSIL and tumour samples, significant differences being noted between HPV-positive samples, control group and cases of cervical dysplastic lesions without HPV DNA (P < 0. 0001) and between samples from patients with high-risk (hr)HPV versus low-risk (lr)HPV (P = 0.0026). No correlations between polymorphisms and methylation were observed. In Romania, individuals carrying T allele are susceptible for cervical lesions. MTHFR promoter methylation is associated with cervical severity lesions and with hrHPV. PMID:23444906

  13. Distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer in Tanzanian women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cancers (ICC). Approximately 80% of ICC cases are diagnosed in under-developed countries. Vaccine development relies on knowledge of HPV genotypes characteristic of LSIL, HSIL and cancer; however, these genotypes remain poorly characterized in many African countries. To contribute to the characterization of HPV genotypes in Northeastern Tanzania, we recruited 215 women from the Reproductive Health Clinic at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre. Cervical scrapes and biopsies were obtained for cytology and HPV DNA detection. Results 79 out of 215 (36.7%) enrolled participants tested positive for HPV DNA, with a large proportion being multiple infections (74%). The prevalence of HPV infection increased with lesion grade (14% in controls, 67% in CIN1 cases and 88% in CIN2-3). Among ICC cases, 89% had detectable HPV. Overall, 31 HPV genotypes were detected; the three most common HPV genotypes among ICC were HPV16, 35 and 45. In addition to these genotypes, co-infection with HPV18, 31, 33, 52, 58, 68 and 82 was found in 91% of ICC. Among women with CIN2-3, HPV53, 58 and 84/83 were the most common. HPV35, 45, 53/58/59 were the most common among CIN1 cases. Conclusions In women with no evidence of cytological abnormalities, the most prevalent genotypes were HPV58 with HPV16, 35, 52, 66 and 73 occurring equally. Although numerical constraints limit inference, findings that 91% of ICC harbor only a small number of HPV genotypes suggests that prevention efforts including vaccine development or adjuvant screening should focus on these genotypes. PMID:22081870

  14. Combined deletion of Vhl, Trp53 and Kif3a causes cystic and neoplastic renal lesions.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Anna; Lehmann, Holger; Wild, Peter J; Frew, Ian J

    2016-07-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene is bi-allelically inactivated in the majority of cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC); however, Vhl knockout mouse models do not recapitulate human ccRCC, implying that additional mutations are required for tumour formation. Mutational inactivation of VHL sensitises renal epithelial cells to lose the primary cilium in response to other mutations or extracellular stimuli. Loss of cilia is believed to represent a second hit in VHL mutant cells that causes the development of cystic lesions that, in some cases, can progress to ccRCC. Supporting this idea, genetic ablation of the primary cilium by deletion of the kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a) gene cooperates with loss of Vhl to accelerate cyst formation in mouse kidneys. Additionally, aged Vhl/Trp53 double-mutant mice develop renal cysts and tumours at a relatively low incidence, suggesting that there is a genetic cooperation between VHL and TP53 mutation in the development of ccRCC. Here we generated renal epithelium-specific Kif3a/Trp53 and Vhl/Kif3a/Trp53 mutant mice to investigate whether primary cilium deletion would accelerate the development of cystic precursor lesions or cause their progression to ccRCC. Longitudinal microcomputed tomography (μCT) imaging and histopathological analyses revealed an increased rate of cyst formation, increased proportion of cysts with proliferating cells, higher frequency of atypical cysts as well as the development of neoplasms in Vhl/Kif3a/Trp53 mutant kidneys compared to Kif3a/Trp53 or Vhl/Kif3a mutant kidneys. These findings demonstrate that primary cilium loss, in addition to Vhl and Trp53 losses, promotes the transition towards malignancy and provide further evidence that the primary cilium functions as a tumour suppressor organelle in the kidney. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27126173

  15. Analysis of MHC class I and II expression in relation to presence of HPV genotypes in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Cromme, F. V.; Meijer, C. J.; Snijders, P. J.; Uyterlinde, A.; Kenemans, P.; Helmerhorst, T.; Stern, P. L.; van den Brule, A. J.; Walboomers, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I to III lesions (n = 94) and squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix (n = 27) were analysed for MHC class I and II expression and presence of HPV genotypes. MHC class I and II expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and HPV typing was performed by general primer- and type-specific primer mediated PCR (GP/TS PCR). Both techniques were performed on paraffin embedded tissue sections. Results show disturbed MHC class I heavy chain expression in CIN I to CIN III, as well as in cervical carcinomas. Upregulated MHC class II expression on dysplastic epithelial cells was also found in the different CIN groups and carcinomas. Prevalence of HPV genotypes increased with the severity of the lesion, mainly due to the contribution of the HPV types 16 and 18. No correlation could be established between the presence of specific HPV genotypes and any MHC expression pattern in the different CIN groups or cervical carcinomas. In some cases these data were confirmed by RNA in situ hybridisation showing HPV 16 E7 transcripts in the same dysplastic/neoplastic cells from which MHC status was determined. The results indicate that local differences may exist in the type of cellular immune response to HPV induced lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8390286

  16. Endoscopic Papillectomy into the Treatment of Neoplastic Lesions of Vater Papilla

    PubMed Central

    Ghidirim, G.; Mişin, I.; Istrate, V.; Cazacu, S.

    2009-01-01

    Adenomas of the duodenal papilla are rare. The frequency of malignant adenomas is 15-30%. Villous adenoma is a premalignant lesion with the highest rate of transformation. Options for surgical treatment include endoscopic and ablation resection, transduodenal ampullectomy, duodeno-pancreatectomy. Aim: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillectomy for ampullary adenomas. Material and method: 12 patients were selected (F:M, 5:7, age range 37 - 68 years) with ampullary adenoma, treated by endoscopic papillectomy. Biliary sphincterotomy was performed in 6 cases; and pancreatic sphincterotomy was performed in 3 cases. Biliary stenting was performed in 2 cases; pancreatic stent was placed in 11 cases. Results: En bloc resection was performed in 8 cases, and piecemeal resection in 4 cases. Complete resection R0 was noted in 10 cases. Pathology examination has show: tubulo-villous adenoma (5 patients); villous adenoma (4 patients), tubular adenoma (2 cases), adenocarcinoma (one case). Complications were immediate: bleeding (2 cases) and pancreatitis (1 case). Follow-up endoscopy reveals no ductal stenosis or recurrence. Conclusion: Endoscopic papillectomy is a safe and well-tolerated alternative to surgical treatment of ampullary adenoma. PMID:24778815

  17. Expression of the HPV18E2 gene in cervical cancer and premalignant lesions and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Mou, Ling; Wu, Bin; Hu, Ya; Lan, Ying; Lv, Feng-Lin

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to observe the expression of the HPV18E2 gene in cervical cancer and premalignant lesions and to investigate its clinical significance. The expression of the HPV18E2 gene in the cervical tissues obtained from 38 women with cervical lesions was detected using the RT-PCR method. The pathological changes were graded based on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) criteria. The HPV18E2 gene was expressed mainly in cervical premalignant lesions, 60 % in Grade I CIN, 33.3 % in Grade II CIN, and 28.6 % in Grade III CIN. No expression was detected in cervical cancer and chronic cervical inflammation. This study suggests that peptides vaccine targeting the HPV18E2 protein may disrupt and prohibit the progress of diseases induced by HPV 18 infection (i.e., CIN and cervical cancer). PMID:24777814

  18. Increased cycling cell numbers and stem cell associated proteins as potential biomarkers for high grade human papillomavirus+ve pre-neoplastic cervical disease.

    PubMed

    Canham, Maurice; Charsou, Chara; Stewart, June; Moncur, Sharon; Hoodless, Laura; Bhatia, Ramya; Cong, Duanduan; Cubie, Heather; Busby-Earle, Camille; Williams, Alistair; McLoughlin, Victoria; Campbell, John D M; Cuschieri, Kate; Howie, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    High risk (oncogenic) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer. Infections are common but most clear naturally. Persistent infection can progress to cancer. Pre-neoplastic disease (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia/CIN) is classified by histology (CIN1-3) according to severity. Cervical abnormalities are screened for by cytology and/or detection of high risk HPV but both methods are imperfect for prediction of which women need treatment. There is a need to understand the host virus interactions that lead to different disease outcomes and to develop biomarker tests for accurate triage of infected women. As cancer is increasingly presumed to develop from proliferative, tumour initiating, cancer stem cells (CSCs), and as other oncogenic viruses induce stem cell associated gene expression, we evaluated whether presence of mRNA (detected by qRT-PCR) or proteins (detected by flow cytometry and antibody based proteomic microarray) from stem cell associated genes and/or increased cell proliferation (detected by flow cytometry) could be detected in well-characterised, routinely collected cervical samples from high risk HPV+ve women. Both cytology and histology results were available for most samples with moderate to high grade abnormality. We found that stem cell associated proteins including human chorionic gonadotropin, the oncogene TP63 and the transcription factor SOX2 were upregulated in samples from women with CIN3 and that the stem cell related, cell surface, protein podocalyxin was detectable on cells in samples from a subset of women with CIN3. SOX2, TP63 and human gonadotrophin mRNAs were upregulated in high grade disease. Immunohistochemistry showed that SOX2 and TP63 proteins clearly delineated tumour cells in invasive squamous cervical cancer. Samples from women with CIN3 showed increased proliferating cells. We believe that these markers may be of use to develop triage tests for women with high grade cervical abnormality to distinguish

  19. Human papillomavirus infection in couples with female low-grade intraepithelial cervical lesion.

    PubMed

    Simon, Philippe; Roumeguere, Thierry; Christophe Noël, Jean

    2010-11-01

    Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are frequently found during cervical cancer screening. Usually they are associated with a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Does the high-transmission rate of HPV infection to the male partner represent a clinical risk for him? Are preventive measures to be taken to prevent the occurrence of male diseases? More than 80% of all LSIL are associated with HPV infections. The prevalence of HPV infection in males can range up to 40%, with 60% of the male partners of LSIL female patients presenting with penile flat lesions. The spontaneous cure rate for male infections is very high (90% at 5 years) but negative consequences in females (cervical high-grade lesion and cervical cancer) are frequent. Their male counterparts are far rarer but in some patients can require deleterious treatment. Transmission prevention by the use of condoms and circumcision is discussed. The effectiveness of HPV vaccination in this situation has not been validated. PMID:20646823

  20. An alternative hypothesis from veterinary science for the pathogenesis of noncarious cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J; Johnston, N; Wiggs, R B; Hall, A F

    2000-01-01

    An alternative hypothesis to abrasion and erosion for the pathogenesis of noncarious cervical lesions was put forward in 1984; the so-called occlusal theory suggested that tensile stresses from occlusal overload could be involved in the pathogenesis of noncarious cervical lesions and that bending stresses applied to teeth could cause disruption of the surface enamel, resulting in increased susceptibility to dissolution and abrasion at the affected sites and in the development of wedge-shaped lesions. This theory has gained increased acceptance in recent years, although absolute scientific evidence has been scant. These lesions also occur in animals, in particular, the domestic cat, in which they are called feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions. A variety of theories about pathogenesis of these lesions have been put forward, but there is some evidence that occlusal overload may be a contributory factor in the development of an inflammatory response in the periodontal membrane and the presence of enzymes associated with resorption in the gingival crevice. Further investigation may help define a common etiology between the pathogenesis of feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions and noncarious cervical lesions. PMID:11203969

  1. Periodontal and Restorative Treatment of Gingival Recession Associated with Non-Carious Cervical Lesions: Case Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Analice Giovani; Teixeira, Daniela Navarro Ribeiro; Soares, Michelle Pereira Costa Mundim; Gonzaga, Ramon Corrêa de Queiroz; Fernandes-Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Soares, Paulo Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    The association between the presence of gingival recession and non-carious cervical lesions is a common finding in dentistry. These diseases have multifactorial etiology and the treatment should be multidisciplinary. Although traditionally the majority of professionals treat non-carious cervical lesions only with conventional restorative procedures, in most cases a combination of periodontal and restorative treatments provides the best functional and esthetic results. Thus, the objective of this case report was to present a new option for treatment, which consists of a subepithelial connective tissue graft associated with a coronally advanced flap placed on dentin and non-carious cervical lesions restored with lithium disilicate partial veneers. A patient complaining about the esthetic aspects of her teeth and cervical dentin hypersensitivity was submitted to occlusal adjustments and daily diet analysis in order to manage etiologic factors. Experienced operators then performed restorative and surgical treatments. Periodontal clinical attachment level (probing depth + gingival margin), bleeding on probing, plaque index, and the integrity of the restorations were observed. During the monitoring period, the treatment was effective, with good functional and esthetic results. The hypersensitivity disappeared, and neither inflammatory characteristics in gingival tissue nor failures in restorations were noted. It might be concluded that treatment with a combination of techniques can be effective and predictable for patients with gingival recession and non-carious cervical lesions that may or may not require restorative procedures under controlled conditions. PMID:26764967

  2. Confocal fluorescence microscopy for detection of cervical preneoplastic lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhzadeh, Fahime; Ward, Rabab K.; Carraro, Anita; Chen, Zhaoyang; van Niekerk, Dirk; MacAulay, Calum; Follen, Michele; Lane, Pierre; Guillaud, Martial

    2015-03-01

    We examined and established the potential of ex-vivo confocal fluorescence microscopy for differentiating between normal cervical tissue, low grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN1), and high grade CIN (CIN2 and CIN3). Our objectives were to i) use Quantitative Tissue Phenotype (QTP) analysis to quantify nuclear and cellular morphology and tissue architecture in confocal microscopic images of fresh cervical biopsies and ii) determine the accuracy of high grade CIN detection via confocal microscopy. Cervical biopsy specimens of colposcopically normal and abnormal tissues obtained from 15 patients were evaluated by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Confocal images were analyzed and about 200 morphological and architectural features were calculated at the nuclear, cellular, and tissue level. For the purpose of this study, we used four features to delineate disease grade including nuclear size, cell density, estimated nuclear-cytoplasmic (ENC) ratio, and the average of three nearest Delaunay neighbors distance (3NDND). Our preliminary results showed ENC ratio and 3NDND correlated well with histopathological diagnosis. The Spearman correlation coefficient between each of these two features and the histopathological diagnosis was higher than the correlation coefficient between colposcopic appearance and histopathological diagnosis. Sensitivity and specificity of ENC ratio for detecting high grade CIN were both equal to 100%. QTP analysis of fluorescence confocal images shows the potential to discriminate high grade CIN from low grade CIN and normal tissues. This approach could be used to help clinicians identify HGSILs in clinical settings.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Makuza, Jean Damascène; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Pace, Lydia Eleanor; Ntaganira, Joseph; Riedel, David James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer prevalence in Rwanda has not been well-described. Visual inspection with acetic acid or Lugol solution has been shown to be effective for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings. The aim of the study is to understand the prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre- cancerous lesions among Rwandan women between 30 and 50 old undergoing screening. Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was done in 3 districts of Rwanda from October 2010 to June 2013. Women aged 30 to 50 years screened for cervical cancer by trained doctors, nurses and midwives. Prevalence of pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions was determined. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess risk factors associated with cervical cancer. Results The prevalence of pre-cancer and invasive cervical cancer was 5.9% (95% CI 4.5, 7.5) and 1.7% (95% CI 0.9, 2.5), respectively. Risk factors associated with cervical cancer in multivariate analysis included initiation of sexual activity at less than 20 years (OR=1.75; 95% CI=(1.01, 3.03); being unmarried (single, divorced and widowed) (OR=3.29; 95% CI=( 1.26, 8.60)); Older age of participants (OR= 0.52; 95% CI= (0.28, 0.97)), older age at the first pregnancy (OR=2.10; 95% CI=(1.20, 3.67) and higher number of children born (OR=0.42; 95%CI =(0.23, 0.76)) were protective. Conclusion Cervical cancer continues to be a public health problem in Rwanda, but screening using VIA is practical and feasible even in rural settings. PMID:26664527

  4. Morphological, Histochemical, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Characterization of Tumors and Dysplastic and Non-Neoplastic Lesions Arising in BK Virus/tat Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Altavilla, Giuseppe; Trabanelli, Cecilia; Merlin, Michela; Caputo, Antonella; Lanfredi, Massimo; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Corallini, Alfredo

    1999-01-01

    To study the role in AIDS pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein, a transactivator of viral and cellular genes, we generated transgenic mice with a recombinant DNA containing BK virus (BKV) early region and the HIV-1 tat gene, directed by its own promoter-enhancer. DNA hybridization revealed that the transgene is stably maintained in all organs of transgenic mice as a tandem insertion in a number of copies ranging from 5 to 20 per cell. In addition, tat and BKV RNA were expressed in all tissues. Transgenic mice developed three types of lesions: 1) tumors, 2) hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions, and 3) non-neoplastic lesions. Tumors of different histotypes, such as lymphomas, adenocarcinomas of skin glands, leiomyosarcomas, skin squamous cell carcinomas, hepatomas, hepatocarcinomas, and cavernous liver hemangiomas, developed in 29% of transgenic animals. The majority of tumors were malignant, invasive, and producing metastases. Conversely, tumors of only two histotypes (lymphomas and adenocarcinomas of skin glands) appeared in control mice. Hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions were more frequent in transgenic than in control mice and involved the skin or its adnexes, the liver and the rectum, indicating multiple targets for the activity of the transgene. Pyelonephritis, frequently complicated with hydronephrosis, inflammatory eye lesions, and amyloid depositions represented the most frequent non-neoplastic lesions detected in transgenic mice. Many of the pathological findings observed in this animal model are comparable to similar lesions appearing in AIDS patients, suggesting a relevant role for Tat in the pathogenesis of such lesions during the course of AIDS. PMID:10233861

  5. Viral DNA load of high-risk human papilloma virus is closely associated with the grade of cervical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guqun; Cheng, Jingxin; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    This study is to explore the correlation between the viral load of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and the degree of cervical lesions, as well as the follow-up monitoring role of high-risk HPV measurements in the treatment of patients with cervical lesions. Hybrid capture-2 method was used to measure the amount of high-risk HPV load of 361 patients who were enrolled from January 2009 to December 2010 at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, including 76 cases of cervical squamous carcinoma, 119 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 166 cases of cervicitis. The correlation between the viral load of high-risk HPV and the degree of cervical lesions was analyzed using correlation analysis. Patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical squamous carcinoma were followed up until December 2013, with the follow-up time being 37-60 months. Statistically significant differences in the high-risk HPV load existed between cervicitis group, CIN group and cervical squamous carcinoma group (P = 0.000). In addition, the viral load was increased with the increase of the severity of cervical lesions, showing a positive correlation (r = 0.436, P = 0.000). During the follow-up, 6 cases of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, 3 cases of recurrence CIN and 1 case of vaginal squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva were found, which were shown to relate with the continuing high-risk HPV infection in vagina. Viral load of high-risk HPV were positively correlated with the severity of cervical lesions, playing an important role in the monitoring of patients with cervical lesions after treatment. PMID:25664114

  6. Stress-induced cervical lesions: review of advances in the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Lee, W C; Eakle, W S

    1996-05-01

    The accumulation of experimental and clinical evidence during the past decade has significantly contributed to the understanding of the role of occlusally generated tensile stress in the etiology of certain noncarious cervical lesions of teeth. More important, this knowledge has led to the understanding of the reasons why traditional restorative treatments of these stress-induced cervical lesions fail. The case of failure can be attributed to the occlusally generated stresses that are concentrated at the cervical region and result in debonding, leakage, retention failure, and, ultimately, restorative failure. With the new understanding, restorative approaches that combine chemical adhesion and restorative materials of appropriate elastic properties show promise of long-term success. PMID:8709012

  7. Serpine2/PN-1 Is Required for Proliferative Expansion of Pre-Neoplastic Lesions and Malignant Progression to Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, Catherine; Kool, Marcel; Schwarzentruber-Schauerte, Alexandra; Méreau, Hélène; Cabuy, Erik; Lobrinus, Johannes A.; Pfister, Stefan; Zuniga, Aimée; Frank, Stephan; Zeller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Background Medulloblastomas are malignant childhood brain tumors that arise due to the aberrant activity of developmental pathways during postnatal cerebellar development and in adult humans. Transcriptome analysis has identified four major medulloblastoma subgroups. One of them, the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup, is caused by aberrant Hedgehog signal transduction due to mutations in the Patched1 (PTCH1) receptor or downstream effectors. Mice carrying a Patched-1 null allele (Ptch1∆/+) are a good model to study the alterations underlying medulloblastoma development as a consequence of aberrant Hedgehog pathway activity. Results Transcriptome analysis of human medulloblastomas shows that SERPINE2, also called Protease Nexin-1 (PN-1) is overexpressed in most medulloblastomas, in particular in the SHH and WNT subgroups. As siRNA-mediated lowering of SERPINE2/PN-1 in human medulloblastoma DAOY cells reduces cell proliferation, we analyzed its potential involvement in medulloblastoma development using the Ptch1∆/+ mouse model. In Ptch1∆/+ mice, medulloblastomas arise as a consequence of aberrant Hedgehog pathway activity. Genetic reduction of Serpine2/Pn-1 interferes with medulloblastoma development in Ptch1∆/+ mice, as ~60% of the pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs) fail to develop into medulloblastomas and remain as small cerebellar nodules. In particular the transcription factor Atoh1, whose expression is essential for development of SHH subgroup medulloblastomas is lost. Comparative molecular analysis reveals the distinct nature of the PNLs in young Ptch1∆/+Pn-1Δ/+ mice. The remaining wild-type Ptch1 allele escapes transcriptional silencing in most cases and the aberrant Hedgehog pathway activity is normalized. Furthermore, cell proliferation and the expression of the cell-cycle regulators Mycn and Cdk6 are significantly reduced in PNLs of Ptch1∆/+Pn-1Δ/+ mice. Conclusions Our analysis provides genetic evidence that aberrant Serpine2/Pn-1 is required for

  8. [Natural history of precursor lesions of cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Tranbaloc, P

    2008-06-01

    Precursor lesions of invasive cancer of uterine cervix begin at the squamocolumnar junction. On this zone in permanent transformation, human papillomavirus (HPV) gives condylomatous lesions, pure or associated with neoplasic transformation of the epithelium. For 50 years, various histological classifications have been proposed. First, four groups have been designed: light, moderate, severe dysplasia and in situ carcinoma. Secondly, Richart proposed the cervix intraepithelial neoplasia classification (CIN) with three grades (1 to 3) according to their severity. Progression from CIN 1 to CIN 3 and invasive carcinoma is admitted and is consistent with the concept of lesional continuum. However, because of the elevated rate of spontaneous regression of CIN 1, it is probably a lesion of very low potential aggressivity and its role as a precursor is uncertain. Now two groups of different evolutivity are currently considered: low grade and high grade lesions. The last one's, at the opposite of the first, are monoclonal, have major epithelial abnormalities with sometimes abnormal mitoses and are frequently aneuploid. Aggressivity depends on the persistence of HR HPV more than on progressive morphologic transformation. By integrating in-host genoma, it induces modifications on cellular cycle proteins. Revelation by immunohistochemistry brings help to diagnosis of high grade lesions when traditional morphology is ambiguous. PMID:18539071

  9. A combined approach to non-carious cervical lesions associated with gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Lee, HyeJin; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) with gingival recession require specific consideration on both aspects of hard and soft tissue lesion. In the restorative aspect, careful finishing and polishing of the restorations prior to mucogingival surgery is the critical factor contributing to success. Regarding surgery, assessment of the configuration of the lesion and the choice of surgical technique are important factors. The precise diagnosis and the choice of the proper treatment procedure should be made on the basis of both restorative and surgical considerations to ensure the successful treatment of NCCLs. PMID:27508164

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Polymorphisms and Susceptibility for Cervical Lesions: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojiao; Yang, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to cervical lesions was unclear. This study was designed to investigate their precise association using a large-scale meta-analysis. Methods The previous 16 studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and CBM databases. The crude odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the association between the MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to the cervical lesions. The subgroup analyses were made on the following: pathological history, geographic region, ethnicity, source of controls and source of DNA for genotyping. Results Neither of the polymorphisms had a significant association with the susceptibility to the cervical lesions in all genetic models. Similar results were found in the subgroup analyses. No association was found between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the cervical lesions in the Asia or the America populations though a significant inverse association was found in the Europe population (additive model: P = 0.006, OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72–0.95; CT vs. CC: P = 0.05, OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69–1.00; TT vs. CC: P = 0.05, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.53–1.00). Interestingly, women with the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms had a marginally increased susceptibility to invasive cancer (ICC) when compared with no carriers but no statistically significant difference in the dominant model (P = 0.06, OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.99–1.49) and AC vs. AA (P = 0.09, OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.97–1.51). Conclusions The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms may not increase the susceptibility to cervical lesions. However, the meta-analysis reveals a negative association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and the cervical lesions, especially in the European populations. The marginal association between the MTHFR A1298C

  11. Observation of a secondary compressive lesion after treatment of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Wilson, E R; Aron, D N; Roberts, R E

    1994-11-01

    In a 7-year-old Doberman Pinscher with an atactic gait, neurologic examination revealed tetraparesis, conscious proprioceptive deficits, and rigid ventral flexion of the neck. Radiography and myelography revealed a ventral, extradural, dynamic compressive lesion between C6 and C7. Distraction decompression was performed, using cancellous bone screws and methylmethacrylate. After initial improvement, clinical signs recurred 2 weeks after surgery and progressed until the dog was euthanatized 6 weeks after surgery. Postmortem myelography revealed an extradural compressive lesion adjacent to the implant, between C5 and C6. Secondary compressive lesions induced by surgical or biomechanical alterations of the cervical portion of the spine may be complications of treatment of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. PMID:7698941

  12. CEACAM1 in Cervical Cancer and Precursor Lesions: Association With Human Papillomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Albarran-Somoza, Benibelks; Franco-Topete, Ramon; Delgado-Rizo, Vidal; Cerda-Camacho, Felipe; Acosta-Jimenez, Lourdes; Lopez-Botet, Miguel; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is an adhesion molecule expressed in a wide variety of tissues including epithelial cells, leukocytes, and tumors that may establish both homotypic and heterotypic interactions. The aim of this work was to study the protein expression pattern of CEACAM1 in cervical cancer and precursor lesions in the context of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze CEACAM1 expression in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical tissues from 15 healthy women, 15 patients with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), 15 patients with high-grade SIL, and 15 patients with squamous carcinomas. HPV types were identified by PCR. CEACAM1 was either undetectable (13/15) or low (2/15) in normal cervical tissues. By contrast, CEACAM1 expression was increased in high-grade SIL (10 samples staining intermediate/high and 4 samples staining low) as compared with low-grade SIL with undetectable (n=3) or low (n= 12) expression. CEACAM1 expression was undetectable or low in cervical carcinoma. Our results suggest that CEACAM1 may be an interesting progression marker in SIL and cervical cancer, in particular due to reported immunoregulatory properties. PMID:16924126

  13. Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Iranian Women According to the Severity of the Cervical Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-Vaziri, Mostafa; Sadeghi, Farzin; Hashemi, Firoozeh Sadat; Haeri, Hayedeh; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Keyvani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been recognized as a major cause of cervical cancer. Distribution of HPV genotypes may differ according to the geographic region and the severity of the cervical lesion. Determining HPV genotypes’ specific distribution is useful for HPV surveillance and control programs. However, little is known about the distribution of HPV genotypes in Iranian women. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of HPV genotypes in Iranian women with different grades of cervical lesions. Patients and Methods From 2011 to 2013, a total of 436 Iranian women with convenience sampling strategy were included in this cross-sectional study. In detail, 287 women negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, 32 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 50 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 44 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and 23 with cervical cancer were evaluated in this investigation. HPV genotypes were determined by INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay. Results In total, HPV infection was detected in 45.4% of the cases. The most common high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotype was HPV-16 (32.8%), followed by HPV-53 (9.1%). Within low-risk (LR-HPV) genotypes HPV-6 (22.2%) and HPV-44 (6.1%) were the most prevalent. HPV-16 was the predominant genotype in cases with cervical cancer (56.5%), ASCUS (34.4%), and HSIL (34.1%). HPV-6 was the most common genotype in normal cases (9.1%) and LSIL patients (18%). The prevalence of HPV positivity was significantly higher in cases with high-grade lesions (≥ HSIL) (64.2%) than in normal/LSIL (37.3%) (P = 0.033). The rate of HR-HPV infection was significantly higher in ≥ HSIL cases (61.2%) than normal/LSIL (27.9%) (P = 0.003). Conclusions This study describes robust information on the distribution of HPV genotypes among Iranian women with and without cervical lesions. The present data

  14. Analysis of the coding sequence and expression of the coiled-coil α-helical rod protein 1 gene in normal and neoplastic epithelial cervical cells

    PubMed Central

    PACHOLSKA-BOGALSKA, JOANNA; MYGA-NOWAK, MAGDALENA; CIEPŁUCH, KATARZYNA; JÓZEFIAK, AGATA; KWAŒNIEWSKA, ANNA; GOźDZICKA-JÓZEFIAK, ANNA

    2012-01-01

    The role of the CCHCR1 (coiled-coil α-helical rod protein 1) protein in the cell is poorly understood. It is thought to be engaged in processes such as proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells, tissue-specific gene transcription and steroidogenesis. It is supposed to participate in keratinocyte transformation. It has also been found that this protein interacts with the E2 protein of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16). The oncogenic HPV forms, such as HPV16, are known to be necessary but not sufficient agents in the development of cervical carcinoma. In the present study, the CCHCR1 gene coding sequence and its expression was analyzed in normal, precancerous and cervical cancer cells. Changes in the non-coding region were found in 20.3% of the examined probes from women with cervical cancer or precancerous lesions and in 16.67% of the control probes. Most of the detected changes were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Changes in the coding region were found in 22.8% of the probes with cervical cancer and in 16.67% of the control probes and all of them were SNPs. The level of CCHCR1 transcripts was determined using the real-time PCR method and the highest gene expression was detected in the H-SIL group and slightly decreased in the cervical carcinoma cells, compared with the control probes. It suggests that CCHCR1 could have a role in the process of cervical epithelial cell transformation, but this suggestion must be confirmed experimentally. PMID:22218424

  15. Cell-block procedure in endoscopic ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration of gastrointestinal solid neoplastic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ieni, Antonio; Barresi, Valeria; Todaro, Paolo; Caruso, Rosario Alberto; Tuccari, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed the clinical applications of endoscopic ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration (EUS-FNA) and the methodological aspects obtained by cell-block procedure (CBP) in the diagnostic approach to the gastrointestinal neoplastic pathology. CBP showed numerous advantages in comparison to the cytologic routine smears; in particular, better preservation of cell architecture, achievement of routine haematoxylin-eosin staining equivalent to histological slides and possibility to perform immunohistochemistry or molecular analyses represented the most evident reasons to choose this method. Moreover, by this approach, the differential diagnosis of solid gastrointestinal neoplasias may be more easily achieved and the background of contaminant non-neoplastic gastrointestinal avoided. Finally, biological samples collected by EUS-FNA CBP-assisted should be investigated in order to identify and quantify further potential molecular markers. PMID:26322154

  16. Increased expression of sialic acid in cervical biopsies with squamous intraepithelial lesions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Altered sialylation has been observed during oncogenic transformation. Sialylated oligosaccharides of glycoproteins and glycolipids have been implicated in tumor progression and metastases. In the cervical cancer high levels of sialic acid have been reported in the patients serum, and an increased of total sialic acid concentration has been reported for the cervical neoplasia and cervical cancer. This study investigates the changes in expression and distribution of α2,3-linked sialic acid and α2,6- linked sialic acid in low and high squamous intraepithelial lesions and in normal tissue. Methods Lectin histochemistry was used to examine the expression and distribution of sialic acid in different grades of cervical neoplasia. We applied Maackia amurensis lectin, which interacts with α2,3-linked sialic acid and Sambucus nigra lectin specific for α2,6-linked sialic acid. Results The histochemical analysis showed that α2,3-linked sialic acid and α2,6- linked sialic acid increased in intensity and distribution in concordance with the grade of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). These results are in concordance with a previous study that reports increased RNAm levels of three sialyltransferases. Conclusions These results show that the change in sialylation occurs before cancer development and may play an important role in cellular transformation. These findings provide the basis for more detailed studies of the possible role of cell surface glycoconjugates bearing sialic acid in the cellular cervix transformation. PMID:21092209

  17. Comparative study of the expression of cellular cycle proteins in cervical intraepithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Conceição; Silva, Tânia Correia; Alves, Venâncio A F; Villa, Luisa L; Costa, Maria Cecília; Travassos, Ana Gabriela; Filho, José Bouzas Araújo; Studart, Eduardo; Cheto, Tatiana; de Freitas, Luiz Antonio R

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of human papilloma virus oncoproteins E6 and E7 with cell cycle proteins leads to disturbances of the cell cycle mechanism and subsequent alteration in the expression of some proteins, such as p16INK4a, cyclin D1, p53 and KI67. In this study, we compared alterations in the expression of these proteins during several stages of intraepithelial cervical carcinogenesis. Accordingly, an immunohistochemical study was performed on 50 cervical biopsies, including negative cases and intraepithelial neoplasias. The expression patterns of these markers were correlated with the histopathological diagnosis and infection with HPV. The p16INK4a, followed by Ki67, showed better correlation with cancer progression than p53 and cyclin D1, which recommends their use in the evaluation of cervical carcinogenesis. These monoclonal antibodies can be applied to cervical biopsy specimens to identify lesions transformed by oncogenic HPV, separating CIN 1 (p16INK4a positive) and identifying high-grade lesions by an increase in the cellular proliferation index (Ki67). In this way, we propose immunomarkers that can be applied in clinical practice to separate patients who need a conservative therapeutic approach from those who require a more aggressive treatment. PMID:16979303

  18. Immunologic treatments for precancerous lesions and uterine cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Development of HPV-associated cancers not only depends on efficient negative regulation of cell cycle control that supports the accumulation of genetic damage, but also relies on immune evasion that enable the virus to go undetected for long periods of time. In this way, HPV-related tumors usually present MHC class I down-regulation, impaired antigen-processing ability, avoidance of T-cell mediated killing, increased immunosuppression due to Treg infiltration and secrete immunosuppressive cytokines. Thus, these are the main obstacles that immunotherapy has to face in the treatment of HPV-related pathologies where a number of different strategies have been developed to overcome them including new adjuvants. Although antigen-specific immunotherapy induced by therapeutic HPV vaccines was proved extremely efficacious in pre-clinical models, its progression through clinical trials suffered poor responses in the initial trials. Later attempts seem to have been more promising, particularly against the well-defined precursors of cervical, anal or vulvar cancer, where the local immunosuppressive milieu is less active. This review focuses on the advances made in these fields, highlighting several new technologies (such as mRNA vaccine, plant-derived vaccine). The most promising immunotherapies used in clinical trials are also summarized, along with integrated strategies, particularly promising in controlling tumor metastasis and in eliminating cancer cells altogether. After the early promising clinical results, the development of therapeutic HPV vaccines need to be implemented and applied to the users in order to eradicate HPV-associated malignancies, eradicating existing perception (after the effectiveness of commercial preventive vaccines) that we have already solved the problem. PMID:24667138

  19. Genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with cervical lesions in Bioko, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    García-Espinosa, Benjamín; Nieto-Bona, Ma Paz; Rueda, Sonsoles; Silva-Sánchez, Luís Fernando; Piernas-Morales, Ma Concepción; Carro-Campos, Patricia; Cortés-Lambea, Luís; Moro-Rodríguez, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Background The HVP vaccine is a useful tool for preventing cervical cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine the most frequent HPV genotypes in Equatorial Guinea in order to develop future vaccination strategies to apply in this country. Methods A campaign against cervical cancer was carried out in the area on a total of 1,680 women. 26 of the women, following cytological screening, were treated surgically with a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Cases were studied histologically and were genotyped from paraffin blocks by applying a commercial kit that recognized 35 HPV types. Results Cytological diagnoses included 17 HSIL, 1 LSIL, 5 ASC-H and 3 AGUS. Histological diagnosis resulted in 3 cases of microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma stage IA of FIGO, 9 CIN-3, 8 CIN-2, 2 CIN-1, 3 flat condylomas and mild dysplasia of the endocervical epithelium. Fifteen of twenty-five cases genotyped were positive for HPV (60%). HPV 16 and 33 were identified in four cases each, HPV 58 in two other cases, and HPV 18, 31, 52, and 82 in one case, with one HPV 16 and 58 coinfection. Conclusion The frequency of HPV types in the African area varies in comparison to other regions, particularly in Europe and USA. Vaccination against the five most common HPV types (16, 33, 58, 18, and 31) should be considered in the geographic region of West Africa and specifically in Equatorial Guinea. PMID:19740435

  20. Pregnancy after Treatment for Cervical Cancer Precursor Lesions in a Retrospective Matched Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Naleway, Allison L.; Weinmann, Sheila; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Arondekar, Bhakti; Fernandez, Jovelle; Swamy, Geeta; Myers, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether treatments for precancerous cervical lesions were associated with lower pregnancy rates compared to rates in unexposed women and women who had a diagnostic cervical biopsy or colposcopy. Design Matched, retrospective cohort study. Setting Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW), an integrated healthcare delivery system in Oregon and Washington. Patients Women 14 to 53 years old with KPNW enrollment during the period 1998 through 2009. Main Outcome Measure Pregnancy after exposure or index date. Pregnancy was defined using a validated algorithm and electronic medical records data. Results We observed 570 pregnancies following cervical treatment in 4,137 women, 1,533 pregnancies following a diagnostic procedure in 13,767 women, and 7,436 pregnancies in a frequency-matched sample of 81,435 women unexposed to treatment or diagnostic procedures. After adjusting for age and contraceptive use, we observed a higher rate of pregnancies in the treatment group compared to unexposed women (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30–1.55), but no difference in pregnancy rates between the treatment and diagnostic procedure groups (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.93–1.13). Conclusions No adverse effects of cervical procedures on subsequent rates of pregnancy were observed in this cohort with up to twelve years of follow-up time. PMID:25671561

  1. A Revised Classification System and Recommendations From the Baltimore Consensus Meeting for Neoplastic Precursor Lesions in the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Basturk, Olca; Hong, Seung-Mo; Wood, Laura D; Adsay, N Volkan; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Biankin, Andrew V; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Goggins, Michael; Hruban, Ralph H; Kato, Yo; Klimstra, David S; Klöppel, Günter; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Longnecker, Daniel S; Matthaei, Hanno; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Shimizu, Michio; Takaori, Kyoichi; Terris, Benoit; Yachida, Shinichi; Esposito, Irene; Furukawa, Toru

    2015-12-01

    International experts met to discuss recent advances and to revise the 2004 recommendations for assessing and reporting precursor lesions to invasive carcinomas of the pancreas, including pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), mucinous cystic neoplasm, and other lesions. Consensus recommendations include the following: (1) To improve concordance and to align with practical consequences, a 2-tiered system (low vs. high grade) is proposed for all precursor lesions, with the provision that the current PanIN-2 and neoplasms with intermediate-grade dysplasia now be categorized as low grade. Thus, "high-grade dysplasia" is to be reserved for only the uppermost end of the spectrum ("carcinoma in situ"-type lesions). (2) Current data indicate that PanIN of any grade at a margin of a resected pancreas with invasive carcinoma does not have prognostic implications; the clinical significance of dysplasia at a margin in a resected pancreas with IPMN lacking invasive carcinoma remains to be determined. (3) Intraductal lesions 0.5 to 1 cm can be either large PanINs or small IPMNs. The term "incipient IPMN" should be reserved for lesions in this size with intestinal or oncocytic papillae or GNAS mutations. (4) Measurement of the distance between an IPMN and invasive carcinoma and sampling of intervening tissue are recommended to assess concomitant versus associated status. Conceptually, concomitant invasive carcinoma (in contrast with the "associated" group) ought to be genetically distinct from an IPMN elsewhere in the gland. (5) "Intraductal spread of invasive carcinoma" (aka, "colonization") is recommended to describe lesions of invasive carcinoma invading back into and extending along the ductal system, which may morphologically mimic high-grade PanIN or even IPMN. (6) "Simple mucinous cyst" is recommended to describe cysts >1 cm having gastric-type flat mucinous lining at most minimal atypia without ovarian-type stroma to

  2. Sensory Loss Mimicking Cauda Equina Syndrome due to Cervical Spinal Lesion in a Patient with Clinically Isolated Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vinceti, Giulia; Zini, Andrea; Nichelli, Paolo; Mandrioli, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman with signs and symptoms suggesting cauda equina syndrome. Lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated no lesion at this level, while cervical MRI showed a T2-hyperintense lesion in the middle-right anterolateral region of the cervical spinal cord, which may explain the symptoms by involving the anterior spinothalamic tract. We suggest that in cases with cauda equina syndrome presentation and normal lumbosacral MRI, a cervicodorsal lesion should be considered during diagnostic assessment. PMID:22740824

  3. Histology and clinical outcome of benign and malignant vascular lesions primary to feline cervical lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Roof-Wages, E; Spangler, T; Spangler, W L; Siedlecki, C T

    2015-03-01

    A novel form of primary feline hemangiosarcoma and additional cases of plexiform vascularization in the cervical lymph nodes are reported. Sixteen cases of feline lymphadenopathy attributed to abnormal vascular proliferation were identified and evaluated. Most of these lesions were diagnosed histologically as hemangiosarcoma. However, lesions of plexiform vascularization, with and without areas of putative malignant transformation, were also identified. Mean age of the cats was 11 years (range, 3-16 years) with most being domestic shorthair and medium hair (13). Two domestic long hair and 1 Maine Coon were identified. Excisional nodal biopsy was performed in 15 cases and incisional biopsy in 1 case. Six cats were euthanized due to their disease. Survival times ranged from ≤ 1 month to ≥ 30 months. We provide a new clinical differential for cervical lymphadenopathy in cats that is not widely recognized. Proper identification of primary nodal vascular lesions in cats will enable further characterization of clinical features and biologic behavior to determine specific therapy. PMID:24879661

  4. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in cervical cancerous and precancerous lesions of Ecuadorian women.

    PubMed

    Mejía, Lorena; Muñoz, Diana; Trueba, Gabriel; Tinoco, Leopoldo; Zapata, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide and it is responsible for most cases of uterine cancer. In Ecuador there is limited information about HPV types (and variants) in cancerous lesions; however, identifying the type-specific HPV prevalence in cervical lesions of women living in Ecuador is important to better predict the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccination in this country. We studied the prevalence of HPV types in cervical cancerous or precancerous lesions from 164 Ecuadorian women and found that 86.0% were HPV positive. The most common types were HPV16 (41.8%) and HPV58 (30.5%). Interestingly, HPV18 was detected only in 2.8% of the HPV-positive samples. Fifteen DNA sequences (genes E6 and L1) from 16 samples positive for HPV16 belonged to the European lineage, considered one of the least carcinogenic lineages, and 1 (6.25%) to the Asian-American lineage. Similar analysis in 12 HPV58 positive samples showed that 10 (83.3%) sequences grouped in sublineage A2, which belongs to the oldest HPV58 lineage, 1 belonged to A3 and 1 to lineage C. This study suggests that the currently used HPV vaccines (bivalent and tetravalent) may have lower effectiveness in Ecuador than in other geographic locations where HPV18 is more prevalent. PMID:26113443

  5. Cervical intraepithelial lesions in females attending Women's Health Clinics in Alexandria, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hadi, Mona; Khalaf, Adel; Aboulkassem, Hanaa; Naeem, Noha; Baqy, Mohamed Abdel; Sallam, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of preinvasive cervical lesions. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Egyptian women living in Alexandria to clarify the need for implementing a national organized screening program and a vaccination program in our community. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a 6 years period and covered the different socioeconomic levels to have a representative sample for women living in Alexandria. All women included did not have any cervical disorder related complaints. Conventional Pap smears were obtained and diagnosed using the Bethesda system. Women with abnormal Pap smears were managed according to the 2006 consensus guidelines within the available facilities. Persistent abnormal cytological results were referred for colposcopic biopsy. Histological results were grouped into: Reactive changes, CIN 1, CIN 2/CIN 3 and adenocarcinoma in-situ (AIS). Results: Out of the 6173 smears included in the study 6072 (98.36%) were normal and only 101 (1.63%) were abnormal. After colposcopic biopsies, 0.08% had CIN 1, 0.03% had CIN 2, 3 and 0.01% had AIS. Conclusion: We concluded that cervical cancer screening programs, although life-saving for a number of women, are not a sufficiently high priority in our community. Money for national health screening programs should preferably be directed more towards recruiting women for breast cancer screening, since breast cancer accounts for about 33% of all female cancers in Egypt ranking number one, while cervical cancer ranks number 13. PMID:26195985

  6. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Methyl Eugenol-induced Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Neuroendocrine Cell Lesions in Glandular Stomach of Rats.

    PubMed

    Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Rebolloso, Yvette; Hurlburt, Geoffrey; Olson, David; Lyght, Otis; Clayton, Natasha P; Gruebbel, Margarita; Picut, Catherine; Shackelford, Cynthia; Herbert, Ronald A

    2015-07-01

    Methyl eugenol induces neuroendocrine (NE) cell hyperplasia and tumors in F344/N rat stomach. Detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) characterization of these tumors has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to fill that data gap. Archived slides and paraffin blocks were retrieved from the National Toxicology Program Archives. NE hyperplasias and tumors were stained with chromogranin A, synaptophysin, amylase, gastrin, H(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), pepsinogen, somatostatin, and cytokeratin 18 (CK18) antibodies. Many of the rats had gastric mucosal atrophy, due to loss of chief and parietal cells. The hyperplasias and tumors were confined to fundic stomach, and females were more affected than the males. Hyperplasia of NE cells was not observed in the pyloric region. Approximately one-third of the females with malignant NE tumors had areas of pancreatic acinar differentiation. The rate of metastasis was 21%, with liver being the most common site of metastasis. Immunohistochemically, the hyperplasias and tumors stained consistently with chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Neoplastic cells were also positive for amylase and CK18 and negative for gastrin, somatostatin, H(+)/K(+) ATPase, and pepsinogen. Metastatic neoplasms histologically similar to the primary neoplasm stained positively for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Based on the histopathological and IHC features, the neoplasms appear to arise from enterochromaffin-like cells. PMID:25452433

  7. Possible role of tensile stress in the etiology of cervical erosive lesions of teeth.

    PubMed

    Lee, W C; Eakle, W S

    1984-09-01

    A tensile stress hypothesis for the etiology of idiopathic cervical erosions of human teeth is presented. It is proposed that when occlusion is not ideal, lateral forces cause the teeth to bend. The tensile stresses created during bending disrupt the chemical bonds of the crystalline structures of enamel and dentin. Small molecules may enter between the crystals and prevent the reestablishment of the chemical bonds. As a result, the disrupted tooth structure is more susceptible to loss through dissolution and abrasion and results in the development of the typically wedge-shaped lesions. Patients with lesions typical of hundreds examined by the authors were presented to illustrate the concept. The possible consequences of the proposed hypothesis were discussed. The hypothetical conclusions made in this article will be tested by experimentation. PMID:6592336

  8. Revised Terminology for Cervical Histopathology and Its Implications for Management of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Alan G.; Chelmow, David; Darragh, Teresa M.; Lawson, Herschel; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In March 2012, the College of American Pathologists and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, in collaboration with 35 stakeholder organizations, convened a consensus conference called the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Project. The recommendations of this project include using a uniform, two-tiered terminology to describe the histology of human papillomavirus-associated squamous disease across all anogenital tract tissues: vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, perianus, and anus. The recommended terminology is “low-grade” or “high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL).” This terminology is familiar to clinicians, because it parallels the terminology of the Bethesda System cytologic reports. Biopsy results using SIL terminology may be further qualified using “intraepithelial neoplasia” (IN) terminology in parentheses. Laboratory p16 tissue immunostaining is recommended to better classify histopathology lesions that morphologically would earlier have been diagnosed as IN 2. p16 is also recommended for differentiating between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign mimics. The LAST Project recommendations potentially affect the application of current guidelines for managing cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. The authors offer interim guidance for managing cervical lesions diagnosed using this new terminology with special attention paid to managing young women with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions on biopsy. Clinicians should be aware of the LAST Project recommendations, which include important changes from prior terminology. PMID:23168774

  9. Revised terminology for cervical histopathology and its implications for management of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Alan G; Chelmow, David; Darragh, Teresa M; Lawson, Herschel; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2012-12-01

    In March 2012, the College of American Pathologists and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, in collaboration with 35 stakeholder organizations, convened a consensus conference called the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Project. The recommendations of this project include using a uniform, two-tiered terminology to describe the histology of human papillomavirus-associated squamous disease across all anogenital tract tissues: vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, perianus, and anus. The recommended terminology is "low-grade" or "high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL)." This terminology is familiar to clinicians, because it parallels the terminology of the Bethesda System cytologic reports. Biopsy results using SIL terminology may be further qualified using "intraepithelial neoplasia" (IN) terminology in parentheses. Laboratory p16 tissue immunostaining is recommended to better classify histopathology lesions that morphologically would earlier have been diagnosed as IN 2. p16 is also recommended for differentiating between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign mimics. The LAST Project recommendations potentially affect the application of current guidelines for managing cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. The authors offer interim guidance for managing cervical lesions diagnosed using this new terminology with special attention paid to managing young women with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions on biopsy. Clinicians should be aware of the LAST Project recommendations, which include important changes from prior terminology. PMID:23168774

  10. Analysis of preneoplastic and neoplastic renal lesions in Tsc2 mutant Long-Evans (Eker) rats following exposure to a mixture of drinking water disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    McDorman, Kevin S; Hooth, Michelle J; Starr, Thomas B; Wolf, Douglas C

    2003-05-01

    Disinfection of surface water for human consumption results in the generation of a complex mixture of chemicals in potable water. Cancer risk assessment methodology assumes additivity of carcinogenic effects in the regulation of mixtures. A rodent model of hereditary renal cancer was used to investigate the carcinogenic response to a mixture of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). Rats carrying a mutation in the Tsc2 tumor suppressor gene (Eker rats) readily develop renal preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions, and are highly susceptible to the effects of renal carcinogens. Male and female Eker rats were exposed via drinking water to individual or a mixture of DBPs for 4 or 10 months. Potassium bromate, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), chloroform, and bromodichloromethane were administered at low concentrations of 0.02, 0.005, 0.4 and 0.07 g/l, respectively, and high concentrations of 0.4, 0.07, 1.8 and 0.7 g/l, respectively. Low and high dose mixture solutions were comprised of all four chemicals at either low concentrations or high concentrations, respectively, Following necropsy, each kidney was examined microscopically for preneoplastic lesions (atypical tubules and hyperplasias) and tumors. While some of the mixture responses observed in male rats did fall within the range expected for an additive response, especially at the high dose, predominantly antagonistic effects on renal lesions were observed in response to the low dose mixture in male rats and the high dose mixture in female rats. These data suggest that current default risk assessments assuming additivity may overstate the cancer risk associated with exposure to mixtures of DBPs at low concentrations. PMID:12679048

  11. Human Papillomavirus Genotyping and p16INK4a Expression in Cervical Lesions: A Combined Test to Avoid Cervical Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Zouheir, Yassine; Fechtali, Taoufiq; Elgnaoui, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Morocco. The cervical cancer has a long precancerous period that provides an opportunity for the screening and treatment. Improving screening tests is a priority goal for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the combination of p16INK4a protein expression, human papillomavirus (HPV) typing, and histopathology for the identification of cervical lesions with high risk to progress to cervical cancer among Moroccan women. A total of 96 cervical biopsies were included in this study. Signal amplification in situ hybridization with biotinylated probes was used to detect HPV. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of p16INK4a protein. HPV DNA was detected in 74.0% of the biopsies (71/96). Of the seventy-one positive HPV cases, we detected 67.6% (48/71) of high risk (HR)-HPV (HPV 16 and 18), 24% of low risk-HPV (HPV 6 and 11), 1.4% intermediate risk-HPV (HPV 31, 33, and 35), and 7% coinfections (HPV 6/11 and 16/18). Overexpression of p16INK4a protein was observed in 72.9% (70/96) of the biopsies. In addition, p16INK4a protein detection was closely correlated with recovery of HR HPV. Our result showed that p16INK4a expression level is correlated with HR-HPV status. PMID:27390742

  12. Human Papillomavirus Genotyping and p16(INK4a) Expression in Cervical Lesions: A Combined Test to Avoid Cervical Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Zouheir, Yassine; Fechtali, Taoufiq; Elgnaoui, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Morocco. The cervical cancer has a long precancerous period that provides an opportunity for the screening and treatment. Improving screening tests is a priority goal for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the combination of p16(INK4a) protein expression, human papillomavirus (HPV) typing, and histopathology for the identification of cervical lesions with high risk to progress to cervical cancer among Moroccan women. A total of 96 cervical biopsies were included in this study. Signal amplification in situ hybridization with biotinylated probes was used to detect HPV. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of p16(INK4a) protein. HPV DNA was detected in 74.0% of the biopsies (71/96). Of the seventy-one positive HPV cases, we detected 67.6% (48/71) of high risk (HR)-HPV (HPV 16 and 18), 24% of low risk-HPV (HPV 6 and 11), 1.4% intermediate risk-HPV (HPV 31, 33, and 35), and 7% coinfections (HPV 6/11 and 16/18). Overexpression of p16(INK4a) protein was observed in 72.9% (70/96) of the biopsies. In addition, p16(INK4a) protein detection was closely correlated with recovery of HR HPV. Our result showed that p16(INK4a) expression level is correlated with HR-HPV status. PMID:27390742

  13. Effects of Dietary Antioxidant Supplementation on the Development of Malignant Lymphoma and Other Neoplastic Lesions in Mice Exposed to Proton or Iron-Ion Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann R.; Davis, James G.; Carlton, William; Ware, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Malignancy is considered to be a particular risk associated with exposure to the types of ionizing radiation encountered during extended space flight. In the present study, two dietary preparations were evaluated for their ability to prevent carcinogenesis in CBA mice exposed to different forms of space radiation: protons and highly energetic heavy particles (HZE particles). One preparation contained a mixture of antioxidant agents. The other contained the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI), used in the form of BBI Concentrate (BBIC). The major finding was that there was a reduced risk of developing malignant lymphoma in animals exposed to space radiation and maintained on diets containing the antioxidant formulation or BBIC compared to the irradiated animals maintained on the control diet. In addition, the two different dietary countermeasures also reduced the yields of a variety of different rare tumor types observed in the animals exposed to space radiation. These results suggest that dietary supplements could be useful in the prevention of malignancies and other neoplastic lesions developing from exposure to space radiation. PMID:18494549

  14. Imaging of noncarious cervical lesions by means of a fast swept source optical coherence tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Eniko T.; Marcauteanu, Corina; Bradu, Adrian; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin Ionel; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2014-01-01

    Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL) are defined as the loss of tooth substance at the cemento-enamel junction and are caused by abrasion, erosion and/or occlusal overload. In this paper we proved that our fast swept source OCT system is a valuable tool to track the evolution of NCCL lesions in time. On several extracted bicuspids, four levels of NCCL were artificially created. After every level of induced lesion, OCT scanning was performed. B scans were acquired and 3D reconstructions were generated. The swept source OCT instrument used in this study has a central wavelength of 1050 nm, a sweeping range of 106 nm (measured at 10 dB), an average output power of 16 mW and a sweeping rate of 100 kHz. A depth resolution determined by the swept source of 12 μm in air was experimentally obtained. NCCL were measured on the B-scans as 2D images and 3D reconstructions (volumes). For quantitative evaluations of volumes, the Image J software was used. By calculating the areas of the amount of lost tissue corresponding to each difference of Bscans, the final volumes of NCCL were obtained. This swept source OCT method allows the dynamic diagnosis of NCCL in time.

  15. High Milk Consumption Does Not Affect Prostate Tumor Progression in Two Mouse Models of Benign and Neoplastic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Boutillon, Florence; Verkarre, Virginie; Camparo, Philippe; Viltard, Mélanie; Méjean, Arnaud; Oudard, Stéphane; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Friedlander, Gérard; Goffin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies that have investigated whether dairy (mainly milk) diets are associated with prostate cancer risk have led to controversial conclusions. In addition, no existing study clearly evaluated the effects of dairy/milk diets on prostate tumor progression, which is clinically highly relevant in view of the millions of men presenting with prostate pathologies worldwide, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). We report here a unique interventional animal study to address this issue. We used two mouse models of fully penetrant genetically-induced prostate tumorigenesis that were investigated at the stages of benign hyperplasia (probasin-Prl mice, Pb-Prl) or pre-cancerous PIN lesions (KIMAP mice). Mice were fed high milk diets (skim or whole) for 15 to 27 weeks of time depending on the kinetics of prostate tumor development in each model. Prostate tumor progression was assessed by tissue histopathology examination, epithelial proliferation, stromal inflammation and fibrosis, tumor invasiveness potency and expression of various tumor markers relevant for each model (c-Fes, Gprc6a, activated Stat5 and p63). Our results show that high milk consumption (either skim or whole) did not promote progression of existing prostate tumors when assessed at early stages of tumorigenesis (hyperplasia and neoplasia). For some parameters, and depending on milk type, milk regimen could even exhibit slight protective effects towards prostate tumor progression by decreasing the expression of tumor-related markers like Ki-67 and Gprc6a. In conclusion, our study suggests that regular milk consumption should not be considered detrimental for patients presenting with early-stage prostate tumors. PMID:25938513

  16. A critical review of non-carious cervical (wear) lesions and the role of abfraction, erosion, and abrasion.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D W; Shah, P

    2006-04-01

    The terms 'abfraction' and 'abrasion' describe the cause of lesions found along the cervical margins of teeth. Erosion, abrasion, and attrition have all been associated with their formation. Early research suggested that the cause of the V-shaped lesion was excessive horizontal toothbrushing. Abfraction is another possible etiology and involves occlusal stress, producing cervical cracks that predispose the surface to erosion and abrasion. This article critically reviews the literature on abrasion, erosion, and abrasion, and abfraction. The references were obtained by a MEDLINE search in March, 2005, and from this, hand searches were undertaken. From the literature, there is little evidence, apart from laboratory studies, to indicate that abfraction exists other than as a hypothetical component of cervical wear. PMID:16567549

  17. Human papilloma virus genotypes in women from Nayarit, Mexico, with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Cervantes, Laura; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; León, David Cantú-De; Hernández, Yael Yvette Bernal; Jáuregui-Martínez, Armando; Medina-Díaz, Irma Martha

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Mexico cervical cancer (CC) is the most common cause of death from neoplasia in women. Study aimed to analyze the current distribution of Human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women from Nayarit, Mexico, with Squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and Cervical cancer (CC). Methodology Between January 2011 and July 2013, cervical samples were collected from female residents of the Mexican state of Nayarit and were analyzed by means of a LINEAR ARRAY® HPV genotyping test. Data analyses were performed using Stata ver. 8.0 statistical software. Results Of the samples analyzed, 91.2%, HPV DNA was detected. Of these positive samples, 82% were High-risk (HR) viral types. The most prevalent HPV genotypes identified were 16, 58, 31, 18, and 70. Forty two percent of participants had a single infection, while 23 and 26% of participants were infected with two or more HPV genotypes, respectively. HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype identified and was frequently present as a co-infection with HPV types 18, 51, 52, 59, 66, or 70. Conclusion Women <20 years of age were most often infected with HPV, and the HPV Quadrivalent vaccine (types 16, 18, 6, and 11), currently available in Mexico, no confers protection against a subset of the HPV genotypes identified in the present study (58, 31, 70, and 35). Thus, it is important evaluate the geographical distribution of specific HPV genotypes in all health of center across Mexico in order to implement a successful vaccination program and to diagnose CC in its early stages. PMID:27610056

  18. Automatic classification of acetowhite temporal patterns to identify precursor lesions of cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Fragoso, K.; Acosta-Mesa, H. G.; Cruz-Ramírez, N.; Hernández-Jiménez, R.

