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Sample records for nerka population monitoring

  1. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-05-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600.

  2. The utilization of a Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus nerka subsidy by three populations of charr Salvelinus spp.

    PubMed

    Denton, K P; Rich, H B; Moore, J W; Quinn, T P

    2010-09-01

    The L(F) -at-age trajectories differentiated two populations of Dolly Varden charr Salvelinus malma and a population of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from the eastern end of Iliamna Lake, Alaska. Salvelinus malma from the Pedro Bay ponds were the smallest for a given age, followed by Salvelinus alpinus from the lake, and S. malma from the Iliamna River were much larger. The utilization of a large sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka subsidy by the three Salvelinus spp. populations was then investigated by comparing diet data and mixing model (MixSIR) outputs based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Stomach contents indicated that both S. malma populations fed on O. nerka products, especially eggs and larval Diptera that had scavenged O. nerka carcasses, whereas S. alpinus fed on a variety of prey items such as three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus and snails. Stable-isotope analysis corroborated the diet data; the two S. malma populations incorporated more O. nerka-derived nutrients into their tissues than did S. alpinus from the lake, although all populations showed substantial utilization of O. nerka-derived resources. Salvelinus alpinus also seemed to be much more omnivorous, as shown by stable-isotope mixing models, than the S. malma populations. The dramatic differences in growth rate between the two S. malma populations, despite similar trophic patterns, indicate that other important genetic or environmental factors affect their life history, including proximate temperature controls and ultimate predation pressures. PMID:20840627

  3. Population Genetic Structure and Life History Variability in Oncorhynchus Nerka from the Snake River Basin, 1991-1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, Robin S.; Aebersold, Paul B.; Winans, Gary A.

    1997-05-01

    A detailed examination of O. nerka from lakes in the Sawtooth Valley of Idaho was undertaken to help guide recovery planning for the endangered Redfish Lake population and to help resolve relationships between resident and anadromous forms.

  4. Provenance matters: thermal reaction norms for embryo survival among sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations.

    PubMed

    Whitney, C K; Hinch, S G; Patterson, D A

    2013-04-01

    Differences in thermal tolerance during embryonic development in Fraser River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka were examined among nine populations in a controlled common-garden incubation experiment. Forcing embryonic development at an extreme temperature (relative to current values) of 16° C, representing a future climate change scenario, significantly reduced survival compared to the more ecologically moderate temperature of 10° C (55% v. 93%). Survival at 14° C was intermediate between the other two temperatures (85%). More importantly, this survival response varied by provenance within and between temperature treatments. Thermal reaction norms showed an interacting response of genotype and environment (temperature), suggesting that populations of O. nerka may have adapted differentially to elevated temperatures during incubation and early development. Moreover, populations that historically experience warmer incubation temperatures at early development displayed a higher tolerance for warm temperatures. In contrast, thermal tolerance does not appear to transcend life stages as adult migration temperatures were not related to embryo thermal tolerance. The intra-population variation implies potential for thermal tolerance at the species level. The differential inter-population variation in thermal tolerance that was observed suggests, however, limited adaptive potential to thermal shifts for some populations. This infers that the intergenerational effects of increasing water temperatures may affect populations differentially, and that such thermally mediated adaptive selection may drive population, and therefore species, persistence. PMID:23557297

  5. Does among-population variation in burst swimming performance of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka fry reflect early life migrations?

    PubMed

    Sopinka, N M; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Whitney, C K; Patterson, D A

    2013-11-01

    Using a fixed-speed test, burst swimming performance was found to vary among nine populations of emergent sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka fry reared in a common-garden environment. No consistent relationship was, however, detected between difficulty of fry migration (upstream v. downstream) to rearing areas and total burst swimming duration or bursting rate. PMID:24117961

  6. Global Assessment of Extinction Risk to Populations of Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Peter S.; Goslin, Matthew; Gross, Mart R.; Irvine, James R.; Augerot, Xanthippe; McHugh, Peter A.; Bugaev, Victor F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Concern about the decline of wild salmon has attracted the attention of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The IUCN applies quantitative criteria to assess risk of extinction and publishes its results on the Red List of Threatened Species. However, the focus is on the species level and thus may fail to show the risk to populations. The IUCN has adapted their criteria to apply to populations but there exist few examples of this type of assessment. We assessed the status of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as a model for application of the IUCN population-level assessments and to provide the first global assessment of the status of an anadromous Pacific salmon. Methods/Principal Findings We found from demographic data that the sockeye salmon species is not presently at risk of extinction. We identified 98 independent populations with varying levels of risk within the species' range. Of these, 5 (5%) are already extinct. We analyzed the risk for 62 out of 93 extant populations (67%) and found that 17 of these (27%) are at risk of extinction. The greatest number and concentration of extinct and threatened populations is in the southern part of the North American range, primarily due to overfishing, freshwater habitat loss, dams, hatcheries, and changing ocean conditions. Conclusions/Significance Although sockeye salmon are not at risk at the species-level, about one-third of the populations that we analyzed are at risk or already extinct. Without an understanding of risk to biodiversity at the level of populations, the biodiversity loss in salmon would be greatly underrepresented on the Red List. We urge government, conservation organizations, scientists and the public to recognize this limitation of the Red List. We also urge recognition that about one-third of sockeye salmon global population diversity is at risk of extinction or already extinct. PMID:22511930

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms unravel hierarchical divergence and signatures of selection among Alaskan sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disentangling the roles of geography and ecology driving population divergence and distinguishing adaptive from neutral evolution at the molecular level have been common goals among evolutionary and conservation biologists. Using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) multilocus genotypes for 31 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations from the Kvichak River, Alaska, we assessed the relative roles of geography (discrete boundaries or continuous distance) and ecology (spawning habitat and timing) driving genetic divergence in this species at varying spatial scales within the drainage. We also evaluated two outlier detection methods to characterize candidate SNPs responding to environmental selection, emphasizing which mechanism(s) may maintain the genetic variation of outlier loci. Results For the entire drainage, Mantel tests suggested a greater role of geographic distance on population divergence than differences in spawn timing when each variable was correlated with pairwise genetic distances. Clustering and hierarchical analyses of molecular variance indicated that the largest genetic differentiation occurred between populations from distinct lakes or subdrainages. Within one population-rich lake, however, Mantel tests suggested a greater role of spawn timing than geographic distance on population divergence when each variable was correlated with pairwise genetic distances. Variable spawn timing among populations was linked to specific spawning habitats as revealed by principal coordinate analyses. We additionally identified two outlier SNPs located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II that appeared robust to violations of demographic assumptions from an initial pool of eight candidates for selection. Conclusions First, our results suggest that geography and ecology have influenced genetic divergence between Alaskan sockeye salmon populations in a hierarchical manner depending on the spatial scale. Second, we found consistent

  8. Founding events influence genetic population structure of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Lake Clark, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramstad, K.M.; Woody, C.A.; Sage, G.K.; Allendorf, F.W.

    2004-01-01

    Bottlenecks can have lasting effects on genetic population structure that obscure patterns of contemporary gene flow and drift. Sockeye salmon are vulnerable to bottleneck effects because they are a highly structured species with excellent colonizing abilities and often occupy geologically young habitats. We describe genetic divergence among and genetic variation within spawning populations of sockeye salmon throughout the Lake Clark area of Alaska. Fin tissue was collected from sockeye salmon representing 15 spawning populations of Lake Clark, Six-mile Lake, and Lake Iliamna. Allele frequencies differed significantly at 11 microsatellite loci in 96 of 105 pairwise population comparisons. Pairwise estimates of FST ranged from zero to 0.089. Six-mile Lake and Lake Clark populations have historically been grouped together for management purposes and are geographically proximate. However, Six-mile Lake populations are genetically similar to Lake Iliamna populations and are divergent from Lake Clark populations. The reduced allelic diversity and strong divergence of Lake Clark populations relative to Six-mile Lake and Lake Iliamna populations suggest a bottleneck associated with the colonization of Lake Clark by sockeye salmon. Geographic distance and spawning habitat differences apparently do not contribute to isolation and divergence among populations. However, temporal isolation based on spawning time and founder effects associated with ongoing glacial retreat and colonization of new spawning habitats contribute to the genetic population structure of Lake Clark sock-eye salmon. Nonequilibrium conditions and the strong influence of genetic drift caution against using estimates of divergence to estimate gene flow among populations of Lake Clark sockeye salmon.

  9. Genetic Analysis of Oncorhynchus Nerka : Life History and Genetic Analysis of Redfish Lake Oncorhynchus Nerka, 1993-1994 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Thorgaard, G.H.; Cummings, S.A.

    1994-10-01

    The study has shown through life history examination and DNA analysis that three forms of O. nerka are present in Redfish Lake. The three forms are closely related, but may be sufficiently different to be considered three separate stocks. Fishhook Creek kokanee are temporally isolated from the beach spawners, and may represent the gene pool most similar to the historic sockeye population that once spawned there. Fishhook Creek offers the best spawning area available in the lake system, and should be considered for use in reestablishing an anadromous Fishhook Creek sockeye swain. The resident beach spawning strain of O. nerka is likewise the most similar genetic form of the companion anadromous beach spawning O. nerka, and needs to be considered the most appropriate genetic source to help minimize reduced fitness of the sockeye from inbreeding.

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research : Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Spaulding, Scott

    1993-05-01

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock.

  11. Genetic diversity of sockeye salmon (`oncorhynchus nerka`) of Cook Inlet, Alaska, and its application to restoration of injured populations of the Kenai River. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project 93012 and 94255-2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seeb, L.W.; Habicht, C.; Templin, W.D.; Fetzner, J.W.; Gates, R.B.

    1995-11-01

    Genetic data from sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were collected from all significant spawning populations contributing to mixed-stock harvests in Cook Inlet. A total of 68 allozyme loci were resolved from 37 populations. Mitochondrial DNA data from the NADH subunits 5 and 6 were collected from 19 of the populations. Mixed-stock analyses using maximum likelihood methods with 27 loci were evaluated to estimate the proportion of Kenai River populations in Central District drift fisheries. Simulations indicate that Kenai River populations can be identified in mixtures at a level of precision and accuracy useful for restoration and fishery management. Mixed-stock samples from Cook Inlet drift net fisheries were analyzed both inseason (48 hr) and post-season. Samples from fish wheels from the Kenai, Kasilof, Yentna, and Susitna River systems were also analyzed. Inclusion of mtDNA data in the analysis is being investigated to determine if it improves precision and accuracy. Results from this study are currently being used in the management and restoration of Kenai River sockeye salmon injured in the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill.

  12. Genetic Analysis of Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka), 2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Joyce; Powell, Madison

    2003-12-01

    A total of 1720 Oncorhynchus nerka tissue samples from 40 populations were characterized using mitochondrial DNA RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms). Analysis of anadromous sockeye populations indicated the historical presence of four major maternal lineages. Thirty-five composite mitochondrial haplotypes were observed from the 40 populations of O. nerka sampled throughout the Pacific Northwest. Six of these composite haplotypes ranged in frequency from 7-26% overall and were commonly observed in most populations. The six haplotypes together comprised 90% of the sampled O. nerka. An average of 4.6 composite haplotypes were observed per population. Genetic markers used were satisfactory in separating Redfish Lake anadromous sockeye, residual sockeye and outmigrants from the sympatric kokanee population that spawns in the Fishhook Creek tributary. Outmigrants appear to be primarily composed of progeny from resident residual sockeye, and captively-reared progeny of the captive broodstock program. Thus, residual sockeye may be considered a suitable source of genetic variation to maintain genetic diversity among captive broodstocks of anadromous sockeye. Fishhook Creek kokanee are genetically diverse and during spawning, are temporally and spatially isolated from the residual sockeye population. Eleven composite haplotypes were observed in the kokanee population. The unusually high number of haplotypes is most likely a consequence of periodic stocking of Redfish Lake with kokanee from other sources. Genetic data from Redfish Lake creel samples taken during 1996-1999 putatively indicate the incidental take of a listed resident sockeye.

  13. Recent ecological divergence despite migration in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavey, Scott A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Hamon, Troy R.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological divergence may result when populations experience different selection regimes, but there is considerable discussion about the role of migration at the beginning stages of divergence before reproductive isolating mechanisms have evolved. However, detection of past migration is difficult in current populations and tools to differentiate genetic similarities due to migration versus recent common ancestry are only recently available. Using past volcanic eruption times as a framework, we combine morphological analyses of traits important to reproduction with a coalescent-based genetic analysis of two proximate sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations. We find that this is the most recent (~500 years, 100 generations) natural ecological divergence recorded in a fish species, and report that this divergence is occurring despite migration. Although studies of fish divergence following the retreat of glaciers (10,000–15,000 years ago) have contributed extensively to our understanding of speciation, the Aniakchak system of sockeye salmon provides a rare example of the initial stages of ecological divergence following natural colonization. Our results show that even in the face of continued migration, populations may diverge in the absence of a physical barrier.

  14. Dworshak Reservoir Kokanee Population Monitoring, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo; Stark, Eric

    2003-03-01

    Onsite testing of strobe lights was conducted to determine if they repelled kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from the turbine intakes at Dworshak Dam. We tested a set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min placed near the intake of a 90 mW turbine. A split-beam echo sounder was used to determine the effect of strobe light operation on fish density (thought to be mostly kokanee) in front of the turbine intakes. On five nights between December 2001 and January 2002, fish density averaged 110 fish/ha when no lights were flashing. Mean density dropped to 13 fish/ha when the strobe lights were turned on during five additional nights of sampling. This 88% decline in density was significant at the P = 0.009 level of significance based on a paired Student's t test. There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicate that a single set of nine lights may be sufficient to repel kokanee from a turbine intake during the night. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2001. Estimated abundance of kokanee has continued to increase since the spring of 1996 when high entrainment losses occurred. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,276,000 kokanee in Dworshak Reservoir in early July 2001. This included 2,069,000 age-0 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 16.4%), 801,000 age-1 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 17.8%), and 406,000 age-2 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 20.5%). Entrainment sampling was also conducted with split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of one continuous 24 h period per month. The highest entrainment rates occurred at night with lower discharges and shallower intake depths. Fish movement patterns suggested that they swam 'at will' in front of the intakes and may have chosen to move into the turbine intakes. Based on monthly hydroacoustic sampling in the forebay, we found that kokanee density was low in July and August during a period of high discharge

  15. Dworshak Reservoir Kokanee Population Monitoring: Project Progress Report, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Harryman, Bill

    2001-08-01

    We used split-beam hydroacoustics and trawling to monitor the kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka population in Dworshak Reservoir during 1999. Estimated abundance of kokanee has continued to increase since the high entrainment losses in the spring of 1996. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 1,545,000 kokanee and rainbow trout O. mykiss in Dworshak Reservoir during July 1999. This included 1,144,000 age-0 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 42%), 212,000 age-1 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15%), and 189,000 age-2 kokanee and stocked rainbow trout (90% CI {+-} 39%). Rainbow trout could not be distinguished from the age-2 kokanee in the echograms since they were of similar size. Age-0 kokanee ranged in length from 40 mm to 90 mm, age-1 from 193 mm to 212 mm, and age-2 kokanee from 219 mm to 336 mm. These sizes indicated kokanee are still growing well. Discharge of water from Dworshak Dam during 1999 did not stop the expansion of the kokanee population based on these results. Counts of spawning kokanee in four tributary streams exceeded 11,000 fish. This index also showed a marked increase from last year's 660 spawning kokanee or the 1997 total of 144 spawning kokanee.

  16. Wildlife population monitoring at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Griess, J.

    1994-12-31

    In 1987 the Fish and Wildlife Service became actively involved in wildlife population monitoring at the Arsenal because of the discovery of a bald eagle roost on the site. As many as 100 eagles may use the roost during the course of a winter. Since that time, the Service has conducted or funded a variety of investigations to determine deer herd size and health, reproductive success of raptors, breeding bird surveys, prairie dog distribution and population monitoring, small mammal and passerine bird community evaluations, waterfowl surveys, etc. An overview of the wildlife population monitoring program, its evolution, and results will be presented.

  17. Monitoring grizzly bear population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Knight, R.R.; Blanchard, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple different equation model was developed to provide additional perspective on observed mortality and trend data on Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Records of mortalities of adult females from 1959 to 1985 were utilized, in conjunction with data on females with cubs. The overall downward trend of observed numbers of females with cubs generally agrees with the model calculations but does not adequately reflect mortality from 1970 to 1974. The model may be useful in developing a composite index of population trend.

  18. Antigen-binding cells in the peripheral blood of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka Walbaum, induced by immersion or intraperitoneal injection of Vibrio languilarum bacterin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1981-01-01

    We used an immunocytoadherence assay to monitor the response of antigen-binding cells (ABC) in the peripheral blood of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, after immersion in, or intraperitoneal injection of, Vibrio anguillarum LS 1–74 bacterin. Both methods initiated an elevated ABC response in less than one day; this response persisted one week longer in the injected than in the immersed fish.

  19. Revisiting evolutionary dead ends in sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka) life history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavey, S.A.; Hamon, T.R.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    This study challenges recent hypotheses about sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) colonization based on life history and broadens the pathways that investigators should consider when studying sockeye colonization of novel habitats. Most sockeye populations exhibit lake-type life histories. Riverine populations are thought to be more likely to stray from their natal stream to spawn and therefore colonize new habitat. We examined genetic relationships among five geographically proximate sockeye populations from the Aniakchak region of the Alaska Peninsula, Alaska. Specifically, we sought to determine if the genetic population structure was consistent with the hypothesis that a riverine population colonized a recently available upriver volcanic caldera lake, and whether recent volcanism led to genetic bottlenecks in these sockeye populations. Heterozygosity and allelic richness were not higher in the riverine population. Patterns of genetic divergence suggested that the geographically proximate riverine sockeye population did not colonize the lake; the caldera populations were more genetically divergent from the downstream riverine population (FST  =  0.047) than a lake-type population in a different drainage (FST  =  0.018). Our results did not suggest the presence of genetic bottlenecks in the caldera populations.

  20. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; Artificial Imprinting of Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) with Synthetic Chemicals: Measurement of Thyroxine Content as an Indicator of the Sensitive Period for Imprinting to Olfactory Cues; 1992 Supplement Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, Allan T.; White, Ronald J.; Tilson, Mary Beth

    1993-09-01

    In 1991, we initiated studies to determine the critical period for thyroxine-induced olfactory imprinting in kokanee salmon. In our preliminary investigation we found that thyroxine [T{sub 4}] levels of Lake Whatcom stock, 1990 year class, kokanee were relatively high in eggs and alevins as compared to post-swimup fry, and peaked at hatch and swimup. Here we report on follow-up studies conducted in 1992 designed to determine if our initial results could be replicated. Additionally, in 1992, we initiated experiments to determine if kokanee could be imprinted to synthetic chemicals--morpholine and phenethyl alcohol--at different life stages. In 1991, whole body thyroxine content [T{sub 4}] was measured in 460 Lake Whatcom stock kokanee and 480 Lake Pend Orielle (Cabinet Gorge) stock kokanee to indicate the critical period for imprinting. Lots of 20 kokanee eggs, alevins and fry from both stocks, reared at the Spokane Tribal hatchery, were collected at weekly intervals from November 1991 to August 1992 and assayed for T{sub 4} content by radioimmunoassay. T{sub 4} levels were monitored in Lake Whatcom stock, 1991 year class fish, from eyed egg (33 days post-fertilization) to fry (248 days post-fertilization) stages. T{sub 4} concentration ({+-} SEM) in eggs was 6.7 {+-} 1.3 rig/g body weight. T{sub 4} peaked on the day of hatch at 13.1 {+-} 2.5 ng/g body weight, then declined to 10.3 {+-} 1.1 ng/g body weight in recently post-hatch alevins. T{sub 4} peaked again at 22.1 {+-} 5.2 ng/g body weight during swimup, then steadily decreased to about 1.0 ng/g body weight in 176-248 day old fry. T{sub 4} levels were monitored in Lake Pend Orielle stock, 1991 year class, fish from the day of fertilization (day 0) to 225 days post-fertilization. T{sub 4} content of eggs was 9.5 {+-} 1.7 ng/g body weight and peaked on the day of hatch (day 53 post-fertilization) at 24.2 {+-} 4.5 ng/g body weight. After declining to 13.0 {+-} 2.9 ng/g body weight on day 81 post-fertilization, T

  1. Monitoring microbial population dynamics at low densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julou, Thomas; Desprat, Nicolas; Bensimon, David; Croquette, Vincent

    2012-07-01

    We propose a new and simple method for the measurement of microbial concentrations in highly diluted cultures. This method is based on an analysis of the intensity fluctuations of light scattered by microbial cells under laser illumination. Two possible measurement strategies are identified and compared using simulations and measurements of the concentration of gold nanoparticles. Based on this comparison, we show that the concentration of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be easily measured in situ across a concentration range that spans five orders of magnitude. The lowest measurable concentration is three orders of magnitude (1000×) smaller than in current optical density measurements. We show further that this method can also be used to measure the concentration of fluorescent microbial cells. In practice, this new method is well suited to monitor the dynamics of population growth at early colonization of a liquid culture medium. The dynamic data thus obtained are particularly relevant for microbial ecology studies.

  2. TRANSGENE ESCAPE MONITORING, POPULATION GENETICS, AND THE LAW

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been little discussion about how to apply population genetics methods to monitor the spread of transgenes that are detected outside the agricultural populations where they are deployed. Population geneticists have developed tools for analyzing the genetic makeup of indi...

  3. Migration timing of female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka: diel patterns and effects of maturation state.

    PubMed

    Warren, M A; Morbey, Y E

    2012-09-01

    Diel patterns of migration and migration speed were compared between reproductive timing phenotypes in female kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Females of varying degrees of reproductive maturation were captured on their migration route to the Meadow Creek Spawning Channel (British Columbia, Canada), were tagged with passive-integrated transponders (PIT tags) and were subsequently monitored with stationary receivers. Females showed crepuscular migration timing, with approximately equal detections at dawn and dusk. In particular, peaks of movement were associated with the appearance of the sun over the mountains in the east and the disappearance of the sun over the mountains in the west. Over 25 m, migration speed was 1·0 body lengths (measured as fork length; L(F)) s(-1) and did not depend on maturation state. Over 3 km, migration speed was much slower (0·2-0·3 L(F) s(-1)) than over the short distance, with less mature females migrating more slowly than more mature females. Less mature females appeared to be in less of a hurry to reach breeding areas compared with more mature females. PMID:22957867

  4. Noninvasive methods for monitoring bear population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a grizzly bear research project in 2009 in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) of northwestern Montana. This work uses hair collection and DNA analysis methods similar to those used in the 2004 Northern Divide Grizzly Bear Project. However, instead of producing a snapshot of population size, the objectives of this new work are to estimate population growth rates by collecting hair at natural bear rubs along trails, roads, and fence and power lines. This approach holds promise of providing reliable estimates of population trends in an efficient, cost-effective, and unobtrusive way.

  5. Strobe Light Testing and Kokanee Population Monitoring : Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation Project, 87-99 : Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Ament, Willaim J.

    1999-11-01

    We tested the response of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to strobe lights. Testing was conducted on wild, free-ranging fish in their natural environment (i.e., the pelagic region of two large Idaho lakes). Split-beam hydroacoustics were used to record the distance kokanee moved away from the lights, as well as the density of kokanee in the area near the lights. In control tests, where strobe lights were lowered into the lake but kept turned off, kokanee remained within a few meters of the lights. Once the lights began flashing, kokanee quickly moved away from the light source. Kokanee moved 20 to 40 m away from the lights in waters with Secchi transparencies from 3 to 5 m. Kokanee densities near the lights were significantly lower (p=0.07 to p=0.00) when the lights were turned on than in control samples with no lights flashing. Flash rates of 300, 360, and 450 flashes/min elicited strong avoidance responses from the fish. Kokanee remained at least 24 m from the lights during our longest test that lasted for 5 h 50 min. We also continued annual monitoring of the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir. Spawner counts in four tributary streams that were used as an index of the adult population reached a record low of 144 spawners. No age-1 or age-2 kokanee were caught in 15 trawl hauls used to make population estimates. The population estimate of fry was 65,000 fish, {+-} 76% (90% C.I.). Flooding during the spring of 1996 was responsible for the low kokanee population.

  6. Monitoring wild pig populations: a review of methods.

    PubMed

    Engeman, R M; Massei, G; Sage, M; Gentle, M N

    2013-11-01

    Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are widespread across many landscapes throughout the world and are considered to be an invasive pest to agriculture and the environment, or conversely a native or desired game species and resource for hunting. Wild pig population monitoring is often required for a variety of management or research objectives, and many methods and analyses for monitoring abundance are available. Here, we describe monitoring methods that have proven or potential applications to wild pig management. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of methods so that potential users can efficiently consider and identify the option(s) best suited to their combination of objectives, circumstances, and resources. This paper offers guidance to wildlife managers, researchers, and stakeholders considering population monitoring of wild pigs and will help ensure that they can fulfill their monitoring objectives while optimizing their use of resources. PMID:23881593

  7. Population and habitat assessment: Monitoring bird populations over large areas: Introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring provides essential information about status and change in bird populations. For Neotropical Migrant Birds (NTMBs), the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) has been particularly influential in documenting regional population change and often is cited as justification for management actions. However, as with most bird surveys, the design of the BBS, and the geographic scale of the information, often limits its use either in evaluating the response of bird populations to management, or in identifying causes of population change.

  8. Heritability of tolerance for infectious hematopoietic necrosis in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, John D.; Amend, Donald F.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchical breeding design was used to demonstrate the heritability of tolerance for infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in sockeye salmon. Oncorhynchus nerka. Heritability was about 30%, indicating that artificial selection may increase the number of fish that can tolerate the disease.

  9. EFFECTS OF AIR-SUPERSATURATED WATER ON ADULT SOCKEYE SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were exposed to air supersaturated water in the laboratory from July 8 to August 13, 1974, approximately the same time period that they are exposed to supersaturated water during their movement through the lower and middle sections of the...

  10. Multidisciplinary population monitoring when demographic data are sparse: a case study of remote trout populations

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J; Calvert, Anna M; Bernatchez, Louis; Coon, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetic, genomic, and phenotypic metrics for monitoring population trends may be especially high in isolated regions, where traditional demographic monitoring is logistically difficult and only sporadic sampling is possible. This potential, however, is relatively underexplored empirically. Over eleven years, we assessed several such metrics along with traditional ecological knowledge and catch data in a socioeconomically important trout species occupying a large, remote lake. The data revealed largely stable characteristics in two populations over 2–3 generations, but possible contemporary changes in a third population. These potential shifts were suggested by reduced catch rates, reduced body size, and changes in selection implied at one gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphism. A demographic decline in this population, however, was ambiguously supported, based on the apparent lack of temporal change in effective population size, and corresponding traditional knowledge suggesting little change in catch. We illustrate how the pluralistic approach employed has practicality for setting future monitoring efforts of these populations, by guiding monitoring priorities according to the relative merits of different metrics and availability of resources. Our study also considers some advantages and disadvantages to adopting a pluralistic approach to population monitoring where demographic data are not easily obtained. PMID:24455128

  11. The value of monitoring to control evolving populations.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andrej; Vázquez-García, Ignacio; Mustonen, Ville

    2015-01-27

    Populations can evolve to adapt to external changes. The capacity to evolve and adapt makes successful treatment of infectious diseases and cancer difficult. Indeed, therapy resistance has become a key challenge for global health. Therefore, ideas of how to control evolving populations to overcome this threat are valuable. Here we use the mathematical concepts of stochastic optimal control to study what is needed to control evolving populations. Following established routes to calculate control strategies, we first study how a polymorphism can be maintained in a finite population by adaptively tuning selection. We then introduce a minimal model of drug resistance in a stochastically evolving cancer cell population and compute adaptive therapies. When decisions are in this manner based on monitoring the response of the tumor, this can outperform established therapy paradigms. For both case studies, we demonstrate the importance of high-resolution monitoring of the target population to achieve a given control objective, thus quantifying the intuition that to control, one must monitor. PMID:25587136

  12. The value of monitoring to control evolving populations

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andrej; Mustonen, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Populations can evolve to adapt to external changes. The capacity to evolve and adapt makes successful treatment of infectious diseases and cancer difficult. Indeed, therapy resistance has become a key challenge for global health. Therefore, ideas of how to control evolving populations to overcome this threat are valuable. Here we use the mathematical concepts of stochastic optimal control to study what is needed to control evolving populations. Following established routes to calculate control strategies, we first study how a polymorphism can be maintained in a finite population by adaptively tuning selection. We then introduce a minimal model of drug resistance in a stochastically evolving cancer cell population and compute adaptive therapies. When decisions are in this manner based on monitoring the response of the tumor, this can outperform established therapy paradigms. For both case studies, we demonstrate the importance of high-resolution monitoring of the target population to achieve a given control objective, thus quantifying the intuition that to control, one must monitor. PMID:25587136

  13. Overview of national bird population monitoring programs and databases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butcher, G.S.; Peterjohn, B.; Ralph, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    A number of programs have been set up to monitor populations of nongame migratory birds. We review these programs and their purposes and provide information on obtaining data or results from these programs. In addition, we review recommendations for improving these programs.

  14. Monitoring low density avian populations: An example using Mountain Plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dreitz, V.J.; Lukacs, P.M.; Knopf, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Declines in avian populations highlight a need for rigorous, broad-scale monitoring programs to document trends in avian populations that occur in low densities across expansive landscapes. Accounting for the spatial variation and variation in detection probability inherent to monitoring programs is thought to be effort-intensive and time-consuming. We determined the feasibility of the analytical method developed by Royle and Nichols (2003), which uses presence-absence (detection-non-detection) field data, to estimate abundance of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) per sampling unit in agricultural fields, grassland, and prairie dog habitat in eastern Colorado. Field methods were easy to implement and results suggest that the analytical method provides valuable insight into population patterning among habitats. Mountain Plover abundance was highest in prairie dog habitat, slightly lower in agricultural fields, and substantially lower in grassland. These results provided valuable insight to focus future research into Mountain Plover ecology and conservation. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  15. Indicator Species Population Monitoring in Antarctica with Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmarz, A.; Korczak-Abshire, M.; Storvold, R.; Rodzewicz, M.; Kędzierska, I.

    2015-08-01

    A program to monitor bird and pinniped species in the vicinity of Arctowski Station, King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica, has been conducted over the past 38 years. Annual monitoring of these indicator species includes estimations of breeding population sizes of three Pygoscelis penguin species: Adélie, gentoo and chinstrap. Six penguin colonies situated on the western shores of two bays: Admiralty and King George are investigated. To study changes in penguin populations Unmanned Aerial Vehicles were used for the first time in the 2014/15 austral summer season. During photogrammetric flights the high-resolution images of eight penguin breeding colonies were taken. Obtained high resolution images were used for estimation of breeding population size and compared with the results of measurements taken at the same time from the ground. During this Antarctic expedition eight successful photogrammetry missions (total distance 1500 km) were performed. Images were taken with digital SLR Canon 700D, Nikon D5300, Nikon D5100 with a 35mm objective lens. Flights altitude at 350 - 400 AGL, allowed images to be taken with a resolution GSD (ground sample distance) less than 5 cm. The Image J software analysis method was tested to provide automatic population estimates from obtained images. The use of UAV for monitoring of indicator species, enabled data acquisition from areas inaccessible by ground methods.

