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Sample records for nervio mediano ramo

  1. The development of the Adolescent Nervios Scale: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Livanis, Andrew; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the construction of a scale to measure the culture-bound syndrome of nervios in Latino early adolescents, ages 11 to 14. Informed by nervios literature and experts, we developed the 31-item Adolescent Nervios Scale (ANS) with items comprised of symptoms representing various psychiatric conditions common to Western culture. In contrast to 277 non-Latino early adolescents who responded to the items as representing disparate constructs, 307 Latino early adolescents responded to ANS items in a unitary fashion. For Latino early adolescents, the ANS demonstrated good internal consistency and stability as well as concurrent, discriminative, and criterion-based validity. The results support the measurement of nervios and its relationship to the school performance and adjustment of Latino youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:20099960

  2. ATAQUE DE NERVIOS AS A MARKER OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHIATRIC VULNERABILITY: RESULTS FROM THE NLAAS

    PubMed Central

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Pincay, Igda Martinez; Shrout, Patrick; Guo, Jing; Torres, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Alegria, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Background This article presents the first epidemiological portrait of ataques de nervios among Latinos in the mainland United States. Much of the previous literature has focused on Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and New York City. Aims This study examines the social and psychiatric correlates of ataque de nervios in a nationally representative sample of Latinos in the United States. Methods This study employs data from the Latino sample [N=2554] of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Analyses examined the associations between ataques de nervios and a range of social and migration variables, as well as psychiatric diagnoses and measures of mental health need. Results Ataques de nervios were reported by 7 to 15% of the different Latino groups, with Puerto Ricans reporting the highest frequency. Ataques de nervios were more frequent in women, those with disrupted marital status, and those more acculturated the U.S. The frequency of those who met criteria for affective, anxiety and substance abuse disorders was higher among those reporting an ataque de nervios. Conclusions Ataque de nervios can serve as an important indicator of social and psychiatric vulnerability in future epidemiological and clinical studies with Latino populations. PMID:19592438

  3. Ramos` private-power policies pay off

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This article reports that political stability, government incentives attract foreign capital for new generating plants and T and D facilities. Teams of multinational lenders, developers, equipment vendors, engineering contractors erect critical plants in record time. As recently as the summer of 1993, the Republic of the Philippines was teetering on the brink of bankruptcy--mainly because of electricity shortages. Brownouts averaging seven hours a day were common nationwide, and Manila`s business districts were frequently blacked out for most of the day. With the nation of 67-million facing economic losses estimated at several billion dollars a year, President Fidel V. Ramos took swift, decisive action. Ramos, elected the previous year, accelerated power-sector reforms initiated by his predecessor, Corazon C. Aquino, that sought to augment the aging, unreliable generating capacity of the state-owned electric utility with private power development.

  4. Beyond Anxious Predisposition: Do Padecer de Nervios and Ataque de Nervios Add Incremental Validity to Predictions of Current Distress among Mexican Mothers?

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Carmela; Abelson, James L.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nervios (PNRV) and ataque de nervios (ATQ) are culture-bound syndromes with overlapping symptoms of anxiety, depression, and dissociation, shown to have inconsistent associations to psychiatric disorder. Few studies test the basic assumption that PNRV and ATQ are uniformly linked to distress outcomes across Latina/o immigrant groups. This study examined: (a) the extent to which acculturative stress, Latino/U.S. American acculturation, and anxious predisposition were associated with lifetime history of ATQ and PNRV, and (b) the extent to which ATQ and PNRV add incremental validity in explaining acculturative stress and psychological distress beyond measures of anxious predisposition. Method Participants (n = 82) included Mexican mothers who completed surveys on acculturation, trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, lifetime ATQ/PNRV, psychological distress, and acculturative stress. Results Lifetime PNRV, but not lifetime ATQ, was significantly predictive of psychological distress. PNRV was also linked to trait anxiety. Psychometric measures of anxious predisposition (trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity) were more robust predictors of distress outcomes than lifetime history of ATQ/PNRV. Conclusions Inquiry into lifetime history of nervios may be a useful point of entry in talking to Mexican immigrant mothers about stress and distress. However, standard tools for assessing anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety appear most useful in identifying and explaining presence of psychological distress. Further research is needed to determine the cross-cultural relevance of trait anxiety and anxiety sensitivity, and its implications for the development of anxiety treatments that are effective across cultures. PMID:21769996

  5. The meaning of nervios: a sociocultural analysis of symptom presentation in San Jose, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Low, S M

    1981-03-01

    The foundation of the symbolic tradition in medical anthropology is the examination of a patient's experience of a category of illness. The interpretation of folk explanations of etiology and nosology provides insight into the cultural definition of what constitutes an illness, how and why an illness is labeled, and how the afflicted individual should be treated. Further, the analysis of sociocultural meaning emerges as a critical theoretical contribution to our understanding of health and culture. Allen Young in his article "Some Implications of Medical Beliefs and Practices for Social Anthropology" suggests " that if we want to learn the social meaning of sickness, we must understand that 'signs,' whatever their genesis, become 'symptoms' because they are expressed, elicited, and perceived in socially acquired ways" (1976: 14). He further states that some categories of sickness are particularly interesting in that they enable people to organize the illness event into an episode that has form and meaning (1976: 19-20). Nervios is an example of a symptom that has acquired a special sociocultural pattern of expression, elicitation and perception in San Jose, Costa Rica. The empirical study of symptom presentation in general medicine and psychiatric outpatient clinics describes the patients who present the symptom and their associated attributes and explanations of the symptom's occurrence. The meaning of nervios is then discussed within a social interactional and symbolic framework. PMID:7249673

  6. Mini-mastoidectomía para anastomosis hipogloso-facial con sección parcial del nervio hipogloso

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Socolovsky, Mariano; Martins, Carolina; Rhoton, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La anastomosis hipogloso-facial es la técnica de elección para la reparación de la parálisis facial cuando no se dispone de un cabo proximal sano del nervio facial. La técnica de anastomosis mediante fresado mastoideo y sección parcial del hipogloso minimiza la atrofia lingual sin sacrificar resultados a nivel facial. Método: La porción mastoidea del nervio facial transcurre por la pared anterior de la AM, a un promedio de 18+/-3 mm de profundidad respecto de la pared lateral. Se debe reconocer la cresta supramastoidea, desde la cual se marca una línea vertical paralela al eje mayor de la AM, 1 cm por detrás de la pared posterior del CAE El fresado se comienza desde la línea medio mastoidea hasta la pared posterior del CAE. Una vez encontrado el nervio facial en el tercio medio del canal mastoideo, el mismo es seguido hacia proximal y distal. Resultados: El abordaje descripto permite acceder al nervio facial intratemporal en su porción mastoidea, y efectuar un fresado óseo sin poner en riesgo al nervio o a estructuras vasculares cercanas. Se trata de un procedimiento técnicamente más sencillo que los abordajes amplios habitualmente utilizados al hueso temporal; no obstante su uso debe ser restringido mayormente a la anastomosis hipogloso-facial. Conclusión: Esta es una técnica relativamente sencilla, que puede ser reproducida por cirujanos sin mayor experiencia en el tema, luego de su paso por el laboratorio de anatomía. PMID:23596555

  7. Azúcar y nervios: explanatory models and treatment experiences of Hispanics with diabetes and depression.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Hansen, Marissa C; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Ell, Kathleen

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the explanatory models of depression, perceived relationships between diabetes and depression, and depression treatment experiences of low-income, Spanish-speaking, Hispanics with diabetes and depression. A purposive sample (n=19) was selected from participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial conducted in Los Angeles, California (United States) testing the effectiveness of a health services quality improvement intervention. Four focus groups followed by 10 in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed using the methodology of coding, consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison, an analytical strategy rooted in grounded theory. Depression was perceived as a serious condition linked to the accumulation of social stressors. Somatic and anxiety-like symptoms and the cultural idiom of nervios were central themes in low-income Hispanics' explanatory models of depression. The perceived reciprocal relationships between diabetes and depression highlighted the multiple pathways by which these two illnesses impact each other and support the integration of diabetes and depression treatments. Concerns about depression treatments included fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications. This study provides important insights about the cultural and social dynamics that shape low-income Hispanics' illness and treatment experiences and support the use of patient-centered approaches to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and depression. PMID:18339466

  8. "Chronicity," "nervios" and community care: a case study of Puerto Rican psychiatric patients in New York City.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, M

    1992-06-01

    The role of ethnicity, community structure, and folk concepts of mental illness in facilitating the adaptation of long term psychiatric patients to community living has received little attention. This article examines the cultural concepts of mental illness and the community involvement of 30 Puerto Rican psychiatric patients participating in a New York City treatment program. It is shown that many of the attributes usually associated with chronic mental illness do not apply to this population. It is argued that the folk concept of nervios helps to foster the integration of these patients in a wide range of community networks. The impact of gentrification on these patients' community integration is also discussed. PMID:1395696

  9. Human impact on the hydrology of the Andean páramos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Célleri, Rolando; De Bièvre, Bert; Cisneros, Felipe; Wyseure, Guido; Deckers, Jozef; Hofstede, Robert

    2006-11-01

    This paper analyses the problems involved in the conservation and management of the hydrological system of the South American páramo. The páramo consists of a collection of neotropical alpine grassland ecosystems covering the upper region of the northern Andes. They play a key role in the hydrology of the continent. Many of the largest tributaries of the Amazon basin have their headwaters in the páramo. It is also the major water source for the Andean highlands and a vast area of arid and semi-arid lowlands, where páramo water is used for domestic, agricultural and industrial consumption, and the generation of hydropower. Recently, the páramo is increasingly used for intensive cattle grazing, cultivation, and pine planting, among others. These activities, as well as global phenomena such as climate change, severely alter the hydrological regime. A review on the state of knowledge of its hydrology is given in a first part. In a second part, the impact of human activities and climate change on the hydrology of the páramo is discussed.

