El Sawi, N.M., Geweely, N.S., Qusti, S., Mohamed, M. and Kamel, A. 2010. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of Nerium oleander extracts. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 37: 25–31.The antimicrobial properties of the crude and pure extracts of Nerium oleander were investigated against three Gramve bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteritidis), three Gram +ve bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and
Nagwa M. El Sawi; Neveen S. Geweely; Safaa Qusti; M. Mohamed; A. Kamel
Nerium Oleander is a shrub that grows naturally in the Mediterranean regions. In Morocco it is found in wet places. It is famous for its risk of systemic toxicity in cases of poisoning because of the presence of two alkaloids, especially oleandrine. The literature describes cases of local use of leaves of this plant against scabies, haemorrhoids, and boils. We report two cases of chemical burns of different gravity due to Nerium Oleander. This should lead to more widely diffused information for the general population and strict regulation of its marketing. PMID:21991211
Bakkali, H; Ababou, M; Nassim Sabah, T; Moussaoui, A; Ennouhi, A; Fouadi, F Z; Siah, S; Ihrai, H
Two new triterpenoid isomers ?-neriursate (1) and ?-neriursate (2) have been isolated from the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander and their structures elucidated as 3?-acetophenoxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid and 3?-acetophenoxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, respectively. The structure elucidation is based on spectroscopic methods, including 1D (H NMR, C NMR) and 2D (H-H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC and J-resolved) NMR data and chemical transformation.
Bina S. Siddiqui; Nasima Khatoon; Sabira Begum; Saima A. Durrani
Dried leaves of oleander were orally given at a single dose of 500 mg/kg body weight to 20 clinically healthy male chickens. Clinical signs of toxicosis began to appear about 1 h after receiving the oleander and included hypersalivation, vomiting, diarrhea, deep depression, and sudden death. Also, hyperemia in the combs and wattles was obviously seen. Electrocardiograms (ECG) were repeatedly recorded at 30 min intervals. ECGs findings included increasing the QRS duration in some birds and various kinds of arrhythmias. Bradycardia was the most frequently detected finding (30.43%). During necropsy, there were congestion and hemorrhages in the visceral organs particularly in heart, liver, kidney, and lung. Histopathology revealed myocardial cell necrosis with hyperemia and hemorrhage, severe diffuse pulmonary congestion and edema, severe renal congestion and hemorrhage with tubular necrosis, and coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes with hyperemia and hemorrhage. There were also congestion, mild epithelial necrosis and desquamation with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the proventriculus of all birds. There was also mild to moderate congestion in the intestines with scattered necrosis of surface enterocytes. The lack of information about the toxicity of oleanders in poultry was the main cause for this study. The results suggest that chickens appear to respond to oleander poisoning in a manner similar to other species. PMID:21576188
Omidi, Arash; Razavizadeh, Alireza T; Movassaghi, Ahmad R; Aslani, Mohammad R
Dried Nerium oleander leaves at single lethal dose of 110 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to six native male sheep. Clinical signs of toxicosis in sheep began to appear about 30 min after receiving the oleander and included decrease of the heart rate followed by cardiac pauses and tachyarrhythmias; ruminal atony, mild to moderate tympany, abdominal pain, polyuria and polakiuria. Electrocardiography revealed bradycardia, atrio-ventricular blocks, depression of S-T segments, ventricular premature beats and tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Five sheep died within 4-12 h and one survived. At necropsy there were varying degrees of haemorrhages in different organs and gastroenteritis. Histopathological examination of tissue sections revealed myocardial degeneration and necrosis, degeneration and focal necrosis of hepatocytes, necrosis of tubular epithelium in kidneys, oedema in the lungs, and ischemic changes in the cerebrum. PMID:15563108
Aslani, M R; Movassaghi, A R; Mohri, M; Abbasian, A; Zarehpour, M
Nerium oleander is potentially lethal plants after ingestion. We report a case of poisoning by these plants. Our patient complained of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. He had bradycardia during first twelve hours. He was discharge after 3 days. All parts of these plants are toxic and contain a variety of cardiac glycosides including oleandrin. In most cases, clinical management of poisoning by N. oleander involves administration of activated charcoal and supportive care. Digoxin specific Fab fragments are an effective treatment. PMID:21890104
Hugues, T; Arnoult, M; Beau, N; Yaici, K; Mélandri, P; Saoudi, N; Gibelin, P
Two new cardenolide monoglycosides, cardenolides B-1 (1) and B-2 (2) were isolated from Nerium oleander, together with oleagenin (3) which is the first isolated compound from natural sources. The structure of compounds 1-3 were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data. PMID:20686265
Bai, Liming; Zhao, Ming; Toki, Asami; Sakai, Jun-ichi; Yang, Xiao-yang; Bai, Yuhua; Ando, Mariko; Hirose, Katsutoshi; Ando, Masayoshi
Nerium oleander Linn. (NO), an evergreen shrub, is used in folklore medicine as a cardiotonic and exhibits a wide spectrum of bioactivities. Herein, the hypolipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract of flowers of Nerium oleander (ENO) in a minimal dose was assessed. A high fat diet (HFD) resulted in a significant increase in cardiac lipids and lipoproteins and an increase in body weight gain. Simultaneous treatment with ENO significantly lowered the increase in body weight gain, lipid and lipoprotein levels, with a concomitant increase in HDL in the plasma and heart when compared to HFD-fed rats. Likewise, the activities of lipolytic enzymes were also upheld by the ENO treatment in the heart compared to HFD-fed rats. The above findings highlight the possible mechanism of N. oleander as a hypolipidemic agent in its use in folklore medicine as a cardiotonic. PMID:21726133
Gayathri, Veeraraghavan; Ananthi, Subhash; Chandronitha, Chandranayagam; Sangeetha, Marimuthu Kannan; Vasanthi, Hannah R
Nerium oleander (common oleander) and Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) are potentially lethal plants after ingestion. Poisoning by these plants is a common toxicological emergency in tropical and subtropical parts of the world and intentional self-harm using T. peruviana is prevalent in South Asian countries, especially India and Sri Lanka. All parts of these plants are toxic, and contain a variety of cardiac glycosides including neriifolin, thevetin A, thevetin B, and oleandrin. Ingestion of either oleander results in nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dysrhythmias, and hyperkalemia. In most cases, clinical management of poisoning by either N. oleander or T. peruviana involves administration of activated charcoal and supportive care. Digoxin specific Fab fragments are an effective treatment of acute intoxication by either species. However, where limited economic resources restrict the use of such Fab fragments, treatment of severely poisoned patients is difficult. Data from case reports and clinical studies were reviewed to identify treatments supported by evidence for the management of poisoning by N. oleander and T. peruviana. PMID:20438743
Bandara, Veronika; Weinstein, Scott A; White, Julian; Eddleston, Michael
We evaluated the effectiveness of Anvirzel™, an aqueous extract of Nerium oleander on HIV infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Oleandrin, the principle cardiac glycoside (CG) in Anvirzel™ has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer properties but its efficacy against HIV is unknown. Treatment with Anvirzel™ significantly reduced the infectivity of virus produced from infected cells without any change in the total amount of virus produced. This is in contrast to treatment with AZT, a potent inhibitor of HIV replication that has been shown to significantly reduce virus production. Relative to untreated cultures, virus in cultures treated with oleandrin had significantly reduced expression of the envelope protein gp120, the sole determinant of virus infectivity, suggesting a novel mechanism underlying the impaired infectivity. These results support the potential utility of the Nerium oleander aqueous extract, containing the CG oleandrin as a novel candidate anti-HIV therapeutic. PMID:23127567
Singh, Shailbala; Shenoy, Sachin; Nehete, Pramod N; Yang, Peiying; Nehete, Bharti; Fontenot, Danielle; Yang, Guojun; Newman, Robert A; Sastry, K Jagannadha
IN THIS STUDY, WE HAVE EXAMINED THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS (INCLUDING WATER, METHANOL, WATER : methanol and acetone) of Nerium oleander L. grown in the north of Iran by employing various in-vitro assay, i.e. DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity through the Mo (VI) reduction. The extracts showed different levels of efficacy in each assay in a dose-dependent manner. Methanolic and aqueous methanolic extracts with the highest amount of total phenolic (by using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent method), were the most potent antioxidant in all of the assays that were used. According to the results of present study, Nerium oleander L. flowers were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:24250545
In this study, we have examined the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of different extracts (including water, methanol, water : methanol and acetone) of Nerium oleander L. grown in the north of Iran by employing various in-vitro assay, i.e. DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity through the Mo (VI) reduction. The extracts showed different levels of efficacy in each assay in a dose-dependent manner. Methanolic and aqueous methanolic extracts with the highest amount of total phenolic (by using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent method), were the most potent antioxidant in all of the assays that were used. According to the results of present study, Nerium oleander L. flowers were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants.
Diverse endophytic fungi exist within plant aerial tissues, with a global estimate of up to a million undescribed species.\\u000a These endophytes constitute a rich bio-resource for exploration to discover new natural products. Here we investigate fungal\\u000a endophytes associated with a medicinal plant, Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae). A total of 42 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the host plant. Total
Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Kevin D. Hyde; Harold Corke; Mei Sun
Nerium oleander is a plant native only in the Mediterranean region, but it can also be cultivated worldwide, particularly in warm areas. Biologically active oleander compounds may be used for therapeutic purposes. However, when used for self-medication, it may cause serious problems including death. We present a 30-year-old otherwise healthy man who developed complete atrioventricular block after taking a syrup of N. oleander leaves for self-medication to relive hemorrhoidal complaints. The patient was treated by oral administration of charcoal combined with sodium sulfate as well as electrolyte solutions and transient use of an external cardiac pacemaker. The atrioventricular block reverted to sinus rhythm in 30 hours and he was discharged in good hemodynamic status and general condition. PMID:22710590
Küçükdurmaz, Zekeriya; Karapinar, Hekim; Gül, Ibrahim; Yilmaz, Ahmet
The acute toxicity of dried Nerium oleander leaves to Najdi sheep is described in 12 sheep assigned as untreated controls, N. oleander-treated once at 1 and 0.25 g/kg body weight and N. oleander-treated daily at 0.06 g/kg body weight by drench. Single oral doses of 1 or 0.25 g of dried N. oleander leaves/kg body weight caused restlessness, chewing movements of the jaws, dyspnea, ruminal bloat, incoordination of movements, limb paresis, recumbency and death 4-24 hr after dosing. Lesions were widespread congestion or hemorrhage, pulmonary cyanosis and emphysema, hepatorenal fatty change and catarrhal abomasitis and enteritis. The daily oral doses of 0.06 g dried N. oleander leaves/kg body weight caused less severe signs and death occurred between days 3 and 14. In these animals, the main lesions were hepatonephropathy and gelatinization of the renal pelvis and mesentry and were accompanied by significant increases in serum AST and LDH activities, in bilirubin, cholesterol and urea concentrations and significant decreases in total protein and albumin levels, anemia and leucopenia. PMID:11789596
Ada, S E; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Farhan, A H
Abstract Context: Despite the usage of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) for anticancer studies and traditional remediation, the regulatory effect of N. oleander leaf distillate on cholesterol metabolism is not disclosed sufficiently. Objective: Cholesterol is an important biological molecule and the synthesis rate is regulated by the amount of cholesterol uptake from the diet. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) and the effects of N. oleander leaf distillate-supplemented diet (NOHFD) in rats. Materials and methods: Microarray technology was used to clarify the regulation of cholesterol mechanism in HFD and NOHFD-fed rats (375??g/0.5?mL distilled water applied by gavage). The treatment period was 90 days. Rat liver tissues were used for microarray analysis using the Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome platform. Results of groups were statistically analyzed with the Partek 6.6 bioinformatic program. Results: The HFD group exhibited alterations in the expression levels of about 1945 genes with respect to the normal diet (ND) group. The results showed that expression levels of 47 genes were altered related to cholesterol metabolism in HFD and NOHFD groups. The expression levels of seven genes in the NOHFD group were significantly closer to those in the ND group than those of the HFD group. Discussion and conclusion: To conclude, findings suggest that N. oleander leaf distillate-supplemented food has considerable beneficial effects on cholesterol metabolism-related gene expression levels. PMID:24617822
Demirel Kars, Meltem; Odaba??, Burcu Asena; Kars, Gökhan; Uney, Kamil; Ba?c?, Yavuz; Ba?, Ahmet Levent
Recent evidence suggests that cardiac glycosides might be used for the treatment of cancer. The ornamental shrub Nerium oleander has been used in traditional medicine for treating several disorders including cancer, and extracts from the leaves of this plant have already entered phase I clinical trials. In this communication, we have prepared a hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Nerium oleander (containing 4.75 ± 0.32 % of cardenolides) and have assessed its cytotoxic activity in A549 lung cancer cells vs. MRC5 nonmalignant lung fibroblasts. The results showed that the cytotoxicity of the Nerium oleander extract against the cancer cell line was significantly higher than that against the nonmalignant cell line, with a potency and selectivity similar to those of the anticancer drug cisplatin. Pretreatment of A549 cells with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and catalase slightly prevented the cytotoxicity of the extract, therefore suggesting that the formation of reactive oxygen species participates in its cytotoxic activity but does not play a major role. Nerium oleander extract-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage (gamma-H2AX focus formation) were slightly higher in cells lacking BRCA2 (deficient in homologous recombination repair) than in parental cells; this indicates that the induction of DNA damage may also play a role in the cytotoxicity of the extract. Nerium oleander extract induced a marked inhibition of glycolysis (glucose consumption and lactate production) in A549 cells, comparable to that of the glycolysis inhibitor dichloroacetate (currently in clinical development for cancer therapy). Because platinum compounds are widely used in the treatment of lung cancer, we tested the cytotoxicity of several combinations of cisplatin with the extract and found a moderate synergism when Nerium oleander extract was administered after cisplatin but a moderate antagonism when it was added before cisplatin. Our results suggest that extracts from Nerium oleander might induce anticancer effects in patients with lung cancer and support their possible advancement into phase II clinical trials for the treatment of this type of cancer. PMID:23824549
Calderón-Montańo, José Manuel; Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Orta, Manuel Luis; Mateos, Santiago; López-Lázaro, Miguel
This works describes the use of synchrotron radiation fluorescence analysis as a technique for monitoring trace elements in bio-indicators for environmental pollution control. The analyses were performed on leaves of Nerium oleander collected in streets with different levels of traffic flow in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with one sample from a rural zone. The leaves were collected from adult trees in December and April. The measurement was made with a white beam of synchrotron radiation calibrated with thin samples from MicroMatter. The results indicate that some metals such as Ti, V, Fe and Zn have major content in samples that were collected in places with a high traffic flow, even in the leaves that have been washed. The levels of Mn, Co, Cu and Ni did not show significant differences between the samples. The Pb level also did not vary significantly. This was expected because in Brazil gasoline without Pb has been used for many years. The results seem to indicate that the leaves from Nerium oleander absorb metals from the atmosphere and may be used as an environmental indicator.
de Jesus, E. F. O.; Simabuco, S. M.; dos Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.
Nerium oleander Linn (NOL) an evergreen shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae family has been reported to have a wide spectrum of bioactivities. In in vitro study, the free radical scavenging potential of the hydroethanolic extract of N oleander Linn (ENO) flower and its fractions (glycosidic and nonglycosidic) were studied using 2, 2(')-azino-di [3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate] (ABTS(*+) ) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) scavenging assay. ENO exhibited better radical scavenging activities than its fractions. Furthermore, the cardioprotective role of ENO (10, 30, 100 mg/kg, per oral [po]) was tested against isoproterenol-induced myocardial toxicity (ISO, 120 mg/kg per day, subcutaneously [sc], for 2 days at 48 hours interval) in experimental rats when compared to propranolol (5 mg/kg, po) which was the standard. Pretreatment with ENO (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) and propranolol for 2 weeks followed by ISO challenge in rats prevented the elevation of marker enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK-MB and creatine phosphokinase [CPK]), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in plasma. In addition, pretreatment with ENO and propranolol significantly attenuated the lipid peroxidation by maintaining the levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and nonenzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione and nitrite), which was also confirmed histologically. Taken together, the current study indicates that the hydroalcoholic extract of N oleander Linn flowers aid in cardioprotection probably by improving the antioxidant defense system during experimental myocardial necrosis. PMID:21191138
Gayathri, Veeraraghavan; Ananthi, Subhash; Chandronitha, Chandranayagam; Ramakrishnan, Ganapathy; Lakshmisundaram, Raman; Sundaram, Raman Lakshmi; Vasanthi, Hannah R
A pentacyclic triterpene, oleanderocioic acid, two flavonoidal glycosides, quercetin-5-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-D-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-5-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-D-glucopyranoside, and a cardenolide, oleandigoside, together with 11 known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Nerium oleander. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The growth inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of eight compounds were evaluated against the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line using a sulforhodamine B assay. Three compounds, oleandrin, odoroside A and B were further assayed using a panel of 57 human cancer cell lines. PMID:22281382
Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Khatoon, Nasima; Begum, Sabira; Farooq, Ahsana Dar; Qamar, Kehkashan; Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Ali, Syed Kashif
We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379
Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh
Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) is a micro-nano phanerophyte that grows in the riverbanks of the Río Tinto basin (Southwest Iberian Peninsula). The waters and soils of the Río Tinto area are highly acidic and have high concentrations of heavy metals. In this environment, N. oleander naturally grows in both extreme acidic (EA) and less extreme acidic (LEA) water courses, excluding, and bioindicating certain metals. In this work, we compared and evaluated the accumulation preferences and capacities, the distribution and processes of biomineralization of metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Ca) in the first stages of growth of EA and LEA oleanders by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer analysis. Seeds from both environments were grown and treated with a self-made solution simulating the most extreme red waters from the Río Tinto. LEA plants drastically reduces the metal uptake at the beginning, but later reactivates the uptake reaching concentration values in the same range as the EA plants. The results showed high Mn, Zn and Mg concentrations, accumulation of Fe and Cu in plants from both environments, differing from the metal concentrations of field-grown oleanders. Iron bioformations with traces of other metals were present inside and over epidermal cells and inside vascular cells of stems and roots. They were absent of leaves. The accumulation properties of N. oleander in its early stages of development make it a species to take in consideration in phytoremediation processes but optimized conditions are needed to ensure enough biomass production. PMID:23892697
Franco, Alejandro; Rufo, Lourdes; Zuluaga, Javier; de la Fuente, Vicenta
Variable indirect photosynthetic rate (P(n)) responses occur on injured leaves after insect herbivory. It is important to understand factors that influence indirect P(n) reductions after injury. The current study examines the relationship between gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity (% single leaf tissue removal) from clipping or Spodoptera eridania Stoll (Noctuidae) herbivory on Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae). Two experiments showed intercellular [CO(2)] increases but P(n) and stomatal conductance reductions with increasing injury intensity, suggesting non-stomatal P(n) limitation. Also, P(n) recovery was incomplete at 3d post-injury. This is the first report of a negative exponential P(n) impairment function with leaf injury intensity to suggest high N. oleander leaf sensitivity to indirect P(n) impairment. Negative linear functions occurred between most other gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity. The degree of light harvesting impairment increased with injury intensity via lower (1) photochemical efficiency indicated lower energy transfer efficiency from reaction centers to PSII, (2) photochemical quenching indicated reaction center closure, and (3) electron transport rates indicated less energy traveling through PSII. Future studies can examine additional mechanisms (mesophyll conductance, carbon fixation, and cardenolide induction) to cause N. oleander indirect leaf P(n) reductions after injury. PMID:22325884
Delaney, Kevin J
The present study is aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of sulfonylurea drug glimepiride in comparison with Nerium oleander plant extract on insulin, glucose levels and some liver enzymes activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 50 mg kg(-1) body weight streptozotocin. Rats with serum glucose levels > 200 mg dL(-1) were subdivided into three sub-groups: the first sub-group were remained without treatment and considered as diabetics. The second and third subgroups were orally administered 0.1 mg kg(-1) body weight/day glimepiride and 250 mg kg(-1) body weight/day Nerium oleander, respectively for 4 weeks. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia compared to controls. Strong negative correlation (r = -0.8) was found between serum insulin and glucose levels in diabetic rats. This correlation was +0.4 and -0.3 in glimepiride and Nerium olender-treated rats, respectively implying that glimepiride and plant extract improved insulin and glucose levels with the former was more efficient. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats compared to controls. Treatment of diabetic rats with glimepiride or Nerium oleander extract also improved liver enzymes activities. PMID:22514888
Mwafy, Saleh N; Yassin, Maged M
Cardiovascular diseases are increasingly becoming one of the leading diseases causing morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Ethnographic evidence suggests that these diseases are often first managed by indigenous and related herbs before patients are referred for allopathic forms of management. One such herb of interest is Nerium oleander. Therefore the crude ethanolic extracts of the dried leaves of this herb were tested against the following parameters in the isolated guinea pig hearts: force of contraction, heart rate and cardiac flow. The extracts brought about dose-dependent increases in all these parameters from their baseline readings. Compared with graded doses of digoxin the effects closely mirrored the activities in a dose dependent manner. At the mechanism of action level, it would appear the extract works in the same as digoxin since their dose-contraction-response curves are parallel. This finding would tend to provide a strong rationale for the herb's traditional use in cardiovascular illness. PMID:12913798
Adome, R O; Gachihi, J W; Onegi, B; Tamale, J; Apio, S O
Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35?mg/kg bw) in all rats of five groups after being fed for 2 weeks high-fat diet. Type 2 diabetic Nerium-oleander- (NO-) administered groups received the NO distillate at a dose of 3.75, 37.5, and 375??g/0.5?mL of distilled water (NO-0.1, NO-1, NO-10, resp.); positive control group had 0.6?mg glibenclamide/kg bw/d by gavage daily for 12 weeks. Type 2 diabetic negative control group had no treatment. NO distillate administration reduced fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, atherogenic index, triglyceride-HDL ratio, insulin, and leptin levels. Improved beta cell function and HDL concentration were observed by NO usage. HDL percentage in total cholesterol of all NO groups was similar to healthy control. NO-10 distillate enhanced mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor- (PPAR-) ?, ?, and ? in adipose tissue and PPAR-?-? in liver. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the considerable beneficial effect of NO distillate administration at a dose of 375??g/0.5?mL of distilled water may offer new approaches to treatment strategies that target both fat and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23251156
Bas, Ahmet Levent; Demirci, Sule; Yazihan, Nuray; Uney, Kamil; Ermis Kaya, Ezgi
Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35?mg/kg bw) in all rats of five groups after being fed for 2 weeks high-fat diet. Type 2 diabetic Nerium-oleander- (NO-) administered groups received the NO distillate at a dose of 3.75, 37.5, and 375??g/0.5?mL of distilled water (NO-0.1, NO-1, NO-10, resp.); positive control group had 0.6?mg glibenclamide/kg bw/d by gavage daily for 12 weeks. Type 2 diabetic negative control group had no treatment. NO distillate administration reduced fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, atherogenic index, triglyceride-HDL ratio, insulin, and leptin levels. Improved beta cell function and HDL concentration were observed by NO usage. HDL percentage in total cholesterol of all NO groups was similar to healthy control. NO-10 distillate enhanced mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor- (PPAR-) ?, ?, and ? in adipose tissue and PPAR-?–? in liver. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the considerable beneficial effect of NO distillate administration at a dose of 375??g/0.5?mL of distilled water may offer new approaches to treatment strategies that target both fat and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes.