  16. Monitoring bird populations with Breeding Bird Survey and atlas data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Droege, S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The principal means of monitoring avian species in North America since 1966 is the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). Nearly 2000 random roadside rouleS of 50 3-minule stops each are run once each summer by experienced observers. Two-year and 10ng-lerm population trends have been calculated for 250 of the more common species. We show how Breeding Bird Atlas dala for lWO periods of time can also be used to calculale population nends, and we compare atlas neRds with those from the BBS. If coverage is inlensive and consistent belWeen time periods, atlas dala may be useful for monitoring species that are not adequalely sampled by the BBS.

  17. Nevada Test Site tortoise population monitoring study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.M.; Zander, K.K.

    1994-12-01

    A Tortoise Population Monitoring Study was initiated to determine and monitor the density of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) on the Nevada Test Site. Quadrat sampling was conducted following methodology described in the Draft Desert Tortoise Recovery Plan (FWS, 1993). So few tortoises were found that densities could not be calculated. Based on estimates of capture probabilities and densities from other studies, it was determined that 1-km{sup 2} (0.4 mi{sup 2}) plots did not contain enough tortoises for estimating densities with the Recovery Plan methods. It was recommended that additional surveys on the Nevada Test Site using those methods not be conducted. Any future efforts to monitor desert tortoise densities should start by identifying other possible methods, determining their relative power to detect changes, and estimating their cost.

  18. Population growth of Yellowstone grizzly bears: Uncertainty and future monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.B.; White, Gary C.; Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem of the US Rocky Mountains have recently increased in numbers, but remain vulnerable due to isolation from other populations and predicted reductions in favored food resources. Harris et al. (2006) projected how this population might fare in the future under alternative survival rates, and in doing so estimated the rate of population growth, 1983–2002. We address issues that remain from that earlier work: (1) the degree of uncertainty surrounding our estimates of the rate of population change (λ); (2) the effect of correlation among demographic parameters on these estimates; and (3) how a future monitoring system using counts of females accompanied by cubs might usefully differentiate between short-term, expected, and inconsequential fluctuations versus a true change in system state. We used Monte Carlo re-sampling of beta distributions derived from the demographic parameters used by Harris et al. (2006) to derive distributions of λ during 1983–2002 given our sampling uncertainty. Approximate 95% confidence intervals were 0.972–1.096 (assuming females with unresolved fates died) and 1.008–1.115 (with unresolved females censored at last contact). We used well-supported models of Haroldson et al. (2006) and Schwartz et al. (2006a,b,c) to assess the strength of correlations among demographic processes and the effect of omitting them in projection models. Incorporating correlations among demographic parameters yielded point estimates of λ that were nearly identical to those from the earlier model that omitted correlations, but yielded wider confidence intervals surrounding λ. Finally, we suggest that fitting linear and quadratic curves to the trend suggested by the estimated number of females with cubs in the ecosystem, and using AICc model weights to infer population sizes and λ provides an objective means to monitoring approximate population trajectories in addition to demographic

  19. Monitored and modeled coral population dynamics and the refuge concept.

    PubMed

    Riegl, B; Purkis, S J; Keck, J; Rowlands, G P

    2009-01-01

    With large-scale impacts on coral reefs due to global climatic change projected to increase dramatically, and suitability of many areas for reef growth projected to decrease, the question arises whether particular settings might serve as refugia that can maintain higher coral populations than surrounding areas. We examine this hypothesis on a small, local scale in Honduras, western Caribbean. Dense coral thickets containing high numbers of the endangered coral Acropora cervicornis occur on offshore banks while being rare on the fringing reef on nearby Roatán. Geomorphological setting and community dynamics were evaluated and monitored from 1996 to 2005. A model of population dynamics was developed to test assumptions derived from monitoring. Coral cover on the fringing reef declined in 1998 from >30% to <20%, but the banks maintained areas of very dense coral cover (32% cover by A. cervicornis on the banks but <1% on the fringing reef). Bathymetry from satellite images showed the banks to be well-separated from the fringing reef, making asexual connectivity between banks and fringing reef impossible but protecting the banks from direct land-runoff during storms. Exposure to SE tradewinds also causes good flushing. Only four A. cervicornis recruits were recorded on the fringing reef over 6 years. Runoff associated with hurricanes caused greater mortality than did bleaching in 1998 and 2005 on the fringing reef, but not on the banks. Since 1870, our analysis suggests that corals on the banks may have been favored during 17 runoff events associated with tropical depressions and storms and potentially also during five bleaching events, but this is more uncertain. Our model suggests that under this disturbance regime, the banks will indeed maintain higher coral populations than the fringing reef and supports the assumption that offshore banks could serve as refugia with the capacity to subsidize depleted mainland populations. PMID:19100585

  20. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.W.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD = 6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method

  1. Effect of loading density of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), eggs in incubation boxes on mortality caused by infectious haematopoietic necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Bauersfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) can cause massive mortalities of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), cultured in hatcheries. One method of enhancing sockeye salmon populations is to use a streamside egg incubation box from which the fry are automatically released into the stream as they emerge from the gravel. In this system, however, IHN epizootics occur as the fry emerge and continue for up to two months after the fry leave the box (Mulcahy, unpublished data). In as much as the high density of eggs and alevins in incubation boxes might be conducive to the fulmination of an IHN epizootic, we varied the egg density in incubation boxes and studied the cffect on mortality caused by IHN.

  2. Quantification of ventricular β2 -adrenoceptor density and ligand binding affinity in wild sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts using a novel modification to the tritiated ligand technique.

    PubMed

    Goulding, A T; Farrell, A P

    2016-05-01

    A new, image-based, tritiated ligand technique for measuring cardiac β2 -adrenoceptor (β2 -AR) binding characteristics was developed and validated with adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss hearts so that the tissue limitation of traditional receptor binding techniques could be overcome and measurements could be made in hearts nearly 14-times smaller than previously used. The myocardial cell-surface (functional) β2 -AR density of O. nerka smolts sampled at the headwaters of the Chilko River was 54·2 fmol mg protein(-1) and about half of that previously found in return migrating adults of the same population, but still more than twice that of adult hatchery O. mykiss (21·1 fmol mg protein(-1) ). This technique now opens the possibility of investigating cardiac receptor density in a much wider range of fish species and life stages. PMID:27095288

  3. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to

  4. Zooplanktivory and nutrient regeneration by invertebrate (Mysis relicta) and vertebrate (Oncorhynchus nerka) planktivores: Implications for trophic interactions in oligotrophic lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipps, S.R.; Bennett, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated zooplanktivory and nutrient regeneration by the opossum shrimp Mysis relicta and kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to assess the relative roles of these planktivores in oligotrophic food webs. Using bioenergetic models and clearance rate estimates, we quantified phosphorus (P) excretion rates and consumption of cladoceran prey by Mysis and kokanees in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, from 1995 to 1996. Consumption of cladoceran prey by Mysis was 186 kg ?? ha-1 ?? year-1, whereas consumption by kokanees was less than one quarter as much, at 45 kg ?? ha-1 ?? year-1. Similarly, Mysis excreted approximately 0.250 kg P ?? ha-1 ?? year-1 during nighttime migrations into the upper water column, whereas P excretion by kokanees was less than one third as much, at approximately 0.070 kg P ?? ha-1 ?? year-1. On a volumetric basis, nocturnal excretion by Mysis ranged from 0.002 to 0.007 ??g P ?? L-1 ?? d-1 and accounted for less than 1% of the soluble reactive P typically measured in the upper water column of the lake. Hence, nutrient recycling by Mysis may be limited in the upper water column because of the nocturnal feeding habitats that constrain Mysis to deeper strata for much of the day. In spring and autumn months, low abundance of cladoceran prey coincided with high seasonal energy requirements of the Mysis population that were linked to timing of annual Mysis brood release and abundance of age-0 Mysis. Predation by Mysis accounted for 5-70% of daily cladoceran standing stock, supporting the notion that seasonal availability of cladocerans may be regulated by Mysis predation. In lakes where Mysis experience little predation mortality, they likely play a dominant role in food web interactions (e.g., trophic cascades) relative to planktivorous fishes. Biotic mechanisms, such as successful predator-avoidance behavior, omnivorous feeding habits, and seasonal variation in Mysisbiomass, enhance the ability of Mysis to influence food web interactions from an intermediate

  5. Patterns of selection and allele diversity of class I and class II major histocompatibility loci across the species range of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    McClelland, Erin K; Ming, Tobi J; Tabata, Amy; Kaukinen, Karia H; Beacham, Terry D; Withler, Ruth E; Miller, Kristina M

    2013-09-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), an important component of the vertebrate immune system, provides an important suite of genes to examine the role of genetic diversity at non-neutral loci for population persistence. We contrasted patterns of diversity at the two classical MHC loci in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), MHC class I (UBA) and MHC class II (DAB), and neutral microsatellite loci across 70 populations spanning the species range from Washington State to Japan. There was no correlation in allelic richness or heterozygosity between MHC loci or between MHC loci and microsatellites. The two unlinked MHC loci may be responding to different selective pressures; the distribution of FST values for the two loci was uncorrelated, and evidence for both balancing and directional selection on alleles and lineages of DAB and UBA was observed in populations throughout the species range but rarely on both loci within a population. These results suggest that fluctuating selection has resulted in the divergence of MHC loci in contemporary populations. PMID:24033436

  6. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: implications for population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  7. MOLECULAR GENETIC APPROACHES TO PEST AND NONTARGET POPULATION MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has interest in a number of applications of genetic monitoring methodologies. Genetic monitoring in agroecosystems can provide valuable environmental information regarding both traditional and novel pesticides. One group of pesticides of...

  8. Immunization of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) against vibriosis using the hyperosmotic infiltration technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croy, Thomas R.; Amend, Donald F.

    1977-01-01

    Various procedures of hyperosmotic infiltration (HI) and intraperitoneal injection were used to vaccinate sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) with killed Vibrio anguillarum. Excellent protection was evident against experimentally induced vibriosis in the groups immunized by HI with 10 × Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS), 1 × HBSS with 8.0% NaCl and 5.3% NaCl, as well as in the injected groups. Comparisons were made among the various immunization methods by vaccinating fish with ten-fold serial dilutions of bacterin, then challenging them by the water contact method after 6 or 9 weeks. Protection was somewhat better with 10 × HBSS than with 5.3% NaCl, and 1 × HBSS containing 8.0% NaCl was markedly superior to the vaccination of fish without hyperosmotic treatment. Agglutinin titers did not exceed 1 : 8 in any group.

  9. Isolation and structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans from heads of red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fuming; Xie, Jin; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear, highly negatively charged polysaccharides. They are ubiquitous molecules exhibiting a wide range of biological functions with numerous applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and nutraceutical industrials. The commercial fish-processing industry generates large quantities of solid waste, which can represent a potential resource for GAG production. In this study, we used a three-step recovery and purification scheme for isolation of GAGs from the heads of red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The GAGs recovery yield was 6 to 7 mg from 1 gram of salmon head powder. The recovered GAGs were structurally analyzed with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by disaccharide composition analysis with reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. The analyses showed the major composition of the GAGs in red salmon head were chondroitin sulfate C and E. PMID:26918243

  10. PROBABILITY SAMPLING AND POPULATION INFERENCE IN MONITORING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fundamental difference between probability sampling and conventional statistics is that "sampling" deals with real, tangible populations, whereas "conventional statistics" usually deals with hypothetical populations that have no real-world realization. he focus here is on real ...

  11. Evaluation of Two Methods to Estimate and Monitor Bird Populations

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sandra L.; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Effective management depends upon accurately estimating trends in abundance of bird populations over time, and in some cases estimating abundance. Two population estimation methods, double observer (DO) and double sampling (DS), have been advocated for avian population studies and the relative merits and short-comings of these methods remain an area of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings We used simulations to evaluate the performances of these two population estimation methods under a range of realistic scenarios. For three hypothetical populations with different levels of clustering, we generated DO and DS population size estimates for a range of detection probabilities and survey proportions. Population estimates for both methods were centered on the true population size for all levels of population clustering and survey proportions when detection probabilities were greater than 20%. The DO method underestimated the population at detection probabilities less than 30% whereas the DS method remained essentially unbiased. The coverage probability of 95% confidence intervals for population estimates was slightly less than the nominal level for the DS method but was substantially below the nominal level for the DO method at high detection probabilities. Differences in observer detection probabilities did not affect the accuracy and precision of population estimates of the DO method. Population estimates for the DS method remained unbiased as the proportion of units intensively surveyed changed, but the variance of the estimates decreased with increasing proportion intensively surveyed. Conclusions/Significance The DO and DS methods can be applied in many different settings and our evaluations provide important information on the performance of these two methods that can assist researchers in selecting the method most appropriate for their particular needs. PMID:18728775

  12. Costs of detection bias in index-based population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Managers of wildlife populations commonly rely on indirect, count-based measures of the population in making decisions regarding conservation, harvest, or control. The main appeal in the use of such counts is their low material expense compared to methods that directly measure the population. However, their correct use rests on the rarely-tested but often-assumed premise that they proportionately reflect population size, i.e., that they constitute a population index. This study investigates forest management for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia, U.S.A. Optimal decision policies for a joint species objective were derived for two alternative models of Wood Thrush population dynamics. Policies were simulated under scenarios of unbiasedness, consistent negative bias, and habitat-dependent negative bias in observed Wood Thrush densities. Differences in simulation outcomes between biased and unbiased detection scenarios indicated the expected loss in resource objectives (here, forest habitat and birds) through decision-making based on biased population counts. Given the models and objective function used in our analysis, expected losses were as great as 11%, a degree of loss perhaps not trivial for applications such as endangered species management. Our analysis demonstrates that costs of uncertainty about the relationship between the population and its observation can be measured in units of the resource, costs which may offset apparent savings achieved by collecting uncorrected population counts.

  13. Monitoring trends in bat populations of the United States and territories: Problems and prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2003-01-01

    Bats are ecologically and economically important mammals. The life histories of bats (particularly their low reproductive rates and the need for some species to gather in large aggregations at limited numbers of roosting sites) make their populations vulnerable to declines. Many of the species of bats in the United States (U.S.) and territories are categorized as endangered or threatened, have been candidates for such categories, or are considered species of concern. The importance and vulnerability of bat populations makes monitoring trends in their populations a goal for their future management. However, scientifically rigorous monitoring of bat populations requires well-planned, statistically defensible efforts. This volume reports findings of an expert workshop held to examine the topic of monitoring populations of bats. The workshop participants included leading experts in sampling and analysis of wildlife populations, as well as experts in the biology and conservation of bats. Findings are reported in this volume under two sections. Part I of the report presents contributed papers that provide overviews of past and current efforts at monitoring trends in populations of bats in the U.S. and territories. These papers consider current techniques and problems, and summarize what is known about the status and trends in populations of selected groups of bats. The contributed papers in Part I also include a description of the monitoring program developed for bat populations in the United Kingdom, a critique of monitoring programs in wildlife in general with recommendations for survey and sampling strategies, and a compilation and analysis of existing data on trends in bats of the U.S. and territories. Efforts directed at monitoring bat populations are piecemeal and have shortcomings. In Part II of the report, the workshop participants provide critical analyses of these problems and develop recommendations for improving methods, defining objectives and priorities

  14. Population size influences amphibian detection probability: implications for biodiversity monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Tanadini, Lorenzo G; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring is an integral part of species conservation. Monitoring programs must take imperfect detection of species into account in order to be reliable. Theory suggests that detection probability may be determined by population size but this relationship has not yet been assessed empirically. Population size is particularly important because it may induce heterogeneity in detection probability and thereby cause bias in estimates of biodiversity. We used a site occupancy model to analyse data from a volunteer-based amphibian monitoring program to assess how well different variables explain variation in detection probability. An index to population size best explained detection probabilities for four out of six species (to avoid circular reasoning, we used the count of individuals at a previous site visit as an index to current population size). The relationship between the population index and detection probability was positive. Commonly used weather variables best explained detection probabilities for two out of six species. Estimates of site occupancy probabilities differed depending on whether the population index was or was not used to model detection probability. The relationship between the population index and detectability has implications for the design of monitoring and species conservation. Most importantly, because many small populations are likely to be overlooked, monitoring programs should be designed in such a way that small populations are not overlooked. The results also imply that methods cannot be standardized in such a way that detection probabilities are constant. As we have shown here, one can easily account for variation in population size in the analysis of data from long-term monitoring programs by using counts of individuals from surveys at the same site in previous years. Accounting for variation in population size is important because it can affect the results of long-term monitoring programs and ultimately the conservation of

  15. Biomarker monitoring of a population residing near uranium mining activities.

    PubMed Central

    Au, W W; Lane, R G; Legator, M S; Whorton, E B; Wilkinson, G S; Gabehart, G J

    1995-01-01

    We investigated whether residents residing near uranium mining operations (target population), who are potentially exposed to toxicants from mining waste, have increased genotoxic effects compared with people residing elsewhere (reference population). Population surveys were conducted, and 24 target and 24 reference residents were selected. The selected subjects and controls were matched on age and gender and they were nonsmokers. Blood samples were collected for laboratory studies. The standard cytogenetic assay was used to determine chromosome aberration frequencies, and the challenge assay was used to investigate DNA repair responses. We found that individuals who resided near uranium mining operations had a higher mean frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and higher deletion frequency but lower dicentric frequency than the reference group, although the difference was not statistically significant. After cells were challenged by exposure to gamma-rays, the target population had a significantly higher frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and deletion frequency than the reference group. The latter observation is indicative of abnormal DNA repair response in the target population. PMID:7656876

  16. Population Trend of the World’s Monitored Seabirds, 1950-2010

    PubMed Central

    Karpouzi, Vasiliki; Pauly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Seabird population changes are good indicators of long-term and large-scale change in marine ecosystems, and important because of their many impacts on marine ecosystems. We assessed the population trend of the world’s monitored seabirds (1950–2010) by compiling a global database of seabird population size records and applying multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) modeling to estimate the overall population trend of the portion of the population with sufficient data (i.e., at least five records). This monitored population represented approximately 19% of the global seabird population. We found the monitored portion of the global seabird population to have declined overall by 69.7% between 1950 and 2010. This declining trend may reflect the global seabird population trend, given the large and apparently representative sample. Furthermore, the largest declines were observed in families containing wide-ranging pelagic species, suggesting that pan-global populations may be more at risk than shorter-ranging coastal populations. PMID:26058068

  17. Adrenocorticotropin- and opiate-like hormones from pituitaries of the sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Hon, W K; Idler, D R

    1987-04-01

    The pituitaries of vitellogenic sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were extracted with a mixture of acetone, water, and hydrochloric acid. The precipitate which formed upon the addition of a copious volume of acetone to the extract, designated acid acetone powder, was subjected to salt fractionation and desalting, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose. An unadsorbed fraction (S-1) and four adsorbed fractions (S-2, S-3, S-4 and S-5) were obtained. Adrenocorticotropic activity was detected in the fractions by their ability to stimulate isolated rat adrenal decapsular cells to produce corticosterone and by their immunoreactivities in an adrenocorticotropin-specific radioimmunoassay. The steroidogenic activities of all fractions, except S-4, were blocked by corticotropin inhibiting peptide. Opiate activity was detected in the fractions by their ability to inhibit the binding of either [3H]naloxone or (D-ala2, D-leu5)-[3H]enkephalin to rat brain membranes. There was a discrepancy in the potencies of the five fractions in the two opiate radioreceptor assays, indicating the presence of opiate peptides with different affinities of binding to the micron- and delta-opiate receptors of the rat brain. There was a separation between adrenocorticotropic and opiate receptor binding activities, suggesting that the activities were due to separate molecular entities. PMID:3038149

  18. Immersion vaccination of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) with two pathogenic strains of Vibrio anguillarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, R.W.; Antipa, R.; Amend, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were immersion-vaccinated in suspensions containing 5 × 107, 5 × 106, 5 × 105, or 5 × 104 bacteria/mL of bivalent or monovalent, formalin-killedVibrio anguillarum, Types I and II. The fish were split into two lots and held for 54 d. At that time one lot was challenged with living, virulent V. anguillarum, Type I, and one with living, virulent V.anguillarum, Type II. Immunization with bivalent bacterin effectively protected the fish from vibriosis, but monovalent vaccine was effective only against the homologous challenge. Immunization with the highest concentration of Type I monovalent bacterin resulted in 0% Type I and 58% Type II challenge mortality. Immunization with the highest concentration of Type II monovalent bacterin resulted in 41% Type I and 0% Type II challenge mortality. Immunization with the highest concentration of bivalent Type I/Type II bacterin resulted in 2% mortality in both challenges. Protective bacterins were effective at concentrations down to 5 × 105 bacteria/mL.Key words: immersion vaccination, bivalent vaccines, Vibrio anguillarum, vibriosis.

  19. Incubation temperature, developmental biology, and the divergence of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) within Lake Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendry, A.P.; Hensleigh, J.E.; Reisenbichler, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) introduced into Lake Washington in the 1930s and 1940s now spawn at several different sites and over a period of more than 3 months. To test for evolutionary divergence within this derived lineage, embryos that would have incubated in different habitats (Cedar River or Pleasure Point Beach) or at different times (October, November, or December in the Cedar River) were reared in the laboratory at 5, 9, and 12.5??C. Some developmental variation mirrored predictions of adaptive divergence: (i) survival at 12.5??C was highest for embryos most likely to experience such temperatures in the wild (Early Cedar), (ii) development rate was fastest for progeny of late spawners (Late Cedar), and (iii) yolk conversion efficiency was matched to natural incubation temperatures. These patterns likely had a genetic basis because they were observed in a common environment and could not be attributed to differences in egg size. The absolute magnitude of divergence in development rates was moderate (Late Cedar embryos emerged only 6 days earlier at 9??C) and some predictions regarding development rates were not supported. Nonetheless our results provide evidence of adaptive divergence in only 9-14 generations.

  20. Composition and location of simulated lake-shore redds influence incubation success in kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fincel, M.J.; Chipps, S.R.; Bennett, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for improving spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), were explored by quantifying incubation success of embryos exposed to three substrate treatments in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, USA. Substrate treatments included no modification that used existing gravels in the lake (EXISTING), a cleaned substrate treatment where existing gravels were sifted in the water column to remove silt (CLEANED) and the addition of new, silt-free gravel (ADDED). Incubation success was evaluated using Whitlock-Vibert incubation boxes buried within each substrate treatment that contained recently fertilised embryos. Upon retrieval, live and dead sac fry and eyed eggs were enumerated to determine incubation success (sac fry and eyed eggs ?? 100/number of fertilised embryos). Incubation success varied significantly among locations and redd treatments. In general, incubation success among ADDED redds (0.0-13.0%) was significantly lower than that for EXISTING (1.4-61.0%) and CLEANED (0.4-62.5%) redds. Adding new gravel to spawning areas changed the morphometry of the gravel-water interface and probably exposed embryos to disturbance from wave action and reduced embryo survival. Moreover, efforts to improve spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee should consider water depth and location (e.g. protected shorelines) as important variables. Adding clean gravel to existing spawning areas may provide little benefit if water depth or lake-bottom morphometry are altered. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Use of archive aerial photography for monitoring black mangrove populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted on the south Texas Gulf Coast to evaluate archive aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography combined with supervised image analysis techniques to quantify changes in black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations over a 26-year period. Archive CIR film from two study si...

  2. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Monitoring for resistance to organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides in varroa mite populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of resistance in Varroa mite populations is a serious threat to the beekeeping industry and crops that rely on the honey bee for pollination. Integrated pest management strategies for control of this pest include the judicious use of insecticides. To monitor field populations of Varro...

  4. Management, Planning, and Monitoring Population Education Programmes. Abstract-Bibliography Series 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This document abstracts and reviews 32 publications that describe population education programs developed for Asia and the Pacific region. The documents are grouped under three sections: (1) management; (2) planning; and (3) monitoring/evaluation. Section 1 consists of 12 selected titles that deal with management of population education programs.…

  5. Model of multiple exposure to contaminants in monitoring the environmental impact on population health.

    PubMed

    Kliment, V

    1996-12-01

    The model study is focused on possibilities of comprehensive evaluation of the multiple exposure of humans to selected inorganic contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, zinc) monitored within the subsystems of the monitoring the environmental impact on population health (inhalation and ingestion exposure from air, drinking water and foodstuffs and biological monitoring). The mean daily intake of contaminants of average adults is assessed using the monitoring and literature data. The exposure balance showed that the total intake of individual contaminants studied did not exceed the limit values given by the exposure standards (acceptable daily intake). The highest value of exposure reaching 28% of the limit was reported for cadmium. The prevailing pathway of exposure is ingestion of foodstuffs: more than 95% in all contaminants under study. Information on the intake of contaminants is used as input in a linear multicompartmental model describing their kinetics and retention in the human organism. The results of the model computation are compared with the laboratory data obtained in the biological monitoring of adult urine. The model and monitoring sets of results were found to conform well for cadmium and zinc. For arsenic and lead the model values are roughly one order of magnitude lower than the monitored ones which should be considered as acceptable for the model studies of this type. The model study of contaminant monitoring data processing and evaluation suggests further applications of health risk assessment representing one of the basic outputs of monitoring the environmental impact on population health. PMID:8997533

  6. [Monitoring winter wheat population dynamics using an active crop sensor].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Hua; Yue, Shan-Chao; Hou, Peng; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Li, Fei; Chen, Xin-Ping

    2011-02-01

    Tiller density plays an important role in attaining optimum grain yield and applying topdressing N in winter wheat. However, the traditional approach based on determining tiller density is time-consuming and labor-intensive. As technology advances, remote sensing might provide an opportunity in eliminating this7 problem. In the present paper, an N rate experiment and a variety-seeding and sowing dates experiment were conducted in Quzhou County, Hebei Province in 2008/2009 to develop the models to predict the amount of winter wheat tillers. Positive linear relationships between vegetation indices and tillers were observed across growth stages (R2, 0.25-0.64 for NDVI; 0.26-0.65 for RVI). The validation results indicated that the prediction using NDVI had the higher coefficient of determination (R2, 0.54-0.64), the lower root mean square error (RMSE, 260-350 tillers m(-2)) and relative error (RE, 16.3%-23.0%) at early growth stages of winter wheat. We conclude that active GreenSeeker sensor is a promising tool for timely monitoring of winter wheat tiller density. PMID:21510421

  7. Lysozyme as a recognition element for monitoring of bacterial population.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Laibao; Wan, Yi; Yu, Liangmin; Zhang, Dun

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections remain a significant challenge in biomedicine and environment safety. Increasing worldwide demand for point-of-care techniques and increasing concern on their safe development and use, require a simple and sensitive bioanalysis for pathogen detection. However, this goal is not yet achieved. A design for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lysozyme (FITC-LYZ), which provides quantitative binding information for gram-positive bacteria, Micrococcus luteus, and detects pathogen concentration, is presented. The functional lysozyme is used not only as the pathogenic detection platform, but also as a tracking reagent for microbial population in antibacterial tests. A nonlinear relationship between the system response and the logarithm of the bacterial concentration was observed in the range of 1.2×10(2)-1.2×10(5) cfu mL(-1). The system has a potential for further applications and provides a facile and simple method for detection of pathogenic bacteria. Meanwhile, the fluorescein isothiocyanate -labeled lysozyme is also employed as the tracking agent for antibacterial dynamic assay, which show a similar dynamic curve compared with UV-vis test. PMID:26695267

  8. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  9. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  10. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river.

    PubMed

    Furey, N B; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Beauchamp, D A

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0-12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems. PMID:25494841

  11. Changing guards: time to move beyond body mass index for population monitoring of excess adiposity.

    PubMed

    Tanamas, S K; Lean, M E J; Combet, E; Vlassopoulos, A; Zimmet, P Z; Peeters, A

    2016-07-01

    With the obesity epidemic, and the effects of aging populations, human phenotypes have changed over two generations, possibly more dramatically than in other species previously. As obesity is an important and growing hazard for population health, we recommend a systematic evaluation of the optimal measure(s) for population-level excess body fat. Ideal measure(s) for monitoring body composition and obesity should be simple, as accurate and sensitive as possible, and provide good categorization of related health risks. Combinations of anthropometric markers or predictive equations may facilitate better use of anthropometric data than single measures to estimate body composition for populations. Here, we provide new evidence that increasing proportions of aging populations are at high health-risk according to waist circumference, but not body mass index (BMI), so continued use of BMI as the principal population-level measure substantially underestimates the health-burden from excess adiposity. PMID:26527773

  12. Effects of rearing temperature on immune functions in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alcorn, S.W.; Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    To determine if the defences of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) raised in captivity are affected by the rearing temperature or their life-cycle stage, various indices of the humoral and cellular immune functions were measured in fish reared at either 8 or 12??C for their entire life-cycle. Measures of humoral immunity included the commonly used haematological parameters, as well as measurements of complement, and lysozyme activity. Cellular assays quantified the ability of macrophages from the anterior kidney to phagocytise Staphylococcus aureus cells, or the activities of certain bactericidal systems of those cells. The T-dependent antibody response to a recombinant 57 kDa protein of Renibacterium salmoninarum was used to quantify the specific immune response. Fish were sampled during the spring and fall of their second, third and fourth years, corresponding to a period that began just before smolting and ended at sexual maturation. Fish reared at 8??C tended to have a greater percentage of phagocytic kidney macrophages during the first 2 years of sampling than the fish reared at 12??C. During the last half of the study the complement activity of the fish reared at 8??C was greater than that of the 12??C fish. Conversely, a greater proportion of the blood leucocytes were lymphocytes in fish reared at 12??C compared to the fish reared at 8??C. Fish reared at 12??C also produced a greater antibody response than those reared at 8??C. Results suggested that the immune apparatus of sockeye salmon reared at 8??C relied more heavily on the non-specific immune response, while the specific immune response was used to a greater extent when the fish were reared at 12??C. Although a seasonal effect was not detected in any of the indices measured, varying effects were observed in some measurements during sexual maturation of fish in both temperature groups. At that time there were dramatic decreases in complement activity and lymphocyte numbers. This study was unique in

  13. Sex differences in circulatory oxygen transport parameters of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) on the spawning ground.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy Darren; Hinch, S G; Taylor, B D; Frappell, P B; Farrell, A P

    2009-07-01

    Upon reaching sexual maturity, several species of male salmonids possess a relative ventricular mass (rM(V)) that may be up to 90% larger than females. This can increase maximum cardiac stroke volume and power output, which may be beneficial to increasing the oxygen transport capacity of male salmonids during the spawning period. It may be further hypothesized, therefore, that other variables within the circulatory oxygen transport cascade, such as blood oxygen-carrying capacity and heart rate, are similarly enhanced in reproductively mature male salmonids. To test this idea, the present study measured a range of circulatory oxygen transport variables in wild male and female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during their spawning period, following a 150 km migration from the ocean. The rM(V) of male fish was 13% greater than females. Conversely, the haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) of female fish was 19% higher than males, indicative of a greater blood oxygen-carrying capacity (138 vs. 116 ml O2 l(-1), respectively). Surgically implanted physiological data loggers revealed a similar range in heart rate for both sexes on the spawning ground (20-80 beats min(-1) at 10 degrees C), with a tendency for male fish to spend a greater percentage of time (64%) than females (49%) at heart rates above 50 beats min(-1). Male fish on average consumed significantly more oxygen than females during a 13-h respirometry period. However, routine oxygen consumption rates (.)MO2 ranged between 1.5 and 8.5 mg min(-1) kg(-1) for both sexes, which implies that males did not inherently possess markedly higher routine aerobic energy demands, and suggests that the higher [Hb] of female fish may compensate for the smaller rM(V). These findings reject the hypothesis that all aspects of the circulatory oxygen transport cascade are inherently superior in male sockeye salmon. Instead, it is suggested that any differences in (.)MO2 between sexually mature male and female sockeye salmon can likely

  14. Effects of rearing temperature on immune functions in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Alcorn, Stewart W; Murra, Anthony L; Pascho, Ronald J

    2002-04-01

    To determine if the defences of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) raised in captivity are affected by the rearing temperature or their life-cycle stage, various indices of the humoral and cellular immune functions were measured in fish reared at either 8 or 12 degrees C for their entire life-cycle. Measures of humoral immunity included the commonly used haematological parameters, as well as measurements of complement, and lysozyme activity. Cellular assays quantified the ability of macrophages from the anterior kidney to phagocytise Staphylococcus aureus cells, or the activities of certain bactericidal systems of those cells. The T-dependent antibody response to a recombinant 57 kDa protein of Renibacterium salmoninarum was used to quantify the specific immune response. Fish were sampled during the spring and fall of their second, third and fourth years, corresponding to a period that began just before smolting and ended at sexual maturation. Fish reared at 8 degrees C tended to have a greater percentage of phagocytic kidney macrophages during the first 2 years of sampling than the fish reared at 12 degrees C. During the last half of the study the complement activity of the fish reared at 8 degrees C was greater than that of the 12 degrees C fish. Conversely, a greater proportion of the blood leucocytes were lymphocytes in fish reared at 12 degrees C compared to the fish reared at 8 degrees C. Fish reared at 12 degrees C also produced a greater antibody response than those reared at 8 degrees C. Results suggested that the immune apparatus of sockeye salmon reared at 8 degrees C relied more heavily on the non-specific immune response, while the specific immune response was used to a greater extent when the fish were reared at 12 degrees C. Although a seasonal effect was not detected in any of the indices measured, varying effects were observed in some measurements during sexual maturation of fish in both temperature groups. At that time there were dramatic

  15. Integrating effects based monitoring with adverse outcome pathways and population models

    EPA Science Inventory

    In addressing Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs) at a Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), recovery from loss of fish and wildlife populations exposed to stressors is targeted for use in decision making. We describe a framework that can be applied in utilizing field monitoring effo...

