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Background and Aims The source of nitrogen plays an important role in salt tolerance of plants. In this study, the effects of NaCl on net uptake, accumulation and transport of ions were investigated in Neriumoleander with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source in order to analyse differences in uptake and cycling of ions within plants. Methods Plants were grown in a greenhouse in hydroponics under different salt treatments (control vs. 100 mm NaCl) with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source, and changes in ion concentration in plants, xylem sap exuded from roots and stems, and phloem sap were determined. Key Results Plant weight, leaf area and photosynthetic rate showed a higher salt tolerance of nitrate-fed plants compared with that of ammonium-fed plants. The total amount of Na+ transported in the xylem in roots, accumulated in the shoot and retranslocated in the phloem of ammonium-fed plants under salt treatment was 1·8, 1·9 and 2·7 times more, respectively, than that of nitrate-treated plants. However, the amount of Na+ accumulated in roots in nitrate-fed plants was about 1·5 times higher than that in ammonium-fed plants. Similarly, Cl? transport via the xylem to the shoot and its retranslocation via the phloem (Cl? cycling) were far greater with ammonium treatment than with nitrate treatment under conditions of salinity. The uptake and accumulation of K+ in shoots decreased more due to salinity in ammonium-fed plants compared with nitrate-fed plants. In contrast, K+ cycling in shoots increased due to salinity, with higher rates in the ammonium-treated plants. Conclusions The faster growth of nitrate-fed plants under conditions of salinity was associated with a lower transport and accumulation of Na+ and Cl? in the shoot, whereas in ammonium-fed plants accumulation and cycling of Na+ and Cl? in shoots probably caused harmful effects and reduced growth of plants.
Cases of poisoning by oleander (Neriumoleander) were observed in several species, except in goats. This study aimed to evaluate the pathological effects of oleander in goats. The experimental design used three goats per group: the control group, which did not receive oleander and the experimental group, which received leaves of oleander (50mg\\/kg\\/day) for six consecutive days. On the seventh
R. R. Barbosa; J. D. Fontenele-Neto; B. Soto-Blanco
Seven outbreaks of acute intoxication from oleander (Neriumoleander) in cattle were reported in Northeast of Brazil. A total of 92 cattle were poisoned by oleander in 7 different herds; 57\\u000a animals died (67% of affected cattle). All cases reported here occurred during dry season. Two of the outbreaks resulted from\\u000a offering oleander triturated and mixed with fodder. In the
B. Soto-Blanco; J. D. Fontenele-Neto; D. M. Silva; P. F. C. C. Reis; J. E. Nóbrega
The cambial activity in Neriumoleander L. in Genoa. – The cambial activity in Neriumoleander L. is observed in order to compare the increasing rhythm of a specimen cultivated in Genoa with the rhythm of spontaneous and cultivated specimens growing in Puglia and Lucania, previously studied by other authors.In Genoa Neriumoleander, a strongly scleromorphus species, has a nearly
Observation on the cambial activity in «Neriumoleander» L. — The cambial activity of «Neriumoleander» has been observed in three localities in Southern Italy: Bari and Lucera, where the oleander is cultivated, and Policoro, in the bed of the river Sinni, where the oleander is spontaneuos. The wood is of the diffuse-porous type. Growth rings corresponding to distinct periods
The isolation and structure elucidation of two novel cytotoxic pentacyclic triterpenoids cis-karenin (3?-hydroxy-28-Z-p-coumaroyloxy-urs-12-en-27-oic acid) and trans-karenin (3-?-hydroxy-28-E-p-coumaroyloxy-urs-12-en-27-oic acid) from the leaves of Neriumoleander is described.
Bina Shaheen Siddiqui; Sabira Begum; Salimuzzaman Siddiqui; Wolf Lichter
Cases of poisoning by oleander (Neriumoleander) were observed in several species, except in goats. This study aimed to evaluate the pathological effects of oleander in goats. The experimental design used three goats per group: the control group, which did not receive oleander and the experimental group, which received leaves of oleander (50 mg/kg/day) for six consecutive days. On the seventh day, goats received 110 mg/kg of oleander leaves four times at one-hourly interval. A last dose of 330 mg/kg of oleander leaves was given subsequently. After the last dose was administered, clinical signs such as apathy, colic, vocalizations, hyperpnea, polyuria, and moderate rumen distention were observed. Electrocardiogram revealed second-degree atrioventricular block. Death occurred on an average at 92 min after the last dosing. Microscopic evaluation revealed renal necrosis at convoluted and collector tubules and slight myocardial degeneration was observed by unequal staining of cardiomyocytes. Data suggest that goats appear to respond to oleander poisoning in a manner similar to other species. PMID:18031775
Two new triterpenoids have been isolated from the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Neriumoleander and their structures elucidated as 3?,27-dihydroxy-urs-18-en-13,28-olide and 3?,22?,28-trihydroxy-25-nor-lup-1 (10),20(29)-dien-2-one. Elucidation of the structures was based on spectroscopic methods including one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR (COSY-45, NOESY and J-resolved).
NeriumOleander is a shrub that grows naturally in the Mediterranean regions. In Morocco it is found in wet places. It is famous for its risk of systemic toxicity in cases of poisoning because of the presence of two alkaloids, especially oleandrine. The literature describes cases of local use of leaves of this plant against scabies, haemorrhoids, and boils. We report two cases of chemical burns of different gravity due to NeriumOleander. This should lead to more widely diffused information for the general population and strict regulation of its marketing. PMID:21991211
Bakkali, H; Ababou, M; Nassim Sabah, T; Moussaoui, A; Ennouhi, A; Fouadi, F Z; Siah, S; Ihrai, H
A bioactivity directed isolation of the methanolic extract of the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Neriumoleander showing a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect in mice has been undertaken. As a result, four CNS depressant cardenolides including a new cardenolide, neridiginoside and three known constituents, nerizoside, neritaloside and odoroside-H, have been isolated which exhibited CNS depressant activity in mice at
Sabira Begum; Bina S Siddiqui; Razia Sultana; Atiya Zia; Amin Suria
Dried Neriumoleander leaves at single lethal dose of 110 mg\\/kg body weight were administered orally to six native male sheep.\\u000a Clinical signs of toxicosis in sheep began to appear about 30 min after receiving the oleander and included decrease of the\\u000a heart rate followed by cardiac pauses and tachyarrhythmias; ruminal atony, mild to moderate tympany, abdominal pain, polyuria\\u000a and
M. R. Aslani; A. R. Movassaghi; M. Mohri; A. Abbasian; M. Zarehpour
Leaf explants of Neriumoleander L. produced masses of callus when both an auxin and a cytokinin were included in the medium. Leaves cultured on the B5 medium of Gamborg et al. supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d; 9.05 µM) plus benzyladenine (BA; 4.4 µM) produced callus and profuse rhizogenesis was observed from callus developed from older leaves. On Murashige &
Dried leaves of oleander were orally given at a single dose of 500 mg/kg body weight to 20 clinically healthy male chickens. Clinical signs of toxicosis began to appear about 1 h after receiving the oleander and included hypersalivation, vomiting, diarrhea, deep depression, and sudden death. Also, hyperemia in the combs and wattles was obviously seen. Electrocardiograms (ECG) were repeatedly recorded at 30 min intervals. ECGs findings included increasing the QRS duration in some birds and various kinds of arrhythmias. Bradycardia was the most frequently detected finding (30.43%). During necropsy, there were congestion and hemorrhages in the visceral organs particularly in heart, liver, kidney, and lung. Histopathology revealed myocardial cell necrosis with hyperemia and hemorrhage, severe diffuse pulmonary congestion and edema, severe renal congestion and hemorrhage with tubular necrosis, and coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes with hyperemia and hemorrhage. There were also congestion, mild epithelial necrosis and desquamation with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the proventriculus of all birds. There was also mild to moderate congestion in the intestines with scattered necrosis of surface enterocytes. The lack of information about the toxicity of oleanders in poultry was the main cause for this study. The results suggest that chickens appear to respond to oleander poisoning in a manner similar to other species. PMID:21576188
Omidi, Arash; Razavizadeh, Alireza T; Movassaghi, Ahmad R; Aslani, Mohammad R
Two new triterpenoid isomers alpha-neriursate (1) and beta-neriursate (2) have been isolated from the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Neriumoleander and their structures elucidated as 3alpha-acetophenoxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid and 3beta-acetophenoxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, respectively. The structure elucidation is based on spectroscopic methods, including 1D ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC and J-resolved) NMR data and chemical transformation. PMID:19851926
Siddiqui, Bina S; Khatoon, Nasima; Begum, Sabira; Durrani, Saima A
The roots of Neriumoleander yielded a new cardenolide, 12?-hydroxy-5?-carda-8,14,16,20(22)-tetraenolide (2). Biological screening of the compound revealed antibacterial and digoxin-like cardiac activities.
M. Mostaqul Huq; A Jabbar; M. A Rashid; C. M Hasan
The leaves of Neriumoleander L. (oleander) were tested as a possible biomonitor of heavy metal pollution studied in Antalya along the Mediterranean Sea, Turkey. Fifty-three sites (urban roadside, urban, urban park, suburban andrural) in and around Antalya city were investigated. The concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were determined in unwashed and washed leaves and soils. Differences between
Neriumoleander (Apocynaceae) is a drought-tolerant evergreen free-flowering shrub that has been used in Chinese folk medicine. The present study evaluated the free radical-scavenging activity of the extracts of N. oleander flowers in aqueous, n.hexane, petroleum ether, ethylacetate, and ethanol using in vitro assays of 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, nitric oxide radical-scavenging assay, and reducing potential. Further,
V. Gayathri; S. Ananthi; R. P. Parameswari; Hannah R. Vasanthi
Neriumoleander Linn (NOL) an evergreen shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae family has been reported to have a wide spectrum of bioactivities. In in vitro study, the free radical scavenging potential of the hydroethanolic extract of N oleander Linn (ENO) flower and its fractions (glycosidic and nonglycosidic) were studied using 2, 2'-azino-di [3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate] (ABTS*+ ) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*)
Neriumoleander is potentially lethal plants after ingestion. We report a case of poisoning by these plants. Our patient complained of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. He had bradycardia during first twelve hours. He was discharge after 3 days. All parts of these plants are toxic and contain a variety of cardiac glycosides including oleandrin. In most cases, clinical management of poisoning by N. oleander involves administration of activated charcoal and supportive care. Digoxin specific Fab fragments are an effective treatment. PMID:21890104
Hugues, T; Arnoult, M; Beau, N; Yaici, K; Mélandri, P; Saoudi, N; Gibelin, P
Two new cardenolide monoglycosides, cardenolides B-1 (1) and B-2 (2) were isolated from Neriumoleander, together with oleagenin (3) which is the first isolated compound from natural sources. The structure of compounds 1-3 were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data. PMID:20686265
This works describes the use of synchrotron radiation fluorescence analysis as a technique for monitoring trace elements in bio-indicators for environmental pollution control. The analyses were performed on leaves of Neriumoleander collected in streets with different levels of traffic flow in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with one sample from a rural zone. The leaves were collected from adult trees
E. F. O. de Jesus; S. M. Simabuco; M. J. dos Anjos; R. T. Lopes
Summary A method is described for the cytochemical localization of pectinase activity at the ultrastructural level. The procedure involves the use of Benedict's reagent to form an electron-dense copper precipitate when reacted with reducing sugars liberated from exogenously supplied pectin. Using this technique, pectinase activity was examined in the nonarticulated, branched laticifers ofNeriumoleander. Electron opaque crystalline deposits indicating the
Fresh, undried and uncrushed leaves of Neriumoleander were subjected to methanol extraction and bioassay directed fractionation. This led to the isolation of two purified fractions namely, B-1 and B-3. Fractions B-1 and B-3 were studied with respect to their actions on the central nervous system and behavior pattern in mice. Both fractions were found to produce reduction in locomotor
Atiya Zia; Bina S. Siddiqui; Sabira Begum; Salimuzzaman Siddiqui; Amin Suria
Neriumoleander Linn. (NO), an evergreen shrub, is used in folklore medicine as a cardiotonic and exhibits a wide spectrum of bioactivities. Herein, the hypolipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract of flowers of Neriumoleander (ENO) in a minimal dose was assessed. A high fat diet (HFD) resulted in a significant increase in cardiac lipids and lipoproteins and an increase in body weight gain. Simultaneous treatment with ENO significantly lowered the increase in body weight gain, lipid and lipoprotein levels, with a concomitant increase in HDL in the plasma and heart when compared to HFD-fed rats. Likewise, the activities of lipolytic enzymes were also upheld by the ENO treatment in the heart compared to HFD-fed rats. The above findings highlight the possible mechanism of N. oleander as a hypolipidemic agent in its use in folklore medicine as a cardiotonic. PMID:21726133
In order to demonstrate enzyme activities playing a role in the biosynthesis of cardenolides and 2,6-dideoxysugars, 5ßH-pregnan-3ßol-20-one and cardenolides (digitoxigenin, oleandrigenin\\/L-oleandrose, oleandrin, neriifolin, digitoxigeninmonodigitoxoside and strospeside) were fed to cell suspension cultures of Neriumoleander L.. It could be shown that cell suspension cultures of Neriumoleander L. are able to oxidize, isomerize and glucosylate 5ßH-steroidaglycones at C-3. The respective
The toxicity of diet containing 10% of Citrullus colocynthis fruits or 10% of Neriumoleander leaves or their 1:1 mixture (5%+5%) for rats treated for 6 weeks was determined. Dullness, ruffled hair, decreased body weight gains and feed efficiency, and enterohepatonephropathy characterised treatment with C. colocynthis and N. oleander given alone. Diarrhoea was a prominent sign of C. colocynthis poisoning.