Bas, Ahmet Levent; Demirci, Sule; Yazihan, Nuray; Uney, Kamil; Ermis Kaya, Ezgi
A new cardenolide diglycoside (1) was isolated from Nerium oleander together with ten known cardenolide diglycosides 2-11. The structure of compound 1 was established on the basis of their spectroscopic data. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1-11 was examined on the basis of inhibitory activity against the induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Compounds 2-5 were active at an IC(50) value of less than 0.8 µM. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1-11 was evaluated against three human cell lines normal human fibroblast cells (WI-38), malignant tumor cells induced from WI-38 (VA-13), and human liver tumor cells (HepG2). Compound 3 was active toward VA-13 cells, and compounds 2-5 were active toward HepG2 cells at IC(50) values of less than 1.3 µM. The multidrug resistance (MDR)-reversal activity of compounds 1-11 was evaluated on the basis of the amount of calcein in MDR human ovarian cancer 2780AD cells in the presence of each compound. Compounds 1 and 8 showed moderate effects on calcein accumulation. PMID:21372420
Zhao, Ming; Bai, Liming; Toki, Asami; Hasegawa, Ryo; Sakai, Jun-ichi; Hasegawa, Toshiaki; Ogura, Hirotsugu; Kataoka, Takao; Bai, Yuhua; Ando, Mariko; Hirose, Katsutoshi; Ando, Masayoshi
In a survey that was conducted during the year 2011, a local strain of Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) was identified and isolated from a wild population of Aphis nerii aphids living on Nerium oleander plants located in northern Israel. The new strain was tentatively named (ALPV-An). RNA extracted from the viral particles allowed the amplification and determination of the complete genome sequence. The virus genome is comprised of 9835 nucleotides. In a BLAST search analysis, the ALPV-An sequence showed 89 % nucleotide sequence identity with the whole genome of a South African ALPV and 96 and 94 % amino acid sequence identity with the ORF1 and ORF2 of that strain, respectively. In preliminary experiments, spray-applied, purified ALPV virions were highly pathogenic to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae; 95 % mortality was recorded 4 days post-infection. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of ALPV for use as a biologic agent for some aphid control. Surprisingly, no visible ALPV pathogenic effects, such as morphological changes or paralysis, were observed in the A. nerii aphids infected with ALPV-An. The absence of clear ALPV symptoms in A. nerii led to the formulation of two hypotheses, which were partially examined in this study. The first hypothesis suggest that A. nerii is resistant or tolerant of ALPV, while the second hypothesis propose that ALPV-An may be a mild strain of ALPV. Currently, our results is in favor with the first hypothesis since ALPV-An is cryptic in A. nerii aphids and can be lethal for M. persicae aphids. PMID:23229204
Dombrovsky, Aviv; Luria, Neta
The oleander is an attractive and hardy shrub that thrives in tropical and subtropical regions. The common pink oleander, Nerium oleander, and the yellow oleander, Thevetia peruviana, are the principle oleander representatives of the family Apocynaceae. Oleanders contain within their tissues cardenolides that are capable of exerting positive inotropic effects on the hearts of animals and humans. The cardiotonic properties
Shannon D. Langford; Paul J. Boor
A rapid accumulation of the catalytic active noble metals in the environmental and biological matrices was observed and concern arose about potential environmental and health risks. The development of reliable analytic methods to measure very low Pt and Rh concentrations is required. The main purpose of this work was to develop a reliable method for the determination of Pt and Rh in environmental matrices because of inherent difficulties in using conventional techniques used, in particular, the ICP-OES technique. A direct determination of Pt using ICP-MS, for instance, is problematic, due to interfering signals. In this work, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV/a) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) were used for the determination of Pt and Rh in Nerium oleander leaves. Pt and Rh concentrations were found in the ranges 0.33-25 and 0.40-4.6 microg/kg d.w., respectively. We carried out linear regression analysis between total PAH concentrations in leaves of oleander and of Quercus ilex measured in previous researches and the data obtained in this work. The high correlation coefficients were obtained; which demonstrates that oleander leaves can be used to establish the presence and the distribution of pollutants in a chosen area. PMID:19846253
Orecchio, Santino; Amorello, Diana
A woman died after drinking herbal tea prepared from oleander (Nerium oleander) leaves. This case demonstrates the cross-reactivity between the cardiac glycosides in oleander and the digoxin radioimmunoassay. Digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments have not been used in oleander poisoning, but these might prove to be lifesaving. Treatment of oleander toxicity is aimed at controlling arrhythmias and hyperkalemia; inactivation of the Na-K ATPase pump, however, can make treatment difficult. PMID:4039113
Haynes, B E; Bessen, H A; Wightman, W D
To gain insight into the hepatohistological alterations in noninjured rat liver, Nerium oleander (N.O.) leaves extract was injected intramuscularly to induce an acute phase reaction (APR). Histopathological changes were studied after 3, 12, and 24 h time course of sterile muscle abscess. Tissue integrity and any infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver were investigated by Hematoxylin and Eosin and ED1 peroxidase stainings. The administration of N.O. leaves extract (10 mL/kg) in H & E stained sections showed a general vacuolization of cytoplasm resulting loss of polarity with prominent nucleoli after 3 h of induction. At 12 h, eccentric nuclei were also observed in the sections. Marked infiltration of leucocytes with predominate macrophages was also found after 24 h as seen by ED1 positive staining. In the present study, a possible relationship between serum hepcidin and total iron level was also investigated in vivo. An early increase of hepcidin and total iron level (3 h) with a maximum at 12 h (P < 0.01; P < 0.001) was observed. These changes indicate that sterile muscle abscess may induce APR resulting in hepatic damage which is evident with the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the organ. PMID:24069586
Abbasi, Muddasir Hassan; Fatima, Sana; Naz, Naila; Malik, Ihtzaz A; Sheikh, Nadeem
The principal active constituent of the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO(2) extract of Nerium oleander, is the cardiac glycoside oleandrin. PBI-05204 shows potent anticancer activity and is currently in phase I clinical trial as a treatment for patients with solid tumors. We have previously shown that neriifolin, which is structurally related to oleandrin, provides robust neuroprotection in brain slice and whole animal models of ischemic injury. However, neriifolin itself is not a suitable drug development candidate and the FDA-approved cardiac glycoside digoxin does not cross the blood-brain barrier. We report here that both oleandrin as well as the full PBI-05204 extract can also provide significant neuroprotection to neural tissues damaged by oxygen and glucose deprivation as occurs in ischemic stroke. Critically, we show that the neuroprotective activity of PBI-05204 is maintained for several hours of delay of administration after oxygen and glucose deprivation treatment. We provide evidence that the neuroprotective activity of PBI-05204 is mediated through oleandrin and/or other cardiac glycoside constituents, but that additional, non-cardiac glycoside components of PBI-05204 may also contribute to the observed neuroprotective activity. Finally, we show directly that both oleandrin and the protective activity of PBI-05204 are blood brain barrier penetrant in a novel model for in vivo neuroprotection. Together, these findings suggest clinical potential for PBI-05204 in the treatment of ischemic stroke and prevention of associated neuronal death. PMID:21950737
Dunn, Denise E; He, Dong Ning; Yang, Peiying; Johansen, Mary; Newman, Robert A; Lo, Donald C
Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) is an evergreen shrub of great ornamental interest which, in recent times, has been increasingly used as a flowering pot plant. Plants grown in pots undergo more frequent water stress conditions than those grown in the soil, due to the limited volume of substrate available for the roots. Oleander is a species adaptable to dry conditions
Anna Lenzi; Lambros Pittas; Tommaso Martinelli; Piero Lombardi; Romano Tesi
Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903
Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario
We assessed how small patches of contrasting urban ground cover [mesiscape (turf), xeriscape (gravel), concrete, and asphalt] altered the microclimate and performance of adjacent oleander ( Nerium oleander L.) plants in Phoenix, Arizona during fall\\/winter (September–February) and spring\\/summer (March–September). Ground-cover and oleander canopy surface temperatures, canopy air temperatures and pot soil temperatures tended to be lowest in the mesiscape and
Erin C. Mueller; Thomas A. Day
We assessed how small patches of contrasting urban ground cover [mesiscape (turf), xeriscape (gravel), concrete, and asphalt] altered the microclimate and performance of adjacent oleander (Nerium oleander L.) plants in Phoenix, Arizona during fall\\/winter (September February) and spring\\/summer (March September). Ground-cover and oleander canopy surface temperatures, canopy air temperatures and pot soil temperatures tended to be lowest in the mesiscape
Erin C. Mueller; Thomas A. Day
Homalodisca coagulata (Say) is a recent introduction to California. It is known to spread a strain of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells, Raju, Hung, Weisberg, Mandelco-Paul & Brenner that induces oleander leaf scorch disease in oleander, Nerium oleander L. Oleander leaf scorch is lethal to oleander and threatens to decimate one of the most important landscape shrubs in California. Towards developing a management strategy for H. coagulata-spread oleander leaf scorch, we documented the affects of selected insecticides on H. coagulata mortality, feeding behavior, and disease transmission in a greenhouse study. Oleanders treated with fenpropathrin, fenpropathrin + acephate, and imidacloprid caused significant mortality to caged H. coagulata within 4 h of exposure. Within 24 h, these pesticides caused nearly 100% mortality 3 wk after treatment. In other experiments, acetamiprid and fenpropathrin treatments reduced time spent feeding and total time on plants. H. coagulata on fenpropathrin-, acetamiprid-, and imidacloprid-treated oleander died in less than 13 min on average. Oleander leaf scorch transmission by H. coagulata was blocked by applications of foliar-applied acetamiprid, and soil-applied imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. PMID:11681662
Bethke, J A; Blua, M J; Redak, R A
A case of fatal poisoning due to the presumed ingestion of leaves and/or fruit of the yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) is described. The diagnosis was confirmed by radioimmunoassay using antibodies of differential specificity towards cardiac glycosides. Attention is drawn to the potential usefulness of digoxin assay in suspected cases of oleander poisoning. PMID:7195456
Ansford, A J; Morris, H
We assessed how small patches of contrasting urban ground cover [mesiscape (turf), xeriscape (gravel), concrete, and asphalt] altered the microclimate and performance of adjacent oleander (Nerium oleander L.) plants in Phoenix, Arizona during fall/winter (September February) and spring/summer (March September). Ground-cover and oleander canopy surface temperatures, canopy air temperatures and pot soil temperatures tended to be lowest in the mesiscape and highest in the asphalt and concrete. Canopy air vapor pressure deficits were lowest in the mesiscape and highest in the asphalt plot. Rates of net photosynthesis of all oleander plants were highest in October and May, and declined through mid-summer (June July), when rates tended to be highest in the cooler mesiscape, particularly when water was limiting. During fall/winter, oleanders in the mesiscape produced 20% less biomass, 13% less leaf area, and had 12% lower relative growth rates (RG) than those in the other ground covers. Lower nighttime temperatures in the mesiscape in December led to oleander frost damage. During spring/summer, oleanders in the mesiscape produced 11% more biomass, 16% more leaf area, and had 3% higher RG than those in the other cover types. The effects of urban ground cover on oleander performance were season-specific; while oleander growth was greatest in the mesiscape during spring/summer, it was lowest during fall/winter and these plants experienced frost damage. Because all oleander plants produced >10 times as much biomass during the spring/summer, on an annual basis oleanders in the mesiscape produced 5 11% more biomass than plants in the warmer ground covers.
Mueller, Erin C.; Day, Thomas A.
We assessed how small patches of contrasting urban ground cover [mesiscape (turf), xeriscape (gravel), concrete, and asphalt] altered the microclimate and performance of adjacent oleander (Nerium oleander L.) plants in Phoenix, Arizona during fall/winter (September-February) and spring/summer (March-September). Ground-cover and oleander canopy surface temperatures, canopy air temperatures and pot soil temperatures tended to be lowest in the mesiscape and highest in the asphalt and concrete. Canopy air vapor pressure deficits were lowest in the mesiscape and highest in the asphalt plot. Rates of net photosynthesis of all oleander plants were highest in October and May, and declined through mid-summer (June-July), when rates tended to be highest in the cooler mesiscape, particularly when water was limiting. During fall/winter, oleanders in the mesiscape produced 20% less biomass, 13% less leaf area, and had 12% lower relative growth rates (R(G)) than those in the other ground covers. Lower nighttime temperatures in the mesiscape in December led to oleander frost damage. During spring/summer, oleanders in the mesiscape produced 11% more biomass, 16% more leaf area, and had 3% higher R(G) than those in the other cover types. The effects of urban ground cover on oleander performance were season-specific; while oleander growth was greatest in the mesiscape during spring/summer, it was lowest during fall/winter and these plants experienced frost damage. Because all oleander plants produced >10 times as much biomass during the spring/summer, on an annual basis oleanders in the mesiscape produced 5-11% more biomass than plants in the warmer ground covers. PMID:15726447
Mueller, Erin C; Day, Thomas A
Inhalational oleander toxicity was considered in a family of 4 by history of exposure to smoke from burning oleander twigs. Electrocardiography revealed first- and second-degree atrioventricular block with digoxin-like ST-T-wave changes, suggestive of oleander toxicity in the absence of exposure to digoxin or other herbal medicines, and without systemic illness. Complete blood count, biometabolic profile, chest x-ray, and echocardiography did not reveal any abnormalities. Electrocardiographies normalized within 4 days when kept away from offending agents. Because oleander plant materials are used for burning, people are exposed to inhalational oleander toxicity. Hence, practitioners shall consider such poisonings in them. PMID:21397908
Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Meenakshisundaram, Ramachandran; Michaels, Andrew D; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah
A polysaccharide fraction, J6, was isolated from the hot-water extract of flowers of oleander Nerium indicum Mill., using ethanol precipitation, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) complexing, anion-exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. J6 was found to contain L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, and D-galacturonic acid, in the ratio of 10.1:49.8:30.1:10.0. Its structure was investigated by methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, partial acid hydrolysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic methods. It was found that J6 is an RG-I type polysaccharide, which contains a rhamnogalacturonan backbone, with various branches attached to O-4 of L-rhamnose. The branches probably involve (1-->4)-beta-D-galactan, branched L-arabino-(1-->3)(1-->6)-beta-D-galactan, and (1-->5)-alpha-L-arabinan. J6 stimulated NO production of macrophage RAW264.7 cells in a preliminary test. PMID:20573364
Dong, Qun; Liu, Xuan; Yao, Jian; Dong, Xiaotang; Ma, Chao; Xu, Yuxia; Fang, Jinian; Ding, Kan
A 24-year-old man presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and an acute confusional state of 6 hours' duration. Ten hours before admission, he had ingested a mixture of orange juice and six ground leaves, later identified as Nerium oleander (common pink oleander) leaves. His blood pressure was 100/80 mm Hg, and his pulse rate was irregular at 40/min. He was disoriented and his speech was dysarthric. Twelve-lead electrocardiography revealed a complete atrioventricular block, with a nodal escape rhythm of 40/min and diffuse ST depression. The presumptive diagnosis of acute oleander intoxication was confirmed by the detection of digoxin (1.0 nmol/L [0.8 ng/mL]) on radioimmunoassay. Despite intensive therapy, the patient's hemodynamic condition deteriorated. His blood pressure decreased to 70/40 mm Hg; he became oliguric and nonresponsive to external stimuli; and his potassium concentration rose to 6.8 mmol/L. Eighteen hours after admission, an empiric 480-mg dose of digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments was administered intravenously over 30 minutes. Within minutes of the initiation of immunotherapy, the patient woke up; his blood pressure rose to 90/50 mm Hg; and he regained a sinus rhythm of 68/min with a prolonged PR interval. His potassium concentration decreased to 5.1 mmol/L within 15 minutes and normalized within 1 hour of therapy initiation. One day later, the 1 degree atrioventricular block disappeared, but the ST depression persisted for an additional 6 days. The value of digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments in the treatment of plant glycoside and, in particular, oleander intoxication is discussed. PMID:7575073
Safadi, R; Levy, I; Amitai, Y; Caraco, Y
An elderly woman allegedly ingested oleander leaves and died. Ventricular arrhythmias and asystole were unresponsive to cardiopulmonary resuscitation, pharmacologic agents, and cardioversion. The patient, who had no access to digoxin, had an initial serum digoxin concentration of 5.8 ng/mL. Cross-reactivities between oleander extract and pure oleandrin and digoxin in the digoxin radioimmunoassay were 100:1 and 29,000:1, respectively. We postulate that glycosides in oleander leaves produced the elevated serum digoxin concentration. Based on an assumed volume of distribution of the oleander glycosides of 1 L/kg, the calculated lethal dose absorbed by our patient was 200 times greater than lethal doses in several animal species and corresponded to the absorption of 4 g of oleander leaves. PMID:7038154
Osterloh, J; Herold, S; Pond, S
Three nematicidal cardenolides were obtained from the AcOEt extract of Nerium indicum Mill. by bioassay-guided fractionation. They include a new compound, 3beta-O-(beta-D-diginosyl)-14,15alpha-dihydroxy-5alpha-card-20(22)-enolide (1), and two known compounds, uzarigenin (2) and cardenolide N-1 (3). The median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) of compounds 1-3 against the nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Panagrellus redivivus, and Caenorhabditis elegans at 72 h were 103.3, 49.0, and 45.4 mg l(-1), 257.0, 62.7, and 177.8 mg l(-1), and 242.9, 29.1, and 41.7 mg l(-1), respectively. This is the first report about the nematicidal activity of cardenolides. PMID:19319871
Wang, Xing-Biao; Li, Guo-Hong; Zheng, Li-Jun; Ji, Kai-Yan; Lü, Hua; Liu, Fang-Fang; Dang, Li-Zhi; Mo, Ming-He; Zhang, Ke-Qin
We present a case of non-fatal poisoning with oleander blooms in a 42-year-old woman. After repeated vomiting and gastrointestinal distress, the patient was admitted to the hospital with cardiac symptoms 4 h after the ingestion. Urine and blood samples were assayed for drugs of abuse and for general toxicological screen. Blood was analysed for alcohol and volatiles. Oleandrin was detected in the blood sample at a concentration of 14.7 ng/ml. Following a review of the literature, this is the first case of oleander poisoning in which the patient recovered with only conservative treatment. Oleander poisonings occur rarely, and generally result in death.