  16. Genetic risks and environmental surveillance: epidemiological aspects of monitoring industrial populations for environmental mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Buffler, P.A.; Aase, J.M.

    1982-04-01

    As industrial populations are exposed to new chemicals and other agents in their work environment, it becomes increasingly important to be able to ascertain any associated genetic risks. The characteristics of a desirable surveillance system for deleterious genetic effects are outlined and the existing or proposed surveillance systems for industrial populations are reviewed against these criteria. At present, monitoring for reproductive loss and infertility seems to be the technique best suited for surveillance of industrial populations. However, monitoring techniques based on these events do not directly assess mutagenicity. Since fetal death and infertility are strongly, but not exclusively, correlated with mutation, these methods can be considered as an early-warning system to indicate when and where more definitive studies are needed.

  17. Demographic monitoring and population viability analysis of two rare beardtongues from the Uinta Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCaffery, Rebecca M.; Reisor, Rita; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Brunson, Jessi

    2014-01-01

    Energy development, in combination with other environmental stressors, poses a persistent threat to rare species endemic to the energy-producing regions of the Western United States. Demographic analyses of monitored populations can provide key information on the natural dynamics of threatened plant and animal populations, and how they might be affected by ongoing and future development. In the Uinta Basin in Utah and Colorado, Graham’s beardtongue (Penstemon grahamii) and White River beardtongue (Penstemon scariosus var. albifluvis) are two rare endemic wildflowers that persist on oil shale habitats heavily impacted by current energy exploration and development, and slated for expanded traditional drilling and oil shale development. We described demographic characteristics and population viability for two populations of each species that have been monitored since 2004. First, we measured population size, survival rates, transitions between life stages, and recruitment using individually marked plants at the four study areas. Then, we used matrix population models to determine stochastic population growth rates (λ) and the probability that each population would persist 50 years into the future, given current conditions. The two P. grahamii study plots had small populations averaging 70 adult plants, and relatively constant and high survival in both vegetative and flowering plants. The two P. scariosus var. albifluvis study plots had populations that averaged 120 adult plants, with high and stable survival in flowering plants and variable survival in vegetative plants. Recruitment of new seedlings into all populations was low and variable, with most recruitment occurring in one or two years. Both P. grahamii populations had λ near 1.0 (stable). One P. scariosus var. albifluvis population appeared to be declining (λ=0.97), while the other was increasing (λ=1.16). Our analyses reveal populations that appear relatively stable, but that are

  18. Science deficiency in conservation practice: the monitoring of tiger populations in India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Seidensticker, J.; Dinerstein, Eric; Smith, J.L.D.; McDougal, C.; Johnsingh, A.J.T.; Chundawat, R.S.; Thapar, V.

    2003-01-01

    Conservation practices are supposed to get refined by advancing scientific knowledge. We study this phenomenon in the context of monitoring tiger populations in India, by evaluating the 'pugmark census method' employed by wildlife managers for three decades. We use an analytical framework of modem animal population sampling to test the efficacy of the pugmark censuses using scientific data on tigers and our field observations. We identify three critical goals for monitoring tiger populations, in order of increasing sophistication: (1) distribution mapping, (2) tracking relative abundance, (3) estimation of absolute abundance. We demonstrate that the present census-based paradigm does not work because it ignores the first two simpler goals, and targets, but fails to achieve, the most difficult third goal. We point out the utility and ready availability of alternative monitoring paradigms that deal with the central problems of spatial sampling and observability. We propose an alternative sampling-based approach that can be tailored to meet practical needs of tiger monitoring at different levels of refinement.

  19. Condition index monitoring supports conservation priorities for the protection of threatened grass-finch populations.

    PubMed

    Maute, Kimberly; French, Kristine; Legge, Sarah; Astheimer, Lee; Garnett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Conservation agencies are often faced with the difficult task of prioritizing what recovery actions receive support. With the number of species under threat of decline growing globally, research that informs conservation priorities is greatly needed. The relative vulnerability of cryptic or nomadic species is often uncertain, because populations are difficult to monitor and local populations often seem stable in the short term. This uncertainty can lead to inaction when populations are in need of protection. We tested the feasibility of using differences in condition indices as an indication of population vulnerability to decline for related threatened Australian finch sub-species. The Gouldian finch represents a relatively well-studied endangered species, which has a seasonal and site-specific pattern of condition index variation that differs from the closely related non-declining long-tailed finch. We used Gouldian and long-tailed finch condition variation as a model to compare with lesser studied, threatened star and black-throated finches. We compared body condition (fat and muscle scores), haematocrit and stress levels (corticosterone) among populations, seasons and years to determine whether lesser studied finch populations matched the model of an endangered species or a non-declining species. While vulnerable finch populations often had lower muscle and higher fat and corticosterone concentrations during moult (seasonal pattern similar to Gouldian finches), haematocrit values did not differ among populations in a predictable way. Star and black-throated finch populations, which were predicted to be vulnerable to decline, showed evidence of poor condition during moult, supporting their status as vulnerable. Our findings highlight how measures of condition can provide insight into the relative vulnerability of animal and plant populations to decline and will allow the prioritization of efforts towards the populations most likely to be in jeopardy of extinction

  20. Condition index monitoring supports conservation priorities for the protection of threatened grass-finch populations

    PubMed Central

    Maute, Kimberly; French, Kristine; Legge, Sarah; Astheimer, Lee; Garnett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Conservation agencies are often faced with the difficult task of prioritizing what recovery actions receive support. With the number of species under threat of decline growing globally, research that informs conservation priorities is greatly needed. The relative vulnerability of cryptic or nomadic species is often uncertain, because populations are difficult to monitor and local populations often seem stable in the short term. This uncertainty can lead to inaction when populations are in need of protection. We tested the feasibility of using differences in condition indices as an indication of population vulnerability to decline for related threatened Australian finch sub-species. The Gouldian finch represents a relatively well-studied endangered species, which has a seasonal and site-specific pattern of condition index variation that differs from the closely related non-declining long-tailed finch. We used Gouldian and long-tailed finch condition variation as a model to compare with lesser studied, threatened star and black-throated finches. We compared body condition (fat and muscle scores), haematocrit and stress levels (corticosterone) among populations, seasons and years to determine whether lesser studied finch populations matched the model of an endangered species or a non-declining species. While vulnerable finch populations often had lower muscle and higher fat and corticosterone concentrations during moult (seasonal pattern similar to Gouldian finches), haematocrit values did not differ among populations in a predictable way. Star and black-throated finch populations, which were predicted to be vulnerable to decline, showed evidence of poor condition during moult, supporting their status as vulnerable. Our findings highlight how measures of condition can provide insight into the relative vulnerability of animal and plant populations to decline and will allow the prioritization of efforts towards the populations most likely to be in jeopardy of extinction

  1. Monitoring population levels of alcohol consumption in pregnant women: a case for using biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Shipton, Deborah; Tappin, David; Sherwood, Roy; Mactier, Helen; Aitken, David; Crossley, Jenny

    2013-06-01

    A challenge to biochemically monitoring alcohol consumption in pregnancy is the prohibitive costs of collecting thousands of blood samples. This pilot study looks at the feasibility of using residual samples to monitor chronic and acute alcohol consumption in pregnancy. Residual anomalies screening samples (n = 150, 2006/7) were tested for carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT, chronic marker) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG, acute marker). Valid readings were obtained for CDT but not EtG. These results pave the way for a larger representative study, to provide, for the first time, a national biochemical baseline estimate of chronic alcohol consumption in the pregnant population. PMID:23750658

  2. Ecological relationship between freshwater sculpins (Genus cottus) and beach-spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Iliamna Lake, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, C.J.; Brown, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction between two sculpin species, Cottus cognatus and Cottus aleuticus, and island beach spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) was examined in Iliamna Lake, Alaska. We conclude that sculpins actively move to specific spawning beaches and that the initiation of their movements precedes the start of spawning. Sculpin predation on sockeye eggs is positively dependent on sculpin size and on the state of the eggs (fresh versus water hardened), with the largest sculpins able to consume nearly 50 fresh eggs at a single feeding and 130 over a 7-day period. The number of sculpins in sockeye nests is greatest at the beginning of the spawning run, lowest in the middle, and high again at the end, with peak numbers of over 100 sculpins per nest (1 m2). We discuss the results in terms of energy flow of marine-derived nutrients into an oligotrophic system and in terms of the coevolution of sockeye spawning behavior and the predatory behavior of sculpins.

  3. Appearance and quantification of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during their spawning migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Jenes, C.K.; Pascho, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The incidence and amount of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus was determined in 10 organs and body fluids from each of 100 female sockeye salmon(Oncorhynchus nerka) before, during, and after their spawning migration into freshwater. Virus was found in high concentrations only in fish sampled during and after spawning. Infection rates increased from nil to 100 percent within 2 weeks. In spawning fish, incidences of IHN virus were high in all organs and fluids except brain and serum, and the highest concentrations were in the pyloric caeca and lower gut. Immediately before spawning, IHN virus was found most frequently in the gills, less frequently in the pyloric caeca and spleen, and rarely in other organs.

  4. Mortality due to infectious hematopoietic necrosis of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) fry in streamside egg incubation boxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.; Jenes, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus caused mortality of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in streamside egg incubation boxes. Virus was not detectable in eggs or alevins; its first isolation coincided with the appearance of dead fish in a trap on the outflow from the box. Mortality due to the virus did not occur in every egg box studied. However, when fry from the boxes were held in the laboratory, epizootics began as much as 3 wk later, with total mortality exceeding 90%. More than 96% of the dead fry had titers exceeding 105 plaque-forming units per gram. The peak incidence of virus in fry migrating in the river coincided with the arrival of hatchery-produced fry, although some fry believed to have been produced by natural spawning were also infected.Englis

  5. Long-term monitoring and population dynamics of ixodid ticks in Tomsk city (Western Siberia).

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Vladimir; Leonovich, Sergei

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring of two tick species (Ixodes persulcatus Schulze 1930 and Ixodes pavlovskyi Pomerantsev) was performed in four city parks of Tomsk, Russia (Camp Garden, University Park, Southern Cemetery, and Polytechnic Stadium) and in a control wild biotope in city environs (Kolarovo) in 2002-2013. Ticks were collected by flagging repeatedly after each 10 ± 1 days, starting from the disappearance of the snow cover till the end of tick activity (April-August). Gradual penetration of both tick species into city parks was demonstrated. In the wild biotope, I. persulcatus dominated during the whole period of monitoring, forming about 95% of tick population, whereas in urban biotopes I. pavlovskyi became the dominant species. Two peaks of population density during each season of spring-summer activity were observed in both species. Possible explanations of the phenomena are discussed. PMID:25633264

  6. Genetic monitoring of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations on a microgeographic scale.

    PubMed

    Ivkosic, S A; Gorman, J; Lemic, D; Mikac, K M

    2014-06-01

    Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA genetic monitoring of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was undertaken in Croatia and Serbia from 1996 to 2011 and in the United States in 2011. The seven U.S. populations displayed the greatest allelic diversity. In Europe, the highest number of alleles was found in Rugvica, Croatia, and Surčin, Serbia, the two sites closest to international airports. The highest number of mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotypes was recorded from Croatia in 1996. From 2009 to 2011, haplotype diversity declined, and Croatia and Serbia had a single fixed haplotype. U.S. continuous maize locations had one haplotype, while three haplotypes were found at crop-rotated locations. Minimal temporal genetic differentiation was found within and between populations in Europe and the United States. Bayesian cluster analysis identified two genetic clusters that grouped western corn rootworm from Croatia and Serbia separately from U.S. populations; however, these clusters were not neat, and numerous U.S. individuals had both European and U.S. ancestry, suggesting bidirectional gene flow. Bottlenecks were identified within most Croatian populations sampled in 1996, only two populations in 2009, and in all populations in 2011. Bottlenecks were not identified from Serbia from 1996 to 2011 or from the United States in 2011. As suspected Serbia was identified as the geographic source of western corn rootworm in Croatia. The temporal genetic monitoring undertaken allowed a deeper understanding of the population genetics of western corn rootworm in Croatia, neighboring Serbia, and its geographic source in the United States. The data obtained can be used to inform western corn rootworm pest management strategies in Croatia and Europe. PMID:24690224

  7. Conservation and monitoring of a persecuted African lion population by Maasai warriors.

    PubMed

    Dolrenry, Stephanie; Hazzah, Leela; Frank, Laurence G

    2016-06-01

    Although Africa has many threatened species and biological hot spots, there are few citizen science schemes, particularly in rural communities, and there has been limited evaluation of existing programs. We engaged traditional Maasai warriors (pastoralist men aged 15 to 35) in community-based conservation and demographic monitoring of a persecuted African lion (Panthera leo) population. Through direct engagement, we investigated whether a citizen science approach employing local warriors, who had no formal education, could produce reliable data on the demographics, predation, and movements of a species with which their communities have been in conflict for generations. Warriors were given benefits such as literacy training and skill enhancement and engaged in the monitoring of the lions. The trained warriors reported on lion sign across an area nearly 4000 km(2) . Scientists worked together with the warriors to verify their reports and gather observations on the lion population. Using the verified reports and collected observations, we examined our scientific knowledge relative to the lion population preceding and during the citizen science program. Our observations showed that data quality and quantity improved with the involvement and training of the participants. Furthermore, because they engaged in conservation and gained personal benefits, the participants came to appreciate a species that was traditionally their foe. We believe engaging other local communities in biodiversity conservation and monitoring may be an effective conservation approach in rural Africa. PMID:27111059

  8. Evaluation of trawls for monitoring and harvesting fish populations in Lake Oahe, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, William R.; Boussu, Marvin S.

    1974-01-01

    Trawls of various designs and sizes were compared to evaluate their use for monitoring and harvesting fish populations in Lake Oahe. Catches of a 10.7-m semiballoon trawl, selected to monitor changes in the fish populations from 1965 to 1970, showed a downward trend in the abundance of all species, except walleye; the decline was largest in the lower area of the reservoir with a slight increase in the upper area. Of two trawl designs tested, semiballoon trawls captured more fish per hour than high-rise trawls, and a 15.9-m semiballoon trawl with a 3.8-cm mesh cod end captured fish at the highest and most consistent rate. The size and species composition of fish caught in small-mesh trawls differed from those caught in trap nets. Trawl catches were too small to recommend or warrant their use as a commercial fishing gear, but the use of both small mesh trawls and trap nets should improve accuracy in monitoring fish populations in this reservoir.

  9. Monitoring population and environmental parameters of invasive mosquito species in Europe.

    PubMed

    Petrić, Dušan; Bellini, Romeo; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Rakotoarivony, Laurence Marrama; Schaffner, Francis

    2014-01-01

    To enable a better understanding of the overwhelming alterations in the invasive mosquito species (IMS), methodical insight into the population and environmental factors that govern the IMS and pathogen adaptations are essential. There are numerous ways of estimating mosquito populations, and usually these describe developmental and life-history parameters. The key population parameters that should be considered during the surveillance of invasive mosquito species are: (1) population size and dynamics during the season, (2) longevity, (3) biting behaviour, and (4) dispersal capacity. Knowledge of these parameters coupled with vector competence may help to determine the vectorial capacity of IMS and basic disease reproduction number (R0) to support mosquito borne disease (MBD) risk assessment. Similarly, environmental factors include availability and type of larval breeding containers, climate change, environmental change, human population density, increased human travel and goods transport, changes in living, agricultural and farming habits (e.g. land use), and reduction of resources in the life cycle of mosquitoes by interventions (e.g. source reduction of aquatic habitats). Human population distributions, urbanisation, and human population movement are the key behavioural factors in most IMS-transmitted diseases. Anthropogenic issues are related to the global spread of MBD such as the introduction, reintroduction, circulation of IMS and increased exposure to humans from infected mosquito bites. This review addresses the population and environmental factors underlying the growing changes in IMS populations in Europe and confers the parameters selected by criteria of their applicability. In addition, overview of the commonly used and newly developed tools for their monitoring is provided. PMID:24739334

  10. Monitoring population and environmental parameters of invasive mosquito species in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To enable a better understanding of the overwhelming alterations in the invasive mosquito species (IMS), methodical insight into the population and environmental factors that govern the IMS and pathogen adaptations are essential. There are numerous ways of estimating mosquito populations, and usually these describe developmental and life-history parameters. The key population parameters that should be considered during the surveillance of invasive mosquito species are: (1) population size and dynamics during the season, (2) longevity, (3) biting behaviour, and (4) dispersal capacity. Knowledge of these parameters coupled with vector competence may help to determine the vectorial capacity of IMS and basic disease reproduction number (R0) to support mosquito borne disease (MBD) risk assessment. Similarly, environmental factors include availability and type of larval breeding containers, climate change, environmental change, human population density, increased human travel and goods transport, changes in living, agricultural and farming habits (e.g. land use), and reduction of resources in the life cycle of mosquitoes by interventions (e.g. source reduction of aquatic habitats). Human population distributions, urbanisation, and human population movement are the key behavioural factors in most IMS-transmitted diseases. Anthropogenic issues are related to the global spread of MBD such as the introduction, reintroduction, circulation of IMS and increased exposure to humans from infected mosquito bites. This review addresses the population and environmental factors underlying the growing changes in IMS populations in Europe and confers the parameters selected by criteria of their applicability. In addition, overview of the commonly used and newly developed tools for their monitoring is provided. PMID:24739334

  11. In Vivo Monitoring of Multiple Circulating Cell Populations Using Two-photon Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Tkaczyk, Eric R.; Zhong, Cheng Frank; Ye, Jing Yong; Myc, Andrzej; Thomas, Thommey; Cao, Zhengyi; Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.; Norris, Theodore B.; Baker, James R.

    2008-01-01

    To detect and quantify multiple distinct populations of cells circulating simultaneously in the blood of living animals, we developed a novel optical system for two-channel, two-photon flow cytometry in vivo. We used this system to investigate the circulation dynamics in live animals of breast cancer cells with low (MCF-7) and high (MDA-MB-435) metastatic potential, showing for the first time that two different populations of circulating cells can be quantified simultaneously in the vasculature of a single live mouse. We also non-invasively monitored a population of labeled, circulating red blood cells for more than two weeks, demonstrating that this technique can also quantify the dynamics of abundant cells in the vascular system for prolonged periods of time. These data are the first in vivo application of multichannel flow cytometry utilizing two-photon excitation, which will greatly enhance our capability to study circulating cells in cancer and other disease processes. PMID:19221581

  12. National Approaches to Monitoring Population Salt Intake: A Trade-Off between Accuracy and Practicality?

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna; Webster, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Aims There is strong evidence that diets high in salt are bad for health and that salt reduction strategies are cost effective. However, whilst it is clear that most people are eating too much salt, obtaining an accurate assessment of population salt intake is not straightforward, particularly in resource poor settings. The objective of this study is to identify what approaches governments are taking to monitoring salt intake, with the ultimate goal of identifying what actions are needed to address challenges to monitoring salt intake, especially in low and middle-income countries. Methods and Results A written survey was issued to governments to establish the details of their monitoring methods. Of the 30 countries that reported conducting formal government salt monitoring activities, 73% were high income countries. Less than half of the 30 countries, used the most accurate assessment of salt through 24 hour urine, and only two of these were developing countries. The remainder mainly relied on estimates through dietary surveys. Conclusions The study identified a strong need to establish more practical ways of assessing salt intake as well as technical support and advice to ensure that low and middle income countries can implement salt monitoring activities effectively. PMID:23082128

  13. Monitoring population and land use change in tropical forest protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvoleff, A. I.; Rosa, M.; Ahumada, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring human-environment interactions in tropical forest protected areas requires linking interdisciplinary datasets collected across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Recent assessments have shown that forest degradation and loss outside of protected areas is strongly associated with declines in biodiversity within protected areas. Biodiversity monitoring efforts must therefore develop approaches that consider change in the broader landscape, using biophysical and socioeconomic datasets that not only cover the extent of a protected area, but also the region surrounding it. The Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network has developed an approach for linking remotely sensed imagery from Landsat and MODIS sensors with in-situ ecological data and socioeconomic datasets to better understand the effects of landscape change on biodiversity. The TEAM Network is a global system for monitoring biodiversity, land use/cover change (LUCC), and climate in sixteen tropical forest sites evenly distributed across global biophysical gradients (rainfall and seasonality) and gradients of expected climate change and land use change. TEAM adopts the Zone of Interaction (ZOI) concept to delineate the spatial extent around protected areas for linking broader-scale trends in LUCC to plot-based monitoring data. This talk reports on a cross-site comparison examining LUCC and biodiversity change across the TEAM network. The analysis indicates a gradient of forest loss in the tropics dependent on landscape-level human factors, such as population and road density. The highest losses of forest cover are associated with changing patterns of land use and agricultural development, particularly plantation forestry in Southeast Asia. While the spatial and temporal resolution of remote sensing-derived datasets continues to increase, a key challenge for monitoring efforts is linking this data to spatially explicit socioeconomic datasets for use in statistical modeling. We will

  14. National Surveys of Population Health: Big Data Analytics for Mobile Health Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Bruce R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract At the core of the healthcare crisis is fundamental lack of actionable data. Such data could stratify individuals within populations to predict which persons have which outcomes. If baselines existed for all variations of all conditions, then managing health could be improved by matching the measuring of individuals to their cohort in the population. The scale required for complete baselines involves effective National Surveys of Population Health (NSPH). Traditionally, these have been focused upon acute medicine, measuring people to contain the spread of epidemics. In recent decades, the focus has moved to chronic conditions as well, which require smaller measures over longer times. NSPH have long utilized quality of life questionnaires. Mobile Health Monitors, where computing technologies eliminate manual administration, provide richer data sets for health measurement. Older technologies of telephone interviews will be replaced by newer technologies of smartphone sensors to provide deeper individual measures at more frequent timings across larger-sized populations. Such continuous data can provide personal health records, supporting treatment guidelines specialized for population cohorts. Evidence-based medicine will become feasible by leveraging hundreds of millions of persons carrying mobile devices interacting with Internet-scale services for Big Data Analytics. PMID:26858915

  15. Acoustic Monitoring System for Frog Population Estimation Using In-Situ Progressive Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboudan, Adam

    Frog populations are considered excellent bio-indicators and hence the ability to monitor changes in their populations can be very useful for ecological research and environmental monitoring. This thesis presents a new population estimation approach based on the recognition of individual frogs of the same species, namely the Pseudacris Regilla (Pacific Chorus Frog), which does not rely on the availability of prior training data. An in-situ progressive learning algorithm is developed to determine whether an incoming call belongs to a previously detected individual frog or a newly encountered individual frog. A temporal call overlap detector is also presented as a pre-processing tool to eliminate overlapping calls. This is done to prevent the degrading of the learning process. The approach uses Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and multivariate Gaussian models to achieve individual frog recognition. In the first part of this thesis, the MFCC as well as the related linear predictive cepstral coefficients (LPCC) acoustic feature extraction processes are reviewed. The Gaussian mixture models (GMM) are also reviewed as an extension to the classical Gaussian modeling used in the proposed approach. In the second part of this thesis, the proposed frog population estimation system is presented and discussed in detail. The proposed system involves several different components including call segmentation, feature extraction, overlap detection, and the in-situ progressive learning process. In the third part of the thesis, data description and system performance results are provided. The process of synthetically generating test sequences of real frog calls, which are applied to the proposed system for performance analysis, is described. Also, the results of the system performance are presented which show that the system is successful in distinguishing individual frogs, hence capable of providing reasonable estimates of the frog population. The system can readily be

  16. Variability in biological monitoring of solvent exposure. I. Development of a population physiological model.

    PubMed Central

    Droz, P O; Wu, M M; Cumberland, W G; Berode, M

    1989-01-01

    Biological indicators of exposure to solvents are often characterised by a high variability that may be due either to fluctuations in exposure or individual differences in the workers. To describe and understand this variability better a physiological model for differing workers under variable industrial environments has been developed. Standard statistical distributions are used to simulate variability in exposure concentration, physical workload, body build, liver function, and renal clearance. For groups of workers exposed daily, the model calculates air monitoring indicators and biological monitoring results (expired air, blood, and urine). The results obtained are discussed and compared with measured data, both physiological (body build, cardiac output, alveolar ventilation) and toxicokinetic for six solvents: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene, styrene, and their main metabolites. Possible applications of this population physiological model are presented. PMID:2765418

  17. Identifying monitoring gaps for amphibian populations in a North American biodiversity hotspot, the southeastern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walls, Susan

    2014-01-01

    I review the primary literature to ascertain the status of amphibian monitoring efforts in the southeastern USA, a “hotspot” for biodiversity in North America. This effort revealed taxonomic, geographic and ecological disparities in studies of amphibian populations in this region. Of the species of anurans and caudates known to occur in the Southeast, 73.8 and 33.3 %, respectively, have been monitored continuously for at least 4 years. Anurans are generally shorter-lived than are caudates and, thus, have been studied for the equivalent of at least one population turnover more than have caudates. The percentage of species (of those occurring in a given state) monitored continuously for at least 4 years was lowest for Alabama and Mississippi and highest for Florida for both taxa. The vast majority of studies (69.6 %) were conducted on species that inhabit natural freshwater wetlands, in contrast to other aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Species considered threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature comprised only 7.7 % of 65 species that have been studied consistently. The majority of comparative studies of contemporary versus historical occurrences were potentially biased by the use of “presence-only” historical data and resurveys of short duration. Other issues, such as inadequate temporal and spatial scale and neglect of different sources of error, were common. Awareness of these data gaps and sampling and statistical issues may help facilitate informed decisions in setting future monitoring priorities, particularly with respect to species, habitats and locations that have been largely overlooked in past and ongoing studies.

  18. Monitoring of human populations for early markers of cadmium toxicity: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Bruce A.