Neriumoleander (common oleander) and Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) are potentially lethal plants after ingestion. Poisoning by these plants is a common toxicological emergency in tropical and subtropical parts of the world and intentional self-harm using T. peruviana is prevalent in South Asian countries, especially India and Sri Lanka. All parts of these plants are toxic, and contain a variety of cardiac glycosides including neriifolin, thevetin A, thevetin B, and oleandrin. Ingestion of either oleander results in nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dysrhythmias, and hyperkalemia. In most cases, clinical management of poisoning by either N. oleander or T. peruviana involves administration of activated charcoal and supportive care. Digoxin specific Fab fragments are an effective treatment of acute intoxication by either species. However, where limited economic resources restrict the use of such Fab fragments, treatment of severely poisoned patients is difficult. Data from case reports and clinical studies were reviewed to identify treatments supported by evidence for the management of poisoning by N. oleander and T. peruviana. PMID:20438743
Bandara, Veronika; Weinstein, Scott A; White, Julian; Eddleston, Michael
Genomic and cDNA clones encoding two gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidases (named NoGA20ox1 and -2) and three GA 2-oxidases (NoGA2ox1, -2, and -3) have been isolated and characterized from Neriumoleander L. (oleander), a plant of horticultural importance in the Mediterranean region. NoGA2ox2 and -3 transcripts were abundant in expanding leaves and flower buds, whereas NoGA20ox1, -2 and NoGA2ox1 transcripts were barely
Susana Ubeda-Tomás; José L. García-Martínez; Isabel López-Díaz
We evaluated the effectiveness of Anvirzel™, an aqueous extract of Neriumoleander on HIV infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Oleandrin, the principle cardiac glycoside (CG) in Anvirzel™ has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer properties but its efficacy against HIV is unknown. Treatment with Anvirzel™ significantly reduced the infectivity of virus produced from infected cells without any change in the total amount of virus produced. This is in contrast to treatment with AZT, a potent inhibitor of HIV replication that has been shown to significantly reduce virus production. Relative to untreated cultures, virus in cultures treated with oleandrin had significantly reduced expression of the envelope protein gp120, the sole determinant of virus infectivity, suggesting a novel mechanism underlying the impaired infectivity. These results support the potential utility of the Neriumoleander aqueous extract, containing the CG oleandrin as a novel candidate anti-HIV therapeutic. PMID:23127567
The seed oil in Macadamia integrifolia contains about 30% palmitoleic acid (16:1?9) and Neriumoleander about 12% isoricinoleic acid (?9-hydroxy-18:1?12). It has been shown that palmitoleic acid can be produced by acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases and it has also been shown that fatty acid hydroxylation can occur via direct substitution of a hydrogen atom. Therefore it seemed possible that
Per O Gummeson; Marit Lenman; Michael Lee; Surinder Singh; Sten Stymne
Twelve polar cardenolide monoglycosides, 1, 2, 4–13, and oleagenin (3) were isolated from the methanol extract of stems and twigs of Neriumoleander. Among these, oleagenin (3) and cardenolide monoglycosides named cardenolide B-1 (1) and cardenolide B-2 (2) were isolated from natural sources for the first time. The in vitro antiinflammatory activity of compounds 1–13 was examined on the basis
Neriumoleander is a plant native only in the Mediterranean region, but it can also be cultivated worldwide, particularly in warm areas. Biologically active oleander compounds may be used for therapeutic purposes. However, when used for self-medication, it may cause serious problems including death. We present a 30-year-old otherwise healthy man who developed complete atrioventricular block after taking a syrup of N. oleander leaves for self-medication to relive hemorrhoidal complaints. The patient was treated by oral administration of charcoal combined with sodium sulfate as well as electrolyte solutions and transient use of an external cardiac pacemaker. The atrioventricular block reverted to sinus rhythm in 30 hours and he was discharged in good hemodynamic status and general condition. PMID:22710590
Küçükdurmaz, Zekeriya; Karapinar, Hekim; Gül, Ibrahim; Yilmaz, Ahmet
Six-month-old oleander (Neriumoleander L.) pot plants, derived from vegetative propagation by cuttings, were tested for their ability to cold hardening. Damage of the non-acclimated (NA) plants was visible when treated by low freezing temperatures (below -2 degrees C). The responses of total proteins, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), esterase (EST) and acid phosphatase (ACP) isoforms of NA and cold-acclimated (CA; 4 degrees C for 14 days) plants were compared using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These molecular markers were also compared in NA and CA plants which received for 2h temperatures of 0, -2, -4, -6 and -8 degrees C. A new 38-kDa polypeptide appeared from day 7 to 14 during the acclimation treatment in the bark extracts and on day 14 in the leaf extracts. The above-mentioned polypeptide band (38 kDa) strongly appeared in all freezing treatments (0, -2, -4, -6 and -8 degrees C) in both bark and leaf extracts of the CA plants. Alterations in the number and the intensity of LAP and EST isoforms as well as in the intensity of ACP isoforms were observed in both bark and leaf of the CA oleander plants. A newly expressed EST isoform is proposed as biochemical marker for the cold acclimation treatment. CO2 assimilation rates (A) as well as transpiration rates (E) in NA plants were positive in 0 degrees C and negative in all temperatures below zero in the freezing treatments. In contrast, CO2 assimilation rates (A) and transpiration rates (E) were positive in CA plants in all temperatures of freezing treatment. A significant decrease (P<0.05) in chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl a+b concentration and Chl a/b ratio were noticed in oleander plants during the acclimation treatment (from day 0 to 14), while Chl b concentration was unchanged at the respective time. On the other hand, no significant (P<0.05) differences were observed in the freezing treatments. PMID:16146314
Syros, Thomas; Yupsanis, Traianos; Petkou, Demitrios; Economou, Athanasios S
Sixteen cardenolide triglycosides (1–16) were isolated from stems, twigs, and leaves of Neriumoleander. Among them, 3?-O-(4-O-gentiobiosyl-d-diginosyl)-7?,8-epoxy-14-hydroxy-5?,14?-card-20(22)-enolide, named cardenolide B-3 (16), was isolated from natural sources for the first time. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1–16 were examined on the basis of inhibitory activity against the induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Compounds\\u000a 1–5 were active at an
Susceptibility of sheep to oral administration of Citrullus colocynthis fruits, Neriumoleander leaves or their mixture is described in 12 sheep assigned as untreated controls, C. colocynthis-treated at 0.25g\\/kg\\/day, N. oleander-treated at 0.25g\\/kg and plant mixture-treated at 0.25g of C.colocynthis\\/kg plus 0.25g of N. oleander\\/kg. The daily use of 0.25g of C. colocynthis\\/kg for 42 days was not fatal to
The air pollution effects on the activity of antioxidant enzymes were investigated on Neriumoleander and Robinia pseudo acacia in Tehran. Considering the information obtained from the Department of the Environment of Iran, Sorkh Hesar Park as well as South Azadi were selected as two sampling sites representing the unpolluted and polluted area respectively. A number of plant leave samples
This works describes the use of synchrotron radiation fluorescence analysis as a technique for monitoring trace elements in bio-indicators for environmental pollution control. The analyses were performed on leaves of Neriumoleander collected in streets with different levels of traffic flow in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with one sample from a rural zone. The leaves were collected from adult trees
E. F. O. de Jesus; S. M. Simabucob U; M. J. dos Anjosc; R. T. Lopesa
Suspension cultures derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-transformed calli were established in Neriumoleander L. The presence of the bacterial T-DNA in the transformed calli was detected by the polymerase chain reaction as well as plant hormone autotrophy. The ability of the cultures to accumulate oleandrin was confirmed using high performance liquid chromatography. The effect of fungal elicitors prepared from Aspergillus niger
Neriumoleander Linn (NOL) an evergreen shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae family has been reported to have a wide spectrum of bioactivities. In in vitro study, the free radical scavenging potential of the hydroethanolic extract of N oleander Linn (ENO) flower and its fractions (glycosidic and nonglycosidic) were studied using 2, 2(')-azino-di [3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate] (ABTS(*+) ) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) scavenging assay. ENO exhibited better radical scavenging activities than its fractions. Furthermore, the cardioprotective role of ENO (10, 30, 100 mg/kg, per oral [po]) was tested against isoproterenol-induced myocardial toxicity (ISO, 120 mg/kg per day, subcutaneously [sc], for 2 days at 48 hours interval) in experimental rats when compared to propranolol (5 mg/kg, po) which was the standard. Pretreatment with ENO (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) and propranolol for 2 weeks followed by ISO challenge in rats prevented the elevation of marker enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK-MB and creatine phosphokinase [CPK]), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in plasma. In addition, pretreatment with ENO and propranolol significantly attenuated the lipid peroxidation by maintaining the levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and nonenzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione and nitrite), which was also confirmed histologically. Taken together, the current study indicates that the hydroalcoholic extract of N oleander Linn flowers aid in cardioprotection probably by improving the antioxidant defense system during experimental myocardial necrosis. PMID:21191138
Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Neriumoleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants. PMID:19579919
Ursolic acid (1) and kaempferol (3) are two major constituents of the Mediterranean plant Neriumoleander L. Microbial metabolism of (1) with Aspergillus flavus (ATCC 9170) resulted in the formation of 3-oxo-ursolic acid derivative, ursonic acid (2). On the other hand, Cunninghamella blakesleeana (ATCC 8688A) was able to convert (3) into kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4) as well as the new natural product kaempferol 4'-sulfate (5). Incubation of kaempferol with Mucor ramannianus (ATCC 9628) led to the isolation of one metabolite identified as kaempferol 4'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (6). Transformation of kaempferol to the new compound kaempferol 7-O-beta-D-4-O-methylglucopyranoside (7) and herbacetin 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8) was observed after fermentation with Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 13144). Cytotoxic as well as antioxidant activities of the isolated metabolites were determined. PMID:18758096
Ibrahim, Amany; Khalifa, Sherief Ibrahim; Khafagi, Ishrak; Youssef, Diaa Tohamy; Khan, Shabana; Mesbah, Mostafa; Khan, Ikhlas
Dambonit (1,3-Di-O-methyl-myo-inosit) entsteht inNeriumoleander, wie durch Einbauversuche mit radioaktiv markiertemmyo-Inosit undd-Bornesit sowie durch Bestimmung der Zeitabhängigkeit der Bildung der Cyclite bei Assimilation von14CO2 nachgewiesen wurde, ausmyo-Inosit überd-Bornesit als Zwischenprodukt. Neben Dambonit finden sich in der Cyclitfraktion vonN. oleander auchd-Bornesit,myo-Inosit sowiel-Leucanthemit.myo-Inosit unterliegt in der Pflanze-besonders im Winter-einem sehr intensiven Stoffwechsel, der zu nichtzyklischen Verbindungen führt.
SUMMARY Aqueous extracts from green leaves of Neriumoleander L. and Dieffenbachia picta in concentrations of 0; 0,0625; 0,125 and 0,25 mg\\/mL were prepared with the objective of studying the allelopathic potential of these ornamental plant species on lettuce (test plant) and Bidens pilosa L seeds. The experiments were carried out in January of 2007, at the Genetic Laboratory of
Clairomar Emílio; Flores Hoffmann; Luiz Augusto; Cristiane Freitas Bastos; Gabriel da Luz Wallau
The effect of exposing intact leaves and isolated chloroplast membranes of Neriumoleander L. to excessive light levels under otherwise favorable conditions was followed by measuring photosynthetic CO2 uptake, electron transport and low-temperature (77K=-196°C) fluorescence kinetics. Photoinhibition, as manifested by a reduced rate and photon (quantum) yield of photosynthesis and a reduced electron transport rate, was accompanied by marked changes
A pentacyclic triterpene, oleanderocioic acid, two flavonoidal glycosides, quercetin-5-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-D-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-5-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-D-glucopyranoside, and a cardenolide, oleandigoside, together with 11 known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Neriumoleander. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The growth inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of eight compounds were evaluated against the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line using a sulforhodamine B assay. Three compounds, oleandrin, odoroside A and B were further assayed using a panel of 57 human cancer cell lines. PMID:22281382
Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Khatoon, Nasima; Begum, Sabira; Farooq, Ahsana Dar; Qamar, Kehkashan; Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Ali, Syed Kashif
In order to evaluate the composition of inhalable atmospheric particles and to study the relationship between trace element levels in PM10 and in leaves of two plant species, the amount of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti and V were analysed in PM10 and in Neriumoleander L. and Lantana camara L. leaves from two sites in the city of
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in the leaves of Neriumoleander L. an evergreen plant that occurs widely in both urban and rural areas, to monitor the degree of pollution in the urban area of Palermo (Italy) compared to remote areas. Twenty sites (urban roadside, urban, urban park, suburban and rural) in and around Palermo city were investigated.The purpose
Loredana Culotta; Antonio Gianguzza; Santino Orecchio
We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379
Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh
Neriumoleander L. (Apocynaceae) is a micro-nano phanerophyte that grows in the riverbanks of the Río Tinto basin (Southwest Iberian Peninsula). The waters and soils of the Río Tinto area are highly acidic and have high concentrations of heavy metals. In this environment, N. oleander naturally grows in both extreme acidic (EA) and less extreme acidic (LEA) water courses, excluding, and bioindicating certain metals. In this work, we compared and evaluated the accumulation preferences and capacities, the distribution and processes of biomineralization of metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Ca) in the first stages of growth of EA and LEA oleanders by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer analysis. Seeds from both environments were grown and treated with a self-made solution simulating the most extreme red waters from the Río Tinto. LEA plants drastically reduces the metal uptake at the beginning, but later reactivates the uptake reaching concentration values in the same range as the EA plants. The results showed high Mn, Zn and Mg concentrations, accumulation of Fe and Cu in plants from both environments, differing from the metal concentrations of field-grown oleanders. Iron bioformations with traces of other metals were present inside and over epidermal cells and inside vascular cells of stems and roots. They were absent of leaves. The accumulation properties of N. oleander in its early stages of development make it a species to take in consideration in phytoremediation processes but optimized conditions are needed to ensure enough biomass production. PMID:23892697
Franco, Alejandro; Rufo, Lourdes; Zuluaga, Javier; de la Fuente, Vicenta
Variable indirect photosynthetic rate (P(n)) responses occur on injured leaves after insect herbivory. It is important to understand factors that influence indirect P(n) reductions after injury. The current study examines the relationship between gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity (% single leaf tissue removal) from clipping or Spodoptera eridania Stoll (Noctuidae) herbivory on Neriumoleander L. (Apocynaceae). Two experiments showed intercellular [CO(2)] increases but P(n) and stomatal conductance reductions with increasing injury intensity, suggesting non-stomatal P(n) limitation. Also, P(n) recovery was incomplete at 3d post-injury. This is the first report of a negative exponential P(n) impairment function with leaf injury intensity to suggest high N. oleander leaf sensitivity to indirect P(n) impairment. Negative linear functions occurred between most other gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity. The degree of light harvesting impairment increased with injury intensity via lower (1) photochemical efficiency indicated lower energy transfer efficiency from reaction centers to PSII, (2) photochemical quenching indicated reaction center closure, and (3) electron transport rates indicated less energy traveling through PSII. Future studies can examine additional mechanisms (mesophyll conductance, carbon fixation, and cardenolide induction) to cause N. oleander indirect leaf P(n) reductions after injury. PMID:22325884
The present study is aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of sulfonylurea drug glimepiride in comparison with Neriumoleander plant extract on insulin, glucose levels and some liver enzymes activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 50 mg kg(-1) body weight streptozotocin. Rats with serum glucose levels > 200 mg dL(-1) were subdivided into three sub-groups: the first sub-group were remained without treatment and considered as diabetics. The second and third subgroups were orally administered 0.1 mg kg(-1) body weight/day glimepiride and 250 mg kg(-1) body weight/day Neriumoleander, respectively for 4 weeks. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia compared to controls. Strong negative correlation (r = -0.8) was found between serum insulin and glucose levels in diabetic rats. This correlation was +0.4 and -0.3 in glimepiride and Nerium olender-treated rats, respectively implying that glimepiride and plant extract improved insulin and glucose levels with the former was more efficient. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats compared to controls. Treatment of diabetic rats with glimepiride or Neriumoleander extract also improved liver enzymes activities. PMID:22514888
Leaves ofNeriumoleander L. plants, which had been previously kept in a shaded glasshouse for at least two months, were fed 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT)\\u000a through their petioles, either for 12h in darkness (overnight) or for 2h in low light (28 ?mol photons·m?2·s?1), in each case followed by a 3-h exposure to high light (1260 ?mol photons·m?2·s?1). During exposure to
Insect herbivory has variable effects on plant physiology; so greater understanding is needed about how injury alters photosynthesis\\u000a on individual injured and uninjured leaves. Gas exchange and light-adapted leaf chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were\\u000a collected from uninjured and mechanical partial leaf defoliation in two experiments with Neriumoleander (Apocynaceae) leaves, and one experiment with Danaus plexippus herbivory on Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae)