Al, Behcet; Yarbil, P?nar; Dogan, Mehmet; Kabul, Sinem; Y?ld?r?m, Cuma
Cardiac conduction disorders following oral ingestion of Oleander plant materials were documented earlier. Transcutaneous absorption of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) leaf extract applied over non intact skin (raw wound) resulting in reversible cardiac conduction disorder observed in four healthy males who were free from any other systemic or electrolyte or metabolic disorders or exposure to pesticide or toxins is reported for the first time. Their hematological, biochemical, clinical, and echocardiogram status were within normal limits and free of any abnormalities. One among the four, presented for weakness and breathlessness (class II). He had bradycardia with Mobitz II block and hypotension without any other demonstrable localizing signs. The other three were identified in the community and without any symptoms. However, their ECG revealed bradycardia with Mobitz I block in two and complete heart block in the other. All of the four recovered well without any untoward events. Hence, it is suggested that physicians and practitioners have to elicit history and route of administration of unconventional therapy, whenever they are confronted with clinical challenges and during medical emergencies before embarking final decision.
Senthilkumaran, S; Saravanakumar, S; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, P
A pair of PCR primers, QH-OLS05/QH-OLS08 specific for strains of Xylella fastidiosa causing oleander leaf scorch was developed. The primers were designed according to a DNA sequence of a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product unique to oleander strains. The PCR assay using primer pair QH-OLS05/QH-OLS08 allowed quick and simple detection and identification of oleander strains in cultured bacterium and infected plant samples. The assay also can be applied to insect samples. Specific detection and identification of oleander strains of X. fastidiosa by PCR is useful for epidemiologic and etiologic studies of oleander leaf scorch by identifying what plants and insect vectors harbor or carry this particular strain of X. fastidiosa, especially in locations where mixed natural infections by oleander and other strains of X. fastidiosa occur. PMID:19020933
Oleander Leaf Scorch (OLS) is a devastating disease of oleander induced by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. The Glassy-winged Sharpshooter (GWSS, Homalodisca coagulate) spreads the OLS bacterium during feeding by first acquiring it from infected plants a...
M. J. Blua R. A. Redak H. S. Costas
...Commission [Docket Nos. ER00-3240-016; ER01-1633-013] Oleander Power Project, LP; Southern Company-Florida LLC; Notice...January 22, 2010. Take notice that on January 14, 2010, Oleander Power Project, LP and Southern Company-Florida LLC...
Oleander poisoning can be detected by digoxin immunoassays and for last two decades the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) has been used for rapid detection of oleander poisoning in clinical laboratories. Recently, Abbott Laboratories (Abbott Park, IL) discontinued this assay. Therefore, we explored the possibility of using another digoxin assay (Dimension Vista Flex Reagent Cartridge, Tina Quant, EMIT 2000 and old FPIA assay for comparison) for rapid detection of oleander poisoning. When aliquots of drug-free serum pools were supplemented with pure oleandrin or oleander extract, we observed the highest apparent digoxin values using Dimension Vista digoxin assay (Flex Reagent Cartridge). We also observed significant apparent digoxin values in vivo in sera of mice both 1 and 2 ?hr after feeding with oleander extract. When a serum pool prepared from patients taking digoxin was further supplemented with various amounts of oleander extract, the highest falsely elevated digoxin values were observed with Dimension Vista digoxin assay. Monitoring free digoxin using Dimension Vista digoxin assay (Flex Reagent Cartridge) did not eliminate this interference. Digibind neutralized digoxin-like factors of oleander extract and such effect can be monitored by observing significant reduction in apparent free digoxin levels in the presence of Digibind as measured in the protein-free ultrafiltrate using Dimension Vista digoxin assay (Flex Reagent Cartridge). PMID:21438002
Dasgupta, Amitava; Klein, Kimberley; Risin, Semyon A; Actor, Jeffrey K
Despite known toxicity of oleander, this product is used in herbal preparations. Oleander interferes with various digoxin immunoassays. It is possible that a person taking digoxin also may take oleander-containing herbal products, and digoxin immunoassays interfering with oleander cannot be used for therapeutic monitoring of digoxin. Recently, Bayer Diagnostics introduced a new enzyme-linked chemiluminescent immunosorbent digoxin assay for application on the ADVIA IMS System (ECLIA-digoxin). We studied potential interference of oleander with this new digoxin assay and found that this assay is virtually free from oleander interference. When aliquots of drug-free serum pools were supplemented with ethyl alcohol extract of oleander leaf or pure oleandrin standard, we observed significant apparent digoxin concentration when measured by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) but minimal digoxin-like immunoreactivity using the ECLIA digoxin assay. Because cross-reactivity should be studied in the presence of primary analyte, we prepared 2 serum pools using sera from patients receiving digoxin. Then aliquots of first digoxin pool were supplemented with oleandrin standard and aliquots of second digoxin pool with oleander extract. We observed significant increases in apparent digoxin concentration in the presence of both oleandrin and oleander extract using the FPIA. However, we observed no statistically significant change in digoxin concentration when ECLIA digoxin assay was used, indicating that this assay is virtually free from oleander interference. PMID:16628146
Dasgupta, Amitava; Kang, Edward; Datta, Pradip
Three trisaccharides, one pentasaccharide, and one heptasaccharide, namely ?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-OC3H7 (1), ?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-OC3H7 (2), ?-D-GalA-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-OC3H7 (3), ?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-OC3H7 (4), and ?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-OC3H7 (5), which are relevant to the fragments of the rhamnogalacturonan of Nerium indicum, were concisely synthesized. The syntheses feature highly stereoselective formation of the ?-D-GalA-linkage with GalA N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidates as donors. PMID:23811084
Ma, Yuyong; Cao, Xin; Yu, Biao
Adapting to specific hosts often involves trade-offs that limit performance on other hosts. These constraints may either lead to narrow host ranges (i.e. specialists, able to exploit only one host type) or wide host ranges often leading to lower performance on each host (i.e. generalists). Here, we combined laboratory experiments on field populations with experimental evolution to investigate the impact of adaptation to the host on host range evolution and associated performance over this range. We used the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a model organism for studies on the evolution of specialization. Field mite populations were sampled on three host plant species: tomato, citrus tree and rosebay (Nerium oleander). Testing these populations in the laboratory revealed that tomato populations of mites could exploit tomato only, citrus populations could exploit citrus and tomato whereas Nerium populations could exploit all three hosts. Besides, the wider niche ranges of citrus and Nerium populations came at the cost of low performance on their non-native hosts. Experimental lines selected to live on the same three host species exhibited similar patterns of host range and relative performance. This result suggests that adaptation to a new host species may lead to wider host ranges but at the expense of decreased performance on other hosts. We conclude that experimental evolution may reliably inform on evolution in the field. PMID:24689448
Fellous, S; Angot, G; Orsucci, M; Migeon, A; Auger, P; Olivieri, I; Navajas, M
Indian system of medicine describes the usage of certain very toxic plant based drugs after performing a detoxification process (Shodhana samskara). Nerium indicum is traditionally used as a medicine though known to cause severe allergic symptoms, tachycardia and gastrointestinal effects leading to fatalities. In this study, the detoxification (shodhana) for Nerium indicum was scientifically validated based on phytochemical and toxicity profiles. Shodhana was performed according to traditional literature. HPTLC densitometric studies were performed for the pre- and post-shodhana powders followed by sub-acute toxicity evaluation in rats. Preparative TLC and LC-MS showed the reduction of oleandrin peak in the post-shodhana sample. Prominent features of cardiotoxicity including tachycardia were noted in the pre-shodhana Nerium treated animals along with mortality. However, no such toxicity was encountered in the post-shodhana Nerium treated animals. Hence, using the recommended detoxification (shodhana), the toxicity of an important medicinal plant was significantly nullified. Such studies provide a scientific support towards our traditional medicinal practices using modem analytical and experimental methodologies and may prove to be very useful in establishing standard scientific procedures for routine and safe use of traditional medicines. PMID:22125956
Banerjee, Aryamitra A; Vasu, Kamala K; Pancholi, Harit; Rajani, Mandapati; Nivsarkar, Manish A
Thevetia cardiac glycosides can lead to intoxication, thus they are important indicators for forensic and pharmacologic surveys. Six thevetia cardiac glycosides, including two with unknown structures, were isolated from the seeds of the Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Shum., Apocynaceae). LC-ESI?-MS(/MS) analysis under high-resolution conditions used as a qualitative survey of the primary glycosides did not lead to fragmentation of the aglycones. Acid hydrolysis of the polar and non-volatile thevetia glycosides under severe conditions yielded the aglycones of the thevetia glycosides and made them amenable to GC-MS analysis. Comparison of mass spectral fragmentation patterns of the aglycones, as well as high-resolution mass spectrometric and NMR data of four of the primary thevetia glycosides including the two unknowns, revealed the structures of the complete set of six thevetia glycosides. The identified compounds are termed thevetin C and acetylthevetin C and differ by an 18,20-oxido-20,22-dihydro functionality from thevetin B and acetylthevetin B, respectively. The absence of an unsaturated lactone ring renders the glycosides cardio-inactive. The procedures developed in this study and the sets of analytical data obtained will be useful for screening and structure assessment of other, particularly polar, cardiac glycosides. PMID:22196940
Kohls, Sarah; Scholz-Böttcher, Barbara M; Teske, Jörg; Zark, Patrick; Rullkötter, Jürgen
Oleander is an ornamental shrub that grows in the United States, Australia, India, Sri Lanka, China, and other parts of the world. All parts of the plant are poisonous because the presence of cardiac glycoside oleandrin. Despite its toxicity, oleander extract is used in folk medicines. Because of its structural similarity, oleandrin cross-reacts with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for digoxin. We studied the potential of detecting oleandrin in serum using 5 common digoxin immunoassays (FPIA, MEIA, both from Abbott; Beckman digoxin assay on Synchron LX, Chemiluminescent assay, CLIA from Bayer Diagnostics) and a recently FDA-approved turbidimetric assay on the ADVIA 1650 analyzer (Bayer). Aliquots of drug-free and digoxin-like immunoreactive substances (DLIS)-free serum pools were supplemented with ethanol extract of oleander leaves or oleandrin (Sigma Chemicals) in amounts expected in vivo after severe overdose. We observed significant apparent digoxin concentration with FPIA, Beckman, and the new turbidimetric assay (1 mL drug-free serum supplemented with 5.0 microL of oleander extract: apparent digoxin 2.36 ng/mL by the FPIA, 0.32 ng/mL by the MEIA, 0.93 ng/mL by the Beckman, 0.82 ng/mL by the new turbidimetric assay). The CLIA showed no cross-reactivity. Similar observations were made when serum pools were supplemented with oleandrin. Because cross reactivity should be tested in the presence of the primary analyte, we supplemented serum pools prepared from patients receiving digoxin with oleander extract or oleandrin. The measured digoxin concentrations were falsely elevated with the FPIA, Beckman, and turbidimetric assays, the highest false elevation being observed with the FPIA. Surprisingly, apparent digoxin concentrations were falsely lowered when MEIA was used. Digibind neutralizes free apparent digoxin concentration in vitro in serum pools supplemented with oleander extract, and this effect can be measured by the FPIA. We conclude that FPIA is most sensitive to detect the presence of oleander in serum. In contrast, the CLIA (no cross-reactivity) should be used for monitoring digoxin in a patient receiving digoxin and self-medicated with a herbal remedy containing oleander. PMID:15570191
Dasgupta, Amitava; Datta, Pradip
We studied the potential for detecting oleander with a new immunoassay (Digoxin III, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) by comparing results with those from the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and Digoxin II assay (Abbott). In aliquots of drug-free serum pools supplemented with pure oleandrin or oleander extract, we observed apparent digoxin values using all 3 immunoassays, but values obtained by the Digoxin III were higher than obtained by the other assays. We also observed significant apparent digoxin values in vivo in serum samples of mice 1 and 2 hours after feeding oleander extract. The average half-life of digoxin-like factors was 1.1 hours. In a serum pool (prepared from patients taking digoxin) supplemented with oleander extract, the observed digoxin values were falsely lowered when measured by the Digoxin II but falsely elevated when measured by the Digoxin III and FPIA. Monitoring free digoxin using the Digoxin III cannot eliminate this interference. Digibind neutralized digoxin-like factors of oleander extract; the effect can be monitored by observing a significant reduction in apparent free digoxin levels in the presence of Digibind as measured in protein-free ultrafiltrate using the Digoxin III. The Digoxin III is highly sensitive for measuring oleander. PMID:18343781
Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Semyon A; Reyes, Meredith; Actor, Jeffrey K
The present study aimed at investigating the effects of Nerium indicum leaf extract on the blood electrolytes of Heteropneustes fossilis for short- and long term. Fish were subjected to Nerium indicum leaf extract for short term (11.27 mg/L i.e. 0.8 of 96 h LC??) and long term (2.81 mg/L i.e. 0.2 of 96 h LC??). Fish were killed on each time intervals from control and experimental (Nerium indicum) groups after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h in short-term exposure and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in long-term experiment. Blood samples were analyzed for calcium and inorganic phosphate levels. Acute exposure of Nerium indicum leaf extract caused a progressive decrease in the serum calcium levels after 48 h in fish H. fossilis, which persists till the close of the experiment (96 h). The serum inorganic phosphate levels remain unaffected till 48 h in the Nerium indicum leaf extract-exposed fish. After 72 and 96 h, the levels exhibit a decrease. Chronic Nerium indicum leaf extract treatment provoked a decrease in serum calcium levels at day 14. This decrease continues till 28 days. The serum phosphate level of the Nerium indicum leaf extract-treated fish decreases on day 14 and 21. However, on day 28, the levels become close to the normal values. We conclude that Nerium indicum leaf extract exposure alters the blood electrolytes of the fish, thus causing physiological disturbances which might affect seriously the normal vital functions, growth rate, reproduction, and their survival in nature. PMID:21127966
Prasad, Maniram; Kumar, Abhishek; Mishra, Diwakar; Srivastav, Sunil K; Srivastav, Ajai K
Cardiac glycosides from fresh leaves of Nerium indicum were evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail: GAS) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that LC50 value of cardiac glycosides against GAS was time dependent and the LC50 value at 96h was as low as 3.71mg\\/L, which was comparable with that of metaldehyde at 72h (3.88mg\\/L). These
Lingpeng Dai; Wanxian Wang; Xinjiao Dong; Renyong Hu; Xuyang Nan
A 25-year-old woman was evaluated and treated for ingestion of Thevetia peruviana seeds and flower petals-a natural digoxin cross reacting cardinolide-with intent to cause self-harm. The following case report provides the clinical presentation, treatment and management of acute yellow oleander poisoning. PMID:24898992
A TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay was developed for specific detection of strains of X. fastidiosa causing oleander leaf scorch. The assay uses primers WG-OLS-F1 and WG-OLS-R1 and the fluorescent probe WG-OLS-P1, designed based on unique sequences found only in the genome of oleander strain Ann1. The assay is specific, allowing detection of only oleander-infecting strains, not other strains of X. fastidiosa nor other plant-associated bacteria tested. The assay is also sensitive, with a detection limit of 10.4fg DNA of X. fastidiosa per reaction in vitro and in planta. The assay can also be applied to detect low numbers of X. fastidiosa in insect samples, or further developed into a multiplex real-time PCR assay to simultaneously detect and distinguish diverse strains of X. fastidiosa that may occupy the same hosts or insect vectors. Specific and sensitive detection and quantification of oleander strains of X. fastidiosa should be useful for disease diagnosis, epidemiological studies, management of oleander leaf scorch disease, and resistance screening for oleander shrubs. PMID:23165115
Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Singh, Raghuwinder; Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi
A gram-negative, motile, straight to curved rod shaped, pink pigmented bacterium was isolated from a soil sample collected from the rhizosphere of an Indian medicinal plant, Nerium indicum (Chuvanna arali) and subjected to a detailed polyphasic taxonomic study. The strain, designated as IMTB-1969(T), matched with most of the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties of the genus Pontibacter and represents a novel species. The major fatty acids of the strain were monounsaturated iso/anteiso branched C17 fatty acids (45.1%) and iso-C15:0 (16.5%). MK-7 was the predominant isoprenoid quinone. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain IMTB-1969(T) was indicated to belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes and further phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain IMTB-1969(T) belongs to the family Cytophagaceae and genus Pontibacter. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was with Pontibacter korlensis CCTCC AB 206081(T) (97.2%) and lower sequence similarity was observed with other species in the genus Pontibacter (95.9-94.0%). DNA-DNA relatedness study of the strain IMTB-1969(T) confirmed that it represents a novel species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 52.2 (±0.5) mol%. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the genotypic and phenotypic distinction of strain IMTB-1969(T) from its closest phylogenetic relatives. The strain IMTB-1969(T) should be classified as novel species of the genus Pontibacter, for which the name Pontibacter rhizosphera sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IMTB-1969(T) (=MTCC 10673(T) = DSM 24399(T)). PMID:21409554
Raichand, Revti; Kaur, Ishwinder; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Mayilraj, Shanmugam
The flow patterns of the Gulf Stream warm core rings and surrounding shelf break and slope water are constructed from shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) transects of the Oleander Project. For each warm ring, consecutive ADCP transects are colocated to a common ring center and are mapped into a stream function. Methods to locate ring centers from the ADCP transect and advanced very high resolution radiometer image are developed and tested. Two warm rings in 1999, which have relatively complete data coverage, are examined to study the ring-induced warm and cold streamers. For cold streamers, the estimated volume flux, based on more than 10 independent ADCP transects, is at least 1 × 106 m3 s-1. This result agrees well with the previous estimate in the Warm Core Ring Experiment. For warm streamers, the result is new. On the basis of a large number of ADCP transects, the estimated volume flux is about 2.5 × 106 m3 s-1. By pulling large transports associated with the cold/warm streamers, the warm rings likely play a fundamental role in the water exchange in the Slope Sea.
Wei, Jun; Wang, Dong-Ping; Flagg, Charles N.