    2009-08-01

    Exposure of human populations to cadmium (Cd) from air, food and water may produce effects in organs such as the kidneys, liver, lungs, cardiovascular, immune and reproductive systems. Since Cd has been identified as a human carcinogen, biomarkers for early detection of susceptibility to cancer are of an importance to public health. The ability to document Cd exposure and uptake of this element through biological monitoring is a first step towards understanding its health effects. Interpretation and application of biological monitoring data for predicting human health outcomes require correlation with biological measures of organ system responses to the documented exposure. Essential to this understanding is the detection and linkage of early biological responses toxic effects in target cell populations. Fortunately, advances in cell biology have resulted in the development of pre-clinical biological markers (biomarkers) that demonstrate measurable and characteristic molecular changes in organ systems following chemical exposures that occur prior to the onset of overt clinical disease or development of cancer. Technical advances have rendered a number of these biomarkers practical for monitoring Cd-exposed human populations. Biomarkers will be increasingly important in relation to monitoring effects from the exposure to new Cd-based high technology materials. For example, cadmium-selenium (CdSe), nano-materials made from combinations of these elements have greatly altered cellular uptake characteristics due to particle size. These differences may greatly alter effects at the target cell level and hence risks for organ toxicities from such exposures. The value of validated biomarkers for early detection of systemic Cd-induced effects in humans cannot be underestimated due to the rapid expansion of nano-material technologies. This review will attempt to briefly summarize the applications, to date, of biomarker endpoints for assessing target organ system effects in

  19. Monitoring for Insecticide Resistance in Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Florida.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Eason, Julius; Haseeb, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad; Stansly, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The development of insecticide resistance in Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, populations is a serious threat to the citrus industry. As a contribution to a resistance management strategy, we developed a glass vial technique to monitor field populations of Asian citrus psyllid for insecticide resistance. Diagnostic concentrations needed to separate susceptible genotypes from resistant individuals were determined for cypermethrin (0.5 μg per vial), malathion (1.0 μg per vial), diazinon (1.0 μg per vial), carbaryl (1.0 μg per vial), carbofuran (0.1 μg per vial), methomyl (1.0 μg per vial), propoxur (1.0 μg per vial), endosulfan (1.0 μg per vial), imidacloprid (0.5 μg per vial), acetamiprid (5.0 μg per vial), chlorfenapyr (2.5 μg per vial), and fenpyroximate (2.5 μg per vial). In 2014, resistance to two carbamate insecticides (carbaryl and carbofuran), one organophosphate (malathion), one pyrethroid (cypermethrin), and one pyrazole (fenpyroximate) was detected in field populations of Asian citrus psyllid in Immokalee, FL. There was no resistance detected to diazinon, methomyl, propoxur, endosulfan, imidacloprid, and chlorfenapyr. The levels of insecticide resistance were variable and unstable, suggesting that resistance could be successfully managed. The results validate the use of the glass vial bioassay to monitor for resistance in Asian citrus psyllid populations and provide the basis for the development of a resistance management strategy designed to extend the efficacy of all classes of insecticides used for control of the Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:26709293

  20. Monitoring microbial populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria using an impedimetric immunosensor based on agglutination assay.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Zhang, Dun; Hou, Baorong

    2009-11-15

    An impedimetric immunosensor was fabricated for rapid and non-labeled detection of sulfate-reducing bacteria, Desulforibrio caledoiensis (SRB) by immobilizing lectin-Concanavalin A using an agglutination assay. The immobilization of lectin was conducted using amine coupling on the surface of a gold (Au) electrode assembled with 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to verify the stepwise assembly of the sensor system. The work conditions of the impedimetric immunosensor, such as pH of the buffer solutions and the incubation time of lectin, were optimized. Faradic impedance spectra for charge transfer for the redox probe Fe(CN)(6)(3-/4-)were measured to determine SRB concentrations. The diameter of the Nyquist diagram that is equal to the charge-transfer resistance (R(ct)) increased with increasing SRB concentration. A linear relationship between R(ct) and SRB concentration was obtained in SRB concentration range of 1.8 to 1.8 x 10(7)cfu/ml. The variation of the SRB population during the growth process was also monitored using the impedimetric immunosensor. This approach has great potential for simple, low-cost, and time-saving monitoring of microbial populations. PMID:19782217

  1. Incidence of multiple sclerosis among European Economic Area populations, 1985-2009: the framework for monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A debate surrounding multiple sclerosis epidemiology has centred on time-related incidence increases and the need of monitoring. The purpose of this study is to reassess multiple sclerosis incidence in the European Economic Area. Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature from 1965 onwards and integrated elements of original research, including requested or completed data by surveys authors and specific analyses. Results The review of 5323 documents yielded ten studies for age- and sex-specific analyses, and 21 studies for time-trend analysis of single data sets. After 1985, the incidence of multiple sclerosis ranged from 1.12 to 6.96 per 100,000 population, was higher in females, tripled with latitude, and doubled with study midpoint year. The north registered increasing trends from the 1960s and 1970s, with a historic drop in the Faroe Islands, and fairly stable data in the period 1980-2000; incidence rose in Italian and French populations in the period 1970-2000, in Evros (Greece) in the 1980s, and in the French West Indies in around 2000. Conclusions We conclude that the increase in multiple sclerosis incidence is only apparent, and that it is not specific to women. Monitoring of multiple sclerosis incidence might be appropriate for the European Economic Area. PMID:23758972

  2. Individuality and Stability in Male Songs of Cao Vit Gibbons (Nomascus nasutus) with Potential to Monitor Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chang-Yong; Fei, Han-Lan; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Vocal individuality and stability has been used to conduct population surveys, monitor population dynamics, and detect dispersal patterns in avian studies. To our knowledge, it has never been used in these kinds of studies among primates. The cao vit gibbon is a critically endangered species with only one small population living in a karst forest along China-Vietnam border. Due to the difficult karst terrain, an international border, long life history, and similarity in male morphology, detailed monitoring of population dynamics and dispersal patterns are not possible using traditional observation methods. In this paper, we test individuality and stability in male songs of cao vit gibbons. We then discuss the possibility of using vocal individuality for population surveys and monitoring population dynamics and dispersal patterns. Significant individuality of vocalization was detected in all 9 males, and the correct rate of individual identification yielded by discriminant function analysis using a subset of variables was satisfactory (>90%). Vocal stability over 2–6 years was also documented in 4 males. Several characters of cao vit gibbons allowed long-term population monitoring using vocal recordings in both China and Vietnam: 1) regular loud calls, 2) strong individuality and stability in male songs, 3) stable territories, and 4) long male tenure. During the course of this research, we also observed one male replacement (confirmed by vocal analysis). This time- and labor-saving method might be the most effective way to detect dispersal patterns in this transboundary population. PMID:24788306

  3. Toward Objective Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior in Free-living Population

    PubMed Central

    Sazonov, Edward S.; Schuckers, Stephanie A.C.; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael R.; Hill, James O.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of eating behaviors associated with obesity requires objective and accurate monitoring of food intake patterns. Accurate methods are available for measuring total energy expenditure and its components in free-living populations, but methods for measuring food intake in free-living people are far less accurate and involve self-reporting or subjective monitoring. We suggest that chews and swallows can be used for objective monitoring of ingestive behavior. This hypothesis was verified in a human study involving 20 subjects. Chews and swallows were captured during periods of quiet resting, talking, and meals of varying size. The counts of chews and swallows along with other derived metrics were used to build prediction models for detection of food intake, differentiation between liquids and solids, and for estimation of the mass of ingested food. The proposed prediction models were able to detect periods of food intake with >95% accuracy and a fine time resolution of 30 s, differentiate solid foods from liquids with >91% accuracy, and predict mass of ingested food with >91% accuracy for solids and >83% accuracy for liquids. In earlier publications, we have shown that chews and swallows can be captured by noninvasive sensors that could be developed into a wearable device. Thus, the proposed methodology could lead to the development of an innovative new way of assessing human eating behavior in free-living conditions. PMID:19444225

  4. A comparison of breeding population estimators using nest and brood monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Baasch, David M; Hefley, Trevor J; Cahis, Staci D

    2015-09-01

    For many species, breeding population size is an important metric for assessing population status. A variety of simple methods are often used to estimate this metric for ground-nesting birds that nest in open habitats (e.g., beaches, riverine sandbars). The error and bias associated with estimates derived using these methods vary in relation to differing monitoring intensities and detection rates. However, these errors and biases are often difficult to obtain, poorly understood, and largely unreported. A method was developed to estimate the number of breeding pairs using counts of nests and broods from monitoring data where multiple surveys were made throughout a single breeding season (breeding pair estimator; BPE). The BPE method was compared to two commonly used estimation methods using simulated data from an individual-based model that allowed for the comparison of biases and accuracy. The BPE method underestimated the number of breeding pairs, but generally performed better than the other two commonly used methods when detection rates were low and monitoring frequency was high. As detection rates and time between surveys increased, the maximum nest and brood count method performs similar to the BPE. The BPE was compared to four commonly used methods to estimate breeding pairs for empirically derived data sets on the Platte River. Based on our simulated data, we expect our BPE to be closest to the true number of breeding pairs as compared to other methods. The methods tested resulted in substantially different estimates of the numbers of breeding pairs; however, coefficients from trend analyses were not statistically different. When data from multiple nest and brood surveys are available, the BPE appears to result in reasonably precise estimates of numbers of breeding pairs. Regardless of the estimation method, investigators are encouraged to acknowledge whether the method employed is likely to over- or underestimate breeding pairs. This study provides a means

  5. Monitoring Tree Population Dynamics in Arid Zone Through Multiple Temporal Scales: Integration of Spatial Analysis, Change Detection and Field Long Term Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, S.; Rachmilevitch, S.; Ephrath, J. E.; Maman, S.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    High mortality rates and lack of recruitment in the acacia populations throughout the Negev Desert and the Arava rift valley of Israel have been reported in previous studies. However, it is difficult to determine whether these reports can be evidence to a significant decline trend of the trees populations. This is because of the slow dynamic processes of acaia tree populations and the lack of long term continuous monitoring data. We suggest a new data analysis technique that expands the time scope of the field long term monitoring of trees in arid environments. This will enables us to improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal changes of these populations. We implemented two different approaches in order to expand the time scope of the acacia population field survey: (1) individual based tree change detection using Corona satellite images and (2) spatial analysis of trees population, converting spatial data into temporal data. The next step was to integrate the results of the two analysis techniques (change detection and spatial analysis) with field monitoring. This technique can be implemented to other tree populations in arid environments to help assess the vegetation conditions and dynamics of those ecosystems.

  6. Adélie Penguin Population Diet Monitoring by Analysis of Food DNA in Scats

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Simon N.; McInnes, Julie C.; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M.; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E.; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches. PMID:24358158

  7. Sphaerospora elwhaiensis sp.n. (Myxosporea: Sphaerosporidae) from landlocked sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (Salmoniformes: Salmonidae) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    Jones, Simon; Fiala, Ivan; Prosperi-Porta, Gina; House, Marcia; Mumford, Sonia

    2011-06-01

    A new species of sphaerosporid myxosporean, Sphaerospora elwhaiensis sp. n., is described from kidney of non-anadromous sockeye salmon (kokanee) Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum) from Lake Sutherland in the northern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA. Infection with the parasite was detected in 45% of 177 kokanee examined over 5 years. While conforming to the morphological criteria by which members of the genus are defined, the parasite is distinguished from congeners in salmonids of western North America by a unique combination of valvular sculpting of the myxospore, the relatively large size of the myxospore and monosporous development within the pseudoplasmodium. In addition, nucleotide sequences of the parasite's small and large subunit ribosomal RNA gene are unique. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences suggested that the parasite is most closely related to freshwater Myxidium spp. and Zschokkella spp. The molecular data have provided further evidence for a polyphyletic association previously recognized among members of the genus and emphasize the need for a taxonomic revision of Sphaerospora Thélohan, 1892 and related genera. PMID:21776889

  8. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  9. Testing of male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.; Batts, W.N.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus has been isolated only rarely from whole milt samples of male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). In 3 yr of testing, virus incidences in males ranged from 0 to 13% when milt was sampled but were 60–100% with spleen or kidney. When IHN virus was isolated from sockeye salmon milt at titers less than 3.00 log10 plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL, the level of virus in the kidney or spleen exceeded 7.00 log10 pfu/g. Higher rates of IHN virus isolation from kidney or spleen than from milt were also generally found in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri), although the differences were less pronounced than in sockeye salmon. Furthermore, virus was sometimes isolated from steelhead trout milt when the level of virus in kidney or spleen samples was very low, and was recovered from some milt samples when none was isolated from the corresponding spleen sample. When male salmonids are tested for IHN virus, kidney or spleen samples are superior to whole milt, but milt should be included for critical examinations.

  10. Efficacy of an infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus DNA vaccine in Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and sockeye O. nerka salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, K.A.; LaPatra, S.E.; Kurath, G.

    2005-01-01

    The level of protective immunity was determined for Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and sockeye/kokanee salmon (anadromous and landlocked) O. nerka following intramuscular vaccination with a DNA vaccine against the aquatic rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). A DNA vaccine containing the glycoprotein gene of IHNV protected Chinook and sockeye/kokanee salmon against waterborne or injection challenge with IHNV, and relative percent survival (RPS) values of 23 to 86% were obtained under a variety of lethal challenge conditions. Although this is significant protection, it is less than RPS values obtained in previous studies with rainbow trout (O. mykiss). In addition to the variability in the severity of the challenge and inherent host susceptibility differences, it appears that use of a cross-genogroup challenge virus strain may lead to reduced efficacy of the DNA vaccine. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected in both Chinook and sockeye that had been vaccinated with 1.0 and 0.1 ??g doses of the DNA vaccine, and vaccinated fish responded to viral challenges with higher antibody titers than mock-vaccinated control fish. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  11. Towards a European Framework to Monitor Infectious Diseases among Migrant Populations: Design and Applicability

    PubMed Central

    Riccardo, Flavia; Dente, Maria Grazia; Kärki, Tommi; Fabiani, Massimo; Napoli, Christian; Chiarenza, Antonio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Velasco Munoz, Cesar; Noori, Teymur; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    There are limitations in our capacity to interpret point estimates and trends of infectious diseases occurring among diverse migrant populations living in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). The aim of this study was to design a data collection framework that could capture information on factors associated with increased risk to infectious diseases in migrant populations in the EU/EEA. The authors defined factors associated with increased risk according to a multi-dimensional framework and performed a systematic literature review in order to identify whether those factors well reflected the reported risk factors for infectious disease in these populations. Following this, the feasibility of applying this framework to relevant available EU/EEA data sources was assessed. The proposed multidimensional framework is well suited to capture the complexity and concurrence of these risk factors and in principle applicable in the EU/EEA. The authors conclude that adopting a multi-dimensional framework to monitor infectious diseases could favor the disaggregated collection and analysis of migrant health data. PMID:26393623

  12. Monitoring Effect of Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in US Population, Emerging Infections Program, 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Lauri E.; Bennett, Nancy M.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Schafer, Sean; Bloch, Karen; Park, Ina U.; Scahill, Mary W.; Julian, Pamela; Abdullah, Nasreen; Levine, Diane; Whitney, Erin; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Steinau, Martin; Bauer, Heidi M.; Meek, James; Hadler, James; Sosa, Lynn; Powell, Suzanne E.; Johnson, Michelle L.; Group, HPV-IMPACT Working

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, five Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites were funded to determine the feasibility of establishing a population-based surveillance system for monitoring the effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on pre-invasive cervical lesions. The project involved active population-based surveillance of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ as well as associated HPV types in women >18 years of age residing in defined catchment areas; collecting relevant clinical information and detailed HPV vaccination histories for women 18–39 years of age; and estimating the annual rate of cervical cancer screening among the catchment area population. The first few years of the project provided key information, including data on HPV type distribution, before expected effect of vaccine introduction. The project’s success exemplifies the flexibility of EIP’s network to expand core activities to include emerging surveillance needs beyond acute infectious diseases. Project results contribute key information regarding the impact of HPV vaccination in the United States. PMID:26291379

  13. Monitoring Effect of Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in US Population, Emerging Infections Program, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E; Bennett, Nancy M; Niccolai, Linda M; Schafer, Sean; Bloch, Karen; Park, Ina U; Scahill, Mary W; Julian, Pamela; Abdullah, Nasreen; Levine, Diane; Whitney, Erin; Unger, Elizabeth R; Steinau, Martin; Bauer, Heidi M; Meek, James; Hadler, James; Sosa, Lynn; Powell, Suzanne E; Johnson, Michelle L

    2015-09-01

    In 2007, five Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites were funded to determine the feasibility of establishing a population-based surveillance system for monitoring the effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on pre-invasive cervical lesions. The project involved active population-based surveillance of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ as well as associated HPV types in women >18 years of age residing in defined catchment areas; collecting relevant clinical information and detailed HPV vaccination histories for women 18-39 years of age; and estimating the annual rate of cervical cancer screening among the catchment area population. The first few years of the project provided key information, including data on HPV type distribution, before expected effect of vaccine introduction. The project's success exemplifies the flexibility of EIP's network to expand core activities to include emerging surveillance needs beyond acute infectious diseases. Project results contribute key information regarding the impact of HPV vaccination in the United States. PMID:26291379

  14. The risks of learning: confounding detection and demographic trend when using count-based indices for population monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, Vincenzo; Brøseth, Henrik; Gimenez, Olivier; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

    2014-12-01

    Theory recognizes that a treatment of the detection process is required to avoid producing biased estimates of population rate of change. Still, one of three monitoring programmes on animal or plant populations is focused on simply counting individuals or other fixed visible structures, such as natal dens, nests, tree cavities. This type of monitoring design poses concerns about the possibility to respect the assumption of constant detection, as the information acquired in a given year about the spatial distribution of reproductive sites can provide a higher chance to detect the species in subsequent years. We developed an individual-based simulation model, which evaluates how the accumulation of knowledge about the spatial distribution of a population process can affect the accuracy of population growth rate estimates, when using simple count-based indices. Then, we assessed the relative importance of each parameter in affecting monitoring performance. We also present the case of wolverines (Gulo gulo) in southern Scandinavia as an example of a monitoring system with an intrinsic tendency to accumulate knowledge and increase detectability. When the occupation of a nest or den is temporally autocorrelated, the monitoring system is prone to increase its knowledge with time. This happens also when there is no intensification in monitoring effort and no change in the monitoring conditions. Such accumulated knowledge is likely to increase detection probability with time and can produce severe bias in the estimation of the rate and direction of population change over time. We recommend that a systematic sampling of the population process under study and an explicit treatment of the underlying detection process should be implemented whenever economic and logistical constraints permit, as failure to include detection probability in the estimation of population growth rate can lead to serious bias and severe consequences for management and conservation. PMID:25558358

  15. The risks of learning: confounding detection and demographic trend when using count-based indices for population monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Gervasi, Vincenzo; Brøseth, Henrik; Gimenez, Olivier; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Theory recognizes that a treatment of the detection process is required to avoid producing biased estimates of population rate of change. Still, one of three monitoring programmes on animal or plant populations is focused on simply counting individuals or other fixed visible structures, such as natal dens, nests, tree cavities. This type of monitoring design poses concerns about the possibility to respect the assumption of constant detection, as the information acquired in a given year about the spatial distribution of reproductive sites can provide a higher chance to detect the species in subsequent years. We developed an individual-based simulation model, which evaluates how the accumulation of knowledge about the spatial distribution of a population process can affect the accuracy of population growth rate estimates, when using simple count-based indices. Then, we assessed the relative importance of each parameter in affecting monitoring performance. We also present the case of wolverines (Gulo gulo) in southern Scandinavia as an example of a monitoring system with an intrinsic tendency to accumulate knowledge and increase detectability. When the occupation of a nest or den is temporally autocorrelated, the monitoring system is prone to increase its knowledge with time. This happens also when there is no intensification in monitoring effort and no change in the monitoring conditions. Such accumulated knowledge is likely to increase detection probability with time and can produce severe bias in the estimation of the rate and direction of population change over time. We recommend that a systematic sampling of the population process under study and an explicit treatment of the underlying detection process should be implemented whenever economic and logistical constraints permit, as failure to include detection probability in the estimation of population growth rate can lead to serious bias and severe consequences for management and conservation. PMID:25558358

  16. Monitoring carnivore populations at the landscape scale: occupancy modelling of tigers from sign surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, Kota Ullas; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Kumar, Narayanarao Samba; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Nichols, James D.; MacKenzie, Darryl I.

    2011-01-01

    sampling using spatial replicates can be used to reliably and efficiently identify tiger population sources and help monitor metapopulations. Our results reinforce earlier findings that prey depletion and human disturbance are key drivers of local tiger extinctions and tigers can persist even in human-dominated landscapes through effective protection of source populations. Our approach facilitates efficient targeting of tiger conservation interventions and, more generally, provides a basis for the reliable integration of large carnivore monitoring data between local and landscape scales.

  17. A new device for real time monitoring of microbial population dynamics during in situ and ex situ bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, R.E.; Malone, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Monitoring of microbial population dynamics is an important operating parameter for successful bioremediation projects. The traditional method of plate counts or most probable number (MPN) requires 2 to 7 days for development and therefore provides a historical measurement of little real-time operational significance. Selected enzyme activity is directly proportional to microbial population density and is linear in the population range from 10{sub 4} to 10{sup 8} CFU/mL. This paper summarizes the use of this enzyme based, real-time measurement of microbial population dynamics for the management of four bioremediation projects: (1) differentiation of assimilation from nitrification during the metabolism of ammonia in an industrial waste stream, (2) treatability assessment and management of activated sludge processes during the treatment of a hazardous, petrochemical waste, (3) measurement of intrinsic microbial activity in soil cores at a spill site, and (4) non-invasive monitoring of microbial populations during in situ bioremediation of two aquifers.

  18. Stock enhancement or sea ranching? Insights from monitoring the genetic diversity, relatedness and effective population size in a seeded great scallop population (Pecten maximus).

    PubMed

    Morvezen, R; Boudry, P; Laroche, J; Charrier, G

    2016-09-01

    The mass release of hatchery-propagated stocks raises numerous questions concerning its efficiency in terms of local recruitment and effect on the genetic diversity of wild populations. A seeding program, consisting of mass release of hatchery-produced juveniles in the local naturally occurring population of great scallops (Pecten maximus L.), was initiated in the early 1980s in the Bay of Brest (France). The present study aims at evaluating whether this seeding program leads to actual population enhancement, with detectable effects on genetic diversity and effective population size, or consists of sea ranching with limited genetic consequences on the wild stock. To address this question, microsatellite-based genetic monitoring of three hatchery-born and naturally recruited populations was conducted over a 5-year period. Results showed a limited reduction in allelic richness but a strong alteration of allelic frequencies in hatchery populations, while genetic diversity appeared very stable over time in the wild populations. A temporal increase in relatedness was observed in both cultured stock and wild populations. Effective population size (Ne) estimates were low and variable in the wild population. Moreover, the application of the Ryman-Laikre model suggested a high contribution of hatchery-born scallops to the reproductive output of the wild population. Overall, the data suggest that the main objective of the seeding program, which is stock enhancement, is fulfilled. Moreover, gene flow from surrounding populations and/or the reproductive input of undetected sub-populations within the bay may buffer the Ryman-Laikre effect and ensure the retention of the local genetic variability. PMID:27353046

  19. Time trends in fish populations in metropolitan France: insights from national monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Poulet, N; Beaulaton, L; Dembski, S

    2011-12-01

    Using the electrofishing database of the French National Agency for Water and Aquatic Environment (Onema), the time trends of 48 freshwater fish taxa at 590 sites monitored for at least 8 years from 1990 to 2009 were investigated. The results demonstrated that species richness increased steadily from the beginning of the monitoring period. This is congruent with the finding that the number of species displaying a significant increase in spatial distribution or abundance was greater than those showing a significant decrease. Some species, however, had declined both in occurrence and abundance, e.g. tench Tinca tinca, common bream Abramis brama, brown trout Salmo trutta and European eel Anguilla anguilla. The species showing the most spectacular colonization were non-native, e.g. topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva, wels catfish Silurus glanis and asp Aspius aspius. The time trends in population density were related to the maximal body size, habitat requirement, occurrence and abundance and the status (i.e. native or exotic) but not to the spawning temperature. PMID:22136235

  20. Monitoring of population dynamics of Corynebacterium glutamicum by multiparameter flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Neumeyer, Andrea; Hübschmann, Thomas; Müller, Susann; Frunzke, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Phenotypic variation of microbial populations is a well-known phenomenon and may have significant impact on the success of industrial bioprocesses. Flow cytometry (FC) and the large repertoire of fluorescent dyes bring the high-throughput analysis of multiple parameters in single bacterial cells into reach. In this study, we evaluated a set of different fluorescent dyes for suitability in FC single cell analysis of the biotechnological platform organism Corynebacterium glutamicum. Already simple scattering properties of C. glutamicum cells in the flow cytometer were shown to provide valuable information on the growth activity of analysed cells. Furthermore, we used DAPI staining for a FC-based determination of the DNA content of C. glutamicum cells grown on standard minimal or complex media. Characteristic DNA patterns were observed mirroring the typical uncoupled DNA synthesis in the logarithmic (log) growth phase and are in agreement with a symmetric type of cell division of C. glutamicum. Application of the fluorescent dyes Syto 9, propidium iodide, and DiOC2(3) allowed the identification of subpopulations with reduced viability and membrane potential within early log and stationary phase populations. The presented data highlight the potential of FC-based analyses for online monitoring of C. glutamicum bioprocesses and provide a first reference for future applications and protocols. PMID:23279937

  1. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in adult sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon following critical speed swimming.

    PubMed

    Lee, C G; Farrell, A P; Lotto, A; Hinch, S G; Healey, M C

    2003-09-01

    The present study measured the excess post-exercise oxygen cost (EPOC) following tests at critical swimming speed (Ucrit) in three stocks of adult, wild, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) and used EPOC to estimate the time required to return to their routine level of oxygen consumption (recovery time) and the total oxygen cost of swimming to Ucrit. Following exhaustion at Ucrit, recovery time was 42-78 min, depending upon the fish stock. The recovery times are several-fold shorter than previously reported for juvenile, hatchery-raised salmonids. EPOC varied fivefold among the fish stocks, being greatest for Gates Creek sockeye salmon (O. nerka), which was the salmon stock that had the longest in-river migration, experienced the warmest temperature and achieved the highest maximum oxygen consumption compared with the other salmon stocks that were studied. EPOC was related to Ucrit, which in turn was directly influenced by ambient test temperature. The non-aerobic cost of swimming to Ucrit was estimated to add an additional 21.4-50.5% to the oxygen consumption measured at Ucrit. While these non-aerobic contributions to swimming did not affect the minimum cost of transport, they were up to three times higher than the value used previously for an energetic model of salmon migration in the Fraser River, BC, Canada. As such, the underestimate of non-aerobic swimming costs may require a reevaluation of the importance of how in-river barriers like rapids and bypass facilities at dams, and year-to-year changes in river flows and temperatures, affect energy use and hence migration success. PMID:12909706

  2. Consequences of high temperatures and premature mortality on the transcriptome and blood physiology of wild adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Ken M; Hinch, Scott G; Sierocinski, Thomas; Clark, Timothy D; Eliason, Erika J; Donaldson, Michael R; Li, Shaorong; Pavlidis, Paul; Miller, Kristi M

    2012-07-01

    Elevated river water temperature in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada, has been associated with enhanced mortality of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during their upriver migration to spawning grounds. We undertook a study to assess the effects of elevated water temperatures on the gill transcriptome and blood plasma variables in wild-caught sockeye salmon. Naturally migrating sockeye salmon returning to the Fraser River were collected and held at ecologically relevant temperatures of 14°C and 19°C for seven days, a period representing a significant portion of their upstream migration. After seven days, sockeye salmon held at 19°C stimulated heat shock response genes as well as many genes associated with an immune response when compared with fish held at 14°C. Additionally, fish at 19°C had elevated plasma chloride and lactate, suggestive of a disturbance in osmoregulatory homeostasis and a stress response detectable in the blood plasma. Fish that died prematurely over the course of the holding study were compared with time-matched surviving fish; the former fish were characterized by an upregulation of several transcription factors associated with apoptosis and downregulation of genes involved in immune function and antioxidant activity. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) was the most significantly upregulated gene in dying salmon, which suggests an association with cellular apoptosis. We hypothesize that the observed decrease in plasma ions and increases in plasma cortisol that occur in dying fish may be linked to the increase in ODC1. By highlighting these underlying physiological mechanisms, this study enhances our understanding of the processes involved in premature mortality and temperature stress in Pacific salmon during migration to spawning grounds. PMID:22957178

  3. Multiple estimates of effective population size for monitoring a long-lived vertebrate: an application to Yellowstone grizzly bears.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Pauline L; Haroldson, Mark A; Luikart, Gordon; Paetkau, David; Whitman, Craig; van Manen, Frank T

    2015-11-01

    Effective population size (N(e)) is a key parameter for monitoring the genetic health of threatened populations because it reflects a population's evolutionary potential and risk of extinction due to genetic stochasticity. However, its application to wildlife monitoring has been limited because it is difficult to measure in natural populations. The isolated and well-studied population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem provides a rare opportunity to examine the usefulness of different N(e) estimators for monitoring. We genotyped 729 Yellowstone grizzly bears using 20 microsatellites and applied three single-sample estimators to examine contemporary trends in generation interval (GI), effective number of breeders (N(b)) and N(e) during 1982-2007. We also used multisample methods to estimate variance (N(eV)) and inbreeding N(e) (N(eI)). Single-sample estimates revealed positive trajectories, with over a fourfold increase in N(e) (≈100 to 450) and near doubling of the GI (≈8 to 14) from the 1980s to 2000s. N(eV) (240-319) and N(eI) (256) were comparable with the harmonic mean single-sample N(e) (213) over the time period. Reanalysing historical data, we found N(eV) increased from ≈80 in the 1910s-1960s to ≈280 in the contemporary population. The estimated ratio of effective to total census size (N(e) /N(c)) was stable and high (0.42-0.66) compared to previous brown bear studies. These results support independent demographic evidence for Yellowstone grizzly bear population growth since the 1980s. They further demonstrate how genetic monitoring of N(e) can complement demographic-based monitoring of N(c) and vital rates, providing a valuable tool for wildlife managers. PMID:26510936

  4. Multiple estimates of effective population size for monitoring a long-lived vertebrate: An application to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Luikart, Gordon; Paetkau, David; Whitman, Craig L.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2015-01-01

    Effective population size (Ne) is a key parameter for monitoring the genetic health of threatened populations because it reflects a population's evolutionary potential and risk of extinction due to genetic stochasticity. However, its application to wildlife monitoring has been limited because it is difficult to measure in natural populations. The isolated and well-studied population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem provides a rare opportunity to examine the usefulness of different Ne estimators for monitoring. We genotyped 729 Yellowstone grizzly bears using 20 microsatellites and applied three single-sample estimators to examine contemporary trends in generation interval (GI), effective number of breeders (Nb) and Ne during 1982–2007. We also used multisample methods to estimate variance (NeV) and inbreeding Ne (NeI). Single-sample estimates revealed positive trajectories, with over a fourfold increase in Ne (≈100 to 450) and near doubling of the GI (≈8 to 14) from the 1980s to 2000s. NeV (240–319) and NeI (256) were comparable with the harmonic mean single-sample Ne (213) over the time period. Reanalysing historical data, we found NeV increased from ≈80 in the 1910s–1960s to ≈280 in the contemporary population. The estimated ratio of effective to total census size (Ne/Nc) was stable and high (0.42–0.66) compared to previous brown bear studies. These results support independent demographic evidence for Yellowstone grizzly bear population growth since the 1980s. They further demonstrate how genetic monitoring of Ne can complement demographic-based monitoring of Nc and vital rates, providing a valuable tool for wildlife managers.

  5. Insights into the Introduction History and Population Genetic Dynamics of the Nile Monitor (Varanus niloticus) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jared P; Dowell, Stephanie A; Campbell, Todd S; Page, Robert B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species are widely recognized as important drivers of the ongoing biodiversity crisis. The US state of Florida is especially susceptible to the proliferation of invasive reptiles, and nonnative lizards currently outnumber native lizard species. At present, there are 3 documented breeding populations of the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) in different regions of Southern Florida, and these populations are considered potential dangers to threatened, fossorial endemics, such as burrowing owls, American crocodiles, and gopher tortoises. Nevertheless, at present, both the introduction histories of these populations and the degree to which they are connected by gene flow are not known. To address these issues, we genotyped V. niloticus from Cape Coral, Homestead Air Reserve Base, and West Palm Beach at 17 microsatellite loci and conducted a variety of analyses to assess both intrapopulation genetic diversity, the degree of gene flow between populations, and the most likely introduction scenario. The results of our analyses demonstrate that all 3 populations have limited genetic diversity (mean number of effective alleles across loci in all 3 populations ~ 2.00) and are highly differentiated from one another (G ST = 0.268; G″ST = 0.628). Our results also suggest that these populations resulted from independent introduction events that occurred within the past few decades. Consequently, we advise that wildlife managers focus management efforts on containment of existing populations and intensification of monitoring efforts on potential migration corridors. PMID:26971010

  6. Methods for monitoring outdoor populations of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Geden, Christopher J

    2005-12-01

    Relative collections of house flies were compared on two Florida dairy farms using several monitoring methods: sticky cylinders, baited jug traps (Farnam Terminator and Victor Fly Magnet), and bait strips (Wellmark QuikStrike). Bait strips were placed over collecting pans and under 61 cm square plywood roofs to protect the toxicant from sunlight ("sheltered QuikStrike traps"). Sticky cylinders collected the fewest flies (515-679 flies/trap/day) and sheltered QuikStrike traps the most (5,659-8,814 flies/trap/day). The sheltered QuikStrike traps are promising tools for disease surveillance programs. The two baited jugs collected a similar and intermediate number of flies, with collections highest during the first 2 days after placement (2,920-5,462 flies/trap/day). Jug trap collections were low after 4 days of use in the field, apparently due to deterioration in the attractiveness of the bait over time. Jug traps collected mostly females, whereas sticky cylinders and sheltered QuikStrike traps collected mostly males. Exposure of jug trap bait (Farnam) to fly cadavers for 3 days did not increase attractiveness of the bait. Combinations of the Farnam and Victor attractants were more attractive than either attractant alone and 25-43% more attractive than expected based on the sum of collections in the single-attractant jug traps. A 25% solution of farm-grade blackstrap molasses was as effective as either of the two proprietary baits tested, offering a low-cost alternative for fly population monitoring. PMID:16599159

  7. The power of genetic monitoring for studying demography, ecology and genetics of a reintroduced brown bear population.