Abstract Context. Oleander is a potent cardiotoxic plant and is a common cause of poisoning in human and animals. There is no affordable and cost-effective treatment for oleander poisoning. Objective. To evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of garlic extract (Allium sativum) on Neriumoleander (a potent cardiotoxic plant) intoxication in sheep. Materials and methods. Eight sheep were intravenously infused with an unsterilized hydro-ethanol extract of garlic (50 mg/kg) before or after receiving a lethal dose of dried leaves (as a powder) of oleander (100 mg/kg, orally). The cardiac rhythm was continuously monitored using biopotential wireless transmitters and telemetry system. For evaluation of therapeutic effects, six sheep received the lethal dose of oleander and were administered with garlic extract after development of cardiac arrhythmias. Subsequently, the survived animals from the therapeutic study (four sheep) were administered with oleander without receiving any medication. Some blood constituents, including total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, and troponin I, were compared between treated and untreated animals. Results. Pretreatment with garlic extract reversed the arrhythmia caused by oleander to its previous normal rhythm in seven sheep, but, one sheep died of ventricular fibrillation. On therapeutic treatment, four sheep survived while two died of ventricular fibrillation. Dosing with oleander without receiving garlic extract resulted in death of all sheep due to ventricular fibrillation. Blood constituents did not show any significant changes between treated and untreated sheep, and before and after intoxication. Conclusions. Garlic extract reduced the case fatality from 100% to 12.5% and 33.3% as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent, respectively. Additionally, garlic extract delayed the time of onset of arrhythmias and prolonged the interval between intoxication and death of the animals. Garlic extract could be considered to be a potential and affordable antidote in oleander poisoning. However additional studies with a larger sample size and in other species need to be performed to confirm the results in this study. PMID:23944745
A new cardenolide diglycoside (1) was isolated from Neriumoleander together with ten known cardenolide diglycosides 2-11. The structure of compound 1 was established on the basis of their spectroscopic data. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1-11 was examined on the basis of inhibitory activity against the induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Compounds 2-5 were active at an IC(50) value of less than 0.8 µM. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1-11 was evaluated against three human cell lines normal human fibroblast cells (WI-38), malignant tumor cells induced from WI-38 (VA-13), and human liver tumor cells (HepG2). Compound 3 was active toward VA-13 cells, and compounds 2-5 were active toward HepG2 cells at IC(50) values of less than 1.3 µM. The multidrug resistance (MDR)-reversal activity of compounds 1-11 was evaluated on the basis of the amount of calcein in MDR human ovarian cancer 2780AD cells in the presence of each compound. Compounds 1 and 8 showed moderate effects on calcein accumulation. PMID:21372420
Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35?mg/kg bw) in all rats of five groups after being fed for 2 weeks high-fat diet. Type 2 diabetic Nerium-oleander- (NO-) administered groups received the NO distillate at a dose of 3.75, 37.5, and 375??g/0.5?mL of distilled water (NO-0.1, NO-1, NO-10, resp.); positive control group had 0.6?mg glibenclamide/kg bw/d by gavage daily for 12 weeks. Type 2 diabetic negative control group had no treatment. NO distillate administration reduced fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, atherogenic index, triglyceride-HDL ratio, insulin, and leptin levels. Improved beta cell function and HDL concentration were observed by NO usage. HDL percentage in total cholesterol of all NO groups was similar to healthy control. NO-10 distillate enhanced mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor- (PPAR-) ?, ?, and ? in adipose tissue and PPAR-?-? in liver. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the considerable beneficial effect of NO distillate administration at a dose of 375??g/0.5?mL of distilled water may offer new approaches to treatment strategies that target both fat and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23251156
In a survey that was conducted during the year 2011, a local strain of Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) was identified and isolated from a wild population of Aphis nerii aphids living on Neriumoleander plants located in northern Israel. The new strain was tentatively named (ALPV-An). RNA extracted from the viral particles allowed the amplification and determination of the complete genome sequence. The virus genome is comprised of 9835 nucleotides. In a BLAST search analysis, the ALPV-An sequence showed 89 % nucleotide sequence identity with the whole genome of a South African ALPV and 96 and 94 % amino acid sequence identity with the ORF1 and ORF2 of that strain, respectively. In preliminary experiments, spray-applied, purified ALPV virions were highly pathogenic to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae; 95 % mortality was recorded 4 days post-infection. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of ALPV for use as a biologic agent for some aphid control. Surprisingly, no visible ALPV pathogenic effects, such as morphological changes or paralysis, were observed in the A. nerii aphids infected with ALPV-An. The absence of clear ALPV symptoms in A. nerii led to the formulation of two hypotheses, which were partially examined in this study. The first hypothesis suggest that A. nerii is resistant or tolerant of ALPV, while the second hypothesis propose that ALPV-An may be a mild strain of ALPV. Currently, our results is in favor with the first hypothesis since ALPV-An is cryptic in A. nerii aphids and can be lethal for M. persicae aphids. PMID:23229204
A rapid accumulation of the catalytic active noble metals in the environmental and biological matrices was observed and concern arose about potential environmental and health risks. The development of reliable analytic methods to measure very low Pt and Rh concentrations is required. The main purpose of this work was to develop a reliable method for the determination of Pt and Rh in environmental matrices because of inherent difficulties in using conventional techniques used, in particular, the ICP-OES technique. A direct determination of Pt using ICP-MS, for instance, is problematic, due to interfering signals. In this work, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV/a) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) were used for the determination of Pt and Rh in Neriumoleander leaves. Pt and Rh concentrations were found in the ranges 0.33-25 and 0.40-4.6 microg/kg d.w., respectively. We carried out linear regression analysis between total PAH concentrations in leaves of oleander and of Quercus ilex measured in previous researches and the data obtained in this work. The high correlation coefficients were obtained; which demonstrates that oleander leaves can be used to establish the presence and the distribution of pollutants in a chosen area. PMID:19846253
To gain insight into the hepatohistological alterations in noninjured rat liver, Neriumoleander (N.O.) leaves extract was injected intramuscularly to induce an acute phase reaction (APR). Histopathological changes were studied after 3, 12, and 24?h time course of sterile muscle abscess. Tissue integrity and any infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver were investigated by Hematoxylin and Eosin and ED1 peroxidase stainings. The administration of N.O. leaves extract (10?mL/kg) in H & E stained sections showed a general vacuolization of cytoplasm resulting loss of polarity with prominent nucleoli after 3?h of induction. At 12?h, eccentric nuclei were also observed in the sections. Marked infiltration of leucocytes with predominate macrophages was also found after 24?h as seen by ED1 positive staining. In the present study, a possible relationship between serum hepcidin and total iron level was also investigated in vivo. An early increase of hepcidin and total iron level (3?h) with a maximum at 12?h (P < 0.01; P < 0.001) was observed. These changes indicate that sterile muscle abscess may induce APR resulting in hepatic damage which is evident with the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the organ.
Abbasi, Muddasir Hassan; Fatima, Sana; Naz, Naila; Malik, Ihtzaz A.
The principal active constituent of the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO(2) extract of Neriumoleander, is the cardiac glycoside oleandrin. PBI-05204 shows potent anticancer activity and is currently in phase I clinical trial as a treatment for patients with solid tumors. We have previously shown that neriifolin, which is structurally related to oleandrin, provides robust neuroprotection in brain slice and whole animal models of ischemic injury. However, neriifolin itself is not a suitable drug development candidate and the FDA-approved cardiac glycoside digoxin does not cross the blood-brain barrier. We report here that both oleandrin as well as the full PBI-05204 extract can also provide significant neuroprotection to neural tissues damaged by oxygen and glucose deprivation as occurs in ischemic stroke. Critically, we show that the neuroprotective activity of PBI-05204 is maintained for several hours of delay of administration after oxygen and glucose deprivation treatment. We provide evidence that the neuroprotective activity of PBI-05204 is mediated through oleandrin and/or other cardiac glycoside constituents, but that additional, non-cardiac glycoside components of PBI-05204 may also contribute to the observed neuroprotective activity. Finally, we show directly that both oleandrin and the protective activity of PBI-05204 are blood brain barrier penetrant in a novel model for in vivo neuroprotection. Together, these findings suggest clinical potential for PBI-05204 in the treatment of ischemic stroke and prevention of associated neuronal death. PMID:21950737
Dunn, Denise E; He, Dong Ning; Yang, Peiying; Johansen, Mary; Newman, Robert A; Lo, Donald C
To gain insight into the hepatohistological alterations in noninjured rat liver, Neriumoleander (N.O.) leaves extract was injected intramuscularly to induce an acute phase reaction (APR). Histopathological changes were studied after 3, 12, and 24?h time course of sterile muscle abscess. Tissue integrity and any infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver were investigated by Hematoxylin and Eosin and ED1 peroxidase stainings. The administration of N.O. leaves extract (10?mL/kg) in H & E stained sections showed a general vacuolization of cytoplasm resulting loss of polarity with prominent nucleoli after 3?h of induction. At 12?h, eccentric nuclei were also observed in the sections. Marked infiltration of leucocytes with predominate macrophages was also found after 24?h as seen by ED1 positive staining. In the present study, a possible relationship between serum hepcidin and total iron level was also investigated in vivo. An early increase of hepcidin and total iron level (3?h) with a maximum at 12?h (P < 0.01; P < 0.001) was observed. These changes indicate that sterile muscle abscess may induce APR resulting in hepatic damage which is evident with the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the organ. PMID:24069586
Neriumoleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903
Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario
Most of the polysaccharides purified from Chinese medicinal herbs showed anti-tumor and immune-stimulating effects. However, little is known about their effects on neuroprotection. Our previous study has demonstrated that polysaccharides (J2, J3 and J4) isolated from the flowers of Nerium indicum (Oleander) exert partial protection in cortical neurons stressed by beta-amyloid (A?) peptides or deprivation of nutrition from serum. In
We assessed how small patches of contrasting urban ground cover [mesiscape (turf), xeriscape (gravel), concrete, and asphalt] altered the microclimate and performance of adjacent oleander (Neriumoleander L.) plants in Phoenix, Arizona during fall/winter (September February) and spring/summer (March September). Ground-cover and oleander canopy surface temperatures, canopy air temperatures and pot soil temperatures tended to be lowest in the mesiscape and highest in the asphalt and concrete. Canopy air vapor pressure deficits were lowest in the mesiscape and highest in the asphalt plot. Rates of net photosynthesis of all oleander plants were highest in October and May, and declined through mid-summer (June July), when rates tended to be highest in the cooler mesiscape, particularly when water was limiting. During fall/winter, oleanders in the mesiscape produced 20% less biomass, 13% less leaf area, and had 12% lower relative growth rates (RG) than those in the other ground covers. Lower nighttime temperatures in the mesiscape in December led to oleander frost damage. During spring/summer, oleanders in the mesiscape produced 11% more biomass, 16% more leaf area, and had 3% higher RG than those in the other cover types. The effects of urban ground cover on oleander performance were season-specific; while oleander growth was greatest in the mesiscape during spring/summer, it was lowest during fall/winter and these plants experienced frost damage. Because all oleander plants produced >10 times as much biomass during the spring/summer, on an annual basis oleanders in the mesiscape produced 5 11% more biomass than plants in the warmer ground covers.
Inhalational oleander toxicity was considered in a family of 4 by history of exposure to smoke from burning oleander twigs. Electrocardiography revealed first- and second-degree atrioventricular block with digoxin-like ST-T-wave changes, suggestive of oleander toxicity in the absence of exposure to digoxin or other herbal medicines, and without systemic illness. Complete blood count, biometabolic profile, chest x-ray, and echocardiography did not reveal any abnormalities. Electrocardiographies normalized within 4 days when kept away from offending agents. Because oleander plant materials are used for burning, people are exposed to inhalational oleander toxicity. Hence, practitioners shall consider such poisonings in them. PMID:21397908
Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Meenakshisundaram, Ramachandran; Michaels, Andrew D; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah
A polysaccharide fraction, J6, was isolated from the hot-water extract of flowers of oleanderNerium indicum Mill., using ethanol precipitation, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) complexing, anion-exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. J6 was found to contain L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, and D-galacturonic acid, in the ratio of 10.1:49.8:30.1:10.0. Its structure was investigated by methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, partial acid hydrolysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic methods. It was found that J6 is an RG-I type polysaccharide, which contains a rhamnogalacturonan backbone, with various branches attached to O-4 of L-rhamnose. The branches probably involve (1-->4)-beta-D-galactan, branched L-arabino-(1-->3)(1-->6)-beta-D-galactan, and (1-->5)-alpha-L-arabinan. J6 stimulated NO production of macrophage RAW264.7 cells in a preliminary test. PMID:20573364
A tracer experiment using synthesized labeled lignin precursors was designed to confirm the actual biosynthetic pathway for syringyl lignin. Tetradeuteroferulic acid-[8-D, 3-OCD(3)] and heptadeuterosinapic acid-[8-D, 3,5-OCD(3)] were synthesized and fed to shoots of robinia (Robinia pseudoacacia) and oleander (Nerium indicum) trees. The incorporation of each labeled precursor into lignin was traced by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The synthesized sinapic acid, in which both methoxy groups were labeled, was useful in monitoring the conversion of sinapic acid into syringyl lignin. When heptadeuterosinapic acid was fed, syringyl units containing seven deuterium labels were detected. The results of this study support the traditionally accepted pathway that sinapic acid is converted to sinapyl alcohol via sinapoyl-CoA in robinia and oleander. PMID:12009990
Background The importance of genetic diversity in successful biological invasions is unclear. In animals, but not necessarily plants, increased genetic diversity is generally associated with successful colonization and establishment of novel habitats. The Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, though native to the Mediterranean region, is an invasive pest species throughout much of the world. Feeding primarily on Oleander (Neriumoleander) and Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) under natural conditions, these plants are unlikely to support aphid populations year round in the southern US. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic variation within and among US populations of A. nerii, during extinction/recolonization events, to better understand the population ecology of this invasive species. Methodology/Principal Findings We used five microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity over a two year period within and among three aphid populations separated by small (100 km) and large (3,700 km) geographic distances on two host plant species. Here we provide evidence for A. nerii “superclones”. Genotypic variation was absent in all populations (i.e., each population consisted of a single multilocus genotype (MLG) or “clone”) and the genetic composition of only one population completely changed across years. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or host races on different plant species. Conclusions/Significance Aphis nerii is a well established invasive species despite having extremely low genetic diversity. As this aphid appears to be obligatorily asexual, it may share more similarities with clonally reproducing invasive plants, than with other animals. Patterns of temporal and geographic genetic variation, viewed in the context of its population dynamics, have important implications for the management of invasive pests and the evolutionary biology of asexual species.
Cardiac conduction disorders following oral ingestion of Oleander plant materials were documented earlier. Transcutaneous absorption of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) leaf extract applied over non intact skin (raw wound) resulting in reversible cardiac conduction disorder observed in four healthy males who were free from any other systemic or electrolyte or metabolic disorders or exposure to pesticide or toxins is reported for the first time. Their hematological, biochemical, clinical, and echocardiogram status were within normal limits and free of any abnormalities. One among the four, presented for weakness and breathlessness (class II). He had bradycardia with Mobitz II block and hypotension without any other demonstrable localizing signs. The other three were identified in the community and without any symptoms. However, their ECG revealed bradycardia with Mobitz I block in two and complete heart block in the other. All of the four recovered well without any untoward events. Hence, it is suggested that physicians and practitioners have to elicit history and route of administration of unconventional therapy, whenever they are confronted with clinical challenges and during medical emergencies before embarking final decision.
Senthilkumaran, S; Saravanakumar, S; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, P
Three nematicidal cardenolides were obtained from the AcOEt extract of Nerium indicum Mill. by bioassay-guided fractionation. They include a new compound, 3beta-O-(beta-D-diginosyl)-14,15alpha-dihydroxy-5alpha-card-20(22)-enolide (1), and two known compounds, uzarigenin (2) and cardenolide N-1 (3). The median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) of compounds 1-3 against the nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Panagrellus redivivus, and Caenorhabditis elegans at 72 h were 103.3, 49.0, and 45.4 mg l(-1), 257.0, 62.7, and 177.8 mg l(-1), and 242.9, 29.1, and 41.7 mg l(-1), respectively. This is the first report about the nematicidal activity of cardenolides. PMID:19319871
Variable indirect photosynthetic rate (Pn) responses occur on injured leaves after insect herbivory. It is important to understand factors that influence indirect Pn reductions after injury. The current study examines the relationship between gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters wi...
A pair of PCR primers, QH-OLS05/QH-OLS08 specific for strains of Xylella fastidiosa causing oleander leaf scorch was developed. The primers were designed according to a DNA sequence of a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product unique to oleander strains. The PCR assay using primer pair QH-OLS05/QH-OLS08 allowed quick and simple detection and identification of oleander strains in cultured bacterium and infected plant samples. The assay also can be applied to insect samples. Specific detection and identification of oleander strains of X. fastidiosa by PCR is useful for epidemiologic and etiologic studies of oleander leaf scorch by identifying what plants and insect vectors harbor or carry this particular strain of X. fastidiosa, especially in locations where mixed natural infections by oleander and other strains of X. fastidiosa occur. PMID:19020933
Oleander Leaf Scorch (OLS) is a devastating disease of oleander induced by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. The Glassy-winged Sharpshooter (GWSS, Homalodisca coagulate) spreads the OLS bacterium during feeding by first acquiring it from infected plants a...