Poisoning from the oleander plant is common. Taking advantage of the high cross-reactivity of oleandrin, the major cardiac glycoside found in the oleander plant, we demonstrated that the serum digitoxin assay can be successfully used for the rapid diagnosis of oleander poisoning. Digitoxin is rarely used for treatment of cardiac disorders in the United States and has a therapeutic range of 19.7 to 39.3 nmol/L. In a typical oleander poisoning, serum oleandrin concentrations may reach 174 mmol/L or more. A serum specimen supplemented with 174 mmol/L of oleandrin containing no digitoxin showed an apparent digitoxin concentration of 1,272.1 nmol/L, a very high value compared with the range of the serum digitoxin assay, which is 2.6 to 104.8 nmol/L. Moreover, the response of the serum digitoxin assay with serum specimens containing various concentrations of oleandrin (and no digitoxin) is linear. Therefore, the oleandrin concentration in serum can be calculated from the apparent digitoxin concentration to access the severity of poisoning. Recently, the usefulness of the digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragment in the treatment of oleander poisoning has been described; however, no laboratory test was performed to demonstrate the progress of therapy. We demonstrated that the digoxin-specific Fab antibody can bind oleandrin in vitro, thus reducing the pharmacologically active free oleandrin. Because Fab and oleandrin bound to Fab are absent in the protein-free ultrafiltrates, monitoring the activity of free oleandrin in the ultrafiltrates can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of therapy. PMID:9322594
Dasgupta, A; Hart, A P
Starting in Fall 1992 we have been monitoring the currents between the mid-Atlantic Bight and the NW Sargasso Sea with an acoustic Doppler current profiler on the freighter CMV Oleander, which makes weekly roundtrips between Port Elizabeth, NJ and Bermuda. In addition, XBTs and surface salts have been taken on a monthly basis since 1979. These systematic observations of the upper ocean are giving us new insights into the structure of the Gulf Stream and adjacent waters. In this overview we will highlight some of the major findings of this ongoing program. One of the more striking observations is perhaps the structural stability of the Gulf Stream itself. Its shape can be characterized as a double-exponential which results from the mixing or homogenization of waters between the current and either side, but not across it. We show that 80 percent of the Eulerian eddy kinetic energy that is observed in the Gulf Stream can be described in terms of the meandering of a rigid double-exponential current. The remaining variability can be accounted for in terms of a few structural modes that are most likely associated with the meandering of the current. We have found that the transport of the current has been conspicuously stable, and will argue that past thoughts about large variations in transport may result from an inability to distinguish between the current itself and adjacent local recirculations of varying intensity. The distinction is made clear thanks to the repeat sampling. However, the Gulf Stream does exhibit significant variations in mean path on interannual time scales. These show a strong correlation with temperature-salinity anomalies in the Slope Sea. We suggest that both result from time-varying transports from the Labrador shelf, but there is presently considerable discussion as to whether the path shifting should be viewed as a thermohaline or a winddriven process. More generally, we use the above examples to argue that with more deliberate planning, the unparalleled and repeat access to in-situ sampling of the oceans provided by commercial shipping and cruise vessels could provide society with far more extensive and valuable information about the ocean and atmospheric conditions at sea. But for this to happen, the instrumentation needs to be optimized for completely automatic and unattended operation. This also means working with the merchant marine community to develop guidelines and procedures for future cooperative efforts.
The sex pheromone emitted by the female oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii (Homoptera, Diaspididae), has been isolated and characterized as (1R,2S)-cis-2-isopropenyl-1-(4?-methyl-4?-penten-1?-yl)cyclobutaneethanol acetate by using advanced MS and NMR spectroscopic methods, as well as a variety of microderivatization sequences. The structure has been confirmed by stereo- and enantioselective synthesis of the four possible stereoisomers. The absolute configuration has been determined by comparison of the activity of the cis (1S,2R) and (1R,2S) enantiomers with that exhibited by the natural material in greenhouse bioassays and field tests. The structure of this sesquiterpenoid pheromone is new in the coccids and in the pheromone field in general.
Einhorn, Jacques; Guerrero, Angel; Ducrot, Paul-Henri; Boyer, Francois-Didier; Gieselmann, Mary; Roelofs, Wendell
Cardiac glycosides from fresh leaves of Nerium indicum were evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail: GAS) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that LC(50) value of cardiac glycosides against GAS was time dependent and the LC(50) value at 96 h was as low as 3.71 mg/L, which was comparable with that of metaldehyde at 72 h (3.88 mg/L). These results indicate that cardiac glycosides could be an effective molluscicide against GAS. The toxicological mechanism of cardiac glucosides on GAS was also evaluated through changes of selected biochemical parameters, including cholinesterase (ChE) and esterase (EST) activities, glycogen and protein contents in hepatopancreas tissues of GAS. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides, GAS showed lower activities of EST isozyme in the later stages of the exposure period as well as drastically decreased glycogen content, although total protein content was not affected at the end of 24 and 48 h followed by a significant depletion at the end of 72 and 96 h. The initial increase followed by a decline of ChE activity was also observed during the experiment. These results suggest that cardiac glycosides seriously impair normal physiological metabolism, resulting in fatal alterations in major biochemical constituents of hepatopancreas tissues of P. canaliculata. PMID:21843803
Dai, Lingpeng; Wang, Wanxian; Dong, Xinjiao; Hu, Renyong; Nan, Xuyang
Using a modified multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa based on the same seven housekeeping genes employed in a previously published MLST, we studied the genetic diversity of two subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi, which cause Pierce's disease and oleander leaf scorch, respectively. Typing of 85 U.S. isolates (plus one from northern Mexico) of X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa from 15 different plant hosts and 21 isolates of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi from 4 different hosts in California and Texas supported their subspecific status. Analysis using the MLST genes plus one cell-surface gene showed no significant genetic differentiation based on geography or host plant within either subspecies. Two cases of homologous recombination (with X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, the third U.S. subspecies) were detected in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. Excluding recombination, MLST site polymorphism in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (0.048%) and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi (0.000%) was substantially lower than in X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (0.240%), consistent with the hypothesis that X. fastidiosa subspp. fastidiosa and sandyi were introduced into the United States (probably just prior to 1880 and 1980, respectively). Using whole-genome analysis, we showed that MLST is more effective at genetic discrimination at the specific and subspecific level than other typing methods applied to X. fastidiosa. Moreover, MLST is the only technique effective in detecting recombination. PMID:20465416
Yuan, Xiaoli; Morano, Lisa; Bromley, Robin; Spring-Pearson, Senanu; Stouthamer, Richard; Nunney, Leonard
A case is presented of cardiac glycoside poisoning in a 1-year-old patient from the plant Nerium oleander (common oleander). The patient had bradycardia, vomiting, altered level of consciousness, and no history of ingestion. Antibody-based digoxin assays may cross-react with other cardiac glycosides nonquantitatively. Chromatographic techniques can be used in the specific diagnosis. PMID:9421116
Gupta, A; Joshi, P; Jortani, S A; Valdes, R; Thorkelsson, T; Verjee, Z; Shemie, S
Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal yielded conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in an RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single-dose and multiple-dose activated charcoal (SDAC and MDAC, respectively) compared with no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated with a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups by determining the area under the curve for each patient in the 24 hours following admission, the 24-hour mean residence time, and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points, adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9 hours. There was a reduction in 24-hour mean residence time and in the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal, versus the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favorably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning and may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, these mechanistic data support the need for further studies to determine whether a particular subgroup of patients (eg, those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695
Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A
Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal.
Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A
Cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum showed potent molluscicide activity against Pomacea canaliculata (GAS), but the toxicological mechanism is still far less understood. Effects of sublethal treatments of cardiac glycosides on feeding rate, digestive enzymes and ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas in GAS were evaluated in this study. Exposure of GAS to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides resulted in a significant reduction of feeding rate of GAS. The amylase, cellulose and protease activity were increase significantly at the end of 24 h followed by significant inhibition after 48 h of exposure while lipase activity was not affected significantly at the end of 24 h followed by a significant inhibition after 48 h of exposure during experimental period. The main ultrastructural alterations of hepatopancreas observed in snails under cardiac glycosides treatment comprised disruption of nuclear membrane, increased vesiculation and dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolization and swelling of mitochondrial compared to the untreated GAS. These results, for the first time, provide systematic evidences showing that cardiac glycosides seriously impairs the hepatopancreas tissues of GAS, resulting in inhibition of digestive enzymes activity and feeding rate and cause GAS death in the end. PMID:24361644
Dai, Lingpeng; Qian, Xiaowei; Nan, Xuyang; Zhang, Yejian
Utilizing the first decade of shipboard ADCP data as well as XBT and surface salinity data obtained from the CMV Oleander, this study is focused on the mean structure, and seasonal and interannual variability of the frontal zone at the edge of the shelf of the Middle Atlantic Bight. The early analysis showed that more than half the data in the frontal zone were influenced by warm core rings and that removing the confounding influence of the rings was vital if the true structure of the front was to emerge. From the culled data set of 128 transects of the front with sufficient coverage we have proceeded to generate a velocity description following the core of the frontal jet showing a maximum, surface intensified velocity of more than 0.25 ms-1, a vertical extent of roughly 80 m, a half-amplitude width of about 20 km and an alongshore transport of ~0.34 Sv. The maximum mean relative vorticity of the jet is 0.56*f. The alongshore jet is accompanied by a substantial surface intensified convergent flow that implies a maximum down-welling in the center of the jet of ~30 m/day. The seasonally the shelfbreak jet has its minimal velocities during the summer months, increasing to maximal velocities during the winter before decreasing agin in the spring. An interesting feature that emerges from the ADCP data is that while the shelfbreak frontal jet is usually assumed to consist of a single high-speed core, in fact, the jet often exhibits multiple high velocity extrema, the existence of which appears to undergo a seasonal progression.
Flagg, C. N.; Dunn, M.; Wang, D.
The air pollution of the city of Thessaloniki was studied, using park trees as biomonitors. The species analyzed were Ligustrum japonicum, Nerium oleander, Olea europea, Pinus brutia, Platanus orientalis, Populus alba, Populus nigra, and Robinia pseudoacacia. Acid digestion of leaf tissues and subsequent use of atomic absorption spectrometry was the analytical methodology used for the determination of heavy metals (Cu,
T. Sawidis; A. Marnasidis; G. Zachariadis; J. Stratis
Based on allozyme electrophoresis at the Pgm locus and nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS2) sequences, we studied the genetic variation of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch collected on rose bay, Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae), from several localities around the Mediterranean basin. In addition, we compared these results with those of Navajas et al. (1998) and Tsagkarakou (1997) who collected
Maria Navajas; Anastasia Tsagkarakov; Jaques Lagnel; Marie-Jeanne Perrot-Minnot
When the shrub Nerium oleander L., growing under full natural daylight outdoors, was subjected to water stress, stomatal conductance declined, and so did non-stomatal components of photosynthesis, including the CO2-saturated rate of CO2 uptake by intact leaves and the activity of electron transport by chloroplasts isolated from stressed plants. This inactivation of photosynthetic activity was accompanied by changes in the
Olle Björkman; Stephen B. Powles
In this paper, the effect of NaHCO3 as fire retardant additive during pyrolysis and combustion has been investigated. Four different contents (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% w\\/w) of NaHCO3 have been tested on Pinus brutia, Laurus nobilis and Nerium oleander; forest species commonly dispersed in the Mediterranean region. Pyrolysis experiments have been conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) employing nitrogen
D. Bakirtzis; M. A. Delichatsios; S. Liodakis; W. Ahmed
The impact of the leaching of oleander, Nerium oleander, and willow, Salix pedicellata, leaves on the aquatic environment was investigated in the laboratory. The leaves were collected on the banks of a Moroccan stream, leachate polyphenols were analysed, and leachate toxic effects on the dominant gastropod species of the stream were investigated. The following factors were considered: leaf species, dry or fresh state of the leaves, litter concentration, duration of leaching, temperature. Within the first 8-12 hrs of submersion, the litter of both species caused a great depletion of dissolved oxygen. Later, oxygen consumption decreased. Dry oleander leaves caused a greater drop in oxygen concentration than fresh oleander leaves. The opposite was observed in willow leaves, most clearly at 5 and 10°C. At higher temperatures (20 and 25°C), oxygen nearly totally disappeared under all conditions, leaving 0 to 2 mg.I -1 after 48 hours. Whether fresh or dry, oleander leaves always caused a greater oxygen depletion than willow leaves. Willow leaves contained more tannin-and non-tannin-polyphenols than oleander leaves, and their leaching released more of these compounds, especially in dry leaves. The leaching of both leaf species only had a toxic effect on the gastropods at the higher temperatures (20 and 25°C), thus suggesting that the toxic effect was mainly due to lack of oxygen in the water. At these temperatures, the toxic effect of dry leaves was greater than that of fresh leaves. Oleander proved more toxic than willow, presumably under the influence of both lack of oxygen and toxic heterosides.
Chergui, H.; Haddy, L.; Markaoui, M.; Pattee, E.
We compared the capacity to accumulate airborne heavy metals of two lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata and Parmotrema chinense) and one higher plant (Nerium oleander) at a very densely populated urban site near Naples. After 15, 45, 75, and 120 days of exposure at four sites with different levels of air pollution, equal portions of thalli and 20 leaves were collected, and four environmentally significant elements, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb, were measured by inductively coupled plasma analysis. To compare the accumulation rates of lichens and the vascular plant, we determined an index of relative accumulation rate of pollutants during time and the ratio between the concentrations of each element in exposed samples to that of control samples (exposed-to-control ratio). Our data indicate F. caperata as being the most suitable bioaccumulator, followed by P. chinense. N. oleander was also found to be a useful heavy metal biomonitor though not suitable as a bioaccumulator. PMID:19255863
Aprile, Giuseppa Grazia; Di Salvatore, Mina; Carratů, Giovanna; Mingo, Antonio; Carafa, Anna Maria
Cardiac glycoside poisoning from the ingestion of plants, particularly of oleanders, occurs with reasonable frequency in tropical and subtropical areas. We have assessed a variety of plant specimens for their cardiac glycoside content by means of radioimmunoassays with antibodies that differ in their specificity for cardiac glycosides. Significant amounts of immunoreactive cardiac glycoside were found to be present in the ornamental shrubs: yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana); oleander (Nerium oleander); wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis); bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera); sea-mango (Cerbera manghas); and frangipani (Plumeria rubra); and in the milkweeds: redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias curassavica); balloon cotton (Asclepias fruiticosa); king's crown (Calotropis procera); and rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia). The venom gland of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) also contained large quantities of cardiac glycosides. The competitive immunoassay method permits the rapid screening of specimens that are suspected to contain cardiac glycosides. Awareness of the existence of these plant and animal toxins and their dangers allows them to be avoided and poisoning prevented. The method is also useful for the confirmation of the presence of cardiac glycosides in serum in cases of poisoning. PMID:3086679
Radford, D J; Gillies, A D; Hinds, J A; Duffy, P
A rapid LC-MS/MS method, using a triple-quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer, was developed for the quantitative determination of oleandrin in serum, urine, and tissue samples. Oleandrin, the major cardiac glycoside of oleander (Nerium oleander L.), was extracted from serum and urine samples with methylene chloride and from tissues with acetonitrile. The tissue extracts were cleaned up using Florisil solid-phase extraction columns. Six replicate fortifications of serum and urine at 0.001 microg/g (1 ppb) oleandrin gave average recoveries of 97% with 5% CV (relative standard deviation) and 107% with 7% CV, respectively. Six replicate fortifications of liver at 0.005 microg/g (5 ppb) oleandrin gave average recoveries of 98% with 6% CV. This is the first report of a positive mass spectrometric identification and quantitation of oleandrin in tissue samples from oleander intoxication cases. The sensitivity and specificity of the LC-MS/MS analysis enables it to be the method of choice for toxicological investigations of oleander poisoning. PMID:15913289
Tor, Elizabeth R; Filigenzi, Michael S; Puschner, Birgit
The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110
Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido
Assessment of the flammability of ornamental vegetation (particularly hedges) planted around houses is necessary in light of the increasing urbanization of the wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) and the high fire occurrence in such areas. The structure and flammability of seven of the species most frequently planted as hedges in Provence (southeastern France) were studied at particle level. Spatial repartition of the different types of fuel particles within plants was assessed by means of the cube method. The leaf flammability was assessed using an epiradiator as a burning device, and measurements of foliar physical characteristics and gross heat of combustion (GHC) helped to explain the results of burning experiments. Co-inertia analysis revealed that species with thin leaves were quick to ignite (Pyracantha coccinea, Phyllostachys sp.) and species with high leaf GHC burned the longest (Pittosporum tobira, Nerium oleander). Species presenting high ignitability (Photinia fraseri, Phyllostachys sp. and Pyracantha coccinea) were characterized by high foliar surface area-to-volume ratio, and species presenting lower ignitability were characterized by high GHC (Pittosporum tobira, Nerium oleander, Cupressus sempervirens). Hierarchical cluster analysis of the flammability variables (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition and flaming duration) categorized the relative flammability of the seven species (including dead Cupressus sempervirens) in five clusters of species from poorly flammable (Pittosporum tobira) to extremely flammable (dead Cupressus sempervirens).This study provides useful information for reducing fire risk in WUIs in the study area. PMID:23765042
Ganteaume, Anne; Jappiot, Marielle; Lampin, Corinne; Guijarro, Mercedes; Hernando, Carmen
Assessment of the flammability of ornamental vegetation (particularly hedges) planted around houses is necessary in light of the increasing urbanization of the wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) and the high fire occurrence in such areas. The structure and flammability of seven of the species most frequently planted as hedges in Provence (southeastern France) were studied at particle level. Spatial repartition of the different types of fuel particles within plants was assessed by means of the cube method. The leaf flammability was assessed using an epiradiator as a burning device, and measurements of foliar physical characteristics and gross heat of combustion (GHC) helped to explain the results of burning experiments. Co-inertia analysis revealed that species with thin leaves were quick to ignite ( Pyracantha coccinea, Phyllostachys sp.) and species with high leaf GHC burned the longest ( Pittosporum tobira, Nerium oleander). Species presenting high ignitability ( Photinia fraseri, Phyllostachys sp. and Pyracantha coccinea) were characterized by high foliar surface area-to-volume ratio, and species presenting lower ignitability were characterized by high GHC ( Pittosporum tobira, Nerium oleander, Cupressus sempervirens). Hierarchical cluster analysis of the flammability variables (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition and flaming duration) categorized the relative flammability of the seven species (including dead Cupressus sempervirens) in five clusters of species from poorly flammable ( Pittosporum tobira) to extremely flammable (dead Cupressus sempervirens).This study provides useful information for reducing fire risk in WUIs in the study area.
Ganteaume, Anne; Jappiot, Marielle; Lampin, Corinne; Guijarro, Mercedes; Hernando, Carmen
Background: The anticancer properties of Apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves. Materials and Methods: In this study, leaf extracts of 10 Apocynaceae species were assessed for antiproliferative (APF) activities using the sulforhodamine B assay. Their extracts were also analyzed for total alkaloid content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) using the Dragendorff precipitation, Folin–Ciocalteu, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Results: Leaf extracts of Alstonia angustiloba, Calotropis gigantea, Catharanthus roseus, Nerium oleander, Plumeria obtusa, and Vallaris glabra displayed positive APF activities. Extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Cerbera odollam, Dyera costulata, and Kopsia fruticosa did not show any APF activity. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of C. gigantea, and DCM and DCM:MeOH extracts of V. glabra showed strong APF activities against all six human cancer cell lines. Against breast cancer cells of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, DCM extracts of C. gigantea and N. oleander were stronger than or comparable to standard drugs of xanthorrhizol, curcumin, and tamoxifen. All four extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Extracts of Kopsia fruticosa had the highest TAC while those of Dyera costulata had the highest TPC and RSA. Extracts of C. gigantea and V. glabra inhibited the growth of all six cancer cell lines while all extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: Extracts of C. gigantea, V. glabra, and N. oleander therefore showed great promise as potential candidates for anticancer drugs. The wide-spectrum APF activities of these three species are reported for the first time and their bioactive compounds warrant further investigation.
Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Nordin, Fariza Juliana
The phase behavior of thylakoid polar lipids from plants sensitive to chilling injury was investigated by calorimetry, electron spin resonance spectroscopy of spin labels, and fluorescence intensity after labeling with trans-parinaric acid. The plants used were oleander (Nerium oleander), mung bean (Vigna radiata L. var Mungo), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Grosse Lisse). For all plants the initiation temperature for the calorimetric exotherm was coincident (±1°C) with the transition determined by the increase in the temperature coefficient of spin label motion and fluorescence intensity of trans-parinaric acid. For oleander plants, grown at 45°C, the transition was at 7°C while for plants from the same clone, grown at 20°C, it was at ?2°C. For mung bean and tomato the transition was between 9 and 12°C. The similarity in the transition detected by spin labeling and fluorescence intensity suggest that spin labels, like the fluorescent label trans-parinaric acid, preferentially partition into domains of ordered lipid. The coincidence of the temperature for initiation of the transition, determined by the three techniques, shows that each is a valid method of assessing a phase transition in membrane polar lipids.