  10. ramo is the world's fastest evolving and coolest biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Madriñán, Santiago; Cortés, Andrés J; Richardson, James E

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the processes that cause speciation is a key aim of evolutionary biology. Lineages or biomes that exhibit recent and rapid diversification are ideal model systems for determining these processes. Species rich biomes reported to be of relatively recent origin, i.e., since the beginning of the Miocene, include Mediterranean ecosystems such as the California Floristic Province, oceanic islands such as the Hawaiian archipelago and the Neotropical high elevation ecosystem of the Páramos. Páramos constitute grasslands above the forest tree-line (at elevations of c. 2800-4700 m) with high species endemism. Organisms that occupy this ecosystem are a likely product of unique adaptations to an extreme environment that evolved during the last three to five million years when the Andes reached an altitude that was capable of sustaining this type of vegetation. We compared net diversification rates of lineages in fast evolving biomes using 73 dated molecular phylogenies. Based on our sample, we demonstrate that average net diversification rates of Páramo plant lineages are faster than those of other reportedly fast evolving hotspots and that the faster evolving lineages are more likely to be found in Páramos than the other hotspots. Páramos therefore represent the ideal model system for studying diversification processes. Most of the speciation events that we observed in the Páramos (144 out of 177) occurred during the Pleistocene possibly due to the effects of species range contraction and expansion that may have resulted from the well-documented climatic changes during that period. Understanding these effects will assist with efforts to determine how future climatic changes will impact plant populations. PMID:24130570

  11. ramo is the world's fastest evolving and coolest biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Madriñán, Santiago; Cortés, Andrés J.; Richardson, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the processes that cause speciation is a key aim of evolutionary biology. Lineages or biomes that exhibit recent and rapid diversification are ideal model systems for determining these processes. Species rich biomes reported to be of relatively recent origin, i.e., since the beginning of the Miocene, include Mediterranean ecosystems such as the California Floristic Province, oceanic islands such as the Hawaiian archipelago and the Neotropical high elevation ecosystem of the Páramos. Páramos constitute grasslands above the forest tree-line (at elevations of c. 2800–4700 m) with high species endemism. Organisms that occupy this ecosystem are a likely product of unique adaptations to an extreme environment that evolved during the last three to five million years when the Andes reached an altitude that was capable of sustaining this type of vegetation. We compared net diversification rates of lineages in fast evolving biomes using 73 dated molecular phylogenies. Based on our sample, we demonstrate that average net diversification rates of Páramo plant lineages are faster than those of other reportedly fast evolving hotspots and that the faster evolving lineages are more likely to be found in Páramos than the other hotspots. Páramos therefore represent the ideal model system for studying diversification processes. Most of the speciation events that we observed in the Páramos (144 out of 177) occurred during the Pleistocene possibly due to the effects of species range contraction and expansion that may have resulted from the well-documented climatic changes during that period. Understanding these effects will assist with efforts to determine how future climatic changes will impact plant populations. PMID:24130570

  12. The Role of Peers in the Relation between Hurricane Exposure and Ataques de Nervios among Puerto Rican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rubens, Sonia L.; Felix, Erika D.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Canino, Glorisa

    2014-01-01

    Although a relation between disaster exposure and ataques de nervios (ataques) has been established in adult samples, little is known about this among youth, including factors that may moderate this relation. This study examined the role of the peer context in the relation between exposure to Hurricane Georges and experiencing a past year and lifetime ataques among a representative community sample of 905 youth (N = 476 boys and 429 girls; ages 11–18) residing in Puerto Rico. Data were gathered from 1999–2000 in Puerto Rico, 12–27 months following Hurricane Georges. Logistic regression analyses found that peer violence significantly predicted experiencing an ataque in the past year. Hurricane exposure and peer violence were both significant predictors of a lifetime experience of an ataque. An interaction was found between hurricane exposure and peer violence, indicating that hurricane exposure was significantly related to a lifetime experience of an ataque among adolescents who do not report associating with violent peers. For participants reporting high levels of peer violence, hurricane exposure did not add additional risk for a lifetime experience of an ataque. Understanding the influence of peers in the relation between hurricane exposure and experiencing an ataque may assist in planning developmentally and culturally sensitive response plans. PMID:25436037

  13. “Azúcar y Nervios: Explanatory Models and Treatment Experiences of Hispanics with Diabetes and Depression”

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Marissa C; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Ell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the explanatory models of depression, perceived relationships between diabetes and depression, and depression treatment experiences of low-income, Spanish-speaking, Hispanics with diabetes and depression. A purposive sample (n =19) was selected from participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial conducted in Los Angeles, California (US) testing the effectiveness of a health services quality improvement intervention. Four focus groups followed by 10 in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed using the methodology of coding, consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison, an analytical strategy rooted in grounded theory. Depression was perceived as a serious condition linked to the accumulation of social stressors. Somatic and anxiety-like symptoms and the cultural idiom of nervios were central themes in low-income Hispanics’ explanatory models of depression. The perceived reciprocal relationships between diabetes and depression highlighted the multiple pathways by which these two illnesses impact each other and support the integration of diabetes and depression treatments. Concerns about depression treatments included fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications. This study provides important insights about the cultural and social dynamics that shape low-income Hispanics’ illness and treatment experiences and support the use of patient-centered approaches to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and depression. PMID:18339466

  14. Expression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase protects ramos B cells from oxidation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Karp, D R; Shimooku, K; Lipsky, P E

    2001-02-01

    The ectoenzyme, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, EC ) cleaves glutathione (GSH) to facilitate the recapture of cysteine for synthesis of intracellular GSH. The impact of GGT expression on cell survival during oxidative stress was investigated using the human B cell lymphoblastoid cell line, Ramos. Ramos cells did not express surface GGT and exhibited no GGT enzyme activity. In contrast, Ramos cells stably transfected with the human GGT cDNA expressed high levels of surface GGT and enzymatic activity. GGT-transfected Ramos cells were protected from apoptosis when cultured in cyst(e)ine-deficient medium. The GGT-expressing cells also had lower levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Homocysteic acid and alanine, inhibitors of cystine and cysteine uptake, respectively, caused increased ROS content and diminished viability of GGT expressing cells. Exogenous GSH increased the viability of the GGT-transfected cells more effectively than that of control cells, whereas the products of GSH metabolism prevented death of both the control and GGT-transfected cells comparably. These data indicate that GGT cleavage of GSH and the subsequent recapture of cysteine and cystine allow cells to maintain low levels of cellular ROS and thereby avoid apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. PMID:11080500

  15. Effects of Land Use History on Soil Carbon Dioxide Flux in Ecuadorian Páramo Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, J.; Harden, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a primary mechanism for soil carbon (C) loss and is intricately linked to processes that affect soil C storage. As a result, land-use changes that affect soil CO2 flux (Flux) rates can significantly influence regional C budgets. The páramo grasslands of the high altitude Ecuadorian Andes are important in regional C budgets due to large soil C stocks. Though some forms of land use history have been shown to reduce soil C and affect known drivers of Flux, such as soil moisture (MS) and soil temperature (TS), the effect of land use history on Flux and its role in páramo soil C budgets remains poorly understood. This study investigated Flux differences among sites representing four land-use histories (PA-páramo; PAB-páramo recently burned; NA-native forest; PI-planted pine forest) and assessed the role of MS and TS on Flux rates within and across sites. Flux, MS, and TS were measured over a 3-week period at the Mazar Wildlife Reserve in southern Ecuador. Flux varied significantly among site pairs, except PI and NA. Flux rates were highest in the PI (5.79 g CO2-C m-2 d-1) and NA sites (5.59 g CO2-C m-2 d-1), with Flux rates at PA and PAB of 4.84 g CO2-C m-2 d-1 and 3.76 g CO2-C m-2 d-1, respectively. MS ranged from 29% at PI to 55% at PA, with grass sites having higher MS than forested sites. On average, páramo soils were ~3°C warmer than forested soil, with PI warmer than NA. Across all sites, Flux was weakly, negatively correlated with MS. Flux and TS were positively correlated within each site except PAB; the strongest correlation (p<0.0001) was observed at PI. Our results show that in the Ecuadorian Andes, Flux is significantly affected by land use history with higher Flux rates observed in forested areas than in páramo grasslands. To our knowledge, these are the first Flux rates reported for the Ecuadorian páramo region.

  16. Analysis of the drought recovery of Andosols on southern Ecuadorian Andean páramos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iñiguez, Vicente; Morales, Oscar; Cisneros, Felipe; Bauwens, Willy; Wyseure, Guido

    2016-06-01

    The Neotropical Andean grasslands above 3500 m a.s.l., known as páramo, offer remarkable ecological services for the Andean region. The most important of these is the water supply of excellent quality to many cities and villages in the inter-Andean valleys and along the coast. The páramo ecosystem and especially its soils are under constant and increased threat by human activities and climate change. In this study, the recovery speed of the páramo soils after drought periods are analysed. The observation period includes the droughts of 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012 together with intermediate wet periods. Two experimental catchments - one with and one without páramo - were investigated. The Probability Distributed Moisture (PDM) model was calibrated and validated in both catchments. Drought periods and its characteristics were identified and quantified by a threshold level approach and complemented by means of a drought propagation analysis. At the plot scale in the páramo region, the soil water content measured by time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes dropped from a normal value of about 0.84 to ˜ 0.60 cm3 cm-3, while the recovery time was 2-3 months. This did not occur at lower altitudes (Cumbe) where the soils are mineral. Although the soil moisture depletion observed in these soils was similar to that of the Andosols (27 %), decreasing from a normal value of about 0.54 to ˜ 0.39 cm3 cm-3, the recovery was much slower and took about 8 months for the drought in 2010. At the catchment scale, however, the soil water storage simulated by the PDM model and the drought analysis was not as pronounced. Soil moisture droughts occurred mainly in the dry season in both catchments. The deficit for all cases is small and progressively reduced during the wet season. Vegetation stress periods correspond mainly to the months of September, October and November, which coincides with the dry season. The maximum number of consecutive dry days were reached during the drought of

  17. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos.

    PubMed

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S; Amoroso, Victor B

    2016-01-01

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the-for Nepenthes-unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos. PMID:27164153

  18. Two New Nepenthes Species from the Philippines and an Emended Description of Nepenthes ramos

    PubMed Central

    Gronemeyer, Thomas; Suarez, Wally; Nuytemans, Herman; Calaramo, Michael; Wistuba, Andreas; Mey, François S.; Amoroso, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    With 50 species of the genus Nepenthes L. currently described from the Philippines, it is without doubt that the country, along with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia) and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei), should be considered the center of diversity of the genus. In this work, we describe two new species. One species, N. aenigma sp. nov., is from Ilocos Norte province on Luzon Island and has the—for Nepenthes—unusual ecological preference to grow in dense vegetation in deep shade. The other new species is from Mount Hamiguitan in Davao Oriental province on Mindanao Island. With this new entry, Mount Hamiguitan is now home to four endemic species (N. peltata, N. micramphora, N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae sp. nov.). Furthermore, we provide an emended description of N. ramos based on field data. Nepenthes kurata is synonymized here with N. ramos. PMID:27164153

  19. Application of the Shockley-Ramo theorem on the grid inefficiency of Frisch grid ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göök, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    2012-02-01

    The concept of grid inefficiency in Frisch grid ionization chambers and its influence on the anode pulse shape is explained in terms of the Shockley-Ramo theorem for induced charges. The grid inefficiency correction is deduced from numerically calculated weighting potentials. A method to determine the correction factor experimentally is also presented. Experimental and calculated values of the correction factor are shown to be in good agreement.