    PubMed

    De Barba, M; Waits, L P; Garton, E O; Genovesi, P; Randi, E; Mustoni, A; Groff, C

    2010-09-01

    Genetic monitoring has rarely been used for wildlife translocations despite the potential benefits this approach offers, compared to traditional field-based methods. We applied genetic monitoring to the reintroduced brown bear population in northern Italy. From 2002 to 2008, 2781 hair and faecal samples collected noninvasively plus 12 samples obtained from captured or dead bears were used to follow the demographic and geographical expansion and changes in genetic composition. Individual genotypes were used to reconstruct the wild pedigree and revealed that the population increased rapidly, from nine founders to >27 individuals in 2008 (lambda=1.17-1.19). Spatial mapping of bear samples indicated that most bears were distributed in the region surrounding the translocation site; however, individual bears were found up to 163 km away. Genetic diversity in the population was high, with expected heterozygosity of 0.74-0.79 and allelic richness of 4.55-5.41. However, multi-year genetic monitoring data showed that mortality rates were elevated, immigration did not occur, one dominant male sired all cubs born from 2002 to 2005, genetic diversity declined, relatedness increased, inbreeding occurred, and the effective population size was extremely small (Ne=3.03, ecological method). The comprehensive information collected through genetic monitoring is critical for implementing future conservation plans for the brown bear population in the Italian Alps. This study provides a model for other reintroduction programmes by demonstrating how genetic monitoring can be implemented to uncover aspects of the demography, ecology and genetics of small and reintroduced populations that will advance our understanding of the processes influencing their viability, evolution, and successful restoration. PMID:20735733

  8. EARLY DETECTION AND POPULATION MONITORING OF CERATITIS CAPITATA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) IN A MIXED-FRUIT ORCHARD IN NORTHERN GREECE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population monitoring of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was studied in 1998 in a mixed-fruit orchard in northern Greece, using International Pheromone McPhail traps (IPMT) baited with the female targeted attractants ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine, and ...

  9. Monitoring exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an Australian population using pooled urine samples.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; Heffernan, Amy L; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Li, Zheng; Calafat, Antonia M; Hobson, Peter; Broomhall, Sara; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-03-01

    Integrated exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be assessed through monitoring of urinary mono-hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs). The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to PAHs in a large sample of the population in Queensland, Australia including exposure to infant (0-4years). De-identified urine specimens, obtained from a pathology laboratory, were stratified by age and sex, and pooled (n=24 pools of 100) and OH-PAHs were measured by gas chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations ranged from 30ng/L (4-hydroxyphenanthrene) to 9221ng/L (1-naphthol). GM of 1-hydroxypyrene, the most commonly used PAH exposure biomarker, was 142ng/L. The concentrations of OH-PAHs found in this study are consistent with those in developed countries and lower than those in developing countries. We observed no association between sex and OH-PAH concentrations. However, we observed lower urinary concentrations of all OH-PAHs in samples from infants (0-4years), children (5-14years) and the elderly (>60year old) compared with samples from other age groups (15-29, 30-44 and 45-59years) which may be attributed to age-dependent behaviour-specific exposure sources. PMID:26700419

  10. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  11. Population estimates and monitoring guidelines for endangered Laysan Teal, Anas Laysanensis, at Midway Atoll: Pilot study results 2008-2010.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Laniawe, Leona

    2011-01-01

    To improve the Laysan Teal population estimates, we recommend changes to the monitoring protocol. Additional years of data are needed to quantify inter-annual seasonal detection probabilities, which may allow the use of standardized direct counts as an unbiased index of population size. Survey protocols should be enhanced through frequent resights, regular survey intervals, and determining reliable standards to detect catastrophic declines and annual changes in adult abundance. In late 2009 to early 2010, 68% of the population was marked with unique color band combinations. This allowed for potentially accurate adult population estimates and survival estimates without the need to mark new birds in 2010, 2011, and possibly 2012. However, efforts should be made to replace worn or illegible bands so birds can be identified in future surveys. It would be valuable to develop more sophisticated population size and survival models using Program MARK, a state-of-the-art software package which uses likelihood models to analyze mark-recapture data. This would allow for more reliable adult population and survival estimates to compare with the ―source‖ Laysan Teal population on Laysan Island. These models will require additional years of resight data (> 1 year) and, in some cases, an intensive annual effort of marking and recapture. Because data indicate standardized all-wetland counts are a poor index of abundance, monitoring efforts could be improved by expanding resight surveys to include all wetlands, discontinuing the all-wetland counts, and reallocating some of the wetland count effort to collect additional opportunistic resights. Approximately two years of additional bimonthly surveys are needed to validate the direct count as an appropriate index of population abundance. Additional years of individual resight data will allow estimates of adult population size, as specified in recovery criteria, and to track species population dynamics at Midway Atoll.

  12. Physiological, energetic and behavioural correlates of successful fishway passage of adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in the Seton River, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pon, L B; Hinch, S G; Cooke, S J; Patterson, D A; Farrell, A P

    2009-04-01

    Electromyogram (EMG) radio telemetry was used in conjunction with physiological biopsy to relate prior physiological condition and subsequent swimming energetics and behaviours to passage success of 13 wild adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka at a vertical-slot fishway on the Seton River, British Columbia. At the time of capture, plasma lactate, glucose and cortisol levels indicated that fish were not exhibiting unusually high levels of physiological stress. Very few differences existed between successful and unsuccessful fish in body size, initial plasma physiology and energy state and mean swim speed and energy use during passage. Generally, fish did not employ burst swimming during successful or failed attempts at passage, indicating that failure was probably not related to metabolic acidosis. Plasma Na(+) concentration was significantly lower in unsuccessful fish (P < 0.05), which is suggestive of a depressed ionic state or a possible stress component, although values in all fish were within an expected range for migrant adult O. nerka. Nevertheless, six of 13 fish failed to reascend the fishway and remained in the tailrace of the dam for more than a day on average before moving downstream and away from the dam. During this time, fish were observed actively seeking a means of passage, suggesting that there may have been other, undetermined causes of passage failure. PMID:20735634

  13. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus genogroup-specific virulence mechanisms in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), from Redfish Lake, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, M.K.; Garver, K.A.; Conway, C.; Elliott, D.G.; Kurath, G.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) field isolates from North America has established three main genogroups (U, M and L) that differ in host-specific virulence. In sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, the U genogroup is highly virulent, whereas the M genogroup is nearly non-pathogenic. In this study, we sought to characterize the virus-host dynamics that contribute to genogroup-specific virulence in a captive stock of sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake in Idaho. Juvenile sockeye salmon were challenged by immersion and injection with either a representative U or M viral strain and sampled periodically until 14 days post-infection (p.i.). Fish challenged with each strain had positive viral titre by day 3, regardless of challenge route, but the fish exposed to the M genogroup virus had significantly lower virus titres than fish exposed to the U genogroup virus. Gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to simultaneously assess viral load and host interferon (IFN) response in the anterior kidney. Viral load was significantly higher in the U-challenged fish relative to M-challenged fish. Both viruses induced expression of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but expression was usually significantly lower in the M-challenged group, particularly at later time points (7 and 14 days p.i.). However, ISG expression was comparable with 3 days post-immersion challenge despite a significant difference in viral load. Our data indicated that the M genogroup virus entered the host, replicated and spread in the sockeye salmon tissues, but to a lesser extent than the U genogroup. Both virus types induced a host IFN response, but the high virulence strain (U) continued to replicate in the presence of this response, whereas the low virulence strain (M) was cleared below detectable levels. We hypothesize that high virulence is associated with early in vivo replication allowing the virus to achieve a threshold level, which the

  14. USE OF CITIZEN BIRD POPULATION MONITORING DATA FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Birds are among the most conspicuous and easily monitored indicators of environmental health and change. Although volunteer avian monitoring ('citizen science') programs provide unique opportunities to gather data at fine and broad geographic scales simultaneously, and over long...

  15. Monitoring of Emissions from Natural Gas Production Facilities in Barnett Shale Area for Population Exposure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinska, B.; Fujita, E.; Campbell, D.; Samburova, V.; Hendler, E.; Beskid, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The Barnett Shale study was conducted in April-May 2010 to provide a better understanding of population exposure to air toxics associated with gas production operations in the Barnett Shale region of North Texas. The Barnett Shale is a geological formation that stretches form Dallas to west of Fort Worth and southward, covering 5,000 square miles and 18 counties in the Fort Worth Basin. Oil and gas experts have suggested that it may be the largest onshore natural gas field in the US, containing not only natural gas but also condensate and light oil. Gas production wells in the Barnett Shale area number in the thousands and are spread over a large areas of North Texas. Emissions can occur during various stages in the life of any single well and along various points of the production stream from extraction of raw gas at the well to distribution of commercial grade natural gas at central gathering and processing plants. In the first phase of this study we characterized the emissions from major gas production facilities in the area. An initial survey was performed using a mobile sampling vehicle to identify facilities with measurable emissions. Source-oriented volatile organic compounds (VOC) samples were collected at several facilities with confirmed emissions measured with our continuous survey monitors. In the second phase we conducted saturation monitoring (multiple fixed-ambient sampling locations using passive sampling systems) downwind of gas production areas. One location was near a well with emissions from condensate tanks that were well characterized during Phase 1. A single private residence was located a short distance downwind of this well and was away from other emission sources that might interfere with the measured gradient of emissions from the well. The measurement at this site serves as a case study of the pollutant gradient from a well characterized emission source at various distances downwind of the source relative to the upwind pollutant

  16. Genetic monitoring and complex population dynamics: insights from a 12-year study of the Rio Grande silvery minnow.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Megan J; Carson, Evan W; Turner, Thomas F

    2012-09-01

    The endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow persists as a remnant population in a highly fragmented and regulated arid-land river system. The species is subject to dramatic annual fluctuations in density. Since 2003, the wild population has been supplemented by hatchery-reared fish. We report on a 12-year (1999-2010) monitoring study of genetic diversity and effective population size (N(e)) of wild and hatchery stocks. Our goals were to evaluate how genetic metrics responded to changes in wild fish density and whether they corresponded to the number and levels of diversity of hatchery-reared repatriates. Genetic diversity and all measures of N(e) in the wild population did not correlate with wild fish density until hatchery supplementation began in earnest. Estimates of variance and inbreeding effective size were not correlated. Our results suggest source-sink dynamics where captive stocks form a genetically diverse source and the wild population behaves as a sink. Nevertheless, overall genetic diversity of silvery minnow has been maintained over the last decade, and we attribute this to a well-designed and executed propagation management plan. When multiple factors like environmental fluctuation and hatchery supplementation act simultaneously on a population, interpretation of genetic monitoring data may be equally complex and require considerable ecological data. PMID:23028397

  17. Genetic monitoring and complex population dynamics: insights from a 12-year study of the Rio Grande silvery minnow

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Megan J; Carson, Evan W; Turner, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    The endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow persists as a remnant population in a highly fragmented and regulated arid-land river system. The species is subject to dramatic annual fluctuations in density. Since 2003, the wild population has been supplemented by hatchery-reared fish. We report on a 12-year (1999–2010) monitoring study of genetic diversity and effective population size (Ne) of wild and hatchery stocks. Our goals were to evaluate how genetic metrics responded to changes in wild fish density and whether they corresponded to the number and levels of diversity of hatchery-reared repatriates. Genetic diversity and all measures of Ne in the wild population did not correlate with wild fish density until hatchery supplementation began in earnest. Estimates of variance and inbreeding effective size were not correlated. Our results suggest source–sink dynamics where captive stocks form a genetically diverse source and the wild population behaves as a sink. Nevertheless, overall genetic diversity of silvery minnow has been maintained over the last decade, and we attribute this to a well-designed and executed propagation management plan. When multiple factors like environmental fluctuation and hatchery supplementation act simultaneously on a population, interpretation of genetic monitoring data may be equally complex and require considerable ecological data. PMID:23028397

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A DNA ARCHIVE FOR GENETIC MONITORING OF FISH POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of intraspecific genetic diversity provides a potentially powerful tool to estimate the impacts of environmental stressors on populations. Genetic responses of populations to novel stressors include dramatic shifts in genotype frequencies at loci under selection (i.e. ad...

  19. Dealing with incomplete and variable detectability in multi-year, multi-site monitoring of ecological populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    An ecological monitoring program should be viewed as a component of a larger framework designed to advance science and/or management, rather than as a stand-alone activity. Monitoring targets (the ecological variables of interest; e.g. abundance or occurrence of a species) should be set based on the needs of that framework (Nichols and Williams 2006; e.g. Chapters 2–4). Once such monitoring targets are set, the subsequent step in monitoring design involves consideration of the field and analytical methods that will be used to measure monitoring targets with adequate accuracy and precision. Long-term monitoring programs will involve replication of measurements over time, and possibly over space; that is, one location or each of multiple locations will be monitored multiple times, producing a collection of site visits (replicates). Clearly this replication is important for addressing spatial and temporal variability in the ecological resources of interest (Chapters 7–10), but it is worth considering how this replication can further be exploited to increase the effectiveness of monitoring. In particular, defensible monitoring of the majority of animal, and to a lesser degree plant, populations and communities will generally require investigators to account for imperfect detection (Chapters 4, 18). Raw indices of population state variables, such as abundance or occupancy (sensu MacKenzie et al. 2002), are rarely defensible when detection probabilities are < 1, because in those cases detection may vary over time and space in unpredictable ways. Myriad authors have discussed the risks inherent in making inference from monitoring data while failing to correct for differences in detection, resulting in indices that have an unknown relationship to the parameters of interest (e.g. Nichols 1992, Anderson 2001, MacKenzie et al. 2002, Williams et al. 2002, Anderson 2003, White 2005, Kéry and Schmidt 2008). While others have argued that indices may be preferable in some

  20. Bayesian Modeling of Prion Disease Dynamics in Mule Deer Using Population Monitoring and Capture-Recapture Data

    PubMed Central

    Geremia, Chris; Miller, Michael W.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Antolin, Michael F.; Hobbs, N. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of North American Cervidae have potential to harm ecosystems and economies. We studied a migratory population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) affected by CWD for at least three decades using a Bayesian framework to integrate matrix population and disease models with long-term monitoring data and detailed process-level studies. We hypothesized CWD prevalence would be stable or increase between two observation periods during the late 1990s and after 2010, with higher CWD prevalence making deer population decline more likely. The weight of evidence suggested a reduction in the CWD outbreak over time, perhaps in response to intervening harvest-mediated population reductions. Disease effects on deer population growth under current conditions were subtle with a 72% chance that CWD depressed population growth. With CWD, we forecasted a growth rate near one and largely stable deer population. Disease effects appear to be moderated by timing of infection, prolonged disease course, and locally variable infection. Long-term outcomes will depend heavily on whether current conditions hold and high prevalence remains a localized phenomenon. PMID:26509806

  1. Bayesian Modeling of Prion Disease Dynamics in Mule Deer Using Population Monitoring and Capture-Recapture Data.

    PubMed

    Geremia, Chris; Miller, Michael W; Hoeting, Jennifer A; Antolin, Michael F; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of North American Cervidae have potential to harm ecosystems and economies. We studied a migratory population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) affected by CWD for at least three decades using a Bayesian framework to integrate matrix population and disease models with long-term monitoring data and detailed process-level studies. We hypothesized CWD prevalence would be stable or increase between two observation periods during the late 1990s and after 2010, with higher CWD prevalence making deer population decline more likely. The weight of evidence suggested a reduction in the CWD outbreak over time, perhaps in response to intervening harvest-mediated population reductions. Disease effects on deer population growth under current conditions were subtle with a 72% chance that CWD depressed population growth. With CWD, we forecasted a growth rate near one and largely stable deer population. Disease effects appear to be moderated by timing of infection, prolonged disease course, and locally variable infection. Long-term outcomes will depend heavily on whether current conditions hold and high prevalence remains a localized phenomenon. PMID:26509806

  2. Detailed monitoring of a small but recovering population reveals sublethal effects of disease and unexpected interactions with supplemental feeding.

    PubMed

    Tollington, Simon; Greenwood, Andrew; Jones, Carl G; Hoeck, Paquita; Chowrimootoo, Aurélie; Smith, Donal; Richards, Heather; Tatayah, Vikash; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-07-01

    Infectious diseases are widely recognized to have substantial impact on wildlife populations. These impacts are sometimes exacerbated in small endangered populations, and therefore, the success of conservation reintroductions to aid the recovery of such species can be seriously threatened by outbreaks of infectious disease. Intensive management strategies associated with conservation reintroductions can further compound these negative effects in such populations. Exploring the sublethal effects of disease outbreaks among natural populations is challenging and requires longitudinal, individual life-history data on patterns of reproductive success and other indicators of individual fitness. Long-term monitoring data concerning detailed reproductive information of the reintroduced Mauritius parakeet (Psittacula echo) population collected before, during and after a disease outbreak was investigated. Deleterious effects of an outbreak of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) were revealed on hatch success, but these effects were remarkably short-lived and disproportionately associated with breeding pairs which took supplemental food. Individual BFDV infection status was not predicted by any genetic, environmental or conservation management factors and was not associated with any of our measures of immune function, perhaps suggesting immunological impairment. Experimental immunostimulation using the PHA (phytohaemagglutinin assay) challenge technique did, however, provoke a significant cellular immune response. We illustrate the resilience of this bottlenecked and once critically endangered, island-endemic species to an epidemic outbreak of BFDV and highlight the value of systematic monitoring in revealing inconspicuous but nonetheless substantial ecological interactions. Our study demonstrates that the emergence of such an infectious disease in a population ordinarily associated with increased susceptibility does not necessarily lead to deleterious impacts on population

  3. Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David

    1984-01-01

    Provides guidelines for selecting a monitor to suit specific applications, explains the process by which graphics images are produced on a CRT monitor, and describes four types of flat-panel displays being used in the newest lap-sized portable computers. A comparison chart provides prices and specifications for over 80 monitors. (MBR)

  4. Alternative models of climatic effects on sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adkison, M.; Peterman, R.; Lapointe, M.; Gillis, D.; Korman, J.

    1996-01-01

    We compare alternative models of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity (returns per spawner) using more than 30 years of catch and escapement data for Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia. The models examined include several alternative forms of models that incorporate climatic influences as well as models not based on climate. For most stocks, a stationary stock-recruitment relationship explains very little of the interannual variation in productivity. In Bristol Bay, productivity co-varies among stocks and appears to be strongly related to fluctuations in climate. The best model for Bristol Bay sockeye involved a change in the 1970s in the parameters of the Ricker stock-recruitment curve; the stocks generally became more productive. In contrast, none of the models of Fraser River stocks that we examined explained much of the variability in their productivity.

  5. 2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  6. 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  7. Seasonal components of avian population change: Joint analysis of two large-scale monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    We present a combined analysis of data from two large-scale surveys of bird populations. The North American Breeding Bird Survey is conducted each summer; the Christmas Bird Count is conducted in early winter. The temporal staggering of these surveys allows investigation of seasonal components of population change, which we illustrate with an examination of the effects of severe winters on the Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus). Our analysis uses a hierarchical log-linear model with controls for survey-specific sampling covariates. Temporal change in population size is modeled seasonally, with covariates for winter severity. Overall, the winter?spring seasons are associated with 82% of the total population variation for Carolina Wrens, and an additional day of snow cover during winter?spring is associated with an incremental decline of 1.1% of the population.

  8. Self-blood pressure monitoring in an urban, ethnically diverse population: A randomized clinical trial utilizing the electronic health record

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Stella S.; Tabaei, Bahman P.; Angell, Sonia Y.; Rapin, Anne; Buck, Michael D; Pagano, William G.; Maselli, Frank J.; Simmons, Alvaro; Chamany, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. While control rates have improved over time, racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension control persist. Self-blood pressure monitoring (SBPM), by itself, has been shown to be an effective tool in predominantly white populations, but less studied in minority, urban communities. These types of minimally intensive approaches are important to test in all populations, especially those experiencing related health disparities, for broad implementation with limited resources. Methods and Results The New York City Health Department in partnership with community clinic networks implemented a randomized clinical trial (n=900, 450 per arm) to investigate the effectiveness of SBPM in medically underserved, and largely black and Hispanic participants. Intervention participants received a home blood pressure (BP) monitor and training on use, while control participants received usual care. After 9 months, systolic BP decreased (intervention: 14.7 mm Hg, control: 14.1 mm Hg; p=0.70). Similar results were observed when incorporating longitudinal data and calculating a mean slope over time. Control was achieved in 38.9% of intervention and 39.1% of control participants at the end of follow-up; the time-to-event experience of achieving BP control in the intervention vs. control were not different from each other (logrank p-value=0.91). Conclusions SBPM was not shown to improve control over usual care in this largely minority, urban population. The patient population in this study, which included a high proportion of Hispanics and uninsured persons is understudied. Results indicate these groups may have additional meaningful barriers to achieving BP control beyond access to the monitor itself. PMID:25737487

  9. Growth monitoring still has a place in selected populations of children.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M; John, C M; Mohamed, K; Zbaeda, M; Ng, S M; Chanderasekaran, S; Didi, M; Blair, J C

    2011-01-01

    In 1998, a multiprofessional group developed a consensus on growth monitoring in the UK. While routine serial measurements were not recommended in healthy children, it is clear that there is a subset of children at increased risk of growth-modifying disease who may benefit from growth monitoring. This subset includes children with genetic disorders at increased risk of thyroid dysfunction. Symptoms and signs of thyroid dysfunction are non-specific in the early stages of disease and are easily mistaken for features of an underlying genetic disorder. In this article, we report the case of a 2.8-year-old girl with 18q deletion syndrome who was profoundly weak, hypotonic and poorly responsive at diagnosis of Grave's disease. She was tall and her bone age was 2 years advanced, indicating long-standing disease. Growth monitoring of this patient should have enabled earlier diagnosis and avoided a serious and potentially fatal episode. PMID:22700067

  10. Impact of therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Roger J M; van der Linden, Jan W M; Verweij, Paul E; Burger, David M; Warris, Adilia

    2011-06-01

    Voriconazole trough concentrations more than 1 mg/L are associated with a higher likelihood of success. It is unknown whether these trough concentrations are reached with the current recommended pediatric dosing schedule. We retrospectively analyzed the results of our therapeutic drug monitoring service for voriconazole in 18 children treated at our children's hospital. Thirty-nine voriconazole plasma concentrations were measured. In 44% of patients, the first voriconazole concentration was below the target. Dose adjustment eventually resulted in plasma concentrations within the predefined target range in all patients. Given the high proportion of patients with subtherapeutic concentrations, monitoring plasma concentrations should be performed routinely in pediatric patients receiving voriconazole. PMID:21127454

  11. Monitoring annealing via carbon dioxide laser heating of defect populations in fused silica surfaces using photoluminescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R N; Matthews, M J; Adams, J J; Demos, S G

    2010-02-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and spectroscopy under 266 nm and 355 nm laser excitation are explored as a means of monitoring defect populations in laser-modified sites on the surface of fused silica and their subsequent response to heating to different temperatures via exposure to a CO{sub 2} laser beam. Laser-induced temperature changes were estimated using an analytic solution to the heat flow equation and compared to changes in the PL emission intensity. The results indicate that the defect concentrations decrease significantly with increasing CO{sub 2} laser exposure and are nearly eliminated when the peak surface temperature exceeds the softening point of fused silica ({approx}1900K), suggesting that this method might be suitable for in situ monitoring of repair of defective sites in fused silica optical components.

  12. Assessing power of large river fish monitoring programs to detect population changes: the Missouri River sturgeon example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Holan, S.H.; Bryan, J.L.; Gladish, D.W.; Ellersieck, M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the US Army Corps of Engineers initiated the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP) to monitor pallid sturgeon and the fish community of the Missouri River. The power analysis of PSPAP presented here was conducted to guide sampling design and effort decisions. The PSPAP sampling design has a nested structure with multiple gear subsamples within a river bend. Power analyses were based on a normal linear mixed model, using a mixed cell means approach, with variance estimates from the original data. It was found that, at current effort levels, at least 20 years for pallid and 10 years for shovelnose sturgeon is needed to detect a 5% annual decline. Modified bootstrap simulations suggest power estimates from the original data are conservative due to excessive zero fish counts. In general, the approach presented is applicable to a wide array of animal monitoring programs.

  13. Robust, comparable population metrics through collaborative photo-monitoring of whale sharks Rhincodon typus.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Jason; Norman, Bradley; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2008-01-01

    The formulation of conservation policy for species that are rare and migratory requires broad cooperation to ensure that adequate levels of standardized data collection are achieved and that the results of local analyses are comparable. Estimates of apparent survival rate, relative change in abundance, and proportions of newly marked and returning individuals can inform local management decisions while highlighting corresponding changes at other linked research stations. We have applied computer-assisted photo-identification and mark-recapture population modeling to whale sharks Rhincodon typus at Ningaloo Marine Park (NMP), Western Australia, to create a baseline trend for comparison with other regional aggregations of the species. We estimate several ecological parameters of interest, including an average apparent survival rate of 0.55 yr(-1) for sharks newly marked (new) and 0.83 yr(-1) for sharks captured in multiple seasons (philopatric). The average proportion of philopatric sharks is found to be 0.65 of the total population, and we derive an average population growth rate of 1.12 yr(-1) for them. Our analysis uncovered significant heterogeneity in capture and survival probabilities in this study population; our chosen model structures and data analysis account for these influences and demonstrate a good overall fit to the time-series data. The results show good correspondence between capture probability and an available measure of recapture effort, suggesting that unmodeled systematic effects contribute insignificantly to the model fits. We find no evidence of a decline in the whale shark population at NMP, and our results provide metrics of value to their future management. Overall, our study suggests an effective approach to analyzing and modeling mark-recapture data for a rare species using computer-assisted photo-identification and opportunistic data collection from ecotourism to ensure the quality and volume of data required for population analysis

  14. Bacterial Population Dynamics in a Laboratory Activated Sludge Reactor Monitored by Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Hiroyasu; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Ranasinghe, Purnika; Li, Ning; Gunawardana, Egodaha Gedara Wasana; Hattori, Masahira; Mino, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The microbial population in a laboratory activated sludge reactor was monitored for 245 d at 75 time points by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA. Synthetic wastewater was used as the influent, and the reactor was operated under the same conditions throughout the experiment. The behaviors of different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed. Multiple OTUs showed periodic propagation and recession. One of the OTUs showed sharp recession, which suggests that cells in the OTU were selectively killed. The behaviors of different phylogenetic lineages of Candidatus ‘Accumulibacter phosphatis’ were also visualized. It was clearly demonstrated that pyrosequencing with barcoded primers is a very effective tool to clarify the dynamics of the bacterial population in activated sludge. PMID:23100021

  15. An assessment of techniques for monitoring San Joaquin kit fox population abundance on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.E.

    1987-04-01

    The monitoring of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) population abundance on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) by the US Department of Energy (DOE) is one aspect of compliance with the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Monitoring of the kit fox population is essential to determine the need for specific management programs, to assess the impacts of development activities, to evaluate the results of specific management programs, and to gather information on kit fox biology and ecology as they relate to other aspects of the NPR-1 environment. Several techniques are available to monitor population abundance, but the choice of methods used is dependent upon the specific objectives of the monitoring program. The inherent problem with most available techniques is the lack of uniformity of procedures and statistical repeatability, and the need for validation of indices and population estimates against known populations. If sufficient numbers of foxes can be captured, closed population models using capture-recapture data provide reasonable estimates of population size. Capture data can also be used to determine the minimum trappable population, and the minimum population size during those sessions when fewer than 40 foxes are trapped. The scent-station survey is the best method available for estimating relative kit fox abundance.

  16. Estimation of density and population size and recommendations for monitoring trends of Bahama parrots on Great Abaco and Great Inagua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivera-Milan, F. F.; Collazo, J.A.; Stahala, C.; Moore, W.J.; Davis, A.; Herring, G.; Steinkamp, M.; Pagliaro, R.; Thompson, J.L.; Bracey, W.

    2005-01-01

    Once abundant and widely distributed, the Bahama parrot (Amazona leucocephala bahamensis) currently inhabits only the Great Abaco and Great lnagua Islands of the Bahamas. In January 2003 and May 2002-2004, we conducted point-transect surveys (a type of distance sampling) to estimate density and population size and make recommendations for monitoring trends. Density ranged from 0.061 (SE = 0.013) to 0.085 (SE = 0.018) parrots/ha and population size ranged from 1,600 (SE = 354) to 2,386 (SE = 508) parrots when extrapolated to the 26,154 ha and 28,162 ha covered by surveys on Abaco in May 2002 and 2003, respectively. Density was 0.183 (SE = 0.049) and 0.153 (SE = 0.042) parrots/ha and population size was 5,344 (SE = 1,431) and 4,450 (SE = 1,435) parrots when extrapolated to the 29,174 ha covered by surveys on Inagua in May 2003 and 2004, respectively. Because parrot distribution was clumped, we would need to survey 213-882 points on Abaco and 258-1,659 points on Inagua to obtain a CV of 10-20% for estimated density. Cluster size and its variability and clumping increased in wintertime, making surveys imprecise and cost-ineffective. Surveys were reasonably precise and cost-effective in springtime, and we recommend conducting them when parrots are pairing and selecting nesting sites. Survey data should be collected yearly as part of an integrated monitoring strategy to estimate density and other key demographic parameters and improve our understanding of the ecological dynamics of these geographically isolated parrot populations at risk of extinction.

  17. Using global information technology to detect, monitor, and control mosquito pest and disease vector populations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS), image analysis, and remote sensing comprise global information technologies that are used to characterize pest and vector populations of mosquitoes. At this national meeting, scientists from ARS and McNeese State University organized and convened a half-day sym...