Raison, John K.; Orr, Glenda R.
The increasing urbanization of Wildland-Urban Interfaces (WUI) as well as the high fire occurrence in these areas requires the assessment and the ranking of the flammability of the ornamental vegetation surrounding houses especially that planted in hedges. Thus, the flammability of seven species, among those most frequently planted in hedges in Provence (South-Eastern France), were studied at particle level and at dead surface fuel level (litters) under laboratory conditions. The flammability parameters (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition, flaming duration) of the very fine particles (live leaves and particles <2 mm in diameter) were measured using an epiradiator as burning device. The flammability parameters (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition, flaming duration and initial flame propagation) of the undisturbed litter samples were recorded during burning experiments performed on fire bench. Burning experiments using the epiradiator showed that live leaves of Phyllostachys sp., Photinia frasei and Prunus laurocerasus had the shortest time-to-ignition and the highest ignition frequency and flaming duration whereas Pittosporum tobira and Nerium oleander were the longest to ignite with a low frequency. Phyllostachys sp. and Nerium oleander litters were the shortest to ignite while Prunus laurocerasus litter had the lowest bulk density and long time-to-ignition, but high flame propagation. Photinia fraseri litter ignited frequently and had a high flame spread while Pittosporum tobira litter ignited the least frequently and for the shortest duration. Cupressus sempervirens litter had the highest bulk density and the longest flaming duration but the lowest flame propagation. Pyracantha coccinea litter was the longest to ignite and flame propagation was low but lasted a long time. Hierarchical cluster analysis performed on the flammability parameters of live leaves and of litters ranked the seven species in four distinct clusters from the most flammable (Prunus laurocerasus and Pyracantha coccinea) to the least flammable (Pittosporum tobira and Nerium oleander); the other species displaying two groups of intermediate flammabilities (Phyllostachys sp.- Photinia fraseri and Cupressus sempervirens ). The species with highly flammable characteristics should not be used in hedges planted in WUIs in South-Eastern France.
Ganteaume, A.; Jappiot, M.; Lampin, C.
Cardiac glycoside poisoning caused by ingestion of plant material is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas. In evaluating the use of the Abbott TDx Digoxin II assay to detect such cases of poisoning, we found it a rapid and convenient method for confirming the ingestion of glycosides from the plants Nerium oleander, Thevetia peruviana, and Adonis microcarpa, and from the toad Bufo marinus. Here we report some clinical cases illustrating our experience with the use of this assay, and describe results of cross-reactivity studies with compounds structurally similar to digoxin. Because of the competitive nature of the immunoassay as well as the complexity of the mixture of cross-reacting cardiac glycosides present in the plant material, the measured apparent digoxin concentration is not linearly related to the cardiac glycoside concentration. PMID:2914377
Cheung, K; Hinds, J A; Duffy, P
Total concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb and Zn have been estimated in soil (A-horizon) and in leaves and stem samples of two Mediterranean species (Nerium oleander L. and Pinus pinea L.) growing in an industrial area in Spain (Huelva). Both species showed a different behaviour for the elements studied. Bark and leaves of both species acted as excluders of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe and Pb, N. oleander acted as indicator of Cu and Zn and, needles and bark of P. pinea behaved as accumulators of Cu. The enrichment ratio data indicated that Cu in soil and plant was enhanced with anthropogenic activities, with industrial activities being the primary contributor for Cu. All the other elements studied were controlled by natural source variations, but Pb could also be anthropogenically enhanced. Wood did not accumulate pollutants, with the translocation from bark being rather reduced. Uptake patterns of metals into foliage and bark tissues were more or less the same in both species for almost all the studied elements, which indicates that both plant parts could be indifferently used as biomonitors. PMID:17363057
Mingorance, M D; Valdés, B; Oliva, S Rossini
Cardiac glycosides are used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Current trend shows use of some cardiac glycosides in the treatment of proliferative diseases, which includes cancer. Nerium oleander L. is an important Chinese folk medicine having well proven cardio protective and cytotoxic effect. Oleandrin (a toxic cardiac glycoside of N. oleander L.) inhibits the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B chain (NF-?B) in various cultured cell lines (U937, CaOV3, human epithelial cells and T cells) as well as it induces programmed cell death in PC3 cell line culture. The mechanism of action includes improved cellular export of fibroblast growth factor-2, induction of apoptosis through Fas gene expression in tumor cells, formation of superoxide radicals that cause tumor cell injury through mitochondrial disruption, inhibition of interleukin-8 that mediates tumorigenesis and induction of tumor cell autophagy. The present review focuses the applicability of oleandrin in cancer treatment and concerned future perspective in the area. PMID:24347921
Kumar, Arvind; De, Tanmoy; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun K
A female, aged 43 and a male, aged 66, experienced gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms after a meal including snail stew. Twelve hours after the ingestion, they presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiovascular symptoms typical of acute toxic digoxin ingestion and were hospitalized. The man's electrocardiogram was altered, and the woman's was normal. Serum digoxin levels, measured on a Roche COBAS Integra 800 with the Roche On-Line Digoxin reagent, were 1.14 and 1.00 nmol/L, respectively. Potassium levels were normal in both patients. The serum digoxin concentration decreased on the second day, and symptoms resolved on the third day with patients fully recovered (i.e., reversion to a normal sinus rhythm). Cardiac-glycoside-like intoxication symptoms follow the ingestion of leaves or flowers of Nerium oleander. The consumed snails were suspected to be responsible for the intoxication. In the homogenized snail tissue, the concentration expressed in digoxin equivalents was 0.282 nmol/g. The presence of oleandrin and oleandrigenin in the snails was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, which was performed on a ionic-trap Finnigan LXQ instrument using an electrospray ionization interface. High-pressure liquid chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column with a gradient of methanol/water. An extract of oleander leaves was used as reference. PMID:17137529
Gechtman, Cecilia; Guidugli, Federico; Marocchi, Alessandro; Masarin, Adriano; Zoppi, Francesco
In this study the magnetic properties of tree leaves were measured in order to compare their capability to accumulate particles, to establish the relationship between magnetic properties and chemical data and to assess the particle pollution in selected locations in the cities of Braga, Porto, Valongo and Trancoso-Reboleiro, northern Portugal. In Porto, Braga and Valongo, leaves from the evergreen Nerium oleander were sampled each month during a year. N. oleander and deciduous Quercus spp. and Platanus spp. samples were collected in the same site in Porto, in order to determine the ability of these different leaves to accumulate particles. The leaves of deciduous Tilia spp. were collected in Porto and in a rural area (Trancoso-Reboleiro) so that a comparison could be established between them. The results indicated a contrast between the urban and the rural areas. The highest concentration of magnetic particles was found in the sampling site of Valongo and the lowest concentration in the sampling site of Trancoso-Reboleiro. In Porto, the results have shown that the Quercus leaves possessed the highest capability to accumulate particles even though it is a deciduous species. The IRM acquisition curves and the S-300 ratios found in the samples of the urban areas indicated the presence of magnetite-like structures. SIRM/? ratio revealed particles whose dimensions ranged between 5 ?m and 8 ?m in urban areas. The chemical elements copper and iron have a significant positive correlation with ? and SIRM, which highlights the use of magnetic properties as a proxy for the concentration of these metals in atmospheric dust. The magnetic properties were interpreted taking into consideration the rainfall peaks and then compared with the PM10 concentration levels monitored in an air quality station in Porto. Our data corroborated that magnetic properties provide a fast and inexpensive tool to evaluate long-term urban pollution from anthropogenic origin, especially heavy traffic.
Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Lacerda, Maria Joăo; Gomes, Celeste
A novel desiccation-tolerant, xeroprotectant-producing bacterium, designated strain 4J27(T), was isolated from a Nerium oleander rhizosphere subjected to seasonal drought in Granada, Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed the isolate within the genus Arthrobacter, its closest relative being Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans Shep3 DSM 18606(T), with which it showed 99.23?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization measurements showed less than 25?% relatedness between strain 4J27(T) and Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans DSM 18606(T). The DNA base composition of strain 4J27(T) was 65.3 mol%. The main fatty acids were anteiso C15?:?0, anteiso C17?:?0, C16?:?0 and iso C16?:?0 and the major menaquinone was MK-9 (H2). The peptidoglycan type was A3? with an l-Lys-l-Ser-l-Thr-l-Ala interpeptide bridge. The bacterium tested positive for catalase activity and negative for oxidase activity. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses indicated that the desiccation-tolerant strain 4J27(T) represents a novel species within the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter siccitolerans is proposed. The type strain is 4J27(T) (?=?CECT 8257(T)?=?LMG 27359(T)). PMID:23771623
Santacruz-Calvo, L; González-López, J; Manzanera, M
We have previously shown that the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, provides neuroprotection in both in vitro and in vivo brain slice-based models for focal ischemia (Dunn et al., 2011). Intriguingly, plasma levels of the neurotrophin BDNF were increased in patients treated with PBI-05204 in a phase I clinical trial (Bidyasar et al., 2009). We thus tested the hypothesis that neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204 to rat brain slices damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) is mediated by BDNF. We found, in fact, that exogenous BDNF protein itself is sufficient to protect brain slices against OGD, whereas downstream activation of TrkB receptors for BDNF is necessary for neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204, using three independent methods. Finally, we provide evidence that oleandrin, the principal cardiac glycoside component of PBI-05204, can quantitatively account for regulation of BDNF at both the protein and transcriptional levels. Together, these findings support further investigation of cardiac glycosides in providing neuroprotection in the context of ischemic stroke.
Van Kanegan, Michael J.; He, Dong Ning; Dunn, Denise E.; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A.; West, Anne E.
We have previously shown that the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, provides neuroprotection in both in vitro and in vivo brain slice-based models for focal ischemia (Dunn et al., 2011). Intriguingly, plasma levels of the neurotrophin BDNF were increased in patients treated with PBI-05204 in a phase I clinical trial (Bidyasar et al., 2009). We thus tested the hypothesis that neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204 to rat brain slices damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) is mediated by BDNF. We found, in fact, that exogenous BDNF protein itself is sufficient to protect brain slices against OGD, whereas downstream activation of TrkB receptors for BDNF is necessary for neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204, using three independent methods. Finally, we provide evidence that oleandrin, the principal cardiac glycoside component of PBI-05204, can quantitatively account for regulation of BDNF at both the protein and transcriptional levels. Together, these findings support further investigation of cardiac glycosides in providing neuroprotection in the context of ischemic stroke. PMID:24431454
Van Kanegan, Michael J; He, Dong Ning; Dunn, Denise E; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A; West, Anne E; Lo, Donald C
In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951
Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu
A novel desiccation-tolerant, xeroprotectant-producing bacterium, designated strain 4J27T, was isolated from a Nerium oleander rhizosphere subjected to seasonal drought in Granada, Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed the isolate within the genus Arthrobacter, its closest relative being Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans Shep3 DSM 18606T, with which it showed 99.23?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA–DNA hybridization measurements showed less than 25?% relatedness between strain 4J27T and Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans DSM 18606T. The DNA base composition of strain 4J27T was 65.3 mol%. The main fatty acids were anteiso C15?:?0, anteiso C17?:?0, C16?:?0 and iso C16?:?0 and the major menaquinone was MK-9 (H2). The peptidoglycan type was A3? with an l-Lys–l-Ser–l-Thr–l-Ala interpeptide bridge. The bacterium tested positive for catalase activity and negative for oxidase activity. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses indicated that the desiccation-tolerant strain 4J27T represents a novel species within the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter siccitolerans is proposed. The type strain is 4J27T (?=?CECT 8257T?=?LMG 27359T).
SantaCruz-Calvo, L.; Gonzalez-Lopez, J.
A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.
Qasem, Jamal R.
The relationship between the carotenoid zeaxanthin, formed by violaxanthin de-epoxidation, and nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching (qNP) in the light was investigated in leaves of Glycine max during a transient from dark to light in 2% O2, 0% CO2 at 100 to 200 micromoles of photons per square meter per second. (a) Up to a qNP (which can vary between 0 and 1) of about 0.7, the zeaxanthin content of leaves was linearly correlated with qNP as well as with the rate constant for radiationless energy dissipation in the antenna chlorophyll (kD). Beyond this point, at very high degrees of fluorescence quenching, only kD was directly proportional to the zeaxanthin content. (b) The relationship between zeaxanthin and kD was quantitatively similar for the rapidly relaxing quenching induced in 2% O2, 0% CO2 at 200 micromoles of photons per square meter per second and for the sustained quenching induced by long-term exposure of Nerium oleander to drought in high light (B Demmig, K Winter, A Krüger, F-C Czygan  Plant Physiol 87: 17-24). These findings suggest that the same dissipation process may be induced by very different treatments and that this particular dissipation process can have widely different relaxation kinetics. (c) A rapid induction of strong nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching within about 1 minute was observed exclusively in leaves which already contained a background level of zeaxanthin.
Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Winter, Klaus; Kruger, Almuth; Czygan, Franz-Christian
Based on allozyme electrophoresis at the Pgm locus and nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS2) sequences, we studied the genetic variation of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch collected on rose bay, Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae), from several localities around the Mediterranean basin. In addition, we compared these results with those of Navajas et al. (1998) and Tsagkarakou (1997) who collected from several other host plants from the Mediterranean. In the western part of this area (Spain, France, Tunisia), we found the individuals collected from rose bay to be clearly genetically differentiated from other samples. No evidence of such host-associated differentiation was detected in the eastern Mediterranean (Italy and Greece). The genetic differentiation of mites collected on rose bay was investigated further by studying the reproductive incompatibilities between populations in Greece and in France and a laboratory strain reared on bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, in France. Reciprocal crosses performed between these strains revealed variable levels of incompatibility, spanning from partial to complete reproductive isolation. In all cases incompatibility was asymmetric. We designed a test based on double-mating to establish the fertilization status of females in fully incompatible crosses. These crosses showed that the females had been inseminated, which suggests that the barrier to reproduction is not of a prezygotic behavioral nature. The data raises the question of the relative role of ecological factors (host plant) and geographical distance, in the ongoing differentiation process potentially leading to speciation. PMID:11156162
Navajas, M; Tsagkarakov, A; Lagnel, J; Perrot-Minnot, M J
This study tests two predictions from a recently proposed model for stomatal responses to humidity and temperature. The model is based on water potential equilibrium between the guard cells and the air at the bottom of the stomatal pore and contains three independent variables: gs(0), Z and ?. gs(0) is the value of stomatal conductance that would occur at saturating humidity and will vary among leaves and with CO2 and light. The value of Z is determined primarily by the resistance to heat transfer from the epidermis to the evaporating site and the value of ? is determined primarily by the resistance to water vapour diffusion from the evaporating site to the guard cells. This leads to the two predictions that were tested. Firstly, the values of Z and ? should be constant for leaves of a given species grown under given conditions, although gs(0) should vary among leaves and with light and CO2. And secondly, the ratio of Z to ? should be higher in leaves having their stomata in crypts because the distance for heat transfer is greater than that for water vapour diffusion. Data from three species, Nerium oleander, Pastinaca sativum and Xanthium strumarium support these two predictions. PMID:23072325
Mott, Keith A; Peak, David
Self-poisoning with pesticides or plants is a major clinical problem in rural Asia, killing several hundred thousand people every year. Over the last 17 years, our clinical toxicology and pharmacology group has carried out clinical studies in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka to improve treatment and reduce deaths. Studies have looked at the effectiveness of anti-digoxin Fab in cardiac glycoside plant poisoning, multiple dose activated charcoal in all poisoning, and pralidoxime in moderate toxicity organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. More recently, using a Haddon matrix as a guide, we have started conducting public health and animal studies to find strategies that may work outside of the hospital. Based on the 2009 GSK Research in Clinical Pharmacology prize lecture, this review shows the evolution of the group's research from a clinical pharmacology approach to one that studies possible interventions at multiple levels, including the patient, the community and government legislation.
An overview of the first 4.5 years of operation of a program to monitor the structure and variability of the Gulf Stream (GS) is presented. A container vessel that operates on a weekly schedule between Port Elizabeth, New Jersey, and Hamilton, Bermuda, is equipped with a 150-kHz narrowband acoustic Doppler current profiler to measure currents from the surface to 300 m depth. A major objective of the multiyear program is to study the annual cycle and interannual variations in velocity structure and transport by the GS. In this survey the focus is on the transport and lateral structure of the current at 52-m depth.The velocity maximum is constant at 2.07 ± 0.24 m s1 (4 kt) with a seasonal range of 0.1 m s1. Seasonal and interannual variations in total transport are observed but appear to be limited to the edges of the current, apparently reflecting low-frequency variations in the intensity of the recirculating waters adjacent to the stream. The transport by the central core of the current, defined as those waters moving at 1 m s1 or faster, equals 0.9 ×180; 105 m2 s1, has no seasonal signal, and is constant to within a few percent when averaged in half-year intervals. If the central core of the current is viewed as "insolated" from the effects of meandering, this result implies substantial stability to the large-scale wind-driven and thermohaline circulations during the observation program. Variations in poleward heat transport probably originate less in the GS and more from changing heat loss patterns at higher latitudes.Other issues concerning the potential vorticity field and energy conversion rates are also discussed. This ongoing program illustrates the role commercially operated vessels can play in making repeat observations of the velocity structure (and other parameters) of the ocean on a regular basis.
Rossby, T.; Gottlieb, E.
Ericaceous shrubs can influence soil properties in many ecosystems. In this study, we examined how soil and forest floor properties vary among sites with different ericaceous evergreen shrub basal area in the southern Appalachian mountains. We randomly located plots along transects that included open understories and understories with varying amounts of Rhododendron maximum (rosebay rhododendron) and Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Jonathan L. Horton; Barton D. Clinton; John F. Walker; Colin M. Beier; Erik T. Nilsen
The evaluation of certain vascular plants that grow in the city of Madrid as biomonitors of SO(2) air pollution in urban environments has been carried out. Total concentration of sulphur in leaves of the chosen higher plants as well as other parameters in close relation to this contaminant (visible injury symptoms, chlorophyll a- and b-content and peroxidase activity) have been determined in order to study the spatial distribution and temporal changes in SO(2) deposition. Results obtained show that coniferous species such as Pinus pinea, were more sensitive to SO(2) atmospheric concentration than leafy species as Quercux ilex subspecies ballota and, in the same way, bush species, such as Pyracantha coccinea and Nerium oleander, were more sensitive than wooded species, such as Cedrus deodara and Pinus pinea, respectively. There is a higher accumulation of sulphur in vegetable species located near highways and dense traffic incidence roads and near areas with high density of population. The minimum values for accumulation of SO(2) were registered in winter and spring seasons (from January to April) due to the vegetative stop; while maximum values are obtained during the summer season (from June to September), due to the stoma opening. The highest increments in sulphur concentration, calculated as the difference between two consecutive months, are obtained in May and June for all considered species except for Cedrus deodara and Pyracantha coccinea, both species have few seasonal changes during the whole year. Some species are more sensitive to natural washing than others, showing a decrease in sulphur concentration after rainfall periods. PMID:16311823
Hijano, Concepción Fidalgo; Domínguez, Maria Dolores Petit; Gimínez, Rosario García; Sínchez, Pilar Hungría; García, Inís Sancho
Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338
Optical spectroscopy, a truly non-invasive tool for remote diagnostics, is capable of providing valuable information on the structure and function of molecules. However, most spectroscopic techniques suffer from drawbacks, which limit their application. As a part of my dissertation work, I have developed theoretical and experimental methods to address the above mentioned issues. I have successfully applied these methods for monitoring the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters of biomolecules involved in some specific life threatening diseases like lead poisoning and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). I presented optical studies of melanosomes, which are one of the vital organelles in the human eye, also known to be responsible for a disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition of advanced degeneration which causes progressive blindness. I used Raman spectroscopy, to first chemically identify the composition of melanosome, and then monitor the changes in its functional and chemical behavior due to long term exposure to visible light. The above study, apart from explaining the role of melanosomes in AMD, also sets the threshold power for lasers used in surgeries and other clinical applications. In the second part of my dissertation, a battery of spectroscopic techniques was successfully applied to explore the different binding sites of lead ions with the most abundant carrier protein molecule in our circulatory system, human serum albumin. I applied optical spectroscopic tools for ultrasensitive detection of heavy metal ions in solution which can also be used for lead detection at a very early stage of lead poisoning. Apart from this, I used Raman microspectroscopy to study the chemical alteration occurring inside a prostate cancer cell as a result of a treatment with a low concentrated aqueous extract of a prospective drug, Nerium Oleander. The experimental methods used in this study has tremendous potential for clinical application and will gain widespread acceptance within next few years from bench to bedside as an inexpensive and non-invasive tool compared to the other technologies.