  20. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".

    PubMed

    1994-08-24

    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and

  1. Role of carbon and climate in forming the Páramo, an Andean evolutionary hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    According to a number of genetic diversification measures the Páramo grasslands of the high equatorial Andes show the greatest rates of speciation on the planet. This is probably driven by contrasting ranges of the ecosystem between glacial and interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. During the warm interglacial periods the treeline is high in the Andes restricting the Páramos to the highest regions of the Andean mountain chain, while in the cool glacial periods the Páramo areas expand and probably coalesce, bringing isolated populations into contact with each other. The origin of the Páramo ecosystem is placed close to the end of the Pliocene and has been related to the finale of regional Andean mountain building. However, this formation date is also coincident with the global cooling at the end of the Pliocene, as Northern Hemisphere glaciation and the bipolar Pleistocene ice ages begin. Furthermore, it is estimated that atmospheric CO2 concentrations dropped from the 400 ppmv typical of the Pliocene to values more typical of the Pleistocene at around this time. Global climate model simulations, coupled with a high resolution biome model, give us the opportunity to test these competing hypotheses for the formation of the Páramo ecosystem. A series of HadCM3 climate model simulations are presented here varying the height of the highest altitude Andes and the global climate from its pre-industrial state to the Pliocene. The climate are topographic changes are varied both independently and together. These climatologies are then used to drive a high-resolution biome model, BIOME4, and simulate the impact on Andean vegetation. These models seem to reproduce the observed changes in high altitude grassland biomes during the Pliocene. The climate and biome modelling presented here show that the climate changes associated with the Plio-Pleistocene boundary are the primary cause of the initial formation of this unique and important ecosystem. Although the reduction

  2. Analysis of the drought resilience of Andosols on southern Ecuadorian Andean páramos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iñiguez, V.; Morales, O.; Cisneros, F.; Bauwens, W.; Wyseure, G.

    2015-11-01

    The neotropical Andean grasslands above 3500 m a.s.l. known as "páramo" offer remarkable ecological services for the Andean region. Most important is the water supply - of excellent quality - to many cities and villages established in the lowlands of the inter-Andean valleys and to the coast. However, the páramo ecosystem is under constant and increased threat by human activities and climate change. In this paper we study the resilience of its soils for drought periods during the period 2007-2013. In addition, field measurements and hydrological conceptual modelling at the catchment-scale are comparing two contrasting catchments in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. Both were intensively monitored during two and a half years (2010-2012) in order to analyse the temporal variability of the soil moisture storage. A typical catchment on the páramo at 3500 m a.s.l. was compared to a lower grassland one at 2600 m a.s.l. The main aim was to estimate the resilience capacity of the soils during a drought period and the recovery during a subsequent wet period. Local soil water content measurements in the top soil (first 30 cm) through TDR were used as a proxy for the catchment's average soil moisture storage. The local measurements were compared to the average soil water storage as estimated by the probabilistic soil moisture (PDM) model. This conceptual hydrological model with 5 parameters was calibrated and validated for both catchments. The study reveals the extraordinary resilience capacity of this type of shallow organic soils during the droughts in 2009 and 2010. During these droughts, the soil water content dropped from a normal value of about 0.80 to ~ 0.60 cm3 cm-3, while the recovery time was only two to three months.

  3. Characterization of antibacterial polyethersulfone membranes using the Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS).

    PubMed

    Kochan, Jozef; Scheidle, Marco; van Erkel, Joost; Bikel, Matías; Büchs, Jochen; Wong, John Erik; Melin, Thomas; Wessling, Matthias

    2012-10-15

    Membranes with antibacterial properties were developed using surface modification of polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes. Three different modification strategies using polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LbL) technique are described. The first strategy relying on the intrinsic antibacterial properties of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) exhibits only little antibacterial effects. The other two strategies contain silver in both ionic (Ag(+)) and metallic (Ag(0)) form. Ag(+) embedded into negatively charged poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) layers totally inhibits bacterial growth. Ag(0) nanoparticles were introduced to the membrane surface by LbL deposition of chitosan- and poly(methacrylic acid) - sodium salt (PMA)-capped silver nanoparticles and subsequent UV or heat treatment. Antibacterial properties of the modified membranes were quantified by a new method based on the Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS), whereby the oxygen transfer rates (OTR) of E. coli K12 cultures on the membranes were monitored online. As opposed to colony forming counting method RAMOS yields more quantitative and reliable data on the antibacterial effect of membrane modification. Ag-imprinted polyelectrolyte film composed of chitosan (Ag(0))/PMA(Ag(0))/chitosan(Ag(0)) was found to be the most promising among the tested membranes. Further investigation revealed that the concentration and equal distribution of silver in the membrane surface plays an important role in bacterial growth inhibition. PMID:22884245

  4. Description and classification of nonallophanic Andosols in south Ecuadorian alpine grasslands (páramo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Deckers, Jozef; Wyseure, Guido

    2006-02-01

    The páramo is a neotropical alpine ecosystem that covers more than 75,000 km 2 of the northern Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Peru. It provides important environmental services: more than 10 million people in the Andean highlands benefit from the water supply and regulation function, which is attributed to the volcanic soils that underlie the ecosystem. The soils are also major carbon sinks of global significance. Severe land use changes and soil degradation threaten both the hydrology and carbon sink function. Nevertheless, soil genesis and properties in the páramo is rather poorly understood, nor are their ecological functions well documented. The impact of the geomorphology of the páramo on soil genesis was studied in the rio Paute basin, south Ecuador. Two toposequences were described and analysed. In each toposequence, four pedons were selected representing summit, backslope, undrained plain situation, and valley bottom positions in the landscape. The soils are classified as Hydric Andosols in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources and Epiaquands or Hydrudands in Soil Taxonomy. They are very acidic and have a high organic matter content, high P deficiency, and Al toxicity. Their water content ranges from 2.64 g g - 1 at saturation, down to 1.24 g g - 1 at wilting point, resulting in a large water storage capacity. Two major soil forming processes are identified: (1) volcanic ash deposition and (2) accumulation of organic carbon. Volcanic ash deposits may vary in depth as a result of regional geomorphological factors such as parent material, orientation, slope, and altitude. Organic carbon accumulation is an interaction of both waterlogging, which depends on the position in the landscape, and the formation of organometallic complexes with Al and Fe released during volcanic ash breakdown. Despite the high variability in parent material and topography, the soil is characterised by a notable homogeneity in physico-chemical properties

  5. Alone You Are Nobody, Together We Float: The Manuela Ramos Movement. Quality/Calidad/Qualite Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogow, Debbie

    The Manuela Ramos Movement began in the 1970s when seven women in Lima, Peru, started meeting each Tuesday to reconsider their assumptions about everyday life. By 1980, the group formed a nongovernmental organization whose strategy was to train women community leaders in Lima's barrios through workshops focusing on the following themes: identity…

  6. Involvement of cyclic-nucleotide response element-binding family members in the radiation response of Ramos B lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    DI NISIO, CHIARA; SANCILIO, SILVIA; DI GIACOMO, VIVIANA; RAPINO, MONICA; SANCILLO, LAURA; GENOVESI, DOMENICO; DI SIENA, ALESSANDRO; RANA, ROSA ALBA; CATALDI, AMELIA; DI PIETRO, ROBERTA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Cyclic-nucleotide Response Element-Binding (CREB) family members and related nuclear transcription factors in the radiation response of human B lymphoma cell lines (Daudi and Ramos). Unlike the more radiosensitive Daudi cells, Ramos cells demonstrated only a moderate increase in early apoptosis after 3–5 Gy irradiation doses, which was detected with Annexin V/PI staining. Moreover, a significant and dose-dependent G2/M phase accumulation was observed in the same cell line at 24 h after both ionizing radiation (IR) doses. Western blot analysis showed an early increase in CREB protein expression that was still present at 3 h and more evident after 3 Gy IR in Ramos cells, along with the dose-dependent upregulation of p53 and NF-κB. These findings were consistent with real-time RT-PCR analysis that showed an early- and dose-dependent upregulation of NFKB1, IKBKB and XIAP gene expression. Unexpectedly, pre-treatment with SN50 did not increase cell death, but cell viability. Taken together, these findings let us hypothesise that the early induction and activation of NF-κB1 in Ramos cells could mediate necrotic cell death and be linked to other molecules belonging to CREB family and involved in the cell cycle regulation. PMID:26573110

  7. Community trees: Identifying codiversification in the Páramo dipteran community.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Bryan C; Gruenstaeudl, Michael; Reid, Noah M

    2016-05-01

    Groups of codistributed species that responded in a concerted manner to environmental events are expected to share patterns of evolutionary diversification. However, the identification of such groups has largely been based on qualitative, post hoc analyses. We develop here two methods (posterior predictive simulation [PPS], Kuhner-Felsenstein [K-F] analysis of variance [ANOVA]) for the analysis of codistributed species that, given a group of species with a shared pattern of diversification, allow empiricists to identify those taxa that do not codiversify (i.e., "outlier" species). The identification of outlier species makes it possible to jointly estimate the evolutionary history of co-diversifying taxa. To evaluate the approaches presented here, we collected data from Páramo dipterans, identified outlier species, and estimated a "community tree" from species that are identified as having codiversified. Our results demonstrate that dipteran communities from different Páramo habitats in the same mountain range are more closely related than communities in other ranges. We also conduct simulation testing to evaluate this approach. Results suggest that our approach provides a useful addition to comparative phylogeographic methods, while identifying aspects of the analysis that require careful interpretation. In particular, both the PPS and K-F ANOVA perform acceptably when there are one or two outlier species, but less so as the number of outliers increases. This is likely a function of the corresponding degradation of the signal of community divergence; without a strong signal from a codiversifying community, there is no dominant pattern from which to detect an outlier species. For this reason, both the magnitude of K-F distance distribution and outside knowledge about the phylogeographic history of each putative member of the community should be considered when interpreting the results. PMID:27061575

  8. c-Myc over-expression in Ramos Burkitt's lymphoma cell line predisposes to iron homeostasis disruption in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Habel, Marie-Eve; Jung, Daniel . E-mail: djung@hema-quebec.qc.ca

    2006-03-24

    Burkitt's lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm resulting from deregulated c-myc expression. We have previously shown that proliferation of Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines such as Ramos is markedly reduced by iron treatment. It has been shown that iron induces expression of c-myc which, owing to its transcriptional regulatory functions, regulates genes involved in iron metabolism. Transient enhancement of c-myc expression by iron could increase the expression of genes involved in iron incorporation, which could lead to an accumulation of intracellular free iron. Here, we have investigated whether cells with a high basal level of c-Myc were more likely to accumulate free iron. Our results suggest that the basal level of c-Myc in Ramos cells is twofold higher than what is seen in HL-60 cells. Moreover, in Ramos cells, where c-Myc is expressed at a high level, H-ferritin expression is down-regulated, transferrin receptor (CD71) expression is increased, and ferritin translation is inhibited. These modifications in iron metabolism, resulting from the strong basal expression of c-Myc, and amplified by iron addition, could lead to a disruption in homeostasis and consequently to growth arrest.