    2013-12-01

    Cervical cancer has remained, until now, as a serious public health problem in developing countries. The most common method of screening is the Pap test or cytology. When abnormalities are reported in the result, the patient is referred to a dysplasia clinic for colposcopy. During this test, a solution of acetic acid is applied, which produces a color change in the tissue and is known as acetowhitening phenomenon. This reaction aims to obtaining a sample of tissue and its histological analysis let to establish a final diagnosis. During the colposcopy test, digital images can be acquired to analyze the behavior of the acetowhitening reaction from a temporal approach. In this way, we try to identify precursor lesions of cervical cancer through a process of automatic classification of acetowhite temporal patterns. In this paper, we present the performance analysis of three classification methods: kNN, Naïve Bayes and C4.5. The results showed that there is similarity between some acetowhite temporal patterns of normal and abnormal tissues. Therefore we conclude that it is not sufficient to only consider the temporal dynamic of the acetowhitening reaction to establish a diagnosis by an automatic method. Information from cytologic, colposcopic and histopathologic disciplines should be integrated as well.

  19. Testicular microlithiasis and neoplastic lesions in wild eland (Tragelaphus oryx): possible effects of exposure to environmental pollutants?

    PubMed

    Bornman, M S; Barnhoorn, I E J; de Jager, C; Veeramachaneni, D N R

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare wildlife in the proximity and away from the sources of known industrial pollution. Macroscopic, focal, gritty areas that appeared white were observed in the testes of all 24 South African eland (Tragelaphus oryx) culled in the Rietvlei Nature Reserve (RNR; n=17) between 2001 and 2003 and Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve (SNR; n=7) in 2004. Histopathological evaluation of testes showed multiple intratubular dystrophic calcifications, focal areas of sperm stasis and interstitial chronic cell infiltrates with fibrosis. Spermatogenesis was generally impaired; a few atypical germ cells were also encountered. Sertoli cell vacuolization and sloughing of the seminiferous epithelium were evident. Adenomatous changes of the rete testis, reflective of possible chronic estrogenic exposure, were found. In testes collected from three reference eland in 2007 from the Molopo Nature Reserve (MNR) in the Kalahari/Kgalagadi Desert, except for one focal area of sperm stasis and another with microcalcification, the seminiferous epithelium as well as collecting/rete tubules were normal. Analyses of fat tissue for environmental pollutants showed that 11 out of 17 RNR eland contained a detectable estrogenic chemical p-nonylphenol (mean+/-SD: 184.8+/-24.6 microg/kg fat); no organochlorine chemicals or polychlorinated biphenyls were detected. Of the 7 SNR eland, 5 had detectable octylphenol residues (50.2+/-30.9 microg/kg fat), 3 had detectable p-nonylphenol (137.8+/-77.9 microg/kg fat), 3 had o-p'-DDT (114.9+/-31.1 microg/kg fat), 3 had p-p'-DDT (127.3+/-49.9 microg/kg(79.5+/-30.4 microg/kg fat) and 5 contained o-p'-DDE (27.7+/-9.9 microg/kg fat). One eland from the MNR contained one 70.6 microg o-p'-DDT/kg fat and another p-p'-DDE 61.3 microg/kg fat. Therefore, in eland with testicular abnormalities, significant amounts of various estrogenic chemicals were bioaccumulated in fat samples. It therefore seems likely that the lesions found in RNR and SNR

  20. Loss of Dependence on Continued Expression of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Oncogene in Cervical Cancers and Precancerous Lesions Arising in Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyeong; Park, Jung Wook; Pitot, Henry C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by defects in DNA damage repair. FA patients often develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are known to cause cancer, including the cervix. However, SCCs found in human FA patients are often HPV negative, even though the majority of female FA patients with anogenital cancers had preexisting HPV-positive dysplasia. We hypothesize that HPVs contribute to the development of SCCs in FA patients but that the continued expression of HPV oncogenes is not required for the maintenance of the cancer state because FA deficiency leads to an accumulation of mutations in cellular genes that render the cancer no longer dependent upon viral oncogenes. We tested this hypothesis, making use of Bi-L E7 transgenic mice in which we temporally controlled expression of HPV16 E7, the dominant viral oncogene in HPV-associated cancers. As seen before, the persistence of cervical neoplastic disease was highly dependent upon the continued expression of HPV16 E7 in FA-sufficient mice. However, in mice with FA deficiency, cervical cancers persisted in a large fraction of the mice after HPV16 E7 expression was turned off, indicating that these cancers had escaped from their dependency on E7. Furthermore, the severity of precancerous lesions also failed to be reduced significantly in the mice with FA deficiency upon turning off expression of E7. These findings confirm our hypothesis and may explain the fact that, while FA patients have a high frequency of infections by HPVs and HPV-induced precancerous lesions, the cancers are frequently HPV negative. Importance   Fanconi anemia (FA) patients are at high risk for developing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) frequently cause cancer. Yet these SCCs are often HPV negative. FA patients have a genetic defect in their capacity to repair damaged DNA. HPV oncogenes cause an

  1. Loss of Dependence on Continued Expression of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Oncogene in Cervical Cancers and Precancerous Lesions Arising in Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyeong; Park, Jung Wook; Pitot, Henry C; Lambert, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by defects in DNA damage repair. FA patients often develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are known to cause cancer, including the cervix. However, SCCs found in human FA patients are often HPV negative, even though the majority of female FA patients with anogenital cancers had preexisting HPV-positive dysplasia. We hypothesize that HPVs contribute to the development of SCCs in FA patients but that the continued expression of HPV oncogenes is not required for the maintenance of the cancer state because FA deficiency leads to an accumulation of mutations in cellular genes that render the cancer no longer dependent upon viral oncogenes. We tested this hypothesis, making use of Bi-L E7 transgenic mice in which we temporally controlled expression of HPV16 E7, the dominant viral oncogene in HPV-associated cancers. As seen before, the persistence of cervical neoplastic disease was highly dependent upon the continued expression of HPV16 E7 in FA-sufficient mice. However, in mice with FA deficiency, cervical cancers persisted in a large fraction of the mice after HPV16 E7 expression was turned off, indicating that these cancers had escaped from their dependency on E7. Furthermore, the severity of precancerous lesions also failed to be reduced significantly in the mice with FA deficiency upon turning off expression of E7. These findings confirm our hypothesis and may explain the fact that, while FA patients have a high frequency of infections by HPVs and HPV-induced precancerous lesions, the cancers are frequently HPV negative. IMPORTANCE  : Fanconi anemia (FA) patients are at high risk for developing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) frequently cause cancer. Yet these SCCs are often HPV negative. FA patients have a genetic defect in their capacity to repair damaged DNA. HPV oncogenes cause an accumulation of DNA

  2. Effect of oxalic acid pre-treatment in restorations of non-carious cervical lesions: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, André Mattos Brito; Colares, Regina Claudia Ramos; Mendonça, Juliano Satori; Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla Azevedo; Santiago, Sérgio Lima

    2014-01-01

    Context: Non-carious cervical lesions are usually associated with dentin hypersensitivity. The use of oxalic acid in restorations of these lesions could be beneficial in relieving pain. Aims: To evaluate the use of oxalic acid in restorations of non-carious cervical lesions. Settings and Design: A randomized clinical trial. Subjects and Methods: One operator placed 90 restorations in 20 volunteers of both sexes, with at least two lesions to be restored with the techniques: Control — Restoration with total-etch technique and Experimental — Restoration with pretreatment with oxalic acid followed by application of adhesive system. The restorative adhesive system used was XP Bond/Durafill. The restorations were directly assessed by two independent examiners using a modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) method at baseline, 6 and 12 months, taking into account the following criteria: Retention (R), marginal integrity (MI), marginal discoloration (MD), postoperative sensitivity (S), caries (C), and anatomic form (AF). Statistical analysis used: The data were statistically analyzed using the Fisher exact and McNemar tests. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: After 1 year, the results of restorations clinically satisfactory obtained for the control and experimental group respectively were: R (97% / 89%), MI (100% / 100%), MD (100% / 100%), S (100% / 100%), C (100% / 100%), and AF (100% / 100%). Conclusions: The use of oxalic acid as an agent of dentin pretreatment did not influence the clinical performance of restorations in non-carious cervical lesions after 1 year. PMID:25298641

  3. Suggested management guidelines for participation in collision activities with congenital, developmental, or postinjury lesions involving the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Torg, J S; Ramsey-Emrhein, J A

    1997-07-01

    Many conditions involving the cervical spine in the athlete require a management decision. The purpose of this paper is to present appropriate guidelines for return to collision activities in those with congenital, developmental, or post-injury lesions. Information compiled from over 1200 cervical spine lesions documented by the National Football Head & Neck Injury Registry, an extensive literature review, as well as an understanding of injury mechanisms have resulted in reasonable management guidelines. Each of the congenital, developmental, and post-traumatic conditions presented are determined to present either no contraindication, relative contraindication, or an absolute contraindication on the basis of a variety of parameters. Conditions included in the discussion are: odontoid anomalies; spina bifida occulta; atlanto-occipital fusion; Klipple-Feil anomalies; cervical canal stenosis; spear tackler's spine; and traumatic conditions of the upper, middle, and lower cervical spine, including ligamentous injuries and fractures, intervertebral disc injuries, and post-cervical spine fusion. Emphasized is the fact that the proposed guidelines should be used in the decision-making process in conjuction with other factors such as the age, experience, ability of the individual, level of participation, position played, as well as the attitude and desires of the athlete and his parents after an informed discussion of the problem with particular regard to potential risk. PMID:9247923

  4. Studies of cervical caps: I. Vaginal lesions associated with use of the Vimule cap.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, G S; Kilzer, L H; Coulson, A H; Nakamura, R M; Smith, G C; Bernstein, R; Frezieres, R; Clark, V A; Coan, C

    1982-11-01

    Prior to investigating the contraceptive efficacy of cervical caps, we undertook a preliminary study to evaluate potential side effects of these devices. Women who had not previously used a cap were randomly assigned to wear either a Vimule or Cavity Rim Cap (CRC) for as long as seven days. The Vimule cap caused lesions of the portio vaginalis ranging from erythematous impressions to abrasions and frank lacerations. There was variation in the degree of trauma depending, in part, on the size of the cap and duration of wear. Disruption of the epithelium occurred in eight of twelve Vimule users, but the lesions were sometimes difficult to see owing to their location. CRCs were worn by 20 women. This device sometimes left a "suction ring" on the cervix but did not disrupt the epithelium. Two of three long-term users of the Vimule cap who were also studied had unusual formations of the vaginal mucosa suggesting a proliferative reaction to chronic irritation. It is recommended that all women using a Vimule Cap be carefully re-examined and counseled about further use of the device according to the findings of the examination. PMID:7160179

  5. Bixin protects hepatocytes against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced genotoxicity but does not suppress DNA damage and pre-neoplastic lesions in the colon of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; de Andrade, Kelly Jacqueline Barbosa; Paula, Marcela Cristina Ferreira; Oliveira Acésio, Nathália; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Borges, Priscilla Scalon Freitas; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2014-01-01

    Bixin is a carotenoid found in the seeds of Bixa orellana L., a plant native to tropical America that is used in the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bixin on DNA damage and pre-neoplastic lesions induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in the liver and colon of Wistar rats. The animals received bixin at daily doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 10mg/kg body weight (bw) by gavage. For the assessment of DNA damage in hepatocytes and colon cells with the comet assay, the administration of bixin was for 7 days. The animals received a single subcutaneous injection of 25mg/kg bw of DMH, and were euthanized 4h later. For the evaluation of the frequency of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), the animals were treated with the different doses of bixin for 4 weeks. Four doses of 40mg/kg bw DMH, two doses in the first week and two doses in the second week, were administered and euthanasia occurred at 4 weeks after the beginning of treatment. Bixin reduced the frequency of DNA damage in hepatocytes at the highest two doses tested (1.0 and 10mg/kg bw). On the other hand, no differences in the frequency of DNA damage in colon cells were observed between animals treated with bixin plus DMH and those treated with DMH alone. In addition, the frequency of ACF did not differ significantly between the group treated with bixin plus DMH and the DMH group. The results suggest that bixin does not suppress the formation of ACF, indicating the absence of a protective effect against colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24246722

  6. Microglandular adenosis associated with triple-negative breast cancer is a neoplastic lesion of triple-negative phenotype harbouring TP53 somatic mutations.

    PubMed

    Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Geyer, Felipe C; De Filippo, Maria R; Eberle, Carey A; Akram, Muzaffar; Fusco, Nicola; Ichihara, Shu; Sakr, Rita A; Yatabe, Yasushi; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Rakha, Emad A; Ellis, Ian O; Wen, Y Hannah; Weigelt, Britta; Schnitt, Stuart J; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2016-04-01

    Microglandular adenosis (MGA) is a rare proliferative lesion of the breast composed of small glands lacking myoepithelial cells and lined by S100-positive, oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative epithelial cells. There is evidence to suggest that MGA may constitute a non-obligate precursor of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We sought to define the genomic landscape of pure MGA and of MGA, atypical MGA (AMGA) and associated TNBCs, and to determine whether synchronous MGA, AMGA, and TNBCs would be clonally related. Two pure MGAs and eight cases of MGA and/or AMGA associated with in situ or invasive TNBC were collected, microdissected, and subjected to massively parallel sequencing targeting all coding regions of 236 genes recurrently mutated in breast cancer or related to DNA repair. Pure MGAs lacked clonal non-synonymous somatic mutations and displayed limited copy number alterations (CNAs); conversely, all MGAs (n = 7) and AMGAs (n = 3) associated with TNBC harboured at least one somatic non-synonymous mutation (range 3-14 and 1-10, respectively). In all cases where TNBCs were analyzed, identical TP53 mutations and similar patterns of gene CNAs were found in the MGA and/or AMGA and in the associated TNBC. In the MGA/AMGA associated with TNBC lacking TP53 mutations, somatic mutations affecting PI3K pathway-related genes (eg PTEN, PIK3CA, and INPP4B) and tyrosine kinase receptor signalling-related genes (eg ERBB3 and FGFR2) were identified. At diagnosis, MGAs associated with TNBC were found to display subclonal populations, and clonal shifts in the progression from MGA to AMGA and/or to TNBC were observed. Our results demonstrate the heterogeneity of MGAs, and that MGAs associated with TNBC, but not necessarily pure MGAs, are genetically advanced, clonal, and neoplastic lesions harbouring recurrent mutations in TP53 and/or other cancer genes, supporting the notion that a subset of MGAs and AMGAs may constitute

  7. Surgical pathology of epilepsy-associated non-neoplastic cerebral lesions: a brief introduction with special reference to hippocampal sclerosis and focal cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Hajime; Hori, Tomokatsu; Vinters, Harry V.

    2014-01-01

    Among epilepsy-associated non-neoplastic lesions, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS) and malformation of cortical development (MCD) including focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), are the two most frequent causes of drug-resistant focal epilepsies constituting about 50% of all surgical pathology of epilepsy. Several distinct histological patterns have been historically recognized in both HS and FCD, and several studies have tried to perform clinicopathological correlation; results, however, have been controversial, particularly in terms of postsurgical seizure outcome. Recently, the International League Against Epilepsy constituted a Task Forces of Neuropathology and FCD within the Commission on Diagnostic Methods, to establish an international consensus of histological classification of HS and FCD, respectively, based on agreement with the recognition of the importance of defining a histopathological classification system that reliably has some clinicopathological correlation. Such consensus classifications are likely to facilitate future clinicopathological study. Meanwhile, we reviewed neuropathology of 41 surgical cases of mTLE, and confirmed three type/patterns of HS along with no HS, based on the qualitative evaluation of the distribution and severity of neuronal loss and gliosis within hippocampal formation; i.e., HS type 1 (61%) equivalent to ‘classical’ Ammon’s horn sclerosis, HS type 2 (2%) representing CA1 sclerosis, HS type 3 (17%) equivalent to end folium sclerosis, and no HS (19%). Furthermore we performed a neuropathological comparative study on mTLE-HS and dementia associated HS (d-HS) in elderly, and confirmed that neuropathological features differ between mTLE-HS and d-HS in the distribution of hippocampal neuronal loss and gliosis, morphology of reactive astrocytes and their protein expression, and presence of concomitant neurodegenerative changes particularly Alzheimer type and TDP-43 pathologies. These

  8. Cervical dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN); Precancerous changes of the cervix; Cervical cancer - dysplasia ... lesion (SIL). On the Pap smear report, these changes will be described as: Low-grade (LSIL) High- ...

  9. Perspective for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cervical Cancer: An Immunological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Marjorie; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Mirandola, Leonardo; Tonroy, Catherine; Tedjarati, Sean S.; Davis, Nicole; D’Cunha, Nicholas; Tijani, Lukman; Hardwick, Fred; Nguyen, Diane; Kast, W. Martin; Cobos, Everardo

    2014-01-01

    As the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines have been a major step in decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. An estimated 490,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year. Increasing knowledge of the HPV role in the etiology of cervical cancer has led to the development and introduction of HPV-based vaccines for active immunotherapy of cervical cancer. Immunotherapies directed at preventing HPV-persistent infections. These vaccines are already accessible for prophylaxis and in the near future, they will be available for the treatment of preexisting HPV-related neoplastic lesions. PMID:22251005

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV-infected women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enju; McCree, Renicha; Mtisi, Expeditho; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Aris, Eric; Lema, Irene A; Hertzmark, Ellen; Chalamilla, Guerino; Li, Nan; Vermund, Sten H; Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence and predictors of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) among HIV-infected women in Tanzania, a cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-infected women at HIV care and treatment clinics. A Papanicolaou (Pap) smear was used as a screening tool for detection of cervical SIL. From December 2006 to August 2009, 1365 HIV-infected women received cervical screening. The median age was 35 (interquartile range [IQR]: 30-42) years, and the median CD4 + cell count was 164 (IQR: 80-257) cells/mm(3). The prevalence of cervical SIL was 8.7% (119/1365). In multivariate analysis, older age (≥50 versus 30-<40 years: prevalence ratio [PR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-3.84, p for trend = 0.001), lower CD4 + cell counts (<100 versus ≥200 cells/mm(3): PR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.36, p for trend = 0.03) and cervical inflammation (PR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.16-2.60, p = 0.008) were associated with an increased risk of cervical SIL. Women with advanced WHO HIV disease stage (IV versus I/II: PR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.35-8.85, p for trend = 0.01) had an increased risk for high-grade SIL. In resource-limited settings where it is not feasible to provide cervical cancer prevention services to all HIV-infected women, greater efforts should focus on scaling-up services among those who are older than 50 years, with lower CD4 cell counts and advanced HIV disease stage. PMID:25957324

  11. CCR2 and CCR5 genes polymorphisms in women with cervical lesions from Pernambuco, Northeast Region of Brazil: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Erinaldo Ubirajara Damasceno; de Lima, Géssica Dayane Cordeiro; Oliveira, Micheline de Lucena; Heráclio, Sandra de Andrade; da Silva, Hildson Dornelas Angelo; Crovella, Sergio; Maia, Maria de Mascena Diniz; de Souza/, Paulo Roberto Eleutério

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in chemokine receptors play an important role in the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to cervical cancer (CC). Our study examined the association of CCR2-64I (rs1799864) andCCR5-Δ32 (rs333) polymorphisms with susceptibility to develop cervical lesion (CIN and CC) in a Brazilian population. The genotyping of 139 women with cervical lesions and 151 women without cervical lesions for the CCR2-64I and CCR5-Δ32 polymorphisms were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The individuals carrying heterozygous or homozygous genotypes (GA+AA) for CCR2-64I polymorphisms seem to be at lower risk for cervical lesion [odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, p = 0.0008)]. The same was observed for the A allele (OR = 0.39, p = 0.0002), while no association was detected (p > 0.05) with CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism. Regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) type, patients carrying the CCR2-64Ipolymorphism were protected against infection by HPV type 16 (OR = 0.35, p = 0.0184). In summary, our study showed a protective effect ofCCR2-64I rs1799864 polymorphism against the development of cervical lesions (CIN and CC) and in the susceptibility of HPV 16 infection. PMID:26982176

  12. Immunohistochemical Expression of VEGF and Podoplanin in Uterine Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Belfort-Mattos, Patrícia Napoli; Focchi, Gustavo Rubino de Azevedo; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas; Megale De Lima, Tatiana; Nogueira Carvalho, Carmen Regina; Kesselring Tso, Fernanda; De Góis Speck, Neila Maria

    2016-01-01

    VEGF and podoplanin (PDPN) have been identified as angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis regulators and might be essential to restrict tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. In the present study, we evaluate the association between the expression of these markers and CIN grade. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 234 uterine cervical samples using conventional histologic sections or TMA with the monoclonal antibodies to VEGF (C-1 clone) and podoplanin (D2-40 clone). Positive-staining rates of VEGF in 191 CIN specimens were significantly associated with histological grade (P < 0.001). Negative and/or focal immunostaining for PDPN were more frequent in CIN 3 (P = 0.016). We found that patients with CIN 3 more frequently had strong and more diffuse staining for VEGF and diminished staining for PDPN (P = 0.018). Strong and more diffuse VEGF immunoexpressions in CIN 2 and CIN 3 were detected when compared to CIN 1. Negative and/or focal PDPN immunoexpression appear to be more frequent in CIN 3. Moderate to strong VEGF expression may be a tendency among patients with high-grade lesions and diminished PDPN expression. PMID:27313335

  13. Clearance of persistent HPV infection and cervical lesion by therapeutic DNA vaccine in CIN3 patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin; Jin, Hyun-Tak; Hur, Soo-Young; Yang, Hyun Gul; Seo, Yong Bok; Hong, Sung Ran; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Suhyeon; Woo, Jung-Won; Park, Ki Seok; Hwang, Youn-Young; Park, Jaehan; Lee, In-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Taek; Lee, Ki-Heon; Jeong, Mi Seon; Surh, Charles D.; Suh, You Suk; Park, Jong Sup; Sung, Young Chul

    2014-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that electroporation-enhanced immunization with a rationally designed HPV DNA vaccine (GX-188E), preferentially targeting HPV antigens to dendritic cells, elicits a significant E6/E7-specific IFN-γ-producing T-cell response in all nine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) patients. Importantly, eight out of nine patients exhibit an enhanced polyfunctional HPV-specific CD8 T-cell response as shown by an increase in cytolytic activity, proliferative capacity and secretion of effector molecules. Notably, seven out of nine patients display complete regression of their lesions and viral clearance within 36 weeks of follow up. GX-188E administration does not elicit serious vaccine-associated adverse events at all administered doses. These findings indicate that the magnitude of systemic polyfunctional CD8 T-cell response is the main contributing factor for histological, cytological and virological responses, providing valuable insights into the design of therapeutic vaccines for effectively treating persistent infections and cancers in humans. PMID:25354725

  14. Clearance of persistent HPV infection and cervical lesion by therapeutic DNA vaccine in CIN3 patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Jin; Jin, Hyun-Tak; Hur, Soo-Young; Yang, Hyun Gul; Seo, Yong Bok; Hong, Sung Ran; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Suhyeon; Woo, Jung-Won; Park, Ki Seok; Hwang, Youn-Young; Park, Jaehan; Lee, In-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Taek; Lee, Ki-Heon; Jeong, Mi Seon; Surh, Charles D; Suh, You Suk; Park, Jong Sup; Sung, Young Chul

    2014-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that electroporation-enhanced immunization with a rationally designed HPV DNA vaccine (GX-188E), preferentially targeting HPV antigens to dendritic cells, elicits a significant E6/E7-specific IFN-γ-producing T-cell response in all nine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) patients. Importantly, eight out of nine patients exhibit an enhanced polyfunctional HPV-specific CD8 T-cell response as shown by an increase in cytolytic activity, proliferative capacity and secretion of effector molecules. Notably, seven out of nine patients display complete regression of their lesions and viral clearance within 36 weeks of follow up. GX-188E administration does not elicit serious vaccine-associated adverse events at all administered doses. These findings indicate that the magnitude of systemic polyfunctional CD8 T-cell response is the main contributing factor for histological, cytological and virological responses, providing valuable insights into the design of therapeutic vaccines for effectively treating persistent infections and cancers in humans. PMID:25354725

  15. Evaluation of Ki67, p16 and CK17 Markers in Differentiating Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Benign Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sari Aslani, Fatemeh; Safaei, Akbar; Pourjabali, Masoumeh; Momtahan, Mozhdeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a premalignant lesion capable of progressing to cervical cancer. Despite the existing well-defined criteria, the histomorphologic diagnosis is subject to high rates of discordance among pathologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate Ki-67 (MIB-1), CK17 and p16 INK4a (p16) markers by immunohistochemical methods in differentiating CIN from benign cervical lesions. Methods: The present study reviewed and re-classified 77 cervical biopsies, originally diagnosed as 31 non-CIN, and 46 CIN, as 54 non-CIN, and 23 CIN based on at least two similar diagnoses. Immunostaining by Ki67, p16 and CK17 markers was performed on all cases and the results were compared with pervious and consensus diagnosis. Results: The overall agreement between pervious and consensus diagnosis was 67.5% (Kappa=0.39, P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of Ki67 immunostaining were 95.6% and 85.1% respectively, while for p16 the corresponding values were 91.3% and 98.1%. The overall agreement, for both p16 and Ki67, with consensus diagnosis were significant (P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of CK17 negative staining in CIN detection were 39.1% and 40.7% respectively. Conclusion: Ki67 and p16 markers are recommended as complementary tests for differentiating between dysplastic and non-dysplastic lesions. CK17 does not discriminate between immature metaplasia with and without dysplasia. PMID:23645953

  16. DAPK1, MGMT and RARB promoter methylation as biomarkers for high-grade cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yin; Li, Shu; Shen, Keng; Ye, Shuang; Cao, Dongyan; Yang, Jiaxin

    2015-01-01

    Gene promoter methylation may be used a potential biomarker for detecting solid tumor including cervical cancer. Here, we used methylation sensitive-high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis to detecting promoter methylation ratios of DAPK1, MGMT and RARB gene in patients with different cervical disease grade. The detection of gene promoter methylation was conducted in two hundred fifty patients' samples including normal cytology (n=48), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1, n=54), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2, n=47), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3, n=56) and cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCS, n=45). We found there were a significant positive correlation between the promoter methylation status of DAPK1 and cervical disease grade (P=0.022). In addition, the methylated promoters of DAPK1 combined with MGMT, MGMT combined with RARB, DAPK1 combined with RARB were positive correlated with cervical disease grade (P < 0.05). All three genes promoters methylated were positive correlated with cervical disease grade (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was conducted to evaluate whether the three genes methylation could be used to be a potential marker for diagnosing high grade cervical disease (HSIL and SCC). The cutoff values for the methylation rates of all these genes were 0-5%. Regrettably, only the methylation of MGMT combined with DAPK1 gave 43.4% sensitivity and 68.6% specificity. The current results indicated that MS-HRM-based testing for DNA methylations of MGMT plus DAPK1 genes holds some promise for high grade cervical disease screening. PMID:26823825

  17. DAPK1, MGMT and RARB promoter methylation as biomarkers for high-grade cervical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yin; Li, Shu; Shen, Keng; Ye, Shuang; Cao, Dongyan; Yang, Jiaxin

    2015-01-01

    Gene promoter methylation may be used a potential biomarker for detecting solid tumor including cervical cancer. Here, we used methylation sensitive-high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis to detecting promoter methylation ratios of DAPK1, MGMT and RARB gene in patients with different cervical disease grade. The detection of gene promoter methylation was conducted in two hundred fifty patients’ samples including normal cytology (n=48), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1, n=54), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2, n=47), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3, n=56) and cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCS, n=45). We found there were a significant positive correlation between the promoter methylation status of DAPK1 and cervical disease grade (P=0.022). In addition, the methylated promoters of DAPK1 combined with MGMT, MGMT combined with RARB, DAPK1 combined with RARB were positive correlated with cervical disease grade (P < 0.05). All three genes promoters methylated were positive correlated with cervical disease grade (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was conducted to evaluate whether the three genes methylation could be used to be a potential marker for diagnosing high grade cervical disease (HSIL and SCC). The cutoff values for the methylation rates of all these genes were 0-5%. Regrettably, only the methylation of MGMT combined with DAPK1 gave 43.4% sensitivity and 68.6% specificity. The current results indicated that MS-HRM-based testing for DNA methylations of MGMT plus DAPK1 genes holds some promise for high grade cervical disease screening. PMID:26823825

  18. Randomized clinical trial of four adhesion strategies in cervical lesions: 12-month results.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Eloisa Andrade; Tay, Lidia Yileng; Kose, Carlos; Mena-Serrano, Alexandra; Reis, Alessandra; Perdigão, Jorge; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 6- and 12-month clinical performance of four adhesion strategies from the same manufacturer (Kerr) in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) using two evaluation criteria. Thirty-five patients, with at least four NCCLs each, participated in this study. After samplesize calculation, 180 restorations were assigned to one of the following groups: OFL (Optibond FL), OSP (Optibond Solo Plus), XTR (Optibond XTR), and AIO (Optibond All-In-One). The composite resin Filtek Supreme Ultra (3M ESPE) was placed incrementally. The restorations were evaluated at baseline, after 6 months, and after 12 months, using both the FDI and the USPHS-modified criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with Friedman repeated measures, ANOVA by rank, and the McNemar test for significance in each pair (α=0.05). Six restorations (2 for OFL, 1 for OSP, 2 for XTR, and 1 for AIO) were lost at 12 months (P>0.05 for both evaluation criteria). Marginal staining was observed in seven restorations using the FDI criteria (P>0.05) and three restorations using the USPHSmodified criteria (P>0.05). Eight restorations (2 for OSP, 3 for XTR, and 3 for AIO) were classified as Bravo for marginal adaptation using the USPHSmodified criteria (P>0.05). However, 62 restorations (14 for OFL, 12 for OSP, 15 for XTR, and 21 for AIO) were classified as Bravo using the FDI criteria (P>0.05). The four adhesion strategies showed similar clinical retention at 6 and 12 months. The FDI evaluation criteria tend to be more sensitive than the USPHS-modified criteria. PMID:25625130

  19. Inferolateral Entry Point for C2 Pedicle Screw Fixation in High Cervical Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Chul Hee; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Park, In Sung; Jung, Jin Myung

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of atlantoaxial stabilization using a new entry point for C2 pedicle screw fixation. Methods Data were collected from 44 patients undergoing posterior C1 lateral mass screw and C2 screw fixation. The 20 cases were approached by the Harms entry point, 21 by the inferolateral point, and three by pars screw. The new inferolateral entry point of the C2 pedicle was located about 3-5 mm medial to the lateral border of the C2 lateral mass and 5-7 mm superior to the inferior border of the C2-3 facet joint. The screw was inserted at an angle 30° to 45° toward the midline in the transverse plane and 40° to 50° cephalad in the sagittal plane. Patients received followed-up with clinical examinations, radiographs and/or CT scans. Results There were 28 males and 16 females. No neurological deterioration or vertebral artery injuries were observed. Five cases showed malpositioned screws (2.84%), with four of the screws showing cortical breaches of the transverse foramen. There were no clinical consequences for these five patients. One screw in the C1 lateral mass had a medial cortical breach. None of the screws were malpositioned in patients treated using the new entry point. There was a significant relationship between two group (p=0.036). Conclusion Posterior C1-2 screw fixation can be performed safely using the new inferolateral entry point for C2 pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of high cervical lesions. PMID:22200017

  20. Clinical and epidemiological correlations between the infection with HPV 16 and HPV 18 and female cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Stoian, M; Repanovici, R; Corniţescu, F

    1995-01-01

    A number of 66 specimens from female cervical lesions were examined for infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 by nucleic acid hybridization in dot-blot techniques and 35 sera were tested by the immunodot-blot technique, in order to detect the presence of anti E4 and E7 HPV protein antibodies. The findings were compared with the histologic diagnosis. Fifty-six per cent of specimens contained HPV DNA sequences. In 47% of specimens from cervical carcinoma, HPV 11 was detected in 4 cases, HPV 16 in 21 cases, and HPV 18 in 7 cases. Serum antibodies against HPV 16 E4 and HPV 16 E7 occurred in all the cases of uterine carcinoma, in 4 of 10 cases of CIN I-II, and in 3 of 5 sera obtained from apparently healthy women. The analysis of risk factors disclosed the early onset of sexual activity, a relatively high number of births and abortions before the age of 22 years, the use of oral oestroprogestative contraceptive agents, the presence in anamnesis of genital infections with bacterial flora--Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma, etc. Our results showed that HPV typing by nucleic acid hybridization was useful for differentiating low- from high-risk cervical lesions and also tried to elucidate the risk factors associated with HPV infections and progression to malignancy. PMID:9179967

  1. Methylation and expression of miRNAs in precancerous lesions and cervical cancer with HPV16 infection.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Wences, Hilda; Martínez-Carrillo, Dinorah Nashely; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Campos-Viguri, Gabriela Elizabeth; Hernández-Sotelo, Daniel; Jiménez-López, Marco Antonio; Muñoz-Camacho, José Guadalupe; Garzón-Barrientos, Víctor Hugo; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal expression and promoter methylation of microRNAs (miRNAs) are common events during cervical carcinogenesis. Worldwide, infection by types 18 and 16 of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is considered the major risk factor for cervical cancer development. It has been reported that expression of the miRNAs can be deregulated by specific HPV genotypes. In this study we analyzed the promoter methylation of 22 miRNAs and the expression of three miRNAs in 10 non-squamous intraepithelial lesions (Non-SIL) without HPV16 infection, and 7 Non-SIL, 16 low-grade SIL (LSIL) and 16 cervical cancer samples, all with HPV16 infection. The methylation status was determined using Human Cancer miRNA EpiTect Methyl II Signature PCR Array® and the expression of miR-124, miR-218 and miR-193b was determined by qRT-PCR using individual TaqMan assays. Comparisons of groups defined were performed using the Fisher exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The methylation levels of miR-124-2, miR-218-1, miR-218-2 and miR-34b/c promoters were significantly higher in cervical cancer than in LSIL samples. The methylation levels of miR-193b promoter were significantly lower in cervical cancer than in LSIL samples. The expression of miR-124 and miR-218 was significantly lower in cervical cancer than in LSIL samples. The expression of miR-193b was significantly higher in cervical cancer than in LSIL and Non-SIL samples. Our results suggest that the abnormal promoter methylation and expression of miR-124, miR-218 and miR-193b are common events during cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:26797462

  2. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness against high-grade cervical lesions by age at vaccination: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Herweijer, Eva; Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Sparén, Pär; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen

    2016-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16/18, included in HPV vaccines, contribute to the majority of cervical cancer, and a substantial proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) including adenocarcinoma in situ or worse. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination on incidence of CIN2+ and CIN3+. A nationwide cohort of girls and young women resident in Sweden 2006-2013 and aged 13-29 (n = 1,333,691) was followed for vaccination and histologically confirmed high-grade cervical lesions. Data were collected using the Swedish nationwide healthcare registers. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and vaccine effectiveness [(1-IRR)x100%] comparing fully vaccinated with unvaccinated individuals. IRRs were adjusted for attained age and parental education, and stratified on vaccination initiation age. Effectiveness against CIN2+ was 75% (IRR = 0.25, 95%CI = 0.18-0.35) for those initiating vaccination before age 17, and 46% (IRR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.46-0.64) and 22% (IRR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.65-0.93) for those initiating vaccination at ages 17-19, and at ages 20-29, respectively. Vaccine effectiveness against CIN3+ was similar to vaccine effectiveness against CIN2+. Results were robust for both women participating to the organized screening program and for women at prescreening ages. We show high effectiveness of qHPV vaccination on CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions, with greater effectiveness observed in girls younger at vaccination initiation. Continued monitoring of impact of HPV vaccination in the population is needed in order to evaluate both long-term vaccine effectiveness and to evaluate whether the vaccination program achieves anticipated effects in prevention of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:26856527

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for non-carious cervical lesions in children attending special needs schools in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Arunoday; Debnath, Nitai; Kumar, Amit; K Badiyani, Bhumika; Basak, Debashish; S A Ali, Mohamed; B Ismail, Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for development of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in children attending special needs schools in India. The participants were 395 children aged 12-15 years with disabilities in learning, communication, physical function, and/or development. A questionnaire was designed in order to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, and risk factors for NCCLs. The chi-square test, bivariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Presence of NCCLs was associated with use of toothpowder or other materials for teeth cleaning, use of harder toothbrushes, use of a horizontal scrub technique for toothbrushing, consumption of a vegetarian diet, and greater consumption of lemon. The overall prevalence of NCCLs was 22.7%. Most lesions involved minimal loss of contour or defects <1 mm in depth. The prevalence of non-carious cervical lesions was slightly higher than the global average. Effective policies should be developed for oral health care among children attending special needs schools. PMID:25807907

  4. Expression of E-, P- and N-Cadherin and Its Clinical Significance in Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Precancerous Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baohua; Shi, Haiyan; Wang, Fenfen; Hong, Die; Lv, Weiguo; Xie, Xing; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of classical cadherins has been observed in tumor invasion and metastasis, but its involvement in cervical carcinogenesis and cancer progression is not clear. We investigated E-, P- and N-cadherin expression and its significance in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). This retrospective study enrolled 508 patients admitted to Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University with cervical lesions between January 2006 and December 2010. Immunochemical staining was performed in 98 samples of normal cervical epithelium (NC), 283 of CIN, and 127 of early-stage SCC. The association of cadherin staining with clinical characteristics and survival of the patients was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. We found gradients of decreasing E-cadherin expression and increasing P-cadherin expression from NC through CIN to SCC. Aberrant E-cadherin and P-cadherin expression were significantly associated with clinical parameters indicating poor prognosis and shorter patient survival. Interestingly, we found very low levels of positive N-cadherin expression in CIN and SCC tissues that were not related to CIN or cancer. Pearson chi-square tests showed that E-cadherin expression in SCC was inversely correlated with P-cadherin expression (E-P switch), and was not correlated with N-cadherin expression. More important, patients with tissues exhibiting an E-P switch in expression had highly aggressive phenotypes and poorer prognosis than those without E-P switch expression. Our findings suggest that E-cadherin and P-cadherin, but not N-cadherin staining, might be useful in diagnosing CIN and for predicting prognosis in patients with early-stage SCC. PMID:27223886

  5. Specificity of L1 peptides versus virus-like particles for detection of human papillomavirus-positive cervical lesions in females attending Engativa Hospital, Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Urquiza, Mauricio; Sánchez, Ricardo; Amaya, Jairo; León, Sandra; Acosta, Jenny; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Camargo, Milena; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2008-11-01

    A serological test for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in females at risk of developing cervical cancer could be based on conserved L1 peptides with low levels of antigenicity specifically recognized by antibodies from patients with cervical lesions infected with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types. The aim was to assess the ability of L1 peptides 18283, 18294, and 18301 compared with the ability of virus-like particles (VLPs) to identify these infections in females. A total of 391 HPV-infected female volunteers were interviewed, and peripheral blood and cervical cells were obtained for detection of anti-HPV antibodies and HPV DNA; all of the patients had a Pap smear test; 287 patients were referred for colposcopy or biopsy, according to gynecological criteria. The level of agreement, as determined by the use of the Lin coefficient (rho value), showed that 75 to 83% of females with HR-HPV DNA-positive cervical lesions had antibodies that recognized VLPs and peptide 18283, 18294, or 18301, while 15 to 23% of the HPV DNA-negative females with a normal cytology had antibodies that recognized these three peptides and 45% had antibodies that recognized VLPs. The rate of agreement between peptides and VLPs for antibody detection was higher for patients with HPV DNA-positive cervical lesions. Peptides 18283, 18294, and 18301 showed similar sensitivities for the detection of HR-HPV DNA-positive cervical lesions and were more specific than VLPs. Peptide 18301 might be detecting protective antibodies in HPV DNA-negative females with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. These peptides could be useful for the design of a serology test for the detection of HR-HPV infection in females with cervical lesions and at risk of cervical cancer. PMID:18799706

  6. The influence of subsequent dehydroepiandrosterone, diaminopropane, phenobarbital, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene treatment on the development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the rat initiated with di-hydroxy-di-n-propyl nitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Moore, M A; Thamavit, W; Tsuda, H; Ito, N

    1986-02-01

    The comparative modifying potential of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), diaminopropane (DAP), phenobarbital (PB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the development of lesions initiated by dihydroxy-di-n-propyl nitrosamine (DHPN) in F344 rats were investigated. DHEA, BHA and BHT were all associated with significant reduction in numbers of glutathione-S-transferase P form (GST-P) positive foci in the liver whereas PB brought about their enhanced development. BHT and PB exerted promoting activity on the incidence of thyroid adenomas while DAP similarly increased lung adenoma formation. The results illustrate the advantages to be gained from two stage experiments using broad spectrum carcinogen initiation for comparative analysis of 'modifiers' of the neoplastic process and suggest that studies of enzyme alteration within putative preneoplastic lesions may be directly relevant to elucidation of mechanisms underlying such modification. PMID:2937531

  7. Progression and Regression of Pre-malignant Cervical Lesions in HIV-infected Women from Soweto: A Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Tanvier; Schwartz, Sheree; Hanrahan, Colleen; Modisenyane, Tebogo; Tshabangu, Nkeko; Golub, Jonathan E; McIntyre, James A; Gray, Glenda E; Mohapi, Lerato; Martinson, Neil A

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To ascertain progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in HIV-infected women in Soweto. DESIGN Prospective cohort METHODS Women attending an HIV wellness clinic were offered cervical smears as part of care; smears were assessed using the Bethesda system. Those with high grade lesions or worse were referred for colposcopy. Progression analyses included women with at least two smears ≥5.5 months apart. Hazard ratios (HR) were used to ascertain predictors of progression. RESULTS 2,325 women had a baseline smear; their median age and CD4 count was 32 yrs and 312 cells/μl respectively; 17% were taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); 62%, 20% and 14% had normal, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) or high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), respectively. Of those with baseline normal or LSIL smears, 1,074 had another smear; progression from normal to LSIL was 9.6/100py (95% CI 8.3-11.1) and progression from normal or LSIL to HSIL was 4.6/100py (95% CI 3.9-5.5). Of 225 women with LSIL at baseline and ≥1 subsequent smear ≥11.5 months later, 44.0% regressed to normal (21.2/100py (95% CI 17.5-25.7)). Multivariate models suggested risk for progression in women with CD4 count <200; HAART reduced the risk of progression (aHR 0.72 [0.52-0.99]). CONCLUSION HIV-infected women have high rates of prevalent and incident HSIL and LSIL with relatively low risk of regression to normal from LSIL. HAART appears to protect against progression. Our findings suggest cervical screening intervals should be less than 10 years - irrespective of age in women with CD4 counts under 500 cells/mm3. PMID:21076276

  8. Predictive Value of Cytokeratin 7 Immunohistochemistry in Cervical Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion as a Marker for Risk of Progression to a High-grade Lesion.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Cherie; Mills, Anne M; Stoler, Mark H

    2016-02-01

    The squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) cell population of the uterine cervix is a discrete epithelial area and the putative source of the majority of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). The SCJ cells can be identified by immunohistochemical (IHC) stains including cytokeratin 7 (CK7). Others have theorized that an SCJ marker-positive low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) has a higher risk for future HSIL compared with an SCJ marker-negative LSIL. This study has 2 aims: first, to refine the definition of a positive CK7 immunostaining pattern in cervical lesions, and, second, to test the hypothesis that CK7 positivity in LSIL indicates higher risk for future HSIL, with both questions addressed using a data set with consensus diagnoses. One hundred cases each of LSIL, moderate HSIL (CIN2), and severe HSIL (CIN3) were stained for CK7, with positivity defined as a diffuse cytoplasmic staining pattern (>5 to 6 contiguous cells); all others were considered negative. Using this model, 34% of CIN1, 45% of CIN2, and 60% of CIN3 were CK7 positive. With follow-up, CK7-positive LSILs were more likely to progress to HSIL compared with CK7-negative LSIL (32% vs. 11%, P=0.05), in concordance with the results of other researchers. This study simplifies cervical CK7 IHC grading into a reproducible system and supports the thesis that CK7 positivity in LSIL is associated with increased risk for future HSIL. Larger cohorts using consensus-diagnosed LSIL are needed to confirm these results before CK7 may be considered for clinical validation. PMID:26551618

  9. Increase of integration events and infection loads of human papillomavirus type 52 with lesion severity from low-grade cervical lesion to invasive cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jo L K; Cheung, T H; Tang, Julian W T; Chan, Paul K S

    2008-04-01

    Infection load and the integration of human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been implicated as determinants for oncogenesis, but whether variation among different HPV types exists remains unclear. We investigated 91 women infected with HPV type 52 (HPV-52), a type that is rare worldwide but common in East Asia. The median viral load increased with the severity of the lesion (248 copies/cell equivalent for normal/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 1, 402 copies/cell equivalent for CIN 2, 523 copies/cell equivalent for CIN 3, and 1,435 copies/cell equivalent for invasive cancer). The proportion of specimens with integration increased significantly with the severity of the lesion (P < 0.001). The viral load was associated with the physical status of the viral genome, with higher levels for the pure episomal form (P = 0.001). Infection status should be considered when interpreting viral load data for HPV-52, as single infections with this HPV type were found to have marginally higher viral loads than coinfections (P = 0.051). All except one sample had E2 disruption restricted to only a part of the gene. Integration is a critical step in HPV-52-induced carcinogenesis. The profile of E2 disruption was different from that described for HPV-16, with the amino-terminal region being most frequently involved. Selecting the appropriate E2 region for amplification is critical in studying the integration of HPV-52. In summary, the HPV-52 viral load and the integrated proportion increased with the severity of the cervical lesions but had a different pattern than that of HPV-16. PMID:18272718

  10. [The cervical somatosensory evoked potential in lesions of the cortical efferents].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    1990-03-01

    Cervical and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation were analysed in 20 patients with unilateral central paresis of the arm. Neither the configuration nor the latency and amplitude measures of the neck potential did reveal any association with pathological alterations of cortical efferents or with abnormal cortically evoked responses. Thus, also in this population the evaluation of cervical potentials can be done according to the known criteria. PMID:2110891

  11. Biomarkers in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Jong-Sup

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, remains the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the single most important etiological agent in cervical cancer, contributing to neoplastic progression through the action of viral oncoproteins, mainly E6 and E7. Cervical screening programs using Pap smear testing have dramatically improved cervical cancer incidence and reduced deaths, but cervical cancer still remains a global health burden. The biomarker discovery for accurate detection and diagnosis of cervical carcinoma and its malignant precursors (collectively referred to as high-grade cervical disease) represents one of the current challenges in clinical medicine and cytopathology. PMID:19690652

  12. Increased regression and decreased incidence of human papillomavirus-related cervical lesions among HIV-infected women on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Adler, David H.; Kakinami, Lisa; Modisenyane, Tebogo; Tshabangu, Nkeko; Mohapi, Lerato; De Bruyn, Guy; Martinson, Neil A.; Omar, Tanvier

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of HAART on incidence, regression, and progression of cytopathological abnormalities in HIV-infected women. Design Prospective cohort. Methods HIV-infected women (N=1123) from Soweto, South Africa underwent serial cervical smears that were analyzed and reported using the Bethesda System. The results of HAART and non-HAART users were compared using two statistical approaches: a survival analysis assessing risk of incident smear abnormality among women with baseline normal smear results; and analysis with marginal models assessing for an association between HAART use and likelihood of regression/progression in consecutive smears. Results After multivariate survival analysis, women using HAART with a normal baseline smear were 38% less likely to have an incident smear abnormality during follow-up than nonusers [confidence interval (CI) 0.42–0.91; P=0.01]. Multivariate marginal models analysis identified a significantly increased likelihood (odds ratio 2.61; CI 1.75–3.89; P< 0.0001) of regression of cervical lesions among women on HAART. Conclusion Our large prospective cohort study adds significant weight to the side of the balance of clinical research supporting the positive impact of HAART on the natural history of human papillomavirus-related cervical disease in HIV-infected women. PMID:22555167

  13. [Tongue paralysis of neoplastic origin].

    PubMed

    Marco, M; Dalmau, J; Aguilar, M

    1989-10-01

    Tongue paralysis are often underestimated, particularly when isolated or having a chronic course. Sometimes, its early recognition may lead to the diagnosis of a tumor process, favorably modifying its course. We have retrospectively analyzed 13 cases of tongue paralysis of neoplastic etiology. In a woman, the paralysis was due to a lesion of the corticobulbar pathway whereas in the remaining 12, the alteration occurred in the hypoglossal nerve, particularly at extrabulbar intracranial and cranial base tract (10 cases). The clinical picture was due to the primary tumor in 9 patients, and due to bone or leptomeningeal metastases in the remaining four cases. In five cases, the lesion of the XII cranial nerve was essential for the diagnosis of the neoplasm or the neoplastic recurrence and in four cases, it was the only affected cranial nerve. PMID:2637769

  14. Are treatments for cervical precancerous lesions in less-developed countries safe enough to promote scaling-up of cervical screening programs? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the mid-1990s, there have been growing efforts to prevent cervical cancer in less-developed countries through the development of innovative screening approaches such as visual inspection of the cervix associated with same day management of cervical lesions with cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). In the past, promising cancer screening interventions have been widely promoted despite incomplete evidence, only to become the subject of intense controversies about ensuing net health benefit. Because the efficacy and effectiveness of the new protocols for global cervical cancer screening have not been well characterized yet, and as a contribution to the evaluation of the balance between the benefits and risks of these protocols, we reviewed the literature on the safety of cryotherapy and LEEP for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low- and middle-income countries. Methods We searched 12 databases (Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, OCLC, PAIS International Database, WHO Global Health Library, CINAHL, Science.gov, NYAM Grey Literature Report, and POPLINE) for original research published between January 1995 and April 2009. Both peer-reviewed publications and items of "grey" literature were retrieved; no language restriction was applied. We calculated the median (minimum, maximum) reported rate for each harm considered. Because of limitations and heterogeneity in the data, no formal meta-analysis was performed. Results The search identified 32 articles that reported safety data from 24 cryotherapy and LEEP studies. The combined sample consisted of 6,902 women treated by cryotherapy and 4,524 women treated by LEEP. Most studies were conducted in reference or research settings in Asia and Africa. Short-term harms of cryotherapy and LEEP appeared to be similar to those described in the literature from high-income countries. Information was sparse on HIV-related harms and long

  15. DNA methylation in human papillomavirus-infected cervical cells is elevated in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ki-Heon; So, Kyeong A; Hong, Sung Ran; Hwang, Chang-Sun; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Rhee, Jee Eun; Kang, Chun; Hur, Soo Young; Park, Jong Sup

    2016-01-01

    Objective DNA methylation has been shown to be a potential biomarker for early cancer detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA methylation profiles according to liquid-based Pap (LBP) test results and to assess their diagnostic value in a Korean population. Methods A total of 205 patients with various Papanicolaou test results were enrolled to this study (negative, 26; atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 39; low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 44; high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), 48; and cancer, 48). DNA methylation analysis of four genes, ADCYAP1, PAX1, MAL, and CADM1, was performed on residual cervical cells from LBP samples using a quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing method. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the four methylated genes for cancer detection, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn. Sensitivities and specificities were also tested at cutoffs determined from the ROC curves. Results Cervical cancer cells showed dramatically increased methylation levels for the four genes analyzed. ADCYAP1 and PAX1 also trended toward elevated methylation levels in HSIL samples, although the levels were much lower than those in cancer cells. The sensitivities of methylated ADCYAP1, PAX1, MAL, and CADM1 for the detection of cancer were 79.2%, 75.0%, 70.8%, and 52.1%, and the specificities were 92.0%, 94.0%, 94.7%, and 94.0%, respectively. Methylated ADCYAP1 and PAX1 demonstrated relatively better discriminatory ability than did methylated MAL and CADM1 (area under the curves 0.911 and 0.916 vs. 0.854 and 0.756, respectively). Conclusion DNA methylation status, especially in the ADCYAP1 and PAX1 genes, showed relatively good specificity, ranging from 90% to 94%. The possible additive and complementary roles of DNA methylation testing with respect to conventional cervical cancer screening programs will need to be validated in prospective population-based studies. PMID:26768780

  16. Mapping of HPV transcripts in four human cervical lesions using RNAseq suggests quantitative rearrangements during carcinogenic progression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinmiao; Xue, Yuezhen; Poidinger, Michael; Lim, Thimothy; Chew, Sung Hock; Pang, Chai Ling; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Thierry, Françoise

    2014-08-01

    Two classes of Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect the anogenital track: high risk viruses that are associated with risk of cervical cancer and low risk types that drive development of benign lesions, such as condylomas. In the present study, we established quantitative transcriptional maps of the viral genome in clinical lesions associated with high risk HPV16 or low risk HPV6b. Marked qualitative and quantitative changes in the HPV16 transcriptome were associated with progression from low to high grade lesions. Specific transcripts encoding essential regulatory proteins such as E7, E2, E1^E4 and E5 were identified. We also identified intrinsic differences between the HPV6b-associated condyloma transcript map and that of the HPV16-associated low grade CIN specifically regarding promoter usage. Characterization and quantification of HPV transcripts in patient samples thus establish the impact of viral transcriptional regulation on the status of HPV-associated lesions and may therefore help in defining new biologically-relevant prognosis markers. PMID:25092457

  17. Analysis of human papillomavirus type 18 load and integration status from low-grade cervical lesion to invasive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jo L K; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Ng, Candy W Y; Yu, Mei Y; Wong, Martin C S; Siu, Shing-Shun N; Yim, So-Fan; Chan, Paul K S

    2009-02-01

    The clinical value of viral load and integration testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) remains unclear. Data on HPV type 18 (HPV18) is limited. We examined the HPV18 viral load and integration status of 78 women with normal cervix or neoplasia. While the crude viral load appeared to increase with lesion severity, the association was not significant after normalization with sample cellularity. Unlike reports for HPV16, the amino-terminal 1 region of HPV18 E2 was most frequently (71.0%) disrupted, representing the best marker for integration. A substantial proportion (57.1%) of invasive cancers harbored only the episomal genome, thus jeopardizing the clinical value of integration testing. A large proportion (41.7%) of normal/low-grade lesions showed viral integration, suggesting that integration of HPV18 starts early and is unlikely to be a sole determinant for progression. Interpretation of viral load should take into account the form of HPV infection as single infections had significantly higher viral loads than coinfections (P = 0.046). More data generated from routinely collected samples are warranted to verify the clinical value of viral load and integration testing. Viral load quantitation for HPV18 is premature for clinical use at this stage. PMID:19036939

  18. Chronic toxic and carcinogenic effects of oral cadmium in the Noble (NBL/Cr) rat: induction of neoplastic and proliferative lesions of the adrenal, kidney, prostate, and testes.