  18. USE OF ARISA TO MONITOR SHIFTS IN RUMEN MICROBIAL POPULATIONS CAUSED BY CHANGES IN DIET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine whether automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) is sensitive enough to detect shifts in rumen microbial populations caused by dietary changes. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating, non-pregnant Holstein cows were sampled for rumen contents in a random...

  19. History of pronghorn population monitoring, research, and management in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keating, Kim A.

    2002-01-01

    over time. Despite these deficiencies, considerable information was reviewed, earlier summaries of population classification and count data were updated, and previously uncited sources of information were identified that challenge important aspects of previous interpretations of the history of pronghorns and pronghorn management in YNP. Information is grouped into 4 major subject areas: distribution and habitat use, demographics and management, genetics, and disease.

  20. A LABORATORY BIOASSAY FOR MONITORING RESISTANCE IN TARNISHED PLANT BUG POPULATIONS TO NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory bioassay was developed for testing tarnished plant bug populations for resistance development to the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. The bioassay allows for the determination of LC50 values by feeding known doses of the insecticides to adult tarnished plant bu...

  1. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; McClarty, Leigh M; Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs' vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among "key populations" (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya. PMID:26313642

  2. Mitochondrial DNA variants help monitor the dynamics of Wolbachia invasion into host populations.

    PubMed

    Yeap, H L; Rašić, G; Endersby-Harshman, N M; Lee, S F; Arguni, E; Le Nguyen, H; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium of insects and other arthropods that can rapidly invade host populations. Deliberate releases of Wolbachia into natural populations of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, are used as a novel biocontrol strategy for dengue suppression. Invasion of Wolbachia through the host population relies on factors such as high fidelity of the endosymbiont transmission and limited immigration of uninfected individuals, but these factors can be difficult to measure. One way of acquiring relevant information is to consider mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation alongside Wolbachia in field-caught mosquitoes. Here we used diagnostic mtDNA markers to differentiate infection-associated mtDNA haplotypes from those of the uninfected mosquitoes at release sites. Unique haplotypes associated with Wolbachia were found at locations outside Australia. We also performed mathematical and qualitative analyses including modelling the expected dynamics of the Wolbachia and mtDNA variants during and after a release. Our analyses identified key features in haplotype frequency patterns to infer the presence of imperfect maternal transmission of Wolbachia, presence of immigration and possibly incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility. We demonstrate that ongoing screening of the mtDNA variants should provide information on maternal leakage and immigration, particularly in releases outside Australia. As we demonstrate in a case study, our models to track the Wolbachia dynamics can be successfully applied to temporal studies in natural populations or Wolbachia release programs, as long as there is co-occurring mtDNA variation that differentiates infected and uninfected populations. PMID:26531251

  3. Mitochondrial DNA variants help monitor the dynamics of Wolbachia invasion into host populations

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, H L; Rašić, G; Endersby-Harshman, N M; Lee, S F; Arguni, E; Le Nguyen, H; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium of insects and other arthropods that can rapidly invade host populations. Deliberate releases of Wolbachia into natural populations of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, are used as a novel biocontrol strategy for dengue suppression. Invasion of Wolbachia through the host population relies on factors such as high fidelity of the endosymbiont transmission and limited immigration of uninfected individuals, but these factors can be difficult to measure. One way of acquiring relevant information is to consider mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation alongside Wolbachia in field-caught mosquitoes. Here we used diagnostic mtDNA markers to differentiate infection-associated mtDNA haplotypes from those of the uninfected mosquitoes at release sites. Unique haplotypes associated with Wolbachia were found at locations outside Australia. We also performed mathematical and qualitative analyses including modelling the expected dynamics of the Wolbachia and mtDNA variants during and after a release. Our analyses identified key features in haplotype frequency patterns to infer the presence of imperfect maternal transmission of Wolbachia, presence of immigration and possibly incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility. We demonstrate that ongoing screening of the mtDNA variants should provide information on maternal leakage and immigration, particularly in releases outside Australia. As we demonstrate in a case study, our models to track the Wolbachia dynamics can be successfully applied to temporal studies in natural populations or Wolbachia release programs, as long as there is co-occurring mtDNA variation that differentiates infected and uninfected populations. PMID:26531251

  4. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E.; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F.; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs’ vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among “key populations” (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya. PMID:26313642

  5. Monitoring of a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus population on the Frazier Islands, Wilkes Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creuwels, J.C.S.; Stark, J.S.; Woehler, Eric J.; Van Franeker, J. A.; Ribic, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1956, Southern Giant Petrels on the Frazier Islands, East Antarctica, have been counted with different census techniques, sometimes varying within seasons and among islands, which hindered analysis of the data. Protective measures for the islands from 1986 onwards have increased the need for reliable long-term census data, but reduced the ways to collect these data. Published and unpublished data were re-examined, and population trends were reconstructed based on two relatively standardised techniques: the number of active chicks (AC) and the number of apparently occupied nests (AON) around hatching. AC-values from Nelly Island from 1959 to 1998 indicate substantial periodic fluctuations, but no consistent long-term change. Since the late 1970s, AC-values on the other two islands and AON-values suggest that the breeding population may have grown by 35%. This recent growth, however, is within the extent of periodic fluctuations observed in Southern Giant Petrel population that is stable over the long term. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  6. Pheromone-based monitoring of Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations in concord grape vineyards.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Naidu, R A; Daane, K M; Millar, J G; Walsh, D B

    2013-02-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), is the dominant mealybug in Washington's Concord grape vineyards (Vitis labrusca L.). It is a direct pest of fruit clusters and a vector of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses. Using traps baited with the sex pheromone of Ps. maritimus, we determined the optimal trap density for monitoring Ps. maritimus, with the goal of providing a more rapid monitoring method for Ps. maritimus than visual surveys. Varying densities of pheromone-baited traps (one, four, and eight traps per 12.14 ha) were deployed in Concord vineyards to monitor Ps. maritimus seasonal phenology in 2010 and 2011. In both years, flights of adult males were detected in early May and captures peaked twice per season in mid-June and mid-August, indicating two generations each year. Trap data were analyzed using Taylor's Power Law, Iwao's patchiness regression, and the K parameter of the negative binomial model to determine optimal sample size. The formula using the K parameter provided the lowest required sample size, showing that four to eight traps per 12.14 ha were needed to provide 30% sampling precision efficiency throughout the entire season. Fewer traps were needed during flight peaks when trap capture numbers were great. Only one pheromone-baited trap per 12.14 ha was sufficient to provide Ps. maritimus flight phenology data to make informed management decisions. Species-specific pheromone-baited traps deployed for Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti), and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) did not detect any of these species in the vineyards sampled. PMID:23448065

  7. Dynamics of a Tularemia Outbreak in a Closely Monitored Free-Roaming Population of Wild House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dobay, Akos; Pilo, Paola; Lindholm, Anna K.; Origgi, Francesco; Bagheri, Homayoun C.; König, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Infectious disease outbreaks can be devastating because of their sudden occurrence, as well as the complexity of monitoring and controlling them. Outbreaks in wildlife are even more challenging to observe and describe, especially when small animals or secretive species are involved. Modeling such infectious disease events is relevant to investigating their dynamics and is critical for decision makers to accomplish outbreak management. Tularemia, caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a potentially lethal zoonosis. Of the few animal outbreaks that have been reported in the literature, only those affecting zoo animals have been closely monitored. Here, we report the first estimation of the basic reproduction number R0 of an outbreak in wildlife caused by F. tularensis using quantitative modeling based on a susceptible-infected-recovered framework. We applied that model to data collected during an extensive investigation of an outbreak of tularemia caused by F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (also designated as type B) in a closely monitored, free-roaming house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) population in Switzerland. Based on our model and assumptions, the best estimated basic reproduction number R0 of the current outbreak is 1.33. Our results suggest that tularemia can cause severe outbreaks in small rodents. We also concluded that the outbreak self-exhausted in approximately three months without administrating antibiotics. PMID:26536232

  8. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  9. Daily microhabitat shifting of solitarious-phase Desert locust adults: implications for meaningful population monitoring.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Koutaro Ould; Ould Ely, Sidi; Nakamura, Satoshi; Abdellaoui, Khemais; Cissé, Sory; Jaavar, Mohamed El Hacen; Ould Mohamed, Sid'Ahmed; Atheimine, Mohamed; Ould Babah, Mohamed Abdallahi

    2016-01-01

    The Desert locust Schistocerca gregaria is a major world pest that causes substantial agricultural and economic damage. Effective pest control relies on effective monitoring, which requires knowledge of locust microhabitat selection. Yet little is known about microhabitat selection of solitarious adult locusts in the field. We conducted field surveys to investigate fine-scale diel temporal and spatial distributions of solitarious adults in the Sahara Desert in Mauritania, a major breeding and recession area. We found that solitarious adults moved among different, specific microhabitats throughout the 24-h period in a cyclical manner. At night, they roosted in trees, moved to the ground to feed shortly after dawn, sheltered in low vegetation during the hot midday, and returned to the ground in the late afternoon. Hence, they switched microhabitats and plant species throughout each day. These cyclical daily movements among diverse microhabitats and specific plant species were correlated with time of day, light intensity, temperature, humidity, and specific plant species, and may relate to anti-predator defence, thermoregulation, and feeding. The present study suggests that locust monitoring should be adjusted, based on time of day, locust age, phase state and relative abundance of specific plant species. For example, we recommend surveying ground after morning and trees at night, for solitarious adults, when at low density. PMID:26877905

  10. Use of a plasmid DNA probe to monitor populations of Bacillus pumilus inoculant strains in hay

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrick, C.A.; Smiley, B.K.; Shelley, T.H.; Tomes, N.J. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors are evaluating naturally occurring isolates of Bacillus pumilus for use as microbial hay preservatives. Seven isolates of B, pumilus from hay contained a 42-kb cryptic plasmid (pMGD296). They wished to determine whether pMGD296 could be used as a molecular marker to follow populations of these isolates in hay over time. Southern blots and colony blots of 69 isolates of B. pumilus and other Bacillus spp. were probed with {sup 32}P-labeled pMGD296. Twenty-nine probe-positive isolates were identified; of these, 28 contained a plasmid with a restriction profile identical to that of pMGD296. One isolate from untreated hay contained a 40-kb plasmid (pMGD150) that was homologous to pMGD296 but had a different restriction fragment pattern. Regions of homology between the two plasmids were identified by Southern blotting, and a 1.9-kb HindIII-PstI fragment of pMGD296 lacking strong homology to pMGD150 was cloned in pUC18. The cloned fragment hybridized only with isolates containing pMGD296 and was used to estimate populations of these isolates in treated and untreated hay.

  11. Battery of monitoring tests for the detection of human population exposures to genotoxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.B. Jr.; Legator, M.S.; Chang, L.W.; Pereira, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    Environmental and occupational exposures of human populations to mutagenic chemicals have caused concern but have been difficult to document because rapid and sensitive techniques for assessing the effects of exposure have not been available. We are evaluating a battery of tests for the detection of exposure of human populations to known or suspected mutagens. Parallel laboratory studies using the same or analogous assays are being conducted with animals and are reported in an accompanying abstract. Exposed individuals are matched for age, sex and lifestyle factors with unexposed control individuals. Blood, urine and in males, semen are collected from both age groups simultaneously. The tests performed with these samples include cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges, evaluation for DNA damage in lymphocytes by the alkaline elution technique, analysis of hemoglobin for alkylation, analysis of urine for excreted mutagens and analysis of semen for sperm count, abnormal morphology and Y chromosome non-disjunction. Our initial study is evaluating the effects of a formaldehyde exposure in a major hospital autopsy service. Environmental measurements show that individuals are exposed to transient levels of 1-5 ppm during certain activities with background levels of 0.1-0.5 ppm at other times. To date 19 exposed and 19 control subjects have been sampled a total of 101 times. The only difference indicated to date between exposed and control groups was an upward shift in the distribution of chromosome aberration rates for formaldehyde exposed subjects and alcohol consumers compared to non-drinkers.

  12. Usability Study of a Wireless Monitoring System among Alzheimer's Disease Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Avvenuti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare technologies are slowly entering into our daily lives, replacing old devices and techniques with newer intelligent ones. Although they are meant to help people, the reaction and willingness to use such new devices by the people can be unexpected, especially among the elderly. We conducted a usability study of a fall monitoring system in a long-term nursing home. The subjects were the elderly with advanced Alzheimer's disease. The study presented here highlights some of the challenges faced in the use of wearable devices and the lessons learned. The results gave us useful insights, leading to ergonomics and aesthetics modifications to our wearable systems that significantly improved their usability and acceptance. New evaluating metrics were designed for the performance evaluation of usability and acceptability. PMID:24963289

  13. Deposition Form and Bioaccessibility of Keto-carotenoids from Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota), Red Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum), and Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Filet.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Ordóñez, Tania; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-03-01

    The ultrastructure and carotenoid-bearing structures of mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) chromoplasts were elucidated using light and transmission electron microscopy and compared to carotenoid deposition forms in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Globular-tubular chromoplasts of sapote contained numerous lipid globules and tubules embodying unique provitamin A keto-carotenoids in a lipid-dissolved and presumably liquid-crystalline form, respectively. Bioaccessibility of sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin was compared to that of structurally related keto-carotenoids from red bell pepper and salmon. Capsanthin from bell pepper was the most bioaccessible pigment, followed by sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin esters from mamey sapote. In contrast, astaxanthin from salmon was the least bioaccessible keto-carotenoid. Thermal treatment and fat addition consistently enhanced bioaccessibility, except for astaxanthin from naturally lipid-rich salmon, which remained unaffected. Although the provitamin A keto-carotenoids from sapote were highly bioaccessible, their qualitative and quantitative in vivo bioavailability and their conversion to vitamin A remains to be confirmed. PMID:26888016

  14. Monitoring of perchlorate in diverse foods and its estimated dietary exposure for Korea populations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Woo; Oh, Sung-Hee; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2012-12-01

    The perchlorate concentrations in various Korean food samples were monitored, and 663 samples belonging to 39 kinds of food were analyzed. The analysis results revealed that dairy products contain the highest average concentration of 6.34 μg/kg and high detection frequency of over 85%. Fruit and vegetables showed the next highest perchlorate concentration with an average of 6.17 μg/kg. Especially, with its average concentration of 39.9 μg/kg, spinach showed the highest perchlorate level among all target food samples studied. Tomato was followed by spinach, which showed a high perchlorate average concentration of 19.8 μg/kg, and over 7 μg/kg was detected in ham and sausage (avg. 7.31 μg/kg) and in instant noodles (avg. 7.58 μg/kg). Less than 2 μg/kg was detected in fishes, meats and beverages. The exposure dose of perchlorate in Korean by food intake was calculated on the basis of the analyzed perchlorate levels in this study. The daily perchlorate dose to which Korean adults are exposed is 0.04 μg/kg bw/day, which is lower than the RfD (0.7 μg/kg bw/day) value suggested by US NAS. This result indicates that Korean people's current exposure to perchlorate from domestic food consumption is evaluated as safe. PMID:23116718

  15. Microbiology of subtidal sediments: Monitoring microbial populations. Restoration project 93047-2. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braddock, J.F.; Richter, Z.

    1994-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with statistically significant higher values at the oiled sites than at reference sites. In the summer of 1993, the authors returned to ten study sites within Prince William Sound to monitor the changes in the numbers and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms at these sites with time. In 1993 the numbers and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were generally very low at all sites although elevated populations and activities were measured in intertidal sub-surface samples at several sites (Northwest Bay, Herring Bay and Sleepy Bay) with observable sub-surface oiling.

  16. Variability in colony attendance of crevice-nesting horned puffins: Implications for population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Byrd, G.V.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Konyukhov, N.B.; Golubova, E.U.; Williams, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult to survey crevice-nesting seabirds because nest-sites are hard to identify and count, and the number of adult birds attending a colony can be extremely variable within and between days. There is no standardized method for surveying crevice-nesting horned puffins (Fratercula corniculata), and consequently little is known about abundance or changes in their numbers. We examined the variability in colony attendance of horned puffins at 5 breeding colonies in the North Pacific to assess whether variation in count data can be reduced to a level that would allow us to detect changes in the number of birds attending a colony. We used within-year measures of variation in attendance to examine the power to detect a change in numbers between 2 years, and we used measures of among-year variation to examine the power to detect trends over multiple years. Diurnal patterns of attendance differed among colonies, and among-day variation in attendance was generally lowest from mid- to late-incubation to early chick rearing. Within-year variation in water counts was lower than in land counts, and variation was lower using a daily index based on 5 counts per day than it was using 1 count per day. Measures of among-year variation in attendance also were higher for land-based than water-based counts, and they were higher when we used a 10-day survey period than when we used a 30-day period. The use of either 1 or 5 counts a day during the colony-specific diurnal peak of attendance had little influence on levels of among-year variation. Overall, our study suggests that variation in count data may be reduced to a level that allows detection of trends in numbers. However, more studies of interannual variability in horned puffin attendance are needed. Further, the relationship between count data and breeding population size needs more study before the number of birds present at the colony can be used with confidence as an index of population trend.

  17. Prevention of traumatic nail gun injuries in apprentice carpenters: Use of population-based measures to monitor intervention effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Hester J.; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Dement, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Nail guns are responsible for a significant injury burden in residential construction. Risk, based on hours of work, is particularly high among apprentice carpenters due in part to more frequent exposure to tool use. Methods Nail gun injuries were evaluated over 3 years among carpenters enrolled in two apprenticeship programs in the Midwest (2.3 million residential work hours observed) following initiation of training and a voluntary ANSI standard change calling for safer sequential triggers on framing nailers. Injury rates, based on hours of tool use, were calculated yearly. Rates and adjusted rate ratios were calculated with Poisson regression. Attributable risk percent and population attributable risk were calculated yearly for modifiable independent risk factors for injury including lack of training in tool use and type of trigger mechanism on tools being used. Results As apprentices received training and safer trigger mechanisms became more widespread, injury rates decreased significantly (31%). While school training and hands-on mentoring were both important, injury rates were lowest among apprentices who received both. Although injury rates changed over the observation period, the relative risk comparing trigger mechanisms did not; contact trip triggers consistently carried a two-fold risk. Conclusions Although training and safer trigger use both increased, because of the relative prevalence of training and trigger exposures in this population, the engineering solution consistently had the potential to make more difference in population risk. Our findings demonstrate the utility of observational methods including measures of population–based risk in monitoring intervention effectiveness and making recommendations that lead to injury reduction. PMID:18704898

  18. Environmental and biological monitoring of exposures to PAHs and ETS in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Aquilina, Noel J.; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Mari; Meddings, Claire; Baker, Stephen; Harrison, Roy M.; Jacob, Peyton; Wilson, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Duan, Minjiang; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and PAH metabolites in urine samples of non-occupationally exposed non-smoker adult subjects and to establish relationships between airborne exposures and urinary concentrations in order to (a) assess the suitability of the studied metabolites as biomarkers of PAH and ETS, (b) study the use of 3-ethenypyridine as ETS tracer and (c) link ETS scenarios with exposures to carcinogenic PAH and VOC. Urine samples from 100 subjects were collected and concentrations of monophenolic metabolites of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene and the nicotine metabolites cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine were measured using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to assess PAH and ETS exposures. Airborne exposures were measured using personal exposure samplers and analysed using GC–MS. These included 1,3-butadiene (BUT), 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) (a tobacco-specific tracer derived from nicotine pyrolysis) and PAHs. ETS was reported by the subjects in 30-min time–activity questionnaires and specific comments were collected in an ETS questionnaire each time ETS exposure occurred. The values of 3-EP (>0.25 μg/m3 for ETS) were used to confirm the ETS exposure status of the subject. Concentrations as geometric mean, GM, and standard deviation (GSD) of personal exposures were 0.16 (5.50)μg/m3 for 3-EP, 0.22 (4.28)μg/m3 for BUT and 0.09 (3.03)ng/m3 for benzo(a)pyrene. Concentrations of urinary metabolites were 0.44 (1.70)ng/mL for 1-hydroxypyrene and 0.88 (5.28)ng/mL for cotinine. Concentrations of urinary metabolites of nicotine were lower than in most previous studies, suggesting very low exposures in the ETS-exposed group. Nonetheless, concentrations were higher in the ETS population for cotinine, trans-3′hydroxycotinine, 3-EP, BUT and most high molecular weight PAH, whilst 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3+ 4-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene were only higher in

  19. System development over the monitoring for the purpose of early warning of population from the threat of landslides. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidova, D. V.; Kadyrhodjaev, A.; Scientific Team Of Hydroengeo Institute On Natural Hazards

    2010-12-01

    Well-timed warning of the population about possible landslide threat is one of the main positions in order to provide safe and stable country development. The system of monitoring over dangerous geological processes includes such components, as observation, forecast, control and management. Aspects of forecasting take special place. Having wide row of observations there can be possible to reveal some regularity of the phenomena, basing on which, it is possible to proceed forecasting. We looked through many approaches of forecasting that are used in different countries. The analysis of the available work has allowed to draw up a conclusion that while referring to the question of landslide forecasting, it is necessary to approach in system form, taking into account interacting components of the nature. The study of landslide processes has shown that these processes lies within the framework of engineering-geological directions of the science and also interacts with tectonics, geomorphology, hydrogeology, hydrology, climate change, technogenesis and etc. Thereby, the necessity of system approach, achievements of modern science and technology the most expedient approach to make a decision at landslide forecasting is probabilistic-statistical method with complex use of geological and satellite data, specific images processed through geoinformation systems. In this connection, probabilistic-statistical approach, reflecting natural characteristics of interacting natural system, allows to take into account multi-factored processes of landslide activations. Among the many factors, influencing on landslide activation, there exist ones that are not amenable to numerical feature. The parameters of these factors have descriptive, qualitative, rather than quantitative nature. Leaving these factors with lack of attention is absolutely not reasonable. Proposed approach has one more advantage, which allows taking into account not only numerical, but also non-numeric parameters

  20. Relationship between HbA1c and Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Chinese Population: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Ran, Xingwu; Yang, Wenying; Li, Qiang; Peng, Yongde; Li, Yanbing; Gao, Xin; Luan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weiqing; Xie, Yun; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Objective Since there is a paucity of reference data in the literature to indicate the relationship between HbA1c, and 24 h mean blood glucose (MBG) from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in Chinese populations, we described the above relationship in adult Chinese subjects with different glucose tolerance status. Methods Seven-hundred-and-forty-two individuals without history of diabetes were included to the study at 11 hospitals in urban areas across China from 2007–2009 and data of 673 subjects were included into the final analysis. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) classified the participants as nondiabetic subjects, including those with normal glucose regulation (NGR; n = 121) and impaired glucose regulation (IGR; n = 209), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 343). All participants completed testing for HbA1c levels and wore a CGM system for three consecutive days. The 24 h MBG levels were calculated. Spearman correlations and linear regression analyses were applied to quantify the relationship between glucose markers. Results The levels of HbA1c and 24 h MBG significantly increased with presence of glucose intolerance (NGRpopulation indicated that HbA1c was strongly correlated with 24 h MBG (r = 0.735). The correlation was also found to be significant for the subgroup of participants with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (r = 0.694, P<0.001). Linear regression analysis of the total study population yielded the following equation: 24 h MBG mmol/L = 1.198×HbA1c–0.582 (24 h MBG mg/dL = 21.564×HbA1c–10.476) (R2 = 0.670, P<0.001). The model fit was not improved by application of exponential or quadratic modeling. When HbA1c was 6.5%, the calculated 24 h MBG was 7.2 (6.4–8.1) mmol/L (130 (115–146) mg/dL); and when HbA1c was 7.0%, the 24 h MBG was 7.8 (6.9–8.7) mmol/L (140 (124–157) mg/dL). Conclusions Our study provided the reference data of the

  1. Comprehensive Challenges for the Well Being of Young Children: A Population-Based Study of Publicly Monitored Risks in a Large Urban Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    This population-based study investigated the unique and cumulative relations between risks that are monitored by public surveillance systems and academic and behavioral outcomes for an entire cohort of third graders in a large, urban public school system. Using integrated, administrative records from child welfare, public health, housing, and…

  2. Monitoring metals in the population living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: concentrations in autopsy tissues.

    PubMed

    Bocio, Ana; Nadal, Martí; Garcia, Francisco; Domingo, Jose L

    2005-07-01

    This study is a part of a monitoring program for the determination of metals in various human tissues of the population living in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Constantí (Tarragona County, Spain). Concentrations of arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), and vanadium (V) were determined in brain, bone, kidney, liver, and lung autopsy samples collected in 2003 from 22 individuals who had been living for at least 10 yr in the area under evaluation. Results were compared with the metal levels obtained in a baseline study, which was performed during the construction of the HWI (1996--1998). In the present survey, As, Be, Tl, and V levels were not detected in any of the analyzed tissues, while Cr concentrations were very close to the limit of detection. The highest levels of Cd and Hg were found in kidney (17.46 microg/g and 0.23 microg/g, respectively), those of Mn in liver (1.07 microg/g), and those of Ni, Pb, and Sn in bone (1.16 microg/g, 2.11 microg/g, and 0.34 microg/g, respectively). In comparison to the results of the baseline study, a general reduction of most metal concentrations was observed in the current survey. PMID:16037609

  3. Diabrotica egg separation from soil: an efficient and fast procedure for monitoring egg stages of corn rootworm populations.

    PubMed

    Shaw, J T; Hummel, H E

    2003-01-01

    Maize growers repeatedly are confronted with the need to make predictions and decisions about which of their fields are likely to develop corn rootworm populations above the economic threshold and are in need of treatment. One of the best parameters that can help as a basis for these decisions are corn rootworm egg counts in the soil. The Western corn rootworms have one generation each year. Females oviposit eggs in the soil in corn fields from late July through early September. These eggs overwinter in the soil and almost all hatch the following June. An apparatus is described that utilizes water, MgSO4 solution and differing screen sieves for extracting the rootworm eggs from the soil samples collected from the field after deciding on an acceptable sampling procedure. Samples may be a composite of subsamples or a number of individual samples taken at various locations in a field. The Illinois machine and the final separation of eggs, using flotation in 2 molar MgSO4 solution, are highly efficient, and recoveries of 97% of rootworm eggs manually placed in samples of soil have repeatedly been achieved. Thus, this would be a useful tool in integrated pest management programs that monitor the density of corn rootworm eggs in corn fields. PMID:15149094

  4. Rivaroxaban and other novel oral anticoagulants: pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects, specific patient populations and relevance of coagulation monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Unlike traditional anticoagulants, the more recently developed agents rivaroxaban, dabigatran and apixaban target specific factors in the coagulation cascade to attenuate thrombosis. Rivaroxaban and apixaban directly inhibit Factor Xa, whereas dabigatran directly inhibits thrombin. All three drugs exhibit predictable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics that allow for fixed oral doses in a variety of settings. The population pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban, and also dabigatran, have been evaluated in a series of models using patient data from phase II and III clinical studies. These models point towards a consistent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, even when extreme demographic factors are taken into account, meaning that doses rarely need to be adjusted. The exception is in certain patients with renal impairment, for whom pharmacokinetic modelling provided the rationale for reduced doses as part of some regimens. Although not routinely required, the ability to measure plasma concentrations of these agents could be advantageous in emergency situations, such as overdose. Specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics must be taken into account when selecting an appropriate assay for monitoring. The anti-Factor Xa chromogenic assays now available are likely to provide the most appropriate means of determining plasma concentrations of rivaroxaban and apixaban, and specific assays for dabigatran are in development. PMID:23809871

  5. Linking physical monitoring to coho and Chinook salmon populations in the Redwood Creek Watershed, California—Summary of May 3–4, 2012 Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, Mary Ann; Torregrosa, Alicia; Woodward, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    On Thursday, May 3, 2012, a science workshop was held at the Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP) office in Arcata, California, with researchers and resource managers working in RNSP to share data and expert opinions concerning salmon populations and habitat in the Redwood Creek watershed. The focus of the workshop was to discuss how best to synthesize physical and biological data related to the freshwater and estuarine phases of salmon life cycles in order to increase the understanding of constraints on salmon populations. The workshop was hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends (S&T) Program National Park Monitoring Project (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/brdscience/ParkMonitoring.htm), which supports USGS research on priority topics (themes) identified by the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program (I&M) and S&T. The NPS has organized more than 270 parks with significant natural resources into 32 Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Networks (http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/networks.cfm) that share funding and core professional staff to monitor the status and long-term trends of selected natural resources (http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor). All 32 networks have completed vital signs monitoring plans (available at http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor/MonitoringPlans.cfm), containing background information on the important resources of each park, conceptual models behind the selection of vital signs for monitoring the condition of natural resources, and the selection of high priority vital signs for monitoring. Vital signs are particular physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems that represent the overall health or condition of the park, known or hypothesized effects of stressors, or elements that have important human values (Fancy and others, 2009). Beginning in 2009, the I&M program funded projects to analyze and synthesize the biotic and abiotic data generated by vital signs

  6. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Janelle R.; Scholz, Allan T.