Background and Aims Potassium, sulphur and zinc contents of mistletoe leaves are generally higher than in their hosts. This is attributed to the fact that chemical elements which are cycled between xylem and phloem in the process of phloem loading of sugars are trapped in the mistletoe, because these parasites do not feed their hosts. Here it is hypothesized that mutant albino shoots on otherwise green plants should behave similarly, because they lack photosynthesis and thus cannot recycle elements involved in sugar loading. Methods The mineral nutrition of the mistletoe Scurrula elata was compared with that of albino shoots on Citrus sinensis and Nerium oleander. The potential for selective nutrient uptake by the mistletoe was studied by comparing element contents of host leaves on infected and uninfected branches and by manipulation of the haustorium–shoot ratio in mistletoes. Phloem anatomy of albino leaves was compared with that of green leaves. Key Results Both mistletoes and albino leaves had higher contents of potassium, sulphur and zinc than hosts or green leaves, respectively. Hypothetical discrimination of nutrient elements during the uptake by the haustorium is not supported by our data. Anatomical studies of albino leaves showed characteristics of release phloem. Conclusions Both albino shoots and mistletoes are traps for elements normally recycled between xylem and phloem, because retranslocation of phloem mobile elements into the mother plant or the host is low or absent. It can be assumed that the lack of photosynthetic activity in albino shoots and thus of sugars needed in phloem loading is responsible for the accumulation of elements. The absence of phloem loading is reflected in phloem anatomy of these abnormal shoots. In mistletoes the evolution of a parasitic lifestyle has obviously eliminated substantial feeding of the host with photosynthates produced by the mistletoe.
Lo Gullo, M. A.; Glatzel, G.; Devkota, M.; Raimondo, F.; Trifilo, P.; Richter, H.
Pseudomonas savastanoi is a serious pathogen of Olive, Oleander, Ash, and several other Oleaceae. Its epiphytic or endophytic presence in asymptomatic plants is crucial for the spread of Olive and Oleander knot disease, as already ascertained for P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Psv) on Olive and for pv. nerii (Psn) on Oleander, while no information is available for pv. fraxini (Psf)
Andrea Gori; Matteo Cerboneschi; Stefania Tegli
The potential of tannins from 21 medicinal and aromatic plant leaves as antimethanogenic additives in ruminant feeds was investigated. The effect of tannin from these leaves on rumen fermentation parameters, protozoa population and methanogenesis was studied by incubating the samples [200?mg dry matter (DM)] without and with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 (400?mg DM) as a tannin binder during 24-h incubation in the in vitro Hohenheim gas method. Based on the methane percentage estimated in the total gas produced, methane production in millilitre was calculated [methane volume (ml)?=?methane %?×?total gas produced (ml) in 24?h]. In the samples, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre (g/kg DM) ranged from 113 to 172 and from 352 to 444 respectively. The total phenol (TP; g/kg DM) content was highest in Terminalia chebula (274) followed by Hemigraphis colorata (71) and Sapindus laurifolia (51) respectively. In the remaining samples, it was <43?g/kg DM. Activity of tannins, as represented by the increase in gas volume on addition of PEG, ranged from 0 to 133%, with the highest being recorded in T. chebula. The per cent increase in methane on PEG addition was 0 for Ammi majus, Aristolochia indica, Cascabela thevetia, Ipomea nil and Lantana camara, illustrating that tannins present in these samples had no effect on methane concentration. The PEG addition increased the total protozoa count by >50% in A. indica and C. thevetica. One of the important findings of our study was that of the 21 samples screened, Entodinia population increased in 12 with PEG as compared to 7 where Holotricha increased, indicating higher susceptibility of Entodinia to tannin. There was no increase in the protozoa population with PEG when incubating Cardiospermum halicacabum, Clerodendrum inerme, Dioscorea floribunda, Nerium oleander and Selastras paniculatus, which strongly suggested that methane suppression recorded in these samples was not because of a defaunating effect of their tannins per se. The fermentation pattern reflected increased total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration from 0 to 28.3% with PEG addition among the leaves. Our results confirmed further observations that methanogenesis in vitro is not essentially related to density of protozoa population. Secondly, medicinal and aromatic plants such as C. inerme, Gymnema sylvestre and Sapindus laurifolia containing tannins appear to have a potential to suppress in vitro methanogenesis. PMID:22385477
Bhatta, R; Baruah, L; Saravanan, M; Suresh, K P; Sampath, K T
Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels.
This review provides current information on the use of antigen-binding fragments (Fab) from cleaved antibodies to treat poisoning with digoxin and other potent, low formula mass poisons, such as colchicine and tricyclic antidepressants. Anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been used successfully for many years in the management of severe poisoning with digoxin, digitoxin, and a range of other structurally related compounds, including cardiotoxins from Nerium and Thevetia sp. (oleander) and Bufo sp. (toads). However, their main use remains treating digoxin poisoning. Equimolar doses of anti-digoxin Fab fragments completely bind digoxin in vivo. The approximate dose of Fab fragments (mg) is 80 times the digoxin body burden (mg). If neither the dose ingested nor the plasma digoxin/digitoxin concentration is known, in an adult 380 mg of anti-digoxin Fab fragments should be given. The dose for elderly patients or those with renal impairment should be similar to that for those with normal renal function. Fab fragments have a plasma half-life of 12-20 hours, but this can be prolonged in patients with renal impairment. Analysis of serum ultrafiltrate using an immunoassay shown not to have matrix bias remains the most accurate approach to measuring free digoxin in the presence of anti-digoxin Fab fragments. The antibody fragments are given intravenously over 15-30 minutes after dilution to at least 250 mL with plasma protein solution, 0.9% (w/v) sodium chloride, or deionised water, except in infants where the volume infused can be reduced. Factors limiting the efficacy of Fab fragments are the dose, the duration of the infusion and any delay in administration. Guidelines for Fab fragment administration in children include (i) dilution to a final Fab concentration of 10 g/L in either 5% (w/v) dextrose or 0.9% (w/v) sodium chloride; (ii) infusion through a 0.22 microm filter; (iii) administration of the total dose over a minimum of 30 minutes; and (iv) avoiding coadministration of other drugs and/or electrolyte solutions. Fab fragments are generally well tolerated. Adverse effects attributable to Fab treatment include hypokalaemia and exacerbation of congestive cardiac failure; renal function could be impaired in some patients. Fab fragment preparations for treating acute colchicine and tricyclic antidepressant poisoning have been developed, but are not available commercially. Colchicine poisoning is rare in Western countries, and pharmacological management together with supportive care is usually effective even in severe tricyclic antidepressant overdosage. Attempts have been made to produce anti-paraquat antibodies capable of enhancing paraquat elimination from the lung, but thus far all such attempts have proved unsuccessful. PMID:15554746
Flanagan, Robert J; Jones, Alison L
Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) has many plant hosts and causes serious diseases of several crops and ornamentals. Strains of Xf can be classified by the hosts that may be infected. For example, grape strains do not infect oleander and the oleander strains do not infect grape. We are using a DNA Oligo-Microarray based on the genomic sequence of the Xf grape
Steven Lindow; Paul Richardson
Homalodisca coagulata (Say) and Homalodisca lacerta (Fowler) are vectors of a new bacterial disease of oleander in California known as oleander leaf scorch, induced by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. H. coagulata also has been implicated in the spread of the strain of X. fastidiosa that induces Pierce's disease of grapevines in California. We monitored the flight activity of H. coagulata and H. lacerta in oleander and citrus by using yellow sticky cards at three southern California locations where outbreaks of oleander leaf scorch have been documented, and where vector compliments are different. Areas sampled included a mesic coastal area (Irvine, CA) that supports predominantly H. coagulata and few H. lacerta, a dry inland location (Palm Desert, CA) that supports predominantly H. lacerta and few H. coagulata, and an intermediate area (Riverside, CA) supporting both Homalodisca species. From November 1996 to October 1999 peak catches of both Homalodisca species occurred during the midsummer at all locations. H. coagulata was trapped in greater numbers in citrus than in oleander at both the Riverside and the Irvine sites. Likewise, H. lacerta in Riverside was more associated with citrus than oleander, yet H. lacerta in Palm Desert was trapped in greater numbers in oleander than citrus. PMID:11777056
Blua, M J; Redak, R A; Morgan, D J; Costa, H S
Antitranspirants retarded the rates of water use by oleanders grown along California's highways, and therefore have a potential for reducing the frequency of their irrigation as well as the associated costs and hazards. Antitranspirants also showed a pote...
D. C. Davenport P. E. Martin R. M. Hagan M. A. Fisher
...Power Company, Southern Company Services, Inc., Georgia Power Company, Mississippi Power Company, Gulf Power Company, Oleander Power Project, L.P., Southern Company--Florida LLC, Southern Turner Cimarron I, LLC, Southern Power Company....
...Alabama Power Company, Georgia Power Company, Mississippi Power Company, Southern Power Company, Gulf Power Company, Oleander Power Project, L.P., Southern Company--Florida LLC, Southern Turner Cimarron I, LLC. Description: Notice of...
The report presents results on traffic noise attenuation by vegetation along highways, and by various ground covers. Noise measurements at various distances were made in regions of three vegetative barrier sites. The sites included: (1) oleander, (2) comb...
R. W. Hendriks
...Alabama Power Company, Southern Power Company, Mississippi Power Company, Georgia Power Company, Gulf Power Company, Oleander Power Project, Limited Partnership, Southern Company--Florida LLC, Southern Turner Cimarron I, LLC, Spectrum...
...following electric rate filings: Docket Numbers: ER00-3240-018; ER01-1633-015; ER96-780-028. Applicants: Oleander Power Project, L.P.; Southern Company--Florida LLC; Southern Company Services, Inc. Description: Report of...
The study assessed the piscicidal activity of ten locally available plants to two freshwater fishes; Nile tilapia (O. niloticus L.) and mosquito fish (G. affinis Baird and Girard). It focused on the laboratory determination of lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC100) through a static bioassay test. The ten plants tested were ampalaya Momordica charantia, adelfa Nerium indicum, agave Agave cantala, kalamansi
Arsenia G. Cagauan; Marjorie C. Galaites; Lorenz J. Fajardo
The glassy-winged sharpshooter, (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), as a vector of Xylella fastidiosa, is a threat to grapes, almonds, stone fruit and oleander and impacts citrus and nursery crops throughout much of California. It remains an important high-risk quarantine pest for the Napa and Sonoma Valleys and other uninfested areas. Accurate and precise methods for detection of new colony infestations
Russell F. Mizell; Peter C. Andersen
This study was conducted crop sciense laboratory as randomized complit block desi?n with four replication. The effect of oleander plant extracts root, stem, leafe and mixture of all seed germination and seedling growth of wheat and beans. The heighest germination rate and seedling length were obtained from the aplication of leaf extract and root extract to the wheat seed, respectively.
Sadrettin KARAALTIN; Adem EROL
A number of plants indigenous to California can cause contact dermatitis similar to that caused by poison oak—philodendron, oleander, fig family, castor bean, chrysanthemum family, Chinese rice paper plant and several others. Patch testing can be used to prove a suspected diagnosis. In some occupations dermatitis from one or another of these agents is more or less common.
Dorsey, Clete S.
A genome-wide search was performed to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci among the available sequence databases from four strains of Xylella fastidiosa (strains causing Pierce's disease, citrus variegated chlorosis, almond leaf scorch, and oleander leaf scorch). Thirty-four SSR loci were selected for SSR primer design and were validated in PCR experiments. These multilocus SSR primers, distributed across the X.
Hong Lin; Edwin L. Civerolo; Rong Hu; Samuel Barros; Marta Francis; M. Andrew Walker
Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogen that causes leaf scorch and related diseases in over 100 plant species, including Pierce's disease in grapevines (PD), phony peach disease (PP), plum leaf scald (PLS), and leaf scorch in almond (ALS), oak (OAK), and oleander (OLS). We used a high-resolution DNA sequence approach to investigate the evolutionary relationships, geographic variation, and divergence times among
Erin L. Schuenzel; Mark Scally; Richard Stouthamer; Leonard Nunney
Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills, this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca
Houhu ZHANG; Pinjing HE; Liming SHAO; Xian QU; Duujong LEE
The results showed that o-quinone and q-quinone had strong absorption while vanillin had nearly no absorption in the 800-900 nm range of near-infrared spectroscopy through the comparison of their near-infrared absorption spectra. It was proved that quinone structure of alkali lignin had strong absorption in the 800-900 nm range of near-infrared spectroscopy. The change in the absorbency of oleander milled wood lignin treated with NaOH and Na2 S before and after is greater than that in the absorbency of ginkgo milled wood lignin treated with NaOH and Na2 S before and after because more quinone structure was formed in the process of oleander milled wood lignin treated with NaOH and Na2 S. The finding well explained that cooking liquor of hardwood was much stronger than that of softwood while their pulp kappa number was very near. PMID:16961223
Wu, Xin-sheng; Xie, Yi-min; Liu, Huan-bin; Wu, Hong
Ingestion of oleander plant, containing the cardiac glyco- side oleandrin, has been reported to induce fatal poison- ings. Derivatives of oleandrin are structurally similar to digoxin. We investigated the cross-reactivities of oleandrin and its aglycone metabolite, oleandrigenin, in several com- mercially available digoxin immunoassays; assessed their ability to inhibit Na,K-ATPase catalytic activity; and mea- sured their binding to proteins in
SAEED A. JORTANI; R. ALLEN HELM; ROLAND VALDES
ABSTRACT We have developed a robust phylogeny,of the North American isolates of Xylella fastidiosa based on 10 genes (9288 base pairs). This supports the recent division of X. fastidiosa into subspecies (piercei and multiplex in N. America), however, we found 1 additional distinct taxon. The oleander isolates form a distinct group (provisionally named,sandyi) that separated from the Pierce’s disease group
Leonard Nunney; Richard Stouthamer; Robert Luck; Donald A. Cooksey
Background The absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of medicines are partly controlled by transporters and enzymes with diurnal variation in expression. Dose timing may be important for maximizing therapeutic and minimizing adverse effects. However, outcome data for such an effect in humans are sparse, and chronotherapeutics is consequently less practised. We examined a large prospective Sri Lankan cohort of patients with acute poisoning to seek evidence of diurnal variation in the probability of survival. Methods In all, 14?840 patients admitted to hospital after yellow oleander (Cascabela thevetia) seed or pesticide [organophosphorus (OP), carbamate, paraquat, glyphosate] self-poisoning were investigated for variation in survival according to time of ingestion. Results We found strong evidence that the outcome of oleander poisoning was associated with time of ingestion (P?0.001). There was weaker evidence for OP insecticides (P?=?0.041) and no evidence of diurnal variation in the outcome for carbamate, glyphosate and paraquat pesticides. Compared with ingestion in the late morning, and with confounding by age, sex, time of and delay to hospital presentation and year of admission controlled, case fatality of oleander poisoning was over 50% lower following evening ingestion (risk ratio?=?0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.26–0.62). Variation in dose across the day was not responsible. Conclusions We have shown for the first time that timing of poison ingestion affects survival in humans. This evidence for chronotoxicity suggests chronotherapeutics should be given greater attention in drug development and clinical practice.
Metcalfe, Chris; Gunnell, David; Mohamed, Fahim; Eddleston, Michael
Heather (Calluna vulgaris), rosebay willowherb (Epilobium angustifolium), wavy hair-grass (Deschampsia flexuosa) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) are typical species on boreal clear-cut sites. According to our study, they all had clear and species-specific annual cycles of photosynthetic activity (Pmax). The maxima of C. vulgaris and E. angustifolium occurred around June and July, while that of R. idaeus occurred as late as in August. The photosynthetic activity of C. vulgaris followed the temperature history closely when the soil moisture was high. Deciduous D. flexuosa also followed the temperature history, unlike E. angustifolium and R. idaeus. During a short drought, some shoots decreased their Pmax levels but none of the species showed congruent reactions within individuals. In general, we noticed that the comparison of Pmax or respiration of different shoots caused less discrepancy when based on ground area than on leaf mass. Using species composition and continuous temperature and light measurements, we upscaled the species-specific process rates and integrated fixed and respired CO2 of ground vegetation during an entire growing season 2005. The photosynthetic production of ground vegetation was 760 g C m-2 y-1 at the fertile site and 300 g C m-2 y-1 at the infertile site. During the snow-free period (18 April-21 November), C. vulgaris respired 68 g C m-2 y-1 and E. angustifolium 7 g C m-2 y-1 at the infertile site. At the fertile site, E. angustifolium and R. idaeus respired 22 and 12 g C m-2 y-1, respectively.
Kulmala, L.; Pumpanen, J.; Vesala, T.; Hari, P.
Heather (Calluna vulgaris), rosebay willowherb (Epilobium angustifolium), wavy hair-grass (Deschampsia flexuosa) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) are typical species at boreal clear-cut sites. In this study, we measured their photosynthesis separately in the growing season of 2005 using a manual chamber. All measured species showed clear and species-specific seasonal cycles of photosynthetic activity (Pmax). The maxima of C. vulgaris and E. angustifolium occurred around June and July, while that of R. idaeus occurred as late as August. A simple model of photosynthetic activity is presented, addressing the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris was mainly explained by temperature history when the soil moisture is high. The activity of deciduous D. flexuosa also followed the temperature history, unlike the activities of E. angustifolium and R. idaeus. During a short drought, some shoots decreased their Pmax levels but none of the species showed similar reactions between individuals. We also observed that the comparison of the whole-plant Pmax or respiration of different-sized individuals were less scattered than the results based on full-grown leaf mass, implying that species-specific rates of photosynthesis at ground level are rather similar regardless of the plant size. Using species composition and continuous temperature and light measurements, we upscaled the species-specific process rates and integrated fixed and respired CO2 of ground vegetation for the entire 2005 growing season. The photosynthetic production per surface area of soil was 760 g C m-2 y-1 at the fertile site and 300 g C m-2 y-1 at the infertile site. During the snow-free period (18 April-21 November), the above ground parts of measured species released 75 g C m-2 y-1 at the infertile site. At the fertile site, E. angustifolium and R. idaeus respired 22 and 12 g C m-2 y-1, respectively.
Kulmala, L.; Pumpanen, J.; Vesala, T.; Hari, P.
The molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from five highly potential plants, Annona squamosa seed, Nerium indicum Leaves, Stemona tuberose root, Cyperus rotundus corm and Derris elliptica root was assessed to Pomacea canaliculata. D. elliptica root and C. rotundus corm extracts showed the highest toxicity against 3-month old snails which have LC50 as 23.68 +/- 2.96 mg/l and 133.20 +/- 7.94 mg/l, respectively. The C. rotundus corm extracts were chosen for detoxification enzyme in vivo assay which shows esterase and glutathione S-transferase activity in stomach, intestinal tracts and digestive glands of survival treated P. canaliculata were inhibited. PMID:21542482
Ruamthum, W; Visetson, S; Milne, J R; Bullangpoti, V
Ingestion of oleander plant, containing the cardiac glycoside oleandrin, has been reported to induce fatal poisonings. Derivatives of oleandrin are structurally similar to digoxin. We investigated the cross-reactivities of oleandrin and its aglycone metabolite, oleandrigenin, in several commercially available digoxin immunoassays; assessed their ability to inhibit Na,K-ATPase catalytic activity; and measured their binding to proteins in serum. As assayed with ACS:180, Stratus, RIA, On-Line, and TDx digoxin assays, oleandrin at 100 micromol/L in digoxin-free serum gave apparent digoxin values of 0, 0.83, 2.24, 2.37, and 5.34 nmol/L, respectively, whereas oleandrigenin at that concentration gave results of 0, 0.52, 0.77, 4.94, and 1.40 nmol/L. Study of Na,K-ATPase inhibition showed IC50 values (micromol/L) of 0.22 for ouabain, 0.62 for oleandrin, 1.23 for oleandrigenin, and 2.69 for digoxin. At 25 degrees C, 96% of oleandrin and 48% of oleandrigenin were bound to serum proteins. Because detection of oleandrin and oleandrigenin by digoxin immunoassays is variable between assays as well as between congeners, assessment of cross-reactivity is warranted for each assay. The inhibition of Na,K-ATPase by oleandrin and oleandrigenin confirms that they likely exert their toxic effects through inhibition of sodium pump activity. In cases of digitalis-like poisoning with suspicion of oleander ingestion, a combination of digoxin immunoassays may be useful to effectively rule out the presence of oleander. PMID:8855150
Jortani, S A; Helm, R A; Valdes, R
Strains of Xylella fastidiosa isolated from grape, almond, maple, and oleander were characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-, repetitive extragenic palindromic element (REP)-, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR; contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis; plasmid content; and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region. Combining methods gave greater resolution of strain groupings than any single method. Strains isolated from grape with Pierce's disease (PD) from California, Florida, and Georgia showed greater than previously reported genetic variability, including plasmid contents, but formed a cluster based on analysis of RAPD-PCR products, NotI and SpeI genomic DNA fingerprints, and 16S-23S rRNA spacer region sequence. Two groupings of almond leaf scorch (ALS) strains were distinguished by RAPD-PCR and CHEF gel electrophoresis, but some ALS isolates were clustered within the PD group. RAPD-PCR, CHEF gel electrophoresis, and 16S-23S rRNA sequence analysis produced the same groupings of strains, with RAPD-PCR resolving the greatest genetic differences. Oleander strains, phony peach disease (PP), and oak leaf scorch (OLS) strains were distinct from other strains. DNA profiles constructed by REP-PCR analysis were the same or very similar among all grape strains and most almond strains but different among some almond strains and all other strains tested. Eight of 12 ALS strains and 4 of 14 PD strains of X. fastidiosa isolated in California contained plasmids. All oleander strains carried the same-sized plasmid; all OLS strains carried the same-sized plasmid. A plum leaf scald strain contained three plasmids, two of which were the same sizes as those found in PP strains. These findings support a division of X. fastidiosa at the subspecies or pathovar level.
Hendson, Mavis; Purcell, Alexander H.; Chen, Deqiao; Smart, Chris; Guilhabert, Magalie; Kirkpatrick, Bruce
Pseudomonas savastanoi is a serious pathogen of Olive, Oleander, Ash, and several other Oleaceae. Its epiphytic or endophytic presence in asymptomatic plants is crucial for the spread of Olive and Oleander knot disease, as already ascertained for P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Psv) on Olive and for pv. nerii (Psn) on Oleander, while no information is available for pv. fraxini (Psf) on Ash. Nothing is known yet about the distribution on the different host plants and the real host range of these pathovars in nature, although cross-infections were observed following artificial inoculations. A multiplex Real-Time PCR assay was recently developed to simultaneously and quantitatively discriminate in vitro and in planta these P. savastanoi pathovars, for routine culture confirmation and for epidemiological and diagnostical studies. Here an innovative High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA)-based assay was set up to unequivocally discriminate Psv, Psn and Psf, according to several single nucleotide polymorphisms found in their Type Three Secretion System clusters. The genetic distances among 56 P. savastanoi strains belonging to these pathovars were also evaluated, confirming and refining data previously obtained by fAFLP. To our knowledge, this is the first time that HRMA is applied to a bacterial plant pathogen, and one of the few multiplex HRMA-based assays developed so far. This protocol provides a rapid, sensitive, specific tool to differentiate and detect Psv, Psn and Psf strains, also in vivo and against other related bacteria, with lower costs than conventional multiplex Real-Time PCR. Its application is particularly suitable for sanitary certification programs for P. savastanoi, aimed at avoiding the spreading of this phytopathogen through asymptomatic plants. PMID:22295075
Gori, Andrea; Cerboneschi, Matteo; Tegli, Stefania
This tutorial is part of a series of entomological tutorials and covers the general biology and ecology of many caterpillar taxa. The tutorial has 100 questions (50 in each of 2 tutorials); incorrect answers lead to additional information describing the correct answers. Requires Windows. MAC is not supported. This tutorial covers saddleback caterpillar, puss caterpillar, io moth caterpillar, hag caterpillar, buck moth caterpillar, spiny oak-slug caterpillar, flannel moth caterpillar, azalea caterpillar, bagworm caterpillar, eastern tent caterpillar, fall webworm caterpillar, oleander caterpillar, cabbage palm caterpillar, palm leafskeletionizer caterpillar, and tussock moth caterpillar. The cost for the tutorial CD is $15.
Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes wilt disease in plants and is responsible for major economic and crop losses globally. Owing to the public importance of this phytopathogen we embarked on a comparative analysis of the complete genome of Xf pv citrus and the partial genomes of two recently sequenced strains of this species: Xf pv almond and Xf pv oleander, which cause leaf scorch in almond and oleander plants, respectively. We report a reanalysis of the previously sequenced Xf 9a5c (CVC, citrus) strain and the two "gapped" Xf genomes revealing ORFs encoding critical functions in pathogenicity and conjugative transfer. Second, a detailed whole-genome functional comparison was based on the three sequenced Xf strains, identifying the unique genes present in each strain, in addition to those shared between strains. Third, an "in silico" cellular reconstruction of these organisms was made, based on a comparison of their core functional subsystems that led to a characterization of their conjugative transfer machinery, identification of potential differences in their adhesion mechanisms, and highlighting of the absence of a classical quorum-sensing mechanism. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of comparative analysis strategies in the interpretation of genomes that are closely related. PMID:12205291
Bhattacharyya, Anamitra; Stilwagen, Stephanie; Ivanova, Natalia; D'Souza, Mark; Bernal, Axel; Lykidis, Athanasios; Kapatral, Vinayak; Anderson, Iain; Larsen, Niels; Los, Tamara; Reznik, Gary; Selkov, Eugene; Walunas, Theresa L; Feil, Helene; Feil, William S; Purcell, Alexander; Lassez, Jean-Louis; Hawkins, Trevor L; Haselkorn, Robert; Overbeek, Ross; Predki, Paul F; Kyrpides, Nikos C
Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills, this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux. PMID:18574960
Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Qu, Xian; Lee, Duujong
Pathotype differentiation within Xylella fastidiosa (Wells) is necessary to accurately identify the causal agents of several leaf scorch diseases in agronomic crops and ornamentals. Three strain groups, Pierce's disease (PD), almond leaf scorch (ALS), and oleander leaf scorch (OLS), have been described in California and inhabit multiple hosts with varied severity. An SYBR Green-based quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) protocol with a single primer set was developed for X. fastidiosa genotype differentiation utilizing melting temperature (T(m)) analysis. The goal of this work was to develop a rapid diagnostic tool that could separate X. fastidiosa strains from one another similar to the placement in previous reports. Placement of eight PD, six ALS, and six OLS strains into respective strain groups was consistent with T(m) curve analysis using a single primer set. These groupings were consistent with published data on the phylogenetic placement of the strains. PMID:17937663
Bextine, Blake; Child, Beth
Many herbomineral preparations are currently being used as therapeutic remedies for common ailments. Commonly known cardiotoxic herbs are Aconitum ferox (aconite), Areca catechu (betel nut), Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cleistanus collinus (oduvan). Herbs mixed with lead, copper and/or mercury are known to be highly toxic. They produce cardiac arrhythmias, mainly ventricular ectopics, ventricular tachycardia and various degrees of arterioventricular (AV) blocks. We report 12 such successive cases where the patients developed vague feelings of discomfort, dizziness, chest discomfort and ventricular arrhythmias following herbal drug ingestion which warranted the immediate discontinuation of the drug. Three of the patients died. This paper emphasizes the risk of unsupervised use of herbomineral preparations by patients who believe that the remedies are always 'safe' and the urgent necessity for the pharmacognostic identification of the constituent herbs, their toxicological studies, uniform nomenclature, authenticity and standardization of plants and their parts before advocating them for therapeutic use. PMID:21262956
Dwivedi, Shridhar; Aggarwal, Amitesh; Sharma, Vishal
A detailed karyotype analysis of the oleander aphid Aphis nerii focusing on the distribution, molecular composition and epigenetic modifications of heterochromatin was done in order to better understand the structure and evolution of holocentric/holokinetic chromosomes in aphids. The female karyotype (2n = 8) consisted of 3 pairs of autosomes and a pair of X chromosomes that were the longest elements in the karyotype and carried a single, terminally located nucleolar organizer region. Males showed 2n = 7 chromosomes due to the presence of a single X chromosome. Heterochromatin was located in the X chromosomes only and consisted of 4 satellite DNAs that have been identified. A. nerii constitutive heterochromatin was enriched in mono-, di- and tri-methylated H3 histones and HP1 proteins but, interestingly, it lacked DNA methylation that was widespread in euchromatic chromosomal regions. These results suggest that aphid heterochromatin is assembled and condensed without any involvement of DNA methylation. PMID:21273762
Mandrioli, M; Azzoni, P; Lombardo, G; Manicardi, G C
Parasites and hosts live in communities consisting of many interacting species, but few studies have examined how communities affect parasite virulence and transmission. We studied a food web consisting of two species of milkweed, two milkweed herbivores (monarch butterfly and oleander aphid) and a monarch butterfly-specific parasite. We found that the presence of aphids increased the virulence and transmission potential of the monarch butterfly's parasite on one milkweed species. These increases were associated with aphid-induced decreases in the defensive chemicals of milkweed plants. Our experiment suggests that aphids can indirectly increase the virulence and transmission potential of monarch butterfly parasites, probably by altering the chemical composition of a shared food plant. These results indicate that species that are far removed from host-parasite interactions can alter such interactions through cascading indirect effects in the food web. As such, indirect effects within ecological communities may drive the dynamics and evolution of parasites. PMID:21375682
de Roode, Jacobus C; Rarick, Rachel M; Mongue, Andrew J; Gerardo, Nicole M; Hunter, Mark D
Interference of oleandrin and oleandrigenin in digitoxin immunoassays: minimal cross reactivity with a new monoclonal chemiluminescent assay and high cross reactivity with the fluorescence polarization assay.
Toxicity from ingestion of the oleander plant is common. Oleandrin, the oleander glycoside, has structural similarity to cardiac glycoside digoxin and is known to cross react with various digoxin immunoassays. The authors studied the cross reactivity of oleandrin and its deglycosylated congener oleandrigenin with a fluorescence polarization immunoassay for digitoxin and compared their results with a new chemiluminescent assay for digitoxin on the Automated Chemiluminescent System (ACS:180 Plus) from Chiron Diagnostics. Even though the chemiluminescent assay has been reported to be comparable with the fluorescence polarization assay among normal patient population, oleandrin and oleandrigenin showed very high cross reactivities with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay and minimal cross reactivity with the new chemiluminescent assay. When the authors supplemented a serum specimen containing no digitoxin with 50 micrograms/ml of oleandrin, the fluorescence polarization assay recorded a value of 535.7 ng/ml of digitoxin equivalent, whereas the new chemiluminescent assay recorded a value of 10.3 ng/ml of digitoxin equivalent. The cross reactivity of oleandrigenin with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay for digitoxin was significantly lower than oleandrin. The presence of oleandrin also falsely elevated total digitoxin level in a specimen supplemented with digitoxin and oleandrin. The authors also measured free digitoxin concentration by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay in the ultrafiltrate of serum supplemented with digitoxin and oleandrin. Because digitoxin and oleandrin are bound strongly to protein, monitoring free digitoxin concentration by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay instead of total digitoxin concentration does not eliminate oleandrin interference. The authors conclude that fluorescence polarization immunoassay for digitoxin has a high cross reactivity with oleandrin and can falsely elevate digitoxin concentration in the presence of oleandrin, whereas the new chemiluminescent assay for digitoxin is almost free from interferences from oleandrin. PMID:9263390
Datta, P; Dasgupta, A
A simplified protocol of subtractive hybridization based on the technique of L. M. Kunkel, A. P. Monaco, W. Middlesworth, H. D. Ochs & S. A. Latt (1985, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 82, 4778-4782) was used to obtain DNA sequences specific to Xylella fastidiosa isolated from diseased citrus plants. As a driver, DNA extracted from bacteria showing different degrees of relatedness was used: Xy. fastidiosa 788 isolated from another host (plum), Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Burkholderia gladioli strains. A DNA fragment, f14, showing no hybridization to the driver DNA, was used as a probe specific to Xy. fastidiosa from citrus and oleander. This fragment was sequenced and the predicted protein showed 40% similarity to the central region of flagellin of Escherichia coli serotypes H1 and H12. A pair of internal primers (f14-1 and f14-2) was designed for amplification of Xy. fastidiosa DNA. These primers detected Xy. fastidiosa strains isolated from citrus and oleander and yielded an amplification product of about 600 bp. They were also able to detect the bacteria in extracts from citrus plants with or without symptoms of disease. No amplification reaction was obtained using DNA extracted from other species and pathovars of Xanthomonas, Pseudomonas cichorii, Erwinia carotovora, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and phytopathogens of citrus (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri) and coffee (Burkholderia andropogonis, P. cichorii, Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae). The isolation of a DNA fragment specific to Xy. fastidiosa from citrus showed that the simplified protocol of subtractive hybridization used in this work is potentially applicable to other micro-organisms. PMID:10463163
Ferreira, H; Rodrigues Neto, J; Gonçalves, E R; Rosato, Y B
This study investigates the larvicidal potential of indigenous plant extracts from commonly used medicinal herbs as an environmentally safe measure to control the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal assay with water, hot water, acetone, chloroform, and methanol leaf, stem-bark, and flower extracts of Acacia arabica Willd. Sans, Cedrus deodara Roxb, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Mangifera indica L., Nerium indicum Mill., Nicotiana tabacum Linn., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, and Solanum nigrum Linn. All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in stem-bark hot water, acetone, and methanol extracts of C. deodara (LC50 = 133.85, 141.60, and 95.19 ppm, LC90 = 583.14, 624.19, and 639.99 ppm) and leaf hot water, acetone, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. tabacum (LC50 = 76.27, 163.81, 83.38, and 105.85 ppm, LC90 = 334.72, 627.38, 709.51, and 524.39 ppm) against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:18975001
Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Vadivelu, M; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G
In this paper, the stream banks nearby Qibao town and the factory area of Shanghai Baoshan Steel Company were selected as the typical areas contaminated by heavy metals. The polluted status was investigated by measuring the heavy metal concentrations of the sampled soils. The results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the soils of stream banks were a little higher than the control, but obviously higher in the factory area of Shanghai Baoshan Steel Company. The growth status of the greening trees was recorded, and their heavy metal concentrations were measured by ICP. According to the research results and historic data, the excellent greening tree species mainly applied in polluted factory area were Viburnum awabuki, Lagerstroemia indica, Hibiscus mutabilis, Ligustrum lucidum and Sabina chinensis, which could grow well on contaminated soil, and accumulate high concentrations of heavy metal elements. The other tree species such as Distylium racemosum, Nerium indicum, and Photinia serrulata might be also available in greening for heavy metal pollution protection. PMID:15334971
Yang, Xuejun; Tang, Dongqin; Xu, Dongxin; Wang, Xinhua; Pan, Gaohong
Various extracts of one hundred and eight medicinal plants were screened for their anti-implantation activity in female albino rats. Out of these, 50% ethanolic extract of Codonospis ovata Benth (PL); 50% ethanolic, acetone and benzene extracts of Puararia tuberosa DC (TUB); aqueous and methanolic extracts of Punica granatum Linn. (PX) and ethanolic and acetone extracts of Rubus ellipiticus Smith (PX) inhibited pregnancy in 70-90% of rats. Similarly ethanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica Nees (LF) and Kigelia pinnata DC (PL); ethanolic and acetone extracts of Acrostichum aureum Linn. (PL), Juniperus communis Linn. (SD), Lepidium capitatum H.f. & T. (PL); ethanolic and benzene extracts of Citrulus colocynthus Schrad (LF) and acetone extract of Codonopsis ovata Benth (PL) showed 60-70% anti-implantation activity. Extracts of a few plants VIZ. Dolichos biflorus Linn. (SD), Ferule orientalis Linn. (PL), Nerium odoratum Lamk (RT), Randia dumetorum Lamk (SD) and Ruta graveolens Linn. (PL) could inhibit pregnancy in 50-60% of rats. The rest of the plants were either inactive or showed insignificant antifertility activity. PMID:3832714
Prakash, A O; Saxena, V; Shukla, S; Tewari, R K; Mathur, S; Gupta, A; Sharma, S; Mathur, R
This investigation covers a survey of the scale insects associating with some ornamental plants at three chosen public gardens as well as at the experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Station in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. A total of nineteen scale insect species belonging to sixteen genera related to four families of the super-family Coccoidea were found infesting eighteen ornamental plants during the period from April, 1998 up to March, 1999. These species are: Family: Asterolecaniidae--Represented by one species only The fig scale Russelaspis pustulans; (Cockerell) = (Asterolecanium pustulans Cock). Family: Coccidae--Represented by the seven species Florida wax scale. Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, Green shield scale. Chloropulvinaria psidii (Maskell), Long brown scale. Caccus elongatus (Douglas), Brown soft scale Coccus hesperidum (Linn.), Tessellated scale. Eucalymnatus tessellatus (Signoret), Hemispherical scale. Saissetia coffeae (Walker), and Olive soft scale. Saissetia oleae (Olivier) Family: Diaspididae--Represented by the ten species: Oleander scale. Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot), Minute cypress scale. Carulaspis minima (Targioni-Tozzetti), Dictyosprmum scale Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan), Palm fiorinia scale. Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni), Latania scale Hemiberlisia lataniae (Signoret), Fig scale. Lepidosaphes ficus (Signoret), Snow scale. Lineaspis striata (Newstead), Masked scale. Mycetaspis personata (Comstock), Olive scale. Parlatoria oleae (Colvee), and White peach scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti), Family: Eriococcidae--Represented by one species only Eriococcus araucariae (Maskell). During the same study, many species of natural enemies (nine parasitoids and eight predators), were also noticed to be associated with the aforementioned scale insects. PMID:12425080
Mourad, A K; Mesbah, H A; Fata, A A; Moursi, K S; Abdel-Razak, S I
Because cardenolides specifically inhibit the Na+K+-ATPase, insects feeding on cardenolide-containing plants need to circumvent this toxic effect. Some insects such as the monarch butterfly rely on target site insensitivity, yet other cardenolide-adapted lepidopterans such as the oleander hawk-moth, Daphnis nerii, possess highly sensitive Na+K+-ATPases. Nevertheless, larvae of this species and the related Manduca sexta are insensitive to injected cardenolides. By radioactive-binding assays with nerve cords of both species, we demonstrate that the perineurium surrounding the nervous tissue functions as a diffusion barrier for a polar cardenolide (ouabain). By contrast, for non-polar cardenolides such as digoxin an active efflux carrier limits the access to the nerve cord. This barrier can be abolished by metabolic inhibitors and by verapamil, a specific inhibitor of P-glycoproteins (PGPs). This supports that a PGP-like transporter is involved in the active cardenolide-barrier of the perineurium. Tissue specific RT-PCR demonstrated expression of three PGP-like genes in hornworm nerve cords, and immunohistochemistry further corroborated PGP expression in the perineurium. Our results thus suggest that the lepidopteran perineurium serves as a diffusion barrier for polar cardenolides and provides an active barrier for non-polar cardenolides. This may explain the high in vivo resistance to cardenolides observed in some lepidopteran larvae, despite their highly sensitive Na+K+-ATPases.