  9. Model quantification of the CO2 storage in the Los Páramos site (Duero basin, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, Albert; Grandia, Fidel; Abarca, Elena; Motis, Kilian; Molinero, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The Duero basin in NW Spain is one the most promising basin for CO2 storage in the Iberian Peninsula due to the existence of favourable deep aquifers close to large CO2 emission point sources. A number of projects are presently active either for scientific research (e.g., the Hontomín site, OXI-CFB300 EPRR project) or commercial purposes (e.g., Sahagún and Los Páramos projects). The project called Los Páramos intends to assess the injection of CO2 in a group of dome-shaped structures with an estimated total capacity of 200 Mt (ranked 2nd in the Iberian Peninsula, IGME 2010). These domes were studied in the past for hydrocarbon exploration and a large body of information is available from seismic profiles (over 170 km) and 3 deep wells. The Los Páramos site is emplaced in the San Pedro Folded Band (SPFB) that consists mainly of thick-skinned thrusts of Mesozoic rocks (Triassic and Upper Cretaceous) sealed by a thick (1200-1500 m), undeformed cover of Tertiary claystones. Dome-like structures are related to thrusts leading to favourable reservoirs. The target horizon for CO2 storage is the Utrillas Fm sandstone with high porosity (13-20%) and thickness (225-250 m). In three of the domes, the Utrillas Fm is below -800m, allowing thus the storage of CO2(sc). This sandstone hosts an aquifer containing saline water, up to 50 g·L-1, according to the data from drill wells. The presence of saline groundwater is explained by water interaction with Triassic evaporite layers just underlying the Utrillas Fm sandstones. The CO2 storage at Los Paramos site is planned via injection of supercritical CO2 (CO2(sc)) in the Utrillas Fm. In general, the next four trapping mechanisms are expected, which are of increasing importance through time (1) structural, (2) residual saturation, (3) dissolution, and (4) mineral. The prediction of the mass of CO2 stored through time in any storage systems is an essential parameter in the pre-injection assessment of a geological storage. For

  10. High mountain soil sequence at the Páramos of Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha Francelino, Marcio; Muselli Barbosa, Alexandre; Adnet Moura, Pedro; Adent Moura, Tom; Correia, Guilherme; Cunha Anjos, Lúcia Helena; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto

    2015-04-01

    Very little is known about high-mountain cryopedogenesis under Páramo vegetation in the Andes. We studied soils along a typical topossequence at the periglacial zone on the northern flank of Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador, emphasizing the cryopedogenesis process and altitudinal soil climatic regime, in soils ranging from 3980 to 4885m, above the tree line and below the snow line. At each site, a complete set of instruments (sensors and datalogger) were installed to monitoring air and soil temperatures and moisture, at five soil depths, in three different elevation points; in addition we selected, described and sampled six representative soil profiles, according to local variations in vegetation cover, topography, presence of snow and elevation; soils were studied concerning the petrographic composition, mineralogical, physical and chemical properties of different soil fractions. The geology of the Cotopaxi volcano is complex due to recent volcanic activity. Petrographically, the most recent ejected material is of Andesite-rhyolitic composition, with large deposits of tephra, and solifluxion lobes forming a mixed debris mantle. The landforms are characteristic of a stratovolcano, with conical and symmetric formations, with a dissected, broad base with gentle slopes, changing to steep slopes and eroded, rugged peaks, displaying periglacial erosional features. Also, we find cumulative sedimentary materials of periglacial origin in the lower parts of the landscape. Soil monitoring temperatures for one year showed that the surface soil is warmer than the air temperature for the three elevations, even under snow cover, indicating a strong thermal insulation of these volcanic soils. No permafrost was detected at the 200 cm section. The volcanic soils are stratified, with alternating layers of ash and lapilli, with pumices, with predominantly coarse textures and low clay content, features that may contribute to the observed insulation. Mineralogical analyzes indicated the

  11. Hypericum species in the Páramos of Central and South America: a special focus upon H. irazuense Kuntze ex N. Robson.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Sara; Eberhardt, Marianne; Kunert, Olaf; Schühly, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    Knowledge about members of the flowering plant family Clusiaceae occurring in the tropical mountain regions of the world is limited, in part due to endemism and restricted distributions. High altitude vegetation habitats (Páramos) in Central and South America are home to numerous native Hypericum species. Information related to the phytochemistry of páramo Hypericum, as well as ecological factors with the potential to influence chemical defenses in these plants, is briefly reviewed. Results of the phytochemical analysis of Hypericum irazuense, a species collected in the páramo of the Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica, are presented. Lastly, guidelines for the viable and sustainable collections of plant material, to facilitate future investigations of these interesting plants, are given. PMID:21151765

  12. Hypericum species in the Páramos of Central and South America: a special focus upon H. irazuense Kuntze ex N. Robson

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara; Eberhardt, Marianne; Kunert, Olaf; Schühly, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about members of the flowering plant family Clusiaceae occurring in the tropical mountain regions of the world is limited, in part due to endemism and restricted distributions. High altitude vegetation habitats (Páramos) in Central and South America are home to numerous native Hypericum species. Information related to the phytochemistry of páramo Hypericum, as well as ecological factors with the potential to influence chemical defenses in these plants, is briefly reviewed. Results of the phytochemical analysis of Hypericum irazuense, a species collected in the páramo of the Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica, are presented. Lastly, guidelines for the viable and sustainable collections of plant material, to facilitate future investigations of these interesting plants, are given. PMID:21151765

  13. Morphological and molecular evidence supporting an arbutoid mycorrhizal relationship in the Costa Rican páramo.

    PubMed

    Osmundson, Todd W; Halling, Roy E; den Bakker, Henk C

    2007-05-01

    This study examines evidence for a particular arbutoid mycorrhizal interaction in páramo, a high-altitude neotropical ecosystem important in hydrological regulation but poorly known in terms of its fungal communities. Comarostaphylis arbutoides Lindley (Ericaceae) often forms dense thickets in Central American páramo habitats. Based on phylogenetic classification, it has been suggested that C. arbutoides forms arbutoid mycorrhizae with diverse Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes; however, this assumption has not previously been confirmed. Based on field data, we hypothesized an arbutoid mycorrhizal association between C. arbutoides and the recently described bolete Leccinum monticola Halling & G.M. Mueller; in this study, we applied a rigorous approach using anatomical and molecular data to examine evidence for such an association. We examined root samples collected beneath L. monticola basidiomes for mycorrhizal structures, and we also compared rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences between mycorrhizal root tips and leaf or basidiome material of the suspected symbionts. Root cross sections showed a thin hyphal sheath and intracellular hyphal coils typical of arbutoid mycorrhizae. DNA sequence comparisons confirmed the identity of C. arbutoides and L. monticola as the mycorrhizal symbionts. In addition, this paper provides additional evidence for the widespread presence of minisatellite-like inserts in the ITS1 spacer in Leccinum species (including a characterization of the insert in L. monticola) and reports the use of an angiosperm-specific ITS primer pair useful for amplifying plant DNA from mycorrhizal roots without co-amplifying fungal DNA. PMID:17216498

  14. [Chemical composition of fresh bee pollen collected in the Misintá páramo from the Venezuelan Andes].

    PubMed

    Vit, Patricia; Santiago, B

    2008-12-01

    Venezuelan bee pollen has not been characterized, and marketing is not regulated. Pollen is consumed for apitherapeutical purposes for its nutritional and medicinal properties. This product of the hive is the most popular after honey; therefore it is necessary to characterize and to value it to initiate a database to support the proposal of a norm for bee pollen quality control. Samples of bee pollen collected by bees in the Misintá páramo of Mérida state were characterized accoridng to the chemical composition (moisture, ash, fat, pH, proteins) of four color fractions (yellow, orange, ochre, green). Yellow pollen was the most frequent fraction, with 2.18 g ash/100 g, 5.37 g ether extract/100 g, 14.88 g moisture/100 g, and 37.32 g proteins/100 g. PMID:19368304

  15. Vegetation and environmental dynamics in the Páramo of Jimbura region in the southeastern Ecuadorian Andes during the late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villota, Andrea; León-Yánez, Susana; Behling, Hermann

    2012-12-01

    The last 15,000 years of vegetation, fire and climate history were reconstructed from the Laguna Natosa Peat bog core (3600 m elevation) in the Páramo of Jimbura region in the Cordillera Real, close to the Peruvian border of southern Ecuador in the southernmost part of the Andean depression. The pollen record, dated by 5 radiocarbon dates, indicates that during the late Glacial (ca. 15,000-12,000 cal yr BP) a gradual expansion of mountain forest, restricting the páramo vegetation to small patches, and a shift of the forest line to higher elevation took place; reflecting an increase in temperature. However, a clear signal of the warmer Bølling/Allerød interstadial and the cooler Younger Dryas period, are not reflected in the record. During the transition from the late Glacial to the early/mid-Holocene (ca. 12,000-4800 cal yr BP), tree taxa such as Hedyosmum and Podocarpaceae are well represented, suggesting that the upper forest line, especially in the mid-Holocene, reached slightly higher elevations than at present. Hence, páramo vegetation was limited, indicating warmer climatic conditions for the early to mid-Holocene period than today. The late Holocene from 4800 cal yr BP until the present is characterized by higher occurrences of páramo taxa. During this period, the upper forest line shifted downwards giving room to the expansion of the páramo vegetation to its current size. Fire was rare during the late Glacial period but became more frequent after about 8000 cal yr BP, probably due to the dry event during the mid-Holocene and increased human activity.