    PubMed

    Waalkes, M P; Anver, M R; Diwan, B A

    1999-10-29

    Based on the occurrence of pulmonary cancers in exposed populations, cadmium is classified as a human carcinogen. More controversial target sites for cadmium in humans include the prostate and kidney, where some studies have shown a link between cadmium and cancer. In Wistar rats cadmium induces tumors in the ventral prostate. The relevance of such lesions to humans is debated since the rat ventral lobe, unlike the dorsolateral lobe, has no embryological homolog in the human prostate. Cadmium has not been linked with renal tumors in rodents but is a potent nephrotoxin. In this work we studied the effects of oral cadmium in the Noble (NBL/Cr) rat with particular attention to proliferative lesions of the prostate and kidneys. Cadmium (as CdCl2) was given ad libitum throughout the study in the drinking water at doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm Cd to groups (initial n = 30) of male rats, which were observed for up to 102 wk. At the lower doses of cadmium (< or =50 ppm) a clear dose-related increase in total proliferative lesions of the prostate (ventral and dorsolateral lesions combined) occurred (0 ppm = 21% incidence, 25 ppm = 46%, 50 ppm = 50%; trend p < .03). These lesions were described as intraepithelial hyperplasia with occasional areas of atypical epithelial cells without stromal invasion. The lesions occurred primarily in the dorsolateral prostate with cadmium exposure and most frequently showed three or more foci within each specimen. At higher doses, prostatic proliferative lesions declined to control levels. The loss of prostatic response at the higher doses was likely due to diminished testicular function secondary to cadmium treatment. This was reflected in lesions indicative of testicular hypofunction at the highest cadmium dose, namely, interstitial cell hyperplasia, and a strong correlation between cadmium dose and total proliferative lesions of the testes (hyperplasias and tumors combined). Renal tumors (mainly mesenchymal and pelvic transitional

  19. Low NKp30, NKp46 and NKG2D expression and reduced cytotoxic activity on NK cells in cervical cancer and precursor lesions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Persistent high risk HPV infection can lead to cervical cancer, the second most common malignant tumor in women worldwide. NK cells play a crucial role against tumors and virus-infected cells through a fine balance between activating and inhibitory receptors. Expression of triggering receptors NKp30, NKp44, NKp46 and NKG2D on NK cells correlates with cytolytic activity against tumor cells, but these receptors have not been studied in cervical cancer and precursor lesions. The aim of the present work was to study NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D, NKp80 and 2B4 expression in NK cells from patients with cervical cancer and precursor lesions, in the context of HPV infection. Methods NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D, NKp80 and 2B4 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry on NK cells from 59 patients with cervical cancer and squamous intraepithelial lesions. NK cell cytotoxicity was evaluated in a 4 hour CFSE/7-AAD flow cytometry assay. HPV types were identified by PCR assays. Results We report here for the first time that NK cell-activating receptors NKp30 and NKp46 are significantly down-regulated in cervical cancer and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) patients. NCRs down-regulation correlated with low cytolytic activity, HPV-16 infection and clinical stage. NKG2D was also down-regulated in cervical cancer patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that NKp30, NKp46 and NKG2D down-regulation represent an evasion mechanism associated to low NK cell activity, HPV-16 infection and cervical cancer progression. PMID:19531227

  20. Distribution of Carcinogenic Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Association to Cervical Lesions among Women in Fez (Morocco)

    PubMed Central

    Souho, Tiatou; El Fatemi, Hinde; Karim, Safae; El Rhazi, Karima; Bouchikhi, Chahrazed; Banani, Abdelaziz; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes and their association to cellular abnormalities in women from Fez and its neighborhood. Methods Women attending the Hassan II University Hospital for cervical pap smears were recruited after an informed consent. Interviews and two cervical samples were performed for each woman. Cervical samples were used for cytological analysis and HPV DNA detection. HPV was typed using a method based on multiplex PCR with fluorescently labeled specific primers followed by capillary electrophoresis. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Fez. Results The HPV prevalence in the studied population was 43.1% and the most prevalent types were HPV 53 (23 cases); HPV 16 (20 cases); HPV 35 (18 cases); HPV 51 (10 cases) and HPV 56 (7 cases). From the 619 confirmed pap smears, 20% were abnormal. The cytological abnormalities were significantly associated to HPV infection, women age, number of pregnancies and parity (p < 0.05). Conclusion More attention should be given to HPV in Morocco because it represents an important public health concern. The distribution of carcinogenic HPV types in the studied population is different from the data in other regions but epidemiological studies in other Moroccan regions are required. PMID:26731415

  1. Correlation of E6 and E7 levels in high-risk HPV16 type cervical lesions with CCL20 and Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, B; Xue, M

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV)16 E6 and E7 correlation with chemokine ligand (CCL)20 expression and Langerhans cells (LCs) in cervical lesions was investigated. We enrolled 43 patients with surgically treated cervical lesions from the Department of Gynecology in our hospital, and 20 controls without cervical lesions. Subjects were divided by pathology: HPV16(-) and HPV16(+) normal cervical groups (N = 10 each), and HPV16(+) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cervical invasive carcinoma (N = 15 each), and in situ carcinoma (N = 13) groups. E6, E7, the LC surface marker CD1a, and CCL20 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. E6 and E7 in HPV16-type lesions were correlated with CCL20 and LCs. The average high power field cell numbers of CD1a+ LCs in the HPV(-) and HPV(+) normal cervix groups, and the CINI-II, CINIII in situ and cervical carcinoma groups were 22.89 ± 4.84, 13.7 ± 2.26, 9.2 ± 1.68, 5.9 ± 1.59, and 5.5 ± 1.58, respectively. Significant between-group differences existed except between cervical carcinoma and CINIII groups (P < 0.05). CCL20+ rates in each group were 70, 60, 60, 15.38, and 13.33%, respectively. E6/E7-positive expression rates in each group were 20/20, 66.7/66.7, 76.9/69.2, and 86.67/73.3%, respectively. CCL20 was positively correlated with CD1a (r = 0.649), and negatively correlated with E7 (r = -0.946) and E6 (r = -0.949). CD1a was negatively correlated with E6 (r = -0.632) and E7 (r = -0.632). Downregulation of CCL20 leading to LC decline is a key factor in cervical lesions. High-risk HPV-type lesions might inhibit the chemokine CCL20 through E6 and E7 to escape the immune response. PMID:26400278

  2. Prevalence and Distribution of Ossified Lesions in the Whole Spine of Patients with Cervical Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament A Multicenter Study (JOSL CT study).

    PubMed

    Hirai, Takashi; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Iwanami, Akio; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Mori, Kanji; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Kanichiro; Koda, Masao; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Takeshita, Katsushi; Abematsu, Masahiko; Haro, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Masahiko; Watanabe, Kei; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Kanno, Haruo; Imagama, Shiro; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Yamazaki, Masashi; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okawa, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) can cause severe and irreversible paralysis in not only the cervical spine but also the thoracolumbar spine. To date, however, the prevalence and distribution of OPLL in the whole spine has not been precisely evaluated in patients with cervical OPLL. Therefore, we conducted a multi-center study to comprehensively evaluate the prevalence and distribution of OPLL using multi-detector computed tomography (CT) images in the whole spine and to analyze what factors predict the presence of ossified lesions in the thoracolumbar spine in patients who were diagnosed with cervical OPLL by plain X-ray. Three hundred and twenty-two patients with a diagnosis of cervical OPLL underwent CT imaging of the whole spine. The sum of the levels in which OPLL was present in the whole spine was defined as the OP-index and used to evaluate the extent of ossification. The distribution of OPLL in the whole spine was compared between male and female subjects. In addition, a multiple regression model was used to ascertain related factors that affected the OP-index. Among patients with cervical OPLL, women tended to have more ossified lesions in the thoracolumbar spine than did men. A multiple regression model revealed that the OP-index was significantly correlated with the cervical OP-index, sex (female), and body mass index. Furthermore, the prevalence of thoracolumbar OPLL in patients with a cervical OP-index ≥ 10 was 7.8 times greater than that in patients with a cervical OP-index ≤ 5. The results of this study reveal that the extent of OPLL in the whole spine is significantly associated with the extent of cervical OPLL, female sex, and obesity. PMID:27548354

  3. Prevalence and Distribution of Ossified Lesions in the Whole Spine of Patients with Cervical Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament A Multicenter Study (JOSL CT study)

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Takashi; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Iwanami, Akio; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Mori, Kanji; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Kanichiro; Koda, Masao; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Takeshita, Katsushi; Abematsu, Masahiko; Haro, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Masahiko; Watanabe, Kei; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Kanno, Haruo; Imagama, Shiro; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Yamazaki, Masashi; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okawa, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) can cause severe and irreversible paralysis in not only the cervical spine but also the thoracolumbar spine. To date, however, the prevalence and distribution of OPLL in the whole spine has not been precisely evaluated in patients with cervical OPLL. Therefore, we conducted a multi-center study to comprehensively evaluate the prevalence and distribution of OPLL using multi-detector computed tomography (CT) images in the whole spine and to analyze what factors predict the presence of ossified lesions in the thoracolumbar spine in patients who were diagnosed with cervical OPLL by plain X-ray. Three hundred and twenty-two patients with a diagnosis of cervical OPLL underwent CT imaging of the whole spine. The sum of the levels in which OPLL was present in the whole spine was defined as the OP-index and used to evaluate the extent of ossification. The distribution of OPLL in the whole spine was compared between male and female subjects. In addition, a multiple regression model was used to ascertain related factors that affected the OP-index. Among patients with cervical OPLL, women tended to have more ossified lesions in the thoracolumbar spine than did men. A multiple regression model revealed that the OP-index was significantly correlated with the cervical OP-index, sex (female), and body mass index. Furthermore, the prevalence of thoracolumbar OPLL in patients with a cervical OP-index ≥ 10 was 7.8 times greater than that in patients with a cervical OP-index ≤ 5. The results of this study reveal that the extent of OPLL in the whole spine is significantly associated with the extent of cervical OPLL, female sex, and obesity. PMID:27548354

  4. Characteristics of bacterial vaginosis infection in cervical lesions with high risk human papillomavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huan; Jiang, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Hou, Wen-Jing; Wei, Zhen-Hong; Lu, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Guang-Xu; Chen, Yuan-Ping; Ren, Yuan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ying

    2015-01-01

    High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major cause of cervical cancer. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is considered as the most prevalent vaginal imbalance affecting women of reproductive age. However, the relationship between HPV and BV infection is unclear. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection combined with bacterial vaginosis (BV) infection in Shanghai suburbs and evaluate associations between bacterial vaginosis with HPV infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. Methods: From October 1, 2009 to October 31, 2013, a total number of 3502 women who visited Fengxian Hospital, Southern Medical University were enrolled in this study. All participants gave informed consent and agreed to HPV, BV, chlamydia, mycoplasma and thinprepcytologic test (TCT). In addition, all women took histopathologic examination under colposcopy. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS 17.0 for windows (IBM). In present study the overall BV-positive rate was 9.25%. The top three high risk HPV types were listed as follows (in descending order): HPV16, 52, 58. Moreover, our data showed BV infection tended to occur in the HPV positive women, HPV infection also tended to occur in the BV positive women. Most of the women who present HPV with BV infection were younger than 30 years old. We also found that CIN and cervical cancer occurred mainly in HPV/BV positive and HPV with BV positive group. BV infection and HPV infection may haveconsistency or synergies. HPV with BV infection may increase the incidence of CIN and cervical cancer. PMID:26885039

  5. Cervical Pre-Phrenic Interneurons in the Normal and Lesioned Spinal Cord of the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Michael A.; White, Todd E.; Coutts, Marcella A.; Jones, Alex L.; Sandhu, Milapjit S.; Bloom, David C.; Bolser, Donald C.; Yates, Bill J.; Fuller, David D.; Reier, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    While monosynaptic bulbospinal projections to phrenic motoneurons have been extensively described, little is known about the organization of phrenic premotor neurons in the adult rat spinal cord. As interneurons may play an important role in normal breathing and recovery following spinal cord injury, the present study has used anterograde and transneuronal retrograde tracing to study their distribution and synaptic relations. Exclusive unilateral, first-order labeling of the phrenic motoneuron pool with pseudorabies virus demonstrated a substantial number of second-order, bilaterally-distributed cervical interneurons predominantly in the dorsal horn and around the central canal. Combined transneuronal and anterograde tracing revealed ventral respiratory column projections to pre-phrenic interneurons suggesting some propriospinal relays exist between medullary neurons and the phrenic nucleus. Dual-labeling studies with pseudorabies virus recombinants also showed pre-phrenic interneurons integrated with either contralateral phrenic or intercostal motoneuron pools. The stability of interneuronal pseudorabies virus labeling patterns following lateral cervical hemisection was then addressed. Except for fewer infected contralateral interneurons at the level of the central canal, the number and distribution of phrenic-associated interneurons was not significantly altered two weeks post-hemisection (i.e. when the earliest post-injury recovery of phrenic activity has been reported). These results demonstrate a heterogeneous population of phrenic-related interneurons. Their connectivity and relative stability after cervical hemisection raises speculation for potentially diverse roles in modulating phrenic function normally and post-injury. PMID:18924146

  6. Is screen-and-treat approach suited for screening and management of precancerous cervical lesions in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    PubMed

    Fokom-Domgue, Joël; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    The World Health Organization guidelines for screening and management of cervical precancerous lesions updated in 2013 made an emphasis on the use of the 'screen-and-treat' approach for cervical cancer prevention. In order to facilitate scaling-up in low income settings, most of these screen-and-treat strategies do not involve confirmatory biopsy. This yields a certain rate of overtreatment. In other words, a majority of people undergoing screen-and-treat intervention who are treated does not necessarily benefit from the treatment. Therefore, the issue of potential short term and long term complications of the recommended treatment procedures (cryotherapy and Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure) arises. This question has seldom been studied in resource poor countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is rampant in an epidemic fashion and where the procreative capacities are socially rewarding for women. We draw the attention of the scientific community and policy makers to the fact that the lack of evidence supporting the safety of these treatment procedures in African populations may have an impact on the acceptability of these strategies and therefore on the effectiveness of screening programs. PMID:24879892

  7. Performance of the HPV-16 L1 methylation assay and HPV E6/E7 mRNA test for the detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions in cervical cytological samples.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cui; Zhi, Yanfang; Shen, Yong; Gong, Jiaomei; Li, Ya; Rong, Shouhua; Okunieff, Paul; Zhang, Lulu; Li, Xiaofu

    2015-11-01

    HPV-16 L1 methylation and E6/E7 mRNA have suggested that they had close relationship with cervical neoplastic progression. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical performance of the HPV-16 L1 methylation assay and E6/E7 mRNA test for detecting high-grade cervical lesions (CIN2+). A total of 81 women with liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples, histological results, and positive HPV-DNA test for HPV type 16 only were included in this study. HPV-16 L1 methylation and E6/E7 mRNA levels were measured using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis and Quantivirus®HPV E6/E7 RNA 3.0 assay (bDNA), respectively, in the same residue of LBC samples. The current date showed a positive correlation between the HPV-16 L1 methylation and the E6/E7 mRNA levels. The L1 methylation and mRNA levels both increased with disease severity. The mRNA test method showed higher sensitivity and NPV (98.0 and 91.7% vs. 89.8 and 80.8%), while lower specificity and PPV (34.4 and 69.6% vs. 65.6 and 80.0%), than the L1 methylation assay for detecting histology-confirmed CIN2+. When using the detection method of mRNA test combined with L1 methylation assay, we obtained a sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 71.9%. These findings suggest that assessment of HPV-16 L1 methylation testing combined with E6/E7 mRNA testing may be a promising method for the triage of women with HPV type 16 only. PMID:26297960

  8. Metabonomic signature analysis of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions in women by (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hasim, Ayshamgul; Ali, Mayinuer; Mamtimin, Batur; Ma, Jun-Qi; Li, Qiao-Zhi; Abudula, Abulizi

    2012-06-01

    (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics has been used to characterize the metabolic profiles of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to model the systematic variation related to patients with CIN or CSCC with healthy controls. Potential metabolic biomarkers were identified using database comparisons, and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to examine the significance of the metabolites. Compared with plasma obtained from the healthy controls, plasma from patients with CIN had higher levels of very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL), acetone, unsaturated lipid and carnitine, together with lower levels of creatine, lactate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamine, histidine, glycine, acetylcysteine, myo-inositol, choline and glycoprotein. Plasma from patients with CSCC had higher levels of acetate and formate, together with lower levels of creatine, lactate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamine, histidine and tyrosine compared with the plasma of the healthy controls. In addition, compared with the plasma of patients with CIN, the plasma of CSCC patients had higher levels of acetate, formate, lactate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamine, histidine, tyrosine, acetylcysteine, myo-inositol, glycoprotein, α-glucose and β-glucose, together with lower levels of acetone, unsaturated lipid and carnitine. Moreover, the profiles showed high feasibility and specificity by statistical analysis with OPLS-DA compared to the Thinprep cytology test (TCT) by setting the histopathological outcome as standard. The metabolic profile obtained for cervical cancer is significant, even for the precancerous disease. This suggests a systemic metabolic response to cancer, which may be used to identify potential early diagnostic biomarkers of the cancer and to establish

  9. Metabonomic signature analysis of cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions in women by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    HASIM, AYSHAMGUL; ALI, MAYINUER; MAMTIMIN, BATUR; MA, JUN-QI; LI, QIAO-ZHI; ABUDULA, ABULIZI

    2012-01-01

    1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics has been used to characterize the metabolic profiles of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to model the systematic variation related to patients with CIN or CSCC with healthy controls. Potential metabolic biomarkers were identified using database comparisons, and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to examine the significance of the metabolites. Compared with plasma obtained from the healthy controls, plasma from patients with CIN had higher levels of very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL), acetone, unsaturated lipid and carnitine, together with lower levels of creatine, lactate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamine, histidine, glycine, acetylcysteine, myo-inositol, choline and glycoprotein. Plasma from patients with CSCC had higher levels of acetate and formate, together with lower levels of creatine, lactate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamine, histidine and tyrosine compared with the plasma of the healthy controls. In addition, compared with the plasma of patients with CIN, the plasma of CSCC patients had higher levels of acetate, formate, lactate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamine, histidine, tyrosine, acetylcysteine, myo-inositol, glycoprotein, α-glucose and β-glucose, together with lower levels of acetone, unsaturated lipid and carnitine. Moreover, the profiles showed high feasibility and specificity by statistical analysis with OPLS-DA compared to the Thinprep cytology test (TCT) by setting the histopathological outcome as standard. The metabolic profile obtained for cervical cancer is significant, even for the precancerous disease. This suggests a systemic metabolic response to cancer, which may be used to identify potential early diagnostic biomarkers of the cancer and to establish

  10. [The role of the general practitioner and dentist in the early diagnosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Scala, M; Moresco, L; Comandini, D; Monteghirfo, S; Tomei, D

    1997-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancer allows for a 90% 5-year survival rate. Unfortunately, nowadays 60% of these tumors are detected in advanced stages with a 5-year survival of about 20%. Therefore, early diagnosis is of the greatest importance. Both the GP and the dentist have a primary role in early diagnosis and are also responsible for informing the population regarding the risk factors in oral cancer. GPs and dentists should systematically check the oral cavity mucous membranes in heavy smokers and/or drinkers above all when over 40. Lesions become suspicious when they persist for more than two weeks after detection. The high-risk pts and suspicious lesions should undergo the following diagnostic procedures: micronucleus test, vital staining, scraping and biopsy for cytological and histological examination. The above mentioned methods will increase the early diagnosis of tumours and improve its prognosis. PMID:9173222

  11. Clinical evaluation of giomer- and resin-modified glass ionomer cement in class V noncarious cervical lesions: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Jyothi, KN; Annapurna, S; Kumar, Anil S; Venugopal, P; Jayashankara, CM

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate and compare the clinical performance of Giomer (Beautifil II) and RMGIC (Fuji II LC) in noncarious cervical lesions. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two subjects with one or two pairs of noncarious cervical lesions were included in the study. Each pair of lesion was restored with either giomer or RMGIC assigned randomly. Clinical evaluation of restorations was done using USPHS criteria. Data was formulated in a predesigned format and subjected to statistical analysis using the chi square test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between RMGIC and Giomer with respect to surface roughness with P value <0.001. Conclusion: Giomer showed superior surface finish compared to RMGIC. Both Giomer and RMGIC showed equal retention ability. PMID:22144814

  12. Association between cervical lesion grade and micronucleus frequency in the Papanicolaou test

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Caroline Tanski; Dornelles da Silva, Cláudia Maria; Barcellos, Regina Bones; da Silva, Juliana; dos Santos, Carla Rossana; Menezes, João Evangelista Sampaio; Menezes, Honório Sampaio; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and the cellular changes detected in the conventional Papanicolaou test. One hundred and seventy-four Papanicolaou test smears with cellular changes were examined. MN screening was done in cytopathological smears by counting 1,000 cervical cells in a light microscope. MN frequencies were significantly higher in the group with cellular changes compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The mean MN frequencies were 0.95 ± 1.12 (mean ± SD) in the control group (n = 223), 2.98 ± 1.20 in individuals with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (n = 50), 4.04 ± 1.45 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 52), 5.97 ± 1.83 in CIN II (n = 30), 7.29 ± 1.55 in CIN III (n = 17) and 8.64 ± 1.55 in invasive cancer (n = 25). These findings suggest that MN monitoring should be included as an additional criterion for the early detection of cytogenetic damage in routine examinations. This monitoring should be done in the same smear as used for cytopathological examination. More specific and systematic studies are necessary to confirm this proposal. PMID:25249771

  13. Human Papilloma Virus Persistence after Cone Excision in Women with Cervical High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pirtea, Laurențiu; Grigoraş, Dorin; Matusz, Petru; Pirtea, Marilena; Moleriu, Lavinia; Tudor, Anca; Ilina, Răzvan; Secoşan, Cristina; Mazilu, Octavian

    2016-01-01

    Background. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary event in cervical cancer tumorigenesis. Our objectives were to estimate the rate of HPV infection persistence after large loop excision of the transformation zone (LEEP) in patients with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and to investigate if HPV persistence is type related. Methods. We conducted a prospective study on 89 patients with HSIL treated with LEEP. DNA HPV was performed before surgery and at 6, 12, and 18 months after LEEP. Results. Four patients were excluded from the study. The HPV persistence in the remaining 85 patients was 32.95% (6 months), 14.12% (12 months), and 10.59% (18 months). Type 16 had the highest persistence rate, 23.5% (6 months), 11.8% (12 months), and 8.2% (18 months). Coinfection was found to be 54.12% before LEEP and 18.8% (6 months), 4.7% (12 months), and 3.5% (18 months) after LEEP. The rate of coinfections including type 16 was 46.83% of all coinfections. Coinfection including type 16 was not correlated with higher persistence rate compared to infection with type 16 only. Conclusions. HPV infection is not completely eradicated by LEEP in patients with HSIL lesion on PAP smear. HPV persistence after LEEP is influenced by HPV type. HPV type 16 has the highest persistence rate. PMID:27366164

  14. Hybrid capture II, a new sensitive test for human papillomavirus detection. Comparison with hybrid capture I and PCR results in cervical lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, C; Masure, M; Putaud, I; Thomas, K; Bory, J P; Gabriel, R; Quereux, C; Birembaut, P

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To test a new assay for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, hybrid capture II (HC II), compared with the previous commercialized hybrid capture I (HC I) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results on cervical scrapes from fresh cone excision biopsy samples. METHODS: The three methods were used on cervical scrapes from 42 fresh cone excision biopsy samples. There were nine metaplastic and inflammatory lesions, five low grade lesions, and 28 high grade lesions. PCR was performed using the general primers GP5+/GP6+. The viral load of high risk HPV DNA was estimated by the ratio of relative light units to positive control values in the samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity of HC I for the detection of high grade lesions was 71.4%, while it was 92.8% for HC II and 96.4% for the PCR. Considering only the absence of detectable cervical in situ neoplasia, the specificity was 88.9% for HC I, 66.7% for HC II, and 66.7% for PCR. With HC II, for a ratio of cervical sample to normal control of > 200, the sensitivity for the detection of high grade lesion was only 34.6% with a specificity of 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: HPV detection with the HC II assay is more sensitive than the previous HC I and represents a more convenient and easier test than PCR for routine use. Nevertheless the viral load estimated with this test cannot be a reliable predictive indicator of high grade lesions. PMID:10023335

  15. Investigation of expression of 5T4 antigen in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Jones, H; Roberts, G; Hole, N; McDicken, I W; Stern, P

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody detecting amniotrophoblastic antigen 5T4 has shown reactivity against various neoplastic cell lines and tumour specimens but with a relatively restricted normal tissue expression. This antibody has been investigated as a potential indicator of premalignant changes identified as cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and malignant cervical lesions using immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue biopsies. The basal cells of normal cervical stratified epithelium exhibited faint staining, but a general increase in intensity and extent of specific labeling of this tissue was seen from the first premalignant stage through to carcinoma. In most cases, this was in accordance with the distribution of dysplastic cells, and was accompanied by increased specific staining of the stromal tissue. All invasive squamous carcinomas of the cervix were 5T4 antigen positive. Common inflammatory non-malignant diseases did show a certain degree of epithelial and stromal reactivity. These results, showing 5T4 reactivity with neoplastic and pre-neoplastic lesions, may provide a quantitative basis for its potential use as a tumour marker in the immunochemical detection on immunoassay of cervical cancer. PMID:2404512

  16. Deletion of atbf1/zfhx3 in mouse prostate causes neoplastic lesions, likely by attenuation of membrane and secretory proteins and multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Fu, Xiaoying; Li, Jie; Xing, Changsheng; Frierson, Henry F; Wu, Hao; Ding, Xiaokun; Ju, Tongzhong; Cummings, Richard D; Dong, Jin-Tang

    2014-05-01

    The ATBF1/ZFHX3 gene at 16q22 is the second most frequently mutated gene in human prostate cancer and has reduced expression or mislocalization in several types of human tumors. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that ATBF1 has a tumor suppressor function in prostate cancer has not been tested. In this study, we examined the role of ATBF1 in prostatic carcinogenesis by specifically deleting Atbf1 in mouse prostatic epithelial cells. We also examined the effect of Atbf1 deletion on gene expression and signaling pathways in mouse prostates. Histopathologic analyses showed that Atbf1 deficiency caused hyperplasia and mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN) primarily in the dorsal prostate but also in other lobes. Hemizygous deletion of Atbf1 also increased the development of hyperplasia and mPIN, indicating a haploinsufficiency of Atbf1. The mPIN lesions expressed luminal cell markers and harbored molecular changes similar to those in human PIN and prostate cancer, including weaker expression of basal cell marker cytokeratin 5 (Ck5), cell adhesion protein E-cadherin, and the smooth muscle layer marker Sma; elevated expression of the oncoproteins phospho-Erk1/2, phospho-Akt and Muc1; and aberrant protein glycosylation. Gene expression profiling revealed a large number of genes that were dysregulated by Atbf1 deletion, particularly those that encode for secretory and cell membrane proteins. The four signaling networks that were most affected by Atbf1 deletion included those centered on Erk1/2 and IGF1, Akt and FSH, NF-κB and progesterone and β-estradiol. These findings provide in vivo evidence that ATBF1 is a tumor suppressor in the prostate, suggest that loss of Atbf1 contributes to tumorigenesis by dysregulating membrane and secretory proteins and multiple signaling pathways, and provide a new animal model for prostate cancer. PMID:24934715

  17. Deletion of Atbf1/Zfhx3 In Mouse Prostate Causes Neoplastic Lesions, Likely by Attenuation of Membrane and Secretory Proteins and Multiple Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaodong; Fu, Xiaoying; Li, Jie; Xing, Changsheng; Frierson, Henry F.; Wu, Hao; Ding, Xiaokun; Ju, Tongzhong; Cummings, Richard D.; Dong, Jin-Tang

    2014-01-01

    The ATBF1/ZFHX3 gene at 16q22 is the second most frequently mutated gene in human prostate cancer and has reduced expression or mislocalization in several types of human tumors. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that ATBF1 has a tumor suppressor function in prostate cancer has not been tested. In this study, we examined the role of ATBF1 in prostatic carcinogenesis by specifically deleting Atbf1 in mouse prostatic epithelial cells. We also examined the effect of Atbf1 deletion on gene expression and signaling pathways in mouse prostates. Histopathologic analyses showed that Atbf1 deficiency caused hyperplasia and mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN) primarily in the dorsal prostate but also in other lobes. Hemizygous deletion of Atbf1 also increased the development of hyperplasia and mPIN, indicating a haploinsufficiency of Atbf1. The mPIN lesions expressed luminal cell markers and harbored molecular changes similar to those in human PIN and prostate cancer, including weaker expression of basal cell marker cytokeratin 5 (Ck5), cell adhesion protein E-cadherin, and the smooth muscle layer marker Sma; elevated expression of the oncoproteins phospho-Erk1/2, phospho-Akt and Muc1; and aberrant protein glycosylation. Gene expression profiling revealed a large number of genes that were dysregulated by Atbf1 deletion, particularly those that encode for secretory and cell membrane proteins. The four signaling networks that were most affected by Atbf1 deletion included those centered on Erk1/2 and IGF1, Akt and FSH, NF-κB and progesterone and β-estradiol. These findings provide in vivo evidence that ATBF1 is a tumor suppressor in the prostate, suggest that loss of Atbf1 contributes to tumorigenesis by dysregulating membrane and secretory proteins and multiple signaling pathways, and provide a new animal model for prostate cancer. PMID:24934715

  18. L-Selenomethionine Does not Protect Against Testosterone Plus 17β-Estradiol-Induced Oxidative Stress and Pre-Neoplastic Lesions in the Prostate of NBL Rats

    PubMed Central

    Özten, Nur; Schlicht, Michael; Diamond, Alan M.; Bosland, Maarten C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous animal studies examining dietary selenium effects on prostatic carcinogenesis did not show preventive benefit, including one study in a rat model involving testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2)-induced prostatic oxidative stress. Here, we examined modulation of T+E2-induced prostatic oxidative stress, dysplasia, and inflammation by L-selenomethionine at 1.5 or 3.0 mg selenium/kg in NIH-07 diet in Nbl/Crl rats treated with T+E2 for 16 weeks. Hormone treatment increased immunohistochemical staining for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the prostatic sites of T+E2-induced preneoplasia (p<0.05), but selenomethionine did not attenuate 8-OHdG staining and dysplasia in the lateral prostate. Glutathione-peroxidase activity and mRNA expression were induced by T+E2 (p<0.05–p<0.0001) but not changed by selenomethionine. Selenomethionine did not cause significant responses in expression and activity of glutathione-peroxidase and MnSOD, except for a reduction of MnSOD protein expression in the lateral prostate (p<0.01). The absence of reduction of oxidative stress and dysplasia and the minimal effects on antioxidant enzymes caused by selenomethionine are consistent with the null effects observed in selenium supplementation animal studies and clinical trials. Significant (p<0.01) opposite apoptosis/cell proliferation balance responses to selenomethionine and to T+E2 occurred in the lateral and dorsal prostate, explaining why T+E2 induces lesions selectively in the lateral lobe of NBL rats. PMID:24773027

  19. Preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the lung, liver and urinary tract of mice exposed to environmental cigarette smoke and UV light since birth.

    PubMed

    D'Agostini, Francesco; Balansky, Roumen; Steele, Vernon E; Ganchev, Gancho; Pesce, Carlo; De Flora, Silvio

    2008-12-01

    It is difficult to reproduce the carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke (CS) in animal models. Recently, we showed that exposure of mice to mainstream CS (MCS) for 120 days, starting immediately after birth, resulted in an early and potent carcinogenic response. In parallel, we implemented studies evaluating intermediate biomarkers and tumors in mice exposed to environmental CS (ECS). To this purpose, we used 263 newborn CD-1 mice born from 27 dams. The whole-body exposure to ECS for 120 days, starting within 12 hr after birth, resulted in an early appearance of preneoplastic lesions in lung, which however tended to attenuate after discontinuing exposure. When the experiment was stopped, after 330 days, the number of lung adenomas was higher in ECS-exposed mice as compared to sham-exposed mice, but such increase was statistically significant only in mice co-exposed to smoke and halogen light mimicking solar irradiation. Moreover, exposure to ECS produced extensive histopathological changes, mainly parenchymatous degeneration, in liver. The alterations produced in both lung and liver require that exposure to ECS starts immediately after birth, no effect being observed when exposure started 8 days later. In contrast, induction by ECS of alterations in the urinary tract, such as microadenomas and adenomas in renal pelvis and kidney, papillary hyperplasia of urothelium, and urinary bladder papillomas, were unrelated to the exposure time after birth. The results obtained with ECS cannot be directly compared to those previously obtained with MCS, since the latter involved shorter daily exposures to more massive CS doses. PMID:18770867

  20. Clinical and evolving features of women diagnosed with precancerous cervical lesions, screened and treated in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado, Patricia Rezende do; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Silva, Ilce Ferreira da

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the dynamics of precancerous lesions in women of a cohort treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and followed up over the next two years. The conditional probability of failure was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the raw and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were determined using Cox regression with a p-value entry of < 0.05. Of the 237 women who were treated, 51.5% were accompanied over 24 months, and treatment failed for 21.9% of those accompanied. Women who had five or more pregnancies (adjusted HR = 3.10, 95%CI: 1.28-7.51) or an initial histological diagnosis of CIN II/III demonstrated an independent risk of treatment failure (adjusted HR = 3.14, 95%CI: 1.20-8.19). Being in a stable relationship was a protective factor against treatment failure (adjusted HR = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.24-0.89). A history of more frequent pregnancies and a histological diagnosis of CIN II/III are directly correlated with risk of CIN treatment failure, whereas being in a stable relationship is inversely correlated with this risk. PMID:25317520

  1. Management of bilateral invasive cervical resorption lesions in maxillary incisors using a novel calcium silicate-based cement: A case report.

    PubMed

    Karypidou, Athanasia; Chatzinikolaou, Ino-Dimitra; Kouros, Pantelis; Koulaouzidou, Elisabeth; Economides, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a pathologic process leading to progressive and usually destructive loss of tooth structure. The pathogenic mechanism is not completely understood and the diagnosis may be challenging. The aim of this article is to present an unusual case of bilateral presence of invasive cervical resorption lesions in maxillary central incisors and to discuss the treatment procedures using a novel repair material. The management of the present case was carried out in three phases. The first stage of the treatment aimed at curetting the active tissue from the resorption cavity and restoring the defect with the novel calcium silicate-based cement (Biodentine, Septodont). In the maxillary left central incisor it was not possible to remove the resorptive tissue without exposing the pulp, and therefore root canal treatment was performed. At the second phase, a full-thickness flap was raised in order to expose and repair the defect that was extending subgingivally. At the third phase teeth were restored with composite resin. The patient was kept under review and after a follow-up period of 2 years neither signs of periradicular lesion nor recurrence of resorption were observed. The teeth were asymptomatic, and restorations appeared to be in excellent condition. In conclusion, Biodentine seems to be a promising material for the treatment of invasive cervical resorption lesions. PMID:27341468

  2. Fractal Analysis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizii, Markus; Moinfar, Farid; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) represent precursor lesions of cervical cancer. These neoplastic lesions are traditionally subdivided into three categories CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3, using microscopical criteria. The relation between grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and its fractal dimension was investigated to establish a basis for an objective diagnosis using the method proposed. Methods Classical evaluation of the tissue samples was performed by an experienced gynecologic pathologist. Tissue samples were scanned and saved as digital images using Aperio scanner and software. After image segmentation the box counting method as well as multifractal methods were applied to determine the relation between fractal dimension and grades of CIN. A total of 46 images were used to compare the pathologist's neoplasia grades with the predicted groups obtained by fractal methods. Results Significant or highly significant differences between all grades of CIN could be found. The confusion matrix, comparing between pathologist's grading and predicted group by fractal methods showed a match of 87.1%. Multifractal spectra were able to differentiate between normal epithelium and low grade as well as high grade neoplasia. Conclusion Fractal dimension can be considered to be an objective parameter to grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:25302712

  3. P16INK4a: a potential diagnostic adjunct for prediction of high-grade cervical lesions in liquid-based cytology: with HPV testing and histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y P; Abdul Raub, S H; Mohd Dali, A Z H; Kassim, F; Visvalingam, V; Zakaria, Z; Kamaluddin, M A; Noor Akmal, S

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and its precursors. Increased expression of high-risk hrHPV viral oncogenes in abnormal cells might increase the expression of p16INK4a. We aimed to determine the role of p16INK4a in detecting hrHPV-transformed epithelial cells in liquid-based cervical cytology, and compared the results with hrHPV DNA testing by realtime polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-seven cytological samples were tested for p16INK4a immunomarker and hrHPV DNA. Test performance of both tests was determined by comparing sensitivity, specificity and predictive values using available histological follow-up data as gold standard. Of 57 samples, 36 (63.2%) showed immunoreactivity for p16INK4a and 43 (75.4%) were hrHPV-infected. A fairly low concordance rate (k = 0.504) between p16INK4a immunolabelling and hrHPV DNA status was noted. For prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and worse lesions, p16INK4a had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.5% and 60%; whereas hrHPV DNA testing had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 20%. Dual testing by combining p16INK4a and hrHPV showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 33.3%. In conclusion, p16INK4a is useful in predicting severity of the cytological abnormalities. Although p16INK4a is more specific but less sensitive than hrHPV in detecting high-grade cervical lesions, a combination of both tests failed to demonstrate significant improvement in diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. Larger-scale prospective studies are required to assess further whether this biomarker should be routinely used as primary screening tool independently or in combination with hrHPV testing to improve diagnostic accuracy in cervical cytology. PMID:27568665

  4. Effect of Low CD4 Cell Count on Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions among HIV-Positive Women in Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Enebe, Joseph Tochukwu; Nnakenyi, Emeka Francis; Ezegwui, Hyginus Uzochukwu; Ozumba, Benjamin Chukwuma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive women are more likely to develop cervical neoplasm. HIV-positive women with low CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count may be more predisposed to cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). This study aimed to determine the association between low cellular immunity of HIV positive women, and the prevalence and grade of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. Materials and Methods Pap smear was carried out on two cohorts of Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART) experienced HIV-positive women (178 per group) at the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria-Centre for Disease Control Adult Anti-Retroviral clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria from June to November, 2012. The study group had CD4 cell count of < 200 cells/μl while the control group had CD4 cell count of ≥200 cells/μl. Results The mean CD4 cell counts of participants in the study (low CD4) group was 127.9 ± 47.49 cells/ml while that of the control (high CD4) group was 489.2 ± 186.36 cells/ml (p < 0.001). The prevalence of SIL was 10.2% (18/176) for the low CD4 group, and 5.7% (10/176) for the high CD4 group [OR = 1.9 (95% CI: 0.85, 4.22)]. The commonest category of SILs identified was Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL), thus 11 (6.3%) in the study versus 7 (4.0%) in the control group (p = 0.703). Conclusion Prevalence of cervical SILs among HIV positive women on HAART in Enugu, Nigeria is low and has no significant relationship with their CD4 cell count. PMID:26674006

  5. Up-regulation of lipocalin 2 is associated with high-risk human papillomavirus and grade of cervical lesion at baseline but does not predict outcomes of infections or incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, Stina; Naud, Paulo; Sarian, Luis; Derchain, Sophie; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Tatti, Silvio; Branca, Margerita; Erzen, Mojca; Hammes, Luciano S; Costa, Silvano; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Syrjänen, Kari

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to assess whether neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)/lipocalin 2 (LCN2) expression in cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions has implications on the outcome of HPV infections or disease progression. Cervical biopsy specimens from 225 women in the Latin American Screening study were analyzed for NGAL/LCN2 expression using immunohistochemical analysis, to assess associations with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade, high-risk HPV, and in predicting outcomes of high-risk (HR)-HPV infections. Expression of NGAL/LCN2 increased with lesion grade (odds ratio [OR], 3.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-9.71; P = .001). Up-regulation was also related to HR-HPV detection (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.15-4.24; P = .016) and showed a linear relationship to HR-HPV load (P = .002). NGAL/LCN2 expression was of no value in predicting the outcomes of HR-HPV infections or the surrogate end points (incident CIN 1+ and CIN 2+) of progressive disease. Because the SV40 large T antigen is a powerful up-regulator of this lipocalin, up-regulation of NGAL/LCN2 in CIN is probably induced by HR-HPV E6 oncoprotein, most likely by eliminating its normal transcription repression exerted by wild-type p53. PMID:20551266

  6. Stress Analysis of Occlusal Forces in Canine Teeth and Their Role in the Development of Non-Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

    PubMed Central

    Romeed, Shihab A.; Malik, Raheel; Dunne, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Non-carious cervical tooth lesions for many decades were attributed to the effects of abrasion and erosion mainly through toothbrush trauma, abrasive toothpaste, and erosive acids. However, though the above may be involved, more recently a biomechanical theory for the formation of these lesions has arisen, and the term abfraction was coined. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of abfraction lesions in upper canine teeth under axial and lateral loading conditions using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. An extracted human upper canine tooth was scanned by μCT machine (Skyscan, Belgium). These μCT scans were segmented, reconstructed, and meshed using ScanIP (Simpleware, Exeter, UK) to create a three-dimensional finite element model. A 100 N load was applied axially at the incisal edge and laterally at 45° midpalatally to the long axis of the canine tooth. Separately, 200 N axial and non-axial loads were applied simultaneously to the tooth. It was found that stresses were concentrated at the CEJ in all scenarios. Lateral loading produced maximum stresses greater than axial loading, and pulp tissues, however, experienced minimum levels of stresses. This study has contributed towards the understanding of the aetiology of non-carious cervical lesions which is a key in their clinical management. PMID:22919387

  7. Expression of E6, p53 and p21 proteins and physical state of HPV16 in cervical cytologies with and without low grade lesions

    PubMed Central

    Tagle, Diana K Jiménez; Sotelo, Daniel Hernández; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Leyva-Vazquez, Marco A; Alfaro, Eugenia Flores; Coronel, Yaneth Castro; Hernández, Oscar del Moral; Romero, Luz del Carmen Alarcón

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between expression of HPV16 E6, p53 and p21 proteins and the physical state of HPV16 in cervical cytologies without squamous intraepithelial lesions (Non-SIL) and with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), both with HPV16 infection. 101 liquid-based cytological samples were analyzed. 50 samples were without squamous intraepithelial lesions (Non-IL) and 51 samples of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), both with HPV16 infection. HPV16 infection was determined by PCR-RFLP, and the physical state of HPV16 by in situ hybridization with tyramide-amplification. The expression of E6, p53 and p21 proteins was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. The expression of HPV16 E6 protein was significantly higher in LSIL that in Non-SIL samples (p=0.006). We found a significant correlation between E6 expression and the physical state of HPV16 in Non-SIL (p=0.049). Our results suggest that high expression of E6 in LSIL is an early event of cervical carcinogenesis and perhaps can be used as an early marker. PMID:24482706

  8. Selected Background Findings and Interpretation of Common Lesions in the Female Reproductive System in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Cline, J. Mark; Wood, Charles E; Vidal, Justin D.; Tarara, Ross P.; Buse, Eberhard; Weinbauer, Gerhard F.; de Rijk, Eveline P. C. T.; van Esch, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a selection of normal findings and common naturally occurring lesions in the reproductive system of female macaques, including changes in the ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, and mammary glands. Normal features of immature ovaries, uteri, and mammary glands are described. Common non-neoplastic lesions in the ovaries include cortical mineralization, polyovular follicles, cysts, ovarian surface epithelial hyperplasia, and ectopic ovarian tissue. Ovarian neoplasms include granulosa cell tumors, teratomas, and ovarian surface epithelial tumors. Common non-neoplastic uterine findings include loss of features of normal cyclicity, abnormal bleeding, adenomyosis, endometriosis, epithelial plaques, and pregnancy-associated vascular remodeling. Hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the uterus include endometrial polyps, leiomyomas, and rarely endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Vaginitis is common. Cervical lesions include endocervical squamous metaplasia, polyps, and papillomavirus-associated lesions. Lesions in the mammary gland are most often proliferative and range from ductal hyperplasia to invasive carcinoma. Challenges to interpretation include the normal or pathologic absence of menstrual cyclicity and the potential misinterpretation of sporadic lesions, such as epithelial plaques or papillomavirus-associated lesions. Interpretation of normal and pathologic findings is best accomplished with knowledge of the life stage, reproductive history, and hormonal status of the animal. PMID:21475639

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions related to occupational exposure to acid mists.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; Crosato, Edgard; Mazzilli, Luiz Eugênio Nigro; Frias, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in a Brazilian population of workers exposed and non-exposed to acid mists and chemical products. One hundred workers (46 exposed and 54 non-exposed) were evaluated in a Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador - CEREST (Worker's Health Reference Center). The workers responded to questionnaires regarding their personal information and about alcohol consumption and tobacco use. A clinical examination was conducted to evaluate the presence of NCCLs, according to WHO parameters. Statistical analyses were performed by unconditional logistic regression and multiple linear regression, with the critical level of p < 0.05. NCCLs were significantly associated with age groups (18-34, 35-44, 45-68 years). The unconditional logistic regression showed that the presence of NCCLs was better explained by age group (OR = 4.04; CI 95% 1.77-9.22) and occupational exposure to acid mists and chemical products (OR = 3.84; CI 95% 1.10-13.49), whereas the linear multiple regression revealed that NCCLs were better explained by years of smoking (p = 0.01) and age group (p = 0.04). The prevalence of NCCLs in the study population was particularly high (76.84%), and the risk factors for NCCLs were age, exposure to acid mists and smoking habit. Controlling risk factors through preventive and educative measures, allied to the use of personal protective equipment to prevent the occupational exposure to acid mists, may contribute to minimizing the prevalence of NCCLs. PMID:26154372

  10. HPV16-E2 induces prophase arrest and activates the cellular DNA damage response in vitro and in precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuezhen; Toh, Shen Yon; He, Pingping; Lim, Thimothy; Lim, Diana; Pang, Chai Ling; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Thierry, Françoise

    2015-10-27

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and is the precursor to cervical carcinoma. The completion of the HPV productive life cycle depends on the expression of viral proteins which further determines the severity of the cervical neoplasia. Initiation of the viral productive replication requires expression of the E2 viral protein that cooperates with the E1 viral DNA helicase. A decrease in the viral DNA replication ability and increase in the severity of cervical neoplasia is accompanied by simultaneous elevated expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Here we reveal a novel and important role for the HPV16-E2 protein in controlling host cell cycle during malignant transformation. We showed that cells expressing HPV16-E2 in vitro are arrested in prophase alongside activation of a sustained DDR signal. We uncovered evidence that HPV16-E2 protein is present in vivo in cells that express both mitotic and DDR signals specifically in CIN3 lesions, immediate precursors of cancer, suggesting that E2 may be one of the drivers of genomic instability and carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:26474276

  11. HPV16-E2 induces prophase arrest and activates the cellular DNA damage response in vitro and in precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yuezhen; Toh, Shen Yon; He, Pingping; Lim, Thimothy; Lim, Diana; Pang, Chai Ling; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Thierry, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and is the precursor to cervical carcinoma. The completion of the HPV productive life cycle depends on the expression of viral proteins which further determines the severity of the cervical neoplasia. Initiation of the viral productive replication requires expression of the E2 viral protein that cooperates with the E1 viral DNA helicase. A decrease in the viral DNA replication ability and increase in the severity of cervical neoplasia is accompanied by simultaneous elevated expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Here we reveal a novel and important role for the HPV16-E2 protein in controlling host cell cycle during malignant transformation. We showed that cells expressing HPV16-E2 in vitro are arrested in prophase alongside activation of a sustained DDR signal. We uncovered evidence that HPV16-E2 protein is present in vivo in cells that express both mitotic and DDR signals specifically in CIN3 lesions, immediate precursors of cancer, suggesting that E2 may be one of the drivers of genomic instability and carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:26474276

  12. Combined periodontal and restorative approach to the treatment of gingival recessions with noncarious cervical lesions: a case treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and compomer restorations.

    PubMed

    Efeoğlu, Ahmet; Hanzade, Mete; Sari, Esra; Alpay, Hande; Karakaş, Ozan; Koray, Fatma

    2012-08-01

    Treatment of gingival recessions has become one of the most challenging procedures in periodontal plastic surgery. Various surgical options with predictable outcomes are available, but in cases with cervical lesions or restorations, optimal functional and esthetic results may require the combination of periodontal and restorative procedures. In this case report, one patient treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and a coronally positioned flap in combination with compomer cervical restorations is presented. Clinical parameters were recorded immediately prior to surgery and after 12 months. Postoperatively, significant root coverage, reductions in probing depths, and gains in clinical attachment were observed. The final clinical results, esthetics, color match, and tissue contours were acceptable to both the patient and clinicians. PMID:22577650

  13. Analysis of ROC: The value of HPV16 E6 protein in the diagnosis of early stage cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Xu, Shubin; Liang, Lei; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma is a multifactorial malignant tumor and diagnosis is therefore crucial. The aim of the present study was to examine the value of E6 oncoprotein, in human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), in the diagnosis of early stage cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to analyze accuracy of diagnosis. A total of 124 patients infected with HPV16 were included in the study. The patients had an average age of 46.7±6.9 years and duration of disease of 10.5±3.4 months. To determine the expression level of HPV16 E6 the immunohistochemical Elivision method was performed. Proportion/horizon positive cells were used to count the cells, and pathologic diagnosis was employed for analysis of the results. The average follow-up time was 2.6±0.7 years. Sensitivity and specificity of diagnosing HPV16 E16 at 1 and 2 years, respectively, were calculated. The diagnostic rate of cervical carcinoma increased with time, and the positive expression of HPV16 E6 was also increased with the development of the disease. Differences among groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (AUC) of HPV16 E6 diagnosis improved with time, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Thus, HPV16 E6 oncoprotein can be used as an indicator with good sensitivity and specificity to diagnose early cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions. The results therefore showed that accuracy increased with the development of the disease. PMID:27588123

  14. Analysis of Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positive and Negative Predictive Values of Smear and Colposcopy in Diagnosis of Premalignant and Malignant Cervical Lesions.

    PubMed

    Barut, Mert Ulaş; Kale, Ahmet; Kuyumcuoğlu, Umur; Bozkurt, Murat; Ağaçayak, Elif; Özekinci, Server; Gül, Talip

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to examine the positive and negative predictive value in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical colposcopy, the sensitivity and specificity of smear, and to evaluate the correlation with histopathology of abnormal cytology and colposcopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS The criteria for inclusion of patients with unhealthy cervix in the study were: Erosion, Chronic cervicitis, and Healed lacerations, Hypertrophied cervix, bleeding on touch, suspicious growth/ulcer/polyp on the cervix, and abnormal discharges from the cervix. Women with frank carcinoma cervix, pregnant females, patients with bleeding per vaginum at the time of examination, and those who had used vaginal medications, vaginal contraceptives or douches in the last 48 h of examination were excluded from the study. Demographic analysis was performed for 450 patients who were admitted to the clinic. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of patients to identify cervical pathologies of smear and colposcopy were histopathologically calculated. The statistical software package SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Spearman's and Chi-Square tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of smear were 0.57%, 0.76%, 0.26%, 0.92% respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of colposcopy were 0.92%, 0.67%, 0.52%, 0.96% respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between abnormal cytology and histopathology, and abnormal colposcopy finding and histopathology. CONCLUSIONS Women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix should be evaluated by cytology to detect any premalignant or malignant lesions. It was concluded that Pap smear, colposcopy and histopathology should be collectively evaluated to evaluate cervical findings in low socio-economic regions. PMID:26655816

  15. Human papilloma virus in neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions of the external eye

    PubMed Central

    Karcioglu, Z.; Issa, T.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 have been associated with neoplastic conditions of the conjunctiva. However, the presence of this virus has not been reported in non-neoplastic disorders of the external eye nor has it been studied in normal conjunctival tissues.
METHODS—Ninety six paraffin embedded tissue specimens with neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions and 19 conjunctiva samples free from overt disease were studied for HPV types 16 and 18 positivity with the polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS—HPV types 16 and 18 DNA were identified in 57% of in situ squamous cell carcinoma, in 55% of invasive squamous cell carcinoma, in 20% of climatic droplet keratopathy, in 35% of scarred corneas, and in 32% of normal conjunctival tissue obtained during routine cataract extractions.
CONCLUSION—These findings indicate that HPV types 16 and 18 are detectable with the polymerase chain reaction not only in epithelial neoplasms of the ocular mucous membrane but also in non-neoplastic lesions as well as in apparently healthy conjunctiva.

 PMID:9290377

  16. [Unstable traumatic lesions of the lower cervical spine without neurologic deficiency. Our experience at the Fondation Jeanne Ebori in Libreville (Gabon)].

    PubMed

    Loembe, P M; Chouteau, Y; Bouger, D

    1991-04-01

    23 cases of unstable traumatic lesions of the lower cervical spine, without neurologic complication, were treated over a period of eight years. These cases consisted of eight dislocations, five subluxations, nine fracture-dislocations and one "tear drop" or fracture of the vertebral body. Six cases were treated conservatively and fifteen operatively. Two patients died in skeletal traction while awaiting surgical intervention. The surgical approaches were anterior (6 cases), posterior (8 cases) and combined (1 case). There was one case of transitory neurologic deficit immediately after surgery. One case required re-intervention. Overall they obtained satisfactory osteoligamentary consolidation. PMID:2055985

  17. Prevalence characteristics of high-risk human papillomaviruses in women living in Shanghai with cervical precancerous lesions and cancer.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ying; Ma, Chenyun; Zou, Jue; Zhu, Yi; Yang, Rong; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Yu

    2016-04-26

    A complete understanding of the natural history of infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in cervical cancer requires data from regional and ethnic studies. The prevalence of high-risk HPVs was evaluated retrospectively in 2040 patients with cervicitis, 239 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1), 242 with CIN2/3, and 42 patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) based on data from patients who visited our hospital between May 2013 and May 2015. The rates of high-risk HPV infection in patients with cervicitis, CIN1, CIN2/3, and invasive SCC were 40.8%, 74.9%, 70.2%, and 83.3%, respectively. The three most dominant HPV genotypes were HPV16, 58, and 52. HPV16 and HPV58 positivity in cervicitis, CIN1, CIN2/3, and SCC patients were 20.9% and 16.4%, 19.0% and 20.1%, 44.1% and 23.5%, and 60.0% and 31.4%, respectively. Compared to cervicitis, the odds ratios (ORs) for CIN2/3 in HPV16- and HPV58-positive patients were 2.99 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-4.33) and 1.56 (1.11-3.21), respectively; for SCC, the corresponding values were 5.68 (2.31-7.893) and 2.33 (1.41-3.87). Further identifying of carcinogenic HPVs and a fully aware of regional differences in HPV genotype distribution are tasks of top priority for cervical cancer control and prevention. PMID:27013587

  18. Clinical interest of postural and vestibulo-ocular reflex changes induced by cervical muscles and skull vibration in compensated unilateral vestibular lesion patients.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Georges; Lion, Alexis; Gauchard, Gérome C; Herpin, Guillaume; Magnusson, Måns; Perrin, Philippe P

    2013-01-01

    Skull vibration induces nystagmus in unilateral vestibular lesion (UVL) patients. Vibration of skull, posterior cervical muscles or inferior limb muscles alters posture in recent UVL patients. This study aimed to investigate the postural effect of vibration in chronic compensated UVL patients. Vibration was applied successively to vertex, each mastoid, each side of posterior cervical muscles and of triceps surae in 12 UVL patients and 9 healthy subjects. Eye movements were recorded with videonystagmography. Postural control was evaluated in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Sway area, sway path, anteroposterior and medio-lateral sways were recorded.A vibration induced nystagmus (VIN) beating toward the healthy side was obtained for each UVL patient during mastoid vibration. In EO, only sway path was higher in UVL group during vibration of mastoids and posterior cervical muscles.The EO postural impairments of UVL patients could be related to the eye movements or VIN, leading to visual perturbations, or to a proprioceptive error signal, providing an erroneous representation of head position. The vibration-induced sway was too small to be clinically useful. Vestibulo-ocular reflex observed with videonystagmography during mastoid vibration seems more relevant to reveal chronic UVL than vestibulo-spinal reflex observed with posturography. PMID:23549054

  19. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in oral mucosa of women with cervical lesions and their relation to oral sex practices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have either investigated the relationship of HPV with oral cancer or the prevalence of HPV on the oral cavity. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of HPV in oral cavity of women with oral sex practices and cervical lesions. Methods Forty six (46) non-smokers and non-alcoholic patients attended the "Clínica de Displasias" of "Ciudad Juarez" were sampled. This population had a CIN diagnosis sometime between the previous six months. On previous consent they filled out a questionnaire related to their oral sex practices. Afterwards one swab from cheeks and another from palate/gum were taken; PCR was used to determine generic HPV, HPV16 and HPV18. Results Seventy two percent (72%) of the patients stated to have oral sex practices regularly which all of them were positive to HPV either in oral mucus, palate/gum or both. The total of the given results showed that 35% had HPV16; among those distributed in 26% with regular oral sex practices and 9% stated as never practiced oral sex. An association was found between oral HPV16 positivity and progression to cervical CIN advanced lesions. On the other hand HPV18 was not detected. The frequency of HPV16 was higher in buccal mucosa (23%) versus palate/gum (16%). Conclusions This study suggests that buccal HPV16 infection is associated with CIN progression. PMID:21129222

  20. Association of human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis co-infections on the risk of high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, André LP; Malaguti, Natália; Souza, Raquel P; Uchimura, Nelson S; Ferreira, Érika C; Pereira, Monalisa W; Carvalho, Maria DB; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia EL

    2016-01-01

    The link between high-risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the risk of developing cervical cancer still unclear. Thus, in this report we investigated the rates of co-infections between HPV and other important non-HPV STDs in different cervical findings using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) to simultaneously detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, HSV-1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum. A total of 838 women aged 18 to 68 years were screened using Papanicolaou smears for cervical abnormalities, HPV and non-HPV STDs using PCR and M-PCR methods. A total of 614 (73.3%) of the women had normal cytology (NILM) and 224 (26.7%) women exhibited abnormal cytology (≥ ASC-US). HPV-DNA prevalence was 33.9%, and HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype in women with NILM and ≥ ASC-US cytology. Non-HPV STDs were detected in 30.4% women and T. vaginalis was the most prevalent one (11.6%). A higher increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL occurred in co-infections of HR-HPV with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with HSV-2 exhibited a similar increased risk but only with ≥ ASC-US. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with T. vaginalis demonstrated a similar increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL. We found that C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were the primary pathogens associated with HR-HPV for the increased risk for all grades of cervical abnormalities but mainly for HSIL, suggesting a possible synergistic action in cervical lesions progression. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that some non-HPV STDs might play a role as co-factors in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. These data improve our understanding of the etiology of SCC and may also be useful for disease prevention. PMID:27429850

  1. Association of human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis co-infections on the risk of high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion.

    PubMed

    de Abreu, André Lp; Malaguti, Natália; Souza, Raquel P; Uchimura, Nelson S; Ferreira, Érika C; Pereira, Monalisa W; Carvalho, Maria Db; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia El

    2016-01-01

    The link between high-risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the risk of developing cervical cancer still unclear. Thus, in this report we investigated the rates of co-infections between HPV and other important non-HPV STDs in different cervical findings using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) to simultaneously detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, HSV-1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum. A total of 838 women aged 18 to 68 years were screened using Papanicolaou smears for cervical abnormalities, HPV and non-HPV STDs using PCR and M-PCR methods. A total of 614 (73.3%) of the women had normal cytology (NILM) and 224 (26.7%) women exhibited abnormal cytology (≥ ASC-US). HPV-DNA prevalence was 33.9%, and HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype in women with NILM and ≥ ASC-US cytology. Non-HPV STDs were detected in 30.4% women and T. vaginalis was the most prevalent one (11.6%). A higher increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL occurred in co-infections of HR-HPV with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with HSV-2 exhibited a similar increased risk but only with ≥ ASC-US. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with T. vaginalis demonstrated a similar increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL. We found that C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were the primary pathogens associated with HR-HPV for the increased risk for all grades of cervical abnormalities but mainly for HSIL, suggesting a possible synergistic action in cervical lesions progression. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that some non-HPV STDs might play a role as co-factors in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. These data improve our understanding of the etiology of SCC and may also be useful for disease prevention. PMID:27429850

  2. Identification of non-neoplastic and neoplastic gastric polyps using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shanghai; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Gastric polyps can be broadly defined as luminal lesions projecting above the plane of the mucosal surface. They are generally divided into non-neoplastic and neoplastic polyps. Accurate diagnosis of neoplastic polyps is important because of their well-known relationship with gastric cancer. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) is one of the most important recent inventions in biological imaging. In this study, we used MPM to image the microstructure of gastric polyps, including fundic gland polyps, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory fibroid polyps and adenomas, then compared with gold-standard hematoxylin- eosin(H-E)-stained histopathology. MPM images showed that different gastric polyps have different gland architecture and cell morphology. Dilated, elongated or branch-like hyperplastic polyps are arranged by columnar epithelial cells. Inflammatory fibroid polyps are composed of small, thin-walled blood vessels surrounded by short spindle cells. Fundic glands polyps are lined by parietal cells and chief cells, admixed with normal glands. Gastric adenomas are generally composed of tubules or villi of dysplastic epithelium, which usually show some degree of intestinal-type differentiation toward absorptive cells, goblet cells, endocrine cells. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be used to identify non- neoplastic and neoplastic gastric polyps without the need of any staining procedure.