    1991-09-01

    As partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead incurred by construction of Grand Coulee Dam, the Northwest Power Planning Council directed Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to construct two kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) hatcheries on Lake Roosevelt (NPPC 1987 [Section 903 (g)(l)(C)]). The hatcheries are to produce 8 million kokanee salmon fry or 3.2 million adults for outplanting into Lake Roosevelt as well as 500,000 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Lake Roosevelt net-pen programs. In section 903 (g)(l)(E), the Council also directed BPA to fund a monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the kokanee hatcheries. The monitoring program included the following components: (1) conduction of a year-round creel census survey to determine angler pressure, catch rates and composition, growth and condition of fish caught by anglers, and economic value of the fishery. Comparisons will be made before and after hatcheries are on-line to determine hatchery effectiveness; (2) conduct an assessment of kokanee, rainbow trout, and walleye feeding habits, growth rates, and densities of their preferred prey at different locations in the reservoir and how reservoir operations affect population dynamics of preferred prey organisms. This information will be used to determine kokanee and rainbow trout stocking locations, stocking densities and stocking times; (3) conduct a mark-recapture study designed to assess effectiveness of various release times and locations for hatchery-raised kokanee and net-pen raised rainbow so fish-loss over Grand Coulee Dam will be minimized, homing to egg collection sites will be improved and angler harvest will be increased. The above measures were adopted by the Council based on a management plan developed by Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center, Spokane Indian Tribe, Colville Confederated Tribes, Washington Department of Wildlife, and the National Park Service. This plan examined the

  7. Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

  8. Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to competition with Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscho) and the 1977 ocean regime shift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Farley, E.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Hagen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research demonstrated significantly lower growth and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second or third years at sea (1975, 1977, etc.), a trend that was opposite that of Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) abundance. Here we evaluated seasonal growth trends of Kvichak and Egegik river sockeye salmon (Bristol Bay stocks) during even- and odd-numbered years at sea by measuring scale circuli increments within each growth zone of each major salmon age group between 1955 and 2000. First year scale growth was not significantly different between odd- and even-numbered years, but peak growth of age-2. smolts was significantly higher than age-1. smolts. Total second and third year scale growth of salmon was significantly lower during odd- than during even-numbered years. However, reduced scale growth in odd-numbered years began after peak growth in spring and continued through summer and fall even though most pink salmon had left the high seas by late July (10-18% growth reduction in odd vs. even years). The alternating odd and even year growth pattern was consistent before and after the 1977 ocean regime shift. During 1977-2000, when salmon abundance was relatively great, sockeye salmon growth was high during specific seasons compared with that during 1955-1976, that is to say, immediately after entry to Bristol Bay, after peak growth in the first year, during the middle of the second growing season, and during spring of the third season. Growth after the spring peak in the third year at sea was relatively low during 1977-2000. We hypothesize that high consumption rates of prey by pink salmon during spring through mid-July of odd-numbered years, coupled with declining zooplankton biomass during summer and potentially cyclic abundances of squid and other prey, contributed to reduced prey availability and therefore reduced growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon during late spring through fall of odd

  9. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for fine-scale population genetic analysis of the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis based on 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, Claudio; Tzika, Athanasia C; Natali, Chiara; Watts, Phillip C; Sulandari, Sri; Zein, Moch S A; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2011-05-01

    Multiplex PCR assays for the coamplification of microsatellite loci allow rapid and cost-effective genetic analyses and the production of efficient screening protocols for international breeding programs. We constructed a partial genomic library enriched for di-nucleotide repeats and characterized 14 new microsatellite loci for the Komodo monitor (or Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis). Using these novel microsatellites and four previously described loci, we developed multiplex PCR assays that may be loaded on a genetic analyser in three separate panels. We tested the novel set of microsatellites for polymorphism using 69 individuals from three island populations and evaluated the resolving power of the entire panel of 18 loci by conducting (i) a preliminary assignment test to determine population(s) of origin and (ii) a parentage analysis for 43 captive Komodo monitors. This panel of polymorphic loci proved useful for both purposes and thus can be exploited for fine-scale population genetic analyses and as part of international captive breeding programs directed at maintaining genetically viable ex situ populations and reintroductions. PMID:21481213

  10. Factors Associated with Perceived Parental Academic Monitoring in a Population of Low-Income, African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rath, Jessica Miller; Gielen, Andrea C.; Haynie, Denise L.; Solomon, Barry S.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent academic achievement is closely linked to numerous health outcomes. Studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between parental academic monitoring and adolescent academic achievement. Less is known about factors associated with parental academic monitoring, and research is particularly lacking with low-income, African American…

  11. Comparison of PCR-DGGE and selective plating methods for monitoring the dynamics of a mixed culture population in synthetic brewery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kawai; Yang, Ching-Hong; Matsumoto, Mark R; Crowley, David E; Sheppard, John D

    2005-01-01

    Enrichment of an activated sludge inoculum in synthetic brewery wastewater, which included glucose, maltose, and ethanol, was conducted in batch experiments to identify the dominant microbes present, to determine methodologies capable of monitoring the mixed culture population dynamics, and to determine the consortium's substrate degradation behavior. These results and methodologies were subsequently used in the determination of the population dynamics of suspended and attached microorganisms in a sequencing batch system in the second part of this research work. The three-membered microbial community comprised two bacterial and one fungal species that were identified as Acinetobacter sp., Enterobacter sp., and Candida sp. PCR-DGGE and plating on selective media were used to track the population dynamics of the consortium during the degradation of different substrates in synthetic wastewater containing glucose, maltose, and ethanol. Enterobacter sp. could degrade glucose and maltose but not ethanol, whereas Acinetobacter and Candida could degrade all three carbon sources. In buffered batch mixed culture experiments, Enterobacter was the predominant bacterium until the sugar concentrations decreased to levels that enabled Acinetobacter and Candida to degrade ethanol. PCR-DGGE was effective for detecting the dominant species, but culture-based methods were more accurate for monitoring the population dynamics of these microorganisms during growth in the wastewater medium. PMID:15932247

  12. Using haplotypes to monitor the migration of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Texas and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm infestations in most of North America north of Mexico arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Mapping the pattern of migration and the relative contributions of the Texas and Florida populations would contribute both to our understandi...

  13. Summary of the 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report is a summary of the 2006 synthesis report prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  14. Patterns of self-monitoring of blood glucose in insulin-treated diabetes: analysis of a Scottish population over time.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D; Harris, F M; Evans, J M M

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of a diabetes clinical information system in Tayside, Scotland, shows that a significant proportion of insulin-treated patients with diabetes are not self-monitoring blood glucose according to current clinical guidance and recommendations, with some not self-monitoring their blood glucose at all. Although there has been an increase in the number of reagent strips dispensed over the past decade, this increase is mainly accounted for by increased testing frequency among people with diabetes already testing. PMID:26990502

  15. Large-scale monitoring of shorebird populations using count data and N-mixture models: Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) surveys by land and sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, James E.; Andrew, Royle J.; Thomas, Susan M.; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Evenson, Joseph R.; Kelly, Elizabeth G.; Milner, Ruth L.; Nysewander, David R.; Andres, Brad A.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale monitoring of bird populations is often based on count data collected across spatial scales that may include multiple physiographic regions and habitat types. Monitoring at large spatial scales may require multiple survey platforms (e.g., from boats and land when monitoring coastal species) and multiple survey methods. It becomes especially important to explicitly account for detection probability when analyzing count data that have been collected using multiple survey platforms or methods. We evaluated a new analytical framework, N-mixture models, to estimate actual abundance while accounting for multiple detection biases. During May 2006, we made repeated counts of Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) from boats in the Puget Sound area of Washington (n = 55 sites) and from land along the coast of Oregon (n = 56 sites). We used a Bayesian analysis of N-mixture models to (1) assess detection probability as a function of environmental and survey covariates and (2) estimate total Black Oystercatcher abundance during the breeding season in the two regions. Probability of detecting individuals during boat-based surveys was 0.75 (95% credible interval: 0.42–0.91) and was not influenced by tidal stage. Detection probability from surveys conducted on foot was 0.68 (0.39–0.90); the latter was not influenced by fog, wind, or number of observers but was ~35% lower during rain. The estimated population size was 321 birds (262–511) in Washington and 311 (276–382) in Oregon. N-mixture models provide a flexible framework for modeling count data and covariates in large-scale bird monitoring programs designed to understand population change.

  16. Comparison of Remote Sensing and Fixed-Site Monitoring Approaches for Examining Air Pollution and Health in a National Study Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnet, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; vanDonkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6e10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 mg m3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20e64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/ allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05).

  17. Comparison of remote sensing and fixed-site monitoring approaches for examining air pollution and health in a national study population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnett, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6-10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20-64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05). The consistency between risk estimates based on RS and regulatory monitoring as well as the associations between air pollution and health among participants living outside the catchment area for

  18. Experimental validation of concept for real-time wavelength monitoring and tracking in densely populated WDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukovic, Alex; Savoie, Michel; Hua, Heng; Campbell, Scott; Nguyen, Thao

    2005-10-01

    As the telecom industry responds with technological innovations to requests for higher data rates, increased number of wavelengths at higher densities, longer transmission distances and more intelligence for next generation optical networks, new monitoring schemes based on monitoring and tracking of each wavelength need to be developed and deployed. An optical layer monitoring scheme, based on tracking key optical parameters per each wavelength, is considered to be one of enablers for the transformation of today's opaque networks to dynamic, agile future networks. Ever-tighter network monitoring and control will be required to fulfill customer Service Level Agreements (SLAs). A wavelength monitoring and tracking concept was developed as a three-step approach. It started with the identification of all critical parameters required to obtain sufficient information about each wavelength; followed by the deployment of a cost-efficient device to provide simultaneous, accurate measurements in real-time of all critical parameters; and finally, the formulation of a specification for wavelength monitoring and tracking devices for real-time, simultaneous measurements and processing the data. A prototype solution based on a commercially available integrated modular spectrometer within a testbed environment associated with the all-optical network (AON) demonstrator program was used to verify and validate the wavelength monitoring and tracking concept. The developed concept verified that it can manage tracking of 32 wavelengths within a wavelength division multiplexing network. The developed concept presented in this paper can be used inside the transparent domains of networks to detect, identify and locate signal degradations in real-time, even sometimes to recognize the cause of the failure. Aside from the reduction of operational expenses due to the elimination of the need for operators at every site and skilled field technicians to isolate and repair faults, the developed

  19. A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Alcohol Retail Sales Data for Monitoring Population Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Scottish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark; Thorpe, Rachel; Beeston, Clare; McCartney, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the validity and reliability of using alcohol retail sales data to measure and monitor population levels of alcohol consumption. Methods: Potential sources of bias that could lead to under- or overestimation of population alcohol consumption based on alcohol retail sales data were identified and, where possible, quantified. This enabled an assessment of the potential impact of each bias on alcohol consumption estimates in Scotland. Results: Overall, considering all the possible sources of overestimation and underestimation, and taking into account the potential for sampling variability to impact on the results, the range of uncertainty of consumption during 2010 was from an overestimate of 0.3 l to an underestimate of 2.4 l of pure alcohol per adult. This excludes the impacts of alcohol stockpiling and alcohol sold through outlets not included in the sampling frame. On balance, there is therefore far greater scope for alcohol retail sales data to be underestimating per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland than there is for overestimation. Conclusion: Alcohol retail sales data offer a robust source of data for monitoring per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland. Consideration of the sources of bias and a comprehensive understanding of data collection methods are essential for using sales data to monitor trends in alcohol consumption. PMID:22926649

  20. Serial correlation and inter-annual variability in relation to the statistical power of monitoring schemes to detect trends in fish populations.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerke, Leopold A J; van Densen, Wim L T

    2007-02-01

    We studied the effects of inter-annual variability and serial correlation on the statistical power of monitoring schemes to detect trends in biomass of bream (Abramis brama) in Lake Veluwemeer (The Netherlands). In order to distinguish between 'true' system variability and sampling variability we simulated the development of the bream population, using estimates for population structure and growth, and compared the resulting inter-annual variabilities and serial correlations with those from field data. In all cases the inter-annual variability in the field data was larger than in simulated data (e.g. for total biomass of all assessed bream sigma = 0.45 in field data, and sigma = 0.03-0.14 in simulated data) indicating that sampling variability decreased statistical power for detecting trends. Moreover, sampling variability obscured the inter-annual dependency (and thus the serial correlation) of biomass, which was expected because in this long-lived population biomass changes are buffered by the many year classes present. We did find the expected serial correlation in our simulation results and concluded that good survey data of long-lived fish populations should show low sampling variability and considerable inter-annual serial correlation. Since serial correlation decreases the power for detecting trends, this means that even when sampling variability would be greatly reduced, the number of sampling years to detect a change of 15%.year(-1) in bream populations (corresponding to a halving or doubling in a six-year period) would in most cases be more than six. This would imply that the six-year reporting periods that are required by the Water Framework Directive of the European Union are too short for the existing fish monitoring schemes. PMID:17219244

  1. Long-term monitoring of feral genetically modified herbicide-tolerant Brassica napus populations around unloading Japanese ports

    PubMed Central

    Katsuta, Kensuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) Brassica napus plants originating from seed spill have recently been found along roadsides leading from Japanese ports that unload oilseed rape. Such introductions have potential biodiversity effects (as defined by the Cartagena Protocol): these include replacement of native elements in the biota through competitive suppression or hybridization. We conducted surveys in the period 2006–2011 to assess such threats. We examined shifts in the population distribution and occurrence of GMHT plants in 1,029 volunteer introduced assemblages of B. napus, 1,169 of B. juncea, and 184 of B. rapa around 12 ports. GMHT B. napus was found around 10 of 12 ports, but its proportion in the populations varied greatly by year and location. Over the survey period, the distributions of a pure non-GMHT population around Tobata and a pure GMHT population around Hakata increased significantly. However, there was no common trend of population expansion or contraction around the 12 ports. Furthermore, we found no herbicide tolerant B. juncea and B. rapa plants derived from crosses with GMHT B. napus. Therefore, GMHT B. napus is not invading native vegetation surrounding its populations and not likely to cross with congeners in Japanese environment. PMID:26175624

  2. Long-term monitoring of feral genetically modified herbicide-tolerant Brassica napus populations around unloading Japanese ports.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Kensuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-06-01

    Genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) Brassica napus plants originating from seed spill have recently been found along roadsides leading from Japanese ports that unload oilseed rape. Such introductions have potential biodiversity effects (as defined by the Cartagena Protocol): these include replacement of native elements in the biota through competitive suppression or hybridization. We conducted surveys in the period 2006-2011 to assess such threats. We examined shifts in the population distribution and occurrence of GMHT plants in 1,029 volunteer introduced assemblages of B. napus, 1,169 of B. juncea, and 184 of B. rapa around 12 ports. GMHT B. napus was found around 10 of 12 ports, but its proportion in the populations varied greatly by year and location. Over the survey period, the distributions of a pure non-GMHT population around Tobata and a pure GMHT population around Hakata increased significantly. However, there was no common trend of population expansion or contraction around the 12 ports. Furthermore, we found no herbicide tolerant B. juncea and B. rapa plants derived from crosses with GMHT B. napus. Therefore, GMHT B. napus is not invading native vegetation surrounding its populations and not likely to cross with congeners in Japanese environment. PMID:26175624

  3. A Genetic Monitoring and Evaluation Program for Supplemented Populations of Salmon and Steelhead in the Snake River Basin : 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, Robin S.

    1993-07-01

    This is the second report of research for an ongoing study to evaluate the genetic effects of using hatchery-reared fish to supplement natural populations of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in the Snake River Basin. The study plan involves yearly monitoring of genetic and meristic characteristics in hatchery, natural (supplemented), and wild (unsupplemented) populations in four different drainages for each species. This report summarizes the first two years of electrophoretic data for chinook salmon and steelhead and the first two years of meristic data for chinook salmon. Results obtained to date include the following: (1) Genetic variation was detected at 35 gene loci in chinook salmon and 50 gene loci in steelhead, both considerable increases over the number of polymorphic loci reported previously for Snake River populations. No substantial differences in levels of genetic variability were observed between years or between hatchery and natural/wild populations in either species. (2) In both species, statistically significant differences in allele frequency were typically found between years within populations. However, the temporal changes within populations were generally smaller than differences between populations. (3) Differences between chinook salmon populations classified as spring-and summer-run accounted for little of the overall genetic diversity; in contrast, substantial genetic differences were observed between ''B'' run steelhead from Dworshak Hatchery and ''A'' run populations from other study sites. (4) Estimates of the effective number of breeders per year (N,) derived from genetic data suggest that N{sub b} in natural and wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon populations is generally about one-quarter to three-quarters of the estimated number of adult spawners. (5) Analysis of the effects on data quality of sampling juveniles indicates that the small size of some wild fish may lead to a slight increase

  4. The utility of a portable sleep monitor to diagnose sleep-disordered breathing in a pediatric population

    PubMed Central

    Massicotte, Colin; Al-Saleh, Suhail; Witmans, Manisha; Narang, Indra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central and/or obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children represents a spectrum of abnormal breathing during sleep. SDB is diagnosed using the gold standard, overnight polysomnography (PSG). The limited availability and access to PSG prevents its widespread use, resulting in significant delays in diagnosis and treatment of SDB. As such, portable sleep monitors are urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of a commercially available portable sleep study monitor (PSS-AL) (ApneaLink, ResMed, USA) to diagnose SDB in children. METHODS: Children referred to a pediatric sleep facility were simultaneously monitored using the PSS-AL monitor and overnight PSG. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was calculated using the manual and autoscoring function of the PSS-AL, and PSG. Sensitivity and specificity were compared with the manually scored PSS-AL and PSG. Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman plots were constructed. RESULTS: Thirty-five children (13 female) completed the study. The median age was 11.0 years and the median body mass index z-score was 0.67 (range −2.3 to 3.8). SDB was diagnosed in 17 of 35 (49%) subjects using PSG. The AHI obtained by manually scored PSS-AL strongly correlated with the AHI obtained using PSG (r=0.89; P<0.001). Using the manually scored PSS-AL, a cut-off of AHI of >5 events/h had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 61% to detect any SDB diagnosed by PSG. CONCLUSIONS: Although PSG is still recommended for the diagnosis of SDB, the ApneaLink sleep monitor has a role for triaging children referred for evaluation of SDB, but has limited ability to determine the nature of the SDB. PMID:24083303

  5. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Amelon, Sybill K.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species – little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), Indiana myotis (M. sodalis), and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis) – in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999–2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11%) in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38%) in P. subflavus, 30% (±26%) in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18%) in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and thus

  6. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Thomas E; Sewall, Brent J; Amelon, Sybill K

    2013-01-01

    Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species - little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), Indiana myotis (M. sodalis), and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis) - in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999-2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11%) in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38%) in P. subflavus, 30% (±26%) in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18%) in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and thus has wide

  7. Baseline susceptibility and monitoring of Brazilian populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Vip3Aa20 insecticidal protein.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Oderlei; Amado, Douglas; Sousa, Renan S; Segatti, Fabiana; Fatoretto, Julio; Burd, Anthony D; Omoto, Celso

    2014-04-01

    The genetically modified maize expressing Vip3Aa20 insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner is abiotechnological option for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Brazil. To support an Insect Resistance Management program, we conducted studies of baseline susceptibility and monitoring of Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis to the Vip3Aa20 insecticidal protein. Neonates were exposed to Vip3Aa20 applied on artificial diet surface. Mortality and growth inhibition were assessed after 7 d. All populations were susceptible to Vip3Aa20. The LC50 ranged from 92.38 to 611.65 ng Vip3Aa20/cm2 for 16 populations of S. frugiperda (6.6-fold variation), and between 61.18 and 367.86 ng Vip3Aa20/cm2 for 6 populations of D. saccharalis (sixfold variation). The EC50 ranged from 21.76 to 70.09 and 48.65 to 163.60 ng Vip3Aa20/cm2 for S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis, respectively. There was a low interpopulation variation in susceptibility to Vip3Aa20, which represents the natural geographic variation in the response, and not the variation caused by previous exposure to selection pressure. For these two pests, the diagnostic concentrations of 2,000 and 3,600 ng of Vip3Aa20/cm2 caused high mortality. These diagnostic concentrations will be used in resistance monitoring programs in Brazil. PMID:24772561

  8. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu Ecosystem, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson; Muma, John B; Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2012-12-01

    Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time. PMID:23342517

  9. The Utility of Ambulatory Electrocardiographic Monitoring for Detecting Silent Arrhythmias and Clarifying Symptom Mechanism in an Urban Elderly Population with Heart Failure and Hypertension: Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Kathleen T; Reiffel, James; Sciacca, Robert R; Whang, William; Biviano, Angelo; Baumeister, Maurita; Castillo, Carmen; Talathothi, Jyothi; Garan, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial and ventriclar tachyarrhythmias, as well as bradyarrhythmias, in the elderly with heart failure (HF) and/or hypertension (HTN) have been well documented. However, the frequency of these arrhythmias, whether silent or symptomatic, and their association with subsequent cardiac events has not been well defined in patients 65 years or older with HF and other cardiovascular risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of 2 weeks of remote, transtelephonic cardiac monitoring for detecting arrhythmias in an elderly, urban population living with HF. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with a history of systolic HF and/or HTN were consented and enrolled. All wore an auto triggered cardiac loop monitor for 2 weeks that captures EKG data and both silent and symptomatic arrhythmias were recorded. RESULTS: Mean age was 73 ± 6 years with 59% of subjects were females, 74% Hispanic, 22% black, and 4% white/other. All patients had HF and 94% had HTN. From the cardiac monitoring, 72% demonstrated ectopic atrial and ventricular activity, and 1 paroxysmal episode of atrial fibrillation was documented. In addition, 3 subjects had significant non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, and 4 individuals had severe bradycardia recorded on cardiac monitoring. These 7 individuals underwent placement of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or pacemaker based on the documented arrhythmias which may have otherwise gone undetected. CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of patients exhibited cardiac arrhythmias. Future morbidity was prevented because of the detection of arrhythmias on monitoring that led to specific therapies such as pacemaker or ICD implantation which otherwise may not have been implemented. PMID:20798788

  10. The Utility of Ambulatory Electrocardiographic Monitoring for Detecting Silent Arrhythmias and Clarifying Symptom Mechanism in an Urban Elderly Population with Heart Failure and Hypertension: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Kathleen T.; Reiffel, James; Sciacca, Robert R.; Whang, William; Biviano, Angelo; Baumeister, Maurita; Castillo, Carmen; Talathothi, Jyothi; Garan, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Background Atrial and ventriclar tachyarrhythmias, as well as bradyarrhythmias, in the elderly with heart failure (HF) and/or hypertension (HTN) have been well documented. However, the frequency of these arrhythmias, whether silent or symptomatic, and their association with subsequent cardiac events has not been well defined in patients 65 years or older with HF and other cardiovascular risk factors. Objective To assess the value of 2 weeks of remote, transtelephonic cardiac monitoring for detecting arrhythmias in an elderly, urban population living with HF. Methods Fifty-four patients with a history of systolic HF and/or HTN were consented and enrolled. All wore an auto triggered cardiac loop monitor for 2 weeks that captures EKG data and both silent and symptomatic arrhythmias were recorded. Results Mean age was 73 ± 6 years with 59% of subjects were females, 74% Hispanic, 22% black, and 4% white/other. All patients had HF and 94% had HTN. From the cardiac monitoring, 72% demonstrated ectopic atrial and ventricular activity, and 1 paroxysmal episode of atrial fibrillation was documented. In addition, 3 subjects had significant non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, and 4 individuals had severe bradycardia recorded on cardiac monitoring. These 7 individuals underwent placement of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or pacemaker based on the documented arrhythmias which may have otherwise gone undetected. Conclusion A substantial proportion of patients exhibited cardiac arrhythmias. Future morbidity was prevented because of the detection of arrhythmias on monitoring that led to specific therapies such as pacemaker or ICD implantation which otherwise may not have been implemented. PMID:20798788

  11. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; Du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  12. Development of a real-time PCR assay for monitoring anaerobic fungal and cellulolytic bacterial populations within the rumen.

    PubMed

    Denman, Stuart E; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2006-12-01

    Traditional methods for enumerating and identifying microbial populations within the rumen can be time consuming and cumbersome. Methods that involve culturing and microscopy can also be inconclusive, particularly when studying anaerobic rumen fungi. A real-time PCR SYBR Green assay, using PCR primers to target total rumen fungi and the cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes, is described, including design and validation. The DNA and crude protein contents with respect to the fungal biomass of both polycentric and monocentric fungal isolates were investigated across the fungal growth stages to aid in standard curve generation. The primer sets used were found to be target specific with no detectable cross-reactivity. Subsequently, the real-time PCR assay was employed in a study to detect these populations within cattle rumen. The anaerobic fungal target was observed to increase 3.6-fold from 0 to 12 h after feeding. The results also indicated a 5.4-fold increase in F. succinogenes target between 0 and 12 h after feeding, whereas R. flavefaciens was observed to maintain more or less consistent levels. This is the first report of a real-time PCR assay to estimate the rumen anaerobic fungal population. PMID:17117998

  13. Dworshak Kokanee Population and Engrainment Assessment : 2006 Annual Report, March 1, 2006 - February 28, 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Eric J.

    2008-12-18

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. Strobe light tests were conducted on four nights from April 24-27, 2006, in front of the middle reservoir outlet (RO) 2. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On two nights, April 25 and 27, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near RO 2 averaged 12.4 fish and densities averaged 31.0 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during the nights of April 24 and 26, mean counts dropped to 4.7 fish and densities dropped to 0.5 fish/ha. The decline in counts (62%) and densities (99%) was statistically significant (p = 0.009 and 0.002, respectively). Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of a discharging reservoir outlet, which would be sufficient to improve sport fish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2006. Estimated abundance of kokanee increased from the 2005 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated approximately 5,815,000 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) in Dworshak Reservoir in August 2006. This included 2,183,000 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 24.2%), 1,509,000 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 29.0%), and 2,124,000 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) kokanee. This resulted in a density of age-2 kokanee above the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site, split-beam hydroacoustics from May through September for a continuous 24 h period when dam operations permitted. The highest fish detection rates from entrainment assessments were found during dawn periods, unlike previous year's results, which

  14. Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Inquiry in Psychiatric Assessment: Detection of High Rates of Opioid Prescribing to a Dual Diagnosis Population

    PubMed Central

    Hackman, Daniel T.; Greene, Marion S.; Fernandes, Taya J.; Brown, Ashley M.; Wright, Eric R.; Chambers, R. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective An epidemic of prescription drug abuse is disproportionately impacting the mentally ill. We examined the utility of a state prescription drug monitoring database for assessing recent controlled substance prescribing to patients presenting for dual diagnosis treatment. Method In a community mental health center that provides integrated dual diagnosis care, we queried the Indiana Scheduled Prescription Electronic Collection and Tracking (INSPECT) system for all cases that were open as of August 2, 2011, and had been practitioner-diagnosed (per DSM-IV criteria) by January 2, 2012. INSPECT provided a record of controlled substance dispensations to each patient; diagnostic evaluation was conducted blind from prescription data compilation covering the prior 12 months. Demographic data, insurance status, and DSM-IV diagnoses were compiled from the clinic's electronic medical record. Results The sample (N = 201) was 51% female, 56% white, and two-thirds uninsured. Over 80% were dually diagnosed with substance use disorders and psychotic, mood, or anxiety disorders. Nicotine and alcohol disorders were identified in most, with about a third diagnosed with cannabis, cocaine, or opioid disorders. A majority of patients (n = 115) had been prescribed opioids in the prior year, with nearly 1 in 5 prescribed an opioid and benzodiazepine simultaneously. Patients were dispensed a mean of 4 opioid prescriptions and 213 opioid pills. More opioid prescriptions correlated with opioid dependence (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.016–1.145), and more prescribers correlated with personality disorder diagnoses (OR = 1.112; 95% CI, 1.001–1.235). Higher rates and riskier patterns of controlled substance prescribing were identified in patients with Medicaid/Medicare insurance compared to uninsured patients. Conclusions Prescription drug monitoring is a powerful tool for assessing addictions and high frequencies of patient exposures to prescribed opioids in a dual diagnosis clinic. Improved

  15. Genetic monitoring of wild and repatriated populations of endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus, Catostomidae, Teleostei) in Lake Mohave, Arizona-Nevada.

    PubMed

    Dowling, T E; Marsh, P C; Kelsen, A T; Tibbets, C A

    2005-01-01

    The Native Fishes Work Group, formed in 1991, developed and implemented a protocol to enhance the dwindling razorback sucker population in Lake Mohave, Arizona-Nevada. This large, genetically diverse population is severely reduced in size as a result of recruitment failure associated with predation on larvae. To circumvent this problem, wild larvae are captured, reared in protective custody until they are large enough to escape predation, and then released back into the lake. We present results of a monitoring program designed to assess the effectiveness of the sampling design in transmitting the high genetic diversity found in wild adults. Variation in a fragment from the mitochondrial DNA gene cytochrome b was examined by analysis of single-stranded polymorphisms and direct sequencing. Samples were characterized from three life history stages. Characterization of wild adults verified previous results that identified considerable diversity and provided baseline data. Samples of larvae from several temporal collections from throughout the spawning season and four geographical areas were characterized for 7 years (1997-2003) to assess the transmission of genetic variation from wild adults to larvae. Several analyses identified significant differences among temporal collections, resulting from sampling errors associated with finite number of females spawning at a given time and place. Comparisons among areas and years failed to identify significant variation, indicating that pooled collections for each year possess the same levels and patterns of genetic variation. Examination of repatriates representing 11 years (1992-2002) also failed to identify significant differences among cohorts; however, some sample sizes were small and the amova may lack sufficient power to detect differences. Contrasts of wild adults, larvae, and repatriates identified statistically significant differences among collections within these three groups; however, levels of variation are small

  16. Selecting representative microsatellite loci for genetic monitoring and analyzing genetic structure of an outbred population of orange tabby cats in China.

    PubMed

    Du, X Y; Yi, S; Huo, X Y; Wang, C; Liu, D F; Ren, W Z; Chen, Z W

    2015-01-01

    We optimized a panel of microsatellite markers from cat and tiger genetic data for efficient genetic monitoring and used it to analyze the genetic structure of an outbred cat stock in China. We selected a set of rich polymorphic microsatellite loci from 131 cat microsatellite loci and 3 Sumatran tiger microsatellite loci using agarose gel electrophoresis. Next, the set of optimized genetic markers was used to analyze the genetic variation in an outbred population of orange tabby cats in China by simple-tandem repeat scanning. Thirty-one loci rich in polymorphisms were selected and the highest allele number in a single locus was 8. Analysis of the orange tabby cat population illustrated that the average observed number of alleles, mean effective allele number, mean Shannon's information index, mean expected heterozygosity, and observed heterozygosity were 3.8387, 2.4027, 0.9787, 0.5565, and 0.5528, respectively. The 31 microsatellite markers used were polymorphic and suitable for analyzing the genetic structure of cats. The population of orange tabby cats was confirmed to be a well-outbred stock. PMID:25867323

  17. On signals of phase transitions in salmon population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Krkošek, Martin; Drake, John M

    2014-06-01

    Critical slowing down (CSD) reflects the decline in resilience of equilibria near a bifurcation and may reveal early warning signals (EWS) of ecological phase transitions. We studied CSD in the recruitment dynamics of 120 stocks of three Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) species in relation to critical transitions in fishery models. Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) exhibited increased variability and autocorrelation in populations that had a growth parameter, r, close to zero, consistent with EWS of extinction. However, models and data for sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) indicate that portfolio effects from heterogeneity in age-at-maturity may obscure EWS. Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) show intermediate results. The data do not reveal EWS of Ricker-type bifurcations that cause oscillations and chaos at high r. These results not only provide empirical support for CSD in some ecological systems, but also indicate that portfolio effects of age structure may conceal EWS of some critical transitions. PMID:24759855

  18. Long-term monitoring of reef corals at the Flower Garden Banks (northwest Gulf of Mexico): Reef coral population changes and historical incorporation of barium in Montastrea annularis

    SciTech Connect

    Deslarzes, K.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Reef coral populations were monitored from 1988 to 1991 at the Flower Garden Banks located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. The status of reef coral populations, and natural or man-made factors potentially affecting their well-being were determined. Man-made chronic disturbances are degrading coral reef resources on a global scale. Yet, the Flower Garden coral reefs seem to have been sheltered from the effects of regional stresses generated by population growth and increased industrial activity. Since 1974, reef coral population levels have remained unchanged in the Montastrea-Diploria Zones at the Flower Garden Banks. Live coral cover ranges between 46 and 46.5%. Montastrea annularis and Diploria strigosa comprise 80% of the coral cover on either bank. The remainder of the cover is mostly shared by eight other taxa. Coral taxa appear to be more homogeneously distributed on the West Bank. The relatively greater number of Agaricia spp., Madracis decastis, and P. astreoides colonies on the East Bank may be the source of a decreased evenness. The health of reef corals was assessed using repetitive and non-repetitive photographic methods, and accretionary growth measurements of M. annularis. Reef corals have undergone small scale changes at the Flower Gardens probably reflecting natural disturbance, predation, disease, and inter-specific competition. White mat disease (ridge disease) is shown to generate more tissue loss than any of the three bleaching events that took place at the Flower Gardens (1989, 1990, and 1991). Advance to retreat linear ratios of encrusting growth revealed a net tissue gain on the East Bank and a net tissue loss on the West Bank. Growth rates of M. annularis were highly variable. The annual barium content from 1910 in 1989 in a M. annularis colony from the West Flower Garden did not reveal trends associated with the extensive oil and gas exploration in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for risk stratification in obese and non-obese subjects from 10 populations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T W; Thijs, L; Li, Y; Boggia, J; Liu, Y; Asayama, K; Kikuya, M; Björklund-Bodegård, K; Ohkubo, T; Jeppesen, J; Torp-Pedersen, C; Dolan, E; Kuznetsova, T; Stolarz-Skrzypek, K; Tikhonoff, V; Malyutina, S; Casiglia, E; Nikitin, Y; Lind, L; Sandoya, E; Kawecka-Jaszcz, K; Filipovský, J; Imai, Y; Wang, J; O'Brien, E; Staessen, J A

    2014-09-01

    Overweight clusters with high blood pressure (BP), but the independent contribution of both risk factors remains insufficiently documented. In a prospective population study involving 8467 participants (mean age 54.6 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations, we studied the contribution of body mass index (BMI) to risk over and beyond BP, taking advantage of the superiority of ambulatory over conventional BP. Over 10.6 years (median), 1271 participants (15.0%) died and 1092 (12.9%), 637 (7.5%) and 443 (5.2%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac or cerebrovascular event. Adjusted for sex and age, low BMI (<20.7 kg m(-2)) predicted death (hazard ratio (HR) vs average risk, 1.52; P<0.0001) and high BMI (> or = 30.9 kg m(-2)) predicted the cardiovascular end point (HR, 1.27; P=0.006). With adjustments including 24-h systolic BP, these HRs were 1.50 (P<0.001) and 0.98 (P=0.91), respectively. Across quartiles of the BMI distribution, 24-h and nighttime systolic BP predicted every end point (1.13 < or = standardized HR < or = 1.67; 0.046 < or = P<0.0001). The interaction between systolic BP and BMI was nonsignificant (P > or = .22). Excluding smokers removed the contribution of BMI categories to the prediction of mortality. In conclusion, BMI only adds to BP in risk stratification for mortality but not for cardiovascular outcomes. Smoking probably explains the association between increased mortality and low BMI. PMID:24430701

  20. Titre distribution patterns of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in ovarian fluids of hatchery and feral salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.; Jenes, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic mecrosis virus (IHNV) is enzootic in virtually all populations of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and in populations of chinook salmon, O. 1shawytscha (Walbaum), of the Sacramento River drainage in California. This disease is an obstacle in hatcheries using brood stocks from these populations. However, naturally spawning sockeye salmon are highly successful and are the most important commercially fished salmon species in the United States. Most of the commercial landings of sockeye salmon are of feral fish originating in Alaska. The success of natural populations of salmon in which IHNV is enzootic, and the recurrent outbreaks of the disease in hatchery fish, led us to compare IHNW prevalence rates in hatchery and feral salmon populations.