  16. Hydrological interaction between glacier and páramos in the tropical Andes: implications for water resources availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villacís, Marcos; Cadier, Eric; Mena, Sandra; Anaguano, Marcelo; Calispa, Marlon; Maisisncho, Luis; Galárraga, Remigio; Francou, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    Preliminary hydro glacier estimates indicate that glacier contribution to the average annual consumption (5.6 m3 s-1) of the city of Quito (Capital of Ecuador, ~2'500.000 inhabitants, 2800 masl) represents only about 2%-4% of the total supply for human consumption. However, at the local level at the Antizana volcano (0°28'S, 78°09'W), the mass balance analysis of the system composed by the Humboldt catchment (area of 15.1 km2, 15% of glaciarized area, 5% of moraines area, 80% of the area is páramo-endemic ecosystem of the tropical Andes, range from 5670 masl to 4000 masl) and Los Crespos catchment (area of 2.4 km2, 67% glaciarized area, 27% moraines area, range from 5670 masl to 4500 masl), which is nested into the Humboldt catchment, allows us to identify that due to the presence of the glacier reservoirs there is an additional contribution of 24% to the annual volume at the Humboldt catchment and it helps to regulate the runoff during the dry season, where the daily additional glacier contribution from November to February in some cases could reach t 40%. The Humboldt catchment has similar physiographic characteristics than the sites where new diversions will be built in the future in order to satisfy the increasing demand of water for human consumption of the city of Quito and its surrounding populations. Based on detail hydrological observations (every 15 minutes measurements) during 2005 to 2009 and sporadic environmental trace analysis during the same period, the annual percentage of glacier contribution from the Humboldt catchment could potentially be as high as 37% due in part to the glacier melt contribution that gets infiltrated over 4750 masl it is then delivered around 4100 masl through underground circulation. Some of the sites where the glacier contribution reaches de surface has been identified through field work and the glacier origin of this water have been confirmed using a conductivity measurement, which seems to be a good indicator in when

  17. Retraction for Ramos et al., The second RNA chaperone, Hfq2, is also required for survival under stress and full virulence of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Volume 193, no. 7, p.1515–1526, 2011. Problems related to images published in this paper have been brought to our attention. Figure 8 contains duplicated images as well as images previously published in articles in Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, i.e., the following: S. A. Sousa, C. G. Ramos, L. M. Moreira, and J. H. Leitão, Microbiology 156:896–908, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.035139-0. C. G. Ramos, S. A. Sousa, A. M. Grilo, L. Eberl, and J. H. Leitão, Microb. Pathog. 48:168–177, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016 /j.micpath.2010.02.006. Therefore, we retract the paper.Wedeeply regret this situation and apologize for any inconvenience to the editors and readers of Journal of Bacteriology, Microbial Pathogenesis, and Microbiology. PMID:25319526

  18. Zinc-mediated regulation of caspases activity: dose-dependent inhibition or activation of caspase-3 in the human Burkitt lymphoma B cells (Ramos).

    PubMed

    Schrantz, N; Auffredou, M T; Bourgeade, M F; Besnault, L; Leca, G; Vazquez, A

    2001-02-01

    Divalent cations, including Zinc and Manganese ions, are important modulators of cell activation. We investigated the ability of these two divalent cations to modulate apoptosis in human Burkitt lymphoma B cells line (Ramos). We found that Zinc (from 10 to 50 microM) inhibited Manganese-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis of Ramos cells. Higher concentration of Zinc (50 to 100 microM) did not prevent Manganese-mediated apoptosis but rather increased cell death among Ramos cells. This Zinc-mediated cell death was associated with apoptotic features such as cell shrinkage, the presence of phosphatidylserine residues on the outer leaflet of the cells, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Zinc-mediated apoptosis was associated with caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation as revealed by the appearance of active p35 fragment of caspase-9 and p19 and p17 of caspase-3 as well as in vivo cleavage of PARP and of a cell-permeable fluorogenic caspase-3 substrate (Phiphilux-G(1)D(2)). Both Zinc-mediated apoptosis and caspase-3 activation were prevented by the cell-permeable, broad-spectrum inhibitor of caspases (zVAD-fmk) or overexpression of bcl-2. In addition, we show that Zinc-induced loss of transmembrane mitochondrial potential is a caspase-independent event, since it is not modified by the presence of zVAD-fmk, which is inhibited by overexpression of bcl-2. These results indicate that depending on its concentration, Zinc can exert opposite effects on caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in human B lymphoma cells: concentrations below 50 microM inhibit caspase-3 activation and apoptosis whereas higher concentrations of Zinc activate a death pathway associated with apoptotic-like features and caspase-3 activation. PMID:11313717

  19. [Correspondence from Julio Porto-Carrero to Arthur Ramos: the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and concern over the translation of psychoanalytic terms in the 1920s and 1930s].

    PubMed

    Castro, Rafael Dias de

    2015-12-01

    The article presents the correspondence that psychiatrist Julio Porto-Carrero sent to psychiatrist Arthur Ramos in 1932 to inform him about the activities of the Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society and about a concern over systematizing the translation of certain psychoanalytic concepts into Portuguese. This correspondence is used in conjunction with the analysis of other sources to suggest that psychiatrists and psychoanalysts in Rio de Janeiro were then endeavoring to make a place for psychoanalysis in the day's medical and scientific circles and encourage ever more specialists in Brazil to take an interest in Freud's theory. PMID:26625925

  20. Copula Multivariate analysis of Gross primary production and its hydro-environmental driver; A BIOME-BGC model applied to the Antisana páramos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaya, Veronica; Corzo, Gerald; van der Kwast, Johannes; Galarraga, Remigio; Mynett, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    Simulations of carbon cycling are prone to uncertainties from different sources, which in general are related to input data, parameters and the model representation capacities itself. The gross carbon uptake in the cycle is represented by the gross primary production (GPP), which deals with the spatio-temporal variability of the precipitation and the soil moisture dynamics. This variability associated with uncertainty of the parameters can be modelled by multivariate probabilistic distributions. Our study presents a novel methodology that uses multivariate Copulas analysis to assess the GPP. Multi-species and elevations variables are included in a first scenario of the analysis. Hydro-meteorological conditions that might generate a change in the next 50 or more years are included in a second scenario of this analysis. The biogeochemical model BIOME-BGC was applied in the Ecuadorian Andean region in elevations greater than 4000 masl with the presence of typical vegetation of páramo. The change of GPP over time is crucial for climate scenarios of the carbon cycling in this type of ecosystem. The results help to improve our understanding of the ecosystem function and clarify the dynamics and the relationship with the change of climate variables. Keywords: multivariate analysis, Copula, BIOME-BGC, NPP, páramos

  1. Where does the water come from, and when? Spatio-temporal analyses of the runoff generation processes in páramo catchments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Alicia; Silva, Camila; Windhorst, David; Crespo, Patricio; Celleri, Rolando; Feyen, Jan; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the research presented herein was to develop and test a comprehensive methodology enabling the characterization of the spatial-temporal analysis of runoff in páramo catchments. The methodology encompassed monitoring the hydrochemographs of creeks and rivers, the isotope composition and the more classical hydrological data, and the analysis of the collected information using cluster and end member mixing analysis (EMMA). The methodology was tested in a nested catchment system using the equipment infrastructure installed in the Zhurucay River Ecohydrological Observatory (7.53 km2), located in the Andean mountain range, southern Ecuador. From April 2012 to April 2014, multivariate tracers in conjunction with hydrometric data were collected. Streamwater was clustered on the basis of the hydrochemographs enabling to judge the dominant source areas and EMMA analysis enabled identification of the dominant flow components. In a last step of the research the discharge controlling factors were investigated with respect to catchment variability involving correlation and multivariate regression analysis base on catchment properties, meteorological characteristics, end member contributions, and dominant cluster. This analysis was conducted for three typical flow conditions, respectively low, moderate and high flows.

  2. A brief look at the Odonata from the Páramo ecosystems in Colombia, with the descriptions of Oxyallagma colombianum sp. nov. and Rhionaeschna caligo sp. nov. (Odonata: Coenagrionidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae).

    PubMed

    Bota-Sierra, Cornelio Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Here I present the results of field work and collections of Odonata made in several páramos of Colombia between 2007 and 2014. Two undescribed species, in the genera Oxyallagma Kennedy, 1920, and Rhionaeschna Förster, 1909, respectively, were found, as well as two species not previously recorded from Colombia: Rhionaeschna peralta (Ris, 1918) and Oxyallagma dissidens (Selys, 1876). Descriptions and diagnoses of the new species, photographs, maps, illustrations, natural history notes, and comments on morphological plasticity are presented. PMID:25284653

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Morphology of luminous radio-loud AGN (Ramos Almeida+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Almeida, C.; Bessiere, P. S.; Tadhunter, C. N.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Barro, G.; Inskip, K. J.; Morganti, R.; Holt, J.; Dicken, D.

    2015-11-01

    We selected control samples of elliptical galaxies in two redshift ranges which best match the 2 Jy sample host galaxies: the Observations of Bright Ellipticals at Yale (OBEY, Tal et al., 2009AJ....138.1417T) survey and the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) sample. (2 data files).

  4. Lumley and Miller Student Scholarships Awarded to Ramos-Garcés and Ahmed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Lauren

    2013-03-01

    As part of the strategic plan, AGU works to enhance engagement and involvement of students and early-career scientists with the scientific community and uses its position as a diverse and inclusive organization to build the global talent pool in Earth and space science. Student travel grants, awards, and scholarships are a few of the essential ways students and early-career scientists get involved in AGU every year.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Luminous radio galaxies & type-2 quasars (Ramos Almeida+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Almeida, C.; Bessiere, P. S.; Tadhunter, C. N.; Inskip, K. J.; Morganti, R.; Dicken, D.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Holt, J.

    2016-04-01

    Our sample of 46 PRGs was imaged with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) on the 8.1-m Gemini South telescope at Cerro Pachon under good seeing conditions [median seeing full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 0.8-arcsec, ranging from 0.4 to 1.1-arcsec. Deep optical imaging data for the 20 objects were obtained using GMOS-S and exactly the same instrumental configuration as for the 2-Jy sample. The observations were carried out in queue mode between 2009 August and 2011 September in good seeing conditions, with a median value of FWHM=0.8-arcsec, ranging between 0.5 and 1.1-arcsec. (4 data files).