  3. In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Neil; Perl, Daniel; Lee, Michelle H.; Shah, Brijen; Young, Yuki; Chang, Shannon S.; Shukla, Richa; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Zhou, Elinor; Mitchaml, Josephine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) is a low-cost, “optical biopsy” technology that allows for subcellular imaging. The purpose of this study was to determine the in vivo diagnostic accuracy of the HRME for the differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps and compare it to that of high-definition white-light endoscopy (WLE) with histopathology as the gold standard. Three endoscopists prospectively detected a total of 171 polyps from 94 patients that were then imaged by HRME and classified in real-time as neoplastic (adenomatous, cancer) or non-neoplastic (normal, hyperplastic, inflammatory). HRME had a significantly higher accuracy (94%), specificity (95%), and positive predictive value (87%) for the determination of neoplastic colorectal polyps compared to WLE (65%, 39%, and 55%, respectively). When looking at small colorectal polyps (less than 10 mm), HRME continued to significantly outperform WLE in terms of accuracy (95% vs. 64%), specificity (98% vs. 40%) and positive predictive value (92% vs. 55%). These trends continued when evaluating diminutive polyps (less than 5 mm) as HRME's accuracy (95%), specificity (98%), and positive predictive value (93%) were all significantly greater than their WLE counterparts (62%, 41%, and 53%, respectively). In conclusion, this in vivo study demonstrates that HRME can be a very effective modality in the differentiation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal polyps. A combination of standard white-light colonoscopy for polyp detection and HRME for polyp classification has the potential to truly allow the endoscopist to selectively determine which lesions can be left in situ, which lesions can simply be discarded, and which lesions need formal histopathologic analysis. PMID:24296752

  4. Cervical Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix is preceded by a series of premalignant changes described as mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ. These premalignant states are identified by cervical cytology, diagnosed by colposcopy and if effectively treated, can prevent invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix. Because of the apparent biological variation of the premalignant states, even the most aggressive cervical screening program cannot be expected to eliminate all invasive squamous cancer of the cervix. Optimal results of a cervical screening program will be achieved when all women under 35 years of age and sexually active have an annual cytological smear; the cytology is screened by a laboratory with high quality control; the patient's positive cytology is accurately assessed by an experienced colposcopist, and the premalignant lesion is effectively treated. PMID:21283455

  5. High expression of prolactin receptor is associated with cell survival in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The altered expression of prolactin (PRL) and its receptor (PRLR) has been implicated in breast and other types of cancer. There are few studies that have focused on the analysis of PRL/PRLR in cervical cancer where the development of neoplastic lesions is influenced by the variation of the hormonal status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of PRL/PRLR and the effect of PRL treatment on cell proliferation and apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines. Results High expression of multiple PRLR forms and PRLvariants of 60–80 kDa were observed in cervical cancer cell lines compared with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes evaluated by Western blot, immunofluorecence and real time PCR. Treatment with PRL (200 ng/ml) increased cell proliferation in HeLa cells determined by the MTT assay at day 3 and after 1 day a protective effect against etoposide induced apoptosis in HeLa, SiHa and C-33A cervical cancer cell lines analyzed by the TUNEL assay. Conclusions Our data suggests that PRL/PRLR signaling could act as an important survival factor for cervical cancer. The use of an effective PRL antagonist may provide a better therapeutic intervention in cervical cancer. PMID:24148306

  6. Improving diagnosis of atraumatic splenic lesions, part I: nonneoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zina J; Oh, Sarah K; Chernyak, Victoria; Flusberg, Milana; Rozenblit, Alla M; Kaul, Bindu; Stein, Marjorie W; Mazzariol, Fernanda S

    2016-01-01

    Focal atraumatic splenic lesions often pose a diagnostic challenge on cross-sectional imaging. They can be categorized based on etiology as nonneoplastic (reviewed in Part I), benign neoplastic, and malignant neoplastic lesions. Lesions can also be characterized based on prevalence as common, uncommon, and rare. Familiarity with pertinent clinical parameters, etiology, pathology, prevalence, and ancillary features such as splenomegaly, concomitant hepatic involvement, and extrasplenic findings, in addition to knowledge of imaging spectra of these lesions, can improve diagnostic confidence. Since the nonneoplastic lesions are usually easily recognized, it is critical that the radiologist identifies them avoiding unnecessary work up. PMID:27317223

  7. Comparison of Onclarity Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay with Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA Assay for Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 and 3 Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sideri, M.; Gulmini, C.; Igidbashian, S.; Tricca, A.; Casadio, C.; Carinelli, S.; Boveri, S.; Ejegod, D.; Bonde, J.; Sandri, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical and clinical performance validation is essential before introduction of a new human papillomavirus (HPV) assay into clinical practice. This study compares the new BD Onclarity HPV assay, which detects E6/E7 DNA from 14 high-risk HPV types, to the Hybrid Capture II (HC2) HPV DNA test, to concurrent cytology and histology results, in order to evaluate its performance in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. A population of 567 women, including 325 with ≥ASCUS (where ASCUS stands for atypical cells of undetermined significance) and any HC2 result and 242 with both negative cytology and negative HC2 results, were prospectively enrolled for the study. The overall agreement between Onclarity and HC2 was 94.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 92.3% to 96.2%). In this population with a high prevalence of disease, the relative sensitivities (versus adjudicated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 [CIN2+] histology endpoints) of the Onclarity and HC2 tests were 95.2% (95% CI, 90.7% to 97.5%) and 96.9% (95% CI, 92.9% to 98.7%), respectively, and the relative specificities were 50.3% (95% CI, 43.2% to 57.4%) for BD and 40.8% (95% CI, 33.9%, 48.1%) for HC2. These results indicate that the BD Onclarity HPV assay has sensitivity comparable to that of the HC2 assay, with a trend to an increased specificity. Moreover, as Onclarity gives the chance to discriminate between the different genotypes, we calculated the genotype prevalence and the absolute risk of CIN2+: HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype (19.8%) with an absolute risk of CIN2+ of 77.1%. PMID:25903574

  8. Comparison of Onclarity Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay with Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA Assay for Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 and 3 Lesions.

    PubMed

    Bottari, F; Sideri, M; Gulmini, C; Igidbashian, S; Tricca, A; Casadio, C; Carinelli, S; Boveri, S; Ejegod, D; Bonde, J; Sandri, M T

    2015-07-01

    Analytical and clinical performance validation is essential before introduction of a new human papillomavirus (HPV) assay into clinical practice. This study compares the new BD Onclarity HPV assay, which detects E6/E7 DNA from 14 high-risk HPV types, to the Hybrid Capture II (HC2) HPV DNA test, to concurrent cytology and histology results, in order to evaluate its performance in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. A population of 567 women, including 325 with ≥ASCUS (where ASCUS stands for atypical cells of undetermined significance) and any HC2 result and 242 with both negative cytology and negative HC2 results, were prospectively enrolled for the study. The overall agreement between Onclarity and HC2 was 94.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 92.3% to 96.2%). In this population with a high prevalence of disease, the relative sensitivities (versus adjudicated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 [CIN2+] histology endpoints) of the Onclarity and HC2 tests were 95.2% (95% CI, 90.7% to 97.5%) and 96.9% (95% CI, 92.9% to 98.7%), respectively, and the relative specificities were 50.3% (95% CI, 43.2% to 57.4%) for BD and 40.8% (95% CI, 33.9%, 48.1%) for HC2. These results indicate that the BD Onclarity HPV assay has sensitivity comparable to that of the HC2 assay, with a trend to an increased specificity. Moreover, as Onclarity gives the chance to discriminate between the different genotypes, we calculated the genotype prevalence and the absolute risk of CIN2+: HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype (19.8%) with an absolute risk of CIN2+ of 77.1%. PMID:25903574

  9. Invasive Stratified Mucin-producing Carcinoma and Stratified Mucin-producing Intraepithelial Lesion (SMILE): 15 Cases Presenting a Spectrum of Cervical Neoplasia With Description of a Distinctive Variant of Invasive Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lastra, Ricardo R; Park, Kay J; Schoolmeester, J Kenneth

    2016-02-01

    Stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE) is a cervical intraepithelial lesion, distinct from conventional squamous or glandular counterparts, believed to arise from embryonic cells at the transformation zone by transdifferentiation during high-risk HPV-associated carcinogenesis. It is characterized by stratified, immature epithelial cells displaying varying quantities of intracytoplasmic mucin throughout the majority of the lesional epithelium. We identified a distinct form of invasive cervical carcinoma with morphologic features identical to those in SMILE, which we have termed "invasive stratified mucin-producing carcinoma." Fifteen cases from 15 patients (mean 36 y; range, 22 to 64 y) were retrieved from the pathology archives of multiple institutions with a diagnosis of either SMILE or invasive cervical carcinoma with a description or comment about the invasive tumor's resemblance to SMILE. Seven cases had solely intraepithelial disease with a component of SMILE (mean 29 y; range, 22 to 40 y). The 8 other cases had invasive stratified mucin-producing carcinoma (mean 44; range, 34 to 64 y) in which SMILE was identified in 7. All cases of invasive stratified mucin-producing carcinoma demonstrated stratified, immature nuclei with intracytoplasmic mucin, which morphologically varied between cases from "mucin-rich" to "mucin-poor" in a similar manner to SMILE. All cases had mitotic figures and apoptotic debris, and an intralesional neutrophilic infiltrate was seen in the majority of cases. In cases of invasive carcinoma, the depth of invasion ranged from <1 to 19 mm. Follow-up information was available in 8 cases and ranged from 1 to 36 months (mean 11 mo). Three cases of invasive stratified mucin-producing carcinoma had biopsy or resection-proven metastatic carcinoma on follow-up. These 15 cases of cervical stratified mucin-producing lesions show a combination of intraepithelial and invasive growth patterns. Given that SMILE is well rooted as a

  10. Type-Specific HPV Prevalence in Cervical Cancer and High-Grade Lesions in Latin America and the Caribbean: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciapponi, Agustín; Bardach, Ariel; Glujovsky, Demián; Gibbons, Luz; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C), showing some of the highest incidence and mortality rates worldwide. Information on HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical lesions (HSIL) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial to predict the future impact of HPV16/18 vaccines and screening programmes, and to establish an appropriate post-vaccinal virologic surveillance. The aim was to assess the prevalence of HPV types in HSIL and ICC in studies in LA&C. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review, following the MOOSE guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Inclusion criteria were at least ten cases of HSIL/ICC, and HPV-type elicitation. The search, without language restrictions, was performed in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS from inception date to December 2009, proceedings, reference lists and consulting experts. A meta-analysis was performed using arc-sine transformations to stabilize the variance of simple proportions. Seventy-nine studies from 18 countries were identified, including 2446 cases of HSIL and 5540 of ICC. Overall, 46.5% of HSIL cases harbored HPV 16 and 8.9% HPV18; in ICC, 53.2% of cases harbored HPV 16 and13.2% HPV 18. The next five most common types, in decreasing frequency, were HPV 31, 58, 33, 45, and 52. Study's limitations comprise the cross-sectional design of most included studies and their inherent risk of bias, the lack of representativeness, and variations in the HPV type-specific sensitivity of different PCR protocols. Conclusions This study is the broadest summary of HPV type distribution in HSIL and ICC in LA&C to date. These data are essential for local decision makers regarding HPV screening and vaccination policies. Continued HPV surveillance would be useful, to assess the potential for changing type-specific HPV prevalence in the post

  11. [Cervical fractures in autopsy records].

    PubMed

    Pankowski, Rafał; Wilmanowska, Anita; Gos, Tomasz; Smoczyński, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the autopsy records of 1872 cases of death because of politrauma, gunshot wounds and suicidal hanging. The analysis included causes and frequency of cervical spine fractures, their most common localisation, architecture of bone destruction and their influence on cervical cord. The most common cause of cervical spine injury was motor vehicle accidents. We examined 82 specimens with traumatic fractures of cervical spine obtained from accident victims. About half of the injuries occurred in upper cervical spine. The most common fracture localisation was C2 with dens fracture as the most frequent injury. The most common spinal cord lesion was complete rupture mainly at the upper cervical spine level. PMID:14564791

  12. Association Study between Cervical Lesions and Single or Multiple Vaccine-Target and Non-Vaccine Target Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Women from Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Bárbara Simas; Comar, Manola; Gurgel, Ana Pavla Almeida Diniz; Paiva, Sérgio; Seraceni, Silva; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Crovella, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We performed an association between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and single or multiple vaccine-target as well as non-vaccine target Human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Using bead-based HPV genotyping, 594 gynecological samples were genotyped. An association between squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and presence of HPV16, 18, 31, 58 and 56 types were calculated. The risk was estimated by using odds ratio (OR) and 95% of confidence intervals (CI). A total of 370 (62.3%) women were HPV positive. Among these, 157 (42.7%) presented a single HPV infection, and 212 (57.3%) were infected by more than one HPV type. HPV31 was the most prevalent genotype, regardless single and multiple HPV infections. Single infection with HPV31 was associated with LSIL (OR=2.32; 95%CI: 1.01 to 5.32; p=0.04); HPV31 was also associated with LSIL (OR=3.28; 95%CI: 1.74 to 6.19; p= 0.0002) and HSIL (OR=3.82; 95%CI: 2.10 to 6.97; p<0.001) in multiple HPV infections. Risk to harbor cervical lesions was observed in multiple HPV infections with regard to the HPV56 (OR=5.39; 95%CI: 2.44 to 11.90; p<0.001for LSIL; OR=5.37; 95%CI: 2.71 to 10.69; p<0.001) and HPV58 (OR=3.29; 95%CI: 1.34 to 8.09; p=0.0091 for LSIL; OR=3.55; 95%CI: 1.56 to 8.11; p=0.0026) genotypes. In addition, women coinfected with HPV16/31/56 types had 6 and 5-fold increased risk of HSIL (OR=6.46; 95%CI: 1.89 to 22.09; p=0.002) and LSIL (OR=5.22; 95%CI: 1.10 to 24.70; p=0.03), respectively. Multiple HPV infections without HPV16/18 has 2-fold increased risk of HSIL (OR=2.57; 95%CI: 1.41 to 4.70; p=0.002) and LSIL OR=2.03; 95%CI: 1.08 to 3.79; p=0.02). The results of this study suggest that single and multiple vaccine target as well as non-vaccine target HPV types are associated with LSIL and HSIL. These finding should be taken into consideration in the design of HPV vaccination strategies. PMID:26176537

  13. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion reg...

  14. E5HPV16 mRNA EXPRESSION PATTERN ANALYSIS IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL LESIONS IN VIRAL STATUS CONTEXT.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Iulia V; Pleşa, Adriana; Botezatu, Anca; Huică, Irina; Stănescu, Anca D; Socolov, Demetra; Anton, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) may cause mostly transient infections of cutaneous and mucous epithelia. Persistent HPV genital infections may induce pre-malignant or malignant lesions. While E6 and E7 HPV genes' malignant character is known, E5 is still under debate. We evaluated the possible role of E5 gene in cervix oncogenesis, in patients with abnormal cytology and HPV1 6 positive, in the context of viral status correlated with potential targets (p21, EGFR). HPV DNA was detected and genotyped using Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Mannheim, Germany) and E2, E6, E5 HPV16, p21 and EGFR transcripts levels were investigated by qRT-PCR. Our results indicate a significantly high E5 expression in low grade cytology, expression correlated with a moderated E6 and low p21 levels. All HSIL specimens presented integrated/mixed viral forms; mixed forms presented moderate E5 expression, high levels of p21 correlates with E6 oncogene high expression. These findings indicate a potential role for E5 pattern of expression in discriminating be-tween lesions that may progress to cancer. PMID:26727852

  15. Three-year clinical performance of a HEMA-free one-step self-etch adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Peumans, Marleen; De Munck, Jan; Cardoso, Marcio V; Ermis, Banu; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that one-step adhesives are currently used routinely in clinical practice, long-term studies on their clinical performance are scarce. The objective of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to test the hypothesis that a 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-free one-step self-etch adhesive performs worse than a conventional multistep etch-and-rinse adhesive. Two-hundred and seventy-six non-carious cervical lesions in 52 patients were restored with a micro-hybrid composite (Gradia Direct; GC). These restorations were bonded in random order either with the HEMA-free one-step adhesive G-Bond (GC) or with the 'gold-standard' (control) three-step adhesive Optibond FL (Kerr). The restorations were evaluated after 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of clinical service regarding retention, marginal adaptation, microleakage, caries occurrence, and sensitivity. After a medium-long period of 3 yr, similar success in clinical performance was observed for the simplified all-in-one adhesive and the conventional three-step adhesive. However, the one-step adhesive exhibited significantly more incisal marginal defects and discolorations. Whereas marginal degradation appeared to arrest for the multistep etch-and-rinse adhesive after 12 months, the enamel margins of the restorations bonded with the one-step self-etch adhesive continued to deteriorate. These incisal marginal defects were, however, small and could easily be removed by polishing. For both adhesives, large and sclerosed lesions appeared to be at higher risk of retention loss. PMID:22112039

  16. Participation and risk of high grade cytological lesions among immigrants and Italian-born women in an organized cervical cancer screening program in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Carmen Beatriz; Crocetti, Emanuele; Zappa, Marco; Iossa, Anna; Andersson, Karin Louise; Bulgaresi, Paolo; Alfieri, Antonia; Amunni, Gianni

    2015-06-01

    Few studies analyzed the risk for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL+) among immigrants and natives attending organized cervical cancer (CC) screening programs (SP). We evaluated participation and diagnosis of HSIL+ by country of birth with logistic models. Overall 540,779 invitation letters were delivered to target women of Florence SP in three screening rounds (years 2000-2002, 2003-2005, 2006-2008). The probability of attending screening was lower for immigrants than natives, but the difference decreased from 35% (1st round) to 20% (2nd-3rd round) for women born in high migration pressure (HMP) countries. The risk of HSIL+ was double than natives for HMP-born women from countries with high prevalence of human papillomavirus, even adjusting for age and previous history of Pap test. This is an important public health problem due to an increasing proportion over time of immigrant women with a lower attendance and greater risk for CC. PMID:24917238

  17. One year comparative clinical evaluation of EQUIA with resin-modified glass ionomer and a nanohybrid composite in noncarious cervical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Deepa Sunil; Shah, Nimisha Chinmay; Bilgi, Priyanka Shripad

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Comparative evaluation of EQUIA with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC; GC Gold Label glass ionomer light cured universal restorative cement) and a nanohybrid composite (Tetric N-Ceram) in noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs). Background: To establish the most suitable material for the restoration of NCCLs. Settings and Design: In vivo study. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven NCCLs were randomly restored with EQUIA, a RMGIC, and a nanohybrid composite. Clinical evaluation of the restorations was done following the Unites States Public Health criteria by a single-blinded investigator. Data were formulated, and statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test. Results: No significant difference was found between EQUIA, RMGIC, and nanohybrid composite at 1-month, at 6 months, and at 1-year (P > 0.05). Conclusions: EQUIA, resin-modified glass ionomer, and nanohybrid composite performed equally at 1-month, 6 months, and 1-year follow-up periods. PMID:26752837

  18. Composite resin restorations of non-carious cervical lesions in patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Carlos A; Nassar, Patrícia O; Secundes, Mayron B; Busato, Priscilla do Monte Ribeiro; Camilotti, Veridiana

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a set of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion by the pancreas and/or impaired insulin action in target tissues. Oral health maintenance through health care, as well as metabolic control are important measures for the overall health of diabetic patients. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between biocompatibility of composite resin restorations with different nanoparticles, polishing in abfraction lesions in anterior and posterior teeth with periodontal tissues in patients with diabetes mellitus. We selected 20 patients--10 patients with diabetes mellitus and 10 patients without diabetes mellitus-, but with a total of 30 restorations in each group receiving composite resin restorations, who were evaluated for periodontal purposes: Plaque Index, Gingival Index; Probing Depth, Clinical Attachment Level and Bleeding on Probing. In addition, the restorations will receive assessments according to criteria for Marginal Adaptation, Anatomical Shape, Marginal Discoloration, ormation of caries, Post-operative Sensitivity and Retention. The total period was 90 days. The results showed a significant improvement in periodontal parameters assessed (p < 0.05) in both groups. With regard to assessments of the restorations, it was observed that there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) among all criteria evaluated within the 90-day period. Thus, we conclude that in a short period (90 days) there is clinical biocompatibility of composite resin with nanoparticles restorations in abfraction lesions and periodontal tissues of patients with diabetes mellitus, regardless the type of polish these restorations receive. PMID:23798074

  19. Distinct Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Methylomes in Cervical Cells at Different Stages of Premalignancy

    PubMed Central

    Brandsma, Janet L.; Sun, Ying; Lizardi, Paul M.; Tuck, David P.; Zelterman, Daniel; Haines, G. Kenneth; Martel, Maritza; Harigopal, Malini; Schofield, Kevin; Neapolitano, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) gene expression is dramatically altered during cervical carcinogenesis. Because dysregulated genes frequently show abnormal patterns of DNA methylation, we hypothesized that comprehensive mapping of the HPV methylomes in cervical samples at different stages of progression would reveal patterns of clinical significance. To test this hypothesis, thirteen HPV16-positive samples were obtained from women undergoing routine cervical cancer screening. Complete methylation data were obtained for 98.7% of the HPV16 CpGs in all samples by bisulfite-sequencing. Most HPV16 CpGs were unmethylated or methylated in only one sample. The other CpGs were methylated at levels ranging from 11% to 100% of the HPV16 copies per sample. The results showed three major patterns and two variants of one pattern. The patterns showed minimal or no methylation (A), low level methylation in the E1 and E6 genes (B), and high level methylation at many CpGs in the E5/L2/L1 region (C). Generally, pattern A was associated with negative cytology, pattern B with low-grade lesions, and pattern C with high-grade lesions. The severity of the cervical lesions was then ranked by the HPV16 DNA methylation patterns and, independently, by the pathologic diagnoses. Statistical analysis of the two rating methods showed highly significant agreement. In conclusion, analysis of the HPV16 DNA methylomes in clinical samples of cervical cells led to the identification of distinct methylation patterns which, after validation in larger studies, could have potential utility as biomarkers of neoplastic cervical progression. PMID:19443004

  20. Stromal Fibroblasts Induce CCL20 through IL6/C/EBPβ to Support the Recruitment of Th17 Cells during Cervical Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Walch-Rückheim, Barbara; Mavrova, Russalina; Henning, Melanie; Vicinus, Benjamin; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Bohle, Rainer Maria; Juhasz-Böss, Ingolf; Solomayer, Erich-Franz; Smola, Sigrun

    2015-12-15

    Cervical cancer is a consequence of persistent infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Progression to malignancy is linked to an inflammatory microenvironment comprising T-helper-17 (Th17) cells, a T-cell subset with protumorigenic properties. Neoplastic cells express only low endogenous levels of the Th17 chemoattractant CCL20, and therefore, it is unclear how Th17 cells are recruited to the cervical cancer tissue. In this study, we demonstrate that CCL20 was predominantly expressed in the stroma of cervical squamous cell carcinomas in situ. This correlated with stromal infiltration of CD4(+)/IL17(+) cells and with advancing International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage. Furthermore, we show that cervical cancer cells instructed primary cervical fibroblasts to produce high levels of CCL20 and to attract CD4/IL17/CCR6-positive cells, generated in vitro, in a CCL20/CCR6-dependent manner. Further mechanistic investigations identified cervical cancer cell-derived IL6 as an important mediator of paracrine CCL20 induction at the promoter, mRNA, and protein level in fibroblasts. CCL20 was upregulated through the recently described CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) pathway as shown with a dominant-negative version of C/EBPβ and through siRNA-mediated knockdown. In summary, our study defines a novel molecular mechanism by which cervical neoplastic cells shape their local microenvironment by instructing fibroblasts to support Th17 cell infiltration in a paracrine IL6/C/EBPβ-dependent manner. Th17 cells may in turn maintain chronic inflammation within high-grade cervical lesions to further promote cancer progression. PMID:26631268

  1. Clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions at 2 years.

    PubMed

    Ermis, R Banu; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; De Munck, Jan; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Peumans, Marleen

    2012-06-01

    A 2-year randomized, controlled prospective study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive and a "gold-standard" three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive in non-carious Class-V lesions. The null hypothesis tested was that the one-step self-etch adhesive does perform clinically equally well as the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. A total of 161 lesions in 26 patients were restored with Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray). The restorations were bonded either with the "all-in-one" adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray) or with the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL (Kerr). The restorations were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months, 1 and 2 years, regarding their retention, marginal adapation, marginal discoloration, caries occurrence, preservation of tooth vitality and post-operative sensivity. Retention loss, severe marginal defects and/or discoloration that needed intervention (repair or replacement) and the occurrence of caries were considered as clinical failures. The recall rate at 2 years was 93.8%. Only one Clearfil S3 Bond restoration was lost at the 2-year recall. All other restorations were clinically acceptable. The number of restorations with defect-free margins decreased severely during the 2-year study period (to 6.7% and 25.3% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively). The Clearfil S3 Bond restorations presented significantly more small marginal defects at the enamel side than the Optibond FL restorations (Clearfil S3 Bond: 93.3%; Optibond FL: 73.3%; p = 0.000). Superficial marginal discoloration increased in both groups (to 53.3% and 36% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively) and was also more pronounced in the Clearfil S3 Bond group (p = 0.007). After 2 years, the simplified one-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond and the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL were clinically equally successful, even though both adhesives were characterized by progressive degradation in marginal

  2. Age-specific prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervical cytology samples with equivocal or low-grade lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brismar-Wendel, S; Froberg, M; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S; Johansson, B

    2009-01-01

    Background: To define the spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and establish an age limit for triage HPV testing in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and methods: 343 liquid-based cytological samples from the population-based screening programme with minor abnormalities were subjected to HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Results: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) was found in 71% of LSIL and 49% of ASCUS cases (P<0.001). High-risk human papillomavirus prevalence was age-dependent in LSIL (P=0.01), with decreasing prevalence until the age of 50 years, followed by a slight increase. Human papillomavirus type 16 was the most common HR-HPV, found in 23% of HPV-positive women. Human papillomavirus type 18 was the sixth most common, found in 9.9% (P<0.001). An age-dependent quadratic trend was observed for multiple infections (P=0.01) with a trough at about 42 years. The most common HR-HPV types to show a coinfection with HPV16 (clade 9) were HPV39 (28%), 45 (38%), and 59 (46%), belonging to HPV18 clade 7. The frequency of low-risk (LR) vs probable HR and HR-HPV also followed an age-dependent quadratic trend. Conclusions: After the age of 25 years, HR-HPV prevalence is similar in LSIL and ASCUS cases, motivating a low age limit for triage HPV testing. Multiple infections and LR/HR-HPV dominance are age-dependent. Genotyping in longitudinal design is needed to elucidate the importance of multiple infections in cancer progression and in cross-protection from vaccination. PMID:19623178

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of Eight Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Asian American and European Variant Isolates from Cervical Biopsies and Lesions in Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Paramita; Sen, Shrinka; Bhattacharya, Amrapali; Roy Chowdhury, Rahul; Mondal, Nidhu Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), a member of the Papillomaviridae family, is the primary etiological agent of cervical cancer. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of four HPV16 Asian American variants and four European variants, isolated from cervical biopsies and scrapings in India. PMID:27198009

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of Eight Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Asian American and European Variant Isolates from Cervical Biopsies and Lesions in Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Paramita; Bhattacharjee, Bornali; Sen, Shrinka; Bhattacharya, Amrapali; Roy Chowdhury, Rahul; Mondal, Nidhu Ranjan; Sengupta, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), a member of the Papillomaviridae family, is the primary etiological agent of cervical cancer. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of four HPV16 Asian American variants and four European variants, isolated from cervical biopsies and scrapings in India. PMID:27198009

  5. Immunohistochemical detection of Ca antigen in normal, dysplastic and neoplastic squamous epithelia of the human uterine cervix.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, J M; O'Dowd, T; Driver, M; Tee, D E

    1984-01-01

    Immunohistochemical staining was performed on biopsies and cytological samples from normal, dysplastic and neoplastic squamous epithelia using the monoclonal Ca 1 antibody. The results of staining 92 biopsies and 20 cytological samples are described and it is reported that positive staining with Ca 1 antibody was detected in normal, dysplastic and neoplastic epithelia. The role of the Ca 1 antibody in the study of cervical cancer is discussed. Images PMID:6368596

  6. Histological Spectrum of Large Intestinal Lesions with Clinicopathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Shete, Smita; Kulkarni, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Large intestine is affected by various types of lesions, both non-neoplastic and neoplastic. Due to vague symptoms, the clinical diagnosis is usually delayed. A battery of laboratory tests including biopsy is essential to arrive at a specific diagnosis for appropriate management. Materials and Methods This five years study was done during the period of 2005 to 2010 in a tertiary care centre which included 124 biopsies and resected specimens of large intestine and 64 from Anal canal. All tissues were fixed in formalin, stained with H&E and special stains like Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS), Reticulin, Zeihl Neelsen (ZN) along with Immunohistochemistry (IHC) were done as and when required. Results Out of the 124 cases of large intestine 38 were non-neoplastic, 77 were neoplastic and 9 were inadequate biopsies. Sixty four cases from Anal canal included 55 non-neoplastic and 9 neoplastic lesions. The non-neoplastic conditions included congenital anomalies, infective and ischaemic lesions while neoplastic included benign and malignant lesions. Most of the cases presented with symptoms like abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation. Conclusion We observed that neoplastic lesions were more common in large intestine while non-neoplastic lesions were frequently seen in Anal canal. Present study emphasizes the need for early histopathological diagnosis for appropriate treatment. PMID:26674358

  7. Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Fast and non-invasive, diagnostic techniques based on fluorescence spectroscopy have the potential to link the biochemical and morphologic properties of tissues to individual patient care. One of the most widely explored applications of fluorescence spectroscopy is the detection of endoscopically invisible, early neoplastic growth in epithelial tissue sites. Currently, there are no effective diagnostic techniques for these early tissue transformations. If fluorescence spectroscopy can be applied successfully as a diagnostic technique in this clinical context, it may increase the potential for curative treatment, and thus, reduce complications and health care costs. Steady-state, fluorescence measurements from small tissue regions as well as relatively large tissue fields have been performed. To a much lesser extent, time-resolved, fluorescence measurements have also been explored for tissue characterization. Furthermore, sources of both intrinsic (endogenous fluorophores) and extrinsic fluorescence (exogenous fluorophores) have been considered. The goal of the current report is to provide a comprehensive review on steady-state and time-resolved, fluorescence measurements of neoplastic and non-neoplastic, biologic systems of varying degrees of complexity. First, the principles and methodology of fluorescence spectroscopy are discussed. Next, the endogenous fluorescence properties of cells, frozen tissue sections and excised and intact bulk tissues are presented; fluorescence measurements from both animal and human tissue models are discussed. This is concluded with future perspectives. PMID:10933071

  8. Evaluation of Parotid Lesions.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Edward C; Mallen-St Clair, Jon; St John, Maie A

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis of a parotid lesion is broad, and the otolaryngologist must consider inflammatory, neoplastic, autoimmune, traumatic, infectious, or congenital causes. A comprehensive history and physical examination, in conjunction with judicious use of radiographic imaging (MRI, computed tomography, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine studies), laboratory studies, and pathologic analysis (fine-needle aspiration, core biopsy, incisional biopsy), facilitates making an accurate diagnosis. This article reviews the key history and physical elements and adjunctive diagnostic tools available for working up parotid lesions. PMID:26902978

  9. Association between micronucleus frequency and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade in Thinprep cytological test and its significance.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong-Hua; Wang, Bo-Wei; Tuokan, Talaf; Li, Qiao-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Jing

    2015-01-01

    A micronucleus is an additional small nucleus formed due to chromosomes or chromosomal fragments fail to be incorporated into the nucleus during cell division. In this study, we assessed the utility of micronucleus counting as a screening tool in cervical precancerous lesions in Thinprep cytological test smears under oil immersion. High risk HPV was also detected by hybrid capture-2 in Thinprep cytological test smears. Our results showed that micronucleus counting was significantly higher in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and invasive carcinoma cases compared to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and non-neoplastic cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that micronucleus counting possessed a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for identifying HSIL and invasive carcinoma. Cut-off of 7.5 for MN counting gave a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 66.7% (P = 0.024 and AUC = 0.892) for detecting HSIL and invasive carcinoma lesions. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only HSIL and invasive cancer lesions not age, duration of marital life and number of pregnancy are significantly associated with MN counting. The positive rate of high risk HPV was distinctly higher in LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer than that in non-neoplstic categories. In conclusions, MN evaluation may be viewed as an effective biomarker for cervical cancer screening. The combination of MN count with HPV DNA detection and TCT may serve as an effective means to screen precancerous cervical lesions in most developing nations. PMID:26339413

  10. Radiation injury of the normal and neoplastic prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Bostwick, D.G.; Egbert, B.M.; Fajardo, L.F.

    1982-09-01

    Tissue samples from 40 patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma treated by radiation therapy were evaluated simultaneously by three observers to establish criteria for distinguishing residual tumor from radiation-induced atypia. Sections from 10 patients irradiated for nonprostatic pelvic neoplasms served as controls in addition to pretreatment biopsies from the determinate group. Patients had been treated by external x-irradiation, the majority receiving 6200-7400 rad to the prostate and pelvis over 7 to 8 weeks. Positive (tumor) biopsy incidence in the determinate group was 80% at 18 months, 40% at 36 months, and 43% in later samples. The following features were characteristic of radiation injury in the prostate: decreased ratio of the number of tumor glands to stroma, atrophy and squamous-like metaplasia of non-neoplastic glands with or without atypia, stromal fibrosis, arterial lumenal narrowing due to myointimal proliferation, foam cells within vessel walls, and fibrosis and atrophy of seminal vesicles. Criteria not useful for diagnosing radiation injury included architectural pattern or differentiation of tumor, cytologic features of tumor cells, inflammatory infiltrate, and ratio of normal glands to stroma. Ionizing radiation produced characteristic lesions in neoplastic and non-neoplastic prostatic glands, stroma, and blood vessels, and the sum of these changes was a reliable indicator of prior radiotherapy. An understanding of the morphologic effects of radiation injury of the prostate allowed distinction between residual prostatic adenocarcinoma and radiation-induced atypia of non-neoplastic glands.

  11. A study of the expression and localization of toll-like receptors 2 and 9 in different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Dasgupta, Anindya; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Ghosh, TapanKumar; Dalui, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subhas; Banerjee, Uma; Basu, Anupam

    2015-12-01

    TLRs are important molecules of innate immune response, those play central role in host pathogen interaction and recognition through pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Previous studies have indicated the role of TLRs in many human malignancy and cervical cancer in terms of viral recognition and inflammatory changes in-vivo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression and localization of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR9 in preinvasive and invasive cervical cancer patients and to investigate its use as a probable diagnostic tool for better management cervical cancer. This single institution study includes individuals with normal, precancerous lesions, cervical intraepithelial neoplastic (CIN) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix. Upon confirmation by histopathology, fluorescence based immunohistochemistry was performed in all patients for TLR2 and TLR9, followed by semi-quantitative estimation of the staining intensity and grade of expression. The expression pattern of TLR2 and TLR9 does not vary greatly from normal to precancerous lesions, but a significant variation was observed in advance stages, i.e. squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Additionally the expression increased marginally in higher grades. In spite of their low difference in expression along different stages of cervical cancer, both TLR2 and TLR9 could detect the disease at an advance stages as depicted by the receiver operator characteristics curve analysis. PMID:26569074

  12. Neoplastic diseases of marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Carballal, María J; Barber, Bruce J; Iglesias, David; Villalba, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Two types of prevalent neoplastic diseases have been described in marine bivalves of commercial interest: disseminated neoplasia (DN) and gonadal neoplasia. The first involves the excessive proliferation of abnormal cells with unknown origin (probably of hemic source in some cases/species), disseminating through the circulatory system and infiltrating the connective tissue of various organs; the second consists of an abnormal proliferation of undifferentiated germinal cells of the gonad. These two types of bivalve neoplasia fit the criteria of malignant tumors: pleomorphic and undifferentiated cells, rapid and invasive growth, abundance of mitotic figures, metastasis and progressive development often resulting in the death of the affected individual. Different causes have been suggested regarding etiology: genetic alterations, virus, retrotranspons, and contaminants, although it could depend on the mollusk species; evidence of horizontal transmission of clonal cancer cells as the cause of DN spreading in clam Mya arenaria populations has been recently reported. In some species and populations, the neoplastic disorders affect only a few individuals, but in others reach high prevalence. Among the diagnostic methods, DN has been detected by histology and cytologic examination of hemolymph, and with developed specific antibodies. Recently, flow cytometry has also been applied, allowing detecting DNA quantity alteration. Several studies reported many genes and pathways critically involved in neoplastic transformation in Mya arenaria, Mytilus spp. and Ostrea edulis. These genetic studies will allow the development of diagnosis by PCR which can be used in biomonitoring studies. PMID:26146225

  13. [Synovial tumors and tumor-like lesions].

    PubMed

    Doepfer, A-K; Meurer, A

    2015-10-01

    Synovial tumors comprise a variety of lesions, including those with benign and aggressive neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory causes. In this article we focus on neoplastic tumors. Synovial tumors with other etiologies, such as sarcoidosis, granuloma, synovitis, or gouty arthritis, are not dealt with here. Through a precise differentiation between these disease entities can an optimization of treatment be achieved. PMID:26370407

  14. Clinical Study of Styping Detection of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection with Microarray from Paraffinembedded Specimens of Cervical Cancer and Precursor Lesions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Wang, Xubo; Geng, Jianxiang; Zhao, Xue

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Jiangsu, China was investigated. A total of 93 cases with cervical cancer and 176 CINII-III tissue samples were obtained from women undergoing biopsy or surgery. The 1047 exfoliated cervical cell samples were collected with cervical brush in physical examination women. HPV DNA and typing were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene-chip. The results showed that HPV DNA was detected in 82 cases with cervical cancer (88.17%), HPV 16 being detected in 65 (69.89%) cases, HPV 18 in 12 (12.90%) cases, HPV 33 in 10 (10.75%) cases, HPV 31 in 4 (4.30%) cases, and HPV 45 in 3 (3.23%) cases. HPV DNA was detected in 154 cases with CINII-III (87.50%), HPV 16 being detected in 92 (52.27%) cases, HPV 18 in 50 (28.41%) cases, HPV 33 in 25 (14.21%) cases, HPV 58 in 25 (14.21%) cases, and HPV 31 in 20 (11.36%) cases. About 20.43% cervical cancer and 38.64% CINII-III specimens exhibited multiple infections (p < 0.01). The total positive rate, single infection and mixed infection rate of the CINII-III and SCC group all had a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared with the normal cells group. The total positive rate, single infection rate and mixed infection rate of CINII-III group did not show significant difference (p > 0.05) when compared with SCC group. CINII-III and SCC had all intimate relation with HPV infection. The high prevalence of HPV 16, 18, 33, 31 and 58 in Jiangsu (China) deserves more attention, as it has important implications for the successful use of HPV vaccine and choice of diagnostic methods. PMID:26716195

  15. Cervical Laminoplasty

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatments for Spinal Pain Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artificial Disc Replacement Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic ... Discectomy Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy Spinal Fusion ... Medicine Cervical Laminoplasty What is ...

  16. Gonadotropin-Dependent Precocious Puberty: Neoplastic Causes and Endocrine Considerations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis manifests as gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty. The mechanisms behind HPG activation are complex and a clear etiology for early activation is often not elucidated. Though collectively uncommon, the neoplastic and developmental causes of gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty are very important to consider, as a delay in diagnosis may lead to adverse patient outcomes. The intent of the current paper is to review the neoplastic and developmental causes of gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty. We discuss the common CNS lesions and human chorionic gonadotropin-secreting tumors that cause sexual precocity, review the relationship between therapeutic radiation and gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty, and finally, provide an overview of the therapies available for height preservation in this unique patient population. PMID:21603196

  17. CD1a Reactivity in Non-neoplastic Adenohypophysis.

    PubMed

    Pisapia, David J; Rosenblum, Marc K; Lavi, Ehud

    2016-06-01

    Within the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with sellar or suprasellar lesions is Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). CD1a staining is frequently used to identify the presence of an abnormal proliferation of Langerhans cells on histologic sections and contributes to the diagnosis of LCH. Here, we report that the MTB-1 monoclonal antibody against the CD1a antigen reacts to native adenohypophyseal epithelial cells. We show that immunohistochemistry for CD1a exhibits strong positivity in all autopsy and surgically resected non-neoplastic adenohypophysis tested. Thus, CD1a positivity by itself should be interpreted with caution, and we recommend the routine use of a panel of stains including CD1a, Langerin, and synaptophysin in conjunction with morphologic analysis before a diagnosis of LCH is rendered. In addition, we find that pituitary adenomas fail to stain for CD1a prompting consideration of the utility of this stain as a marker for non-neoplastic gland. PMID:26999501

  18. Noninfectious penile lesions.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Joel M H; Sea, Jason; Thompson, Ian M; Elston, Dirk M

    2010-01-15

    Family physicians commonly diagnose and manage penile cutaneous lesions. Noninfectious lesions may be classified as inflammatory and papulosquamous (e.g., psoriasis, lichen sclerosus, angiokeratomas, lichen nitidus, lichen planus), or as neoplastic (e.g., carcinoma in situ, invasive squamous cell carcinoma). The clinical presentation and appearance of the lesions guide the diagnosis. Psoriasis presents as red or salmon-colored plaques with overlying scales, often with systemic lesions. Lichen sclerosus presents as a phimotic, hypopigmented prepuce or glans penis with a cellophane-like texture. Angiokeratomas are typically asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, red or blue papules, whereas lichen nitidus usually produces asymptomatic pinhead-sized, hypopigmented papules. The lesions of lichen planus are pruritic, violaceous, polygonal papules that are typically systemic. Carcinoma in situ should be suspected if the patient has velvety red or keratotic plaques of the glans penis or prepuce, whereas invasive squamous cell carcinoma presents as a painless lump, ulcer, or fungating irregular mass. Some benign lesions, such as psoriasis and lichen planus, can mimic carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma. Biopsy is indicated if the diagnosis is in doubt or neoplasm cannot be excluded. The management of benign penile lesions usually involves observation or topical corticosteroids; however, neoplastic lesions generally require surgery. PMID:20082512

  19. Expression of heat shock protein 70 and c-myc in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abd el All, H; Rey, A; Duvillard, P

    1998-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), is a molecular chaperone that binds to c-myc and regulates its accumulation and localisation. In an attempt to confirm this association and to find out its prognostic significance in cervical carcinoma, paraffin embedded sections from 15 chronic cervicitis, 31 squamous cell carcinomas (scc) and 7 adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix were immunohistochemically (IHC) stained for hsp70 and c-myc. hsp70 was faintly expressed cytoplasmically in non neoplastic squamous and endocervical epithelium, while mainly nuclear staining with variable intensities was seen in all scc and in squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) overlying 8 tumors. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear staining was noted in adenocarcinoma. c-myc was moderately expressed in the cytoplasm of all non neoplastic endocervical glands, while very mild cytoplasmic staining was noted in squamous epithelium. In SIL and in scc the staining intensity increased and was mainly nuclear. For adenocarcinoma, nuclear and cytoplasmic staining with different intensities was noted. There were significant positive correlations between the IHC expression of hsp70 and c-myc (p = 0.0001). In conclusion, our results confirm the co-association of c-myc and hsp70. This co-association might be a mechanism of tumor escape by preventing hsp70 binding to one of its normal target, the MHC class I, and preventing its subsequent expression on the surface of the cancerous cells. Lastly, the nuclear expression of hsp70 might be considered as an indicator of malignant transformation. PMID:9673366

  20. Vulvovaginal reconstruction for neoplastic disease.

    PubMed

    Höckel, Michael; Dornhöfer, Nadja

    2008-06-01

    Current treatment of neoplastic disease that involves the external female genitalia aims to achieve local disease control, but not to restore form and function of these organs. Despite a growing trend to reduce the extent of surgical resection, impaired quality of life after surgery due to severe sexual dysfunction and disturbed body image is common. We postulate that the integration of surgical techniques for vulvar and vaginal reconstruction into primary treatment would improve aesthetic and functional results and therefore quality of life. We systematically searched the literature for surgical procedures designed and validated for vulvovaginal reconstruction. Various skin flaps, both with random vascularisation and those based on vascular territories (ie, axial pattern, fasciocutaneous, musculocutaneous, and bowel flaps), can restore important parts of vulvovaginal form and function with acceptable morbidity at the donor and recipient sites. Appropriate vulvovaginal reconstruction cannot be achieved by doing a few standardised procedures; rather, it necessitates specialists who are familiar with general principles of reconstructive surgery to master many techniques to select the optimum procedure for the individual patient. Vulvovaginal reconstructive surgery has limitations, particularly achievement of functional restoration in irradiated tissue. Physicians who treat women with neoplastic disease of the external genitalia should be aware of the current state of vulvovaginal reconstructive surgery. Prospective controlled clinical trials are warranted to assess the effect of vulvovaginal reconstruction on morbidity and quality of life after treatment. PMID:18510987

  1. Cervical Neoplasia Probe Control

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-01-24

    This software, which consists of a main executive and several subroutines, performs control of the optics, image acquisition, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) of this image, of an optical based medical instrument that performs fluoresence detection of precancerous lesions (neoplasia) of the human cervix. The hardware portion of this medical instrument is known by the same name Cervical Neoplasia Probe (CNP)

  2. Raman spectroscopic characterization on cervical neoplasm in biopsy direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hsiao Hsin; Tsai, Yan Sheng; Wang, Tao Yuan; Chu, Shou Chia; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

    2007-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy was applied to distinguish the spectroscopic information between normal cervical tissues (14) and cervical neoplasia (17), including low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (6) and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (11). Standard pathological sections of these cervical tissues were measured from superficial to stroma layers. We have normalized significant Raman peaks, 1250 and 1579-1656 cm -1 by taking a ratio over a stationary Raman at 1004 cm -1, and successfully discriminated between normal and neoplasm cervical tissues.

  3. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH)

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; Ortíz-Hernández, Brenda L.; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Fernández, José Luis; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL), and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1. PMID:23429197

  4. TMEM45A, SERPINB5 and p16INK4A transcript levels are predictive for development of high-grade cervical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Manawapat-Klopfer, Anna; Thomsen, Louise T; Martus, Peter; Munk, Christian; Russ, Rainer; Gmuender, Hans; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Haedicke-Jarboui, Juliane; Stubenrauch, Frank; Kjaer, Susanne K; Iftner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Women persistently infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 are at high risk for development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN3+). We aimed to identify biomarkers for progression to CIN3+ in women with persistent HPV16 infection. In this prospective study, 11,088 women aged 20-29 years were enrolled during 1991-1993, and re-invited for a second visit two years later. Cervical cytology samples obtained at both visits were tested for HPV DNA by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), and HC2-positive samples were genotyped by INNO-LiPA. The cohort was followed for up to 19 years via a national pathology register. To identify markers for progression to CIN3+, we performed microarray analysis on RNA extracted from cervical swabs of 30 women with persistent HPV16-infection and 11 HPV-negative women. Six genes were selected and validated by quantitative PCR. Three genes were subsequently validated within a different and large group of women from the same cohort. Secondly, Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analyses were used to investigate whether expression levels of those three genes predict progression to CIN3+. We found that high transcript levels of TMEM45A, SERPINB5 and p16INK4a at baseline were associated with increased risk of CIN3+ during follow-up. The hazard ratios of CIN3+ per 10-fold increase in baseline expression level were 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.3) for TMEM45A, 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.5) for p16INK4a, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.2-2.7) for SERPINB5. In conclusion, high mRNA expression levels of TMEM45A, SERPINB5 and p16INK4a were associated with increased risk of CIN3+ in persistently HPV16-infected women. PMID:27508094

  5. NON-NEOPLASTIC LESIONS: USE OF DATA FROM PRE- OR NON-NEOPLASTIC LESIONS THAT MAY INDICATE POTENTIAL FOR CARCINOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toxicology and Microbiology Division of the US EPA, Health Effects Research Laboratory has initiated a research program to develop a matrix of short-term tests to distinguish carcinogens from non-carcinogens among genotoxic substances and to develop methods for predicting rel...

  6. [Analysis of the reasons for abandoning the follow-up and treatment process in women with pre-cancerous cervical lesions in the province of Jujuy: implications for health management].

    PubMed

    Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2012-12-01

    Adequate follow-up and treatment of women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and cancer is key in reducing cervical cancer mortality. This research study aims to analyze the magnitude of abandonment in the follow-up and treatment process, as well as the reasons for this abandonment, in women with HSIL who received care in public health services in the province of Jujuy in 2010. Secondary sources were analyzed and women were interviewed in their homes. The abandonment rate within the study population was 23.5%. Among these women, 40.5% mentioned organizational problems in the health care system as a reason for abandoning and 30.9% mentioned subjective reasons. Our results have been used in the reorganization of the follow-up and treatment process being carried out in the province. PMID:23681458

  7. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine (gardasil(®)): a review of its use in the prevention of premalignant anogenital lesions, cervical and anal cancers, and genital warts.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L

    2014-07-01

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) [types 6, 11, 16, 18] recombinant vaccine (Gardasil(®); Silgard(®)) is composed of virus-like particles formed by self-assembly of recombinant L1 capsid protein from each of HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. It is indicated for use from the age of 9 years as a two- or three-dose vaccination course over 6 months for the prevention of premalignant anogenital lesions, cervical and anal cancers, and genital warts caused by the vaccine HPV types. In placebo-controlled trials, quadrivalent HPV vaccine provided high-level protection against infection or disease caused by the vaccine HPV types over 2-4 years in females aged 15-45 years who were negative for the vaccine HPV types, and provided a degree of cross-protection against certain non-vaccine HPV types. The vaccine also provided high-level protection against persistent infection, anogenital precancerous lesions and genital warts caused by the vaccine HPV types over 3 years in susceptible males aged 16-26 years. Protection has been demonstrated for up to 8 years. In subjects who were negative for the vaccine HPV types, high seroconversion rates and high levels of anti-HPV antibodies were observed in females of all age ranges from 9 to 45 years and in males aged 9-26 years. The vaccine was generally well tolerated and was usually predicted to be cost effective in girls and young women. Therefore, quadrivalent HPV vaccine offers an effective means to substantially reduce the burden of HPV-related anogenital disease in females and males, particularly cervical cancer and genital warts. PMID:25022951

  8. Development of biomarker panel to predict, prevent and create treatments tailored to the persons with human papillomavirus-induced cervical precancerous lesions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) induce many cancer conditions and cause cervical cancer, second in frequency of malignant disease in women. The aim was to develop biomarker panel for HPV-induced cervical precancerous diseases in patients infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Material and methods The study involved 71 women with cervical precancerous diseases (mean age 26 ± 5 years) revealed by colposcopic, cytomorphological, and ultrasound signs which were assessed according to the following: first group, 44 patients infected with HPV; second group, 27 HPV-negative patients; and third group, 30 healthy patients (controls). In cervical specimen, we identified HPV DNA of different oncogenic risk types by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (JSC SPC ‘DiaprofMed’) were used for detecting antibodies to HSV1 and/or HSV2 and for determining the avidity index. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IFN-α, TNF-α, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), were studied by ELISA. Results In HPV-induced cervix precancerous diseases, we identified low-avidity IgG antibodies to HSV serum of 20 patients; in the serum of 17 patients, we identified average-avidity antibodies, and high-avidity antibodies were found in 2 patients only. In 14 HPV-negative patients, we found low-avidity IgG antibodies to HSV; in 10 patients, medium avidity. Patients with low-avidity IgG antibodies to herpes virus showed high and medium oncogenic risk HPV types and a decrease of IFN-γ compared to patients with medium-avidity IgG antibodies. Production of IFN-γ was suppressed also in HPV-negative patients with cervical precancers, but we found low- and medium-avidity IgG antibodies to herpes virus. In patients with low-avidity antibodies, we observed increased level of IL-10. Level of IFN-α, IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-4 did not

  9. Improving diagnosis of atraumatic splenic lesions, part II: benign neoplasms/nonneoplastic mass-like lesions.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zina J; Mazzariol, Fernanda S; Flusberg, Milana; Chernyak, Victoria; Oh, Sarah K; Kaul, Bindu; Stein, Marjorie W; Rozenblit, Alla M

    2016-01-01

    Focal atraumatic splenic lesions often pose a diagnostic challenge on cross-sectional imaging. They can be categorized based on etiology as nonneoplastic, benign neoplastic (discussed in Part II), and malignant neoplastic lesions or on prevalence as common, uncommon, and rare lesions. Familiarity with pertinent clinical parameters, etiology, pathology, prevalence and ancillary features such as splenomegaly, concomitant hepatic involvement, and extrasplenic findings, in addition to knowledge of imaging spectra of the lesions, can improve diagnostic confidence. Consideration of these factors together can arm the radiologist with the necessary tools to render a more confident diagnosis and, thus, better aid management. PMID:27317213

  10. Cervical spondylosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cartilage (disks) and bones of the neck (cervical vertebrae). It is a common cause of chronic neck ... by aging and chronic wear on the cervical spine. This includes the disks or cushions between the ...

  11. Cervical dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... cervical dysplasia is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. There are many types of HPV. Some types lead to cervical dysplasia or cancer. ...

  12. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  13. Cervical cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and cervical cancer cannot be seen with the naked eye. Special tests and tools are needed to ... Pap smears and cervical cancer References Committee on Adolescent Health Care of the American College of Obstetricians ...

  14. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  15. HPV prevalence and type-distribution in cervical cancer and premalignant lesions of the cervix: A population-based study from Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lesley A; O'Rorke, Michael A; Wilson, Robbie; Jamison, Jackie; Gavin, Anna T

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution is important for monitoring the impact of prophylactic HPV vaccination. This study aimed to demonstrate the HPV genotypes predominating in pre-malignant and cervical cancers in Northern Ireland (NI) before the vaccination campaign has effect. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks from 2,303 women aged 16-93 years throughout NI were collated between April 2011 and February 2013. HPV DNA was amplified by PCR and HPV genotyping undertaken using the Roche(®) linear array detection kit. In total, 1,241 out of 1,830 eligible samples (68.0%) tested positive for HPV, with the majority of these [1,181/1,830 (64.5%)] having high-risk (HR) HPV infection; 37.4% were positive for HPV-16 (n = 684) and 5.1% for HPV-18 (n = 93). HPV type-specific prevalence was 48.1%, 65.9%, 81.3%, 92.2%, and 64.3% among cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) Grades I-III, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) cases, respectively. Most SCC cases (81.3%) had only one HPV genotype detected and almost a third (32.0%) of all cervical pathologies were HPV negative including 51.9% of CIN I (n = 283), 34.1% CIN II (n = 145), 18.7% of CIN III (n = 146), 7.8% of SCC (n = 5), and 35.7% of AC (n = 5) cases. This study provides important baseline data for monitoring the effect of HPV vaccination in NI and for comparison with other UK regions. The coverage of other HR-HPV genotypes apart from 16 and 18, including HPV-45, 31, 39, and 52, and the potential for cross protection, should be considered when considering future polyvalent vaccines. J. Med. Virol. 88:1262-1270, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26680281

  16. Galectin-1 is a useful marker for detecting neoplastic squamous cells in oral cytology smears.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yuri; Kondo, Yuko; Sakai, Manabu; Sato, Sunao; Kishino, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    Cytologic diagnoses in the oral region are very difficult due to the small amount of cells in smears, which are also exposed to many stimulating factors and often show atypical changes. Galectin-1 (Gal1) is a β-galactoside binding protein that modulates tumor progression. Gal1 is very weakly expressed in normal cells, but is often overexpressed in neoplastic lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to differentiate reactive changes from neoplastic changes in oral cytology smears based on the expression of Gal1. A total of 155 tissue biopsy specimens and 61 liquid-based cytology specimens were immunostained by an anti-Gal1 antibody, and Gal1 expression levels were subsequently evaluated. These samples consisted of oral squamous cell carcinomas, epithelial dysplasia, and oral mucosal diseases. The positive and negative expressions of Gal1 were examined in 37 specimens collected by scalpel and cytobrush biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Gal1 were also evaluated in smears. In tissue sections, the positive ratio of Gal1 in neoplastic lesions was high (72.3%). In cytology specimens, the positive ratio of Gal1 was higher in neoplastic lesions (79.0%) than in those negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (22.2%). A correlation was found between immunocytochemical Gal1 expression and immunohistochemical Gal1 expression (P < .001). The sensitivity (75.0%), specificity (75.0%), and positive predictive value (91.3%) of Gal1 were also high in smears. In conclusion, Gal1 may be a useful marker for determining whether morphologic changes in cells are reactive or neoplastic. PMID:26980012

  17. Progression of HPV infection to detectable cervical lesions or clearance in adult women: Analysis of the control arm of the VIVIANE study.