Bacterial leaf scorch caused by Xylella fastidiosa has been reported on oleander in California and Florida. Recently, leaf scorch symptoms were observed in oleanders at various locations in Texas. The symptomatic varieties from Moody Gardens in Galveston, Texas reacted positively in ELISA, and colo...
Oleander poisoning can be detected by digoxin immunoassays and for last two decades the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) has been used for rapid detection of oleander poisoning in clinical laboratories. Recently, Abbott Laboratories (Abbott Park, IL) discontinued this assay. Therefore, we explored the possibility of using another digoxin assay (Dimension Vista Flex Reagent Cartridge, Tina Quant, EMIT 2000 and old FPIA assay for comparison) for rapid detection of oleander poisoning. When aliquots of drug-free serum pools were supplemented with pure oleandrin or oleander extract, we observed the highest apparent digoxin values using Dimension Vista digoxin assay (Flex Reagent Cartridge). We also observed significant apparent digoxin values in vivo in sera of mice both 1 and 2 ?hr after feeding with oleander extract. When a serum pool prepared from patients taking digoxin was further supplemented with various amounts of oleander extract, the highest falsely elevated digoxin values were observed with Dimension Vista digoxin assay. Monitoring free digoxin using Dimension Vista digoxin assay (Flex Reagent Cartridge) did not eliminate this interference. Digibind neutralized digoxin-like factors of oleander extract and such effect can be monitored by observing significant reduction in apparent free digoxin levels in the presence of Digibind as measured in the protein-free ultrafiltrate using Dimension Vista digoxin assay (Flex Reagent Cartridge). PMID:21438002
Dasgupta, Amitava; Klein, Kimberley; Risin, Semyon A; Actor, Jeffrey K
A rapid accumulation of the catalytic active noble metals in the environmental and biological matrices was observed and concern arose about potential environmental and health risks. The development of reliable analytic methods to measure very low Pt and Rh concentrations is required. The main purpose of this work was to develop a reliable method for the determination of Pt and
Three trisaccharides, one pentasaccharide, and one heptasaccharide, namely ?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-OC3H7 (1), ?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-OC3H7 (2), ?-D-GalA-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-OC3H7 (3), ?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-OC3H7 (4), and ?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-OC3H7 (5), which are relevant to the fragments of the rhamnogalacturonan of Nerium indicum, were concisely synthesized. The syntheses feature highly stereoselective formation of the ?-D-GalA-linkage with GalA N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidates as donors. PMID:23811084
Indian system of medicine describes the usage of certain very toxic plant based drugs after performing a detoxification process (Shodhana samskara). Nerium indicum is traditionally used as a medicine though known to cause severe allergic symptoms, tachycardia and gastrointestinal effects leading to fatalities. In this study, the detoxification (shodhana) for Nerium indicum was scientifically validated based on phytochemical and toxicity profiles. Shodhana was performed according to traditional literature. HPTLC densitometric studies were performed for the pre- and post-shodhana powders followed by sub-acute toxicity evaluation in rats. Preparative TLC and LC-MS showed the reduction of oleandrin peak in the post-shodhana sample. Prominent features of cardiotoxicity including tachycardia were noted in the pre-shodhana Nerium treated animals along with mortality. However, no such toxicity was encountered in the post-shodhana Nerium treated animals. Hence, using the recommended detoxification (shodhana), the toxicity of an important medicinal plant was significantly nullified. Such studies provide a scientific support towards our traditional medicinal practices using modem analytical and experimental methodologies and may prove to be very useful in establishing standard scientific procedures for routine and safe use of traditional medicines. PMID:22125956
We studied the potential for detecting oleander with a new immunoassay (Digoxin III, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) by comparing results with those from the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and Digoxin II assay (Abbott). In aliquots of drug-free serum pools supplemented with pure oleandrin or oleander extract, we observed apparent digoxin values using all 3 immunoassays, but values obtained by the Digoxin III were higher than obtained by the other assays. We also observed significant apparent digoxin values in vivo in serum samples of mice 1 and 2 hours after feeding oleander extract. The average half-life of digoxin-like factors was 1.1 hours. In a serum pool (prepared from patients taking digoxin) supplemented with oleander extract, the observed digoxin values were falsely lowered when measured by the Digoxin II but falsely elevated when measured by the Digoxin III and FPIA. Monitoring free digoxin using the Digoxin III cannot eliminate this interference. Digibind neutralized digoxin-like factors of oleander extract; the effect can be monitored by observing a significant reduction in apparent free digoxin levels in the presence of Digibind as measured in protein-free ultrafiltrate using the Digoxin III. The Digoxin III is highly sensitive for measuring oleander. PMID:18343781
Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Semyon A; Reyes, Meredith; Actor, Jeffrey K
A polysaccharide fraction, NIB-2, was obtained from the 3% aqueous sodium carbonate extract of Nerium indicum leaves using anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. It was found to be composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, in the ratios of 1.0:10.4:4.4, along with 4% of galacturonic acid. The results of methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, partial acid hydrolysis, pectinase treatment, and 13C and 1H
The diethyl ether, chloroform, acetone and methanol extract of Nerium indicum leaf were evaluated for their piscicidal activity against common freshwater air breathing predatory fish Channa punctatus. The rank of order of toxicity (LC50) of the leaf extract was, diethyl ether extract (17.34 mg\\/l)>acetone (40.01 mg\\/l)>chloroform (40.61 mg\\/l)>and methanol (106.37 mg\\/l). There was a significant negative correlation between LC50 values
A TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay is developed for strains of X. fastidiosa causing oleander leaf scorch. The assay uses primers WG-OLS-F1 and WG-OLS-R1 and the fluorescent probe WG-OLS-P1, designed based on unique sequences present only in genomic sequence of oleander strain Ann1. The assay is spe...
The present study aimed at investigating the effects of Nerium indicum leaf extract on the blood electrolytes of Heteropneustes fossilis for short- and long term. Fish were subjected to Nerium indicum leaf extract for short term (11.27 mg/L i.e. 0.8 of 96 h LC??) and long term (2.81 mg/L i.e. 0.2 of 96 h LC??). Fish were killed on each time intervals from control and experimental (Nerium indicum) groups after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h in short-term exposure and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in long-term experiment. Blood samples were analyzed for calcium and inorganic phosphate levels. Acute exposure of Nerium indicum leaf extract caused a progressive decrease in the serum calcium levels after 48 h in fish H. fossilis, which persists till the close of the experiment (96 h). The serum inorganic phosphate levels remain unaffected till 48 h in the Nerium indicum leaf extract-exposed fish. After 72 and 96 h, the levels exhibit a decrease. Chronic Nerium indicum leaf extract treatment provoked a decrease in serum calcium levels at day 14. This decrease continues till 28 days. The serum phosphate level of the Nerium indicum leaf extract-treated fish decreases on day 14 and 21. However, on day 28, the levels become close to the normal values. We conclude that Nerium indicum leaf extract exposure alters the blood electrolytes of the fish, thus causing physiological disturbances which might affect seriously the normal vital functions, growth rate, reproduction, and their survival in nature. PMID:21127966
To discover drug candidates with anti-angiogenesis activity for cancer therapeutics, three galactooligosaccharides (OJ1–OJ3) were prepared by acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharides from Nerium indicum Mill. Their structures were characterized using sugar analysis, methylation analysis, and both 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, complemented by mass spectrometry. They were hexasaccharide (OJ1), a pentasaccharide (OJ2), and an undecasaccharide (OJ3), which was a new
Laboratory evaluations were made to asses the piscicidal activity of ethyl alcohol extract of Nerium indicum leaf against predatory fish Channa punctatus and their ultimate mode of action on fish metabolism. Toxicity experiments show there was significant negative correlation between LC values and exposure periods i.e. LC50 value decreased from 66.32 mg\\/L (24h) to 44.96 mg\\/L (96h). Biochemical studies show
Cardiac glycosides from fresh leaves of Nerium indicum were evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail: GAS) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that LC50 value of cardiac glycosides against GAS was time dependent and the LC50 value at 96h was as low as 3.71mg\\/L, which was comparable with that of metaldehyde at 72h (3.88mg\\/L). These
Lingpeng Dai; Wanxian Wang; Xinjiao Dong; Renyong Hu; Xuyang Nan
Summary Cardenolide sequestration by a hemimetabolous aphid and a holometabolous butterfly from the neotropical milkweed,Asclepias curassavica L., is compared. The oleander aphid,Aphis nerii B. de F., sequestered a similarly narrow range of cardenolide concentrations to the monarch butterfly,Danaus plexippus (L.), from the wide range of concentrations available in leaves of A.curassavica. However, A.nerii sequestered significantly less cardenolide (269 µg\\/0.1 g)
The comparative molluscicidal activities of Arisaema erubescens tuber extracts and Nerium indicum leaf extracts mixed with Streptomycete violacerruber dilution (SD) against the snail Oncomlania hupensis and the responses of the isozymes, esterase (EST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) to the A. erubescens extracts and the mixtures were investigated. The molluscicidal activity of A. erubescens water extracts mixed with S. violacerruber dilution was 4-5 times higher than a single A. erubescens or S. violacerruber dilution after 24-h exposure, and is also higher than that of N. indicum leaf water extracts mixed with S. violacerruber dilution. At the end of exposure to the N-butanol extracts of A. erubescens tubers (NEAT), the EST activity in snail liver decreased and some enzyme bands (EST 1 and EST 3 in exposure to NEAT) disappeared but the activities of SOD 1 increased. The effect was more obvious in mixture treatment than in single NEAT or SD treatment. The results indicated that molluscicidal activities of plant and microorganism could be more effective than single plant. The decline of the detoxic ability in snail liver cells could be the reason of the snail dying. PMID:21783953
Background Cardiac toxicity due to ingestion of oleander plant seeds in Sri Lanka and some other South Asian countries is very common. At present symptomatic oleander seed poisoning carries a mortality of 10% in Sri Lanka and treatment of yellow oleander poisoning is limited to gastric decontamination and atropine administration. The only proven effective antidote is digoxin antibodies but these are not available for routine use because of the high cost. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a new and inexpensive antidote for patients with life threatening arrhythmias due oleander poisoning. Method/design We set up a randomised double blind clinical trial to assess the effectiveness of Fructose 1, 6 diphosphate (FDP) in acute yellow oleander poisoning patients admitted to the adult medical wards of a tertiary hospital in Sri Lanka. Patients will be initially resuscitated following the national guidelines and eligible patients will be randomised to receive either FDP or an equal amount of normal saline. The primary outcome measure for this study is the sustained reversion to sinus rhythm with a heart rate greater than 50/min within 2 hours of completion of FDP/placebo bolus. Secondary outcomes include death, reversal of hyperkalaemia on the 6, 12, 18 and 24 hour samples and maintenance of sinus rhythm on the holter monitor. Analysis will be on intention-to-treat. Discussion This trial will provide information on the effectiveness of FDP in yellow oleander poisoning. If FDP is effective in cardiac glycoside toxicity, it would provide substantial benefit to the patients in rural Asia. The drug is inexpensive and thus could be made available at primary care hospitals if proven to be effective. Trial Registration Current Controlled trial ISRCTN71018309
To discover drug candidates with anti-angiogenesis activity for cancer therapeutics, three galactooligosaccharides (OJ1-OJ3) were prepared by acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharides from Nerium indicum Mill. Their structures were characterized using sugar analysis, methylation analysis, and both 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, complemented by mass spectrometry. They were hexasaccharide (OJ1), a pentasaccharide (OJ2), and an undecasaccharide (OJ3), which was a new linear galactan. Bioactivity testing in vitro showed that OJ2 and OJ3 significantly inhibited the HMEC-1 (human microvascular endothelial cell) cell tube formation. PMID:19054503
The leaves of Nerium indicum Mill. have been utilized traditionally to cure cancer. By Bioassay (BST) guided isolation method, six compounds were isolated from the CHCl3 extract of the leaves. Selectivity of these compounds (in 0.6-12,500 ng/ml) was tested on various human cancer (MCF7, EVSA-T, T47D, H226, IGROV, A498, WIDR, M19, HeLa) and normal (Vero) cells in vitro. Doxorubicin and cysplatin were used as positive controls. The result indicated that NiO2D (5alpha-oleandrin) possessed the best cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells (IC50, 8.38 x10(-6) mM) and NiO2C (16, 17-dehidrodeasetil-5alpha-oleandrin) on A498 cells (IC50, 1.43 x 10(-6) mM). Those two compounds were not cytotoxic to normal cell. PMID:19024965
Mae, S H W; Sofia, M; Bolhuis, R L H; Nooter, K; Oostrum, R G; Subagus, W; Ibnu, G G
The sex pheromone emitted by the female oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii (Homoptera, Diaspididae), has been isolated and characterized as (1R,2S)-cis-2-isopropenyl-1-(4?-methyl-4?-penten-1?-yl)cyclobutaneethanol acetate by using advanced MS and NMR spectroscopic methods, as well as a variety of microderivatization sequences. The structure has been confirmed by stereo- and enantioselective synthesis of the four possible stereoisomers. The absolute configuration has been determined by comparison of the activity of the cis (1S,2R) and (1R,2S) enantiomers with that exhibited by the natural material in greenhouse bioassays and field tests. The structure of this sesquiterpenoid pheromone is new in the coccids and in the pheromone field in general.
Cardiac glycosides from fresh leaves of Nerium indicum were evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail: GAS) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that LC(50) value of cardiac glycosides against GAS was time dependent and the LC(50) value at 96 h was as low as 3.71 mg/L, which was comparable with that of metaldehyde at 72 h (3.88 mg/L). These results indicate that cardiac glycosides could be an effective molluscicide against GAS. The toxicological mechanism of cardiac glucosides on GAS was also evaluated through changes of selected biochemical parameters, including cholinesterase (ChE) and esterase (EST) activities, glycogen and protein contents in hepatopancreas tissues of GAS. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides, GAS showed lower activities of EST isozyme in the later stages of the exposure period as well as drastically decreased glycogen content, although total protein content was not affected at the end of 24 and 48 h followed by a significant depletion at the end of 72 and 96 h. The initial increase followed by a decline of ChE activity was also observed during the experiment. These results suggest that cardiac glycosides seriously impair normal physiological metabolism, resulting in fatal alterations in major biochemical constituents of hepatopancreas tissues of P. canaliculata. PMID:21843803
Using a modified multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa based on the same seven housekeeping genes employed in a previously published MLST, we studied the genetic diversity of two subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi, which cause Pierce's disease and oleander leaf scorch, respectively. Typing of 85 U.S. isolates (plus one from northern Mexico) of X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa from 15 different plant hosts and 21 isolates of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi from 4 different hosts in California and Texas supported their subspecific status. Analysis using the MLST genes plus one cell-surface gene showed no significant genetic differentiation based on geography or host plant within either subspecies. Two cases of homologous recombination (with X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, the third U.S. subspecies) were detected in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. Excluding recombination, MLST site polymorphism in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (0.048%) and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi (0.000%) was substantially lower than in X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (0.240%), consistent with the hypothesis that X. fastidiosa subspp. fastidiosa and sandyi were introduced into the United States (probably just prior to 1880 and 1980, respectively). Using whole-genome analysis, we showed that MLST is more effective at genetic discrimination at the specific and subspecific level than other typing methods applied to X. fastidiosa. Moreover, MLST is the only technique effective in detecting recombination. PMID:20465416
The impact of the leaching of oleander, Neriumoleander, and willow, Salix pedicellata, leaves on the aquatic environment was investigated in the laboratory. The leaves were collected on the banks of a Moroccan stream, leachate polyphenols were analysed, and leachate toxic effects on the dominant gastropod species of the stream were investigated. The following factors were considered: leaf species, dry
Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal.
Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A
Pairs of budgerigars were given samples, by gavage, of plants considered potentially toxic to pet birds. Samples were prepared by flash-freezing and powdering fresh plant material in liquid nitrogen and resuspending the material in deionized water for administration. Of the 19 plants tested, only 6 induced clinical signs of illness; these plants included yew, oleander, clematis, avocado, black locust, and Virginia creeper (Taxus media, Neriumoleander, Clematis sp, Persea americana, Robinia pseudoacacia, Parthenocissus quinquefolio). PMID:1577644
The responses of photosynthesis, transpiration and leaf conductance to changes in vapour pressure deficit were followed in well-watered plants of the herbaceous species, Helianthus annuus, Helianthus nuttallii, Pisum sativum and Vigna unguiculata, and in the woody species having either sclerophyllous leaves, Arbutus unedo, Neriumoleander and Pistacia vera, or mesomorphic leaves, Corylus avellana, Gossypium hirsutum and Prunus dulcis. When the
The effect of crude extracts, obtained from Aconitum nasutum, Daphne glomerata, Hypericum androsaemum, Laurus nobilis, Neriumoleander, Olea europaea, Prunus laurocerasus, Punica granatum, Rhododendron caucasicum, and Urtica dioica on the replication of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) grown in Spodoptera frugiperda cell culture were investigated by observing changes in cytophatic effects, progeny virus concentration and viral protein (polyhedrin) synthesis.
Fifty plant extracts, four oil cakes and eight antagonistic organisms were tested against Bipolaris oryzae (Cochliobolus miyabeanus), the causal agent of brown spot disease of rice. In vitro studies indicated that two leaf extracts, Nerium\\u000a oleander and Pithecolobium dulce exerted the higher percent inhibition to mycelial growth (77.4, 75.1%) and spore germination (80.3, 80.0%) of B. oryzae. Among the four oil
Sankarasubramanian Harish; Duraiswamy Saravanakumar; Ramalingam Radjacommare; E. G. Ebenezar; K. Seetharaman
To clarify the pathway for biosynthesis of sinapyl alcohol in angiosperms, tracer experiments using stable isotopes were performed on robinia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), oleander (Nerium indicum Mill.), magnolia (Magnolia kobus DC.) and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Precursors used in the experiment were 13C- and 2H (D)-labeled [8-13C, 3-OCD3]ferulic acid and [8-13C, 3,5-OCD3]sinapic acid. The incorporation of labeled precursor into lignin
For many angiosperms, a 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL; EC 188.8.131.52) isozyme that exhibits activity with a sinapic acid substrate has not been detected in vitro. Therefore, the possible role of sinapic acid as a precursor of syringyl lignin has been questioned. To further examine this issue, heptadeutero sinapic acid &?-D, (-OCD2)2& were synthesized and fed to shoots of oleander (Nerium indicum
The impact of the leaching of oleander, Neriumoleander, and willow, Salix pedicellata, leaves on the aquatic environment was investigated in the laboratory. The leaves were collected on the banks of a Moroccan stream, leachate polyphenols were analysed, and leachate toxic effects on the dominant gastropod species of the stream were investigated. The following factors were considered: leaf species, dry or fresh state of the leaves, litter concentration, duration of leaching, temperature. Within the first 8-12 hrs of submersion, the litter of both species caused a great depletion of dissolved oxygen. Later, oxygen consumption decreased. Dry oleander leaves caused a greater drop in oxygen concentration than fresh oleander leaves. The opposite was observed in willow leaves, most clearly at 5 and 10°C. At higher temperatures (20 and 25°C), oxygen nearly totally disappeared under all conditions, leaving 0 to 2 mg.I -1 after 48 hours. Whether fresh or dry, oleander leaves always caused a greater oxygen depletion than willow leaves. Willow leaves contained more tannin-and non-tannin-polyphenols than oleander leaves, and their leaching released more of these compounds, especially in dry leaves. The leaching of both leaf species only had a toxic effect on the gastropods at the higher temperatures (20 and 25°C), thus suggesting that the toxic effect was mainly due to lack of oxygen in the water. At these temperatures, the toxic effect of dry leaves was greater than that of fresh leaves. Oleander proved more toxic than willow, presumably under the influence of both lack of oxygen and toxic heterosides.
We compared the capacity to accumulate airborne heavy metals of two lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata and Parmotrema chinense) and one higher plant (Neriumoleander) at a very densely populated urban site near Naples. After 15, 45, 75, and 120 days of exposure at four sites with different levels of air pollution, equal portions of thalli and 20 leaves were collected, and four environmentally significant elements, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb, were measured by inductively coupled plasma analysis. To compare the accumulation rates of lichens and the vascular plant, we determined an index of relative accumulation rate of pollutants during time and the ratio between the concentrations of each element in exposed samples to that of control samples (exposed-to-control ratio). Our data indicate F. caperata as being the most suitable bioaccumulator, followed by P. chinense. N. oleander was also found to be a useful heavy metal biomonitor though not suitable as a bioaccumulator. PMID:19255863
Aprile, Giuseppa Grazia; Di Salvatore, Mina; Carratù, Giovanna; Mingo, Antonio; Carafa, Anna Maria
Summary Le laurier rose ou Neriumoleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation.
Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.
Cardiac glycoside poisoning from the ingestion of plants, particularly of oleanders, occurs with reasonable frequency in tropical and subtropical areas. We have assessed a variety of plant specimens for their cardiac glycoside content by means of radioimmunoassays with antibodies that differ in their specificity for cardiac glycosides. Significant amounts of immunoreactive cardiac glycoside were found to be present in the ornamental shrubs: yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana); oleander (Neriumoleander); wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis); bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera); sea-mango (Cerbera manghas); and frangipani (Plumeria rubra); and in the milkweeds: redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias curassavica); balloon cotton (Asclepias fruiticosa); king's crown (Calotropis procera); and rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia). The venom gland of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) also contained large quantities of cardiac glycosides. The competitive immunoassay method permits the rapid screening of specimens that are suspected to contain cardiac glycosides. Awareness of the existence of these plant and animal toxins and their dangers allows them to be avoided and poisoning prevented. The method is also useful for the confirmation of the presence of cardiac glycosides in serum in cases of poisoning. PMID:3086679
The study presents a case of fatal poisoning with oleander leaves in an adult diabetic male. After repeated vomiting, and gastrointestinal distress the patient was admitted at the hospital with cardiac symptoms 1h after the ingestion. Urine samples were assayed immunochemically and by GC-MS for drugs of abuse and for general toxicological screen. Blood was analyzed for alcohol and volatiles by static head space GC-MS. Blood and oleander leaves were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for oleandrin and related compounds, the main cardiac glycosides of Neriumoleander. Oleandrin was detected by LC-MS/MS in the blood sample at a concentration of approximately 10 ng/ml. Another cardiac glycoside with pseudo-molecular ion of m/z 577, a likely structural isomer of oleandrin, was also detected in the blood and oleander leaves. However, by using the response as a function of concentration for oleandrin, this cardiac glycoside was roughly estimated at a concentration of approximately 10 ng/ml in the deceased blood. This would give a total fatal blood concentration of cardiac glycosides of about approximately 20 ng/ml in the deceased blood. PMID:18602779
Wasfi, Ibrahim A; Zorob, Omar; Al katheeri, Nawal A; Al Awadhi, Anwar M
Assessment of the flammability of ornamental vegetation (particularly hedges) planted around houses is necessary in light of the increasing urbanization of the wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) and the high fire occurrence in such areas. The structure and flammability of seven of the species most frequently planted as hedges in Provence (southeastern France) were studied at particle level. Spatial repartition of the different types of fuel particles within plants was assessed by means of the cube method. The leaf flammability was assessed using an epiradiator as a burning device, and measurements of foliar physical characteristics and gross heat of combustion (GHC) helped to explain the results of burning experiments. Co-inertia analysis revealed that species with thin leaves were quick to ignite ( Pyracantha coccinea, Phyllostachys sp.) and species with high leaf GHC burned the longest ( Pittosporum tobira, Neriumoleander). Species presenting high ignitability ( Photinia fraseri, Phyllostachys sp. and Pyracantha coccinea) were characterized by high foliar surface area-to-volume ratio, and species presenting lower ignitability were characterized by high GHC ( Pittosporum tobira, Neriumoleander, Cupressus sempervirens). Hierarchical cluster analysis of the flammability variables (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition and flaming duration) categorized the relative flammability of the seven species (including dead Cupressus sempervirens) in five clusters of species from poorly flammable ( Pittosporum tobira) to extremely flammable (dead Cupressus sempervirens).This study provides useful information for reducing fire risk in WUIs in the study area.
Ganteaume, Anne; Jappiot, Marielle; Lampin, Corinne; Guijarro, Mercedes; Hernando, Carmen
The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Neriumoleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Neriumoleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation.
The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Neriumoleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Neriumoleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110
To clarify the pathway for biosynthesis of sinapyl alcohol in angiosperms, tracer experiments using stable isotopes were performed on robinia ( Robinia pseudoacacia L.), oleander ( Nerium indicum Mill.), magnolia ( Magnolia kobus DC.) and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Precursors used in the experiment were (13)C- and (2)H ( D)-labeled [8-(13)C, 3-OCD(3)]ferulic acid and [8-(13)C, 3,5-OCD(3)]sinapic acid. The incorporation of labeled precursor into lignin was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the products of derivatization followed by reductive cleavage. Crude extracts of differentiating xylem or stems from these plants were also assayed for 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL; EC 184.108.40.206) activity using sinapic acid and ferulic acid as substrates. In robinia and oleander, 4CL activity toward sinapic acid was detected, and labeled sinapic acids were incorporated into syringyl lignin. These results indicate that robinia and oleander have a pathway that produces sinapyl alcohol from sinapic acid via sinapoyl-CoA. By contrast, in magnolia and Arabidopsis, 4CL activity toward sinapic acid could not be detected, and labeled sinapic acid was not incorporated into lignin. These results suggest that syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms operates via multiple pathways that depend on the species. PMID:12520342
Growth and nutrient uptake of seven tree species were evaluated with the goal of selecting the species that can be used for wastewater enhancement by dendro-purification, or green tree filtering, and for restoration of riparian woodlands. Trees were grown in pots with an inert mixture of perlite and vermiculite and irrigated with either nutrient solution or treated wastewater We measured the effects of species and irrigation water on biomass and nutrient content of leaves, stems and roots. For most of the species, treated wastewater had a positive effect on final biomass and above ground: below ground ratio compared to that of nutrient solution. However, growth of Cupressus sempervirens and Populus nigra were inhibited by water sodium concentration. Neriumoleander, Tamarix africana and Vitex agnus-castus were the species with the greatest final biomass. Pistacia terebinthus had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus content in leaves, stems and roots, while N. oleander and V. agnus-castus showed the best potassium accumulation. In general, P. terebinthus, N. oleander, T. africana and V. agnus-castus were the best qualified species for purification of wastewater. PMID:18972692
Adrover, M; Forss, A L; Ramon, G; Vadell, J; Moya, G; Taberner, A Martinez
The phase behavior of thylakoid polar lipids from plants sensitive to chilling injury was investigated by calorimetry, electron spin resonance spectroscopy of spin labels, and fluorescence intensity after labeling with trans-parinaric acid. The plants used were oleander (Neriumoleander), mung bean (Vigna radiata L. var Mungo), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Grosse Lisse). For all plants the initiation temperature for the calorimetric exotherm was coincident (±1°C) with the transition determined by the increase in the temperature coefficient of spin label motion and fluorescence intensity of trans-parinaric acid. For oleander plants, grown at 45°C, the transition was at 7°C while for plants from the same clone, grown at 20°C, it was at ?2°C. For mung bean and tomato the transition was between 9 and 12°C. The similarity in the transition detected by spin labeling and fluorescence intensity suggest that spin labels, like the fluorescent label trans-parinaric acid, preferentially partition into domains of ordered lipid. The coincidence of the temperature for initiation of the transition, determined by the three techniques, shows that each is a valid method of assessing a phase transition in membrane polar lipids.
The increasing urbanization of Wildland-Urban Interfaces (WUI) as well as the high fire occurrence in these areas requires the assessment and the ranking of the flammability of the ornamental vegetation surrounding houses especially that planted in hedges. Thus, the flammability of seven species, among those most frequently planted in hedges in Provence (South-Eastern France), were studied at particle level and at dead surface fuel level (litters) under laboratory conditions. The flammability parameters (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition, flaming duration) of the very fine particles (live leaves and particles <2 mm in diameter) were measured using an epiradiator as burning device. The flammability parameters (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition, flaming duration and initial flame propagation) of the undisturbed litter samples were recorded during burning experiments performed on fire bench. Burning experiments using the epiradiator showed that live leaves of Phyllostachys sp., Photinia frasei and Prunus laurocerasus had the shortest time-to-ignition and the highest ignition frequency and flaming duration whereas Pittosporum tobira and Neriumoleander were the longest to ignite with a low frequency. Phyllostachys sp. and Neriumoleander litters were the shortest to ignite while Prunus laurocerasus litter had the lowest bulk density and long time-to-ignition, but high flame propagation. Photinia fraseri litter ignited frequently and had a high flame spread while Pittosporum tobira litter ignited the least frequently and for the shortest duration. Cupressus sempervirens litter had the highest bulk density and the longest flaming duration but the lowest flame propagation. Pyracantha coccinea litter was the longest to ignite and flame propagation was low but lasted a long time. Hierarchical cluster analysis performed on the flammability parameters of live leaves and of litters ranked the seven species in four distinct clusters from the most flammable (Prunus laurocerasus and Pyracantha coccinea) to the least flammable (Pittosporum tobira and Neriumoleander); the other species displaying two groups of intermediate flammabilities (Phyllostachys sp.- Photinia fraseri and Cupressus sempervirens ). The species with highly flammable characteristics should not be used in hedges planted in WUIs in South-Eastern France.
Products from the plant species Neriumoleander and, Urginea maritima, are prepared and tested as wildlife repellents comparing them with digitalis products. Chemical compounds derived from these plants including oleandrin, oleandrigenin, scillirosidin, digitoxigenin and digoxigenin are shown to cause nausea and emesis at low doses in pigeons and to repel, mice, rats, gophers, meadow voles and mountain beavers. After ingestion these animals quickly learn to avoid targets treated with the plant-derived repellents. When the remembrance of a treated food or other target lasts for an extended period of time it can be termed an aversion conditioning agent. Such products can be used for the protection of other plants, seeds, buildings, structures, communication cables and animals exposed to wildlife.
Since, landfill areas are still the most widely used solid waste disposal method across the world, leachate generated from landfills should be given importance. Leachate of landfills exerts environmental risks mostly on surface and groundwater with its high pollutant content, which may cause unbearable water quality. This leads to the obligation for decontamination and remediation program to be taken into progress for the landfill area. Among a number of alternatives to cope with leachate, one is to employ the technology of phytoremediation. The main objective of this study was to determine the N accumulation ratios and the effects of landfill leachate in diluted proportions of chosen ratios (as 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, 0), on the growth and development of Cynodon dactylon, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Paspalum notatum, Pennisetum clandestinum, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Neriumoleander, Pelargonium peltatum and Kochia scoparia species. In order to simulate the actual conditions of the landfill, soil covering the landfill is taken and used as medium for the trials. The study showed that S. secundatum, K. scoparia and N. oleander species had an impressive survival rate of 100%, being irrigated with pure leachate, while the others' survival rates were between 0 to 35% under the same conditions. As expected, application of leachate to the plants caused an increase in the accumulation of N, in the upper parts of all plants except P. peltatum. The highest N content increase was observed at S. Secundatum set, accumulating 3.70 times higher than its control set, whereas P. clandestinum value was 3.41 times of its control set. PMID:19295082
In this study the magnetic properties of tree leaves were measured in order to compare their capability to accumulate particles, to establish the relationship between magnetic properties and chemical data and to assess the particle pollution in selected locations in the cities of Braga, Porto, Valongo and Trancoso-Reboleiro, northern Portugal. In Porto, Braga and Valongo, leaves from the evergreen Neriumoleander were sampled each month during a year. N. oleander and deciduous Quercus spp. and Platanus spp. samples were collected in the same site in Porto, in order to determine the ability of these different leaves to accumulate particles. The leaves of deciduous Tilia spp. were collected in Porto and in a rural area (Trancoso-Reboleiro) so that a comparison could be established between them. The results indicated a contrast between the urban and the rural areas. The highest concentration of magnetic particles was found in the sampling site of Valongo and the lowest concentration in the sampling site of Trancoso-Reboleiro. In Porto, the results have shown that the Quercus leaves possessed the highest capability to accumulate particles even though it is a deciduous species. The IRM acquisition curves and the S-300 ratios found in the samples of the urban areas indicated the presence of magnetite-like structures. SIRM/? ratio revealed particles whose dimensions ranged between 5 ?m and 8 ?m in urban areas. The chemical elements copper and iron have a significant positive correlation with ? and SIRM, which highlights the use of magnetic properties as a proxy for the concentration of these metals in atmospheric dust. The magnetic properties were interpreted taking into consideration the rainfall peaks and then compared with the PM10 concentration levels monitored in an air quality station in Porto. Our data corroborated that magnetic properties provide a fast and inexpensive tool to evaluate long-term urban pollution from anthropogenic origin, especially heavy traffic.
Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Lacerda, Maria João; Gomes, Celeste
This study tests two predictions from a recently proposed model for stomatal responses to humidity and temperature. The model is based on water potential equilibrium between the guard cells and the air at the bottom of the stomatal pore and contains three independent variables: gs(0), Z and ?. gs(0) is the value of stomatal conductance that would occur at saturating humidity and will vary among leaves and with CO2 and light. The value of Z is determined primarily by the resistance to heat transfer from the epidermis to the evaporating site and the value of ? is determined primarily by the resistance to water vapour diffusion from the evaporating site to the guard cells. This leads to the two predictions that were tested. Firstly, the values of Z and ? should be constant for leaves of a given species grown under given conditions, although gs(0) should vary among leaves and with light and CO2. And secondly, the ratio of Z to ? should be higher in leaves having their stomata in crypts because the distance for heat transfer is greater than that for water vapour diffusion. Data from three species, Neriumoleander, Pastinaca sativum and Xanthium strumarium support these two predictions. PMID:23072325
Extracts of Chinese herbal medicines from plants representing 13 families were tested for their ability to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes. Effective concentration (EC?? and EC??) levels for 18 of the extracts were determined in laboratory assays with Meloidogyne javanica juveniles and all stages of Pratylenchus vulnus. Efficacy of 17 extracts was tested against M. javanica in soil. Generally, EC?? and EC?? values determined in the laboratory were useful indicators for application rates in the soil. Extracts tested from plants in the Liliaceae reduced galling of tomato by M. javanica and were not phytotoxic. Similarly, isothiocyanate-yielding plants in the Brassicaceae suppressed root galling without phytotoxicity. Other plant extracts, including those from Azadirachta indica, Neriumoleander, and Hedera helix, suppressed root galling but were phytotoxic at the higher concentrations tested. Many of these plant sources have been tested elsewhere. Inconsistency in results across studies points to the need for identification of active components and for determination of concentration levels of these components when plant residues or extracts are applied to soil. PMID:19265919
Oleandrin, a cardiac glycoside component of Neriumoleander, has been shown to induce apoptosis in malignant cells. While human tumor cells are very sensitive to growth inhibition by oleandrin, murine tumor cells are extremely resistant. Using human BRO and mouse B16 melanoma cell lines, we explored several possible determinants of cell sensitivity to oleandrin and compared with ouabain. The studies include Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity and its isoforms as well as the cellular uptake of these cardiac glycosides. Oleandrin and ouabain induced apoptosis was detected in BRO cells while no evidence of cell death was observed in B16 cells even at concentrations 1000-fold higher than that used for BRO cells. Cellular uptake of oleandrin and ouabain was 3-4 fold greater in human BRO tumor cells than murine tumor cells. Partially purified Na+, K(+)-ATPase from human BRO cells was inhibited at a concentration that was 1000-fold less than that was required to inhibit mouse B16 enzyme to the same extent. Using Western blot analyses, human BRO cells were found to express both the sensitive alpha3 isoform and the less sensitive alpha1 isoform of Na+, K(+)-ATPase while mouse B16 cells expressed only the alpha1 isoform. These data suggest that differential expressions of Na+, K(+)-ATPase activities and its isoforms in BRO and B16 cells as well as cellular drug uptake may be important determinants of tumor cell sensitivity to cardiac glycosides. PMID:19066128
Lin, Yun; Dubinsky, William P; Ho, Dah H; Felix, Edward; Newman, Robert A
Plants ofN. indicum andT. peruviana grew taller and produced more leaves underld than undernd condition. WhileT. peruviana plants were taller and had more leaves undernd than undersd, those ofN. indicum did not differ under the two photoperiods. In both caseslds delayed the onset of bud dormancy but hastened the initiation of floral buds. While inT. peruviana floral buds were not
Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Neriumoleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338
Lipid-soluble cardiac glycosides such as bufalin, oleandrin, and digitoxin have been suggested as potent agents that might be useful as anticancer agents. Past research with oleandrin, a principle cardiac glycoside in Neriumoleander L. (Apocynaceae), has been shown to induce cell death through induction of apoptosis. In PANC-1 cells, a human pancreatic cancer cell line, cell death occurs not through apoptosis but rather through autophagy. Oleandrin at low nanomolar concentrations potently inhibited cell proliferation associated with induction of a profound G(2)/M cell cycle arrest. Inhibition of cell cycle was not accompanied by any significant sub G1 accumulation of cells, suggesting a nonapoptotic mechanism. Oleandrin-treated cells exhibited time- and concentration-dependent staining with acridine orange, a lysosomal stain. Subcellular changes within PANC-1 cells included mitochondrial condensation and translocation to a perinuclear position accompanied by vacuoles. Use of a fluorescent oleandrin analog (BODIPY-oleandrin) revealed co-localization of the drug within cell mitochondria. Damaged mitochondria were found within autophagosome structures. Formation of autophagosomes was confirmed through electron microscopy and detection of green fluorescent protein-labeled light chain 3 association with autophagosome membranes. Also observed was a drug-mediated inhibition of pAkt formation and up-regulation of pERK. Transfection of Akt into PANC-1 cells or inhibition of pERK activation by MAPK inhibitor abrogated oleandrin-mediated inhibition of cell growth, suggesting that the reduction of pAkt and increased pERK are important to oleandrin's ability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation. The data provide insight into the mechanisms and role of a potent, lipid-soluble cardiac glycoside (oleandrin) in control of human pancreatic cancer proliferation. PMID:18048883
The potential of tannins from 21 medicinal and aromatic plant leaves as antimethanogenic additives in ruminant feeds was investigated. The effect of tannin from these leaves on rumen fermentation parameters, protozoa population and methanogenesis was studied by incubating the samples [200?mg dry matter (DM)] without and with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 (400?mg DM) as a tannin binder during 24-h incubation in the in vitro Hohenheim gas method. Based on the methane percentage estimated in the total gas produced, methane production in millilitre was calculated [methane volume (ml)?=?methane %?×?total gas produced (ml) in 24?h]. In the samples, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre (g/kg DM) ranged from 113 to 172 and from 352 to 444 respectively. The total phenol (TP; g/kg DM) content was highest in Terminalia chebula (274) followed by Hemigraphis colorata (71) and Sapindus laurifolia (51) respectively. In the remaining samples, it was <43?g/kg DM. Activity of tannins, as represented by the increase in gas volume on addition of PEG, ranged from 0 to 133%, with the highest being recorded in T. chebula. The per cent increase in methane on PEG addition was 0 for Ammi majus, Aristolochia indica, Cascabela thevetia, Ipomea nil and Lantana camara, illustrating that tannins present in these samples had no effect on methane concentration. The PEG addition increased the total protozoa count by >50% in A. indica and C. thevetica. One of the important findings of our study was that of the 21 samples screened, Entodinia population increased in 12 with PEG as compared to 7 where Holotricha increased, indicating higher susceptibility of Entodinia to tannin. There was no increase in the protozoa population with PEG when incubating Cardiospermum halicacabum, Clerodendrum inerme, Dioscorea floribunda, Neriumoleander and Selastras paniculatus, which strongly suggested that methane suppression recorded in these samples was not because of a defaunating effect of their tannins per se. The fermentation pattern reflected increased total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration from 0 to 28.3% with PEG addition among the leaves. Our results confirmed further observations that methanogenesis in vitro is not essentially related to density of protozoa population. Secondly, medicinal and aromatic plants such as C. inerme, Gymnema sylvestre and Sapindus laurifolia containing tannins appear to have a potential to suppress in vitro methanogenesis. PMID:22385477
Bhatta, R; Baruah, L; Saravanan, M; Suresh, K P; Sampath, K T
Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) has many plant hosts and causes serious diseases of several crops and ornamentals. Strains of Xf can be classified by the hosts that may be infected. For example, grape strains do not infect oleander and the oleander strains do not infect grape. We are using a DNA Oligo-Microarray based on the genomic sequence of the Xf grape
A genome-wide search was performed to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci among the available sequence databases from four strains of Xylella fastidiosa (strains causing Pierce's disease, citrus variegated chlorosis, almond leaf scorch, and oleander leaf scorch). Thirty-four SSR loci were selected for SSR primer design and were validated in PCR experiments. These multilocus SSR primers, distributed across the X. fastidiosa genome, clearly differentiated and clustered X. fastidiosa strains collected from grape, almond, citrus, and oleander. They are well suited for differentiating strains and studying X. fastidiosa epidemiology and population genetics. PMID:16085890
Lin, Hong; Civerolo, Edwin L; Hu, Rong; Barros, Samuel; Francis, Marta; Walker, M Andrew
The latex of four plants viz. Euphorbia royleana, Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae), Nerium indicum and Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae) caused significant reduction in acid\\/alkaline phosphatase activity and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity in nervous tissue of freshwater air breathing fish Channa marulius. The reduction in the activity of both phosphatases and AChE were time as well as dose dependent.
The latex of four plants viz. Euphorbia royleana, Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae), Nerium indicum and Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae) caused significant reduction in acid/alkaline phosphatase activity and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity in nervous tissue of freshwater air breathing fish Channa marulius. The reduction in the activity of both phosphatases and AChE were time as well as dose dependent. PMID:15910912
The availability of the complete sequences of four Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) strains (i.e., Pierce's disease of grapevine, citrus variegated chlorosis, almond leaf scorch, and oleander leaf scorch, has facilitated the identification of repeated sequence loci. A genome wide search was performed for ide...
Four continuous cell lines were established from the embryos of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata, an economically important insect vector of bacterial pathogens of grape, almond, citrus, oleander, and other agricultural and ornamental plantings. The cell lines were designated G...
A genome-wide search was performed to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci among the available sequence databases from four strains of Xylella fastidiosa (strains causing Pierce's disease, citrus variegated chlorosis, almond leaf scorch, and oleander leaf scorch). Thirty-four SSR loci were selected for SSR primer design and were validated in PCR experiments. These multilocus SSR primers, distributed across the X.
Hong Lin; Edwin L. Civerolo; Rong Hu; Samuel Barros; Marta Francis; M. Andrew Walker
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi is the causal agent of olive knot disease. The strains isolated from oleander and ash belong to the pathovars nerii and fraxini, respectively. When artificially inoculated, pv. savastanoi causes disease also on ash, and pv. nerii attacks also olive and ash. Surprisingly nothing is known yet about their distribution in nature on these hosts and
Stefania Tegli; Matteo Cerboneschi; Ilaria Marsili Libelli; Elena Santilli
The glassy-winged sharpshooter, (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), as a vector of Xylella fastidiosa, is a threat to grapes, almonds, stone fruit and oleander and impacts citrus and nursery crops throughout much of California. It remains an important high-risk quarantine pest for the Napa and Sonoma Valleys and other uninfested areas. Accurate and precise methods for detection of new colony infestations
Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogen that causes leaf scorch and related diseases in over 100 plant species, including Pierce's disease in grapevines (PD), phony peach disease (PP), plum leaf scald (PLS), and leaf scorch in almond (ALS), oak (OAK), and oleander (OLS). We used a high-resolution DNA sequence approach to investigate the evolutionary relationships, geographic variation, and divergence times among
Erin L. Schuenzel; Mark Scally; Richard Stouthamer; Leonard Nunney
The latex bearing plants Plumeria alba, Calotropis procera, Euphorbia nerrifolia, Nerium indicum and Mimusops elengi were evaluated as potential renewable sources of energy and chemicals. Plant parts (leaf, stem, bark) and also whole plants were analyzed for elemental composition, oil, polyphenol, hydrocarbons, crude protein, ?-cellulose, lignin and ash. The dry biomass yields were between 4.47 and 13.74 kg\\/plant. The carbon
Plants are the only living organisms which have to suffer a lot from automobile exhaust pollution because they remain static at their habitat. But such roadside plants like Nerium indicum Mill., Boerhaavia diffusa L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cephalandra indica Naud., and Tabemaemontana divaricata L. can easily avoid the effects of air pollution by altering their physiological pathways pertaining to photosynthesis and respiration. Stomatal closure in Boerhaavia, Amaranthus, Cephlandra and stomatal clogging in Nerium and Tabemaemontana help these plants in preventing the entry of poisonous gases. The increased activity of the enzyme Phosphoenol Pyruvate Carboxylase (PEPCase) belonging to C4 pathway helps Nerium and Boerhaavia (both C3 plants) in carbon fixation under stress condition. Photorespiration is favoured in Amaranthus, Cephalandra and Tabernaemontana to compensate for the over production of ATP in them. Owing an inefficient gaseous exchange in Boerhaavia and Tabemaemontana, the activity of Glucose 6--Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6-PD) also increases for the preferential shift to Pentose Phosphate Pathway to produce excess NADPH+H+ which are likely to re-oxidize by metabolic reactions not linked to electron transport chain. PMID:16850874
The effect of plants (milo, oleander and buffelgrass) and hexadecane (1 g\\/kg of soil) on the diversity of hexadecane-degraders\\u000a in a coastal soil was investigated. Hexadecane was rapidly degraded during the first 56 days. Its depletion was not plant-enhanced\\u000a but was slightly retarded by milo and buffelgrass. The diversity of the dominant cultured hexadecane-degrading bacteria was\\u000a based on sequencing of the V6-8
Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-dwelling, insect-transmitted, gamma-proteobacterium that causes diseases in many plants, including grapevine, citrus, periwinkle, almond, oleander, and coffee. X. fastidiosa has an unusu- ally broad host range, has an extensive geographical distribution throughout the American continent, and induces diverse disease phenotypes. Previous molecular analyses indicated three distinct groups of X. fastidiosa isolates that were expected to be
M. A. Van Sluys; M. C. de Oliveira; C. B. Monteiro-Vitorello; Felipe Rodrigues da Silva
Acinetobacter johnsonii GX123, a Xylella gum-degrading endophyte was co-inoculated with Xylella fastidiosa strain Texas in oleander plants to determine its efficacy as a biocontrol agent in preliminary experiments. Symptoms appeared in both plants inoculated with X. fastidiosa alone and plants co-inoculated with the endophyte. However, symptoms were more severe and appeared earlier in plants inoculated with X. fastidiosa than in
Donald A. Cooksey; Neal L. Schiller; Rosina Bianco; Seung-Don Lee; Korsi Dumenyo
ABSTRACT The wavenumber,spectra for velocity and temperature in the Gulf Stream region are calculated from a decade (1994-2004) of shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements,taken as part of the Oleander Project. The velocity and temperature spectra have comparable magnitude, in terms of the kinetic and potential energy, and both indicate a k,2 slope. This discrepancy,between,directly-measured,and,altimeter-derived velocity spectra suggests a
Dong-Ping Wang; Charles N. Flagg; Kathleen Donohue; H. Thomas Rossby
ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa is an insect-borne, xylem-limited pathogenic bacterium that has been associated with a rise in incidence of diseased landscape ornamentals in southern California. The objective of this study was to genetically characterize strains isolated from ornamental hosts to understand their distribution and identity. Strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from ornamentals were characterized using a multiprimer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, and sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR). Based on RAPD-PCR and 16S-23S rDNA ISR, strains isolated from daylily, jacaranda, and magnolia clustered with members of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi and caused oleander leaf scorch but not Pierce's disease symptoms in glasshouse assays on oleander and grape, respectively. This demonstrated both that our groupings based on genetic characterization were valid and that strains of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi are present in hosts other than oleander. Strains isolated from Spanish broom, cherry, and one strain isolated from western redbud clustered with X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa members. Strains isolated from purple-leafed plum, olive, peach, plum, sweetgum, maidenhair tree, crape myrtle, and another western redbud strain clustered with members of X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex. All strains isolated from mulberry and one from heavenly bamboo formed a separate cluster that has not yet been defined as a subspecies. PMID:18943935
Hernandez-Martinez, Rufina; de la Cerda, Karla A; Costa, Heather S; Cooksey, Donald A; Wong, Francis P
Heather (Calluna vulgaris), rosebay willowherb (Epilobium angustifolium), wavy hair-grass (Deschampsia flexuosa) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) are typical species at boreal clear-cut sites. In this study, we measured their photosynthesis separately in the growing season of 2005 using a manual chamber. All measured species showed clear and species-specific seasonal cycles of photosynthetic activity (Pmax). The maxima of C. vulgaris and E. angustifolium occurred around June and July, while that of R. idaeus occurred as late as August. A simple model of photosynthetic activity is presented, addressing the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris was mainly explained by temperature history when the soil moisture is high. The activity of deciduous D. flexuosa also followed the temperature history, unlike the activities of E. angustifolium and R. idaeus. During a short drought, some shoots decreased their Pmax levels but none of the species showed similar reactions between individuals. We also observed that the comparison of the whole-plant Pmax or respiration of different-sized individuals were less scattered than the results based on full-grown leaf mass, implying that species-specific rates of photosynthesis at ground level are rather similar regardless of the plant size. Using species composition and continuous temperature and light measurements, we upscaled the species-specific process rates and integrated fixed and respired CO2 of ground vegetation for the entire 2005 growing season. The photosynthetic production per surface area of soil was 760 g C m-2 y-1 at the fertile site and 300 g C m-2 y-1 at the infertile site. During the snow-free period (18 April-21 November), the above ground parts of measured species released 75 g C m-2 y-1 at the infertile site. At the fertile site, E. angustifolium and R. idaeus respired 22 and 12 g C m-2 y-1, respectively.
The molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from five highly potential plants, Annona squamosa seed, Nerium indicum Leaves, Stemona tuberose root, Cyperus rotundus corm and Derris elliptica root was assessed to Pomacea canaliculata. D. elliptica root and C. rotundus corm extracts showed the highest toxicity against 3-month old snails which have LC50 as 23.68 +/- 2.96 mg/l and 133.20 +/- 7.94 mg/l, respectively. The C. rotundus corm extracts were chosen for detoxification enzyme in vivo assay which shows esterase and glutathione S-transferase activity in stomach, intestinal tracts and digestive glands of survival treated P. canaliculata were inhibited. PMID:21542482
Ruamthum, W; Visetson, S; Milne, J R; Bullangpoti, V
Pseudomonas savastanoi is a serious pathogen of Olive, Oleander, Ash, and several other Oleaceae. Its epiphytic or endophytic presence in asymptomatic plants is crucial for the spread of Olive and Oleander knot disease, as already ascertained for P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Psv) on Olive and for pv. nerii (Psn) on Oleander, while no information is available for pv. fraxini (Psf) on Ash. Nothing is known yet about the distribution on the different host plants and the real host range of these pathovars in nature, although cross-infections were observed following artificial inoculations. A multiplex Real-Time PCR assay was recently developed to simultaneously and quantitatively discriminate in vitro and in planta these P. savastanoi pathovars, for routine culture confirmation and for epidemiological and diagnostical studies. Here an innovative High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA)-based assay was set up to unequivocally discriminate Psv, Psn and Psf, according to several single nucleotide polymorphisms found in their Type Three Secretion System clusters. The genetic distances among 56 P. savastanoi strains belonging to these pathovars were also evaluated, confirming and refining data previously obtained by fAFLP. To our knowledge, this is the first time that HRMA is applied to a bacterial plant pathogen, and one of the few multiplex HRMA-based assays developed so far. This protocol provides a rapid, sensitive, specific tool to differentiate and detect Psv, Psn and Psf strains, also in vivo and against other related bacteria, with lower costs than conventional multiplex Real-Time PCR. Its application is particularly suitable for sanitary certification programs for P. savastanoi, aimed at avoiding the spreading of this phytopathogen through asymptomatic plants. PMID:22295075
Summary Although the high rate of elderly suicide is conventionally explained as being due to greater intent to die, we have noted elderly Sri Lankans dying after relatively mild poisoning. Using data from yellow oleander poisoning, we investigated the effect of age on outcome in 1697 patients, controlling for gender and amount ingested. In fully-adjusted models, people aged >64yrs were 13.8 (95%CI 3.6-53.0) times more likely to die than those aged <25yrs. The high number of elderly suicides globally is likely to be due, in part, to the difficulty they face in surviving the effects of both the poisoning and its treatment.
Eddleston, Michael; Dissanayake, Mathisha; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Warrell, David A; Gunnell, David
Infestation of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) with hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae) has caused widespread mortality of this key canopy species throughout much of the southern Appalachian Mountains in the past decade. Because eastern hemlock is heavily concentrated in riparian habitats, maintains a dense canopy, and has an evergreen leaf habit, its loss is expected to have a major impact on forest processes, including transpiration (E(t)). Our goal was to estimate changes in stand-level E(t) since HWA infestation, and predict future effects of forest regeneration on forest E(t) in declining eastern hemlock stands where hemlock represented 50-60% of forest basal area. We used a combination of community surveys, sap flux measurements, and empirical models relating sap flux-scaled leaf-level transpiration (E(L)) to climate to estimate the change in E(t) after hemlock mortality and forecast how forest E(t) will change in the future in response to eastern hemlock loss. From 2004 to 2011, eastern hemlock mortality reduced annual forest E(t) by 22% and reduced winter E(t) by 74%. As hemlock mortality increased, growth of deciduous tree species--especially sweet birch (Betula lenta L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and the evergreen understory shrub rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum L.)--also increased, and these species will probably dominate post-hemlock riparian forests. All of these species have higher daytime E(L) rates than hemlock, and replacement of hemlock with species that have less conservative transpiration rates will result in rapid recovery of annual stand E(t). Further, we predict that annual stand E(t) will eventually surpass E(t) levels observed before hemlock was infested with HWA. This long-term increase in forest E(t) may eventually reduce stream discharge, especially during the growing season. However, the dominance of deciduous species in the canopy will result in a permanent reduction in winter E(t) and possible increase in winter stream discharge. The effects of hemlock die-off and replacement with deciduous species will have a significant impact on the hydrologic flux of forest transpiration, especially in winter. These results highlight the impact that invasive species can have on landscape-level ecosystem fluxes. PMID:23865229
Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills, this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux. PMID:18574960
Parasites and hosts live in communities consisting of many interacting species, but few studies have examined how communities affect parasite virulence and transmission. We studied a food web consisting of two species of milkweed, two milkweed herbivores (monarch butterfly and oleander aphid) and a monarch butterfly-specific parasite. We found that the presence of aphids increased the virulence and transmission potential of the monarch butterfly's parasite on one milkweed species. These increases were associated with aphid-induced decreases in the defensive chemicals of milkweed plants. Our experiment suggests that aphids can indirectly increase the virulence and transmission potential of monarch butterfly parasites, probably by altering the chemical composition of a shared food plant. These results indicate that species that are far removed from host-parasite interactions can alter such interactions through cascading indirect effects in the food web. As such, indirect effects within ecological communities may drive the dynamics and evolution of parasites. PMID:21375682
de Roode, Jacobus C; Rarick, Rachel M; Mongue, Andrew J; Gerardo, Nicole M; Hunter, Mark D
Pathotype differentiation within Xylella fastidiosa (Wells) is necessary to accurately identify the causal agents of several leaf scorch diseases in agronomic crops and ornamentals. Three strain groups, Pierce's disease (PD), almond leaf scorch (ALS), and oleander leaf scorch (OLS), have been described in California and inhabit multiple hosts with varied severity. An SYBR Green-based quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) protocol with a single primer set was developed for X. fastidiosa genotype differentiation utilizing melting temperature (T(m)) analysis. The goal of this work was to develop a rapid diagnostic tool that could separate X. fastidiosa strains from one another similar to the placement in previous reports. Placement of eight PD, six ALS, and six OLS strains into respective strain groups was consistent with T(m) curve analysis using a single primer set. These groupings were consistent with published data on the phylogenetic placement of the strains. PMID:17937663
We investigated the epidemiology of intentional self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka by prospectively recording 2189 admissions to two secondary hospitals. Many patients were young (median age 25 years), male (57%) and used pesticides (49%). Of the 198 who died,156 were men (case fatality 12.4%) and 42 were women (4.5%). Over half of female deaths were in those under 25 years old; male deaths were spread more evenly across age groups. Oleander and paraquat caused 74% of deaths in people under 25 years old; thereafter organophosphorous pesticides caused many deaths. Although the age pattern of self-poisoning was similar to that of industrialised countries, case fatality was more than 15 times higher and the pattern of fatal self-poisoning different. PMID:16319413
Eddleston, Michael; Gunnell, David; Karunaratne, Ayanthi; de Silva, Dhammika; Sheriff, M H Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A
Summary We investigated the epidemiology of intentional self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka by prospectively recording 2189 admissions to two secondary hospitals. Many patients were young (median age 25yrs), male (57%), and used pesticides (49%). 198 died, 156 men (case fatality 12.4%) and 42 women (4.5%). 52% of female deaths were in those <25yrs; male deaths were spread more evenly across age groups. Oleander and paraquat caused 74% of deaths in people <25yrs; thereafter organophosphorus pesticides caused many deaths. Although the age-pattern of self-poisoning was similar to industrialised countries, case-fatality was >15 times higher and the pattern of fatal self-poisoning quite different.
Eddleston, Michael; Gunnell, David; Karunaratne, Ayanthi; de Silva, Dhammika; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A
The structures of xyloglucans from several plants in the subclass Asteridae were examined to determine how their structures vary in different taxonomic orders. Xyloglucans, solubilized from plant cell walls by a sequential (enzymatic and chemical) extraction procedure, were isolated, and their structures were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All campanulids examined, including Lactuca sativa (lettuce, order Asterales), Tenacetum ptarmiciflorum (dusty miller, order Asterales), and Daucus carota (carrot, order Apiales), produce typical xyloglucans that have an XXXG-type branching pattern and contain alpha-d-Xylp-, beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Xylp-, and alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Xylp- side chains. However, the lamiids produce atypical xyloglucans. For example, previous analyses showed that Capsicum annum (pepper) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), two species in the order Solanales, and Olea europaea (olive, order Lamiales) produce xyloglucans that contain arabinosyl and galactosyl residues, but lack fucosyl residues. The XXGG-type xyloglucans produced by Solanaceous species are less branched than the XXXG-type xyloglucan produced by Olea europaea. This study shows that Ipomoea pupurea (morning glory, order Solanales), Ocimum basilicum (basil, order Lamiales), and Plantago major (plantain, order Lamiales) all produce xyloglucans that lack fucosyl residues and have an unusual XXGGG-type branching pattern in which the basic repeating core contains five glucose subunits in the backbone. Furthermore, Neruim oleander (order Gentianales) produces an XXXG-type xyloglucan that contains arabinosyl, galactosyl, and fucosyl residues. The appearance of this intermediate xyloglucan structure in oleander has implications regarding the evolutionary development of xyloglucan structure and its role in primary plant cell walls. PMID:15975566
Hoffman, Matt; Jia, Zhonghua; Peña, Maria J; Cash, Michael; Harper, April; Blackburn, Alan R; Darvill, Alan; York, William S
Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at the moment. PMID:19401984
Xylella fastidiosa Wells is a bacterial pathogen that causes a variety of plant diseases, including Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, almond leaf scorch, alfalfa dwarf, citrus variegated chlorosis, and oleander leaf scorch (OLS). Numerous strains of this pathogen have been genetically characterized, and several different strains occur in the United States. The dominant vector in southern California is the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The high mobility of this insect, and its use of large numbers of host plant species, provides this vector with ample exposure to multiple strains of X. fastidiosa during its lifetime. To learn more about the ability of this vector to acquire, retain, and transmit multiple strains of the pathogen, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect and differentiate strains of X. fastidiosa present in individual glassy-winged sharpshooter adults. Insects were sequentially exposed to plants infected with a PD strain in grapevine and an OLS strain in oleander. After sequential exposure, a few insects tested positive for both strains (7%); however, in most cases individuals tested positive for only one strain (29% PD, 41% OLS). In transmission studies, individual adults transmitted either the PD or OLS strain of the pathogen at a rate (39%) similar to that previously reported after exposure to a single strain, but no single individual transmitted both strains of the pathogen. PD and OLS strains of X. fastidiosa remained detectable in glassy-winged sharpshooter, even when insects were fed on a plant species that was not a host of the strain for 1 wk. PMID:16937656
Costa, H S; Guzman, A; Hernandez-Martinez, R; Gispert, C; Cooksey, D A
Background Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi is the causal agent of olive knot disease. The strains isolated from oleander and ash belong to the pathovars nerii and fraxini, respectively. When artificially inoculated, pv. savastanoi causes disease also on ash, and pv. nerii attacks also olive and ash. Surprisingly nothing is known yet about their distribution in nature on these hosts and if spontaneous cross-infections occur. On the other hand sanitary certification programs for olive plants, also including P. savastanoi, were launched in many countries. The aim of this work was to develop several PCR-based tools for the rapid, simultaneous, differential and quantitative detection of these P. savastanoi pathovars, in multiplex and in planta. Results Specific PCR primers and probes for the pathovars savastanoi, nerii and fraxini of P. savastanoi were designed to be used in End Point and Real-Time PCR, both with SYBR® Green or TaqMan® chemistries. The specificity of all these assays was 100%, as assessed by testing forty-four P. savastanoi strains, belonging to the three pathovars and having different geographical origins. For comparison strains from the pathovars phaseolicola and glycinea of P. savastanoi and bacterial epiphytes from P. savastanoi host plants were also assayed, and all of them tested always negative. The analytical detection limits were about 5 - 0.5 pg of pure genomic DNA and about 102 genome equivalents per reaction. Similar analytical thresholds were achieved in Multiplex Real-Time PCR experiments, even on artificially inoculated olive plants. Conclusions Here for the first time a complex of PCR-based assays were developed for the simultaneous discrimination and detection of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi, pv. nerii and pv. fraxini. These tests were shown to be highly reliable, pathovar-specific, sensitive, rapid and able to quantify these pathogens, both in multiplex reactions and in vivo. Compared with the other methods already available for P. savastanoi, the identification procedures here reported provide a versatile tool both for epidemiological and ecological studies on these pathovars, and for diagnostic procedures monitoring the asymptomatic presence of P. savastanoi on olive and oleander propagation materials.