  6. A genome wide study of genetic adaptation to high altitude in feral Andean Horses of the páramo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Life at high altitude results in physiological and metabolic challenges that put strong evolutionary pressure on performance due to oxidative stress, UV radiation and other factors dependent on the natural history of the species. To look for genes involved in altitude adaptation in a large herbivore, this study explored genome differentiation between a feral population of Andean horses introduced by the Spanish in the 1500s to the high Andes and their Iberian breed relatives. Results Using allelic genetic models and Fst analyses of ~50 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the horse genome, 131 candidate genes for altitude adaptation were revealed (Bonferoni of p ≤ 2 × 10–7). Significant signals included the EPAS1 in the hypoxia-induction-pathway (HIF) that was previously discovered in human studies (p = 9.27 × 10-8); validating the approach and emphasizing the importance of this gene to hypoxia adaptation. Strong signals in the cytochrome P450 3A gene family (p = 1.5 ×10-8) indicate that other factors, such as highly endemic vegetation in altitude environments are also important in adaptation. Signals in tenuerin 2 (TENM2, p = 7.9 × 10-14) along with several other genes in the nervous system (gene categories representation p = 5.1 × 10-5) indicate the nervous system is important in altitude adaptation. Conclusions In this study of a large introduced herbivore, it becomes apparent that some gene pathways, such as the HIF pathway are universally important for high altitude adaptation in mammals, but several others may be selected upon based on the natural history of a species and the unique ecology of the altitude environment. PMID:24344830

  7. Two Moments of School Architecture in Sao Paulo: Ramos de Azevedo and His Republican Pioneering Schools/Helio Duarte and the "Educational Agreement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Ana Gabriela Godinho

    2005-01-01

    There are two peculiar moments in the history of the "struggle for national education", which, specifically in the city of Sao Paulo, capital of the State of Sao Paulo, one of the major and richest cities in Brazil, produced very interesting results in school architecture. The first moment happened in the period called the "First Republic"…

  8. Integrated taxonomy of a new species of black fly in the subgenus Trichodagmia (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the Páramo Region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Sofia A; Moncada, Ligia I; Murcia, Carlos H; Lotta, Ingrid A; Matta, Nubia E; Adler, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    A new species of simuliid from the Andean Mountains of Colombia is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, larvae, polytene chromosomes, and COI and ITS2 DNA sequences. Simulium (Trichodagmia) chimguazaense new species is structurally, chromosomally, and molecularly distinct from its nearest relatives, S. muiscorum Bueno, Moncada & Muñoz de Hoyos and S. sumapazense Coscarón & Py-Daniel.  PMID:25661961

  9. [Environmental variability and physiological responses from Polylepis cuadrijuga (Rosaceae) in a fragmented environment in the Páramo de la Rusia (Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carolina; Buitrago, Sindy P; Pulido, Karen L; Vanegas, Leidy J

    2013-03-01

    Polylepis cuadrijuga is an endemic woody species from the Colombian Eastern range, being the only tree species with capacity to live on mountainous environments beyond 4 000m of altitude. Grazing and agriculture have transformed at least 30% of the Guantiva-La Rusia region, turning continuous extensions of high Andean forest in a fragmented landscape, and P cuadrijuga remnants have become smaller and more isolated. The aim of this study was to establish the environmental differences between a matrix of grazing pastures and the interior of fragments, to evaluate the physiological responses of P cuadrijuga and determining the edge effect. Air temperature and humidity, soil water holding capacity and photosynthetic active radiation, were measured along two 50X2m transects from the matrix toward the center of fragment. Six trees inside the transects were chosen in each one of three sites (matrix, edge and interior) to measure the index chlorophyll content and to sample leaves to assess the leaf area, leaf biomass, specific leaf area, anatomy, health condition and pubescence. Results showed significantly differences between the matrix and the interior and intermediate conditions in the edge. Radiation, temperature and air desiccation were higher in the matrix than in the interior, submitting P cuadrijuga trees to a stressing environment, where they presented stratification of epidermis and palisade parenchyma, and a higher leaf area, leaf thickness, chlorophyll content and pubescence than in the interior of fragments. All these physiological traits allow avoiding the photoxidation and damages by freezing or desiccation to which trees are exposed in a grazing pasture matrix. Nevertheless, there was a higher frequency of healthy leaves in the interior of fragments, showing that high irradiations and extreme air temperature and humidity reach adversely affect to P cuadrijuga. Individuals in the edge had ecophysiological traits similar to the matrix ones, which confirm an edge effect that could penetrate 17m inside the fragments. We conclude that P cuadrijuga is a plastic species, able to overcome the stress conditions from anthropogenic transformations, species able to be used in high Andean forest restoration programs PMID:23894988

  10. Comment by J.P. Figueiredo, & Hoorn, C. on 'Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)' by Martin Gross, Werner E. Piller, Maria Ines Ramos, Jackson Douglas da Silva Paz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Jorge Jesus Picanço

    2012-04-01

    In their paper Gross et al., 2011 present an excellent description of a series of outcrops from the Eirunepe region in western Amazonia (Brazil). The authors interpret these sediments as relics of a Late Miocene anastomosing fluvial system and conclude that the paleogeography of the entire western Amazon region must have been characterized by this environmental setting. They also imply that therefore a long-lived lake system - or megawetland - never existed. We contend this assumption for some reasons, amongst them, the most important are: (1) this is an inconsistent overgeneralized conclusion; (2) The authors make references to previous scientific works we published which we consider incorrect, and therefore can mislead their readers.

  11. Are Ataques de Nerviosa in Puerto Rican Children Associated with Psychiatric Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Martinez, Igda; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide the first empirical analysis of a cultural syndrome in children by examining the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques de nervios in an epidemiological study of the mental health of children in Puerto Rico. Method: Probability samples of caretakers of children 4-17 years old in the community (N = 1,892; response…

  12. 78 FR 28242 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On May 7, 2013, the... Ramos and Carmen Aurea Fernandez Ramos for violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Surface Water Treatment Rule, promulgated under the SDWA. Under the terms of the consent decree,...

  13. Immature Stages and Hosts of Two Plesiomorphic, Antillean Genera of Membracidae (Hemiptera) and a new species of Antillotolania from Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nymphs of Antillotolania Ramos and Deiroderes Ramos are described for the first time, along with the first host record for the genus Antillotolania, represented by A. myricae, n. sp. Nymphal features of both genera, such as a ventrally fused, cylindrical tergum IX (anal tube), the presence of a...

  14. Mexican-American Cultural Assumptions and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, E. Lou

    The search for presuppositions of a people's thought is not new. Octavio Paz and Samuel Ramos have both attempted to describe the assumptions underlying the Mexican character. Paz described Mexicans as private, defensive, and stoic, characteristics taken to the extreme in the "pachuco." Ramos, on the other hand, described Mexicans as being…

  15. Association of Trauma-Related Disorders and Dissociation with Four Idioms of Distress Among Latino Psychiatric Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Gorritz, Magdaliz; Raggio, Greer A.; Peláez, Clara; Chen, Henian; Guarnaccia, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Past research on idioms of distress among U.S. Latinos has revealed that ataque de nervios and altered perceptions, such as hearing and seeing things when alone, are independent markers of higher morbidity and mental health utilization despite having no one-to-one relationships with any single psychiatric diagnosis. It has been proposed that the idioms exert this effect because they are signs of distressing dissociative capacity associated with traumatic exposure. This study examines the relationships in an ethnically diverse Latino psychiatric outpatient sample (N = 230) among interpersonal trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, dissociative capacity and four cultural idioms of distress associated with the popular overall category of nervios. We particularly explore how these relationships change with varied measures of traumatic exposure, including trauma severity and timing or persistence of trauma. A series of adjusted bivariate regressions assessed the matrix of associations between the idioms and the clinical variables. In this highly traumatized population, we identified a strong ‘nexus’ of associations between dissociation and three of the idioms: currently being ill with nerves, ataque de nervios and altered perceptions. These idioms were largely independent from PTSD and depression and were associated with trauma persistence and severity. A fourth idiom, being nervous since childhood, was not associated with any other variable and may represent a personality trait rather than a diagnosable condition. Our results validate the clinical utility of the construct of nervios as a set of specific idioms associated with dissociation that are useful markers of mental health need among Latinos independently of their association with clinical diagnoses. PMID:20414799

  16. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the Eastern Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Jomelli, V.; Samaniego, P.; Vuille, M.; Hidalgo, S.; Herrera, M.; Ceron, C.

    2012-09-01

    To better characterize the climate variability of the last millennium in the high Andes, we analysed the pollen content of a 1100-yr-old sediment core collected in a bog located at 3800 m a.s.l. in the páramo in the Eastern Cordillera in Ecuador. An upslope convective index based on the ratio between cloud transported pollen from the andean forest to the bog (T) and Poaceae pollen frequencies, related to the edaphic moisture of the páramo (P), was defined to distinguish the atmospheric moisture from the soil moisture content of the páramo. Results showed that between 900 AD and 1230 AD, the Medieval Climate Anomaly interval was warm and moist with high T/P index linked to a high ENSO variability and a weak South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) activity. Between 1230 and 1650 AD, a dry climate prevailed characterized by an abrupt decrease in the T/P index related to lower ENSO variability with significant impact on the floristic composition of the páramo. During the Little Ice Age, two phases were observed, first a wet phase between 1650 and 1750 AD linked to low ENSO variability in the Pacific and warm south equatorial Atlantic SSTs favored the return of a wet páramo, and a cold and dry phase between 1750 and 1810 AD associated with low ENSO variability and weak SASM activity resulting in drying of the páramo. The Current Warm Period marks the beginning of a climate characterized by high convective activity, the highest in the last millennium, and weaker SASM activity modifying the water stock of the páramo. Our results show that the páramo is progressively loosing its capacity for water storage and that the variability of both tropical Pacific and Atlantic SSTs matters for Andean climate patterns although many teleconnection mechanisms are still poorly understood.

  17. Adaptation and Convergent Evolution within the Jamesonia-Eriosorus Complex in High-Elevation Biodiverse Andean Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2014-01-01

    The recent uplift of the tropical Andes (since the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene) provided extensive ecological opportunity for evolutionary radiations. We test for phylogenetic and morphological evidence of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution to novel habitats (exposed, high-altitude páramo habitats) in the Andean fern genera Jamesonia and Eriosorus. We construct time-calibrated phylogenies for the Jamesonia-Eriosorus clade. We then use recent phylogenetic comparative methods to test for evolutionary transitions among habitats, associations between habitat and leaf morphology, and ecologically driven variation in the rate of morphological evolution. Páramo species (Jamesonia) display morphological adaptations consistent with convergent evolution in response to the demands of a highly exposed environment but these adaptations are associated with microhabitat use rather than the páramo per se. Species that are associated with exposed microhabitats (including Jamesonia and Eriorsorus) are characterized by many but short pinnae per frond whereas species occupying sheltered microhabitats (primarily Eriosorus) have few but long pinnae per frond. Pinnae length declines more rapidly with altitude in sheltered species. Rates of speciation are significantly higher among páramo than non-páramo lineages supporting the hypothesis of adaptation and divergence in the unique Páramo biodiversity hotspot. PMID:25340770

  18. Kyol Goeu (‘Wind Overload’) Part II: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Mechanisms of Kyol Goeu and Near-Kyol Goeu Episodes of Khmer Patients Attending a Psychiatric Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Devon; Um, Khin; Ba, Phalnarith