    PubMed

    Skinner, S Rachel; Wheeler, Cosette M; Romanowski, Barbara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M Rowena; Vallejos, Carlos; Minkina, Galina; Pereira Da Silva, Daniel; McNeil, Shelly; Prilepskaya, Vera; Gogotadze, Irina; Money, Deborah; Garland, Suzanne M; Romanenko, Viktor; Harper, Diane M; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Geeraerts, Brecht; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Bozonnat, Marie-Cécile; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2016-05-15

    The control arm of the phase III VIVIANE (Human PapillomaVIrus: Vaccine Immunogenicity ANd Efficacy; NCT00294047) study in women >25 years was studied to assess risk of progression from cervical HPV infection to detectable cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The risk of detecting CIN associated with the same HPV type as the reference infection was analysed using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models. Infections were categorised depending upon persistence as 6-month persistent infection (6MPI) or infection of any duration. The 4-year interim analysis included 2,838 women, of whom 1,073 (37.8%) experienced 2,615 infections of any duration and 708 (24.9%) experienced 1,130 6MPIs. Infection with oncogenic HPV types significantly increased the risk of detecting CIN grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) versus non-oncogenic types. For 6MPI, the highest risk was associated with HPV-33 (hazard ratio [HR]: 31.9 [8.3-122.2, p < 0.0001]). The next highest risk was with HPV-16 (21.1 [6.3-70.0], p < 0.0001). Similar findings were seen for infections of any duration. Significant risk was also observed for HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-45. Concomitant HPV infection or CIN grade 1 or greater associated with a different oncogenic HPV type increased risk. Most women (79.3%) with an HPV infection at baseline cleared detectable infections of any duration, and 69.9% cleared a 6MPI. The risk of progression of HPV infection to CIN2+ in women >25 years in this study was similar to that in women 15-25 years in PATRICIA. PMID:26685704

  18. Progression of HPV infection to detectable cervical lesions or clearance in adult women: Analysis of the control arm of the VIVIANE study

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Cosette M.; Romanowski, Barbara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Lazcano‐Ponce, Eduardo; Rowena Del Rosario‐Raymundo, M.; Vallejos, Carlos; Minkina, Galina; Pereira Da Silva, Daniel; McNeil, Shelly; Prilepskaya, Vera; Gogotadze, Irina; Money, Deborah; Garland, Suzanne M.; Romanenko, Viktor; Harper, Diane M.; Levin, Myron J.; Chatterjee, Archana; Geeraerts, Brecht; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Bozonnat, Marie‐Cécile; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The control arm of the phase III VIVIANE (Human PapillomaVIrus: Vaccine Immunogenicity ANd Efficacy; NCT00294047) study in women >25 years was studied to assess risk of progression from cervical HPV infection to detectable cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The risk of detecting CIN associated with the same HPV type as the reference infection was analysed using Kaplan–Meier and multivariable Cox models. Infections were categorised depending upon persistence as 6‐month persistent infection (6MPI) or infection of any duration. The 4‐year interim analysis included 2,838 women, of whom 1,073 (37.8%) experienced 2,615 infections of any duration and 708 (24.9%) experienced 1,130 6MPIs. Infection with oncogenic HPV types significantly increased the risk of detecting CIN grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) versus non‐oncogenic types. For 6MPI, the highest risk was associated with HPV‐33 (hazard ratio [HR]: 31.9 [8.3–122.2, p < 0.0001]). The next highest risk was with HPV‐16 (21.1 [6.3–70.0], p < 0.0001). Similar findings were seen for infections of any duration. Significant risk was also observed for HPV‐18, HPV‐31, and HPV‐45. Concomitant HPV infection or CIN grade 1 or greater associated with a different oncogenic HPV type increased risk. Most women (79.3%) with an HPV infection at baseline cleared detectable infections of any duration, and 69.9% cleared a 6MPI. The risk of progression of HPV infection to CIN2+ in women >25 years in this study was similar to that in women 15–25 years in PATRICIA. PMID:26685704

  19. Cervical adenocarcinoma identification by testing for chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Janet L; Dudley, Bunyan S; Upender, Madhvi; Endress, Gregory A

    2013-12-01

    We report on a case of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ in a 42-year-old woman with a history of human papillomavirus infection. Repeat cytology, human papillomavirus testing, and colposcopy failed to identify the lesion. Testing of the cervical cell DNA identified chromosomal abnormalities, prompting a cervical cone biopsy, which identified adenocarcinoma in situ. PMID:24283864

  20. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    PubMed

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging. PMID:27273940

  1. Cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Sravisht; Kim, Han Jo

    2016-09-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common clinical scenario. Patients with radiculopathy typically present with neck pain, arm pain, or both. We review the epidemiology of cervical radiculopathy and discuss the diagnosis of this condition. This includes an overview of the pertinent findings on the patient history and physical examination. We also discuss relevant clinical syndromes that must be considered in the differential diagnosis including peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes and shoulder pathology. The natural history of cervical radiculopathy is reviewed and options for management are discussed. These options include conservative management, non-operative modalities such as physical therapy, steroid injections, and operative intervention. While the exact indications for surgical intervention have not yet been elucidated, we provide an overview of the available literature regarding indications and discuss the timing of intervention. The surgical outcomes of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA), and posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF) are discussed. PMID:27250042

  2. Langerhans cells from women with cervical precancerous lesions become functionally responsive against human papillomavirus after activation with stabilized Poly-I:C.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Diane M; Woodham, Andrew W; Skeate, Joseph G; Rijkee, Laurie K; Taylor, Julia R; Brand, Heike E; Muderspach, Laila I; Roman, Lynda D; Yessaian, Annie A; Pham, Huyen Q; Matsuo, Koji; Lin, Yvonne G; McKee, Greg M; Salazar, Andres M; Kast, W Martin

    2015-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated suppression of Langerhans cell (LC) function can lead to persistent infection and development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Women with HPV-induced high-grade CIN2/3 have not mounted an effective immune response against HPV, yet it is unknown if LC-mediated T cell activation from such women is functionally impaired against HPV. We investigated the functional activation of in vitro generated LC and their ability to induce HPV16-specific T cells from CIN2/3 patients after exposure to HPV16 followed by treatment with stabilized Poly-I:C (s-Poly-I:C). LC from patients exposed to HPV16 demonstrated a lack of costimulatory molecule expression, inflammatory cytokine secretion, and chemokine-directed migration. Conversely, s-Poly-I:C caused significant phenotypic and functional activation of HPV16-exposed LC, which resulted in de novo generation of HPV16-specific CD8(+) T cells. Our results highlight that LC of women with a history of persistent HPV infection can present HPV antigens and are capable of inducing an adaptive T cell immune response when given the proper stimulus, suggesting that s-Poly-I:C compounds may be attractive immunomodulators for LC-mediated clearance of persistent HPV infection. PMID:26360252

  3. Cervical spondylosis

    MedlinePlus

    Cervical osteoarthritis; Arthritis - neck; Neck arthritis; Chronic neck pain; Degenerative disk disease ... Past spine surgery Ruptured or slipped disk Severe arthritis Small fractures to the spine from osteoporosis

  4. How will HPV vaccines affect cervical cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Roden, Richard; Wu, T.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women, and its toll is greatest in populations that lack screening programmes to detect precursor lesions. Persistent infection with ‘high risk’ genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, although not sufficient, to cause cervical carcinoma. Therefore, HPV vaccination provides an opportunity to profoundly affect cervical cancer incidence worldwide. A recently licensed HPV subunit vaccine protects women from a high proportion of precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma and most genital warts. Here we examine the ramifications and remaining questions that surround preventive HPV vaccines. PMID:16990853

  5. Fractures of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

  6. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysplasia of the cervix, vagina, or vulva • A family history of cervical cancer •Smoking •Certain sexually transmitted infections , such as chlamydia • ... to treat your cancer, you still need cervical cancer screening. Cells are taken from the upper vagina ... smallest units of a structure in the body; the building blocks for all ...

  7. CNP. Cervical Neoplasia Probe Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, T.

    1995-05-17

    This software, which consists of a main executive and several subroutines, performs control of the optics, image acquisition, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) of this image, of an optical based medical instrument that performs fluoresence detection of precancerous lesions (neoplasia) of the human cervix. The hardware portion of this medical instrument is known by the same name Cervical Neoplasia Probe (CNP)

  8. Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Eileen M.

    2003-01-01

    Of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV), more than 30 infect the genital tract. The association between certain oncogenic (high-risk) strains of HPV and cervical cancer is well established. Although HPV is essential to the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, it is not sufficient, and a variety of cofactors and molecular events influence whether cervical cancer will develop. Early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions can prevent progression to cervical cancer. Identification of precancerous lesions has been primarily by cytologic screening of cervical cells. Cellular abnormalities, however, may be missed or may not be sufficiently distinct, and a portion of patients with borderline or mildly dyskaryotic cytomorphology will have higher-grade disease identified by subsequent colposcopy and biopsy. Sensitive and specific molecular techniques that detect HPV DNA and distinguish high-risk HPV types from low-risk HPV types have been introduced as an adjunct to cytology. Earlier detection of high-risk HPV types may improve triage, treatment, and follow-up in infected patients. Currently, the clearest role for HPV DNA testing is to improve diagnostic accuracy and limit unnecessary colposcopy in patients with borderline or mildly abnormal cytologic test results. PMID:12525422

  9. Neoplastic cell transformation by high-LET radiation: Molecular mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui-Hsu Yang, Tracy; Craise, Laurie M.; Mei, Man-Tong; Tobias, Cornelius A.

    Experimental data on molecular mechanisms are essential for understanding the bioeffects of radiation and for developing biophysical models, which can help in determining the shape of dose-response curves at very low doses, e.g., doses less than 1 cGy. Although it has been shown that ionizing radiation can cause neoplastic cell transformation directly, that high-LET heavy ions in general can be more effective than photons in transforming cells, and that the radiogenic cell transformation is a multi-step processes, we know very little about the molecular nature of lesions important for cell transformation, the relationship between lethal and transformational damages, and the evolution of initial damages into final chromosomal aberrations which alter the growth control of cells. Using cultured mouse embryo cells (C3H10T1/2) as a model system, we have collected quantitative data on dose-response curves for heavy ions with various charges and energies. An analysis of these quantitative data suggested that two DNA breaks formed within 80 Å may cause cell transformation and that two DNA breaks formed within 20 Å may be lethal. Through studies with restriction enzymes which produce DNA damages at specific sites, we have found that DNA double strand breaks, including both blunt- and cohesive-ended breaks, can cause cell transformation in vitro. These results indicate that DNA double strand breaks can be important primary lesions for radiogenic cell transformation and that blunt-ended double strand breaks can form lethal as well as transformational damages due to misrepair or incomplete repair in the cell. The RBE-LET relationship is similar for HGPRT gene mutation, chromosomal deletion, and cell transformation, suggesting common lesions may be involved in these radiation effects. The high RBE of high-LET radiation for cell killing and neoplastic cell transformation is most likely related to its effectiveness in producing DNA double strand breaks in mammalian cells. At

  10. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... and remove the cap. How Much Does It Cost? A cervical cap costs about $70 and should be replaced every year. In addition, there is also the cost of the doctor's visit. Many health insurance plans ...

  11. [Cervical cerclage].

    PubMed

    Akladios, C Y; Sananes, N; Gaudineau, A; Boudier, E; Langer, B

    2015-10-01

    Cervical cerclage aims to strengthen not only the mechanical properties of the cervix, but also its immunological and anti-infectious functions. The demonstration of a strong interrelation between cervical insufficiency as well as decreased cervical length at endo-vaginal ultrasonography and infection has changed the indications cerclage. Actually we can distinguish three indications for cerclage: prophylactic, for obstetrical history; therapeutic, for shortened cervical length at ultrasonography in patients at risk and; emergency cerclage in case of threatening cervix at physical examination. The McDonald's technique is the most recommended. In case of failure, it is proposed to realize cerclage at a higher level on the cervix either by vaginal or abdominal route. PMID:26144289

  12. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  13. Vital-dye-enhanced multimodal imaging of neoplastic progression in a mouse model of oral carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellebust, Anne; Rosbach, Kelsey; Wu, Jessica Keren; Nguyen, Jennifer; Gillenwater, Ann; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    In this longitudinal study, a mouse model of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide chemically induced tongue carcinogenesis was used to assess the ability of optical imaging with exogenous and endogenous contrast to detect neoplastic lesions in a heterogeneous mucosal surface. Widefield autofluorescence and fluorescence images of intact 2-NBDG-stained and proflavine-stained tissues were acquired at multiple time points in the carcinogenesis process. Confocal fluorescence images of transverse fresh tissue slices from the same specimens were acquired to investigate how changes in tissue microarchitecture affect widefield fluorescence images of intact tissue. Widefield images were analyzed to develop and evaluate an algorithm to delineate areas of dysplasia and cancer. A classification algorithm for the presence of neoplasia based on the mean fluorescence intensity of 2-NBDG staining and the standard deviation of the fluorescence intensity of proflavine staining was found to separate moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, and cancer from non-neoplastic regions of interest with 91% sensitivity and specificity. Results suggest this combination of noninvasive optical imaging modalities can be used in vivo to discriminate non-neoplastic from neoplastic tissue in this model with the potential to translate this technology to the clinic.

  14. [Tumor-like lesions of bone].

    PubMed

    Erlemann, R; Jundt, G

    2016-06-01

    Historically, tumor-like lesions of bone were defined as non-neoplastic bone lesions. Today, however, some of them are considered real neoplasms. They are among the most frequent bone lesions. They usually grow slowly, but occasionally they grow rapidly. Many of them can be diagnosed by plain films alone; in others, CT and MRI yield additional features for a correct diagnosis. Some lesions do not need treatment; others should be resected, and some may even recur. Non-ossifying fibroma, juvenile and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous and osteofibrous dysplasia and eosinophilic granuloma are presented. PMID:27216410

  15. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome induced by neoplastic meningitis in a patient receiving maintenance hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is characterized by neurological symptoms resulting from cerebral edema, which occurs as a consequence of hemodialysis. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome most often occurs in patients who have just started hemodialysis, during hemodialysis, or soon after hemodialysis; although it may also occur in patients who are under maintenance hemodialysis with pre-existing neurological disease. Case presentation A 70-year-old woman, who had been receiving maintenance hemodialysis for one year, was diagnosed with ovarian cancer by ascites cytological examination. Two years later, she reported severe headache and nausea during hemodialysis and was diagnosed with dialysis disequilibrium syndrome. Although brain images revealed mild hydrocephalus without any mass lesions, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells were detected in her cerebrospinal fluid. These findings indicated that DDS was induced by neoplastic meningitis due to ovarian cancer metastasis. Conclusion Neoplastic meningitis should be considered and excluded in hemodialysis patients with dialysis disequilibrium syndrome and malignancy by cytological examination of the cerebrospinal fluid even if cerebral imaging shows no obvious lesions. This is the first reported case of dialysis disequilibrium syndrome induced by neoplastic meningitis in a patient receiving maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:24238645

  16. Cervical cancer detection by electrical impedance in a Colombian setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, David A.; Corzo, Sandra P.; González Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical properties of normal and neoplastic cervical tissues in a heterogeneous group of 56 Colombian women were studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and a model based on the Generalized Effective-Medium Theory of Induced Polarization (GEMTIP). Differences between the electrical bioimpedance spectra were correlated with cellular and tissue parameters. The analysis performed by the proposed model suggest that the number of different types of cellular layers that form the biological tissue, the intracellular and extracellular conductivity could be used to explain the differences between electrical bioimpedance spectra in normal and neoplastic tissues.

  17. Synchronous Kimura lesions at two different sites–a diagnostic dilemma!

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Bharadwaj

    2016-01-01

    Kimura disease (KD) is a rare, chronic, benign inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology mimicking neoplastic disease and is characterized by multiple subcutaneous nodules and masses, primarily in the cervical region, accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia and lymphadenopathy. A 35-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of swelling in the right preauricular region and right thigh. Investigations showed a peripheral eosinophilia. CT of cervical region revealed parotid neoplasm and a fine needle aspiration was inconclusive. The thigh swelling felt vascular and a CT angiogram was done which revealed a diffuse vascular lesion. A superficial parotidectomy and an excision of the right thigh swelling were done. Histopathologies of both specimens were reported to have features suggestive of KD. The patient was evaluated for systemic manifestations and found to have no abnormalities. The patient has been disease free on follow-up after 2 years. This case is being presented for the rarity of its incidence and the nature of its presentation. PMID:27190775

  18. Fitting the cervical cap.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, A K; Baker, N N; Haney, S L

    1988-07-01

    The cervical cap is now available for general use by American women. Several steps are necessary to select women who are good candidates for cap usage and to successfully fit the cap. Many women are not good candidates for the cap. The cap is generally not suitable for women who have recently become sexually active or who are first-time contraceptors. Many users are women who cannot use more widely available contraceptives. Successful cap use requires a highly motivated, persistent woman who will correctly insert and remove her cap. The size, shape, length, position and location of the cervix must be assessed by the clinician prior to fitting the cap. The cervix should be visually inspected for lesions or cervicitis and a Pap smear should be taken. After an initial cap is selected, the stability of the cap, gaps between the cap and cervix, areas of uncovered cervix and the adequacy of the suction seal should be assessed. The woman should be taught how to insert and remove the cap. Additionally, she should be instructed to use a backup method of contraception until she is sure that the cap will remain in place during sexual intercourse. Successful cap fitting requires a careful, methodical approach by the clinician and a carefully selected, highly motivated client. This article presents the steps of cervical cap fitting. PMID:3405494

  19. Neoplastic Reprogramming of Patient-Derived Adipose Stem Cells by Prostate Cancer Cell-Associated Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y.; Yang, Yijun; Thomas, Raju; Ranjan, Manish; Mondal, Debasis; Moroz, Krzysztof; Fang, Zhide; Rezk, Bashir M.; Moparty, Krishnarao; Sikka, Suresh C.; Sartor, Oliver; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are often recruited to tumor sites but their functional significance in tumor growth and disease progression remains elusive. Herein we report that prostate cancer (PC) cell microenvironment subverts PC patient adipose-derived stem cells (pASCs) to undergo neoplastic transformation. Unlike normal ASCs, the pASCs primed with PC cell conditioned media (CM) formed prostate-like neoplastic lesions in vivo and reproduced aggressive tumors in secondary recipients. The pASC tumors acquired cytogenetic aberrations and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) and expressed epithelial, neoplastic, and vasculogenic markers reminiscent of molecular features of PC tumor xenografts. Our mechanistic studies revealed that PC cell-derived exosomes are sufficient to recapitulate formation of prostate tumorigenic mimicry generated by CM-primed pASCs in vivo. In addition to down-regulation of the large tumor suppressor homolog2 (Lats2) and the programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4), a neoplastic transformation inhibitor, the tumorigenic reprogramming of pASCs was associated with trafficking by PC cell-derived exosomes of oncogenic factors, including H-ras and K-ras transcripts, oncomiRNAs miR-125b, miR-130b, and miR-155 as well as the Ras superfamily of GTPases Rab1a, Rab1b, and Rab11a. Our findings implicate a new role for PC cell-derived exosomes in clonal expansion of tumors through neoplastic reprogramming of tumor tropic ASCs in cancer patients. PMID:24715691

  20. Immunohistological recognition of cyclin D1 expression by non-lymphoid cells among lymphoid neoplastic cells.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Zainalabideen; Turley, Helen; Gatter, Kevin; Pezzella, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Cyclin D1 immunostaining of non-neoplastic cells has been a source of diagnostic confusion especially in lymphoproliferative lesions. This study has reviewed these in two hundred and thirty-one haematopathological samples stained for cyclin D1. Most cases were formalin-fixed except for a few bone marrow trephines, which were B-5 fixed, and EDTA decalcified. Overall, 94% (216/231) of cases showed one or more types of non-neoplastic cells expressing Cyclin D1 of variable intensity. Endothelial cells and histiocytes were the most commonly identified Cyclin D1 positive cells being positive in 92% (214/231) of cases. Other normal cell types identified included fat cells, stromal fibroblasts, glial cells, spermatocytes, smooth muscle cells, osteoblasts and where present epithelial cells. Many normal cell types can express cyclinD1. Knowledge of these is useful to prevent misinterpretation of cyclin D1 positive tumours. PMID:23758159

  1. Cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Koh, Wui-Jin; Greer, Benjamin E; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Apte, Sachin M; Campos, Susana M; Chan, John; Cho, Kathleen R; Cohn, David; Crispens, Marta Ann; DuPont, Nefertiti; Eifel, Patricia J; Gaffney, David K; Giuntoli, Robert L; Han, Ernest; Huh, Warner K; Lurain, John R; Martin, Lainie; Morgan, Mark A; Mutch, David; Remmenga, Steven W; Reynolds, R Kevin; Small, William; Teng, Nelson; Tillmanns, Todd; Valea, Fidel A; McMillian, Nicole R; Hughes, Miranda

    2013-03-01

    These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Cervical Cancer focus on early-stage disease, because it occurs more frequently in the United States. After careful clinical evaluation and staging, the primary treatment of early-stage cervical cancer is either surgery or radiotherapy. These guidelines include fertility-sparing and non-fertility-sparing treatment for those with early-stage disease, which is disease confined to the uterus. A new fertility-sparing algorithm was added for select patients with stage IA and IB1 disease.. PMID:23486458

  2. Solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as a giant cervical mass: A clinical, radiological, histopathological dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Savardekar, Amey R.; Patra, Deviprasad; Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Ahuja, Chirag K.; Salunke, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Typical aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are osteolytic, multicystic lesions with parietal sclerosis and blood-filled cysts. In rare instances, the cystic components may be completely absent. Such solid variants in ABC (s-ABC) exhibit a solid architecture; making the clinical, radiological, and histological differentiation from other solid bone tumors like osteosarcoma (especially giant cell rich osteosarcoma) and giant cell tumor, a difficult task. Case Report: We report the case of a 45–year-old male presenting with a giant solid cervical spine lesion. Histopathology revealed solid variant of ABC, even though the radiological and fine needle aspiration cytology studies pointed toward a giant cell tumor. Conclusion: We aim to discuss the clinical, radiological, and histological findings of solid ABC (a rare benign entity) vis-à-vis the common neoplastic entities of osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor. The histopathological nuisances in making the diagnosis of s-ABC are put forth, along with its impact on management of such giant bony spinal lesions. PMID:26005581

  3. Cervical Cord Decompression Using Extended Anterior Cervical Foraminotomy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Duk; Lee, Cheol-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Chul-Ku; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective At present, gold-standard technique of cervical cord decompression is surgical decompression and fusion. But, many complications related cervical fusion have been reported. We adopted an extended anterior cervical foraminotomy (EACF) technique to decompress the anterolateral portion of cervical cord and report clinical results and effectiveness of this procedure. Methods Fifty-three patients were operated consecutively using EACF from 2008 to 2013. All of them were operated by a single surgeon via the unilateral approach. Twenty-two patients who exhibited radicular and/or myelopathic symptoms were enrolled in this study. All of them showed cervical cord compression in their preoperative magnetic resonance scan images. Results In surgical outcomes, 14 patients (64%) were classified as excellent and six (27%), as good. The mean difference of cervical cord anterior-posterior diameter after surgery was 0.92 mm (p<0.01) and transverse area was 9.77 mm2 (p<0.01). The dynamic radiological study showed that the average post-operative translation (retrolisthesis) was 0.36 mm and the disc height loss at the operated level was 0.81 mm. The change in the Cobb angle decreased to 3.46, and showed slight kyphosis. The average vertebral body resection rate was 11.47%. No procedure-related complications occurred. Only one patient who had two-level decompression needed anterior fusion at one level as a secondary surgery due to postoperative instability. Conclusions Cervical cord decompression was successfully performed using EACF technique. This procedure will be an alternative surgical option for treating cord compressing lesions. Long-term follow-up and a further study in larger series will be needed. PMID:25328648

  4. Enhanced expression of PD L1 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancers.

    PubMed

    Mezache, Louisa; Paniccia, Bernard; Nyinawabera, Angelique; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2015-12-01

    Programmed death ligand 1 (PD L1) expression can reduce the immune response in both infectious diseases and cancers. We thus examined PD L1 expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) and cancers since they each reflect infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). PD L1 protein was not evident by immunohistochemistry in histologically normal cervical epithelia (0/55) even when adjacent to CIN or cancer. PD L1 expression was much increased in CINs (20/21=95%) and cervical squamous cell cancer (56/70=80%) and localized to the dysplastic/neoplastic squamous cells and mononuclear cells, respectively. There was also a significant increase (each P<0.001) in PD L1 detection in mononuclear cells when comparing cervical squamous cell cancers to endometrial (22/115=19%) and ovarian adenocarcinomas (5/40=13%). Co-expression analyses showed that the primary inflammatory cell that contained PD L1 was the CD8+ lymphocyte that strongly concentrated around the dysplastic CIN cells and nests of invasive squamous cancer cells. These data show that PD L1 is a solid biomarker of productive HPV infection of the cervix and that it is significantly upregulated in both the carcinoma and surrounding inflammatory cells in cervical cancer when compared with other gynecologic malignancies. This suggests that anti-PD L1 therapy may have a role in the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26403783

  5. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases.

    PubMed

    Arduino, P G; Carrozzo, M; Pentenero, M; Bertolusso, G; Gandolfo, S

    2006-05-01

    A wide range of non neoplastic disorders can affect the salivary glands, although the more common are: mumps, acute suppurative sialadenitis, Sjögren's syndrome and drug-induced xerostomia. Salivary dysfunction is not a normal consequence of old age, and can be due to systemic diseases, medications or head and neck radiotherapy. Diagnosis of salivary disorders begins with a careful medical history, followed by a cautious examination. While complaints of xerostomia may be indicative of a salivary gland disorder, salivary diseases can present without symptoms. Therefore, routine examination of salivary function must be part of any head, neck, and oral examination. Health-care professionals can play a vital role in identifying patients at risk for developing salivary dysfunction, and should provide appropriate preventive and interventive techniques that will help to preserving a person's health, function, and quality of life. The present work provides an overview of most of the non neoplastic disorders of the salivary glands, in which the general presentation, pathology, and treatments are discussed. PMID:16688102

  6. Eag1 potassium channels as markers of cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Cindy Sharon; Montante-Montes, Daniel; Saqui-Salces, Milena; Hinojosa, Luz María; Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Hernández-Gallegos, Elisabeth; Martínez-Benítez, Braulio; Del Rosario Solís-Pancoatl, María; Garcia-Villa, Enrique; Ramírez, Ana; Aguilar-Guadarrama, Ricardo; Gariglio, Patricio; Pardo, Luis A; Stühmer, Walter; Camacho, Javier

    2011-12-01

    Human ether à-go-go 1 (Eag1) potassium channels are potential tumor markers and therapeutic targets for several types of malignancies, including cervical cancer. Estrogens and human papilloma virus oncogenes regulate Eag1 gene expression, suggesting that Eag1 may already be present in pre-malignant lesions. Therefore, Eag1 could be used as an early marker and/or a potential risk indicator for cervical cancer. Consequently, we studied Eag1 protein expression by immunochemistry in cervical cancer cell lines, normal keratinocytes, cervical cytologies from intraepithelial lesions, biopsies from cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN 1, 2 and 3) and in normal smears from patients taking or not taking estrogens. Two hundred and eighty-six samples obtained by liquid-based cytology and fifteen CIN biopsies were studied. We observed Eag1 protein expression in the cervical cancer cell lines, as opposed to normal keratinocytes. Eag1 was found in 67% of the cervical cytologies from low-grade intra-epithelial lesions and in 92% of the samples from high-grade intraepithelial lesions, but only in 27% of the normal samples. Noteworthy, morphologically normal cells obtained from dysplastic samples also exhibited Eag1 expression. In CIN biopsies we found that the higher the grade of the lesion, the broader the Eag1 protein distribution. Almost 50% of the normal patients taking estrogens displayed Eag1 expression. We suggest Eag1 as a potential marker of cervical dysplasia and a risk indicator for developing cervical lesions in patients taking estrogens. Eag1 detection in cervical cancer screening programs should help to improve early diagnosis and decrease mortality rates from this disease. PMID:21887469

  7. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the cervical spine: case report of an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Geusens, E; Brys, P; Ghekiere, J; Samson, I; Sciot, R; Brock, P; Baert, A L

    1998-01-01

    An unusual location for Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the cervical spine is presented. The osteolytic lesion, instead of being located in the vertebral body, was visualised in the left lateral mass of the fifth cervical vertebra, extending into the vertebral body and through the interapophyseal joint into the lateral mass of the fourth cervical vertebra. PMID:9724427

  8. An overview of prevention and early detection of cervical cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gauravi A.; Pimple, Sharmila A.; Shastri, Surendra S.

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer still remains the most common cancer affecting the Indian women. India alone contributes 25.41% and 26.48% of the global burden of cervical cancer cases and mortality, respectively. Ironically, unlike most other cancers, cervical cancer can be prevented through screening by identifying and treating the precancerous lesions, any time during the course of its long natural history, thus preventing the potential progression to cervical carcinoma. Several screening methods, both traditional and newer technologies, are available to screen women for cervical precancers and cancers. No screening test is perfect and hence the choice of screening test will depend on the setting where it is to be used. Similarly, various methods are available for treatment of cervical precancers and the selection will depend on the cost, morbidity, requirement of reliable biopsy specimens, resources available, etc. The recommendations of screening for cervical cancer in the Indian scenario are discussed. PMID:22557777

  9. Primary Eosinophilic Granuloma of Adult Cervical Spine Presenting as a Radiculomyelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Woo-Seok; Cho, Dae-Chul; Sung, Joo-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of 29-year-old man diagnosed as a primary eosinophilic granuloma (EG) lesion of the seventh cervical vertebra. He had paresthesia on both arms, and grasping weakness for 10 days. Cervical magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed an enhancing mass with ventral epidural bulging and cord compression on the seventh cervical vertebra. Additionally, we performed spine series MRI, bone scan and positive emission tomography for confirmation of other bone lesions. These studies showed no other pathological lesions. He underwent anterior cervical corpectomy of the seventh cervical vertebra and plate fixation with iliac bone graft. After surgical management, neurological symptoms were much improved. Histopathologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of EG. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence at 12 months postoperative cervical MRI follow-up. We reported symptomatic primary EG of cervical spine successfully treated with surgical resection. PMID:24044083

  10. Distracted cervical spinal fusion for management of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy in large-breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Ellison, G W; Seim, H B; Clemmons, R M

    1988-08-15

    Using an autogenous bone graft (obtained from the iliac crest), 4-mm cancellous bone screws, and polymethylmethacrylate, a distracted cervical spinal fusion technique was performed on 10 dogs with myelographic evidence of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. All dogs had evidence of dynamic soft tissue spinal cord compression, as indicated by flexion, extension, and traction myelographic views. Of the 10 dogs, 4 previously had undergone surgery by use of ventral slot or cervical disk fenestration techniques, and their neurologic status had deteriorated after the original surgery. Preoperative neurologic status of the 10 dogs included nonambulatory tetraparesis (n = 5), severe ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 2), and mild ambulatory ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 3). Five dogs had signs of various degrees of cervical pain. Clinical improvement was observed in 8 of 10 dogs--either improved neurologic status or elimination of cervical pain. Implant loosening developed in 3 dogs; 2 of them were euthanatized because of lack of neurologic improvement. Radiographic evidence of bony cervical fusion was observed during a 9- to 24-week period in 6 of the 8 surviving dogs. The distracted cervical fusion technique appears to be a valid surgical procedure to manage cervical spondylomyelopathy in those dogs in which the lesions are limited to one cervical intervertebral disk space. PMID:3049487

  11. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the NCI website . Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy General Information About Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy Treatment of cervical ...

  12. Cervical Spondylosis and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers in pathologically degenerative disc could produce sympathetic excitation, and induce a sympathetic reflex to cause cervical vertigo and hypertension. In addition, chronic neck pain could contribute to hypertension development through sympathetic arousal and failure of normal homeostatic pain regulatory mechanisms. Cervical spondylosis may be one of the causes of secondary hypertension. Early treatment for resolution of symptoms of cervical spondylosis may have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular disease risk in patients with cervical spondylosis. PMID:25761188

  13. Pharmacological reactivity of neoplastic and non-neoplastic associated neovasculature to vasoconstrictors.

    PubMed

    Andrade, S P; Beraldo, W T

    1998-12-01

    Angiogenesis and the pharmacological responses of the tumour and non-tumour associated neovasculature have been investigated. Cannulated sponge discs in mice were used to host the angiogenic stimulators, while 133Xe washout was employed to assess local blood flow. Enhancement of blood flow was detected in implants bearing B16 cells, 3T3 cells and angiotensin II (AII)-treated at day 7. The responses of non-neoplastic associated neovasculature at day 14 post sponge implantation to the vasoconstrictors used endothelin-1 (Et-1), AII, platelet activating factor (PAF) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were dose-dependent. By contrast, the newly formed blood vessels induced by tumour cells were markedly insensitive to the vasoconstrictors agonists Et-1 and AII, while fully responsive to PAF and 5-HT. The vessels resulting from neoplastic stimulus exhibited altered pharmacological reactivity, suggesting that the characteristics of the neovasculature are dependent on the nature of the angiogenic stimuli. PMID:10319023

  14. Cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, John H

    2012-06-01

    Standard treatment for invasive cervical cancer involves either radical surgery or radiotherapy. Childbearing is therefore impossible after either of these treatments. A fertility-sparing option, however, by radical trachelectomy has been shown to be effective, provided that strict criteria for selection are followed. Fertility rates are high, whereas recurrence is low, indicating that a more conservative approach to dealing with early small cervical tumours is feasible. Careful preoperative assessment by magnetic resonance imaging scans allows accurate measurement of the tumour with precise definition to plan surgery. This will ensure an adequate clear margin by wide excision of the tumour excising the cervix by radical vaginal trachelectomy with surrounding para-cervical and upper vaginal tissues. An isthmic cerclage is inserted to provide competence at the level of the internal orifice. A primary vagino-isthmic anastomosis is conducted to restore continuity of the lower genital tract. Subsequent pregnancies require careful monitoring in view of the high risk of spontaneous premature rupture of the membranes. Delivery by classical caesarean section is necessary at the onset of labour or electively before term. Over 1100 such procedures have been carried out vaginally or abdominally, resulting in 240 live births. Radical vaginal trachelectomy with a laparoscopic pelvic-node dissection offers the least morbid and invasive route for surgery, provided that adequate surgical skills have been obtained. PMID:22353492

  15. Automated image analysis of uterine cervical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Gu, Jia; Ferris, Daron; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality of women in developing countries. If detected early and treated adequately, cervical cancer can be virtually prevented. Cervical precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician with a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system. In colposcopy, epithelium that turns white after application of acetic acid is called acetowhite epithelium. Acetowhite epithelium is one of the major diagnostic features observed in detecting cancer and pre-cancerous regions. Automatic extraction of acetowhite regions from cervical images has been a challenging task due to specular reflection, various illumination conditions, and most importantly, large intra-patient variation. This paper presents a multi-step acetowhite region detection system to analyze the acetowhite lesions in cervical images automatically. First, the system calibrates the color of the cervical images to be independent of screening devices. Second, the anatomy of the uterine cervix is analyzed in terms of cervix region, external os region, columnar region, and squamous region. Third, the squamous region is further analyzed and subregions based on three levels of acetowhite are identified. The extracted acetowhite regions are accompanied by color scores to indicate the different levels of acetowhite. The system has been evaluated by 40 human subjects' data and demonstrates high correlation with experts' annotations.

  16. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa D; Gharat, Leena A; Tupsakhare, Suyog D; Gabhane, Mahesh H

    2013-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption exhibiting no external signs. The resorptive condition is often detected by routine radiographic examination. The clinical features vary from a small defect at the gingival margin to a pink coronal discoloration of the tooth crown resulting in ultimate cavitation of the overlying enamel which is painless unless pulpal or periodontal infection supervenes. Radiographic features of lesions vary from well-delineated to irregularly bordered mottled radiolucencies, and these can be confused with dental caries. A characteristic radiopaque line generally separates the image of the lesion from that of the root canal, because the pulp remains protected by a thin layer of predentin until late in the process. Histopathologically, the lesions contain fibrovascular tissue with resorbing clastic cells adjacent to the dentin surface. More advanced lesions display fibro-osseous characteristics with deposition of ectopic bonelike calcifications both within the resorbing tissue and directly on the dentin surface. How to cite this article: Kandalgaonkar SD, Gharat LA, Tupsakhare SD, Gabhane MH. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(6):124-30 . PMID:24453457

  17. [Cervical Spondylotic Amyotrophy].

    PubMed

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Keegan (1965) reported a patient who presented with "dissociated motor loss," an acute paralysis of the upper extremity with minimal sensory signs and no long tract signs, and documented an anterior root lesion following autopsy. Sobue et al. (1975) reported similar cases using the term "cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA)," but postulated pathology of the anterior horn. Although Keegan's "dissociated motor loss" surely referred to isolated motor paresis with no or minimal sensory signs, contrary to existing criticism, a more general term, CSA, should be preferred. CSA is divided into proximal and distal types. Distal CSA often presents with a drop finger, and thus may be misdiagnosed as posterior interosseous nerve palsy. Documentation of the involvement of ulnar muscles by clinical signs and EMG would lead to the diagnosis of distal CSA. Proximal CSA may be confused with neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), although the sparing of the serratus anterior and the stereotypic involvement of deltoid, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, and brachioradialis suggest CSA. Cervical MRI is not diagnostic in around half of CSA cases, and denervation in paraspinal EMG is a more sensitive test that can exclude NA. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is another important differential diagnosis for CSA. PMID:27156504

  18. Raman spectroscopy for cytopathology of exfoliated cervical cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos, I R; Meade, A D; Ibrahim, O; Byrne, H J; McMenamin, M; McKenna, M; Malkin, A; Lyng, F M

    2016-06-23

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide but mortality can be decreased by early detection of pre-malignant lesions. The Pap smear test is the most commonly used method in cervical cancer screening programmes. Although specificity is high for this test, it is widely acknowledged that sensitivity can be poor mainly due to the subjective nature of the test. There is a need for new objective tests for the early detection of pre-malignant cervical lesions. Over the past two decades, Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a promising new technology for cancer screening and diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Raman spectroscopy for cervical cancer screening using both Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) and Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (SIL) classification terminology. ThinPrep® Pap samples were recruited from a cervical screening population. Raman spectra were recorded from single cell nuclei and subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. Normal and abnormal ThinPrep® samples were discriminated based on the biochemical fingerprint of the cells using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Principal Component Analysis - Linear Discriminant Analysis (PCA-LDA) was employed to build classification models based on either CIN or SIL terminology. This study has shown that Raman spectroscopy can be successfully applied to the study of routine cervical cytology samples from a cervical screening programme and that the use of CIN terminology resulted in improved sensitivity for high grade cases. PMID:27032537

  19. Epidemiology and biology of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Schoell, W M; Janicek, M F; Mirhashemi, R

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide, cancer of the cervix is the second leading cause of cancer death in women: each year, an estimated 500,000 cases are newly diagnosed. Among populations, there are large differences in incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer: these reflect the influence of environmental factors, screening Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, and treatment of pre-invasive lesions. The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, and 51 have been recovered from more than 95% of cervical cancers. We have made great strides in understanding the molecular mechanism of oncogenesis of this virus, focusing on the action of the E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins. These oncoproteins function by inactivating cell cycle regulators p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb), thus providing the initial event in progression to malignancy. Cervical cancers develop from precursor lesions, which are termed squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and are graded as high or low, depending on the degree of disruption of epithelial differentiation. Viral production occurs in low-grade lesions and is restricted to basal cells. In carcinomas, viral DNA is found integrated into the host genome, but no viral production is seen. The well-defined pre-invasive stages, as well as the viral factors involved at the molecular level, make cervical carcinoma a good model for investigating immune therapeutic alternatives or adjuvants to standard treatments. PMID:10225296

  20. Cancer related fatigue syndrome in neoplastic diseases.

    PubMed

    Franc, Magdalena; Michalski, Bogdan; Kuczerawy, Ilona; Szuta, Justyna; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2014-12-01

    Fatigue is one of the most important factors which has a considerable influence on treatment and the life quality of oncological patients. The fatigue syndrome is often diagnosed during cancer treatment and this syndrome is not related to the physical effort. Cancer related fatigue is a patient's subjective, psychologically, physically and emotionally based feeling. It is disproportionate to patient's daily activity. The pathogenesis of this syndrome remains still unknown. However, on the basis of various questionnaires, it is possible to test the disease's complex nature. Cancer related fatigue causes deterioration of patient's life along with lower motivation to struggle with the disease. It is thought that the factor which increases the incidence of cancer related fatigue is a long-term use of drugs such as opioids, benzodiazepine, and medicines containing codeine, tranquilizers, anxiolytics and antidepressants. On the basis of the results, one can choose an appropriate treatment method for cancer related fatigue such as rehabilitation, psychotherapy or public assistance. A great number of patients consider excessive fatigue a typical concomitant symptom in neoplastic disease; therefore, they do not report it. It is of a paramount importance to make patients aware of the fact that cancer related fatigue is a serious disease which can be treated. PMID:26327879

  1. Cancer related fatigue syndrome in neoplastic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Bogdan; Kuczerawy, Ilona; Szuta, Justyna; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most important factors which has a considerable influence on treatment and the life quality of oncological patients. The fatigue syndrome is often diagnosed during cancer treatment and this syndrome is not related to the physical effort. Cancer related fatigue is a patient's subjective, psychologically, physically and emotionally based feeling. It is disproportionate to patient's daily activity. The pathogenesis of this syndrome remains still unknown. However, on the basis of various questionnaires, it is possible to test the disease's complex nature. Cancer related fatigue causes deterioration of patient's life along with lower motivation to struggle with the disease. It is thought that the factor which increases the incidence of cancer related fatigue is a long-term use of drugs such as opioids, benzodiazepine, and medicines containing codeine, tranquilizers, anxiolytics and antidepressants. On the basis of the results, one can choose an appropriate treatment method for cancer related fatigue such as rehabilitation, psychotherapy or public assistance. A great number of patients consider excessive fatigue a typical concomitant symptom in neoplastic disease; therefore, they do not report it. It is of a paramount importance to make patients aware of the fact that cancer related fatigue is a serious disease which can be treated. PMID:26327879

  2. Neoplastic cell transformation by heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Watanabe, M; Suzuki, K; Nakano, K; Kaneko, I

    1989-12-01

    We have studied the induction of morphological transformation by heavy ions. Golden hamster embryo cells were irradiated with 95 MeV 14N ions (530 keV/microns), 22 MeV 4He ions (36 keV/microns), and 22 MeV 4He ions with a 100-microns Al absorber (77 keV/microns) which were generated by a cyclotron at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Japan. Colonies were considered to contain neoplastically transformed cells when the cells were densely stacked and made a crisscross pattern. It was shown that the induction of transformation was much more effective with 14N and 4He ions than with gamma or X rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) relative to 60Co gamma rays was 3.3 for 14N ions, 2.4 for 4He ions, and 3.3 for 4He ions with a 100-microns Al absorber. The relationship between RBE and linear energy transfer was qualitatively similar for both cell death and transformation. PMID:2594968

  3. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Non-Neoplastic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tokito, Akinori; Jougasaki, Michihisa

    2016-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases belonging to the metzincin superfamily. There are at least 23 members of MMPs ever reported in human, and they and their substrates are widely expressed in many tissues. Recent growing evidence has established that MMP not only can degrade a variety of components of extracellular matrix, but also can cleave and activate various non-matrix proteins, including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, contributing to both physiological and pathological processes. In normal conditions, MMP expression and activity are tightly regulated via interactions between their activators and inhibitors. Imbalance among these factors, however, results in dysregulated MMP activity, which causes tissue destruction and functional alteration or local inflammation, leading to the development of diverse diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, neurodegenerative disease, as well as cancer. This article focuses on the accumulated evidence supporting a wide range of roles of MMPs in various non-neoplastic diseases and provides an outlook on the therapeutic potential of inhibiting MMP action. PMID:27455234

  4. HPV16 early gene E5 specifically reduces miRNA-196a in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chanzhen; Lin, Jianfei; Li, Lianqin; Zhang, Yonggang; Chen, Weiling; Cao, Zeyi; Zuo, Huancong; Chen, Chunling; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16, which is responsible for greater than 50% of cervical cancer cases, is the most prevalent and lethal HPV type. However, the molecular mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis remain elusive, particularly the early steps of HPV infection that may transform normal cervical epithelium into a pre-neoplastic state. Here, we report that a group of microRNAs (microRNAs) were aberrantly decreased in HPV16-positive normal cervical tissues, and these groups of microRNAs are further reduced in cervical carcinoma. Among these miRNAs, miR196a expression is the most reduced in HPV16-infected tissues. Interestingly, miR196a expression is low in HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines but high in HPV16-negative cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we found that only HPV16 early gene E5 specifically down-regulated miRNA196a in the cervical cancer cell lines. In addition, HoxB8, a known miR196a target gene, is up-regulated in the HPV16 cervical carcinoma cell line but not in HPV18 cervical cancer cell lines. Various doses of miR196a affected cervical cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Altogether, these results suggested that HPV16 E5 specifically down-regulates miR196a upon infection of the human cervix and initiates the transformation of normal cervix cells to cervical carcinoma. PMID:25563170

  5. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  6. Using Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Strategy: Development of a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Hispanic Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Theresa L.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. "Ayndando a las Mujeres con Informaccion, Guia, y Amor para su Salud" (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican origin.…

  7. Antigen expression in normal and neoplastic canine tissues defined by a monoclonal antibody generated against canine mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, K X; Bird, A E; Lenz, S D; McDonough, S P; Wolfe, L G

    1994-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3B5 generated against canine mesothelioma cells was applied to canine tumors and normal tissues via immunohistochemical and immunoblotting techniques to evaluate antigen binding. By use of an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase complex (ABC) method, immunoreactivity was noted in reactive mesothelial cells and in normal tissues was observed primarily in mesothelial cell linings, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle of blood vessels and soft tissues; the reactivity was nearly equivalent in frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Use of the ABC method on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors yielded moderate to strong cytoplasmic immunostaining of neoplastic cells in 10/11 (91%) mesotheliomas, 18/23 (78%) hemangiosarcomas, 4/10 (40%) intestinal and lung carcinomas, and < or = 20% of hemangiomas, leiomyosarcomas, leiomyomas, mammary carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. No immunostaining of tumor cells was observed in fibrosarcomas, hemangiopericytomas, perianal gland carcinomas, and melanomas. Immunoblotting was performed on samples that demonstrated strong immunoreactivity with MAb 3B5 by the ABC method: mesothelioma, hemangiosarcoma, urinary bladder (smooth muscle), and lung (alveolar capillaries). These analyses showed that MAb 3B5 bound a major antigen of 78 kilodaltons (kd) and minor antigens at 56 and 54 kd in normal and neoplastic tissues. The preliminary immunohistochemical results suggest that MAb 3B5 may possess utility in diagnosis of mesotheliomas and hemangiosarcomas, discrimination of cell types in proliferative serosal lesions, and demonstration of vascularity or angiogenesis in neoplastic and inflammatory lesions. PMID:7863582

  8. [Uterine cervical carcinoma and human papillomaviruses].

    PubMed

    Sugase, M

    1992-06-01

    For many years it has been thought that a significant proportion of cervical cancer could be attributed to sexually transmitted agents, such as sperm, smegma, Treponema pallidum, Gonococcus and herpes simplexvirus type 2. Recent advances of molecular biology, however, have revealed that human papillomavirus (HPV) might be the most causative virus of the disease. Since HPV type 16 DNA was found in a patient with cervical cancer in 1983, many HPV types have been cloned from cervical cancers, also from premalignant lesions (intraepithelial neoplasias). In Japan, we have found 6 new types of HPV (HPV 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 67) in the female genital tract so far. Especially, HPV 58, which was cloned from a patient with cervical squamous cell carcinoma and was already fully sequenced, is thought to be an important agent for the development of cervical cancer as well as HPV 16. Now we are investigating extensively to clarify the real relationship between genital HPV infection and cervical cancer. PMID:1327090

  9. [The value of fine needle aspiration cytology in suspected neoplastic salivary gland enlargement].

    PubMed

    Schoengen, A; Binder, T; Krause, H R; Stussak, G; Zeelen, U

    1995-04-01

    Imaging offers little support in the management of salivary gland masses suggestive of a neoplastic lesion. There are also contraindications for a surgical biopsy in many cases. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is not yet widely recognized as a diagnostic tool. To date, 206 FNAC were carried out from 1986 through 1993 on 181 consecutive patients and were reviewed in the present study. Histological confirmation was possible in 174 tests, while 32 were confirmed on clinical follow-up. In sum, 192 samples were sufficient for interpretation, 10 were questionable by our standards and 4 were non-diagnostic. One hundred-seventy-one samples were true-negative, 27 true-positive, 4 false-negative and 4 false-positive. Sensitivity was 87.1% and specificity 97.7%. Out of 141 primary diagnostic procedures in which a final histologic diagnosis was available, FNAC was able to determine histogenesis in 113/124 benign lesions and 9/17 malignant masses. These included 65/67 pleomorphic adenomas and 21/22 adenolymphomas. In 8 cases a diagnosis of "adenoma" was made. Difficulties in interpretation were found in lesions that were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and, in part, adenoid cystic carcinomas. No complications occurred. Provided that there was sufficient experience in performing the aspiration technique and in cytologic interpretation, FNAC was found to be a quick, reliable, low-cost, easy-to-perform method with low risk in the management of nearly all benign and most malignant salivary gland lesions. PMID:7790235

  10. Value of ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology in the investigative sequence of hepatic lesions with an emphasis on hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Mallikarjuna CM; Arathi, CA; Kodandaswamy, CR

    2011-01-01

    Background: The evaluation and management of various hepatic lesions is a common clinical problem and their appropriate clinical management depends on accurate diagnoses. Aims: To study the cytomorphological features of distinctive non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the liver and to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (USG)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of liver diseases. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two patients with evidence of liver diseases underwent USG-guided, percutaneous FNAC. Cytomorphological diagnoses were correlated with clinical, biochemical and radiological findings, histopathological diagnoses and follow-up information. Results: The age of the patients ranged from eight months to 90 years with 48 males (66.67%) and 24 females (33.33%). Of the 72 cases, the cytological diagnosis was rendered in 71 patients and smears were inadequate for interpretation in one case. Neoplastic lesions (68.06%) were more common than non-neoplastic lesions (30.56%). The majority of the neoplastic lesions were hepatocellular carcinomas (36.12%) followed by metastatic adenocarcinomas (19.45%). Among non-neoplastic lesions, cirrhosis was the commonest lesion (8.34%). The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was 97.82% with a sensitivity and specificity of 96.87 and 100% respectively. Conclusion: USG-guided FNAC of the liver is a safe, simple, cost-effective and accurate method for cytological diagnosis of hepatic diffuse, focal/nodular and cystic lesions with good sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22090691

  11. Prox1-Heterozygosis Sensitizes the Pancreas to Oncogenic Kras-Induced Neoplastic Transformation12

    PubMed Central

    Drosos, Yiannis; Neale, Geoffrey; Ye, Jianming; Paul, Leena; Kuliyev, Emin; Maitra, Anirban; Means, Anna L; Washington, M Kay; Rehg, Jerold; Finkelstein, David B; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The current paradigm of pancreatic neoplastic transformation proposes an initial step whereby acinar cells convert into acinar-to-ductal metaplasias, followed by progression of these lesions into neoplasias under sustained oncogenic activity and inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving these processes is crucial to the early diagnostic and prevention of pancreatic cancer. Emerging evidence indicates that transcription factors that control exocrine pancreatic development could have either, protective or facilitating roles in the formation of preneoplasias and neoplasias in the pancreas. We previously identified that the homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is a novel regulator of mouse exocrine pancreas development. Here we investigated whether Prox1 function participates in early neoplastic transformation using in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches. We found that Prox1 expression is transiently re-activated in acinar cells undergoing dedifferentiation and acinar-to-ductal metaplastic conversion. In contrast, Prox1 expression is largely absent in neoplasias and tumors in the pancreas of mice and humans. We also uncovered that Prox1-heterozygosis markedly increases the formation of acinar-to-ductal-metaplasias and early neoplasias, and enhances features associated with inflammation, in mouse pancreatic tissues expressing oncogenic Kras. Furthermore, we discovered that Prox1-heterozygosis increases tissue damage and delays recovery from inflammation in pancreata of mice injected with caerulein. These results are the first demonstration that Prox1 activity protects pancreatic cells from acute tissue damage and early neoplastic transformation. Additional data in our study indicate that this novel role of Prox1 involves suppression of pathways associated with inflammatory responses and cell invasiveness. PMID:26992918

  12. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute ...

  13. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  14. Cervical exenteration.

    PubMed

    Grillo, H C; Mathisen, D J

    1990-03-01

    Cervical exenteration is a radical operation to remove the larynx, portion of the trachea, and the esophagus, and frequently requires a mediastinal tracheostomy. Highly selected patients with obstructing neoplasms of the esophagus and airway can be palliated and sometimes cured by this aggressive surgical approach. Fatal hemorrhage from pressure or exposure of the innominate artery is avoided by elective division of the artery (preoperative angiograms and intraoperative electroencephalographic control are essential), using the omentum to separate the trachea and great vessels, and removal of a bony plaque of chest wall to allow a well-vascularized bipedicled skin flap to drop into the mediastinum for the tracheocutaneous anastomosis. Eighteen exenterations were performed. Mediastinal tracheostomy was performed in 14 patients and division of the innominate artery was performed in 7. Esophageal replacement was predominantly with the left colon. Complications include esophageal leak (2 patients), stomal separation (2), transient hemiplegia (1), colonic obstruction by substernal tunnel (1), and need for prolonged mechanical ventilation (4). There was a single operative death. Postoperative survival was disease dependent. All patients achieved an excellent airway and relief from dysphagia. PMID:2178569

  15. Abfraction lesions: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcelle M; Dilbone, Deborah A; Pereira, Patricia Nr; Duarte, Wagner R; Geraldeli, Saulo; Delgado, Alex J

    2016-01-01

    Abfraction is a type of noncarious cervical lesion (NCCL) characterized by loss of tooth tissues with different clinical appearances. Evidence supports that abfraction lesions, as any NCCLs, have a multifactorial etiology. Particularly, the cervical wear of abfraction can occur as a result of normal and abnormal tooth function and may also be accompanied by pathological wear, such as abrasion and erosion. The interaction between chemical, biological, and behavioral factors is critical and helps to explain why some individuals exhibit more than one type of cervical wear mechanism than others. In an era of personalized dentistry, patient risk factors for NCCLs must be identified and addressed before any treatment is performed. Marked variations exist in dental practice concerning the diagnosis and management of these lesions. The lack of understanding about the prognosis of these lesions with or without intervention may be a major contributor to variations in dentists' management decisions. This review focuses on the current knowledge and available treatment strategies for abfraction lesions. By recognizing that progressive changes in the cervical area of the tooth are part of a physiologically dynamic process that occurs with aging, premature and unnecessary intervention can be avoided. In cases of asymptomatic teeth, where tooth vitality and function are not compromised, abfraction lesions should be monitored for at least 6 months before any invasive procedure is planned. In cases of abfraction associated with gingival recession, a combined restorative-surgical approach may be performed. Restorative intervention and occlusal adjustment are not indicated as treatment options to prevent further tooth loss or progression of abfraction. The clinical decision to restore abfraction lesions may be based on the need to replace form and function or to relieve hypersensitivity of severely compromised teeth or for esthetic reasons. PMID:27217799

  16. Abfraction lesions: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Marcelle M; Dilbone, Deborah A; Pereira, Patricia NR; Duarte, Wagner R; Geraldeli, Saulo; Delgado, Alex J

    2016-01-01

    Abfraction is a type of noncarious cervical lesion (NCCL) characterized by loss of tooth tissues with different clinical appearances. Evidence supports that abfraction lesions, as any NCCLs, have a multifactorial etiology. Particularly, the cervical wear of abfraction can occur as a result of normal and abnormal tooth function and may also be accompanied by pathological wear, such as abrasion and erosion. The interaction between chemical, biological, and behavioral factors is critical and helps to explain why some individuals exhibit more than one type of cervical wear mechanism than others. In an era of personalized dentistry, patient risk factors for NCCLs must be identified and addressed before any treatment is performed. Marked variations exist in dental practice concerning the diagnosis and management of these lesions. The lack of understanding about the prognosis of these lesions with or without intervention may be a major contributor to variations in dentists’ management decisions. This review focuses on the current knowledge and available treatment strategies for abfraction lesions. By recognizing that progressive changes in the cervical area of the tooth are part of a physiologically dynamic process that occurs with aging, premature and unnecessary intervention can be avoided. In cases of asymptomatic teeth, where tooth vitality and function are not compromised, abfraction lesions should be monitored for at least 6 months before any invasive procedure is planned. In cases of abfraction associated with gingival recession, a combined restorative-surgical approach may be performed. Restorative intervention and occlusal adjustment are not indicated as treatment options to prevent further tooth loss or progression of abfraction. The clinical decision to restore abfraction lesions may be based on the need to replace form and function or to relieve hypersensitivity of severely compromised teeth or for esthetic reasons. PMID:27217799

  17. MGMT promoter methylation in non-neoplastic brain.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Yi; Ho, Hsiang-Ling; Chang-Chien, Yi-Chun; Chang, Yi-Wen; Ho, Donald Ming-Tak

    2015-02-01

    O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) is mainly regulated by cytosine-guanine island promoter methylation that is believed to occur only in neoplastic tissue. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether methylation occurs also in non-neoplastic brains by collecting 45 non-neoplastic brains from autopsies and 56 lobectomy specimens from epileptic surgeries. The promoter methylation status of MGMT was studied by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and pyrosequencing (PSQ), while protein expression was studied by immunohistochemical stain (IHC). The methylation rates, as determined by MSP and PSQ, were 3.0 % (3/101) and 2.9 % (2/69), respectively. Of note, no case had positive result concomitantly from both MSP and PSQ (3 were MSP+/PSQ- and 2 were MSP-/PSQ+), and all the positive samples were further confirmed by cloning and Sanger sequencing. All the methylated cases, except for those having indeterminate IHC results from autopsy specimens, revealed no loss of MGMT protein expression and similar staining pattern to that of the unmethylated cases. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that MGMT promoter methylation could occur in a low percentage of non-neoplastic brains but did not affect the status of protein expression, which could be regarded as a normal variation in non-neoplastic brains. PMID:25391970

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  19. Veliparib, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and Filgrastim or Pegfilgrastim in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  20. Interobserver agreement for the spine instability neoplastic score varies according to the experience of the evaluator

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, William Gemio Jacobsen; de Mesquita Coutinho, Pedro Ricardo; Marchese, Luiz Delboni; Narazaki, Douglas Kenji; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interobserver agreement for the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS) among spine surgeons with or without experience in vertebral metastasis treatment and physicians in other specialties. METHODS: Case descriptions were produced based on the medical records of 40 patients with vertebral metastases. The descriptions were then published online. Physicians were invited to evaluate the descriptions by answering questions according to the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS). The agreement among physicians was calculated using the kappa coefficient. RESULTS: Seventeen physicians agreed to participate: three highly experienced spine surgeons, seven less-experienced spine surgeons, three surgeons of other specialties, and four general practitioners (n = 17). The agreement for the final SINS score among all participants was fair, and it varied according to the SINS component. The agreement was substantial for the spine location only. The agreement was higher among experienced surgeons. The agreement was nearly perfect for spinal location among the spine surgeons who were highly experienced in vertebral metastases. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the experience of the evaluator has an impact on SINS scale classification. The interobserver agreement was only fair among physicians who were not spine surgeons and among spine surgeons who were not experienced in the treatment of vertebral metastases, which may limit the use of the SINS scale for the screening of unstable lesions by less-experienced evaluators. PMID:23525318

  1. Schwanomma From Cervical Sympathetic Chain Ganglion - A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Asma, A Affee; Kannah, E

    2015-10-01

    Schwanommas arising from cervical sympathetic chain are tumours that are rare in occurrence. These lesions are usually difficult to differentiate from a vagal schwanomma and a carotid body tumour during the initial workup. In this report, a rarely seen huge cervical sympathetic chain schwanomma case with partial Horner's syndrome is being presented in detail, which to our known knowledge, is one of the few cases reported in literature. PMID:26557566

  2. CT of the normal and abnormal parametria in cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, C.W.; Walsh, J.W.; Wheelock, J.B.; Brewer, W.H.