Petschenka, Georg; Pick, Christian; Wagschal, Vera; Dobler, Susanne
Herbal supplements can affect concentrations of therapeutic drugs measured in biological fluids by different mechanisms. Herbal products can either directly interfere with the methodology used in the measurement of drugs or indirectly interfere by altering the pharmacokinetics of coadministered drugs. The active components of Chan Su, Lu-Shen-Wan, Dan Shen, Asian and Siberian ginseng, oleander containing supplements, and Ashwagandha interfere with digoxin measurements by immunoassays, especially the polyclonal antibody-based immunoassays. Herbal supplements are sometimes contaminated with Western drugs causing drug toxicity. A therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service is very helpful for diagnosis of drug toxicity in such patients. Herbal products such as St. John's wort, a popular herbal antidepressant, increase the clearance of certain drugs either by increasing the activity of liver or intestinal cytochrome P-450 mixed-function oxidase or through modulation of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump. Significantly reduced concentrations of various therapeutic drugs such as digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, tricyclic antidepressants, warfarin, and protease inhibitors can be observed due to interaction of these drugs with St. John's wort, causing treatment failure. On the other hand, a few drugs such as carbamazepine, mycophenolic acid, and procainamide do not show any interaction with St. John's wort. Understanding the effect of herbal products on TDM methodologies and identification of interactions between herbal products and drugs by TDM are very important clinically. PMID:18367983
A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS) procedure was developed and validated for the identification and quantification of thevetin B and further cardiac glycosides in human serum. The seeds of Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana) contain cardiac glycosides that can cause serious intoxication. A mixture of six thevetia glycosides was extracted from these seeds and characterized. Thevetin B, isolated and efficiently purified from that mixture, is the main component and can be used as evidence. Solid phase extraction (SPE) proved to be an effective sample preparation method. Digoxin-d3 was used as the internal standard. Although ion suppression occurs, the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.27 ng/ml serum for thevetin B. Recovery is higher than 94%, and accuracy and precision were proficient. Method refinement was carried out with regard to developing a general screening method for cardiac glycosides. The assay is linear over the range of 0.5-8 ng/ml serum. Finally, the method was applied to a case of thevetia seed ingestion. PMID:21376490
Kohls, Sarah; Scholz-Böttcher, Barbara; Rullkötter, Jürgen; Teske, Jörg
By the methods of classical statistics and geostatistics, this paper studied the spatial heterogeneity of surface soil (0-20 cm layer) moisture and salt contents under three kinds of artificial vegetation in coastal salt land in Chongming Dongtan of Shanghai. The soil moisture content in different plots was in order of Cynodon dactylon > Taxodium distichum > Nerium indicum, and the coefficient of variation was 13.9%, 13.4% and 12.9%, respectively. The soil electric conductivity was in the order of N. indicum > C. dactylon > T. distichum, and the coefficient of variation was 79.2%, 55.4% and 15. 9%, respectively. Both the soil moisture content and the salt content were in moderate variation. The theoretical models of variogram for the soil moisture and salt contents in different plots varied, among which, the soil electric conductivity fitted better, with R2 between 0.97 and 0.99. When the artificial vegetation varied from N. indicum to T. distichum and then to C. dactylon, the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture content changed from weak to strong, in which, the variability was random under N. indicum. When the vegetation varied from C. dactylon to T. distichum and to N. indicum, the spatial heterogeneity of soil electric conductivity changed from moderate to strong. Under different vegetations, the soil electric conductivity was mostly in positive correlation, whereas the soil moisture content was in negative correlation. The spatial pattern of soil moisture and salt contents under T. distichum was in striped distribution, that under C. dactylon was in large plaque and continuous distribution, whereas under N. indicum, the spatial pattern of soil moisture content was in small breaking plaque distribution, and that of soil salt content was in striped distribution. PMID:24380332
He, Bin; Cai, Yong-li; Ran, Wen-rui; Zhao, Xiao-lei
In crude plant extracts, constituents of biological or pharmaceutical interest often exist in the form of glycosides. Off-line mass spectral investigations of these metabolites require soft ionisation techniques such as desorption chemical ionisation (DCI) or fast atom bombardment (FAB) if information on molecular mass or sugar sequence is desired. In LC-MS, glycosides can be ionised by using thermospray (TSP), continuous-flow fast atom bombardment (CF-FAB) or other interfaces. These techniques are thus potentially applicable to the on-line analysis of glycosides and can be applied to plant extract analysis. Thermospray (TSP) used with ammonium acetate as buffer provides mass spectra similar to those obtained with DCI-MS using NH3 and is potentially applicable to the on-line analysis of relatively small glycosides bearing no more than three sugar units. CF-FAB provides cleaner MS spectra than static FAB due to the lower concentration of the matrix used and can be applied to more polar compounds such as glycosides with a larger number of sugars. The use of a special setup involving post-column addition of the buffer or the matrix and splitting allows LC-UV, TSP LC-MS and CF-FAB LC-MS to be performed with the same standard HPLC conditions. Different crude plant extracts containing various types of glycosides with one to eight sugar units have been analysed by both TSP and CF-FAB. Cardenolides from Nerium odorum (Apocynaceae) and saponins from Swarzia madagascariensis (Leguminosae), Aster scaber and Aster tataricus (Asteraceae) have been studied by LC-MS. The combination of these two interfaces for the HPLC screening of crude plant extracts is discussed. PMID:8556148
Wolfender, J L; Hostettmann, K; Abe, F; Nagao, T; Okabe, H; Yamauchi, T
Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer's Oleander. "Jaundice curative tree" in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827). Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi) because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29)-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, ?-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and ?-sitosterol, 14?-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation. PMID:24600194
Digitalis intoxication is among the most common serious adverse drug reactions in clinical medicine. While the recent development of a radioimmunoassay to accurately measure serum concentrations of digoxin has been of assistance, digitalis intoxication remains a difficult diagnosis to make with certainty. The difficulty in diagnosing digitalis intoxication arises from the nonspecificity of its associated signs and symptoms. The most common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, nausea, and anorexia. These symptoms can occur with many illnesses other than digitalis intoxication. Similarly, the electrocardiographic disturbances caused by cardiac glycosides may be nondiagnostic. The arrhythmias commonly associated with digitalis toxicity are often nonspecific and can be a reflection of the patient's underlying heart disease. The measurement of serum digoxin levels is useful, but studies have demonstrated overlap of the levels between groups with and without toxicity. Due to the modulation of the cardiac effects of digitalis glycosides by such clinical variables as underlying myocardial or renal disease, electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, and other factors, the correlation of toxicity with particular serum digoxin concentrations may vary. Because of the inherent difficulties in confirming the diagnosis of digitalis intoxication in some cases, digoxin-specific Fab antibodies may play a role as a diagnostic tool. Certainly, digoxin-specific Fab antibodies play a significant part in the treatment of digitalis intoxication. Fab antibodies have been successfully used to reverse the effects of digoxin, digitoxin, and oleander poisoning. These antibodies are useful in the treatment of acute and chronic digitalis intoxication in all age groups, including geriatric and pediatric populations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1997019
Bayer, M J
Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogen that causes leaf scorch and related diseases in over 100 plant species, including Pierce's disease in grapevines (PD), phony peach disease (PP), plum leaf scald (PLS), and leaf scorch in almond (ALS), oak (OAK), and oleander (OLS). We used a high-resolution DNA sequence approach to investigate the evolutionary relationships, geographic variation, and divergence times among the X. fastidiosa isolates causing these diseases in North America. Using a large data set of 10 coding loci and 26 isolates, the phylogeny of X. fastidiosa defined three major clades. Two of these clades correspond to the recently identified X. fastidiosa subspecies piercei (PD and some ALS isolates) and X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (OAK, PP, PLS, and some ALS isolates). The third clade grouped all of the OLS isolates into a genetically distinct group, named X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi. These well-differentiated clades indicate that, historically, X. fastidiosa has been a clonal organism. Based on their synonymous-site divergence (?3%), these three clades probably originated more than 15,000 years ago, long before the introduction of the nonnative plants that characterize most infections. The sister clades of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi and X. fastidiosa subsp. piercei have synonymous-site evolutionary rates 2.9 times faster than X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, possibly due to generation time differences. Within X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, a low level (?0.1%) of genetic differentiation indicates the recent divergence of ALS isolates from the PP, PLS, and OAK isolates due to host plant adaptation and/or allopatry. The low level of variation within the X. fastidiosa subsp. piercei and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi clades, despite their antiquity, suggests strong selection, possibly driven by host plant adaptation.
Schuenzel, Erin L.; Scally, Mark; Stouthamer, Richard; Nunney, Leonard
Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identifies and groups bacterial strains based on DNA sequence data from (typically) seven housekeeping genes. MLST has also been employed to estimate the relative contributions of recombination and point mutation to clonal divergence. We applied MLST to the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa using an initial set of sequences for 10 loci (9.3 kb) of 25 strains from five different host plants, grapevine (PD strains), oleander (OLS strains), oak (OAK strains), almond (ALS strains), and peach (PP strains). An eBURST analysis identified six clonal complexes using the grouping criterion that each member must be identical to at least one other member at 7 or more of the 10 loci. These clonal complexes corresponded to previously identified phylogenetic clades; clonal complex 1 (CC1) (all PD strains plus two ALS strains) and CC2 (OLS strains) defined the X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi clades, while CC3 (ALS strains), CC4 (OAK strains), and CC5 (PP strains) were subclades of X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex. CC6 (ALS strains) identified an X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex-like group characterized by a high frequency of intersubspecific recombination. Compared to the recombination rate in other bacterial species, the recombination rate in X. fastidiosa is relatively low. Recombination between different alleles was estimated to give rise to 76% of the nucleotide changes and 31% of the allelic changes observed. The housekeeping loci holC, nuoL, leuA, gltT, cysG, petC, and lacF were chosen to form the basis of a public database for typing X. fastidiosa (www.mlst.net). These loci identified the same six clonal complexes using the strain grouping criterion of identity at five or more loci with at least one other member.
Scally, Mark; Schuenzel, Erin L.; Stouthamer, Richard; Nunney, Leonard
Two instrumented test sections were constructed in summer 1999 at the Kiefer Landfill near Sacramento, California to test the hydraulic performance of two proposed alternative final covers. Both test sections simulated monolithic evapotranspiration (ET) designs that differed primarily in thickness. Both were seeded with a mix of two perennial and one annual grass species. Oleander seedlings were also planted in the thicker test section. Detailed hydrologic performance monitoring of the covers was conducted from 1999 through 2005, The thicker test section met the performance criterion (average percolation of <3 mm/y). The thinner test section transmitted considerably more percolation (average of 55 mm/y). Both test sections were decommissioned in summer 2005 to investigate changes in soil hydraulic properties, geomorphology, and vegetation and to collect data to support a revised design. Field data from hydrologic monitoring and the decommissioning study were subsequently included in a hydrologic modeling study to estimate the performance of an optimized cover system for full-scale application. The decommissioning study showed that properties of the soils changed over the monitoring period (saturated hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity increased, density decreased) and that the perennial grasses and shrubs intended for the cover were out-competed by annual species with shallower roots and lesser capacity for water uptake. Of these changes, reduced ET from the shallow-rooted annual vegetation is believed to be the primary cause for the high percolation rate from the thinner test section. Hydrologic modeling suggests that the target hydraulic performance can be achieved using an ET cover with similar thickness to the thin test section if perennial vegetation species observed in surrounding grasslands can be established. This finding underscores the importance of establishing and maintaining the appropriate vegetation on ET covers in this climate. PMID:22574382
Smesrud, Jason K; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Richards, James H; Wright, Shannon; Israel, Tim; Goodrich, Keith
The container motor vessel CMV Oleander, which operates between New Jersey and Bermuda, crosses the Gulf Stream and Sargasso Sea all year round on a semiweekly schedule. Using an acoustic Doppler current profiler, measurements of upper ocean currents have been made on a regular basis since the fall of 1992. In this paper we examine the database for evidence of axisymmetric coherent vortices including the distribution and intensity of cold core rings. To detect the existence of coherent vortices, the patterns of current vectors averaged between 40 and 80 m depth were fit to an axisymmetric Gaussian vortex model. The parameters of the model were axis location, maximum tangential, or swirl, speed, and radius at which the maximum swirl was measured. We were able to distinguish between the well-known cold core "rings" (CCRs) pinched from the Gulf Stream, and a population of cyclonic and anticyclonic "vortices" in the Sargasso Sea. Both the rings and the Sargasso Sea vortices showed radii of 64 ± 18 km, albeit with different swirl speeds. The rings, close to the Gulf Stream, exhibited a typical maximum swirl speed of 0.98 ± 0.40 m s-1 and a center relative vorticity of 0.64 ± 0.35 × 10-4 s-1, almost 80% of the planetary vorticity for the region. The more uniform population of Sargasso Sea vortices contained approximately equal numbers of cyclones and anticyclones, with mean speeds of +0.43 and -0.55 m s-1, and center relative vorticities of +0.24 × 10-4 s-1 and -0.29 × 10-4 s-1, respectively.
Luce, David L.; Rossby, Tom
Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer's Oleander. “Jaundice curative tree” in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827). Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi) because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29)-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, ?-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and ?-sitosterol, 14?-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation.
Stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. These sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event. Stylet sheath compositions are largely unknown and their mode of solidification remains to be elucidated. This report demonstrates the formation and solidification of in ?ere (in air) produced stylet sheaths by six hemipteran families: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae, Asian citrus psyllid), Aphis nerii (Aphididae, oleander/milkweed aphid), Toxoptera citricida (Aphididae, brown citrus aphid), Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, cotton melon aphid), Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Aleyrodidae, whitefly), Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae, glassy-winged sharpshooter), Ferrisia virgata (Pseudococcidae, striped mealybug), and Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Coccidae, pyriform scale). Examination of in ?ere produced stylet sheaths by confocal and scanning electron microscopy shows a common morphology of an initial flange laid down on the surface of the membrane followed by continuous hollow core structures with sequentially stacked hardened bulbous droplets. Single and multi-branched sheaths were common, whereas mealybug and scale insects typically produced multi-branched sheaths. Micrographs of the in ?ere formed flanges indicate flange sealing upon stylet bundle extraction in D. citri and the aphids, while the B. tabaci whitefly and H. vitripennis glassy-winged sharpshooter flanges remain unsealed. Structural similarity of in ?ere sheaths are apparent in stylet sheaths formed in planta, in artificial diets, or in water. The use of 'Solvy', a dissolvable membrane, for intact stylet sheath isolation is reported. These observations illustrate for the first time this mode of stylet sheath synthesis adding to the understanding of stylet sheath formation in phytophagous hemipterans and providing tools for future use in structural and compositional analysis. PMID:23638086
Morgan, J Kent; Luzio, Gary A; Ammar, El-Desouky; Hunter, Wayne B; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G
During the first 4 years of the SeaWiFS mission (September 1997 through August 2001), the spring blooms in the Slope Sea increased in magnitude. During the same time, the mean path of the Gulf Stream shifted northward. The northward trend of the Gulf Stream is evidenced in satellite sea-surface temperature imagery as well as in situ temperature, salinity, and current vector information collected by the merchant vessel Oleander on its weekly trip between New Jersey and Bermuda. Surface temperature and salinity increased in the Slope Sea over the 4 years. It surprised us to find a collective increase in phytoplankton chlorophyll, temperature, and salinity, contrary to the commonly observed inverse relationship between temperature and chlorophyll in surface waters of this region. While the Gulf Stream surface waters are depleted of nutrients and low in biomass content, waters at depth are rich in nutrients. Although the Gulf Stream usually serves as a barrier between Sargasso waters to the south and Slope waters to the north, cross-stream exchange occurs when there is upward flow along isopycnals toward the surface waters of the Slope Sea. Under certain conditions, warm-core rings and associated streamers shed by the Gulf Stream may also bring nutrient-rich water up into the euphotic zone. The outflow of surface water from the Labrador Sea appears to influence both the size and horizontal transport of the Slope Sea. When the Slope waters are warm and saline there is less Labrador water present, resulting in less dilution of the Gulf Stream waters leaking into the Slope Sea and less horizontal advection within its cyclonic gyre. While the intensity of the spring blooms during this period has dramatic interannual variability, we found the total surface chlorophyll concentration integrated over the Slope Sea remains nearly unchanged. This suggests that the Labrador is not the major supplier of nutrients, but rather that the Slope Sea receives a steady nutrient supply from the sub-surface Gulf Stream waters.
Schollaert, Stephanie E.; Rossby, Tom; Yoder, James A.
Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogen that causes leaf scorch and related diseases in over 100 plant species, including Pierce's disease in grapevines (PD), phony peach disease (PP), plum leaf scald (PLS), and leaf scorch in almond (ALS), oak (OAK), and oleander (OLS). We used a high-resolution DNA sequence approach to investigate the evolutionary relationships, geographic variation, and divergence times among the X. fastidiosa isolates causing these diseases in North America. Using a large data set of 10 coding loci and 26 isolates, the phylogeny of X. fastidiosa defined three major clades. Two of these clades correspond to the recently identified X. fastidiosa subspecies piercei (PD and some ALS isolates) and X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (OAK, PP, PLS, and some ALS isolates). The third clade grouped all of the OLS isolates into a genetically distinct group, named X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi. These well-differentiated clades indicate that, historically, X. fastidiosa has been a clonal organism. Based on their synonymous-site divergence ( approximately 3%), these three clades probably originated more than 15,000 years ago, long before the introduction of the nonnative plants that characterize most infections. The sister clades of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi and X. fastidiosa subsp. piercei have synonymous-site evolutionary rates 2.9 times faster than X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, possibly due to generation time differences. Within X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, a low level ( approximately 0.1%) of genetic differentiation indicates the recent divergence of ALS isolates from the PP, PLS, and OAK isolates due to host plant adaptation and/or allopatry. The low level of variation within the X. fastidiosa subsp. piercei and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi clades, despite their antiquity, suggests strong selection, possibly driven by host plant adaptation. PMID:16000795
Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Stouthamer, Richard; Nunney, Leonard
Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identifies and groups bacterial strains based on DNA sequence data from (typically) seven housekeeping genes. MLST has also been employed to estimate the relative contributions of recombination and point mutation to clonal divergence. We applied MLST to the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa using an initial set of sequences for 10 loci (9.3 kb) of 25 strains from five different host plants, grapevine (PD strains), oleander (OLS strains), oak (OAK strains), almond (ALS strains), and peach (PP strains). An eBURST analysis identified six clonal complexes using the grouping criterion that each member must be identical to at least one other member at 7 or more of the 10 loci. These clonal complexes corresponded to previously identified phylogenetic clades; clonal complex 1 (CC1) (all PD strains plus two ALS strains) and CC2 (OLS strains) defined the X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi clades, while CC3 (ALS strains), CC4 (OAK strains), and CC5 (PP strains) were subclades of X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex. CC6 (ALS strains) identified an X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex-like group characterized by a high frequency of intersubspecific recombination. Compared to the recombination rate in other bacterial species, the recombination rate in X. fastidiosa is relatively low. Recombination between different alleles was estimated to give rise to 76% of the nucleotide changes and 31% of the allelic changes observed. The housekeeping loci holC, nuoL, leuA, gltT, cysG, petC, and lacF were chosen to form the basis of a public database for typing X. fastidiosa (www.mlst.net). These loci identified the same six clonal complexes using the strain grouping criterion of identity at five or more loci with at least one other member. PMID:16332839
Scally, Mark; Schuenzel, Erin L; Stouthamer, Richard; Nunney, Leonard
The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Preliminary results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.
LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.
Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (I psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approximately 0.2 psu) required of global maps to be scientifically viable. The development of a satellite microwave instrument to make global measurements of SSS (Sea Surface Salinity) is the focus of a joint JPL/GSFC/NASA ocean research program called Aquarius. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of airborne microwave instruments together with ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer (for surface temperature). These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Sea surface measurements consisted of thermosalinograph data provided by the R/V Cape Henlopen and the MN Oleander, and data from salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the R/V Cape Henlopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.
LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Haken, M.; Howden, S.; Bingham, F.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)