    2009-01-01

    Kyol goeu (literally, ‘wind overload’) is an orthostatically triggered syncopal syndrome often found among Khmer refugees in the US. In the present study, 36 of 100 (36%) Khmer patients attending a psychiatric clinic were found to have suffered a kyol goeu episode in the past, whereas 60 of 100 (60%) patients had experienced a near-kyol goeu event in the last six months. Following a survey-based characterization of kyol goeu, as well as the presentation of case vignettes, the article discusses six mechanisms resulting in the high prevalence of the syndrome. The article concludes by comparing kyol goeu and ataque de nervios. PMID:20808711

  19. A new species of Coespeletia (Asteraceae, Millerieae) from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Morillo, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Coespeletia from the páramos of Mérida (Venezuela) is described here. This species, named Coespeletia palustris, is found in a few marshy areas of the páramo. It is closely related to C. moritziana, but differs from it in a smaller number of florets in the capitula, larger ray flowers with longer ligulae and longer linguiform appendages, smaller pollen grains, larger cypselae, ebracteate scapes, leaves and inflorescences with more whitish indumentum, larger leaf sheaths, and marshy habitat. PMID:24399890

  20. A new species of Coespeletia (Asteraceae, Millerieae) from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Morillo, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Coespeletia from the páramos of Mérida (Venezuela) is described here. This species, named Coespeletia palustris, is found in a few marshy areas of the páramo. It is closely related to C. moritziana, but differs from it in a smaller number of florets in the capitula, larger ray flowers with longer ligulae and longer linguiform appendages, smaller pollen grains, larger cypselae, ebracteate scapes, leaves and inflorescences with more whitish indumentum, larger leaf sheaths, and marshy habitat. PMID:24399890

  1. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the eastern Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Jomelli, V.; Samaniego, P.; Vuille, M.; Hidalgo, S.; Herrera, M.; Ceron, C.

    2013-02-01

    To better characterize the climate variability of the last millennium in the high Andes, we analyzed the pollen content of a 1150-yr-old sediment core collected in a bog located at 3800 m a.s.l. in the páramo in the eastern Cordillera in Ecuador. An upslope convective index based on the ratio between cloud transported pollen from the Andean forest to the bog (T) and Poaceae pollen frequencies, related to the edaphic moisture of the páramo (P), was defined. This index was used to distinguish changes in the atmospheric moisture from the soil moisture content of the páramo and their associated patterns of interdecadal El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability and South American summer monsoon (SASM) activity. Results show that between 850 and 1250 AD, the Medieval Climate Anomaly interval was warm and moist with a high transported pollen/Poaceae pollen (T/P) index linked to high ENSO variability and weak SASM activity. Between 1250 and 1550 AD, a dry climate prevailed, characterized by an abrupt decrease in the T/P index and therefore no upslope cloud convection, related to lower ENSO variability and with significant impact on the floristic composition of the páramo. During the Little Ice Age, two phases were observed: first, a wet phase between 1550 and 1750 AD linked to low ENSO variability in the Pacific and warm south equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) favored the return of a wet páramo, and then a cold and dry phase between 1750 and 1800 AD associated with low ENSO variability and weak SASM activity resulted in drying of the páramo. The current warm period marks the beginning of a climate characterized by high convective activity - the highest in the last millennium - and weaker SASM activity modifying the water storage of the páramo. Our results show that the páramo is progressively losing its capacity for water storage and that the interdecadal variability of both tropical Pacific and Atlantic SSTs matter for Andean climate

  2. Late Quaternary vegetation, fire and climate history reconstructed from two cores at Cerro Toledo, Podocarpus National Park, southeastern Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunschön, Corinna; Behling, Hermann

    2009-11-01

    The last ca. 20,000 yr of palaeoenvironmental conditions in Podocarpus National Park in the southeastern Ecuadorian Andes have been reconstructed from two pollen records from Cerro Toledo (04°22'28.6"S, 79°06'41.5"W) at 3150 m and 3110 m elevation. Páramo vegetation with high proportions of Plantago rigida characterised the last glacial maximum (LGM), reflecting cold and wet conditions. The upper forest line was at markedly lower elevations than present. After ca. 16,200 cal yr BP, páramo vegetation decreased slightly while mountain rainforest developed, suggesting rising temperatures. The trend of increasing temperatures and mountain rainforest expansion continued until ca. 8500 cal yr BP, while highest temperatures probably occurred from 9300 to 8500 cal yr BP. From ca. 8500 cal yr BP, páramo vegetation re-expanded with dominance of Poaceae, suggesting a change to cooler conditions. During the late Holocene after ca. 1800 cal yr BP, a decrease in páramo indicates a change to warmer conditions. Anthropogenic impact near the study site is indicated for times after 2300 cal yr BP. The regional environmental history indicates that through time the eastern Andean Cordillera in South Ecuador was influenced by eastern Amazonian climates rather than western Pacific climates.

  3. Hacia la creacion de una filosofia latinoamericana. Un ensayo nacionalista: El perfil del hombre y la cultura en Mexico (Toward the Creation of a Latin American Philosophy. An Essay on Nationalism: A Profile of the Mexicans and Their Culture).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Manuel

    An analysis of a Mexican essay by Samuel Ramos attempts to resolve the issue of whether or not there is a common philosophy in Latin America today. Manuel Mendoza concludes that no such philosophy exists, because the area has not had time to develop an internal character, and as a result, the intellectual and and philosophical concepts are based…

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spatial deconvolution code (Quintero Noda+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Orozco Suarez, D.; Ruiz Cobo, B.

    2015-05-01

    This deconvolution method follows the scheme presented in Ruiz Cobo & Asensio Ramos (2013A&A...549L...4R) The Stokes parameters are projected onto a few spectral eigenvectors and the ensuing maps of coefficients are deconvolved using a standard Lucy-Richardson algorithm. This introduces a stabilization because the PCA filtering reduces the amount of noise. (1 data file).

  5. Low temperature resistance in saplings and ramets of Polylepis sericea in the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rada, Fermín; García-Núñez, Carlos; Rangel, Sairo

    2009-09-01

    The frequent occurrence of all year-round below zero temperatures in tropical high mountains constitutes a most stressful climatic factor that plants have to confront. Polylepis forests are found well above the continuous forest line and are distributed throughout the Andean range. These trees require particular traits to overcome functional limitations imposed on them at such altitudes. Considering seedling and sapling stages as filter phases in stressful environments, some functional aspects of the regeneration of Polylepis sericea, a species associated to rock outcrops in the Venezuelan Andes, were studied. We characterized microclimatic conditions within a forest, in a forest gap and surrounding open páramo and determined low temperature resistance mechanisms in seedlings, saplings and ramets. Conditions in the forest understory were more stable compared to the forest gaps and open surrounding páramo. Minimum temperatures close to the ground were 3.6 °C lower in the open páramo compared to the forest understory. Maximum temperatures were 9.0 °C higher in the open páramo. Ice nucleation and injury temperatures occurred between -6 and -8 °C for both ramets and saplings, an evidence of frost avoidance to low nighttime temperatures. In this particular forest, this resistance ability is determinant in their island-like distribution in very specific less severe temperature habitats.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Dent disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Martín F, Ramos-Trujillo E, García-Nieto V. Dent's disease: clinical features and molecular basis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011 May;26(5):693-704. doi: 10.1007/s00467-010-1657-0. Epub 2010 Oct 10. Citation on PubMed Devuyst O, Thakker RV. Dent's disease. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2010 Oct 14; ...

  7. Two new species of Oxytrechus Jeannel, 1927 from Ecuador (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Giachino, Pier Mauro; Allegro, Gianni; Baviera, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Oxytrechus Jeannel 1927 are described from the páramos of the Ecuadorian Andes in Pichincha province (Ecuador: Northern Sierra): O. osellai n. sp. from Cangahua at 3375 m a.s.l. and O. belloi n. sp. from Paso de la Virgen at 3515 m a.s.l. PMID:25543561

  8. Loss of Talent? Citizenship and Higher Education Access for Undocumented Students. The Claremont Letter. Volume 4, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, William

    2009-01-01

    The author began studying undocumented students in the spring of 2006 to better understand the educational experiences of those who wanted to go to college or who were already in college. He invited three of his CGU (Claremont Graduate University) students--Richard Cortes, Heidi Coronado, and Karina Ramos--to join his research team. To better…

  9. A Primer on Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) for Behavioral Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.

    2014-01-01

    Reviews of statistical procedures (e.g., Bangert & Baumberger, 2005; Kieffer, Reese, & Thompson, 2001; Warne, Lazo, Ramos, & Ritter, 2012) show that one of the most common multivariate statistical methods in psychological research is multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). However, MANOVA and its associated procedures are often not…

  10. The Individual and Collective Effect of US Colonialism in Puerto Rico: A Scale Construction and Validation, with Implications for Social Work Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Aviles, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding the individual and collective psychology of the people of Puerto Rico requires an understanding of both the history of its colonialism and the U.S. laws that have helped shaped the social world of the Puerto Rican people, in the United States and in the colony itself" (Rivera Ramos, 2001, p. 4). This research presents…

  11. The Art of Storytelling: The Co-Construction of Cultural Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Andres

    2010-01-01

    According to van der Veer and Valsiner (1991), a creative individual is a co-constructor of culture, rather then a mere follower of the efforts of others. This instructional resource discusses the work of Juan Miguel Ramos (b. 1971), a Post-Chicano artist, who makes use of representations to produce new meanings about the world in which he lives.…

  12. Development of a modified Respiration Activity Monitoring System for accurate and highly resolved measurement of respiration activity in shake flask fermentations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) is an established device to measure on-line the oxygen transfer rate (OTR), thereby, yielding relevant information about metabolic activities of microorganisms and cells during shake flask fermentations. For very fast-growing microbes, however, the RAMOS technique provides too few data points for the OTR. Thus, this current study presents a new model based evaluation method for generating much more data points to enhance the information content and the precision of OTR measurements. Results In cultivations with E.coli BL21 pRSET eYFP-IL6, short diauxic and even triauxic metabolic activities were detected with much more detail compared to the conventional evaluation method. The decline of the OTR during the stop phases during oxygen limitations, which occur when the inlet and outlet valves of the RAMOS flask were closed for calibrating the oxygen sensor, were also detected. These declines reflected a reduced oxygen transfer due to the stop phases. In contrast to the conventional calculation method the new method was almost independent from the number of stop phases chosen in the experiments. Conclusions This new model based evaluation method unveils new peaks of metabolic activity which otherwise would not have been resolved by the conventional RAMOS evaluation method. The new method yields substantially more OTR data points, thereby, enhancing the information content and the precision of the OTR measurements. Furthermore, oxygen limitations can be detected by a decrease of the OTR during the stop phases. PMID:22901278