    1984-09-01

    To evaluate CT criteria for differentiating a cervical cancer confined to the cervix from a lesion that invades the parametria, 16 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated cervical cancer were studied with CT. Twenty-five parameria were confined by radical hysterectomy, transvaginal parametrial fine-needle aspiration cytology, or excretory urography. In 17 tumor-positive parametria, CT findings associated with parametrial tumor invasion were: 1) irregularity or poor definition of the lateral cervical margins; 2) prominent parametrial soft-tissue strands; 3) obliteration of the periureteral fat plane; and 4) an eccentric parametrial soft-tissue mass. Irregularity of the cervical margins and prominent parametrial strands were seen most commonly with parametrial tumor invasion, but were also occasionally seen with parametrial inflammation. On the basis of the criteria developed in this report, CT may be used as an adjunct to the physical examination in differentiating stage I cervical cancer from more advanced disease in selected patients.

  3. Neoplastic transformation of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes by ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Thraves, P.; Salehi, Z.; Dritschilo, A.; Rhim, J.S. )

    1990-02-01

    Efforts to investigate the progression of events that cause human cells to become neoplastic in response to ionizing radiation have been aided by the development of tissue culture systems of epithelial cells. In the present study, nontumorigenic human epidermal keratinocytes immortalized by adenovirus type 12 and simian virus 40 have been transformed by exposure to x-ray irradiation. Such transformants showed morphological alterations, formed colonies in soft agar, and induced carcinomas when transplanted into nude mice, whereas primary human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to radiation in this manner failed to show any evidence of transformation. These findings demonstrate the malignant transformation of human primary epithelial cells in culture by the combined action of a DNA tumor virus and radiation, indicating a multistep process for radiation-induced neoplastic conversion. This in vitro system may be useful as a tool for dissecting the process of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of human epithelial cells and for detecting previously unreported human oncogenes.

  4. Role of neoplastic monocyte-derived fibrocytes in primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Verstovsek, Srdan; Manshouri, Taghi; Pilling, Darrell; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Newberry, Kate J; Prijic, Sanja; Knez, Liza; Bozinovic, Ksenija; Harris, David M; Spaeth, Erika L; Post, Sean M; Multani, Asha S; Rampal, Raajit K; Ahn, Jihae; Levine, Ross L; Creighton, Chad J; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Estrov, Zeev

    2016-08-22

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a fatal neoplastic disease characterized by clonal myeloproliferation and progressive bone marrow (BM) fibrosis thought to be induced by mesenchymal stromal cells stimulated by overproduced growth factors. However, tissue fibrosis in other diseases is associated with monocyte-derived fibrocytes. Therefore, we sought to determine whether fibrocytes play a role in the induction of BM fibrosis in PMF. In this study, we show that BM from patients with PMF harbors an abundance of clonal, neoplastic collagen- and fibronectin-producing fibrocytes. Immunodeficient mice transplanted with myelofibrosis patients' BM cells developed a lethal myelofibrosis-like phenotype. Treatment of the xenograft mice with the fibrocyte inhibitor serum amyloid P (SAP; pentraxin-2) significantly prolonged survival and slowed the development of BM fibrosis. Collectively, our data suggest that neoplastic fibrocytes contribute to the induction of BM fibrosis in PMF, and inhibiting fibrocyte differentiation with SAP may interfere with this process. PMID:27481130

  5. Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Hirsch, Pierre PL; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O; Keep, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the most common pre-malignant lesion. Atypical squamous changes occur in the transformation zone of the cervix with mild, moderate or severe changes described by their depth (CIN 1, 2 or 3). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is treated by local ablation or lower morbidity excision techniques. Choice of treatment depends on the grade and extent of the disease. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of alternative surgical treatments for CIN. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to April 2009). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings and reference lists of included studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of alternative surgical treatments in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risks of bias. Risk ratios that compared residual disease after the follow-up examination and adverse events in women who received one of either laser ablation, laser conisation, large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ), knife conisation or cryotherapy were pooled in random-effects model meta-analyses. Main results Twenty-nine trials were included. Seven surgical techniques were tested in various comparisons. No significant differences in treatment failures were demonstrated in terms of persistent disease after treatment. Large loop excision of the transformation zone appeared to provide the most reliable specimens for histology with the least morbidity. Morbidity was lower than with laser conisation, although the trials did not provide data for every outcome measure. There were not enough data to assess the effect on morbidity when compared with laser ablation. Authors’ conclusions The evidence

  6. Management of invasive cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. Senthil; Kumar, N. S. Mohan; Karunakaran, J. V.; Nagendran, S.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is often not diagnosed properly, leading to improper treatment or unnecessary loss of the tooth structure. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are the keys to a successful outcome of therapy. Invasive cervical resorption is often seen in the cervical area of the tooth, but because it is initiated apical to the epithelial attachment, it can present anywhere in the root. In the early stages, it may be symmetrical, but larger lesions have the tendency to be asymmetrical. It can expand apically or coronally. PMID:26538950

  7. Plastic bronchitis caused by neoplastic infiltrates in a child.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Tamar; Wexler, Isaiah D; Shoseyov, David; Weintraub, Michael; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Kerem, Eitan

    2006-09-01

    We report on a case of a 7-year-old girl admitted for pneumonia not responding to oral antibiotics. During hospitalization, her pulmonary status deteriorated as a result of significant atelectasis. An extensive workup revealed an anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with neoplastic cells, found in both a biopsied lymph node and pleural fluid aspirate. Bronchoscopic examination showed nearly complete obstruction of the left side by bronchial casts composed of tumor cells, fibrin, and necrotic material, consistent with plastic bronchitis. Neoplastic infiltration of the bronchi should be considered in the differential diagnosis of disease entities causing plastic bronchitis in children. PMID:16779857

  8. Cervical cancer: is herpes simplex virus type II a cofactor?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C

    1995-01-01

    In many ways, cervical cancer behaves as a sexually transmitted disease. The major risk factors are multiple sexual partners and early onset of sexual activity. Although high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) play an important role in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer, other sexually transmitted infectious agents may be cofactors. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is transmitted primarily by sexual contact and therefore has been implicated as a risk factor. Several independent studies suggest that HSV-2 infections correlate with a higher than normal incidence of cervical cancer. In contrast, other epidemiological studies have concluded that infection with HSV-2 is not a major risk factor. Two separate transforming domains have been identified within the HSV-2 genome, but continued viral gene expression apparently is not necessary for neoplastic transformation. HSV infections lead to unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis, chromosomal amplifications, and mutations. These observations suggest that HSV-2 is not a typical DNA tumor virus. It is hypothesized that persistent or abortive infections induce permanent genetic alterations that interfere with differentiation of cervical epithelium and subsequently induce abnormal proliferation. Thus, HSV-2 may be a cofactor in some but not all cases of cervical cancer. PMID:8665469

  9. Utility and challenges in intraoperative consultation of spinal lesions by crush smear cytology

    PubMed Central

    Dikondwar, Aparna R.; Dani, Aarti A.; Gaikwad, Saroj A.; Tathe, Shilpa P.; Randale, Archana A.; Chawhan, Sanjay M.; Kumbhalkar, Dinkar T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods are used for intraoperative consultation of spinal lesions. Crush smear cytology is one such method that is accurate, rapid, and allows preservation of tissue for paraffin-embedded sections. Aims: To study the cytomorphology of various neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions involving and compressing the spinal cord. To evaluate accuracy and discuss diagnostic pitfalls of crush smear cytology. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 5 years (January 2008 to October 2012), a total of 57 spinal lesions were referred for intraoperative cytology. In four cases, material was inadequate for evaluation, so we analyzed 53 cases. Results: Majority of lesions were neoplastic accounting for 86.79% whereas nonneoplastic lesions constituted 13.20%. Most of the tumors were low grade (82.92%). Overall accuracy rate was 90.56% with accuracy of 91.30% and 85.71% for neoplastic and inflammatory lesions, respectively. Conclusion: Crush smear technique is a simple, reliable, easy, and rapid method for diagnosing neoplastic and inflammatory lesions involving and compressing the spinal cord. It gives an immediate idea of prognosis so that surgeon can modify the operative procedure, if necessary. PMID:27057218

  10. Carotid artery disease following external cervical irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Elerding, S.C.; Fernandez, R.N.; Grotta, J.C.; Lindberg, R.D.; Causay, L.C.; McMurtrey, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective study of 910 patients surviving at least five years after cervical irradiation for Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or primary head an neck neoplasms showed the incidence of stroke following cervical irradiation was 63 of 910 patients (6.3%) during a mean period of observation of nine years. This represents a trend toward an increased risk for this population observed over the same period of time (p . 0.39). A prospective study of 118 similar patients currently living five years after cervical radiotherapy was performed to determine the incidence of carotid artery disease occurring as a consequence of neck irradiation. Abnormal carotid phonangiograms (CPA) were found in 25% of the patients and abnormal oculoplethysmographs (OPG) were found in 17%. These studies represent significant carotid lesions that are not expected in such a population. It is concluded that the carotid stenoses demonstrated are most likely a consequence of prior irradiation. Patients that are five-year survivors of cervical irradiation should have noninvasive vascular laboratory studies performed as part of their routine follow-up examinations in order to detect these carotid lesions while they are occult.

  11. ADXS11-001 High Dose HPV+ Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Effects of Immunotherapy; Metastatic/Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  12. FDG and FMISO PET Hypoxia Evaluation in Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  13. Comparison of steroid receptor expression in normal, dysplastic, and neoplastic canine and feline mammary tissues.

    PubMed

    Millanta, F; Calandrella, M; Bari, G; Niccolini, M; Vannozzi, I; Poli, A

    2005-12-01

    Steroid receptor expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in neoplastic, hyperplastic/dysplastic, and normal mammary tissue samples removed from 68 queens and 47 bitches, using monoclonal antibodies against human oestrogen-alpha (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). Mammary lesions were classified according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, and all animals with invasive carcinomas were clinically followed for 2 years. Stromal and/or lymphatic invasion and histological grading were also recorded. In both species, ER expression was significantly higher in healthy tissues, hyperplastic/dysplastic lesions, and benign tumours than in carcinomas. The loss of ER expression was more marked in feline than in canine carcinomas. In queens, PR expression increased in dysplastic lesions and "in situ" carcinomas and decreased in invasive carcinomas, even if parts of these tumours were still PR-positive. In bitches no significant variation in PR expression was observed between normal tissue, dysplasias, and benign neoplasms, but was significantly lower in carcinomas. In both species ER and PR expression in invasive carcinomas did not correlate either with histological parameters or overall survival time. This study demonstrates several differences in steroid hormone dependency between the two species. The percentage of PR-positive feline carcinomas suggests a possible role of progesterone in promoting early tumour cell growth in queens. The low percentage of ER-positive invasive carcinomas further demonstrated the aggressive phenotype and behaviour of feline mammary tumours. PMID:16054892

  14. Solitary lesions on bone scan in genitourinary malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Robey, E.L.; Schellhammer, P.F.

    1984-11-01

    Solitary lesions on bone scans obtained as part of metastatic diagnostic studies for genitourinary malignancy require identification as to whether they represent nonneoplastic or neoplastic disease and, if neoplastic, whether metastatic genitourinary cancer or another primary is present. Such definition requires at least plain film tomograms of the area as well as computerized tomography (for inaccessible lesions) and/or biopsy of lesions still in doubt after tomography. Of the 9 patients in our study 4 had true positive scans for metastatic disease, 3 had false positive scans, 1 had a true positive scan for a second bone primary and 1 is indeterminate, since a negative biopsy of a positive area on a bone scan was followed rapidly by the appearance of other widespread metastases.

  15. Downstream of Mutant KRAS, the Transcription Regulator YAP Is Essential for Neoplastic Progression to Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiying; Nandakumar, Nivedita; Shi, Yuhao; Manzano, Mark; Smith, Alias; Graham, Garrett; Gupta, Swati; Vietsch, Eveline E.; Laughlin, Sean Z.; Wadhwa, Mandheer; Chetram, Mahandranauth; Joshi, Mrinmayi; Wang, Fen; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Wellstein, Anton; Yi, Chunling

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer with poor survival rates and frequently carries oncogenic KRAS mutation. However, KRAS has thus far not been a viable therapeutic target. We found that the abundance of YAP mRNA, which encodes Yes-associated protein (YAP), a protein regulated by the Hippo pathway during tissue development and homeostasis, was increased in human PDAC tissue compared with that in normal pancreatic epithelia. In genetically engineered KrasG12D and KrasG12D: Trp53R172H mouse models, pancreas-specific deletion of Yap halted the progression of early neoplastic lesions to PDAC without affecting normal pancreatic development and endocrine function. Although Yap was dispensable for acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM), an initial step in the progression to PDAC, Yap was critically required for the proliferation of mutant Kras or Kras:Trp53 neoplastic pancreatic ductal cells in culture and for their growth and progression to invasive PDAC in mice. Yap functioned as a critical transcriptional switch downstream of the oncogenic KRAS–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, promoting the expression of genes encoding secretory factors that cumulatively sustained neoplastic proliferation, a tumorigenic stromal response in the tumor microenvironment, and PDAC progression in Kras and Kras: Trp53 mutant pancreas tissue. Together, our findings identified Yap as a critical oncogenic KRAS effector and a promising therapeutic target for PDAC and possibly other types of KRAS-mutant cancers. PMID:24803537

  16. Neoplastic and nonneoplastic liver lesions induced by dimethylinitrosamine in Japanese Medaka fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small fish models are becoming commonplace in the laboratory, and have been used for decades in chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity testing. However, extrapolation of findings from aquatic models to humans is still a concern in risk assessment. Demonstration of common morpholog...

  17. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  18. Cervical Microbiome and Cytokine Profile at Various Stages of Cervical Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahena-Román, Margarita; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Cortina-Ceballos, Bernardo; López-Estrada, Guillermina; Delgado-Romero, Karina; Burguete-García, Ana I.; Cantú, David; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by high-risk human papillomavirus persistence due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines. Vaginal microbiota determines the presence of certain cytokines locally. We assessed the association between cervical microbiota diversity and the histopathological diagnosis of each stage of CC, and we evaluated mRNA cervical expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α and IFN-γ across the histopathological diagnosis and specific bacterial clusters. We determined the cervical microbiota by high throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons and classified it in community state types (CST). Mean difference analyses between alpha-diversity and histopathological diagnosis were carried out, as well as a β-diversity analysis within the histological diagnosis. Cervical cytokine mRNA expression was analyzed across the CSTs and the histopathological diagnoses. We found a significant difference in microbiota's diversity in NCL-HPV negative women vs those with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and CC(p = 0.006, p = 0.036).When β-diversity was evaluated, the CC samples showed the highest variation within groups (p<0.0006) and the largest distance compared to NCL-HPV negative ones (p<0.00001). The predominant bacteria in women with normal cytology were L. crispatus and L. iners, whereas for SIL, it was Sneathia spp. and for CC, Fusobacterium spp. We found higher median cervical levels of IL-4 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the CST dominated by Fusobacterium spp. These results suggest that the cervical microbiota may be implicated in cervical cancer pathology. Further cohort studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:27115350

  19. The cervical malignant cells display a down regulation of ER-α but retain the ER-β expression

    PubMed Central

    López-Romero, Ricardo; Garrido-Guerrero, Efraín; Rangel-López, Angélica; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Lazos-Ochoa, Minerva; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Bandala, Cindy; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The human cervix is a tissue target of sex steroid hormones as estradiol (E2) which exerts its action through of the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER-α and ER-β). In this study we investigated the expression of ER-α and ER-β in human invasive cervical carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analyses and compared with that observed in the corresponding normal tissue. The results show nuclear expression of ER-α mainly in the first third of normal cervical epithelium, however, decreased or absent expression were present in invasive cervical carcinoma, indicating that expression of ER-α is lost in cervical cancer. Nevertheless, by RT-PCR we were able to demonstrate mRNA expression of ER-α in invasive cervical tissues. These results suggest that loss of ER-α could be due to a mechanism of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of its gene during the progression to invasive carcinoma. On the other hand, ER-β was expressed in normal cervix with an expression pattern similar to ER-α. In addition to its nuclear localization, cytoplasmic immunoreaction of ER-β was present in the epithelium of invasive cervical carcinomas, suggesting an association between cytoplasmic ER-β expression and invasive phenotype in the cervical tumors. In summary, the results show that the cervical malignant cells tend to loss the ER-α but maintain the ER-β actively expressed. Loss of expression of ER-α in neoplastic tissue suggests that the estrogenic effects could be conducted through the ER-β in human neoplastic cervical tissue. More detailed studies are needed to confirm this suggestion and to determine the role of ER-β in cervical cancer. PMID:23923078

  20. HPV immunohistochemical testing and cervical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    MUREŞAN, DANIEL; ROTAR, IOANA CRISTINA; APOSTOL, SILVANA; COROIU, GEORGIANA; STAMATIAN, FLORIN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) infection represents a necessary condition for cervical carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of HPV testing using an immunohistochemical staining kit with implications upon both diagnosis and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Methods Seventy-nine patients and eighty-six controls were enrolled in the study. Each patient had completed a physical examination, gynecological examination with cervical sampling using a liquid-based cytology system and also colposcopy. The cervical samples were analyzed according to Bethesda terminology and HPV-HR immunohistochemical staining was performed. In all the patients with high-grade lesion a surgical excision procedure was performed followed by pathological examination of the specimen. The collected data were analyzed using statistical software. Results The colposcopic examination has detected acetowhite modifications of the cervical epithelium in 47% of patients with ASC-US (Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) in 71% of patients with LSIL (Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and in 100% of patients with HSIL ( High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of LSIL in 27% of biopsy specimens in patients with ASC-US and in 79.99% of patients with LSIL respectively. In all patients with HSIL the diagnosis was CIN II or higher. The percentage of HPV-HR (Human Papilloma Virus – High Risk) positivity porportionaly increased with the severity of cytological diagnosis: 30% in ASC-US, 42.86% in LSIL and 75% in HSIL patients. The sensitivity of detection of HPV-HR was 50% with CI 95% [17.45;82.55] for ASC-US, 77.77% with CI 95% [51.91;92.62] for LSIL and 81.81% with CI 95% [58.99;94.00] for HSIL. Conclusion HPV testing can be an important screening tool for cervical dysplasia. The HPV testing targeting high risk types is indicated for ASC-US and LSIL triage. The present work

  1. Cervical tumor characterization by transvaginal color flow Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Carter, J. R.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the blood flow characteristics of benign cervical lesions and invasive cervical tumors and to determine if invasive cervical tumors can be predicted by transvaginal sonography (TVS) and color flow Doppler (CFD). The study design incorporated an open prospective collection of data from patients attending the Women's Cancer Center, University of Minnesota and the Sydney Women's Cancer Center. Inclusion criteria included patients with known benign or malignant cervical pathology. The study group of 66 patients comprised 32 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 34 patients with benign cervical lesions. Benign cervixes were significantly more likely to have absent or normal flow whereas malignant lesions were significantly more likely to have abnormal or increased flow (P < 0.0001). No differences in the uterine or intratumor systolic, diastolic, or mean velocity were found between the two groups. A reduction in the uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) from 1.84 to 1.55 and 0.73 to 0.71, respectively, and also in the intracervical PI from 1.5 to 1.1, in the benign compared to invasive group was found, none of which reached statistical significance. However the intracervical RI was statistically lower (0.62) in malignant tumors compared to patients with benign lesions (0.71) (P = 0.03). The effect of menopause on blood flow characteristics was variable and overall not significant. While the uterine artery systolic velocity was significantly higher in premenopausal women, no such effect was found for the diastolic or mean velocity or the PI and RI. In postmenopausal women, the intratumor PI and RI were higher compared to premenopausal women. In conclusion, transvaginal CFD analysis of the uterine arterial or intratumor bed does not appear to be beneficial in attempting to distinguish benign from malignant cervical tumors. PMID:11240780

  2. Association of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis with papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas. A new sporadic neoplastic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Córdova-Ramón, Juan Carlos; Henson, Donald E

    2014-10-01

    We describe 2 adult women (72 and 54 years), 1 with a low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis, who 14 years later developed a papillary carcinoma in 1 thyroid lobe and a medullary carcinoma in the contralateral lobe. Both neoplasms were similar in size and appeared symmetrical. Despite its small size, the medullary carcinoma metastasized in multiple cervical lymph nodes. The second patient had a high-grade invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis that infiltrated the renal parenchyma and metastasized in one of the lungs. Five months later, a papillary carcinoma was discovered in the thyroid gland. The 2 papillary thyroid carcinomas were of the follicular variant. Adjacent to 1 papillary carcinoma, there was a dominant nodule of a colloid and adenomatous goiter. The medullary carcinoma contained stromal amyloid and was immunoreactive for calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. There was no C-cell hyperplasia (medullary carcinoma in situ). The 2 patients are alive, 1 is living with pulmonary metastasis from the high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Twelve cases of this neoplastic association were registered in the Survey, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1980 to 2009. We believe that the combination of these unusual neoplasms in the same patient may represent a new sporadic neoplastic syndrome. PMID:25175810

  3. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer This page lists cancer ... in cervical cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Cervical Cancer Cervarix (Recombinant HPV ...

  4. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain types ...

  5. Spectrum of Lesions Affecting the Renal Pelvis and Pelviureteric Junction: A 13-Year Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kini, Hema; Suresh, Pooja Kundapur; Guni, Laxman Prabhu Gurupur; Bhat, Shaila; Kini, Jyoti Ramanath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Both, the renal pelvis and the ureter, are affected by developmental, reactive and neoplastic disorders, though rare in incidence. Aim This series of cases were analysed to study the clinicopathological characteristics of the common and comparatively rare lesions involving the renal pelvis and pelviureteric junction. Materials and Methods A retrospective collection of 476 nephrectomies and pelviureteric junction resections, received over a period of 13 years from 2001 to 2013 was done. The patients’ clinical details were obtained and the histopathological findings reviewed. The lesions were classified into non-neoplastic and neoplastic categories. Results Primary involvement of the renal pelvis and pelviureteric junction was seen in 105 of 476 specimens. The mean age was 54.5 years with a male to female ratio of 2.2:1. The non-neoplastic lesions accounted for 76.2% of cases with a majority being pelviureteric junction obstruction due to inflammation induced fibromuscular hypertrophy (68.6%) causing hydronephrosis. Urothelial carcinomas were encountered in 20% of the cases. A majority of the urothelial carcinomas were infiltrative (81%) and high grade (71%) tumours. Conclusion Renal pelvis, a conduit to propel urine, can be the site for numerous disorders. Non-neoplastic lesions were more common than neoplasms. Pelviureteric junction obstruction due to inflammation induced fibromuscular hypertrophy was the commonest lesion in our study. In the neoplastic category, urothelial carcinoma was most common. However, rare lesions such as hamartomatous fibroepithelial polyp, Von Brunn’s nests, flat urothelial hyperplasia and intramuscular haemangioma of upper ureter at the pelviureteric junction were encountered along with occasional cases of tuberculosis and squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:27042468

  6. Assessing methylation status of PAX1 in cervical scrapings, as a novel diagnostic and predictive biomarker, was closely related to screen cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Yang, Baohua; Wang, Lifeng; Lin, Xiao; Tu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated that levels of hypermethylation of paired boxed gene 1 in cervical tissues are associated with the grades of severities of cervical neoplasia in women, which suggests that testing for DNA methylation has a potential role in neoplasma screening. In this study, by testing methylation levels of PAX1 genes in cervical scrapings and cervical tissues of different lesion levels, aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of DNA methylation testing as a biomarker for early detecting cancerous changes in cervical tissues and to compare the efficacy between PAX1 methylation test and HPV test in detecting of cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 121 cervical scrapings were analyzed, including normal (n = 28), cervical intraepithelial neoplasm 1 (CIN1; n = 32), CIN2/3 (n = 34), and invasive cancer (n = 27), which were all diagnosed by pathologic examination. Results: The values of PAX1 methylation reference in invasive cancer (mean [SE], 26.3 [3.5]) was significantly higher than CIN2/3 (13. 2 [2.2]) and the CIN1 (4.5 [0.45]; P < 0.001). The PAX1 promoter was hypermethylated in 100% of invasive cancer tissue compared with 0% of normal tissue, 9% of CIN1, 44% of CIN2/3 (P < 0.01). Methylation levels of cervical scrapings and cervical tissues represent strong consistency within each group. In contrast, the HPV test result was positive in 17% of normal tissue, 81% of CIN1, 91% of CIN2/CIN3, and 92% of invasive cancer. Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, hypermethylation of PAX1 was a significant candidate in segregating cervical cancer from normal/cervical neoplasia cases (P < 0.001). At an optimal cutoff value, sensitivity and specificity between 80% and 93% were obtained. In conclusion, the current results indicated that the methylation density of PAX1 by pyrosequencing in cervical scrapings held a great promise for cervical cancer screening. PMID:25973053

  7. Bevacizumab, Radiation Therapy, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-22

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer

  8. Neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis by the human protooncogene MYC.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, G M; Moscovici, G; Moscovici, C; Bishop, J M

    1990-01-01

    Damage to the protooncogene MYC has been implicated in the genesis of diverse human tumors, but the tumorigenic potential of the isolated gene has been disputed. Here we report the use of a retroviral vector to test the potency of human MYC for neoplastic transformation in avian cells. We found that sustained and abundant expression of MYC can transform both embryonic fibroblasts and hematopoietic cells and elicit granulocytic leukemias in chickens. Transformation by MYC is accompanied by changes in diverse aspects of cellular phenotype, including morphology, ability to grow in suspension, rate of proliferation, the structure of the cytoskeleton, and the composition of the extracellular matrix. Nevertheless, the biological potency of MYC is inherently constrained when compared to that of the retroviral oncogene v-myc. Our findings enlarge on previous descriptions of neoplastic transformation by MYC and sustain the view that ungoverned expression of the gene can contribute to the genesis of human tumors. Images PMID:2156260

  9. Microbial growth tests in anti-neoplastic injectable solutions.

    PubMed

    Paris, Isabelle; Paci, Angelo; Rey, Jean-Baptiste; Bourget, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    The Institut Gustave-Roussy (IGR) Department of Clinical Pharmacy (DCP) ensures the annual preparation of about 30 000 therapeutic batches of anti-neoplastic agents. High performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) allows postproduction quality control of these batches. Although the centralized chemotherapy manufacturing unit has been recently ISO 9001:2000 certified, it was considered to improve the quality level of manufactured batches even further. The viability of micro-organisms (bacteria and fungi) in appropriate sterile media containing various anti-neoplastic agents at therapeutic concentration was assessed to demonstrate the lack of contamination during our manufacturing process in the isolator. After 14 days of incubation in these media, the results show the absence of contamination of the manufactured batches. This leads us to conclude that using sterile drugs and sterile medical devices in a sterile isolator allows the manufacture of sterile therapeutic batches with excellent confidence. PMID:16460598

  10. [Foot lesions].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, C; Schellong, S; Wollina, U; Machetanz, J; Unger, L

    2013-11-01

    The foot is the target organ of a variety of internal diseases. Of upmost importance is the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). Its complex pathophysiology is driven by the diabetic neuropathy, a vastly worsening effect is contributed by infection and ischemia. Seemingly localised lesions have the potential for phlegmone and septicaemia if not diagnosed and drained early. The acral lesions of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) have unique features as well. However, their life-threatening potential is lower than that of DFS even if the limb is critical. Notably, isolated foot lesions with a mere venous cause may arise from insufficient perforator veins; the accompanying areas of haemosiderosis will lead the diagnostic path. Cholesterol embolization (blue toe syndrome, trash foot) elicits a unique clinical picture and will become more frequent with increasing numbers of catheter-based procedures. Finally, descriptions are given of podagra and of foot mycosis as disease entities not linked to perfusion. The present review focuses on the depiction of disease and its diagnosis, leaving therapeutic considerations untouched. PMID:24114468

  11. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  12. Cervical cytology biobanking in Europe.

    PubMed

    Arbyn, Marc; Van Veen, Evert-Ben; Andersson, Kristin; Bogers, Johannes; Boulet, Gaëlle; Bergeron, Christine; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Dillner, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    A cervical cytology biobank (CCB) is an extension of current cytopathology laboratory practice consisting in the systematic storage of Pap smears or liquid-based cytology samples from women participating in cervical cancer screening with the explicit purpose to facilitate future scientific research and quality audit of preventive services. A CCB should use an internationally agreed uniform cytology terminology, be integrated in a national or regional screening registry, and be linked to other registries (histology, cancer, vaccination). Legal and ethical principles concerning personal integrity and data safety must be respected strictly. Biobank-based studies require approval of ethical review boards. A CCB is an almost inexhaustible resource for fundamental and applied biological research. In particular, it can contribute to answering questions on the natural history of HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions and cancers, screening effectiveness, exploration of new biomarkers, and surveillance of the short- and long-term effects of the introduction of HPV vaccination. To understand the limitations of CCB, more studies are needed on the quality of samples in relation to sample type, storage procedures, and duration of storage. PMID:20872354

  13. Cervical cancer screening of HPV vaccinated populations: Cytology, molecular testing, both or none.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Mariam; Richardson, Lyndsay; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer control includes primary prevention through vaccination to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and secondary prevention through screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. This review summarizes the evidence for the population impact of vaccines against oncogenic HPV types in reducing the prevalence of cervical precancerous lesions. We examine the gradual shift in screening technology from cervical cytology alone to cytology and HPV cotesting, and finally to the recognition that HPV testing can serve alone as the new screening paradigm, particularly in the initial post-vaccination era. We should expect an impact on screening performance and practices, as cohorts of HPV-vaccinated girls and adolescents reach cervical cancer screening age. In preparation for changes in the screening paradigm for the vaccination era, we propose that policymaking on cervical cancer screening should mirror current practices with other cancers as benchmarks. Cervical precancerous lesions will become a very rare condition following the widespread implementation of HPV vaccines with broader coverage in the number of preventable oncogenic types. Irrespective of screening technology, the false positive results will far outnumber the true positive ones, a tipping point that will herald a new period when the harms from cervical cancer screening will outweigh its benefits. We present a conceptual framework to guide decision making when we reach this point within 25-30 years. PMID:26631958

  14. Uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yumi; Tanaka, Kei; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Shibuya, Hiromi; Nishigaya, Yoshiko; Momomura, Mai; Matsumoto, Hironori; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi

    2015-07-01

    Brain metastasis from uterine cervical cancer is rare, with an incidence of 0.5%, and usually occurs late in the course of the disease. We report a case of uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation. A 50-year-old woman with headache, vertigo, amnesia and loss of appetite was admitted for persistent vomiting. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed a solitary right frontal cerebral lesion with ring enhancement and uterine cervical tumor. She was diagnosed with uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma with parametrium invasion and no other distant affected organs were detected. The cerebral lesion was surgically removed and pathologically proved to be metastasis of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy, followed by cerebral radiation therapy, but multiple metastases to the liver and lung developed and the patient died 7 months after diagnosis of brain metastasis. PMID:25656985

  15. Detection of cervical cancer based on photoacoustic imaging-the in-vitro results.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kuan; He, Ling; Wang, Bo; Xiao, Jiaying

    2015-01-01

    In current clinical practice, the diagnosis of cervical cancer (CC) is mainly through the cervical screening followed by a necessary biopsy, but this method is labor consuming and expensive, and can only detect superficial lesions around the external cervical orifice. In contrast, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is sensitive to the abnormal angiogenesis deep in the biological tissue, and may be capable for the intact scanning both around the external orifice and in cervical canal. In this paper, we for the first time put forward the photoacoustic diagnosis of CC. A total of 30 in-vitro experiments were carried out in this study, and the obtained depth maximum amplitude projection (DMAP) images were analyzed to evaluate the extent of the angiogenesis for different clinical stages of CC. Stronger absorption from the cervical lesions is observed relative to that of normal tissue. Paired t-test indicates that the difference in mean optical absorption (MOA) between normal tissue and cervical lesion has statistical significance with a confidential coefficient of 0.05. Statistical results also show that the MOAs of the cervical lesions are closely related to the severity of CC. These results imply that PAI may have great utility in the clinical diagnosis of CC. PMID:25657882

  16. Cellular neoplastic transformation induced by 916 MHz microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Hao, Dongmei; Wang, Minglian; Zeng, Yi; Wu, Shuicai; Zeng, Yanjun

    2012-08-01

    There has been growing concern about the possibility of adverse health effects resulting from exposure to microwave radiations, such as those emitted by mobile phones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular neoplastic transformation effects of electromagnetic fields. 916 MHz continuous microwave was employed in our study to simulate the electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone. NIH/3T3 cells were adopted in our experiment due to their sensitivity to carcinogen or cancer promoter in environment. They were divided randomly into one control group and three microwave groups. The three microwave groups were exposed to 916 MHz EMF for 2 h per day with power density of 10, 50, and 90 w/m(2), respectively, in which 10 w/m(2) was close to intensity near the antenna of mobile phone. The morphology and proliferation of NIH/3T3 cells were examined and furthermore soft agar culture and animal carcinogenesis assay were carried out to determine the neoplastic promotion. Our experiments showed NIH/3T3 cells changed in morphology and proliferation after 5-8 weeks exposure and formed clone in soft agar culture after another 3-4 weeks depending on the exposure intensity. In the animal carcinogenesis study, lumps developed on the back of SCID mice after being inoculated into exposed NIH/3T3 cells for more than 4 weeks. The results indicate that microwave radiation can promote neoplastic transformation of NIH/3T3cells. PMID:22395787

  17. Neoplastic Meningitis from Solid Tumors: New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Zustovich, Fable; Farina, Patrizia; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Manara, Renzo; Cecchin, Diego; Brunello, Antonella; Cappetta, Alessandro; Zagonel, Vittorina

    2011-01-01

    Neoplastic meningitis is a result of the spread of malignant cells to the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space and their dissemination within the cerebrospinal fluid. This event occurs in 4%–15% of all patients with solid tumors and represents an important prognostic factor for poor survival. Neoplastic meningitis should be diagnosed in the early stages of disease to prevent important neurological deficits and to provide the most appropriate treatment. Despite new diagnostic approaches developed in recent years, such as positron emission tomography–computed tomography and new biological markers, the combination of magnetic resonance imaging without and with gadolinium enhancement and cytology still has the greatest diagnostic sensitivity. Recently, no new randomized studies comparing intrathecal (i.t.) with systemic treatment have been performed, yet there have been a few small phase II studies and case reports about new molecularly targeted substances whose successful i.t. or systemic application has been reported. Trastuzumab, gefitinib, and sorafenib are examples of possible future treatments for neoplastic meningitis, in order to better individualize therapy thus allowing better outcomes. In this review, we analyze the most recent and interesting developments on diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:21795431

  18. Spontaneous delivery through a cervical tear without cervical os dilatation.

    PubMed

    Djokovic, Dusan; Costa, Cristina; Martins, Ana; Abushad, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous delivery through a cervical tear, provoked by prostaglandin-induced uterine contractions, was described in a G2P0 woman with a history of cervical dilatation and uterine curettage. This rare complication with potentially serious maternal-fetal consequences can be predicted by an aberrant cervical response to prostaglandins in parturients with previous cervical interventions. PMID:25678963

  19. Solitary Cervical Neurenteric Cyst in an Adolescent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Doo Yong; Lee, Ho Jin; Shin, Myung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Spinal neurenteric cysts are uncommon congenital lesions, furthermore solitary neurenteric cysts of the upper cervical spine are very rare. A 15-year-old boy having an intraspinal neurenteric cyst located at cervical spine presented with symptoms of neck pain and both shoulders pain for 2 months. Cervical spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated an intradural extramedullary cystic mass at the C1-3 level without enhancement after gadolinium injection. There was no associated malformation on the MR imaging, computed tomography, and radiography. Hemilaminectomy at the C1-3 levels was performed and the lesion was completely removed through a posterior approach. Histological examination showed the cystic wall lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium containing mucinous contents. Neurenteric cyst should be considered in the diagnosis of spinal solitary cystic mass. PMID:25733997

  20. Cervical Discitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Scheuerman, Oded; Landau, Daniel; Schwarz, Michael; Hoffer, Vered; Marcus, Nufar; Hoffnung, Liat Ashkenazi; Levy, Itzhak

    2015-07-01

    Cervical discitis, though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of torticollis, neck pain and neurodevelopmental regression in motor skills in children and infants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic method of choice. Treatment should be conservative with antibiotics only. The aim of this study was to describe the 10-year experience of a tertiary pediatric medical center with cervical discitis. PMID:25886786

  1. An improved high order texture features extraction method with application to pathological diagnosis of colon lesions for CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bowen; Zhang, Guopeng; Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Huafeng; Han, Fangfang; Zhu, Wei; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Differentiation of colon lesions according to underlying pathology, e.g., neoplastic and non-neoplastic, is of fundamental importance for patient management. Image intensity based textural features have been recognized as a useful biomarker for the differentiation task. In this paper, we introduce high order texture features, beyond the intensity, such as gradient and curvature, for that task. Based on the Haralick texture analysis method, we introduce a virtual pathological method to explore the utility of texture features from high order differentiations, i.e., gradient and curvature, of the image intensity distribution. The texture features were validated on database consisting of 148 colon lesions, of which 35 are non-neoplastic lesions, using the random forest classifier and the merit of area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics. The results show that after applying the high order features, the AUC was improved from 0.8069 to 0.8544 in differentiating non-neoplastic lesion from neoplastic ones, e.g., hyperplastic polyps from tubular adenomas, tubulovillous adenomas and adenocarcinomas. The experimental results demonstrated that texture features from the higher order images can significantly improve the classification accuracy in pathological differentiation of colorectal lesions. The gain in differentiation capability shall increase the potential of computed tomography (CT) colonography for colorectal cancer screening by not only detecting polyps but also classifying them from optimal polyp management for the best outcome in personalized medicine.

  2. HPV vaccination: The most pragmatic cervical cancer primary prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-10-01

    The evidence that high-risk HPV infections cause cervical cancers has led to two new approaches for cervical cancer control: vaccination to prevent HPV infections, and HPV screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. Two vaccines are currently available: quadrivalent vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 6, and 11, and bivalent vaccine targeting HPV 16 and 18. Both vaccines have demonstrated remarkable immunogenicity and substantial protection against persistent infection and high-grade cervical cancer precursors caused by HPV 16 and 18 in HPV-naïve women, and have the potential to prevent 70% of cervical cancers in adequately vaccinated populations. HPV vaccination is now implemented in national programs in 62 countries, including some low- and middle-income countries. The early findings from routine national programs in high-income countries are instructive to encourage low- and middle-income countries with a high risk of cervical cancer to roll out HPV vaccination programs and to introduce resource-appropriate cervical screening programs. PMID:26433502

  3. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis associated with ocular lesion in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Karina Bittencourt; Landeiro, Luana Gomes; Diniz, Lucia Martins; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old female patient, previously healthy, immunocompetent, presented left bulbar conjunctiva lesions and nodular-ulcerated lesions on the arms and cervical region, besides left cervical and retroauricular lymphadenopathy. She had previous contact with domestic cats that excoriated her face. The diagnosis was conclusive of disseminated sporotrichosis through clinical and epidemiological history and cultures of skin and ocular secretions. It evolved with good response to oral antifungal therapy. PMID:27579758

  4. A mosaic genetic screen for Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor genes based on defective pupation.

    PubMed

    Menut, Laurent; Vaccari, Thomas; Dionne, Heather; Hill, Joseph; Wu, Geena; Bilder, David

    2007-11-01

    The Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) coordinately control cell polarity and proliferation in epithelial and neuronal tissues. While a small group of neoplastic TSG mutations have been isolated and their corresponding genes cloned, the regulatory pathways that normally prevent inappropriate growth remain unclear. Identification of additional neoplastic TSGs may provide insight into this question. We report here the design of an efficient screen for isolating neoplastic TSG mutations utilizing genetically mosaic larvae. This screen is based on a defective pupation phenotype seen when a single pair of imaginal discs is homozygous for a neoplastic TSG mutation, which suggests that continuously proliferating cells can interfere with metamorphosis. Execution of this screen on two chromosome arms led to the identification of mutations in at least seven new neoplastic TSGs. The isolation of additional loci that affect hyperplastic as well as neoplastic growth indicates the utility of this screening strategy for studying epithelial growth control. PMID:17947427

  5. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    SciTech Connect

    Nuovo, G.J. ); Pedemonte, B.M. )

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

  6. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  7. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Majidi, Azam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hadji, Maryam; Nahvijou, Azin; Mousavi, Azam-Sadat; Pakgohar, Minoo; Khodakarami, Nahid; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rahnamaye Farzami, Marjan; Shahsiah, Reza; Sajedinejhad, Sima; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Nadali, Fatemeh; Rashidian, Arash; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Mogensen, Ole; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods: We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results: From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran. PMID:27239863

  8. [Isolated anterior cervical hypertrichosis].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, B; Cabanillas, M; de las Heras, C; Cacharrón, J M

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis was described by Trattner and coworkers in 1991. It consists of a of hair at the anterior cervical level just above the laryngeal prominence. To date, only 28 cases of anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Although it is normally an isolated finding, it may be associated with mental retardation, hallux valgus, retinal disorders, other hair disorders, facial dysmorphism, or sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented with this condition as an isolated finding. PMID:19268113

  9. HPV-Based Screening, Triage, Treatment, and Followup Strategies in the Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Deas, Jessica; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; García-Suastegui, Wendy Argelia; Fierros-Zárate, Geny del Socorro; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia Judith

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop immunotherapy and gene therapy strategies to treat cervical cancer. HPV genotyping has potentially valuable applications in triage of low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, assessment of prognosis and followup of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and in treatment strategies for invasive cervical cancer. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, the identification and subsequent functional evaluation of host proteins associated with HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins may provide useful information in understanding cervical carcinogenesis, identifying cervical cancer molecular markers, and developing specific targeting strategies against tumor cells. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the main diagnostic methods, management strategies, and followup of HPV-associated cervical lesions and review clinical trials applying gene therapy strategies against the development of cervical cancer. PMID:23690785

  10. HPV-Based Screening, Triage, Treatment, and Followup Strategies in the Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Deas, Jessica; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; García-Suastegui, Wendy Argelia; Fierros-Zárate, Geny Del Socorro; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia Judith

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop immunotherapy and gene therapy strategies to treat cervical cancer. HPV genotyping has potentially valuable applications in triage of low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, assessment of prognosis and followup of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and in treatment strategies for invasive cervical cancer. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, the identification and subsequent functional evaluation of host proteins associated with HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins may provide useful information in understanding cervical carcinogenesis, identifying cervical cancer molecular markers, and developing specific targeting strategies against tumor cells. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the main diagnostic methods, management strategies, and followup of HPV-associated cervical lesions and review clinical trials applying gene therapy strategies against the development of cervical cancer. PMID:23690785

  11. Cervical Cancer Stigma in Rural Kenya: What Does HIV Have to Do with It?

    PubMed

    Rosser, Joelle I; Njoroge, Betty; Huchko, Megan J

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death amongst women in sub-Saharan Africa, largely due to the lack of early screening and treatment. In addition to poor access to screening services, inadequate uptake of available services is a barrier to early identification of precancerous lesions. Given that cervical cancer is caused by a sexually transmitted virus and is associated with HIV positivity, stigma is one of the potential barriers to the utilization of cervical cancer programs in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 419 women attending health facilities in rural western Kenya to measure levels of cervical cancer and HIV stigma and to measure the associations between cervical cancer stigma, HIV stigma, and HIV status. Women who qualified for cervical cancer screening were asked to complete an oral questionnaire using a modified 9-point HIV stigma scale. Low cervical cancer stigma was reported in this study, with only 85/419 (20.3 %) of respondents answering yes to at least one cervical cancer stigma question. However, cervical cancer stigma was highly correlated with HIV stigma (correlation coefficient 0.72) and was significantly lower in HIV-positive women (p < 0.001). Reducing cervical cancer stigma in the general population is an important part of promoting screening in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25982550

  12. Improved computer-assisted analysis of the global lymphatic network in human cervical tissues.

    PubMed

    Balsat, Cédric; Signolle, Nicolas; Goffin, Frédéric; Delbecque, Katty; Plancoulaine, Benoit; Sauthier, Philippe; Samouëlian, Vanessa; Béliard, Aude; Munaut, Carine; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Blacher, Silvia; Noël, Agnès; Kridelka, Frédéric

    2014-06-01

    Lymphatic dissemination is a key event in cervical cancer progression and related tumor lymphatic markers are viewed as promising prognostic factor of nodal extension. However, validating such parameters requires an objective characterization of the lymphatic vasculature. Here, we performed a global analysis of the lymphatic network using a new computerized method applied on whole uterine cervical digital images. Sixty-eight cases of cervical neoplasia (12 CIN3, 10 FIGO stage 1A and 46 stage IB1) and 10 cases of normal cervical tissue were reacted with antibodies raised against D2-40, D2-40/p16 and D2-40/Ki67. Immunostained structures were automatically detected on whole slides. The lymphatic vessel density (D2-40), proliferating lymphatic vessel density (D2-40/ki67) and spatial lymphatic distribution in respect to the adjacent epithelium were assessed from normal cervix to early cervical cancer and correlated with lymphovascular space invasion and lymph node status. Prominent lymphatic vessel density and proliferating lymphatic vessel density are detected under the transformation zone of benign cervix and no further increase is noted during cancer progression. Notably, a shift of lymphatic vessel distribution toward the neoplastic edges is detected. In IB1 cervical cancer, although intra- and peritumoral lymphatic vessel density are neither correlated with lymphovascular space invasion nor with lymph node metastasis, a specific spatial distribution with more lymphatic vessels in the vicinity of tumor edges is predictive of lymphatic dissemination. Herein, we provide a new computerized method suitable for an innovative detailed analysis of the lymphatic network. We show that the transformation zone of the benign cervix acts as a baseline lymphangiogenic niche before the initiation of neoplastic process. During cancer progression, this specific microenvironment is maintained with lymphatic vessels even in closer vicinity to tumor cells. PMID:24309324

  13. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing shows cancer in the cervix, the vagina, and ... that connect the kidneys to the bladder). The drawing shows the ureter on the right blocked by ...

  14. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-877KB] High-quality PDF for professional ... uterus, vagina, and vulva. Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-877KB] High-quality PDF for professional ...

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... cervical cancer in women aged 30–65 years. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Human Papillomavirus ( ...

  16. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  17. Aberrant gene methylation in non-neoplastic mucosa as a predictive marker of ulcerative colitis-associated CRC

    PubMed Central

    Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Erroi, Francesca; Kotsafti, Andromachi; Basato, Silvia; Brun, Paola; D'Incà, Renata; Rugge, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Promoter hypermethylation plays a major role in cancer through transcriptional silencing of critical genes. The aim of our study is to evaluate the methylation status of these genes in the colonic mucosa without dysplasia or adenocarcinoma at the different steps of sporadic and UC-related carcinogenesis and to investigate the possible role of genomic methylation as a marker of CRC. Results The expression of Dnmts 1 and 3A was significantly increased in UC-related carcinogenesis compared to non inflammatory colorectal carcinogenesis. In non-neoplastic colonic mucosa, the number of methylated genes resulted significantly higher in patients with CRC and in those with UC-related CRC compared to the HC and UC patients and patients with dysplastic lesion of the colon. The number of methylated genes in non-neoplastic colonic mucosa predicted the presence of CRC with good accuracy either in non inflammatory and inflammatory related CRC. Methods Colonic mucosal samples were collected from healthy subjects (HC) (n = 30) and from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 29), UC and dysplasia (n = 14), UC and cancer (n = 10), dysplastic adenoma (n = 14), and colon adenocarcinoma (n = 10). DNA methyltransferases-1, -3a, -3b, mRNA expression were quantified by real time qRT-PCR. The methylation status of CDH13, APC, MLH1, MGMT1 and RUNX3 gene promoters was assessed by methylation-specific PCR. Conclusions Methylation status of APC, CDH13, MGMT, MLH1 and RUNX3 in the non-neoplastic mucosa may be used as a marker of CRC: these preliminary results could allow for the adjustment of a patient's surveillance interval and to select UC patients who should undergo intensive surveillance. PMID:26862732

  18. Radiation Therapy Plus Cisplatin and Gemcitabine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  19. Cervical lymphadenopathy: study of 251 patients.

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Popov, Hristo Hristov; Schick, Bernhard; Knöbber, Dirk

    2015-03-01

    Correct diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy is often a great challenge. The objective of this case study is to describe the distribution of the most common causes of unclear neck swellings presented in an ENT-Department and to evaluate the clinical history, examination and laboratory findings. In a retrospective study at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Homburg/Saar, 251 patients were enrolled with clinical and ultrasound signs of cervical lymphadenopathy as well as lymph node extirpation for histopathological evaluation. 127 patients (50.6 %) had a histological malignant finding. The distribution of the most common pathological conditions was as follows: Non-specific reactive hyperplasia n = 89 (35.5 %), metastases n = 86 (34.3 %), lymphoma n = 41 (16.3 %), granulomatous lesions n = 15 (6 %), abscess formations n = 5 (2 %), necrotic lymphadenitis and Castleman's disease one case of each, lymph node with normal architecture n = 7 (2.8 %), and neck masses mimicking lymphadenopathy n = 6 cases (2.4 %). The following factors identified by multivariate logistic regression were significantly associated to malignant lymphadenopathy: increasing age, generalized lymphadenopathy and history of malignant disorder, fixed neck masses and increasing diameter in ENT examination, bulky lesion, absence of hilus, blurred outer contour, protective role of the long form and decreasing Solbiati-index values by ultrasound B-Mode gray scale examination. Level II contained more benign lymphatic lesions, while the malignancy rate in level IV and V was enhanced. Laboratory parameters significantly associated to malignancies were CRP, LDH and thrombocytopenia. Patients with persisting cervical lymphadenopathy and over 3 weeks of antibiotic treatment should be considered for early biopsy, especially if some of the risk factors, pointed out in this study, are present. PMID:25294051

  20. Management of precancerous lesions prior to conception and during pregnancy: a narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tseng, J-Y; Bastu, E; Gungor-Ugurlucan, F

    2012-11-01

    Special considerations aiming at preserving reproductive function have to be implemented when treating young patients with precancerous lesions of the lower genital tract. These high-grade lesions may progress into invasive cancer if left untreated. Currently, there are limited data on the impact of vulvar and vaginal precancerous lesions on fertility and its management during pregnancy. However, management and outcomes for cervical lesions have been extensively reported. The main approach for vulvar and vaginal lesions are maintaining anatomical function and cosmetics; whereas, treatment options for cervical precancerous lesions range from observation, cryotherapy or the more aggressive conisation. Gestational age is the most important factor in determining expectant management or surgical intervention. This narrative review draws attention to the relevant aspects of precancerous lesions of the lower genital tract, the potential effects and management prior to conception and during pregnancy. PMID:22966861

  1. Brown Tumor of the Cervical Spines: A Case Report with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Halawani, Mohammed Mohamoud; Attia, Walid Ismail; Almusrea, Khaled Naser

    2015-01-01

    To report a rare case of axis brown tumor and to review literature of cervical spine brown tumor. Brown tumor is a rare bone lesion, incidence less than 5% in primary hyperparathyroidism. It is more common in secondary hyperparathyroidism with up to 13% of cases. Brown tumor reactive lesion forms as a result of disturbed bone remodeling due to long standing increase in parathyroid hormones. Cervical spine involvement is extremely rare, can be confused with serous spine lesions. To date, only four cases of cervical spine involvement have been reported. Three were due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Only one was reported to involve the axis and was due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. This is the first reported case of axis brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism. A case report of brown tumor is presented. A literature review was conducted by a Medline search of reported cases of brown tumor, key words: brown tumor, osteoclastoma and cervical lesions. The resulting papers were reviewed and cervical spine cases were listed then classified according to the level, cause, and management. Only four previous cases involved the cervical spine. Three were caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism and one was by primary hyperparathyroidism which involved the C6. Our case was the first case of C2 involvement of primary hyperparathyroidism and it was managed conservatively. Brown tumor, a rare spinal tumor that presents with high PTH and giant cells, requires a high level of suspicion. PMID:25705344

  2. Imaging features of benign and malignant ampullary and periampullary lesions.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Paul; Hammond, Nancy A; Day, Kevin; Yaghmai, Vahid; Wood, Cecil G; Mosbach, David S; Harmath, Carla B; Taffel, Myles T; Horowitz, Jeanne M; Berggruen, Senta M; Miller, Frank H

    2014-01-01

    The ampulla of Vater is an important anatomic landmark where the common bile duct and main pancreatic duct converge in the major duodenal papilla. Imaging evaluation of the ampulla and periampullary region poses a unique diagnostic challenge to radiologists because of the region's complex and variable anatomy and the variety of lesions that can occur. Lesions intrinsic to the ampulla and involved segment of the biliary tree can be neoplastic, inflammatory, or congenital. Neoplastic lesions include ampullary adenocarcinomas and adenomas, which often are difficult to differentiate, as well as pancreatic or duodenal adenocarcinomas, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and cholangiocarcinomas. Ultrasonography (US), computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR cholangiopancreatography are commonly used to evaluate this region. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic US examination may be necessary for more definitive evaluation. Periampullary conditions in the duodenum that may secondarily involve the ampulla include neoplasms, duodenitis, duodenal diverticula, and Brunner's gland hyperplasia or hamartomas. Because these lesions can exhibit a wide overlap of imaging features and subtle or nonspecific imaging findings, diagnosis is made on the basis of patient age, clinical history, and imaging and laboratory findings. Given the complexity of imaging evaluation of the ampulla and periampullary region, it is essential for radiologists to understand the variety of lesions that can occur and recognize their imaging characteristics. PMID:24819785

  3. De-misty-fying the mesentery: an algorithmic approach to neoplastic and non-neoplastic mesenteric abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Taffel, Myles T; Khati, Nadia J; Hai, Nabila; Yaghmai, Vahid; Nikolaidis, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Mesenteric abnormalities are often incidentally discovered on cross-sectional imaging performed during daily clinical practice. Findings can range from the vague "misty mesentery" to solid masses, and the possible etiologic causes encompass a wide spectrum of underlying pathologies including infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic processes. Unfortunately, the clinical and imaging findings are often non-specific and may overlap. This article discusses the various diseases that result in mesenteric abnormalities. It provides a framework to non-invasively differentiate these entities, when possible. PMID:24633598

  4. Multifunctional CD40L: pro- and anti-neoplastic activity.

    PubMed

    Korniluk, Aleksandra; Kemona, Halina; Dymicka-Piekarska, Violetta

    2014-10-01

    The CD40 ligand is a type I transmembrane protein that belongs to a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. It is present not only on the surface of activated CD4+ T cells, B cells, blood platelets, monocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells but also on cancer cells. The receptor for ligand is constitutively expressed on cells, TNF family protein: CD40. The role of the CD40/CD40L pathway in the induction of body immunity, in inflammation, or in hemostasis has been well documented, whereas its involvement in neoplastic disease is still under investigation. CD40L ligand may potentiate apoptosis of tumor cells by activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), AP-1, CD95, or caspase-depended pathways and stimulate host immunity to defend against cancer. Although CD40L has a major contribution to anti-cancer activity, many reports point at its ambivalent nature. CD40L enhance release of strongly pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and activator of coagulation, TF, the level of which is correlated with tumor metastasis. CD40L involvement in the inhibition of tumor progression has led to the emergence of not only therapy using recombinant forms of the ligand and vaccines in the treatment of cancer but also therapy consisting of inhibiting platelets-main source of CD40L. This article is a review of studies on the ambivalent role of CD40L in neoplastic diseases. PMID:25117071

  5. Comprehensive serial analysis of gene expression of the cervical transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Shadeo, Ashleen; Chari, Raj; Vatcher, Greg; Campbell, Jennifer; Lonergan, Kim M; Matisic, Jasenka; van Niekerk, Dirk; Ehlen, Thomas; Miller, Dianne; Follen, Michele; Lam, Wan L; MacAulay, Calum

    2007-01-01

    Background More than half of the approximately 500,000 women diagnosed with cervical cancer worldwide each year will die from this disease. Investigation of genes expressed in precancer lesions compared to those expressed in normal cervical epithelium will yield insight into the early stages of disease. As such, establishing a baseline from which to compare to, is critical in elucidating the abnormal biology of disease. In this study we examine the normal cervical tissue transcriptome and investigate the similarities and differences in relation to CIN III by Long-SAGE (L-SAGE). Results We have sequenced 691,390 tags from four L-SAGE libraries increasing the existing gene expression data on cervical tissue by 20 fold. One-hundred and eighteen unique tags were highly expressed in normal cervical tissue and 107 of them mapped to unique genes, most belong to the ribosomal, calcium-binding and keratinizing gene families. We assessed these genes for aberrant expression in CIN III and five genes showed altered expression. In addition, we have identified twelve unique HPV 16 SAGE tags in the CIN III libraries absent in the normal libraries. Conclusion Establishing a baseline of gene expression in normal cervical tissue is key for identifying changes in cancer. We demonstrate the utility of this baseline data by identifying genes with aberrant expression in CIN III when compared to normal tissue. PMID:17543121

  6. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038

  7. Cervical spondylosis causing vertebrobasilar insufficiency: a surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Donald R.; Vanderark, Gary D.; Kempe, Ludwig G.