Various extracts of one hundred and eight medicinal plants were screened for their anti-implantation activity in female albino rats. Out of these, 50% ethanolic extract of Codonospis ovata Benth (PL); 50% ethanolic, acetone and benzene extracts of Puararia tuberosa DC (TUB); aqueous and methanolic extracts of Punica granatum Linn. (PX) and ethanolic and acetone extracts of Rubus ellipiticus Smith (PX) inhibited pregnancy in 70-90% of rats. Similarly ethanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica Nees (LF) and Kigelia pinnata DC (PL); ethanolic and acetone extracts of Acrostichum aureum Linn. (PL), Juniperus communis Linn. (SD), Lepidium capitatum H.f. & T. (PL); ethanolic and benzene extracts of Citrulus colocynthus Schrad (LF) and acetone extract of Codonopsis ovata Benth (PL) showed 60-70% anti-implantation activity. Extracts of a few plants VIZ. Dolichos biflorus Linn. (SD), Ferule orientalis Linn. (PL), Nerium odoratum Lamk (RT), Randia dumetorum Lamk (SD) and Ruta graveolens Linn. (PL) could inhibit pregnancy in 50-60% of rats. The rest of the plants were either inactive or showed insignificant antifertility activity. PMID:3832714
Prakash, A O; Saxena, V; Shukla, S; Tewari, R K; Mathur, S; Gupta, A; Sharma, S; Mathur, R
Mortality caused by the aqueous extracts of leaf and stem bark of four plants belonging to family Euphorbiaceae and Apocynaceae against freshwater fish Channa punctatus has been reported. It was found that dilute aqueous solutions of leaf and stem bark were active in killing the fishes. The toxic effect of stem bark of all the plants were time as well as dose dependent. There was significant negative correlation between LC50 and exposure periods. Thus, the LC50 values of stem bark extracts of Euphorbia royleana, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nerium indicum and Thevelia peruviana were decreased from 0.050 g/l (24 h) > to 0.020 g/l (96 h); 4.61 g/l (24 h) > to 4.34 g/l (96 h); 0.097 g/l (24 h) > to 0.041 g/l (96 h) and 4.05 g/l (24 h) > to 3.17 g/l (96 h), respectively. It has been suggested that these plant products cannot be used directly in freshwater bodies, without their detailed studies on long-term effects on non-target organism as well their structure activity relationship. PMID:12243329
This study investigates the larvicidal potential of indigenous plant extracts from commonly used medicinal herbs as an environmentally safe measure to control the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal assay with water, hot water, acetone, chloroform, and methanol leaf, stem-bark, and flower extracts of Acacia arabica Willd. Sans, Cedrus deodara Roxb, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Mangifera indica L., Nerium indicum Mill., Nicotiana tabacum Linn., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, and Solanum nigrum Linn. All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in stem-bark hot water, acetone, and methanol extracts of C. deodara (LC50 = 133.85, 141.60, and 95.19 ppm, LC90 = 583.14, 624.19, and 639.99 ppm) and leaf hot water, acetone, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. tabacum (LC50 = 76.27, 163.81, 83.38, and 105.85 ppm, LC90 = 334.72, 627.38, 709.51, and 524.39 ppm) against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:18975001
Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Vadivelu, M; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G
The irrigation of a plant-soil system with landfill leachate should promote the formation of N2O due to the introduction of organic carbon and mineralized-N and the elevation of the moisture content. Laboratory incubation was performed to minimize N2O emissions from a leachate irrigated plant-soil system by manipulating leachate NH(4)(+)-N loading, moisture content, and soil type. A field investigation, consisting of three plots planted with Cynodon dactylon, Nerium indicum Mill, and Festuca arundinacea Schreb, was then conducted to select plant species. There was almost no difference in N2O emissions between soil moisture contents of 46% and 55% water-filled pore space (WFPS), while a sharp increase occurred at 70% WFPS. N2O fluxes were significantly correlated with leachate NH4(+)-N loading. Amongst the physiochemical characteristics of the selected nine soils, only soil pH was significantly correlated with N2O fluxes. Compared with fertilizers application in other ecosystems, N2O turnover rate from the plant-soil system under leachate irrigation was relatively lower. Therefore, avoiding high NH4(+)-N loadings and excessively wet conditions (<60% WFPS) and cultivating conifer plants of stronger sunlight penetration with less litter deposit on acidic sandy soil could minimize potential N2O emissions under leachate irrigation. PMID:18835706
Zhang, Hou-Hu; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Yuan, Li
The genome of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa contains four ORFs (XF2721, XF2725, XF2739 and XF0295) related to the restriction modification type I system, ordinarily named R-M. This system belongs to the DNA immigration control region (ICR). Each ORF is related to different operon structures, which are homologues among themselves and with subunit Hsd R from the endonuclease coding genes. In addition, these ORFs are highly homologous to genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methylococcus capsulatus str. Bath, Legionella pneumophila, Helicobacter pylori, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae and Silicibacter pomeroyi, as well as to genes from X. fastidiosa strains that infect grapevine, almond and oleander plants. This study was carried out on R-M ORFs from forty-three X. fastidiosa strains isolated from citrus, coffee, grapevine, periwinkle, almond and plum trees, in order to assess the genetic diversity of these loci through PCR-RFLP. PCR-RFLP analysis of the four ORFs related to the R-M system from these strains enabled the detection of haplotypes for these loci. When the haplotypes were defined, wide genetic diversity and a large range of similar strains originating from different hosts were observed. This analysis also provided information indicating differences in population genetic structures, which led to detection of different levels of gene transfer among the groups of strains. PMID:16125907
Picchi, Simone Cristina; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Ceresini, Paulo César; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco
Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plant poisonings are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings--anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant antitoxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314
This investigation covers a survey of the scale insects associating with some ornamental plants at three chosen public gardens as well as at the experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Station in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. A total of nineteen scale insect species belonging to sixteen genera related to four families of the super-family Coccoidea were found infesting eighteen ornamental plants during the period from April, 1998 up to March, 1999. These species are: Family: Asterolecaniidae--Represented by one species only The fig scale Russelaspis pustulans; (Cockerell) = (Asterolecanium pustulans Cock). Family: Coccidae--Represented by the seven species Florida wax scale. Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, Green shield scale. Chloropulvinaria psidii (Maskell), Long brown scale. Caccus elongatus (Douglas), Brown soft scale Coccus hesperidum (Linn.), Tessellated scale. Eucalymnatus tessellatus (Signoret), Hemispherical scale. Saissetia coffeae (Walker), and Olive soft scale. Saissetia oleae (Olivier) Family: Diaspididae--Represented by the ten species: Oleander scale. Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot), Minute cypress scale. Carulaspis minima (Targioni-Tozzetti), Dictyosprmum scale Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan), Palm fiorinia scale. Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni), Latania scale Hemiberlisia lataniae (Signoret), Fig scale. Lepidosaphes ficus (Signoret), Snow scale. Lineaspis striata (Newstead), Masked scale. Mycetaspis personata (Comstock), Olive scale. Parlatoria oleae (Colvee), and White peach scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti), Family: Eriococcidae--Represented by one species only Eriococcus araucariae (Maskell). During the same study, many species of natural enemies (nine parasitoids and eight predators), were also noticed to be associated with the aforementioned scale insects. PMID:12425080
Mourad, A K; Mesbah, H A; Fata, A A; Moursi, K S; Abdel-Razak, S I
Stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. These sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event. Stylet sheath compositions are largely unknown and their mode of solidification remains to be elucidated. This report demonstrates the formation and solidification of in ?ere (in air) produced stylet sheaths by six hemipteran families: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae, Asian citrus psyllid), Aphis nerii (Aphididae, oleander/milkweed aphid), Toxoptera citricida (Aphididae, brown citrus aphid), Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, cotton melon aphid), Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Aleyrodidae, whitefly), Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae, glassy-winged sharpshooter), Ferrisia virgata (Pseudococcidae, striped mealybug), and Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Coccidae, pyriform scale). Examination of in ?ere produced stylet sheaths by confocal and scanning electron microscopy shows a common morphology of an initial flange laid down on the surface of the membrane followed by continuous hollow core structures with sequentially stacked hardened bulbous droplets. Single and multi-branched sheaths were common, whereas mealybug and scale insects typically produced multi-branched sheaths. Micrographs of the in ?ere formed flanges indicate flange sealing upon stylet bundle extraction in D. citri and the aphids, while the B. tabaci whitefly and H. vitripennis glassy-winged sharpshooter flanges remain unsealed. Structural similarity of in ?ere sheaths are apparent in stylet sheaths formed in planta, in artificial diets, or in water. The use of ‘Solvy’, a dissolvable membrane, for intact stylet sheath isolation is reported. These observations illustrate for the first time this mode of stylet sheath synthesis adding to the understanding of stylet sheath formation in phytophagous hemipterans and providing tools for future use in structural and compositional analysis.
Morgan, J. Kent; Luzio, Gary A.; Ammar, El-Desouky; Hunter, Wayne B.; Hall, David G.; Shatters Jr, Robert G.
Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogen that causes leaf scorch and related diseases in over 100 plant species, including Pierce's disease in grapevines (PD), phony peach disease (PP), plum leaf scald (PLS), and leaf scorch in almond (ALS), oak (OAK), and oleander (OLS). We used a high-resolution DNA sequence approach to investigate the evolutionary relationships, geographic variation, and divergence times among the X. fastidiosa isolates causing these diseases in North America. Using a large data set of 10 coding loci and 26 isolates, the phylogeny of X. fastidiosa defined three major clades. Two of these clades correspond to the recently identified X. fastidiosa subspecies piercei (PD and some ALS isolates) and X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (OAK, PP, PLS, and some ALS isolates). The third clade grouped all of the OLS isolates into a genetically distinct group, named X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi. These well-differentiated clades indicate that, historically, X. fastidiosa has been a clonal organism. Based on their synonymous-site divergence ( approximately 3%), these three clades probably originated more than 15,000 years ago, long before the introduction of the nonnative plants that characterize most infections. The sister clades of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi and X. fastidiosa subsp. piercei have synonymous-site evolutionary rates 2.9 times faster than X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, possibly due to generation time differences. Within X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, a low level ( approximately 0.1%) of genetic differentiation indicates the recent divergence of ALS isolates from the PP, PLS, and OAK isolates due to host plant adaptation and/or allopatry. The low level of variation within the X. fastidiosa subsp. piercei and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi clades, despite their antiquity, suggests strong selection, possibly driven by host plant adaptation. PMID:16000795
Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Stouthamer, Richard; Nunney, Leonard
Glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say), is an efficient vector of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), the causal bacterium of Pierce's disease, and leaf scorch in almond and oleander. Acquisition and inoculation of Xf occur sometime during the process of stylet penetration into the plant. That process is most rigorously studied via electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring of insect feeding. This study provides part of the crucial biological meanings that define the waveforms of each new insect species recorded by EPG. By synchronizing AC EPG waveforms with high-magnification video of H. coagulata stylet penetration in artifical diet, we correlated stylet activities with three previously described EPG pathway waveforms, A1, B1 and B2, as well as one ingestion waveform, C. Waveform A1 occured at the beginning of stylet penetration. This waveform was correlated with salivary sheath trunk formation, repetitive stylet movements involving retraction of both maxillary stylets and one mandibular stylet, extension of the stylet fascicle, and the fluttering-like movements of the maxillary stylet tips. Waveform B1 was ubitquious, interspersed throughout the other waveforms. B1 sub-type B1w was correlated with salivation followed by maxillary tip fluttering. This tip fluttering also occurred before and during B1 sub-type B1s, but was not directly correlated with either the occurrence or frequency of this waveform. Waveform B2 was correlated with sawing-like maxillary stylet movements, which usually occurred during salivary sheath branching. Waveform C was correlated with ingestion. Fluid outflow was also observed as a mechanism to clear the maxillary tips from debris during waveform C. This detailed understanding of stylet penetration behaviors of H. coagulata is an important step toward identifying the instant of bacterial inoculation which, in turn, will be applied to studies of disease epidemiology and development of host plant resistance. PMID:16427072
Joost, P Houston; Backus, Elaine A; Morgan, David; Yan, Fengming
Stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. These sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event. Stylet sheath compositions are largely unknown and their mode of solidification remains to be elucidated. This report demonstrates the formation and solidification of in ?ere (in air) produced stylet sheaths by six hemipteran families: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae, Asian citrus psyllid), Aphis nerii (Aphididae, oleander/milkweed aphid), Toxoptera citricida (Aphididae, brown citrus aphid), Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, cotton melon aphid), Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Aleyrodidae, whitefly), Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae, glassy-winged sharpshooter), Ferrisia virgata (Pseudococcidae, striped mealybug), and Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Coccidae, pyriform scale). Examination of in ?ere produced stylet sheaths by confocal and scanning electron microscopy shows a common morphology of an initial flange laid down on the surface of the membrane followed by continuous hollow core structures with sequentially stacked hardened bulbous droplets. Single and multi-branched sheaths were common, whereas mealybug and scale insects typically produced multi-branched sheaths. Micrographs of the in ?ere formed flanges indicate flange sealing upon stylet bundle extraction in D. citri and the aphids, while the B. tabaci whitefly and H. vitripennis glassy-winged sharpshooter flanges remain unsealed. Structural similarity of in ?ere sheaths are apparent in stylet sheaths formed in planta, in artificial diets, or in water. The use of 'Solvy', a dissolvable membrane, for intact stylet sheath isolation is reported. These observations illustrate for the first time this mode of stylet sheath synthesis adding to the understanding of stylet sheath formation in phytophagous hemipterans and providing tools for future use in structural and compositional analysis. PMID:23638086
Morgan, J Kent; Luzio, Gary A; Ammar, El-Desouky; Hunter, Wayne B; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G
OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR); determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the annual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%). 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2%) died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100,000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0). CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital data are inflated. However, while incidence of self-poisoning is similar to that in England, fatal self-poisoning is three times more common in Sri Lanka than fatal self-harm by all methods in England. Population based data are essential for making international comparisons of case fatality and incidence, and for assessing public health interventions.
Eddleston, Michael; Sudarshan, K.; Senthilkumaran, M.; Reginald, K.; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Senarathna, Lalith; de Silva, Dhammika; Rezvi Sheriff, M. H.; Buckley, Nick A.; Gunnell, David
Summary Background The case-fatality for intentional self-poisoning in the rural developing world is 10–50-fold higher than that in industrialised countries, mostly because of the use of highly toxic pesticides and plants. We therefore aimed to assess whether routine treatment with multiple-dose activated charcoal, to interrupt enterovascular or enterohepatic circulations, offers benefit compared with no charcoal in such an environment. Methods We did an open-label, parallel group, randomised, controlled trial of six 50 g doses of activated charcoal at 4-h intervals versus no charcoal versus one 50 g dose of activated charcoal in three Sri Lankan hospitals. 4632 patients were randomised to receive no charcoal (n=1554), one dose of charcoal (n=1545), or six doses of charcoal (n=1533); outcomes were available for 4629 patients. 2338 (51%) individuals had ingested pesticides, whereas 1647 (36%) had ingested yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seeds. Mortality was the primary outcome measure. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN02920054. Findings Mortality did not differ between the groups. 97 (6·3%) of 1531 participants in the multiple-dose group died, compared with 105 (6·8%) of 1554 in the no charcoal group (adjusted odds ratio 0·96, 95% CI 0·70–1·33). No differences were noted for patients who took particular poisons, were severely ill on admission, or who presented early. Interpretation We cannot recommend the routine use of multiple-dose activated charcoal in rural Asia Pacific; although further studies of early charcoal administration might be useful, effective affordable treatments are urgently needed.
Eddleston, Michael; Juszczak, Edmund; Buckley, Nick A; Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Dissanayake, Wasantha; Hittarage, Ariyasena; Azher, Shifa; Jeganathan, K; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Warrell, David A
This study assessed the use of in vitro olive plants to evaluate the virulence of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains isolated from olive and P. savastanoi pv. nerii strains isolated from oleander knots. First, different olive isolates were inoculated into stem wounds and differences in knot formation and weight of overgrowths were observed for the selected strains. Tissue proliferation was clearly visible in all inoculated plants 30 days after inoculation. Virulence of P. savastanoi pv. nerii mutants with defects in regard to biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid and/or cytokinins was tested using this system. In agreement with data previously reported, all mutant strains multiplied in olive but induced attenuated symptoms. To analyze the virulence of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi affected in their ability to grow in olive tissue, a trpE tryptophan auxotroph mutant was generated using a collection of signature tagged mutagenesis transposons. Virulence of this mutant was clearly reduced as evidenced by swelling of the olive tissue that evolved into attenuated knots. Furthermore, mixed infections with its parental strain revealed that the wild-type strain completely out-competed the trpE mutant. Results shown here demonstrate the usefulness of in vitro olive plants for the analysis of P. savastanoi pvs. savastanoi and nerii virulence. In addition, this system offers the possibility of quantifying virulence differences as weight of overgrowths. Moreover, we established the basis for the use of mixed infections in combination with signature tagged mutagenesis for high-throughput functional genomic analysis of this bacterial pathogen. PMID:18943258