  1. Monitoring the Bacterial Population Dynamics in Sourdough Fermentation Processes by Using PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Meroth, Christiane B.; Walter, Jens; Hertel, Christian; Brandt, Markus J.; Hammes, Walter P.

    2003-01-01

    Four sourdoughs (A to D) were produced under practical conditions by using a starter mixture of three commercially available sourdough starters and a baker's yeast constitutively containing various species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The sourdoughs were continuously propagated until the composition of the LAB flora remained stable. Two LAB-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) systems were established and used to monitor the development of the microflora. Depending on the prevailing ecological conditions in the different sourdough fermentations, only a few Lactobacillus species were found to be competitive and became dominant. In sourdough A (traditional process with rye flour), Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and a new species, L. mindensis, were detected. In rye flour sourdoughs B and C, which differed in the process temperature, exclusively L. crispatus and L. pontis became the predominant species in sourdough B and L. crispatus, L. panis, and L. frumenti became the predominant species in sourdough C. On the other hand, in sourdough D (corresponding to sourdough C but produced with rye bran), L. johnsonii and L. reuteri were found. The results of PCR-DGGE were consistent with those obtained by culturing, except for sourdough B, in which L. fermentum was also detected. Isolates of the species L. sanfranciscensis and L. fermentum were shown by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis to originate from the commercial starters and the baker's yeast, respectively. PMID:12514030

  2. Kokanee Impacts Assessment and Monitoring on Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, Annual Progress Report for October 1995-September 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to Monitor Lake Pend Oreille's kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi population. Data will serve as a baseline for evaluating the benefits of a higher winter lake level beginning in 1996. We estimated the kokanee population in Lake Pend Oreille using a Hauser-type midwater trawl during August 1995 and September 1996. Population estimates in 1995 were 4.55 million age-0 kokanee, 2.87 million age-1 kokanee, 1.52 million age-2 kokanee, 0.74 million age-3 kokanee, 0.15 million age-4 kokanee, and 42,000 age-5 kokanee. Population estimates in 1996 were 5.42 million age-0 kokanee, 3.57 million age-1 kokanee, 3.17 million age-2 kokanee, 0.67 million age-3 kokanee, 0.44 million age-4 kokanee, and no age-5 kokanee. These were two of the highest total populations of kokanee since trawling began in 1977; largely due to high numbers of young kokanee. The densities of age-4 and 5 kokanee (which make up the bulk of the fishery), however, were the lowest on record in 1995 and average in 1996. We also surveyed traditional shoreline and tributary spawning areas. Counts of kokanee spawning in tributaries during 1995 were relatively consistent with previous years (6,261 kokanee). Counts of spawners along the shorelines reached a new record low of only 74 kokanee; a 93 percent decline from 1994. During December 1996, both counts dropped to their lowest point on record. Only 49 fish were seen spawning along the shorelines, and only 819 fish were seen in tributary streams. These low counts may have been partially due to higher lake levels during the spawning seasons. Higher than normal lake levels made additional gravel available for kokanee spawning in many areas of the lake. Possibly this caused kokanee to spread along the shorelines and reduced the spawner counts. Kokanee fry that had been fin clipped and stocked at the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery Ladder in 1991 and 1992 returned at a rate of 0.27% and 0.14% once they matured. This return rate was much

  3. Data quality monitoring and performance metrics of a prospective, population-based observational study of maternal and newborn health in low resource settings

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background To describe quantitative data quality monitoring and performance metrics adopted by the Global Network’s (GN) Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR), a maternal and perinatal population-based registry (MPPBR) based in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Methods Ongoing prospective, population-based data on all pregnancy outcomes within defined geographical locations participating in the GN have been collected since 2008. Data quality metrics were defined and are implemented at the cluster, site and the central level to ensure data quality. Quantitative performance metrics are described for data collected between 2010 and 2013. Results Delivery outcome rates over 95% illustrate that all sites are successful in following patients from pregnancy through delivery. Examples of specific performance metric reports illustrate how both the metrics and reporting process are used to identify cluster-level and site-level quality issues and illustrate how those metrics track over time. Other summary reports (e.g. the increasing proportion of measured birth weight compared to estimated and missing birth weight) illustrate how a site has improved quality over time. Conclusion High quality MPPBRs such as the MNHR provide key information on pregnancy outcomes to local and international health officials where civil registration systems are lacking. The MNHR has measures in place to monitor data collection procedures and improve the quality of data collected. Sites have increasingly achieved acceptable values of performance metrics over time, indicating improvements in data quality, but the quality control program must continue to evolve to optimize the use of the MNHR to assess the impact of community interventions in research protocols in pregnancy and perinatal health. Trial registration number NCT01073475 PMID:26062714

  4. Field Evaluation of Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Pheromone Blends and Their Application to Monitoring Moth Populations in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongjun; Feng, Bo; Li, Hongguang; Liu, Chunming; Zeng, Juan; Pan, Lieming; Yu, Qing

    2015-06-01

    The attractiveness of a series of mixtures of (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac), the Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pheromone, were evaluated in four locations in China. The ternary blend of Z7-12:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, and Z11-16:Ac was the complete pheromone blend for A. ipsilon and the ratio of Z7-12:Ac and Z9-14:Ac was optimal at 3:1. The most attractive ratio of Z11-16:Ac to the other components depended on geographic location. The optimal ratio was 3:1:6 in Yunnan and Shanxi, 3:1:2 in Sichuan and ranged from 3:1:2 to 3:1:12 in Shanghai, which differs significantly from the ratio of 3:1:16 in Japan. The dose of the blend in the pheromone lure influenced attractiveness to male moths and was related to the temperature in the test locations. Attractiveness of sugar-acetic acid-baited and pheromone-baited traps to male and female moths was different before and after the start of flowering of the oilseed rape crop; large numbers of female moths were attracted to sugar-acetic acid traps before flowering but none after flowering had started. This was similar for male moths and there was no synergistic effect when sugar-acetic acid solutions and pheromone were used together. These studies suggest that pheromone trapping based on the blends of three components can be an effective tool to improve the efficiency of monitoring of this pest in China. PMID:26313979

  5. Evaluation of microbial population and functional genes during the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil as an effective monitoring approach.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Aiyoub; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the abundance and diversity of soil n-alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterial communities. It also investigated the quantity of the functional genes, the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the identified bacterial communities and the effect that such HGT can have on biostimulation process. Illumina sequencing was used to detect the microbial diversity of petroleum-polluted soil prior to the biostimulation process, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the bacterial community and functional genes (alkB, phnAc and nah) expressions throughout the biostimulation of petroleum-contaminated soil. The illumine results revealed that γ-proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and δ-proteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial phyla in the contaminated site, and that most of the strains were Gram-negative. The results of the gene expression results revealed that gram-negative bacteria and alkB are critical to successful bioremediation. Failure to maintain the stability of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and functional gene will reduce the extend to which alkanes and PAHs are degraded. According to the results of the study, the application of a C:N:P ratio of was 100:15:1 in the biodegradation experiment resulted in the highest rate at which petroleum hydrocarbons were biodegraded. The diversity of pollutant-degrading bacteria and the effective transfer of degrading genes among resident microorganisms are essential factors for the successful biostimulation of petroleum hydrocarbons. As such, screening these factors throughout the biostimulation process represents an effective monitoring approach by which the success of the biostimulation can be assessed. PMID:26685788

  6. A national system for monitoring the population of agricultural pests using an integrated approach of remote sensing data from in situ automated traps and satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diofantos, Hadjimitsis G.; Panayiotis, Philimis; Elias, Psimolophitis; Georgiou, George K.; Kyriacos, Themistocleous

    2010-10-01

    A national system for monitoring the population increase of agricultural pest "Lobesia Botrana" (vine moth/fly that attacks grapes) in Cyprus has been developed. The system comprises of automated delta traps with GPS that use wireless(Wi-Fi) camera, automated image analysis for identification of the specific fly species, Wi-Fi technology for transferring the data using mobile telephony network to a central station for result presentation and analysis. A GIS database was developed and included details of the pilot vineyards, environmental conditions and daily data of the number of captured flies from each automated trap. The results were compared with MODIS and LANDSAT satellite thermal images since the appearance of the vine fly is greatly dependent on the microclimate temperatures (degree days). Results showed that satellite data can estimate accurately the appearance of the vine fly. The proposed system can be an important tool for the improvement of a national Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system and it can also be used for monitoring other agricultural pests and insects.

  7. Double sampling for stratification for the monitoring of sparse tree populations: the example of Populus euphratica Oliv. forests at the lower reaches of Tarim River, Southern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tzeng Yih; Kleinn, Christoph; Coenradie, Bodo

    2011-04-01

    Desertification is a pressing issue in the dry Tarim River basin, which is under anthropogenic stresses. In this study, double sampling for stratification (DSS) is employed to inventory Populus euphratica Oliv. forests in the lower reaches of the Tarim River Basin in Xinjiang, China. The two objectives were evaluating DSS as a sampling technique for monitoring desertification and generating baseline information for permanent observation. Here, DSS consists of two phases: in phase 1, crown cover is observed on a large sample of plots on a high resolution satellite image, and these photo-plots are stratified into five crown cover strata. Phase 2 is a stratified random sample from these photo-plots and the sampled plots are field observed. Approximately 32% of the study area is without P. euphratica trees. As expected, estimated mean poplar tree density and basal area increase with crown cover. DSS takes advantages of stratification (fieldwork efficiency and statistical precision) without the need for a priori strata delineation. It proves feasible for inventory the sparse poplar population and holds promise for the assessment of trees outside the forest, where density varies considerably and pre-stratification is intractable. It can be integrated into permanent observation systems for monitoring vegetation changes. PMID:20480391

  8. Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Progress Report February 1, 2007 - January 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Timothy; Johnson, June; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    Populations of anadromous salmonids in the Snake River basin declined precipitously following the construction of hydroelectric dams in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Raymond (1988) documented a decrease in survival of emigrating steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha from the Snake River following the construction of dams on the lower Snake River during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Although Raymond documented some improvements in survival through the early 1980s, anadromous populations remained depressed and declined even further during the 1990s (Petrosky et al. 2001; Good et al. 2005). The effect was disastrous for all anadromous salmonid species in the Snake River basin. Coho salmon O. kisutch were extirpated from the Snake River by 1986. Sockeye salmon O. nerka almost disappeared from the system and were declared under extreme risk of extinction by authority of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1991. Chinook salmon were classified as threatened with extinction in 1992. Steelhead trout were also classified as threatened in 1997. Federal management agencies in the basin are required to mitigate for hydroelectric impacts and provide for recovery of all ESA-listed populations. In addition, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has the long-term goal of preserving naturally reproducing salmon and steelhead populations and recovering them to levels that will provide a sustainable harvest (IDFG 2007). Management to achieve these goals requires an understanding of how salmonid populations function (McElhany et al. 2000) as well as regular status assessments. Key demographic parameters, such as population density, age composition, recruits per spawner, and survival rates must be estimated annually to make such assessments. These data will guide efforts to meet mitigation and recovery goals. The Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (INPMEP) was developed to provide this information to managers. The Snake

  9. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, Doug; Lewis, Bert; Griswold, Bob (Biolines, Stanley, ID

    1999-08-01

    Since the late 1980's, Snake River sockeye Oncorhynchus nerka adults have only returned to Redfish Lake, one of five lakes in the Sawtooth Basin which historically reared sockeye. 1997 project objectives included (1) characterization of the limnology of Sawtooth Valley lakes; (2) fertilization of Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (3) O.nerka lake population surveys; (4) estimation of kokanee escapement and fry production in Alturas Lake Creek, Stanley Lake Creek, and Fishhook Creek; (5) reduce the number of spawning kokanee in Fishook Creek; (6) evaluate hatchery rainbow trout overwinter survival and potential competition and predation interactions with O.nerka in Pettit Lake; (7) assess predation from bull trout Salvelinus malma, brook trout S.fontinalis, and northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonsis on lentic O.nerka; (8) establish screw tap and weir sites to monitor smolt emigration.

  10. Monitoring larval populations of the douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm on permanent plots: Sampling methods and statistical properties of data. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Paul, H.G.

    1994-05-01

    Procedures for monitoring Larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm are recommended based on many years experience of sample these species in eastern Oregon and Washington. It is shown that statistically reliable estimates of larval density can be made for a population by sampling host trees in a series of permanent plots in a geographical monitoring unit. The most practical method is to estimate densities of both insect species simultaneously on a plot by the nondestructive sampling of foliage on lower crown branches of host trees. For best results, sampling methods need to be consistent with monitoring done annually to accumulate continuous databases that reflect the behavior of defoliator populations over a long period of time.

  11. Disentangling the roles of air exposure, gill net injury, and facilitated recovery on the postcapture and release mortality and behavior of adult migratory sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Martins, Eduardo G; Robichaud, Dave; Raby, Graham D; Donaldson, Michael R; Lotto, Andrew G; Willmore, William G; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P; Hinch, Scott G; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    We sought to improve the understanding of delayed mortality in migrating sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) captured and released in freshwater fisheries. Using biotelemetry, blood physiology, and reflex assessments, we evaluated the relative roles of gill net injury and air exposure and investigated whether using a recovery box improved survival. Fish (n=238), captured by beach seine, were allocated to four treatment groups: captured only, air exposed, injured, and injured and air exposed. Only half of the fish in each group were provided with a 15-min facilitated recovery. After treatment, fish were radio-tagged and released to resume their migration. Blood status was assessed in 36 additional untagged fish sampled after the four treatments. Compared with fish sampled immediately on capture, all treatments resulted in elevated plasma lactate and cortisol concentrations. After air exposure, plasma osmolality was elevated and reflexes were significantly impaired relative to the control and injured treatments. Injured fish exhibited reduced short-term migration speed by 3.2 km/d and had a 14.5% reduced survival to subnatal watersheds compared to controls. The 15-min facilitated recovery improved reflex assessment relative to fish released immediately but did not affect survival. We suggest that in sockeye salmon migrating in cool water temperatures (∼13°-16°C), delayed mortality can result from injury and air exposure, perhaps through sublethal stress, and that injury created additive delayed mortality likely via secondary infections. PMID:24457927

  12. Examining the social determinants of children's developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development

    PubMed Central

    Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Methods and analysis Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700 000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood

  13. Biological monitoring of the impacts of the Ok Tedi copper mine on fish populations in the Fly River system, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Swales, S; Storey, A W; Roderick, I D; Figa, B S; Bakowa, K A; Tenakanai, C D

    1998-06-18

    Monitoring of the impacts of the Ok Tedi copper mine on fish populations in the Fly River system in Papua New Guinea has recorded approx. 100 species of fish representing 32 families. Fish catches have shown considerable temporal and spatial variability but, since the commencement of mine operations and the input of mine-derived waste material into the headwaters of the system, long-term monitoring has revealed significant reductions in fish catches at most riverine sites in the Ok Tedi, upper and middle Fly River. However, no significant declines in fish catches have been recorded in the lower Fly or delta areas. Possible mechanisms accounting for the declines in fish catches in the river are discussed. Although catches in some floodplain habitats have also declined, these changes are thought to be associated with the effects of natural climatic phenomena, particularly El Nino droughts. Introduced species and increased commercial and artisanal fishing may also have had an effect. Levels of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium were found to be elevated in tissues from a range of fish species taken from riverine and floodplain sites sampled in the Ok Tedi and Fly Rivers. Metal levels were generally much higher in liver and kidney than from flesh. There was a general trend for metal concentrations to decrease with distance downstream from the mine, suggesting a mine-related effect. Significantly higher metal concentrations were recorded at 'impact' compared to 'control' sites. The intake of dietary copper by humans consuming fish taken from the river is well within guidelines set by the World Health Organisation and does not constitute a health risk. Ok Tedi Mining Limited has recently initiated a programme of mitigation works aimed at reducing the adverse effects of mine wastes on the river environment. PMID:9646519

  14. Biological monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the City of Mataró. A population-based cohort study (1995-2012).

    PubMed

    Parera, Jordi; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; Mattioli, Lisa; Abalos, Manuela; Rivera, Josep; Abad, Esteban

    2013-09-01

    There is great concern about the exposure to PCDD/Fs in areas near solid waste incineration (SWI) plants as, in the past, thermal waste treatment was a major source of PCDD/Fs, affecting negatively the environment and the population living nearby the area of influence. The aim of the present study was to monitor PCDD/Fs and PCBs levels in blood samples in general population living nearby a modern SWI. Up to 7 different campaigns were performed between 1995 and 2012. Overall, 104 exposed subjects (living <1000 m from the incinerator plant) and 97 non-exposed subjects (living >3000 m from the incinerator plant) were randomly selected from the municipal census of the City of Mataró in 1995. In addition, workers of the SWI plant were included in the study. Moreover, in 1999, 100 non-exposed subjects living in the nearby City of Arenys de Mar were added to the project. Overall, this study represents the longest consecutive human biomonitoring study of dioxins, furans and PCBs ever conducted in Spain. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were determined according to age, sex and distance to the SWI exposure in whole blood sample pools. No relevant differences in PCDD/Fs and PCBs levels were observed between SWI exposure groups. It could be noted that since 1999 all groups experienced a slight decrease in the levels of PCDD/Fs and marker PCBs. Moreover, concentrations of PCDD/Fs and marker PCBs were higher in women than in men, and in older age group in comparison to the younger ones. PMID:23764673

  15. Monitoring Dry Season Persistence of Anopheles gambiae s.l. Populations in a Contained Semi-Field System in Southwestern Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mamai, W; Simard, F; Couret, D; Ouedraogo, G A; Renault, D; Dabiré, K R; Mouline, K

    2016-01-01

    To gain insight into the dry season survival strategies of Anopheles gambiae s.l., a new contained semi-field system was developed and used for the first time in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The system consisted of a screened greenhouse within which the local environment was reproduced, including all ecological requirements for mosquito development cycle completion. The system was seeded with the progenies of female Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii, and Anopheles arabiensis collected in the vicinity of the greenhouse during the rainy season. After successful establishment in the semi-field system, mosquito populations were monitored over a 1-yr period by regular surveys of larval and adult specimens. We provided evidence for the persistence of adult mosquitoes throughout the dry season, in the absence of any suitable larval development site. During the hot and dry periods, adult insects were observed in artificial shelters (clay pots, building blocks, and dark corners). The mosquito population rapidly built up with the return of the rainy season in the area, when artificial breeding sites were refilled in the enclosure. However, only An. coluzzii and, later, An. arabiensis were detected in the subsequent rainy season, whereas no An. gambiae specimen was found. Our findings suggest that An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis may be able to aestivate throughout the dry season in Southwestern Burkina Faso, whereas An. gambiae might adopt a different dry-season survival strategy, such as long-distance re-colonization from distant locations. These results may have important implications for malaria control through targeted vector control interventions. PMID:26576935

  16. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    Smolt Monitoring Program Annual Report, 1986, Volume I, describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the data from Fish Passage Center freeze brands used in the analysis of travel time for Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data. Data for marked fish not presented in this report will be provided upon request. Daily catch statistics (by species), flow, and sample parameters for the smolt monitoring sites, Clearwater, Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville also will be provided upon request.

  17. Monitoring of local CD8β-expressing cell populations during Eimeria tenella infection of naïve and immune chickens.

    PubMed

    Wattrang, E; Thebo, P; Lundén, A; Dalgaard, T S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor abundance and activation of local CD8β-expressing T-cell populations during Eimeria tenella infections of naïve chickens and chickens immune by previous infections. Chickens were infected with E. tenella up to three times. Caecal T-cell receptor (TCR) γ/δ-CD8β+ cells (cytotoxic T lymphocytes; CTL) and TCRγ/δ+CD8β+ cells were characterized with respect to activation markers (blast transformation, CD25 and cell surface CD107a). Cells were also induced to degranulate in vitro as a measure of activation potential. Major findings included a prominent long-lasting, up to 6 weeks, increase in the proportion of CTL among caecal CD45+ cells in the later stages after primary E. tenella infection. These CTL also showed clear signs of activation, that is blast transformation and increased in vitro induced degranulation. At second and third E. tenella infection, chickens showed strong protective immunity but discrete signs of cellular activation were observed, for example increased in vitro induced degranulation of CTL. Thus, primary E. tenella infection induced clear recruitment and activation of local CTL. Upon subsequent infections of strongly immune chickens cellular changes were less prominent, possibly due to lower overall numbers of cells being activated because of the severe restriction of parasite replication. PMID:27138684

  18. Insecticide resistance monitoring of field-collected Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Jinja, eastern Uganda, identifies high levels of pyrethroid resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mawejje, Henry D.; Wilding, Craig S.; Rippon, Emily J.; Hughes, Angela; Weetman, David; Donnelly, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Insecticide resistance in the malaria vector An. gambiae s.l. threatens insecticide-based control efforts, necessitating regular monitoring. We assessed resistance in field-collected An. gambiae s.l. from Jinja, Uganda using WHO biosassays. Only An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (≈70%) were present. Female An. gambiae exhibited extremely high pyrethroid resistance (permethrin LT50 >2h; deltamethrin LT50 >5h). Female An. arabiensis were resistant to permethrin and exhibited reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin. However, whilst An. gambiae were DDT resistant, An. arabiensis were fully susceptible. Both species were fully susceptible to bendiocarb and fenitrothion. Kdr 1014S has increased rapidly in the Jinja population of An. gambiae s.s. and now approaches fixation (≈95%), consistent with insecticide-mediated selection, but is currently at low frequency in An. arabiensis (0.07%). Kdr 1014F was also at low frequency in An. gambiae. These frequencies preclude adequately-powered tests for association with phenotypic resistance. PBO synergist bioassays resulted in near complete recovery of pyrethroid susceptibility suggesting involvement of CYP450s in resistance. A small number (0.22%) of An. gambiae s.s. x An. arabiensis hybrids were found, suggesting the possibility of introgression of resistance alleles between species. The high levels of pyrethroid resistance encountered in Jinja threaten to reduce the efficacy of vector control programmes which rely on pyrethroid impregnated bednets or indoor spraying of pyrethroids. PMID:23046446

  19. ISSUES IN MONITORING POPULATION EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript explores the risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic chemicals that have become a growing source of public concern. Steadily increasing numbers of agents are being identified as mutagens and carcinogens. Furthermore, we are increasingly aware of sources of ...

  20. Beyond Correlation in the Detection of Climate Change Impacts: Testing a Mechanistic Hypothesis for Climatic Influence on Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Productivity.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Michael D; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the biological impacts of climate change is a current focus of ecological research and has important applications in conservation and resource management. Owing to a lack of suitable control systems, measuring correlations between time series of biological attributes and hypothesized environmental covariates is a common method for detecting such impacts. These correlative approaches are particularly common in studies of exploited fish species because rich biological time-series data are often available. However, the utility of species-environment relationships for identifying or predicting biological responses to climate change has been questioned because strong correlations often deteriorate as new data are collected. Specifically stating and critically evaluating the mechanistic relationship(s) linking an environmental driver to a biological response may help to address this problem. Using nearly 60 years of data on sockeye salmon from the Kvichak River, Alaska we tested a mechanistic hypothesis linking water temperatures experienced during freshwater rearing to population productivity by modeling a series of intermediate, deterministic relationships and evaluating temporal trends in biological and environmental time-series. We found that warming waters during freshwater rearing have profoundly altered patterns of growth and life history in this population complex yet there has been no significant correlation between water temperature and metrics of productivity commonly used in fisheries management. These findings demonstrate that pairing correlative approaches with careful consideration of the mechanistic links between populations and their environments can help to both avoid spurious correlations and identify biologically important, but not statistically significant relationships, and ultimately producing more robust conclusions about the biological impacts of climate change. PMID:27123845

  1. Beyond Correlation in the Detection of Climate Change Impacts: Testing a Mechanistic Hypothesis for Climatic Influence on Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Tillotson, Michael D.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the biological impacts of climate change is a current focus of ecological research and has important applications in conservation and resource management. Owing to a lack of suitable control systems, measuring correlations between time series of biological attributes and hypothesized environmental covariates is a common method for detecting such impacts. These correlative approaches are particularly common in studies of exploited fish species because rich biological time-series data are often available. However, the utility of species-environment relationships for identifying or predicting biological responses to climate change has been questioned because strong correlations often deteriorate as new data are collected. Specifically stating and critically evaluating the mechanistic relationship(s) linking an environmental driver to a biological response may help to address this problem. Using nearly 60 years of data on sockeye salmon from the Kvichak River, Alaska we tested a mechanistic hypothesis linking water temperatures experienced during freshwater rearing to population productivity by modeling a series of intermediate, deterministic relationships and evaluating temporal trends in biological and environmental time-series. We found that warming waters during freshwater rearing have profoundly altered patterns of growth and life history in this population complex yet there has been no significant correlation between water temperature and metrics of productivity commonly used in fisheries management. These findings demonstrate that pairing correlative approaches with careful consideration of the mechanistic links between populations and their environments can help to both avoid spurious correlations and identify biologically important, but not statistically significant relationships, and ultimately producing more robust conclusions about the biological impacts of climate change. PMID:27123845

  2. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program : Limnological and Fisheries Monitoring Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Holly; Lee, Chuck; Scofield, Ben; Pavlik, Deanne

    1999-08-01

    The Grand Coulee Dam was constructed in 1939 without a fish ladder, which eliminated steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. twshwastica), coho salmon (O. kisutch) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka) from returning to approximately 1,835 km (1,140 miles) of natal streams and tributaries found in the upper Columbia River Drainage in the United States and Canada. The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 gave the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the authority and responsibility to use its legal and financial resources, 'to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries. This is to be done in a manner consistent with the program adopted by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC), and the purposes of the Act' (NWPPC, 1987). With the phrase 'protect, mitigate and enhance', Congress signaled its intent that the NWPPC's fish and wildlife program should do more than avoid future hydroelectric damage to the basin's fish and wildlife. The program must also counter past damage, work toward rebuilding those fish and wildlife populations that have been harmed by the hydropower system, protect the Columbia Basin's fish and wildlife resources, and mitigate for harm caused by decades of hydroelectric development and operations. By law, this program is limited to measures that deal with impacts created by the development, operation and management of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. However, off-site enhancement projects are used to address the effects of the hydropower system on fish and wildlife (NWPPC 1987). Resident game fish populations have been established in Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, the reservoir behind Grand Coulee Dam, since the extirpation of anadromous fish species. The resident game fish populations are now responsible for attracting a large percentage of

  3. Self-sustaining populations, population sinks or aggregates of strays: chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Wood River system, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jocelyn E; Hilborn, Ray; Quinn, Thomas P; Hauser, Lorenz

    2011-12-01

    Small populations can provide insights into ecological and evolutionary aspects of species distributions over space and time. In the Wood River system in Alaska, USA, small aggregates of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) spawn in an area dominated by sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Our objective was to determine whether these Chinook and chum salmon are reproductively isolated, self-sustaining populations, population sinks that produce returning adults but receive immigration, or strays from other systems that do not produce returning adults. DNA samples collected from adult chum salmon from 16 streams and Chinook salmon from four streams in the Wood River system over 3 years were compared to samples from large populations in the nearby Nushagak River system, a likely source of strays. For both species, microsatellite markers indicated no significant genetic differentiation between the two systems. Simulations of microsatellite data in a large source and a smaller sink population suggested that considerable immigration would be required to counteract the diverging effects of genetic drift and produce genetic distances as small as those observed, considering the small census sizes of the two species in the Wood River system. Thus, the Wood River system likely receives substantial immigration from neighbouring watersheds, such as the Nushagak River system, which supports highly productive runs. Although no data on population productivity in the Wood River system exist, our results suggest source-sink dynamics for the two species, a finding relevant to other systems where salmonid population sizes are limited by habitat factors. PMID:22026559

  4. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 4. Technical Report # 09-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  5. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 1. Technical Report # 0919

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grade 1. These measures, available as part of easyCBM [TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2008 and administered to approximately 2800 students from schools…

  6. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Kindergarten. Technical Report # 0921

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in kindergarten. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2008 and administered to approximately 2800 students from…

  7. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 8. Technical Report # 09-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  8. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 5. Technical Report # 09-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  9. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 2. Technical Report # 0920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  10. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 7. Technical Report 0908

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…