    1971-01-01

    Although the most common aetiology of transient vertebrobasilar insufficiency is atherosclerosis, a similar syndrome may occasionally be produced by cervical osteophytes. The possibility of such a remedial lesion makes further investigation mandatory in such patients—especially if symptoms are associated with sudden movements of the head or neck. When vertebral compression results from osteophytes, it can be easily relieved by a minor modification of the usual anterior cervical fusion technique. This method has proved to be quite efficacious in two patients whose case histories are reported. Images PMID:5096552

  8. Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and non-neoplastic oral diseases in Europe and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kallischnigg, Gerd; Weitkunat, Rolf; Lee, Peter N

    2008-01-01

    Background How smokeless tobacco contributes to non-neoplastic oral diseases is unclear. It certainly increases risk of oral mucosal lesions, but reviewers disagree as to other conditions. In some areas, especially South-East Asia, risk is difficult to quantify due to the many products, compositions (including non-tobacco ingredients), and usage practices involved. This review considers studies from Europe (in practice mainly Scandinavia) and from the USA. Methods Experimental and epidemiological studies published in 1963–2007 were identified that related risk of oral lesions to smokeless tobacco use. Data were assessed separately for oral mucosal lesions, periodontal and gingival diseases, dental caries and tooth loss, and oral pain. Results Oral mucosal lesions: Thirty-three epidemiological studies consistently show a strong dose-related effect of current snuff on oral mucosal lesion prevalence. In Scandinavia, users have a near 100% prevalence of a characteristic "snuff-induced lesion", but prevalence of the varied lesions reported in the USA is lower. Associations with chewing tobacco are weaker. The lack of clear association with former use suggests reversibility following cessation, consistent with experimental studies showing rapid lesion regression on quitting. Periodontal and gingival diseases: Two of four studies report a significant association of snuff with attachment loss and four out of eight with gingival recession. Snuff is not clearly related to gingivitis or periodontal diseases. Limited evidence suggests chewing tobacco is unrelated to periodontal or gingival diseases. Tooth loss: Swedish studies show no association with snuff, but one US study reported an association with snuff, and another with chewing tobacco. Dental caries: Evidence from nine studies suggests a possible relationship with use of smokeless tobacco, particularly chewing tobacco, and the risk of dental caries. Oral pain: Limited evidence precludes any clear conclusion

  9. GLI1 is regulated through Smoothened-independent mechanisms in neoplastic pancreatic ducts and mediates PDAC cell survival and transformation

    PubMed Central

    Nolan-Stevaux, Olivier; Lau, Janet; Truitt, Morgan L.; Chu, Gerald C.; Hebrok, Matthias; Fernández-Zapico, Martin E.; Hanahan, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by the deregulation of the hedgehog signaling pathway. The Sonic Hedgehog ligand (Shh), absent in the normal pancreas, is highly expressed in pancreatic tumors and is sufficient to induce neoplastic precursor lesions in mouse models. We investigated the mechanism of Shh signaling in PDAC carcinogenesis by genetically ablating the canonical bottleneck of hedgehog signaling, the transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo), in the pancreatic epithelium of PDAC-susceptible mice. We report that multistage development of PDAC tumors is not affected by the deletion of Smo in the pancreas, demonstrating that autocrine Shh–Ptch–Smo signaling is not required in pancreatic ductal cells for PDAC progression. However, the expression of Gli target genes is maintained in Smo-negative ducts, implicating alternative means of regulating Gli transcription in the neoplastic ductal epithelium. In PDAC tumor cells, we find that Gli transcription is decoupled from upstream Shh–Ptch–Smo signaling and is regulated by TGF-β and KRAS, and we show that Gli1 is required both for survival and for the KRAS-mediated transformed phenotype of cultured PDAC cancer cells. PMID:19136624

  10. High-fidelity DNA histograms in neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chenggong; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Huang, Qin; Klein, Michael; Goyal, Raj K

    2007-05-01

    This study describes the high-fidelity DNA histograms in different stages of neoplastic progression to Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BAC). High-fidelity DNA histograms were obtained with image cytometry on sections, and were classified based on DNA index values of the peaks into diploid, mild aneuploid, moderate aneuploid and severe aneuploid. Heterogeneity index (HI) representing cells with different DNA content and the 5N exceeding cell fraction were determined. One hundred and eighty-seven cases, including 34 normal gastrointestinal mucosa (control), 66 Barrett's-specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM), 22 low-grade dysplasia (LGD), 22 high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and 43 BAC were investigated. Controls showed sharp diploid peaks with HI values less than 13, and no 5N exceeding nuclei. SIM showed a spectrum of histograms including diploid, mild aneuploid and moderate aneuploid histograms. The frequency and severity of aneuploidy increased with worsening histological grades of dysplasia. All BAC cases were aneuploid, with moderate or severe aneuploidy. Marked elevated HI values (>20) and 5N exceeding fractions (>5%) were found in 5%, 32%, 50% and 88% of cases with SIM, LGD, HGD and BAC, respectively. The high-fidelity DNA histograms suggest that (1) Barrett's SIM may already be dysplastic in nature, and all BAC may be markedly aneuploid; and (2) elevated cellular DNA heterogeneity and 5N fractions may be markers of progressive chromosomal changes and 'unstable aneuploidy' that identifies progressive lesions. PMID:17310216

  11. Genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in histological sections of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical carcinoma in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical specimens from the city of Madrid (Spain), as a contribution to the knowledge of Human Papillomavirus genotype distribution and prevalence of carcinogenic HPV types in cervical lesions in Spain. Methods A total of 533 abnormal specimens, from the Hospital General Universitario “Gregorio Marañón” of Madrid, were studied. These included 19 benign lesions, 349 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias 1 (CIN1), 158 CIN2-3 and 7 invasive cervical carcinomas (ICC). HPV genotyping was performed using PCR and tube array hybridization. Results We detected 20 different HPV types: 13 carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (HR-HPVs), 2 probably carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (PHR-HPVs) and 5 carcinogenic low-risk HPV types (LR-HPVs). The most frequent HPV genotypes found in all specimens were HPV16 (26.0%), 31 (10.7%) and 58 (8.0%). HPV 18 was only detected in 5.0%. Co-infections were found in 30.7% of CIN 1 and 18.4% cases of CIN2-3. The highest percentage of HR HPVs was found in those specimens with a CIN2-3 lesion (93.7%). Conclusion As our study shows the current tetravalent vaccine could be effective in our geographical area for preventing all the invasive cervical carcinomas. In addition, upon the estimates of the important presence of other HR-HPV types – such as 31, 58, 33 and 52 – in different preneoplasic lesions the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in our geographical area, and others with similar genotype distribution, should be limited. PMID:23167826

  12. Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Persistent, Recurrent, or Metastatic Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-12

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  13. Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ and Its Ligands in Non-Neoplastic and Neoplastic Human Urothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakashiro, Koh-ichi; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Kita, Akiyo; Tamatani, Tetsuya; Chlenski, Alexandre; Usuda, Nobuteru; Hattori, Kazunori; Reddy, Janardan K.; Oyasu, Ryoichi

    2001-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and is expressed in several types of tissue. Although PPARγ reportedly is expressed in normal urothelium, its function is unknown. We examined the expression of PPARγ in normal urothelium and bladder cancer in an attempt to assess its functional role. Immunohistochemical staining revealed normal urothelium to express PPARγ uniformly. All low-grade carcinomas were positive either diffusely or focally, whereas staining was primarily focal or absent in high-grade carcinomas. A nonneoplastic urothelial cell line (1T-1), a low-grade (RT4) carcinoma cell line, and two high-grade (T24 and 253J) carcinoma cell lines in culture expressed PPARγ mRNA and protein. Luciferase assay indicated that PPARγ was functional. PPARγ ligands (15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2, troglitazone and pioglitazone) suppressed the growth of nonneoplastic and neoplastic urothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, neoplastic cells were more resistant than were nonneoplastic cells. Failure to express PPARγ or ineffective transcriptional activity may be some of the mechanisms responsible for resistance to the inhibitory action of PPARγ ligands. PMID:11485917

  14. Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  15. Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  16. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... section Cervical Cancer 3 of 5 sections Take Action! Take Action: Get Tested Take these steps to help prevent ... section Pap Test 4 of 5 sections Take Action: Lower Your Risk Lower your risk of cervical ...

  17. Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The cervical spinal column is made up of vertebral bodies which protect the spinal cord. ... spinal nerves, trauma, and narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal column around the spinal cord. Symptoms of cervical spine ...

  18. [Feasibility of cervical smear in HIV-positive women living in Chad].

    PubMed

    Mortier, E; Doudéadoum, N; Némian, F; Gaulier, A; Kemian, M

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancerrelated death in Sub-Saharan African women. HIV-infected women are at increased risk for cervical intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical cancer. WHO guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions are regularly actualized. There are no data on cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in Chad. Between August 2013 and May 2015, screening for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions was proposed to HIV-infected women living in Moundou (Chad). Cytology examination was performed after with Papanicolaou coloration. Three hundred and eleven HIV-seropositive women accepted the screening without refusal. Mean age of the patients was 38 years (95% Confidence Interval: 37.7-39.9). The women declared a mean of 4.1 pregnancies (range: 0-12). The patients had been followed-up for their seropositivity for 8 years (range: 0-25). All were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Of the patients whose results were known (N = 231), 98% had a CD4 lymphocyte nadir count less than 350/mm(3). Cytological results were as follows: normal smear (N = 59; 19%), inflammatory or hemorrhagic smear (N = 139; 44%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (N = 58; 19%), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (N = 28; 9%), epidermoid carcinoma (N = 13; 4%), and uninterpretable smear (N = 14; 5%). The inflammatory lesions were due to cervicitis (N = 54), vaginosis (N = 22), and trichomonas infection (N = 3). The patients' age, CD4 lymphocyte nadir count, and CD4 count at the time of the cervical smear were not different according to the cytological results. Only five patients had a cone biopsy. Three patients deceased during the study of whom two from a gynaecological cancer diagnosed too late. The screening of dysplasia and cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women is possible in Chad. In our study, 13% of the women had highgrade dysplasia or carcinoma needing curative care. We also showed that simple

  19. Histopathological Features of Non-Neoplastic Breast Parenchyma Do Not Predict BRCA Mutation Status of Patients with Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Soley; Qiu, Hongming; Liu, Diane; Shen, Yu; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M; Arun, Banu K; Sahin, Aysegul A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several studies have evaluated histologic features of non-neoplastic breast parenchyma in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations, but the results are conflicting. The limited data suggest a much higher prevalence of high-risk precursor lesions in BRCA carriers. Therefore, we designed this study to compare the clinicopathological characteristics of peritumoral benign breast tissue in patients with and without deleterious BRCA mutations. METHODS Women with breast cancer (BC) who were referred for genetic counseling and underwent BRCA genetic testing in 2010 and 2011 were included in the study. RESULTS Of the six benign histological features analyzed in this study, only stromal fibrosis grade 2/3 was found to be statistically different, with more BRCA noncarriers having stromal fibrosis grade 2/3 than BRCA1/2 carriers (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION There is no significant association between mutation risk and the presence of benign histologic features of peritumoral breast parenchyma. PMID:26327783

  20. Cervical spondylomyelopathy (wobbler syndrome) in the Boerboel.

    PubMed

    Gray, M J; Kirberger, R M; Spotswood, T C

    2003-12-01

    The Boerboel is a South African large-breed dog resembling a Bullmastiff. The records of Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital were searched for dogs that had presented, between 1998 and 2003, with symptoms indicative of wobbler syndrome and had undergone survey radiographic and myelographic studies. Ten cases fitted the inclusion criteria. Dogs presented within the first 2 years of life, often with acute onset of symptoms. All presented with pelvic limb and 6 with concomitant thoracic limb ataxia or paresis. Treatment varied and included none (4), prednisolone (2), and dorsal laminectomy (2). Two dogs were euthanased at the time of diagnosis. The breed appears to be affected with a form of spondylomyelopathy that comprises bony malformation of cervical and/or thoracic vertebrae. In 8 dogs, malformations were evident on survey radiographs and were characterised by enlarged, irregular articular facets and associated medial deviation of the pedicles. These changes resulted in axial compression of the spinal cord best seen on ventrodorsal or dorsoventral myelographic studies. Multiple vertebrae were affected in some dogs and lesions were not confined to the caudal area of the cervical spine. Three dogs were alive and without symptoms at follow-up. Four were euthanased as a result of the disease and 1 died as a result of post-operative complications. Two additional dogs presenting with wobbler clinical signs are also described. One had medial deviation of the T5 and T6 caudal pedicles and 1 dog suffered from multiple cervical articular facet synovial cysts. PMID:15038422

  1. Neoplastic cauda equina syndrome: a neuroimaging-based review.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Shelby J; Katzman, Gregory L; Roos, Raymond P; Mehta, Amar S; Ali, Saad

    2016-02-01

    Cauda equina syndrome refers to dysfunction of the cauda equina, the collection of ventral and dorsal lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerve roots that surround the filum terminale. This most commonly occurs as a result of compression by a herniated lumbosacral disc. However, the syndrome may also complicate metastatic cancer or a primary neoplasm within or infiltrating the spinal canal. An accurate and timely diagnosis is critical to avoid irreversible loss of neurological function. The clinician and radiologist must therefore be aware of the many possible causes to guide timely management. Here we review the diverse neoplastic causes affecting the cauda equina nerve roots from a neuroimaging-based perspective. We divide them by location into intramedullary neoplasms at the conus (such as astrocytoma), intradural-extramedullary neoplasms (such as schwannoma and leptomeningeal metastases) and extradural neoplasms (such as spinal metastases from systemic neoplasms). We also discuss the clinical features associated with cauda equina tumours, with special focus on cauda equina syndrome. PMID:26442520

  2. Guidelines for genomic array analysis in acquired haematological neoplastic disorders.

    PubMed

    Schoumans, Jacqueline; Suela, Javier; Hastings, Ros; Muehlematter, Dominique; Rack, Katrina; van den Berg, Eva; Berna Beverloo, H; Stevens-Kroef, Marian

    2016-05-01

    Genetic profiling is important for disease evaluation and prediction of prognosis or responsiveness to therapy in neoplasia. Microarray technologies, including array comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-detecting arrays, have in recent years been introduced into the diagnostic setting for specific types of haematological malignancies and solid tumours. It can be used as a complementary test or depending on the neoplasia investigated, also as a standalone test. However, comprehensive and readable presentation of frequently identified complex genomic profiles remains challenging. To assist diagnostic laboratories, standardization and minimum criteria for clinical interpretation and reporting of acquired genomic abnormalities detected through arrays in neoplastic disorders are presented. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26774012

  3. Risk factors for neoplastic progression in Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Wiseman, Elizabeth F; Ang, Yeng S

    2011-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) confers a significant increased risk for development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), with the pathogenesis appearing to progress through a “metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma” (MDC) sequence. Many of the genetic insults driving this MDC sequence have recently been characterized, providing targets for candidate biomarkers with potential clinical utility to stratify risk in individual patients. Many clinical risk factors have been investigated, and associations with a variety of genetic, specific gastrointestinal and other modifiable factors have been proposed in the literature. This review summarizes the current understanding of the mechanisms involved in neoplastic progression of BE to EAC and critically appraises the relative roles and contributions of these putative risk factors from the published evidence currently available. PMID:21990948

  4. Differential Roles of ERα and ERβ in Normal and Neoplastic Development in the Mouse Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rajendra G.; Hawthorne, Michael; Mehta, Rajeshwari R.; Torres, Karen E. O.; Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L.; Kopelovich, Levy

    2014-01-01

    The present experiments were performed to determine the roles of estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) in normal and neoplastic development in the mouse mammary gland. In wild-type mice, in vivo administration of estradiol (E) + progesterone (P) stimulated mammary ductal growth and alveolar differentiation. Mammary glands from mice in which the ERβ gene has been deleted (βERKO mice) demonstrated normal ductal growth and differentiation in response to E + P. By contrast, mammary glands from mice in which the ERα gene has been deleted (αERKO mice) demonstrated only rudimentary ductal structures that did not differentiate in response to E + P. EGF demonstrates estrogen-like activity in the mammary glands of αERKO mice: treatment of αERKO mice with EGF + P (without E) supported normal mammary gland development, induced expression of progesterone receptor (PR), and increased levels of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR30) protein. Mammary gland development in βERKO mice treated with EGF + P was comparable to that of wild-type mice receiving EGF + P; EGF had no statistically significant effects on the induction of PR or expression of GPR30 in mammary glands harvested from either wild-type mice or βERKO mice. In vitro exposure of mammary glands to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced preneoplastic mammary alveolar lesions (MAL) in glands from wild-type mice and βERKO mice, but failed to induce MAL in mammary glands from αERKO mice. Microarray analysis of DMBA-treated mammary glands identified 28 functional pathways whose expression was significantly different in αERKO mice versus both βERKO and wild-type mice; key functions that were differentially expressed in αERKO mice included cell division, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The data demonstrate distinct roles for ERα and ERβ in normal and neoplastic development in the mouse mammary gland, and suggest that EGF can mimic the ERα-mediated effects of E in this organ. PMID:25405629

  5. CD44 and the adhesion of neoplastic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rudzki, Z; Jothy, S

    1997-01-01

    CD44 is a family of transmembrane glycoproteins that act mainly as a receptor for hyaluronan. It can also bind some other extracellular matrix ligands (chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate, fibronectin, serglycin, osteopontin) with lower affinity. CD44 is encoded by a single gene containing 20 exons, 10 of which (v1-v10) are variant exons inserted by alternative splicing. The standard, ubiquitously expressed isoform of CD44, does not contain sequences encoded by these variant exons. Numerous variant isoforms of CD44 containing different combinations of exons v1-v10 inserted into the extracellular domain can be expressed in proliferating epithelial cells and activated lymphocytes. CD44 plays a significant role in lymphocyte homing. Both alternative splicing and glycosylation influence receptor function of the molecule, usually reducing its affinity to hyaluronan. The cytoplasmic domain of CD44 communicates with the cytoskeleton via ankyrin and proteins belonging to the ezrin-moesin-radixin family. Relatively little is known about the intracellular events following interactions of CD44 with its ligands. Some variant isoforms, especially those containing sequences encoded by v6-v10, are overexpressed in both human and animal neoplasms. In a rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma model one of the variant CD44 isoforms was proved to be determinant in the metastatic process. For some human neoplasms (carcinomas of the digestive tract, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, thyroid carcinomas, and others) correlations have been made between the particular pattern of CD44 variants produced by neoplastic cells and clinicopathological parameters of tumours, such as grade, stage, presence of metastases, and survival. In vitro studies indicate that modifications of CD44 expression result in different ligand recognition and influence cell motility, invasive properties, and metastatic potential of experimental tumours. Investigation of CD44 neoexpression can be useful both in early cancer diagnosis

  6. Inhibition of neoplastic transformation and bioavailability of dietary flavonoid agents.

    PubMed

    Franke, A A; Cooney, R V; Custer, L J; Mordan, L J; Tanaka, Y

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of unknown biological effects of chemicals including food plant products requires the assessment of bioactivity and bioavailability. Epidemiologic studies show consistently a cancer protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption, but there is little understanding of which phytochemicals account for this observation. Commonly studied antioxidant micronutrients are less consistently correlated with cancer protection relative to the food groups themselves, suggesting that other phytochemicals or a combination of food products play key roles in preventing cancer. We investigated the effects of the predominant dietary flavonoids and isoflavonoids at inhibiting neoplastic transformation induced by 3-methylcholanthrene in C3H 10T1/2 murine fibroblasts. We found that most phenolic agents tested were equal to or superior to known chemopreventive agents such as carotenoids or vitamins in effectiveness. Hesperetin, hesperidin and catechin were the most potent agents among the flavonoids tested, inhibiting transformation completely when applied at 1.0 microM after exposure to the carcinogen. Structure-activity comparison revealed that among the compounds tested, flavonoids with a vicinal diphenol structure in ring 'B' and a saturated 'C' ring exhibited the strongest effects. Most agents tested showed dose-dependent patterns. Interestingly, the soy isoflavonoids were weakly active except when applied in combination, suggesting a synergistic effect. In addition, HPLC techniques were developed for determining the bioavailability of isoflavonoids in human biological fluids including urine, plasma and breast milk. We observed a relatively fast absorption, distribution and elimination of isoflavonoids including a biphasic pattern probably due to enterohepatic circulation. Total peak isoflavone levels in urine, plasma and in breast milk were found to be 60 microM, 2 microM and 0.2 microM, respectively and were reached 8-12 hours after consumption of soy foods. Levels

  7. Cervical spinal intradural arachnoid cysts in related, young pugs.

    PubMed

    Rohdin, C; Nyman, H T; Wohlsein, P; Hultin Jäderlund, K

    2014-04-01

    Seven related young pugs were diagnosed with cervical spinal intradural arachnoid cysts by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 6) and myelography (n = 1). All dogs were presented with skin abrasions on their thoracic limbs and non-painful neurological deficits, indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. In all six dogs examined by magnetic resonance imaging not only the spinal arachnoid cyst but also a concomitant, most likely secondary, syringohydromyelia was confirmed. Pedigree analysis suggested a genetic predisposition for spinal arachnoid cysts in this family of pugs. Generalised proprioceptive deficits more pronounced in the thoracic limbs suggesting a focal cervical spinal cord lesion, with concomitant skin abrasions on the dorsal aspect of the thoracic limbs in a young pug, should alert veterinarians to the possibility of cervical spinal arachnoid cysts. PMID:24372140

  8. Anterior spinal artery syndrome of the cervical hemicord.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, R W; Waespe, W

    1992-01-01

    Three patients developed signs of a unilateral cervical cord lesion 6 to 36 h after the acute onset of severe cervico-brachial pain. The neurological deficit progressed over 6 to 18 h. On the painful side a central Horner's syndrome, a hemiparesis with plegia of the hand, and a slight pallhypaesthesia were found. On the opposite side thermhypaesthesia and hypalgesia were noted with a level at the dermatome C5 or C6. T2-weighted MR images revealed in one patient a small area of increased signal intensity restricted to one half of the cervical cord, and electromyography in another patient showed after 6 months evidence of segmental chronic denervation. Both abnormalities were found at the clinically expected level. The findings are consistent with a small infarction of the cervical cord in the perfusion territory of a central (sulco-commissural) artery, a duplicated anterior spinal artery or an anterior spinal branch of the vertebral artery. PMID:1315578

  9. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  10. The degenerative cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Llopis, E; Belloch, E; León, J P; Higueras, V; Piquer, J

    2016-04-01

    Imaging techniques provide excellent anatomical images of the cervical spine. The choice to use one technique or another will depend on the clinical scenario and on the treatment options. Plain-film X-rays continue to be fundamental, because they make it possible to evaluate the alignment and bone changes; they are also useful for follow-up after treatment. The better contrast resolution provided by magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to evaluate the soft tissues, including the intervertebral discs, ligaments, bone marrow, and spinal cord. The role of computed tomography in the study of degenerative disease has changed in recent years owing to its great spatial resolution and its capacity to depict osseous components. In this article, we will review the anatomy and biomechanical characteristics of the cervical spine, and then we provide a more detailed discussion of the degenerative diseases that can affect the cervical spine and their clinical management. PMID:26878769

  11. Cervical cytology associated with levonorgestrel contraception.

    PubMed

    Misra, J S; Engineer, A D; Tandon, P

    1995-01-01

    Cytologic monitoring of cervical smears was carried out in 686 women receiving two modes of levonorgestrel contraception, one in the form of a subdermal implant and the other as an intrauterine device. The period of contraception with both delivery systems ranged from six months to five years. No case of malignant neoplasia was seen in any of the 44 subjects even after five years of continued levonorgestrel contraception. Preinsertion cytology revealed eight dysplastic smears (seven mild and one moderate); the lesions reverted to normal six months later and remained normal after one to four years of hormone use. A total of 19 dysplastic smears (18 mild and 1 moderate) were detected in the postinsertion smears collected after one to five years of contraception, giving an incidence of 2.8%, which was nonsignificant when compared with the control figure of 1.3%. Regression of the lesion to normal was observed in all 19 dysplasias on follow-up and in none did the dysplasia progress to a higher grade or frank malignancy. The incidence of dysplasia was more than twice as high with the intrauterine device as with the implant (4.9% vs. 2.1%). Hence, the implant appeared to be safe during five years of contraceptive use in terms of cervical pathology. However, longer follow-up of a large number of women is needed to reach a definitive conclusion. PMID:7847008

  12. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  13. [Muscle-tendon echography in acute cervical sprain traumas. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Martino, F; Ettorre, G C; Cafaro, E; Macarini, L; Bancale, R; Sion, E

    1992-03-01

    Acute cervical sprain traumas can be divided into simple and severe, depending on the presence of organic lesions which can be documented by conventional radiologic techniques. Persistent painful symptomatology of the nape and the precise localization of pain, led us to suspect the presence of organic lesions due to tearing of the neck muscles in 94 patients who had suffered a simple cervical sprain. To demonstrate these post-traumatic lesions, the patients were subjected to US examinations of both the nape and the muscles at the base of the neck. In 13 cases (13.8%) muscular tearing lesions were demonstrated, which were characterized by hypoechoic lacunae (6 cases), by hyperechoic stripes (5 cases), and by muscular hernia (1 case); in 1 case, partial disconnection of a muscular insertion was demonstrated. Thus, we believe muscle-tendon US to be a valuable technique for both diagnostic and nosologic purposes, for the method allows simple cervical sprain to be discriminated from sprains which are complicated by organic muscular lesions. We suggest that the cervical sprain traumas where a muscular lesion due to tearing can be demonstrated be defined as "complex" traumas. PMID:1579667

  14. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and myelography in 18 Doberman pinscher dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Ronaldo C; Parent, Joane; Dobson, Howard; Holmberg, David; Partlow, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Eighteen Doberman pinscher dogs with clinical signs of cervical spondylomyelopathy (wobbler syndrome) underwent cervical myelography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cervical myelography was performed using iohexol, followed by lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs. Traction myelography was performed using a cervical harness exerting 9 kg of linear traction. MR imaging was performed in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes using a 1.5 T magnet with the spine in neutral and traction positions. Three reviewers independently evaluated the myelographic and MR images to determine the most extensive lesion and whether the lesion was static or dynamic. All reviewers agreed with the location of the most extensive lesion on MR images (100%), while the agreement using myelography was 83%. The myelogram and MR imaging findings agreed in the identification of the affected site in 13-16 dogs depending on the reviewer. MR imaging provided additional information on lesion location because it allowed direct examination of the spinal cord diameter and parenchyma. Spinal cord signal changes were seen in 10 dogs. Depending on the reviewer, two to four dogs had their lesions classified as dynamic on myelography but static on MR images. Myelography markedly underscored the severity of the spinal cord compression in two dogs, and failed to identify the cause of the signs in another. The results of this study indicated that, although myelography can identify the location of the lesion in most patients, MR imaging appears to be more accurate in predicting the site, severity, and nature of the spinal cord compression. PMID:17153059

  15. First description of cervical intradural thymoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Colistra, Davide; Landi, Alessandro; Dugoni, Demo Eugenio; Delfini, Roberto

    2015-11-16

    Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are rare epithelial tumors, which originate from the thymus gland. According to the World Health Organization there are "organotypic" (types A, AB, B1, B2, and B3) and "non-organotypic" (thymic carcinomas) thymomas. Type B3 thymomas are aggressive tumors, which can metastasize. Due to the rarity of these lesions, only 7 cases of extradural metastasis are described in the literature. We report the first and unique case of a man with cervical intradural B3 thymoma metastasis. A 46-year-old man underwent thymoma surgical removal. The year after the procedure he was treated for a parietal pleura metastasis. In 2006 he underwent cervical-dorsal extradural metastasis removal and C5-Th1 stabilization. Seven years after he came to our observation complaining left cervicobrachialgia and a reduction of strength of the left arm. He underwent a cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a new lesion at the C5-C7 level. The patient underwent a surgery for the intradural B3 thymoma metastasis. Neurological symptoms improved although the removal was subtotal. He went through postoperative radiation therapy with further mass reduction. Spinal metastases are extremely rare. To date, only 7 cases of spinal extradural metastasis have been described in the literature. This is the first case of spinal intradural metastasis. Early individuation of these tumors and surgical treatment improve neurological outcome in patients with spinal cord compression. A multimodal treatment including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and postoperative radiation therapy seems to improve survival in patients with metastatic thymoma. PMID:26601098

  16. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27222318

  17. Association of Intrauterine Device (IUD) and Cervical Neoplasia - A Study in a Poor Nigerian Population

    PubMed Central

    Chigbu, Chibuike Ogwuegbu; Ozumba, Benjamin Chukwuma; Oguanuo, Theophilus Chimezie; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a contraceptive method used by women of reproductive age group. However, there are conflicting reports on the association between IUD and cervical neoplasia. These controversies may further hamper the poor uptake of modern contraception in Nigeria. Aim This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the association between IUD and cervical neoplasia. Materials and Methods This was a case control study in which Pap smear results of 156 participants on IUD were compared with those of 156 non-users of modern contraception. The participants who were found to have abnormal cervical smear cytology results were further subjected to colposcopy. Biopsy specimens for histology were collected from the participants with obvious cervical lesions or those with suspicious lesions on colposcopy. The results were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Results Seven (4.5%) and 2(1.3%) of participants using IUD had Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) 1 and CIN 2 respectively. Also, 5(3.2%) and 1(0.6%) of non-users of modern contraception had CIN 1 and CIN 2 respectively. The prevalence of cervical neoplasia among all the participants was 4.8%. Although, the proportion of women who had CIN was more among participants using IUD than non-users of modern contraception, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion There was no significant association between IUD and cervical neoplasia in this study. PMID:27504358

  18. The natural history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: an argument for intermediate endpoint biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M F; Hittelman, W N; Hong, W K; Lotan, R; Schottenfeld, D

    1994-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide and remains a significant health problem for women, especially minority women in the United States. Despite morbid and costly treatment with whole pelvic radiotherapy, radical surgery, and chemotherapy, the overall survival remains 40%. While the epidemiological risk factors are well known, little is known of the pathobiology of cervical carcinogenesis. Prevention of cervical cancer and its precursors is an important objective. New strategies, both clinical and laboratory based, are desperately needed. Cellular and molecular characteristics of the pathobiology of cervical cancer and its precursors need to be quantified, thereby providing insights into the multistep process of cervical carcinogenesis, identifying those precancerous lesions at high risk for progression to invasion, providing potential targets for intervention, and providing intermediate end point biomarkers for chemopreventive therapies. The premise for this strategy in cervical cancer prevention is that squamous cancers of the female genital tract have a well defined preinvasive stage, and that carcinogenesis is a multistep genetic process which involves increasing dysregulation of proliferation and differentiation as lesions progress from normal to human papillomavirus infected tissue to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia to cancer. PMID:7827594

  19. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Tirapazamine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  20. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  1. Respiratory neuroplasticity and cervical spinal cord injury: translational perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Michael A.; Fuller, David D.; White, Todd E.; Reier, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Paralysis of the diaphragm is a severe consequence of cervical spinal cord injury. This condition can be experimentally modeled by lateralized, high cervical lesions that interrupt descending inspiratory drive to the corresponding phrenic nucleus. Although partial recovery of ipsilateral diaphragm function occurs over time, recent findings show persisting chronic deficits in ventilation and phrenic motoneuron activity. Some evidence suggests, however, that spontaneous recovery can be enhanced by modulating neural pathways to phrenic motoneurons via synaptic circuitries which appear more complex than previously envisioned. The present review highlights these and other recent experimental multi-disciplinary findings pertaining to respiratory neuroplasticity in the rat. Translational considerations are also emphasized, with specific attention directed at the clinical and interpretational strengths of different lesion models and outcome measures. PMID:18775573

  2. Acute cervicitis and vulvovaginitis may be associated with Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Abou, Magali; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in immunocompetent hosts is generally asymptomatic or may present as a mononucleosic syndrome. Its association with acute cervicitis and vulvovaginitis has rarely been reported. A 24-year-old woman presented with pelvic pain, vulvodynia, abnormal vaginal discharge, burning with urination, fatigue, fever, vomiting and diarrhoea. The vulva and cervix were red with vesicular lesions on the cervix. Genital herpes simplex infection (HSV) was suspected and valacyclovir was given orally. However, serial viral cultures performed 7 weeks apart did not isolate HSV as suspected, but CMV was confirmed by immunofluorescence and early antigen research. Blood tests confirmed an acute CMV infection. Typical inclusions were found at histology. Symptoms resolved slowly with persistence of cervical lesions at 7 weeks from diagnosis. The frequency of CMV genital infection is probably underestimated. The infection is not always asymptomatic and might be confused with genital HSV infection. The clinical course is longer. PMID:23606387

  3. [Cervical spine osteochondroma presenting with torticollis and hemiparesis].

    PubMed

    Castro-Castro, Julián; Rodiño-Padín, Jon; Touceda-Bravo, Alberto; Castro-Bouzas, Daniel; Pinzón-Millán, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondromas are slow-growing benign bone tumors that are located frequently in the long bones. Approximately 1-4% of them occur in the spine. Solitary spinal osteochondromas may produce a wide variety of symptoms depending on their location and relationship to associated structures. We report a case of a 74-year old woman who was admitted to our hospital with complaints of progressive left hemibody weakness and cervicalgia. Neurological examination disclosed mild left-sided hemiparesis and left torticollis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an expansive lesion affecting the left C3-C4 facet joint. The patient underwent a posterior C3 and C4 hemilaminectomy, complete excision of the lesion and instrumented posterior cervical fixation. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteochondroma. After surgery her symptoms improved progressively with no neurological sequels. PMID:24139102

  4. Prognostic Impact of Reduced Connexin43 Expression and Gap Junction Coupling of Neoplastic Stromal Cells in Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Peter; Maros, Mate Elod; Barna, Gabor; Antal, Imre; Papp, Gergo; Sapi, Zoltan; Athanasou, Nicholas Anthony; Benassi, Maria Serena; Picci, Pierro; Krenacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Missense mutations of the GJA1 gene encoding the gap junction channel protein connexin43 (Cx43) cause bone malformations resulting in oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD), while GJA1 null and ODDD mutant mice develop osteopenia. In this study we investigated Cx43 expression and channel functions in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), a locally aggressive osteolytic lesion with uncertain progression. Cx43 protein levels assessed by immunohistochemistry were correlated with GCTB cell types, clinico-radiological stages and progression free survival in tissue microarrays of 89 primary and 34 recurrent GCTB cases. Cx43 expression, phosphorylation, subcellular distribution and gap junction coupling was also investigated and compared between cultured neoplastic GCTB stromal cells and bone marow stromal cells or HDFa fibroblasts as a control. In GCTB tissues, most Cx43 was produced by CD163 negative neoplastic stromal cells and less by CD163 positive reactive monocytes/macrophages or by giant cells. Significantly less Cx43 was detected in α-smooth muscle actin positive than α-smooth muscle actin negative stromal cells and in osteoclast-rich tumor nests than in the adjacent reactive stroma. Progressively reduced Cx43 production in GCTB was significantly linked to advanced clinico-radiological stages and worse progression free survival. In neoplastic GCTB stromal cell cultures most Cx43 protein was localized in the paranuclear-Golgi region, while it was concentrated in the cell membranes both in bone marrow stromal cells and HDFa fibroblasts. In Western blots, alkaline phosphatase sensitive bands, linked to serine residues (Ser369, Ser372 or Ser373) detected in control cells, were missing in GCTB stromal cells. Defective cell membrane localization of Cx43 channels was in line with the significantly reduced transfer of the 622 Da fluorescing calcein dye between GCTB stromal cells. Our results show that significant downregulation of Cx43 expression and gap junction coupling in

  5. In vitro and in vivo studies on potentiation of cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs or cobalt 60 gamma ray by interferon on human neoplastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Namba, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tanaka, H.; Kanamori, T.; Nobuhara, M.; Kimoto, T.

    1984-11-15

    A possibility that interferon may potentiate the cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs or /sup 60/Co gamma ray on human neoplastic cells was studied by in vitro and in vivo experimental procedures. The human neoplastic cells used were HeLa (uterine cervical cancer) and WI-38 CT-1 (embryonic lung fibroblasts transformed in culture by /sup 60/Co gamma ray) cells. As normal human cells, WI-38 cells were used. Interferon was a preparation of beta-type produced by human fibroblasts. The cytotoxicity was determined by colony formation for in vitro experiments and by tumor growth for animal experiments. Of 17 anticancer drugs, the cytotoxic effects of six drugs, namely, peplomycin, bleomycin, aclacinomycin, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and Adriamycin (doxorubicin) were potentiated by concomitant application of interferon. The cytolethal effects of /sup 60/Co gamma ray were also enhanced by interferon. The growth of tumor induced by transplantation of HeLa cells into a nude mouse was remarkably reduced by combination therapy of interferon and 5-FU. The current results indicate a possibility that combined therapy of certain types of anticancer drugs or /sup 60/Co gamma ray with interferon may be effective in treatment of cancer patients.

  6. Effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lateral cervical nonthyroid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Iacob, Alina; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Ormenişan, Alina; Mezei, Tibor; Sin, Anca; Tilinca, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Given that the clinical and radiological examinations of lateral cervical masses are not always sufficient for deciding on appropriate management, the cytological examination of the material obtained by fine-needle aspiration might be an efficient tool in the preoperative investigation of these lesions. In this prospective cross-sectional study we evaluated the efficacy and diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the assessment of lateral cervical nonthyroid tumors, by comparing its results with those of histopathology. A total of 58 patients with lateral cervical masses were included. Preoperative cytological results were compared with the histopathologic examination of surgical specimens. Both cytology and histology indicated that malignant tumors outnumbered benign lesions (62% vs 38%), with 88.9% of malignancies presenting in patients aged >50 years, but cytology was less effective at differentiating between benign and nontumor lesions. Cytology had 76.5% specificity and 78.1% sensitivity for identifying malignant lateral cervical lesions, and there was a concordance between the two diagnostic tests (McNemar test, P = 0.17, κ = 0.50, P <0.001). Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a simple, quick, and effective procedure that can aid in the preoperative evaluation of lateral cervical masses by differentiating benign tumors and inflammatory processes from malignancies and thus help in determining a subsequent therapeutic strategy. PMID:27495074

  7. Metastasis suppressors Nm23H1 and Nm23H2 differentially regulate neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yao; Yung, Lisa Y; Wong, Yung H

    2015-06-01

    Nm23H1 and H2 are prototypical metastasis suppressors with diverse functions, but recent studies suggest that they may also regulate tumorigenesis. Here, we employed both cellular and in vivo assays to examine the effect of Nm23H1 and H2 on tumorigenesis induced by oncogenic Ras and/or p53 deficiency. Co-expression of Nm23H1 but not H2 in NIH3T3 cells effectively suppressed neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis induced by the oncogenic H-Ras G12V mutant. Overexpression of Nm23H1 but not H2 also inhibited tumorigenesis by human cervical cancer HeLa cells with p53 deficiency. However, in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma H1299 cells harboring N-Ras Q61K oncogenic mutation and p53 deletion, overexpression of Nm23H1 did not affect tumorigenesis in nude mice assays, while overexpression of Nm23H2 enhanced tumor growth with elevated expression of the c-Myc proto-oncogene. Collectively, these results suggest that Nm23H1 and H2 have differential abilities to modulate tumorigenesis. PMID:25748386

  8. Cervical silicone lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Latoni Kaysha; Thiruchelvam, Janavikulam

    2016-07-01

    A patient presented to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery with a rare case of cervical silicone lymphadenopathy. She had a painless ovoid mass in the left side of her neck and had had cosmetic breast augmentation 10 years before. Radiological imaging and core biopsy examination were consistent with silicone lymphadenopathy. PMID:26830068

  9. Congenital Midline Cervical Cleft

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Glastonbury, Christine; Marcovici, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft is a rare anomaly that typically presents in the neonatal period as a thin suprasternal vertical band of erythematous skin with a nipple-like projection superiorly, which may exude fluid. We present the clinical and pathophysiologic features and the imaging findings of this uncommon, and rarely described entity in a newborn girl. PMID:25926928

  10. Diabetes and cervical myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Houten, John K; Lenart, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes may affect the typical physical findings associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, as coexisting diabetic neuropathy may dampen expected hyperreflexia and also produce non-dermatomal extremity numbness. Most large studies of surgically treated diabetic patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy have focused upon infection rates rather than exploring any differences in the presenting physical signs. We conducted a retrospective study of the pattern of presenting neurological signs and symptoms and of the clinical outcomes in 438 patients surgically treated for cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 79 of whom had diabetes. Compared with non-diabetic patients, those with diabetes were slightly older and had lower preoperative modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores. Those with diabetes also had a significantly higher incidence of hyporeflexia and a higher incidence of a positive Babinski sign, but there was no difference in the appearance of the Hoffman sign. The magnitude of mJOA improvement after surgery was comparable. We conclude that diabetes may alter the typical signs and symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and suggest that knowledge of the differences may aid in securing a prompt and accurate diagnosis. PMID:26747704

  11. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008-2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden. PMID:25987901

  12. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008–2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden. PMID:25987901

  13. Telmisartan prevents hepatic fibrosis and enzyme-altered lesions in liver cirrhosis rat induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Haiyan; Yamamoto, Naoki; Uchida, Koichi; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2007-12-28

    Rennin-angiotensin system is involved in liver fibrogenesis through activating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Telmisartan (Tel) is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, could function as a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} activator. Here we studied the effect of Tel on liver fibrosis, pre-neoplastic lesions in vivo and primary HSCs in vitro. In vivo study, we used the choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined (CDAA)-diet induced rat NASH model. The rats were fed the CDAA diet for 8 weeks to induce liver fibrosis and pre-neoplastic lesions, and then co-administrated with Tel for another 10 weeks. Tel prevented liver fibrogenesis and pre-neoplastic lesions by down-regulating TGF{beta}1 and TIMP-1, 2 and increasing MMP-13 expression. Tel inhibited HSCs activation and proliferation. These results suggested that Tel could be a promising drug for NASH related liver fibrosis.

  14. Cervical ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Cervical pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy and it represents <1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Early diagnosis and medical management with systemic or local administration of methotrexate is the treatment of choice. If the pregnancy is disturbed, it may lead to massive hemorrhage, which may require hysterectomy to save the patient. We report three cases of cervical pregnancy managed successfully with different approaches of management. Our first case, 28 years old G3P2L2 with previous two lower segment cesarean sections, presented with bleeding per vaginum following 6 weeks of amenorrhea. Clinical examination followed by transvaginal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of cervical pregnancy. Total abdominal hysterectomy was done in view of intractable bleeding to save the patient. The second case, a 26-year-old second gravida with previous normal vaginal delivery presented with pain abdomen and single episode of spotting per vaginum following 7 weeks of amenorrhea. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed empty endometrial cavity, closed internal os with gestational sac containing live fetus of 7 weeks gestational age in cervical canal and she was treated with intra-amniotic potassium chloride followed by systemic methotrexate. Follow up with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level revealed successful outcome. Our third case, a 27-year-old primigravida with history of infertility treatment admitted with complaints of bleeding per vaginum for 1 day following 8 weeks amenorrhea. She was diagnosed as cervical pregnancy by clinical examination, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography and subsequently managed by dilation and curettage with intracervical Foleys' ballon tamponade. PMID:25810679

  15. Discal cysts of the cervical spine in two dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung-Jae; Jung, Yechan; Park, Sangjun

    2015-01-01

    Discal cysts, which lie directly over intervertebral discs, are rare. Two old dogs with tetraparesis were referred to our facility. In both animals, magnetic resonance imaging revealed intraspinal extradural cystic mass lesions that were dorsal to degenerative intervertebral discs at the C3-C4 level. These lesions had low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. A ventral slot approach was used to perform surgical decompression, after which the symptoms improved remarkably. Discal cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with cervical pain and tetraparesis. One effective treatment for discal cysts is surgical intervention. PMID:26040615

  16. Expression and Prognostic Value of Aquaporin 1, 3 in Cervical Carcinoma in Women of Uygur Ethnicity from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Shi, Yonghua; Amiduo, Reshalaity; Tuokan, Talaf; Suzuk, Lalai

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of several aquaporins has been reported in different types of human cancer but the role of aquaporins in carcinogenesis has not yet been clearly defined. There is few report concerning role of aquaporins in human cervical carcinogenesis so far. Here, we determined the expression and prognostic value of aquaporin 1, 3 in cervical carcinoma in Chinese women of Uygur ethnicity. Methods and Results Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated aquaporin 1, 3 mRNA were differentially expressed in cervical carcinoma, CIN 2-3 and mild cervicitis. Immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated aquaporin 1 was predominantly localized to stromal endothelial cells in cervical lesions. Aquaporin 3 was localized to the membrane of normal squamous epithelium, CIN and carcinoma cells. Aquaporin 1 and 3 were upregulated in cervical cancer compared to mild cervicitis and CIN2-3 (P<0.05); Tumor expression of aquaporin 1, 3 significantly increased in advanced stage disease, and patients with deeper tumor infiltration, lymph node metastases or larger tumor volume (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that aquaporin 1, 3 were not independent prognostic factors in cervical carcinoma. Conclusion Aquaporins may participate in the initiation and progression of cervical carcinoma by promoting tumor growth, invasion or lymph node metastasis. Further study is required to determine whether aquaporins have potential as prognostic factors in cervical cancer. PMID:24918928

  17. Lateral hypothalamic lesions cause gastric injury by stimulating gastric contractility.

    PubMed

    Garrick, T; Grijalva, C V; Trauner, M

    1993-07-01

    Changes in gastric contractility following lateral hypothalamic (LH) lesions with and without bilateral cervical vagotomy were measured in urethan-anesthetized rats. LH lesions were induced with direct current passed through stereotaxically placed electrodes. Gastric contractility was recorded continuously for 4 h with acutely implanted strain gauge force transducers and analyzed by computer. LH lesions consistently stimulated gastric contractility and caused more gastric mucosal injury than control conditions. Vagotomy blocked both gastric mucosal injury and high-amplitude gastric contractions. In rats with LH lesions and exogenously infused intragastric hydrochloric acid, atropine methyl nitrate inhibited high-amplitude gastric contractions and gastric erosions. These findings indicate that LH lesions stimulate vagally mediated high-amplitude gastric contractions, which, in the presence of hydrochloric acid, cause gastric mucosal erosions. PMID:8338162

  18. The cervical spine in patients with psoriatic arthritis: a clinical, radiological and immunogenetic study.

    PubMed Central

    Salvarani, C; Macchioni, P; Cremonesi, T; Mantovani, W; Battistel, B; Rossi, F; Capozzoli, N; Baricchi, R; Portioli, I

    1992-01-01

    The radiological changes of the cervical spine were evaluated in 57 patients with psoriatic arthritis and were correlated with clinical, radiological, and immunogenetic features of the disease. Forty patients (70%) showed radiological evidence of the cervical spine being affected by the disease. Two patterns of cervical spine abnormalities were noted. Fifteen patients (26%) had erosive and/or subluxing cervical rheumatoid like lesions; 25 patients (44%) had a more frequently reported pattern similar to ankylosing spondylitis. Although subaxial subluxations were the most frequently observed cervical abnormalities (53%) in the inflammatory subgroup, none of the patients studied had cord compression. Ankylosing cervical spine disease was the only form of axial involvement in nine (36%) of 25 patients with the ankylosing form of psoriatic arthritis. All of these patients had peripheral disease and were B27 negative. Predictors of cervical spine disease patterns were considered using clinical, demographic, and radiological features and HLA antigens. The results of a multivariate analysis showed that the best predictors of inflammatory cervical spine disease are the presence of HLA-B39 and HLA-DR4 antigens, radiocarpal erosions, and the absence of the HLA-DR5 antigen. PMID:1540041

  19. Neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblast cells by chemical carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Kakunaga, Takeo

    1978-01-01

    Cultured fibroblast cells derived from a skin biopsy sample taken from normal human adult were exposed to a potent carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. Alterations of cell growth pattern such as higher density and piling up of cells were noticed in some fractions of cultures that were successively subcultured after nitroquinoline oxide treatment. Morphologically altered cells retained this growth pattern and became established lines of transformed cells without showing the limited life-span characteristic of normal cells in culture. The transformed cells showed a higher saturation density and the ability to grow in soft agar, properties that are usually correlated with neoplastic transformation of cells in culture. Selection of preexisting transformed human cells as a mechanism of this observed transformation seemed unlikely because clones of these normal cells could also be used to assess the transforming effect of nitroquinoline oxide. Preliminary results suggest that numerous cell divisions were required for the development of the transformation after nitroquinoline oxide treatment of these human cells. When the transformed cell lines were injected subcutaneously into nude (athymic) mice, solid tumors were produced at the site of inoculation. Treatment with N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine also induced cell transformation, in a manner similar to treatment with nitroquinoline oxide. However, transformation was not induced with (i) 4-aminoquinoline 1-oxide (a noncarcinogenic derivative of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide), (ii) 3-methylcholanthrene (a carcinogen that cannot be metabolically activated by the target cells employed), or (iii) the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide. Images PMID:418410

  20. The melanocyte differentiation program predisposes to metastasis following neoplastic transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Piyush B.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Brunet, Jean-Philippe; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gray, Joe W.; Naber, Stephen P.; Weinberg, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The aggressive clinical behavior of melanoma has led to the hypothesis that the developmental origins of melanocytes in the neural crest might be relevant for their metastatic propensity. We demonstrate that primary human melanocytes, transformed using a specific set of introduced genes, form melanomas that frequently metastasize to multiple secondary sites, while human fibroblasts and epithelial cells transformed using an identical set of genes generate primary tumors that rarely do so. Importantly, these melanomas exhibit a metastasis spectrum similar to that observed in human patients. These observations indicate that part of the metastatic proclivity of melanoma is attributable to lineage-specific factors expressed in melanocytes and not in other cell types analyzed. Analysis of microarray data from human nevi reveals that Slug, a master regulator of neural crest cell specification and migration, correlates in its expression pattern with other genes that are important for neural crest cell migrations during development. Moreover, Slug is required for the metastasis of the transformed melanoma cells. These findings indicate that melanocyte-specific factors present prior to neoplastic transformation can play a pivotal role in governing melanoma's progression. PMID:16142232

  1. Kinetic Modeling of Damage Repair, Genome Instability, and Neoplastic Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Robert D

    2007-03-17

    Inducible repair and pathway interactions may fundamentally alter the shape of dose-response curves because different mechanisms may be important under low- and high-dose exposure conditions. However, the significance of these phenomena for risk assessment purposes is an open question. This project developed new modeling tools to study the putative effects of DNA damage induction and repair on higher-level biological endpoints, including cell killing, neoplastic transformation and cancer. The project scope included (1) the development of new approaches to simulate the induction and base excision repair (BER) of DNA damage using Monte Carlo methods and (2) the integration of data from the Monte Carlo simulations with kinetic models for higher-level biological endpoints. Methods of calibrating and testing such multiscale biological simulations were developed. We also developed models to aid in the analysis and interpretation of data from experimental assays, such as the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) assay used to quantity the amount of DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation.

  2. Uroplakin Gene Expression by Normal and Neoplastic Human Urothelium

    PubMed Central

    Lobban, E. Dawn; Smith, Barbara A.; Hall, Geoffrey D.; Harnden, Patricia; Roberts, Paul; Selby, Peter J.; Trejdosiewicz, Ludwik K.; Southgate, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    cDNA sequences for human uroplakins UPIa, UPIb, UPII, and UPIII were cloned and used to investigate uroplakin transcription by normal and neoplastic urothelial cells. Normal urothelium expressed mRNA for all four uroplakins, although UPIII could be detected only by ribonuclease protection assay. By in situ hybridization, UPIa and UPII were confined to superficial cells and UPIb was also expressed by intermediate cells. Cultured normal human urothelial cells showed a proliferative basal/intermediate cell phenotype and constitutive expression of UPIb only. Uroplakin expression by transitional cell carcinoma cell lines was related to their differentiated phenotype in vitro. RT4 cells expressed all uroplakins, VM-CUB-3 expressed three uroplakins, RT112 and HT1376 cells expressed only UPIb in high abundance, and COLO232, KK47, and EJ cells had no detectable expression. These results correlated with patterns of uroplakin expression in tumors. UPIa and UPII were detected superficially only in well differentiated transitional cell carcinoma papillae. UPIb was positive in seven of nine and overexpressed in five of nine noninvasive transitional cell carcinomas and was also present in four of eight invasive transitional cell carcinomas. Lymph node metastases retained the same pattern of UPIb expression as the primary tumor. Unlike the three differentiation-regulated uroplakins, UPIb may have an alternative role in urothelial cell/tissue processes. PMID:9846985

  3. Uroplakin gene expression by normal and neoplastic human urothelium.

    PubMed

    Lobban, E D; Smith, B A; Hall, G D; Harnden, P; Roberts, P; Selby, P J; Trejdosiewicz, L K; Southgate, J

    1998-12-01

    cDNA sequences for human uroplakins UPIa, UPIb, UPII, and UPIII were cloned and used to investigate uroplakin transcription by normal and neoplastic urothelial cells. Normal urothelium expressed mRNA for all four uroplakins, although UPIII could be detected only by ribonuclease protection assay. By in situ hybridization, UPIa and UPII were confined to superficial cells and UPIb was also expressed by intermediate cells. Cultured normal human urothelial cells showed a proliferative basal/intermediate cell phenotype and constitutive expression of UPIb only. Uroplakin expression by transitional cell carcinoma cell lines was related to their differentiated phenotype in vitro. RT4 cells expressed all uroplakins, VM-CUB-3 expressed three uroplakins, RT112 and HT1376 cells expressed only UPIb in high abundance, and COLO232, KK47, and EJ cells had no detectable expression. These results correlated with patterns of uroplakin expression in tumors. UPIa and UPII were detected superficially only in well differentiated transitional cell carcinoma papillae. UPIb was positive in seven of nine and overexpressed in five of nine noninvasive transitional cell carcinomas and was also present in four of eight invasive transitional cell carcinomas. Lymph node metastases retained the same pattern of UPIb expression as the primary tumor. Unlike the three differentiation-regulated uroplakins, UPIb may have an alternative role in urothelial cell/tissue processes. PMID:9846985

  4. Basal-cell keratins in cervical reserve cells and a comparison to their expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Smedts, F.; Ramaekers, F.; Troyanovsky, S.; Pruszczynski, M.; Robben, H.; Lane, B.; Leigh, I.; Plantema, F.; Vooijs, P.

    1992-01-01

    Expression of keratins 5, 14 and 17 in endocervical subcolumnar reserve cells was detected by means of immunohistochemical studies using polypeptide specific monoclonal antibodies. These particular keratins that were found among others in basal cells could also be detected to a variable extent in metaplastic and dysplastic cervical lesions. In some cases of immature squamous metaplasia all three keratin subtypes were expressed throughout the full thickness of the epithelium. In contrast, in mature squamous metaplasia a compartmentalization of these keratins was observed. Mature squamous metaplastic epithelium showed a keratin distribution pattern comparable to ectocervical squamous epithelium, with the exception of keratin 17, which was only sporadically found in the basal layer of ectocervical epithelium and was always present in the basal cells of mature squamous metaplastic epithelium. During progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia a clear increase in the expression of keratin 17 was observed. However, also keratins 5 and 14 were expressed. Our results demonstrate that a considerable number of premalignant lesions of the uterine cervix express the same keratins as found in the progenitor reserve cells. Lesions that lack expression of keratin 17 may form a distinct group, which are regressive in nature and do not progress into cervical cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1372156

  5. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  6. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  7. Immunolocalization and gene expression of oxytocin receptors in carcinomas and non-neoplastic tissues of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    Bussolati, G.; Cassoni, P.; Ghisolfi, G.; Negro, F.; Sapino, A.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that oxytocin (OT), in addition to the induction of myometrial and myoepithelial cell contraction, can influence proliferation and differentiation in developing mammary glands and in breast cancer cells, hence the interest in detecting and locating OT receptors (OTRs). We produced rabbit antisera and a monoclonal antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxy terminus of the predicted OTR sequence. We tested their specificity in immunoblasts and immunocytochemical tests. All of the antibodies specifically stained myometrium (at term of pregnancy). In the human breast, OTRs were detected in myoepithelial cells along ducts of normal lobules and in sclerosing adenosis. Intraductal cells in benign hyperplastic lesions were also positive. OTRs were demonstrated in cases of primary and metastatic carcinomas of the breast. In the same tissues, OTR gene expression was shown by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction procedures detecting the specific mRNA. These results suggest that the interaction between OT and its receptors might play a role in the origin and evolution of non-neoplastic lesions and carcinomas of the breast. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8669475

  8. Management of cervical cancer and surgical-pathological staging (SPS). Report of our clinical case series.

    PubMed

    Onnis, A; Marchetti, M; Maggino, T; Cascio, A; Cerri, G; Dipasquale, C; Meneghello, E; Romagnolo, C; Rozzo, M L

    1988-01-01

    FIGO staging is imprecise in a relevant number of cases of cervical cancer, especially in advanced stages, when the prognosis and the choice of the therapy are most delicate. The Authors examine their case series about the index of correction of FIGO staging after Surgical Pathological Staging (SPS). Surgical Pathological Staging was applied systematically in 788 cases and revealed errors in FIGO staging in 16% of cases at stage I; 77% at stage II; and 96% at stage III. SPS allows a more precise knowledge of neoplastic diffusion and consequently to the elimination of many false advanced stages and to adequate the treatment. Furthermore 5 year survival rate confirms the role of SPS and Surgical therapy alone or combined with Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy in every stages of diffusion of cervical cancer. PMID:3383889

  9. Identification of DNA methylation of SOX9 in cervical cancer using methylated-CpG island recovery assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Hong; Liang, Xue-Ai; Wu, Yu-Mei; Li, Feng-Shuang; Dai, Yin-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify novel methylation markers for cervical cancer screening and to test the clinical application of the most promising biomarker in cervical scrapings. Methylated-CpG island recovery assay-based microarray analysis was carried out on a discovery set consisting of cervical cancer tissue and normal cervical tissue to identify significantly hypermethylated genes. Five hundred and four CpG islands, corresponding to 378 genes, were differentially methylated between cervical cancer tissue and normal cervical tissue. Among them, 30 genes were significantly hypermethylated. Of the 30 genes, SOX9, PKLR and DLX4 were selected for further validation by direct bisulfite sequencing. The SOX9 gene revealed complete methylation in the cervical cancer tissue and complete non-methylation in the normal control tissue. A TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay was performed to detect the methylation levels of the SOX9 gene in 156 cervical scrapings, including 48 normal cervical scrapings, 30 scrapings with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN1), 30 scrapings with CIN2-3 and 48 scrapings with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The methylation levels (methylation score) of the SOX9 gene increased significantly with the severity of cervical squamous lesions. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) revealed that the methylation score of the SOX9 gene could be used to segregate SCC/CIN2-3 from CIN1/normal (AUC, 0.961; p=0.000). At the optimal cut-off value, a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 89.7% were obtained. In conclusion, SOX9 methylation is frequently involved in cervical carcinogenesis, and may provide a valuable molecular biomarker for early detection of cervical cancer. PMID:23064448

  10. Adenocarcinoma of the cervical stump

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, H.M.; Niloff, J.M.; Buttlar, C.A.; Welch, W.R.; Marck, A.; Feuer, E.J.; Lahman, E.A.; Jenison, E.; Knapp, R.C. )

    1989-11-01

    Sixteen women with adenocarcinoma of the cervical stump were treated over a 15-year period. The median survivals of 40 months for stage IB and 17 months for stages II and III were significantly worse compared with those for patients treated for cervical adenocarcinoma of the intact uterus or squamous carcinoma of the cervical stump. The poor results were due to both local and distant failure. Implications regarding tumor radiosensitivity and adjuvant therapy in these high-risk patients are discussed.

  11. The cervical spine: radiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Mink, Jerrold H; Gordon, Rachael E; Deutsch, Andrew L

    2003-08-01

    This article provides an essential curriculum in cervical spine radiology. It discusses the uses of plain radiographs, MR imaging, computed tomography (CT), and CT myelography, in addition to the methodologies of discography, epidural injections under visualization, and facet and nerve root injections. It explains how radiographic images of the cervical spine can differentiate tumors, inflammation, recent or prior trauma, and the range of discal, arthritic, neural, and vascular cervical pathologies and, just as importantly, when they cannot. PMID:12948340

  12. Degenerative cervical myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Kato, So; Fehlings, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Cervical myelopathy is the most common cause of acquired spinal cord compromise. The concept of degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), defined as symptomatic myelopathy associated with degenerative arthropathic changes in the spine axis, is being introduced. Given its progressive nature, treatment options have to be chosen in a timely manner. Surgical options include anterior discectomy and fusion (ACDF), anterior corpectomy and fusion (ACCF), arthroplasty (in highly select cases), posterior laminectomy with/without fusion, and laminoplasty. Indications for each should be carefully considered in individual patients. Riluzole, a sodium-glutamate antagonist, is a promising option to optimize neurologic outcomes post-surgery and is being examined in the CSM-Protect Randomized Controlled Trial. Preoperative risk assessment is mandatory for prognostication. Sagittal alignment is known to play an important role to optimize surgical outcome. Guidelines for optimal management of DCM are in process. In principle, all but the mildest cases of DCM should be offered surgery for optimal outcome. PMID:27250040

  13. [Cervical disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Hoffmann, C-H; Kandziora, F

    2012-12-01

    The cervical disc herniation is characterized by prolapsed nucleus pulposus material through the annulus into the spinal canal. The local mechanical or chemical irritation of neural structures typically leads to symptoms of radiculopathy, cervicocephalgia or myelopathy. Pronounced sensorimotor deficits or intractable pain constitute surgical treatment. In all other cases conservative treatment is indicated, including pain medication, active and passive physiotherapy, and local injections, respectively. Anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion (ACDF) is still the surgical treatment of choice. Predominantly, cages with or without plates are in use to obtain solid fusion. The implantation of a total disc replacement is a viable alternative, if no contraindications exist. Other surgical techniques may be performed in proper selected cases. The overall clinical and radiological results of both surgical and conservative treatment are good. PMID:23296562

  14. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. PMID:26162490

  15. Preinduction cervical ripening.

    PubMed

    Thiery, M

    1983-01-01

    This work reviews the evolution of cervical ripening procedures and discusses the most effective current techniques. Current knowledge of the process of spontaneous ripening of the cervix is briefly assessed, but the review concentrates on methodological aspects and the clinical results of preinduction cervical ripening. The historical development of mechanical and pharmacologic ripening procedures is examined, including enzymes, oxytocin, relaxin, corticosteriods, estrogens administered parenterally or locally, and prostaglandins (PGs) administered intravenously, orally, locally, and intravaginally. 3 effective procedures for preinduction cervical ripening are identified and described in greater detail: the catheter technique and local and vaginal administration of PGs. The extraamniotic catheter technique is simple, effective, and safe and is recommended for patients with not totally unripe cervixes and for whom PGs are unavailable or contraindicated. Single-dose extraamniotic instillation of PGE2 in Tylose gel was found to be highly effective for priming the unfavorable cervix before conventional labor induction. In some patients the procedure induces labor. The technique is easy to use, well accepted by the woman, and safe when applied appropriately to carefully selected patients. PGF2alpha gel has been less thoroughly studied. Electronic monitoring at the ripening stage is recommended for patients at risk, and even in low-risk cases much larger series will require study before conclusions can be reached about safety. Injection of PG gel into the cervical canal is less invasive than extraamniotic instillation, but no definite conclusions about its safety are possible due to small series and dissimilar clinical protocols. Pericervical administration of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and intracervical and intraamniotic tablets of PGE2 are briefly assessed. Adoption of the intravaginal route has been a major step in the development of ripening techniques. 3 types of media

  16. Congenital midline cervical cleft.

    PubMed

    Agag, Richard; Sacks, Justin; Silver, Lester

    2007-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare disorder of the ventral neck that is clinically evident at birth and must be differentiated from the more common thyroglossal duct cyst. The case of CMCC presented here was associated with chromosomes 13/14 de novo Robertsonian translocations as well as midline deformities including a sacral tuft and a minor tongue-tie. The case is presented as well as discussion of histopathology, embryology, and surgical treatment. PMID:17214531

  17. Cervical spondylosis. An update.

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, B M; Weinstein, P R

    1996-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is caused by degenerative disc disease and usually produces intermittent neck pain in middle-aged and elderly patients. This pain usually responds to activity modification, neck immobilization, isometric exercises, and medication. Neurologic symptoms occur infrequently, usually in patients with congenital spinal stenosis. For these patients, magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred initial diagnostic study. Because involvement of neurologic structures on imaging studies may be asymptomatic, consultation with a neurologist is advised to rule out other neurologic diseases. In most cases of spondylotic radiculopathy, the results of conservative treatment are so favorable that surgical intervention is not considered unless pain persists or unless there is progressive neurologic deficit. If indicated, a surgical procedure may be done through the anterior or posterior cervical spine; results are gratifying, with long-term improvement in 70% to 80% of patients. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is the most serious and disabling condition of this disease. Because many patients have nonprogressive minor impairment, neck immobilization is a reasonable treatment in patients presenting with minor neurologic findings or in whom an operation is contraindicated. This simple remedy will result in improvement in 30% to 50% of patients. Surgical intervention is indicated for patients presenting with severe or progressive neurologic deficits. Anterior cervical approaches are generally preferred, although there are still indications for laminectomy. Surgical results are modest, with good initial results expected in about 70% of patients. Functional outcome noticeably declines with long-term follow-up, which raises the question of whether, and how much, surgical treatment affects the natural course of the disease. Prospective randomized studies are needed to answer these questions. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8855684

  18. [Pediatric orthopedic cervical spine problems].

    PubMed

    Helenius, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    Treatment-requiring diseases of the cervical spine in children are rare. The most common cases requiring medical assessment and treatment are acute torticollis and various accidents. A torticollis having lasted for more than a week should be recognized, because it can be treated by skull traction. Cervical spine fractures in children under school age are very rare, the most common being a fracture of the base of the dens of the second cervical vertebra. Cervical spine instability is almost always associated with an underlying disease. PMID:27400588

  19. Osteotomies in the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Nemani, Venu M.; Derman, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Rigid cervical deformities are difficult problems to treat. The goals of surgical treatment include deformity correction, achieving a rigid fusion, and performing a thorough neural decompression. In stiff and ankylosed cervical spines, osteotomies are required to restore sagittal and coronal balance. In this chapter, we describe the clinical and radiographic workup for patients with cervical deformities, and delineate the various factors that must be considered when planning surgical treatment. We also describe in detail the various types of cervical osteotomies, along with their surgical technique, advantages, and potential complications. PMID:26949476

  20. PNA: a marker of neoplastic progression and differentiation in the gastro-intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Grigolato, P; Benetti, A; Berenzi, A; Villanacci, V; Tardanico, R

    1990-01-01

    We examined 35 cases of stomach carcinoma and 40 cases of colonic carcinoma with PNA associated with peroxidase (peanut agglutinin, lectin which binds to the terminal disaccharide galactose beta (1,3)-N-acetil-galacto-samine). In this way evaluation of the functional aspects of the normal-neoplastic sequence was undertaken. This method was carried out for histological and ultrastructural investigations. The results obtained in both cases showed a different reactivity in the evolution of neoplastic disease: in fact, positivity in dysplasia is finely granular intracytoplasmic, whereas in well-differentiated neoplastic transformation such a reactivity is preferentially localized along the cellular membranes, with restoration of gross positivity in the cytoplasm for the poorly-differentiated neoplasm. We therefore believe PNA to be a marker not only of neoplastic progression but of differentiation as well: we also hypothesize it to reveal glycoprotein groups with possible antigenic power, involved in immunologic interactions between tumor and host. PMID:2283482

  1. Relationship of Chromosome Changes to Neoplastic Cell Transformation

    PubMed Central

    DiPaolo, Joseph A.; Popescu, Nicolae C.

    1976-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a frequent concomitant of neoplasia, and although it is tempting to relate these mutations and alterations in chromatin (DNA) function to cancer, their relationship to the initiation or progression of carcinogenesis is unknown. Mammalian cells in culture, after interacting with chemical carcinogens, often exhibit chromosome damage consisting of breaks and exchanges of chromatid material. The pattern of damage of banded metaphases indicates that negative bands are especially vulnerable to the action of chemical carcinogens, probably because of differential chromatin condensation. Damage to individual chromosomes may be random or nonrandom, depending on the species. Cell death can be correlated with chromatid alterations that occur shortly after treatment with chemical carcinogens. There is also a correlation between mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of some chemical carcinogens and the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. The question of whether specific chromosome changes are absolutely required for neoplastic transformation cannot be answered because of conflicting data and diverse results from studies even with known carcinogens. Cell transformation may occur without any visible chromosome changes. A universal specific numerical or visible structural chromosomal alteration is not necessarily associated with chemical or viral transformation. Chromosome changes are independent of the etiologic agents: different carcinogens may produce transformation associated with the same abnormal chromosomes, but not all transformed lines invariably exhibit the same abnormality, even with the same chemical. In some species, chromosome having nucleolar organizer regions may be more frequently involved in numerical or structural deviations. Progressively growing tumors also may occur as a result of the proliferation of transformed cells without detectable chromosome changes, indicating that tumorigenicity need not be related to an imbalance of

  2. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase distribution in neoplastic and hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M F; Coleman, M S; Hutton, J J; Lampkin, B; Krill, C; Bolium, F J; Holland, P

    1977-05-01

    In the present study, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase was examined in the peripheral blood and (or) bone marrow of 115 children with a variety of neoplastic, hematologic, and other unrelated disorders. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase activity was present at 4.08+/-0.74 U/108 cells in 23 morphologicall normal bone marrow samples from childhood controls. Terminal transferase was present at greater than 23 U/108 nucleated cells and at greater than31 U/108 blasts in the bone marrow of all children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia studied at initial diagnosis and at disease relapse. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase was detectable at low levels, less than 7.5 U/108 cells, in all remission marrow smaples. Bone marrow terminal transferase activity was markedly elevated in all untreated acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, whereas low levels which were difficult to interpret were present in the peripheral blood samples of two patients at diagnosis and six patients at relapse who had low absolute lymphoblast counts. Because of greater variation in the lymphoblast content of peripheral blood, bone marrow assays are more reliable in detecting disease activity. Marrow terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase values obtained during the active phase of acute lymphoblastic leukemia were significantly greater than those found in other types of leukemia, bone marrow malignancies, and hematologic disorders. Terminal transferase determinations in blast cells of two patients with leukemic conversion of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and in tumor cells from one patient with Burkitt's lymphoma were within the control range. These dat further define the usefulness of terminal deoxynucleotidyltrnasferase assay in the differentiation and classication of hematologic malignancies. PMID:265945

  3. Immunohistochemical characterization of neoplastic cells of breast origin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Tumors of unknown origin account for 5-15% of malignant neoplasms, with 1.5% being breast cancer. An immunohistochemical panel with conventional and newer markers, such as mammaglobin, was selected for the detection of neoplastic cells of breast origin. The specific objectives are: 1) to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the panel, with a special emphasis on the inclusion of the mammaglobin marker, and 2) to compare immunohistochemistry performed on whole tissue sections and on Tissue Micro-Array. Methods Twenty-nine metastatic breast tumors were included and assumed as tumors of unknown origin. Other 48 biopsies of diverse tissues were selected and assumed as negative controls. Tissue Micro-Array was performed. Immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and cytokeratin 7 was done. Results Mammaglobin positive staining was observed in 10/29 cases, in 13/29 cases for gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, in 20/29 cases for estrogen receptor, in 9/29 cases for progesterone receptor, and in 25/29 cases for cytokeratin 7. Among the negative controls, mammaglobin was positive in 2/48, and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 in 4/48. Conclusions The inclusion of MAG antibody in the immunohistochemical panel for the detection of tumors of unknown origin contributed to the detection of metastasis of breast cancer. The diagnostic strategy with the highest positive predictive value (88%) included hormone receptors and mammaglobin in serial manner. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1366310812718988 PMID:22726568

  4. Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro

    SciTech Connect

    John Leslie Redpath

    2012-05-01

    This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

  5. Neoplastic cell transformation by high-LET radiation - Molecular mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Mei, Man-Tong

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative data were collected on dose-response curves of cultured mouse-embryo cells (C3H10T1/2) irradiated with heavy ions of various charges and energies. Results suggests that two breaks formed on DNA within 80 A may cause cell transformation and that two DNA breaks formed within 20 A may be lethal. From results of experiments with restriction enzymes which produce DNA damages at specific sites, it was found that DNA double strand breaks are important primary lesions for radiogenic cell transformation and that blunt-ended double-strand breaks can form lethal as well as transformational damages due to misrepair or incomplete repair in the cell. The RBE-LET relationship for high-LET radiation is similar to that for HGPRT locus mutation, chromosomal deletion, and cell transformation, indicating that common lesions may be involved in these radiation effects.

  6. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug Toxicity; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening Program by Visual Inspection: Acceptability and Feasibility in Health Insurance Companies

    PubMed Central

    Horo, Apollinaire G.; Didi-Kouko Coulibaly, Judith; Koffi, Abdoul; Tchounga, Boris; Seni, Konan; Aka, Kacou Edèle; Kone, Mamourou

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess willingness to participate and diagnostic accuracy of visual inspection for early detection of cervical neoplasia among women in a health insurance company. Patients and Method. Cervical cancer screening was systematically proposed to 800 women after consecutive information and awareness sessions. The screening method was visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) or Lugol's iodine (VILI). Results. Among the 800 identified women, 640 (82%) have accepted the screening, their mean age was 39 years, and 12.0% of them were involved in a polygamist couple. 28.2% of women had prior cervical screening. VIA has been detected positive in 5.9% of women versus 8.6% for VILI. The sensitivity was 72.9% and specificity was 95.2% for VIA versus 71.2% and 97.3% for VILI respectively. The histological examination highlighted a nonspecific chronic cervicitis in 4.6%, CIN1 lesions in 5.91%, and CIN2/3 in 1.2% of the cases. Conclusion. Cervical cancer screening by visual inspection showed appropriate diagnostic accuracy when used to detect early cervical lesions. It is a simple and easy to perform method that could be introduced progressively in the health insurance policy while waiting for a national screening program. PMID:26167178

  8. [Cervical infection epidemiology of human papillomavirus in Ushuaia, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Sijvarger, C C; González, J V; Prieto, A; Messmer, A G; Mallimaci, M C; Alonio, V L; Teyssié, A R; Picconi, M A

    2006-01-01

    Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is decisive in the causation of cervical cancer. In order to evaluate the epidemiology of HPV infection in Ushuaia, Province of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 132 endocervical cytobrushes from preneoplastic and neoplastic cases and controls were studied. Detection and typing of the viral genome was performed by polymerase chain reaction, combined with a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay or hybridization. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 41% in the population examined, with a frequency of 26% in the controls and 71% in the cases under study. The 14-24 age group showed the highest HPV prevalence. The most common viral types in the infected population were HPV 16 (23%), HPV 18 (11%), HPV 33 (8%) and HPV 35 (8%), while high risk viral types were detected in 30% of the samples, 16% of the controls and 60% of the cases. This study provides the first data on the predominant viral types in Ushuaia. Our results show lower levels of infection than in regions with a high incidence of cervical cancer, HPV 16 being the most prevalent viral type. This research may be useful for selecting a specific vaccine targeting the population examined. PMID:16784128

  9. Impact of tissue type and content of neoplastic cells of samples on the quality of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation analysis among patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    PALIOGIANNIS, PANAGIOTIS; ATTENE, FEDERICO; COSSU, ANTONIO; DEFRAIA, EFISIO; PORCU, GIUSEPPE; CARTA, ANNAMARIA; SOTGIU, MARIA IGNAZIA; PAZZOLA, ANTONIO; CORDERO, LORENZO; CAPELLI, FRANCESCA; FADDA, GIOVANNI MARIA; ORTU, SALVATORE; SOTGIU, GIOVANNI; PALOMBA, GRAZIA; SINI, MARIA CRISTINA; PALMIERI, GIUSEPPE; COLOMBINO, MARIA

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational status has become crucial in recent years in the molecular classification of patients with lung cancer. The impact of the type and quantity of malignant cells of the neoplastic specimen on the quality of mutation analysis remains to be elucidated, and only empirical and sporadic data are available. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of tissue type and content of neoplastic cells in the specimen on the quality of EGFR mutation analysis among patients with lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 515 patients with histologically-confirmed disease were included in the present study. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples were used for the mutation analysis and the content of the neoplastic cells was evaluated using light microscopy. Genomic DNA was isolated using a standard protocol. The coding sequences and splice junctions of exons 18, 19 and 21 in the EGFR gene were then screened for mutations by direct automated sequencing. The mean age of the patients examined was 64.9 years and 357 (69.3%) were male. A total of 429 tissue samples (83.3%) were obtained by biopsy and the remaining samples were obtained by surgery. A total of 456 samples (88.5%) were observed from primary lung adenocarcinomas, while 59 (11.5%) were from metastatic lesions. EGFR mutations occurred in 59 cases (11.5%); exon 18 mutations were detected in one case (1.7%), whereas exon 19 and 21 mutations were detected in 30 (51%) and 28 (47.3%) cases, respectively. EGFR mutations were more frequent in females and patients that had never smoked. The distribution of the mutations among primary and metastatic tissues exhibited no significant differences in the proportions of EGFR mutations detected. However, a statistically significant difference in the number of mutations detected was found between samples with at least 50% of neoplastic cells (450 cases-57 mutations; 12.7%) and those with <50% of neoplastic

  10. Anaplastic extramedullary cervical ependymoma with leptomeningeal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Pomeraniec, I J; Dallapiazza, R F; Sumner, H M; Lopes, M B; Shaffrey, C I; Smith, J S

    2015-12-01

    We present a rare extramedullary ependymoma with diffuse spinal metastatic disease, and review the previous reports of extramedullary spinal ependymomas. Ependymomas are the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumor in adults. These tumors rarely present as extramedullary masses. We treated a 23-year-old man with a history of progressive neck, shoulder and arm pain, with sensory and motor symptoms in the C7 dermatome. MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated a ventral contrast-enhancing lesion with evidence of enhancement along the dura and spinal cord of the upper cervical spine, thoracic spine, and cauda equina. He underwent a tumor debulking procedure without complications. Following surgery, he received craniospinal radiation to treat the remaining tumor and diffuse leptomeningeal disease. The final pathology of the tumor revealed that is was a World Health Organization Grade III anaplastic ependymoma. At the 1 year follow-up, the patient had stable imaging and had returned to his preoperative functional status. Of the 19 reported patients with primary intradural, extramedullary spinal ependymomas, two had extradural components and seven had anaplastic grades. Only one tumor with an anaplastic grade resulted in metastatic disease, but without spinal recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intradural, extramedullary spinal ependymoma with an anaplastic grade, presenting with concomitant diffuse, nodular leptomeningeal metastasis involving the upper cervical spine, thoracic spine, conus medullaris, and cauda equina. Similar to the treatment of intramedullary ependymomas with metastasis, this patient underwent an aggressive debulking procedure followed by radiation therapy to the entire neuroaxis. PMID:26601808

  11. Molecular Mechanism and Potential Targets for Blocking HPV-Induced Lesion Development

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Olea, E.; Bermúdez-Morales, V. H.; Peralta-Zaragoza, O.; Torres-Poveda, K.; Madrid-Marina, V.

    2012-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is the etiologic agent associated with the development of cervical cancer (CC) development. However, environmental, social, epidemiological, genetic, and host factors may have a joint influence on the risk of disease progression. Cervical lesions caused by HPV infection can be removed naturally by the host immune response and only a small percentage may progress to cancer; thus, the immune response is essential for the control of precursor lesions and CC. We present a review of recent research on the molecular mechanisms that allow HPV-infected cells to evade immune surveillance and potential targets of molecular therapy to inhibit tumor immune escape. PMID:22220169

  12. Molecular Mechanism and Potential Targets for Blocking HPV-Induced Lesion Development.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Olea, E; Bermúdez-Morales, V H; Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Torres-Poveda, K; Madrid-Marina, V

    2012-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is the etiologic agent associated with the development of cervical cancer (CC) development. However, environmental, social, epidemiological, genetic, and host factors may have a joint influence on the risk of disease progression. Cervical lesions caused by HPV infection can be removed naturally by the host immune response and only a small percentage may progress to cancer; thus, the immune response is essential for the control of precursor lesions and CC. We present a review of recent research on the molecular mechanisms that allow HPV-infected cells to evade immune surveillance and potential targets of molecular therapy to inhibit tumor immune escape. PMID:22220169

  13. STAT3/IRF1 Pathway Activation Sensitizes Cervical Cancer Cells to Chemotherapeutic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Walch-Rückheim, Barbara; Pahne-Zeppenfeld, Jennifer; Fischbach, Jil; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Horn, Lars Christian; Tharun, Lars; Büttner, Reinhard; Mallmann, Peter; Stern, Peter; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Bohle, Rainer Maria; Rübe, Christian; Ströder, Russalina; Juhasz-Böss, Ingolf; Solomayer, Erich-Franz; Smola, Sigrun

    2016-07-01

    Neoadjuvant radio/chemotherapy regimens can markedly improve cervical cancer outcome in a subset of patients, while other patients show poor responses, but may encounter severe adverse effects. Thus, there is a strong need for predictive biomarkers to improve clinical management of cervical cancer patients. STAT3 is considered as a critical antiapoptotic factor in various malignancies. We therefore investigated STAT3 activation during cervical carcinogenesis and its impact on the response of cervical cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3 increased from low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1) to precancerous CIN3 lesions. Notably, pTyr705-STAT3 activation significantly declined from CIN3 to invasive cancer, also when compared in the same clinical biopsy. pTyr705-STAT3 was also low or absent in cultured human cervical cancer cell lines, consistent with the in vivo expression data. Unexpectedly, IL6-type cytokine signaling inducing STAT3 activation rendered cervical cancer cells significantly more susceptible to chemotherapeutic drugs, that is, cisplatin or etoposide. This chemosensitization was STAT3-dependent and we identified IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) as the STAT3-inducible mediator required for cell death enhancement. In line with these data, pTyr705-STAT3 significantly correlated with nuclear IRF1 expression in cervical cancer in vivo Importantly, high IRF1 expression in pretreatment cervical cancer biopsy cells was associated with a significantly better response to neoadjuvant radio/chemotherapy of the patients. In summary, our study has identified a key role of the STAT3/IRF1 pathway for chemosensitization in cervical cancer. Our results suggest that pretherapeutic IRF1 expression should be evaluated as a novel predictive biomarker for neoadjuvant radio/chemotherapy responses. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3872-83. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27216197

  14. Diagnostic Value of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Compared with Stereotactic Biopsy of Intra-axial Brain Lesions.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Osama; Eshra, Mohamed; Belal, Ahmed; Elshafei, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Background Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is usually added to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to refine the diagnosis of different brain lesions. Stereotactic brain biopsy is a well-established method to obtain tissues for histopathologic examination. The purpose of the study is to compare the diagnostic yields of MRS and stereotactic biopsy in the characterization of brain lesions. Material and Methods A prospective study conducted on 27 consecutive patients presenting with multifocal, diffuse, as well as deeply seated intra-axial brain lesions. All patients had both brain MRI and MRS prior to stereotactic biopsy. Histopathologic examinations of the obtained tissue specimens, using appropriate stains including immunostains, were performed. Results MRS diagnosed neoplastic brain lesions in 15 cases (56%) and nonneoplastic brain lesions in 12 (44%). Correlation between the preoperative diagnosis by MRS and the histopathologic diagnosis following stereotactic biopsy of either a neoplastic or nonneoplastic lesion revealed matching in 25 of 27 cases (sensitivity 88%; specificity 100%). Within the group of cases (n = 15) diagnosed preoperatively by MRS as neoplastic, 12 patients were diagnosed with brain gliomas of different grades. The MRS grading of gliomas exactly matched the histopathologic grading following stereotactic biopsy in 10 of the 12 cases (sensitivity 89%; specificity 67%). Conclusions MRS is a useful addition to the management armamentarium, providing molecular information that assists in the characterization of various brain lesions. Multivoxel MRS may increase the diagnostic yield of stereotactic biopsy by guidance to target the higher choline and lower N-acetylaspartate areas, expected to have greater tumor activity. PMID:26935295

  15. A clinical syndrome of rostral and caudal spinal injury: neurological, neurophysiological and urodynamic evidence for occult sacral lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Berić, A; Dimitrijević, M R; Light, J K

    1987-01-01

    Patients with spinal cord injury show upper motor neuron dysfunction below the level of the lesion. Some patients with cervical and high thoracic injuries show unexpected lower leg atrophy and ankle jerk abnormalities together with persistence of urinary retention. Clinical, neurophysiological and urodynamic findings in 130 patients with cervical and thoracic injuries showed that 18 patients had additional lumbosacral dysfunction. Three patients had radiological findings demonstrating a second lesion of the lower spine. The remaining 15 patients, however, did not have any obvious bony lesion to account for the lumbosacral dysfunction. Atypical neurological findings, abnormal neurophysiological testing and aberrant detrusor behaviour were the essence of the occult lumbosacral dysfunction in cervical and thoracic spinal cord injury patients. Recognition of the presence of a double lesion was important for care of the neuropathic bladder and pain in addition to understanding the unexpected clinical signs. Images PMID:3585385

  16. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  17. Keratin expression in cervical cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Smedts, F.; Ramaekers, F.; Troyanovsky, S.; Pruszczynski, M.; Link, M.; Lane, B.; Leigh, I.; Schijf, C.; Vooijs, P.

    1992-01-01

    Using a panel of 21 monoclonal and 2 polyclonal keratin antibodies, capable of detecting separately 11 subtypes of their epithelial intermediate filament proteins at the single cell level, we investigated keratin expression in 16 squamous cell carcinomas, 9 adenocarcinomas, and 3 adenosquamous carcinomas of the human uterine cervix. The keratin phenotype of the keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma was found to be most complex comprising keratins 4, 5, 6, 8, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, and usually keratin 10. The nonkeratinizing variety of the squamous cell carcinoma expressed keratins 6, 14, 17, and 19 in all cases, usually 4, 5, 7, 8, and 18, and sometimes keratins 10, 13, and 16. Adenocarcinomas displayed a less complex keratin expression pattern comprising keratins 7, 8, 17, 18, and 19, while keratin 14 was often present and keratins 4, 5, 10 and 13 were sporadically found in individual cells in a few cases. These keratin phenotypes may be useful in differential diagnostic considerations when distinguishing between keratinizing and nonkeratinizing carcinomas (using keratin 10, 13, and 16 antibodies), and also in the distinction between nonkeratinizing carcinomas and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, which do not express keratins 5 and 6. Keratin 17 may also be useful in distinguishing carcinomas of the cervix from those of the colon and also from mesotheliomas. Furthermore the presence of keratin 17 in a CIN I, II, or III lesion may indicate progressive potential while its absence could be indicative of a regressive behavior. Because most carcinomas express keratins 8, 14, 17, 18, and 19, we propose that this expression pattern reflects the origin of cervical cancer from a common progenitor cell, i.e., the endocervical reserve cell that has been shown to express keratins 5, 8, 14, 17, 18, and 19. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1379783

  18. Use of Myometrium as an Internal Reference for Endometrial and Cervical Cancer on Multiphase Contrast-Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Ni; Liao, Yu-San; Chen, Wen-Chang; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Lee, Li-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background Myometrial smooth muscle is normally within the field of view for the gynecological imaging. This study aimed to investigate the use of normal myometrium as an internal reference for endometrial and cervical cancer during multiphase contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MCE-MRI) and to explore whether this information regarding tumor enhancement relative to the myometrium could be used to discriminate between endometrial and cervical cancer. Methods MRI images, before and after contrast enhancement, were analyzed in newly diagnosed cervical (n = 18) and endometrial cancer (n = 19) patients. Signal intensities (SIs) from tumor tissue and non-neoplastic myometrium were measured using imaging software. Results The relative signal for cervical cancer was approximately 30% higher than that of endometrial cancer after contrast administration. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for SI, relative signal enhancement, and tumor to myometrium contrast ratio (as used to discriminate between cervical cancer and endometrial cancer) was 0.7807, 0.7456 and 0.7895, respectively. There was no difference in SI of the normal myometrium between endometrial and cervical cancer patients prior to and after contrast administration. Using non-tumorous myometrium as an internal reference, the tumor to myometrium contrast ratio was significantly higher in tumor tissue from cervical cancer compared with that from endometrial cancer at 25 s post contrast enhancement (p = 0.0016), with an optimal sensitivity of 72.22% and specificity of 84.21%. Conclusion With SI normalized to baseline or normal myometrium, tumor tissue from cervical cancer patients showed significant hyperintensity compared with that of tumor tissue from endometrial cancer patients after contrast enhancement, yielding acceptable performance. The use of the myometrium as an internal reference may provide an alternative method to analyze MCE-MRI data. PMID:27326456

  19. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; Leite, Marieli F. M.; Trujillo, Jose R.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors, especially in Gynecology. The photodynamic reaction is based on the production of reactive oxygen species after the activation of a photosensitizer. Advantages of the PDT in comparison to the surgical resection are: ambulatory treatment and tissue recovery highly satisfactory, through a non-invasive procedure. The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I and II presents potential indications for PDT. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PDT for the diagnostics and treatment of CIN I and II. The equipment and the photosensitizer are produced in Brazil with a representative low cost. It is possible to visualize the fluorescence of the cervix and to treat the lesions, without side effects. The proposed clinical protocol shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  20. Paravertebral high cervical chordoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Elefante, A; Caranci, F; Del Basso De Caro, M L; Peca, C; Guadagno, E; Severino, R; Mariniello, G; Maiuri, F

    2013-04-01

    Spinal chordomas are more often located on the midline and are associated with marked destruction of the vertebral bodies. We report a rare case of large cervical (C2-C3) right lateral paravertebral chordoma extending into the spinal canal through a very enlarged intervertebral foramen. The tumor was initially diagnosed as a mucous adenocarcinoma on a percutaneous needle biopsy. However, the neuroradiological features, including the well-defined tumor margins, the regular and sclerosing lytic bone changes with regular enlargement of the intervertebral C2-C3 foramen, were in favor of a more slowly growing lesion, such as schwannoma or neurofibroma. At surgery a well-demarcated capsulated tumor involving the nerve root was partially resected. Histology was in favor of a low-grade chordoma (Ki-67/MIB-1<1%). Postoperative proton beam therapy was also performed. The differential neuroradiological diagnosis is discussed. PMID:23859247

  1. Traumatic anterior cervical pseudomeningocele causing intracranial hypotension successfully treated with blood patch: case report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Edwin A; Eckel, Laurence J; Diehn, Felix E; Schwartz, Kara M; Hunt, Christopher H; Daniels, David J

    2015-09-01

    Cervical pseudomeningocele is a rare complication of trauma. It develops when an extradural collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) develops after a dural breach. The authors present the unusual case of a 33-year-old man with progressive headache, neck pain, mental status changes, and cardiopulmonary instability after polytrauma sustained from a motorcycle-versus-deer collision, without improvement during a 5-day hospitalization. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a collection of CSF anterior to the cervical thecal sac compatible with an anterior cervical pseudomeningocele. A nontargeted epidural blood patch was performed with subsequent resolution of the patient's symptoms. Anterior cervical pseudomeningoceles are usually asymptomatic; however, these lesions can cause orthostatic headaches, neck pain, and cardiopulmonary compromise, as it did in the featured patient. Pseudomeningoceles should be included in the differential diagnosis for posttrauma patients with progressive neurological decline or postural headache, and blood patch may be an effective minimally invasive treatment. PMID:26023899

  2. Cervical Spine pain as a presenting complaint in metastatic pancreatic cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Emily; Buchtel, Lindsey

    2016-04-01

    A 48 year-old female presented to her primary care physician with a two-month history of neck pain with negative cervical spine x-rays. During that office visit, the patient was noted to be tachycardic with EKG revealing ST depressions, which led to hospital admission. Acute coronary syndrome was ruled out, however, persistent neck pain warranted inpatient MRI of the cervical spine, which revealed a cervical spine lesion. Extensive investigation and biopsy ultimately confirmed stage IV pancreatic adenocarcinoma with metastases to the bone, liver, and likely lung. In the literature, the findings of a primary metastatic site being bone is rare with only a few case reports showing vertebral or sternal metastasis as the first clinical manifestation of pancreatic cancer. The uniqueness of this case lies in the only presenting complaint being cervical spine pain in the setting of extensive metastases to the liver, bone, and likely lung. PMID:26890294

  3. Guidelines of the Italian Society for Virology on HPV testing and vaccination for cervical cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Barzon, Luisa; Giorgi, Colomba; Buonaguro, Franco M; Palù, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide guidelines for health-care providers on strategies for cervical cancer prevention based on HPV testing and anti-HPV vaccination. Outcomes Overall efficacy of different preventive strategies, assessing reduction in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. Evidence Medline and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles in English on subjects related to HPVs, HPV diagnosis, HPV anogenital lesions, cervical cancer, HPV testing, and HPV vaccines, in order to elaborate an up-dated document. Relevant Italian Government publications and position papers from appropriate health and family planning organizations were also reviewed. Values The quality of the evidence and ranking of recommendations for practice were rated using criteria defined by SIV, which were adapted from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. PMID:19087272

  4. [Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: case report].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Gutiérrez, Mario H; Sánchez-Corona, José; García-Ortiz, José E; Castañeda-Cisneros, Gema; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Nory O; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; García-Cruz, Diana

    2016-10-01

    The non-syndromic anterior cervical hypertrichosis (OMIM N° 600457) is a genetic disorder characterized by a patch of hair at the level of the laryngeal prominence. We present a 12-year-old boy with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and mild generalized hypertrichosis. He has no neurological, ophthalmological or skeletal anomalies. The clinical follow up is 10 years. PMID:27606653

  5. Late prevertebral abscess with sinus following anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion.

    PubMed

    Bhise, Swapnil D; Mathesul, Ambarish A; Deokate, Pravin; Chandanwale, Ajay S; Bartakke, Girish D

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy/corpectomy and fusion is performed in degenerative, traumatic and neoplastic etiologies of the cervical spine. This procedure is highly successful and associated with fewer complications. The rates of early and late postoperative infection have been reported to be between 0.1% and 1.6%, the late infections are being very rare. We report a rare case of a 30-year-old HIV negative, non-diabetic male who developed a late prevertebral cervical abscess with discharging sinus over posterior triangle of neck 3 years after an anterior cervical C6 corpectomy with fibular grafting and buttress screw fixation performed elsewhere for traumatic fracture C6 vertebra. The abscess was drained using radical neck dissection approach with complete excision of sinus track and removal of the infected implant. On culture, the organism was found to be beta-hemolytic streptococci, for which appropriate antibiotics were administered postoperatively. The sinus tract completely healed in 3 months time. Late infection as a complication of anterior cervical spine surgeries is rare and is associated with esophageal perforation, implant migration, seeding of the deep prevertebral space with oropharyngeal flora, or from surgical site/bacteremia or with Zenker's diverticulum. Few cases have been reported till date, but none have presented with a sinus tract. We present a case of delayed prevertebral abscess after cervical spine instrumentation that followed abnormal path causing sinus track to be developed in the site (the posterior triangle of the neck) other than previous incision site. Exploring both triangles of the neck using radical neck dissection approach was essential for complete excision of sinus track, removal of screw and debridement. PMID:26396628

  6. Late prevertebral abscess with sinus following anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Swapnil D.; Mathesul, Ambarish A.; Deokate, Pravin; Chandanwale, Ajay S.; Bartakke, Girish D.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy/corpectomy and fusion is performed in degenerative, traumatic and neoplastic etiologies of the cervical spine. This procedure is highly successful and associated with fewer complications. The rates of early and late postoperative infection have been reported to be between 0.1% and 1.6%, the late infections are being very rare. We report a rare case of a 30-year-old HIV negative, non-diabetic male who developed a late prevertebral cervical abscess with discharging sinus over posterior triangle of neck 3 years after an anterior cervical C6 corpectomy with fibular grafting and buttress screw fixation performed elsewhere for traumatic fracture C6 vertebra. The abscess was drained using radical neck dissection approach with complete excision of sinus track and removal of the infected implant. On culture, the organism was found to be beta-hemolytic streptococci, for which appropriate antibiotics were administered postoperatively. The sinus tract completely healed in 3 months time. Late infection as a complication of anterior cervical spine surgeries is rare and is associated with esophageal perforation, implant migration, seeding of the deep prevertebral space with oropharyngeal flora, or from surgical site/bacteremia or with Zenker's diverticulum. Few cases have been reported till date, but none have presented with a sinus tract. We present a case of delayed prevertebral abscess after cervical spine instrumentation that followed abnormal path causing sinus track to be developed in the site (the posterior triangle of the neck) other than previous incision site. Exploring both triangles of the neck using radical neck dissection approach was essential for complete excision of sinus track, removal of screw and debridement. PMID:26396628

  7. Recovery of uncommon bacteria from blood: association with neoplastic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, J L; Koneman, E W

    1995-01-01

    bloodstream infections of Salmonella typhimurium and Capno-cytophaga canimorsus in Hodgkin's disease patients seems likely due to a particular mechanism which infection by these species is favored. The specific nature of these mechanisms remains to be determined. The recovery of any unusual bacterium from blood should warrant a careful consideration of the possibility of underlying disease, especially cancer. Microbiologists should advise clinicians of the unusual nature of the identified organism and provide the counsel that certain neoplastic processes, often accompanied by neutropenia, render the human host susceptible to invasion by almost any bacterium. The recovery of such organisms as C. septicum or S. bovis should prompt the clinician to aggressively seek to identify an occult neoplasm if one has not yet been diagnosed. PMID:7553569

  8. Rupture of Cervical Esophagus From Blunt Trauma With Concomitant Fracture Dislocation of C4-C5 Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Makoyo, P. Ziki

    1979-01-01

    A patient is presented who had sustained a high posterior cervical esophageal laceration (secondary to an automobile accident) with concomitant fracture of the C4 - C5 spine. It was treated by Gulbrandson conversional method. To the author's knowledge, this represents the first recorded rupture of the cervical esophagus associated with high cord lesions as a result of blunt trauma to the neck. PMID:448756

  9. Familial congenital anterior cervical hypertrichosis associated with peripheral sensory and motor neuropathy--a new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Trattner, A; Hodak, E; Sagie-Lerman, T; David, M; Nitzan, M; Garty, B Z

    1991-11-01

    We present three patients with familial congenital hypertrichosis localized to the anterior cervical region, associated with peripheral sensory and motor neuropathy. This association may represent a new neurocutaneous syndrome. The association of anterior midline cutaneous lesions with an underlying malformation is discussed. PMID:1666396

  10. In vivo Diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Using 337-nm- Excited Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanujam, N.; Mitchell, M. F.; Mahadevan, A.; Warren, S.; Thomsen, S.; Silva, E.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1994-10-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence at 337-nm excitation was used in vivo to differentiate neoplastic [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)], nonneoplastic abnormal (inflammation and human papilloma viral infection), and normal cervical tissues. A colposcope (low-magnification microscope used to view the cervix with reflected light) was used to identify 66 normal and 49 abnormal (5 inflammation, 21 human papilloma virus infection, and 23 CIN) sites on the cervix in 28 patients. These sites were then interrogated spectroscopically. A two-stage algorithm was developed to diagnose CIN. The first stage differentiated histologically abnormal tissues from colposcopically normal tissues with a sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 92%, 90%, and 88%, respectively. The second stage differentiated preneoplastic and neoplastic tissues from nonneoplastic abnormal tissues with a sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 87%, 73%, and 74%, respectively. Spectroscopic differences were consistent with a decrease in the absolute contribution of collagen fluorescence, an increase in the absolute contribution of oxyhemoglobin attenuation, and an increase in the relative contribution of reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] fluorescence as tissue progresses from normal to abnormal in the same patient. These results suggest that in vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix can be used to diagnose CIN at colposcopy.

  11. Characterization of Molecular Markers Indicative of Cervical Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Arnouk, Hilal; Merkley, Mark A.; Podolsky, Robert H.; Stöppler, Hubert; Santos, Carlos; Álvarez, Manuel; Mariategui, Julio; Ferris, Daron; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Dynan, William S.

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer originates with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and progresses via histologically-defined premalignant stages. Here we compare normal cervical epithelium and patient-matched high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) with cervical carcinoma tissue from the same patient population (n=10 per group). Specimens were analyzed by combined laser capture microdissection and 2D-DIGE. Significant expression changes were seen with 53 spots resulting in identification of 23 unique proteins at the molecular level. These include eight that uniquely distinguish normal epithelium and HSIL and four that uniquely distinguish HSIL and carcinoma. In addition, one protein, cornulin, distinguishes all three states. Other identified proteins included differentiation markers, oncogene DJ-1, serpins, stress and interferon-responsive proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and serum transporters. A literature review, performed for all identified proteins, allowed most changes to be assigned to one of three causes: direct or indirect HPV oncoprotein interactions, growth selection during latency, or interactions in the lesion microenvironment. Selected findings were confirmed by immunohistochemistry using either frozen sections from the same cohort or formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples from a tissue microarray. Novel markers described here have potential applications for increasing the predictive value of current screening methods. PMID:19834583

  12. Therapeutic vaccines against human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Cid-Arregui, Angel

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer and its precursor intra-epithelial lesions are linked to infection by a subset of so-called "highrisk" human papillomavirus types, which are estimated to infect nearly four hundred million women worldwide. Two prophylactic vaccines have been commercialized recently targeting HPV16 and 18, the most prevalent viral types found in cervical cancer, which operate through induction of capsid-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, in patients with persistent infection these vaccines have not been found to protect against progression to neoplasia. Attempts are being made to develop therapeutic vaccines targeting nonstructural early viral proteins. Among these, E6 and E7 are the preferred targets, since they are essential for induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype and are constitutively expressed by the transformed epithelial cells. Here are reviewed the most relevant potential vaccines based on HPV early antigens that have shown efficacy in preclinical models and that are being tested in clinical studies, which should determine their therapeutic capacity for eradicating HPV-induced premalignant and malignant lesions and cure cervical cancer. PMID:19915722

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging in the cervical spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Song, Ting; Chen, Wen-Jun; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Hong-Pu; Huang, Jian-Wei; Cai, Ming-Jin; Dong, Tian-Fa; Li, Tang-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    There are discrepancy between MR findings and clinical presentations. The compressed cervical cord in patients of the spondylotic myelopathy may be normal on conventional MRI when it is at the earlier stage or even if patients had severe symptoms. Therefore, it is necessary to take a developed MR technique--diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)--to detect the intramedullary lesions. Prospective MR and DTI were performed in 53 patients with cervical compressive myelopathy and twenty healthy volunteers. DTI was performed along six non-collinear directions with single-shot spin echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence. Intramedullary apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured in four segments (C2/3, C3/4, C4/5, C5/6) for volunteers, in lesions (or the compressed cord) and normal cord for patients. DTI original images were processed to produce color DTI maps. In the volunteers' group, cervical cord exhibited blue on the color DTI map. FA values between four segments had a significant difference (P < 0.01), with the highest FA value (0.85 ± 0.03) at C2/3 level. However, ADC value between them had no significant difference (P > 0.05). For patients, only 24 cases showed hyperintense on T2-weighted image, while 39 cases shown patchy green signal on color DTI maps. ADC and FA values between lesions or the compressed cord and normal spinal cord of patients had a significant difference (both P < 0.01). FA value at C2/3 cord is the highest of other segments and it gradually decreases towards the caudal direction. Using single-shot spin echo EPI sequence and six non-collinear diffusion directions with b value of 400 s mm(-2), DTI can clearly show the intramedullary microstructure and more lesions than conventional MRI. PMID:20938788

  14. Examination of Genetic Alterations in Preneoplastic and Neoplastic Lesions of the Lung From Uranium Miners. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Marshall

    2000-07-12

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the United States and in Western Europe. The incidence of lung cancer in developing countries is rising as their cigarette smoking habits increase. The objectives of this proposed research are to analyze genetic alterations associated with the development and progression on non-small cell lung carcinoma (MSCLC). Endpoints that may be realized from this proposed research are: (1) detection of early genetic and/or cellular alterations which ultimately could lead to diagnostic modalities for the early detection of lung cancer; and (2) detection of novel tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 9p. This proposal will analyze both tumor specimens and sputum samples.

  15. Fluorescence spectroscopy to discriminate neoplastic human brain lesions: a study using the spectral intensity ratio and multivariate linear discriminant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazeer, Shaiju S.; Saraswathy, Ariya; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jayasree, Ramapurath S.

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is an emerging tool used to differentiate normal and malignant tissue based on the emission spectral profile from endogenous fluorophores. The goal of this study is to estimate the concentration of fluorophores using autofluorescence spectroscopy and try to utilize its diagnostic potential on samples of clinical importance. Brain tumor tissues from patients who received craniotomy for the removal of astrocytoma, glioma, meningioma and schwannoma were utilized in this study. Fluorescence emissions of the formalin fixed samples were recorded at excitation wavelengths of 320 and 410 nm. The emission characteristics of fluorophores such as collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), phospholipids and porphyrins of tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue were elicited. Exact tissue classification was carried out using the spectral intensity ratio (SIR) and multivariate principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA). The diagnostic algorithm based on PCA-LDA provided better classification efficiency than SIR. Moreover, the spectral data based on an excitation wavelength of 410 nm are found to be more efficient in the classification than 320 nm excitation, using PCA-LDA. Better efficacy of PCA-LDA in tissue classification was further confirmed by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve method. The results of this study establish the feasibility of using fluorescence spectroscopy based real time tools for the discrimination of brain tumors from the adjacent normal tissue during craniotomies, which at present faces a huge challenge.

  16. Molecular changes associated with chronic liver damage and neoplastic lesions in a murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1.

    PubMed

    Angileri, Francesca; Roy, Vincent; Morrow, Geneviève; Scoazec, Jean Yves; Gadot, Nicolas; Orejuela, Diana; Tanguay, Robert M

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is the most severe inherited metabolic disease of the tyrosine catabolic pathway, with a progressive hepatic and renal injury and a fatal outcome if untreated. Toxic metabolites accumulating in HT1 have been shown to elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, and to induce chromosomal instability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis perturbation. Although many studies have concentrated on elucidating these events, the molecular pathways responsible for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still remain unclear. In this study the fah knockout murine model (fah(-/-)) was used to investigate the cellular signaling implicated in the pathogenesis of HT1. Fah(-/-) mice were subjected to drug therapy discontinuation (Nitisinone withdrawal), and livers were analyzed at different stages of the disease. Monitoring of mice revealed an increasing degeneration of the overall physiological conditions following drug withdrawal. Histological analysis unveiled diffuse hepatocellular damage, steatosis, oval-like cells proliferation and development of liver cell adenomas. Immunoblotting results revealed a progressive and chronic activation of stress pathways related to cell survival and proliferation, including several stress regulators such as Nrf2, eIF2α, CHOP, HO-1, and some members of the MAPK signaling cascade. Impairment of stress defensive mechanisms was also shown by microarray analysis in fah(-/-) mice following prolonged therapy interruption. These results suggest that a sustained activation of stress pathways in the chronic HT1 progression might play a central role in exacerbating liver degeneration. PMID:26360553

  17. Effect of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical cancer screening in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong; Bell, Christopher; Sun, Maggie; Kliewer, Gordon; Xu, Linan; McInerney, Maria; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Yang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Background: A school-based program with quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was implemented in Alberta in 2008. We assessed the impact of this program on Pap test cytology results using databases of province-wide vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study involving a cohort of women in Alberta born between 1994 and 1997 who had at least 1 Pap test between 2012 and 2015. Women with negative cytology results were controls. Women with low-grade (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and high-grade (atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out a high-grade lesion; or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) cervical abnormalities were cases. Exposure status was assigned according to records of HPV vaccination. Odds ratios (ORs) for abnormal cytology results by vaccination status were adjusted for neighbourhood income, laboratory service, rural versus urban residency, and age. Results: The total study population was 10 204. Adjusting for age, vaccinated women had a higher screening rate than unvaccinated women (13.0% v. 11.4%, p < 0.001). Among women who received full vaccination (≥ 3 doses), the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.82). For high-grade lesions, the adjusted OR was 0.50 (95% CI 0.30–0.85). With 2-dose HPV vaccination, the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 1.08 (95% CI 0.84–1.38). Interpretation: Quadrivalent HPV vaccination significantly reduced high-grade cervical abnormalities but required 3 doses. Vaccination against HPV was associated with screening uptake. Population-based vaccination and screening programs should work together to optimize cervical cancer prevention. PMID:27378467

  18. Radiotherapy of Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Curative-intent radical radiotherapy of cervical cancer consists of external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and concomitant chemotherapy with cisplatin. For each element, new developments aim to improve tumor control rates or treatment tolerance. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been shown to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity and can be used to selectively increase the radiotherapy dose. Individualized, image-guided brachytherapy enables better adaptation of high-dose volumes to the tumor extension. Intensification of concomitant or sequential systemic therapy is under evaluation. PMID:27614991

  19. Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy: Indications, Technique, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dodwad, Shah-Jahan M; Dodwad, Shah-Nawaz M; Prasarn, Mark L; Savage, Jason W; Patel, Alpesh A; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-06-01

    Cervical radiculopathy presents with upper extremity pain, decreased sensation, and decreased strength caused by irritation of specific nerve root(s). After failure of conservative management, surgical options include anterior cervical decompression and fusion, disk arthroplasty, and posterior cervical foraminotomy. In this review, we discuss indications, techniques, and outcomes of posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy. PMID:27187617

  20. Historical Analysis of the Brazilian Cervical Cancer Screening Program from 2006 to 2013: A Time for Reflection

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Pinheiro, Céline; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Fregnani, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Background The Cervical Cancer Database of the Brazilian National Health Service (SISCOLO) contains information regarding all cervical cytological tests and, if properly explored, can be used as a tool for monitoring and managing the cervical cancer screening program. The aim of this study was to perform a historical analysis of the cervical cancer screening program in Brazil from 2006 to 2013. Material and Methods The data necessary to calculate quality indicators were obtained from the SISCOLO, a Brazilian health system tool. Joinpoint analysis was used to calculate the annual percentage change. Results We observed important trends showing decreased rates of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and an increased rate of rejected exams from 2009 to 2013. The index of positivity was maintained at levels below those indicated by international standards; very low frequencies of unsatisfactory cases were observed over the study period, which partially contradicts the low rate of positive cases. The number of positive cytological diagnoses was below that expected, considering that developed countries with low frequencies of cervical cancer detect more lesions annually. Conclusions The evolution of indicators from 2006 to 2013 suggests that actions must be taken to improve the effectiveness of cervical cancer control in Brazil. PMID:26402737

  1. Role of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in local immunosuppression in HPV-associated cervical neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Bahena-Román, Margarita; Madrid-González, Claudia; Burguete-García, Ana I; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor Hugo; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a worldwide disease that constitutes a significant public health problem, especially in developing countries, not only due to its high incidence but also because the most affected population comprises women who belong to marginalized socio-economic classes. Clinical and molecular research has identified immunological impairment in squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions and cervical cancer patients. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has several mechanisms for avoiding the immune system: it down-regulates the expression of interferon and upregulates interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 to produce a local immunosuppressive environment, which, along with altered tumor surface antigens, forms an immunosuppressive network that inhibits the antitumor immune response. In this review we analyzed the available data on several deregulated cellular immune functions in patients with NIC I, NIC II and NIC III and cervical cancer. The effects of immunosuppressive cytokines on innate immune response, T-cell activation and cellular factors that promote tumor cell proliferation in cervical cancer patients are summarized. We discuss the functional consequences of HPV E2, E6, and E7 protein interactions with IL-10 and TGF-β1 promoters in the induction of these cytokines and postulate its effect on the cellular immune response in squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions and cervical cancer patients. This review provides a comprehensive picture of the immunological functions of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in response to HPV in humans. PMID:25302175

  2. Role of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in local immunosuppression in HPV-associated cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Bahena-Román, Margarita; Madrid-González, Claudia; Burguete-García, Ana I; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor Hugo; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2014-10-10

    Cervical cancer is a worldwide disease that constitutes a significant public health problem, especially in developing countries, not only due to its high incidence but also because the most affected population comprises women who belong to marginalized socio-economic classes. Clinical and molecular research has identified immunological impairment in squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions and cervical cancer patients. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has several mechanisms for avoiding the immune system: it down-regulates the expression of interferon and upregulates interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 to produce a local immunosuppressive environment, which, along with altered tumor surface antigens, forms an immunosuppressive network that inhibits the antitumor immune response. In this review we analyzed the available data on several deregulated cellular immune functions in patients with NIC I, NIC II and NIC III and cervical cancer. The effects of immunosuppressive cytokines on innate immune response, T-cell activation and cellular factors that promote tumor cell proliferation in cervical cancer patients are summarized. We discuss the functional consequences of HPV E2, E6, and E7 protein interactions with IL-10 and TGF-β1 promoters in the induction of these cytokines and postulate its effect on the cellular immune response in squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions and cervical cancer patients. This review provides a comprehensive picture of the immunological functions of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in response to HPV in humans. PMID:25302175

  3. The location and function of respiratory fibres in the second cervical spinal cord segment: respiratory dysfunction syndrome after cervical cordotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Lahuerta, J; Buxton, P; Lipton, S; Bowsher, D

    1992-01-01

    After high cervical percutaneous cordotomy for pain in malignant disease, 12 patients died during sleep at postoperative intervals between 1 and 8 days. Nine died after a first cordotomy and three after a second (contralateral) procedure. All except one had known pulmonary disease before operation. The operated segment of the spinal cord (C2) was studied histologically after death. Superposition of lesion outlines made it possible to determine those parts of the lesioned areas common to all unilateral and bilateral cases respectively. All cases dying of presumed respiratory dysfunction syndrome had lesions involving the region of the anterolateral funiculus in the C2 segment containing "pain" fibres activated from the second to fifth thoracic dermatomes. The fibres whose destruction appeared to be responsible for respiratory dysfunction syndrome were completely intermingled with ascending "pain" fibres. The possibility of these fibres being afferent in function is discussed. Images PMID:1479392

  4. Diagnostic criteria for proliferative hepatic lesions in brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Fournie, J.W.; Wolf, J.C.; Wolfe, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is used as indicator species for contaminant effects at areas of concern (AOC) in the Great Lakes and other areas. One of the beneficial use impairments at numerous AOC is 'fish tumors and other deformities'. An impairment occurs when the prevalence of fish tumors and other deformities exceeds those at unimpacted or control sites or when survey data confirm the presence of neoplastic or preneoplastic liver lesions in bullhead or white sucker Catostomus commersonii. Numerous surveys have been conducted over the years assessing neoplasia in these fishes, both liver and skin tumors. However, a major problem in comparing the results has been a lack of consistent criteria for evaluating histological changes in bullhead livers. As individual AOC develop and implement remedial action plans, realistic and attainable delisting targets need to be specified. For this to occur and be consistent from site to site there must be standardization of the criteria being used to evaluate specific impairments. In this report, specific diagnostic criteria are provided for both non-neoplastic and neoplastic proliferative hepatocellular and biliary lesions. These criteria should assist fish pathologists in describing and categorizing proliferative liver lesions from brown bullhead. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  5. Constitutively active Notch1 induces growth arrest of HPV-positive cervical cancer cells via separate signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Talora, Claudio; Cialfi, Samantha; Segatto, Oreste; Morrone, Stefania; Kim Choi, John; Frati, Luigi; Paolo Dotto, Gian; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella . E-mail: isabella.screpanti@uniroma1.it

    2005-05-01

    Notch signaling plays a key role in cell-fate determination and differentiation in different or