  13. Designing the Online Collaboratory for the Global Social Benefit Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro; Koch, James L.; Bruno, Albert; Carlson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Pedro Hernandez-Ramos, James L. Koch, Albert Bruno, and Eric Carlson describe the online collaboratory planned for the Global Social Benefit Incubator (GSBI), an international education program designed to serve social benefit entrepreneurs working in the fields of education, health, economic development, the environment, and equality around the…

  14. Leaders' Perceptions of Mobile Technology in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kristin R.

    2012-01-01

    Leaders have limited understanding regarding mobile technology (Ramo & Edenius, 2008). However, with over 1 billion users (Meeker, Devitt & Wu, 2011), managers are tasked with making leadership decisions regarding technology adoption, management and use. Leaders may find this difficult to undertake given the limited body of knowledge in…

  15. Explosive radiation in high Andean Hypericum-rates of diversification among New World lineages.

    PubMed

    Nürk, Nicolai M; Scheriau, Charlotte; Madriñán, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The páramos, high-elevation Andean grasslands ranging from ca. 2800 m to the snow line, harbor one of the fastest evolving biomes worldwide since their appearance in the northern Andes 3-5 million years (Ma) ago. Hypericum (St. John's wort), with over 65% of its Neotropical species, has a center of diversity in these high Mountain ecosystems. Using nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of a broad sample of New World Hypericum species we investigate phylogenetic patterns, estimate divergence times, and provide the first insights into diversification rates within the genus in the Neotropics. Two lineages appear to have independently dispersed into South America around 3.5 Ma ago, one of which has radiated in the páramos (Brathys). We find strong support for the polyphyly of section Trigynobrathys, several species of which group within Brathys, while others are found in temperate lowland South America (Trigynobrathys s.str.). All páramo species of Hypericum group in one clade. Within these páramo Hypericum species enormous phenotypic evolution has taken place (life forms from arborescent to prostrate shrubs) evidently in a short time frame. We hypothesize multiple mechanisms to be responsible for the low differentiation in the ITS region contrary to the high morphological diversity found in Hypericum in the páramos. Amongst these may be ongoing hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting, as well as the putative adaptive radiation, which can explain the contrast between phenotypic diversity and the close phylogenetic relationships. PMID:24062764

  16. Explosive radiation in high Andean Hypericum—rates of diversification among New World lineages

    PubMed Central

    Nürk, Nicolai M.; Scheriau, Charlotte; Madriñán, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The páramos, high-elevation Andean grasslands ranging from ca. 2800 m to the snow line, harbor one of the fastest evolving biomes worldwide since their appearance in the northern Andes 3–5 million years (Ma) ago. Hypericum (St. John's wort), with over 65% of its Neotropical species, has a center of diversity in these high Mountain ecosystems. Using nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of a broad sample of New World Hypericum species we investigate phylogenetic patterns, estimate divergence times, and provide the first insights into diversification rates within the genus in the Neotropics. Two lineages appear to have independently dispersed into South America around 3.5 Ma ago, one of which has radiated in the páramos (Brathys). We find strong support for the polyphyly of section Trigynobrathys, several species of which group within Brathys, while others are found in temperate lowland South America (Trigynobrathys s.str.). All páramo species of Hypericum group in one clade. Within these páramo Hypericum species enormous phenotypic evolution has taken place (life forms from arborescent to prostrate shrubs) evidently in a short time frame. We hypothesize multiple mechanisms to be responsible for the low differentiation in the ITS region contrary to the high morphological diversity found in Hypericum in the páramos. Amongst these may be ongoing hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting, as well as the putative adaptive radiation, which can explain the contrast between phenotypic diversity and the close phylogenetic relationships. PMID:24062764

  17. The use of the linear reservoir concept to quantify the impact of changes in land use on the hydrology of catchments in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, W.; de Bièvre, B.; Wyseure, G.; Deckers, J.

    The high Andes region of South Ecuador (The Páramo) is characterised by a cold and wet climate. Most soils of the Páramo region are Andosols and Histosols, with a very high water retention capacity that is affected irreversibly by drying. This key property of Páramo soils buffers catchment outflow, resulting in an almost uniform outflow pattern which, notwithstanding the variability in rainfall, can be very variable in space and time. These soils serve as the most important reservoir of drinking and irrigation water for the densely populated inter-Andean depression region. The Páramo has long served only as an extensive grazing area but recent population pressure and land scarcity have increased cultivation. Two small Páramo catchments (about 2 km2) were monitored intensively for precipitation and discharge for over a year to assess the effect of such land-use changes on the hydrological properties. One catchment is in an undisturbed area and grazed intensively while in the other, local farmers started intensive drainage for cultivation of potatoes about five years ago. The linear reservoir concept has been used to assess the overall retention capacity of the catchments in terms of both peak response and base flow. In this model, every catchment is considered as a series of independent parallel reservoirs, each characterised by mean residence times (T). In every catchment, three major mean residence times can be distinguished. In the undisturbed catchment, an immediate response, characterised by a T of 5.4 hours, is followed by a slower response with a T of 44.3 h. The base flow has a mean T value of 360 h. The response of the cultivated catchment is similar with T values of 3.6 h, 27.2 h and 175 h, respectively. As a result, in the disturbed catchment, water release is about 40% faster than in the undisturbed catchment, so that the base flow falls rapidly to lower levels. The linear reservoir model is a simple way of quantifying the impact of land use changes

  18. Are suicide attempts by young Latinas a cultural idiom of distress?

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multifaceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions. PMID:23075802

  19. Cross-Cultural Aspects of Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Hinton, Devon E.

    2014-01-01

    A person’s cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture’s conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person’s ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss “khyâl cap” (“wind attacks”), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress, PMID:24744049

  20. Impacto del Seguro Popular en el gasto catastrófico y de bolsillo en el México rural y urbano, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Galárraga, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo Estimar el efecto del Seguro Popular (SP) sobre la incidencia del gasto catastrófico en salud (GCS) y sobre el gasto de bolsillo en salud (GBS) en el mediano plazo. Material y métodos Con base en la Encuesta de Evaluación del Seguro Popular (2005–2008), se analizaron los resultados del efecto del SP en la cohorte rural para dos años de seguimiento (2006 y 2008) y en la cohorte urbana para un año (2008). Resultados A nivel conglomerado no se detectaron efectos del SP. A nivel hogar se encontró que el SP tiene un efecto protector en el GCS y en el GBS en consulta externa y hospitalización en zonas rurales; y efectos significativos en la reducción de GBS en consulta externa en zonas urbanas. Conclusiones El SP se muestra como un programa efectivo para proteger a los hogares contra gastos de bolsillo por motivos de salud en el mediano plazo. PMID:22282205

  1. Tratamiento Quirúrgico de los Meningiomas del Foramen Óptico, Técnicay Resultados de una Serie de 18 Pacientes

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Ajler, Pablo; Campero, Álvaro; Landriel, Federico; Sposito, Maximiliano; Carrizo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: los meningiomas del foramen óptico producen un rápido deterioro de la función visual aún cuando su tamaño es pequeño, por eso su diagnóstico y manejo difiere del resto de los meningiomas clinoideos. El propósito de este estudio es presentar la técnica y los resultados de nuestro manejo quirúrgico de meningiomas foraminales (MF). Pacientes y Métodos: se llevó a cabo una revisión de las historias clínicas de 47 pacientes con meningiomas primarios intraorbitarios. Se realizaron 52 cirugías en los pacientes con MF. Se empleó una craneotomía fronto-orbitaria, seguida de una descompresión extradural del canal óptico, resección del componente intraorbitario y exploración intradural del nervio óptico. Resultados: de los 12 pacientes con MF que presentaban la visión conservada, la agudeza visual fue preservada en 7 casos, mejoró en 2, y empeoró en 3. En 18 pacientes, el principal síntoma fue exoftalmos y en 35 pacientes ceguera unilateral. Ocurrieron 6 recurrencias, 2 a 10 años después de la resección quirúrgica. Cinco de ellos fueron reoperados. Se indicó radioterapia después de la recurrencia en 3 pacientes. Conclusión: el manejo de los MF continúa siendo controvertido y frecuentemente se propone un tratamiento conservador. Basados en nuestros hallazgos de frecuente extensión intracraneal, proponemos realizar una resección total o subtotal del tumor, preservando el nervio óptico en pacientes con visión prequirúrgica conservada. PMID:25165616

  2. February 2015 erratum.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Correction to an article published in November 2014 of JOSPT: Llamas-Ramos R, Pecos-Martín D, Gallego-Izquierdo T, Llamas-Ramos I, Plaza-Manzano G, Ortega-Santiago R, Cleland J, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C. Comparison of the short-term outcomes between trigger point dry needling and trigger point manual therapy for the management of chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(11):852-861. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.5229 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(2):147. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.45.2.147. PMID:25641312

  3. Induction of apoptosis by epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human lymphoblastoid B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Chiseko He, Jinsong; Takano, Tomoko; Tanaka, Chisato; Kondo, Toshinori; Tohyama, Kaoru; Yamamura, Hirohei; Tohyama, Yumi

    2007-11-03

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of green tea polyphenols, has been shown to suppress cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. In this study we investigated its efficacy and the mechanism underlying its effect using human B lymphoblastoid cell line Ramos, and effect of co-treatment with EGCG and a chemotherapeutic agent on apoptotic cell death. EGCG induced dose- and time-dependent apoptotic cell death accompanied by loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and cleavage of pro-caspase-9 to its active form. EGCG also enhanced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pretreatment with diphenylene iodonium chloride, an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase and an antioxidant, partially suppressed both EGCG-induced apoptosis and production of ROS, implying that oxidative stress is involved in the apoptotic response. Furthermore, we showed that combined-treatment with EGCG and a chemotherapeutic agent, etoposide, synergistically induced apoptosis in Ramos cells.

  4. A new species of Corydalus Latreille from Venezuela (Megaloptera, Corydalidae).

    PubMed

    Contreras-Ramos, Atilano; von der Dunk, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    A new species of dobsonfly, Corydalus wanningeri, from Venezuela, is described and illustrated. It superficially resembles Corydalus neblinensis Contreras-Ramos, with a uniform reddish coloration of body and wings. Yet, because of male genitalic structure it might be closely related to Corydalus crossi Contreras-Ramos. Specimens were collected from a rain forest transitional zone between the Orinoco lowlands and the Gran Sabana plateau, in Bolívar state. This is the 15(th) species of Corydalus to be recorded from Venezuela, rendering this the country with the highest number of documented Corydalus species. A key to the sexually dimorphic, long-mandibled Venezuelan species of the genus is provided. PMID:21594032

  5. Immature Stages and Hosts of Two Plesiomorphic, Antillean Genera of Membracidae (Hemiptera) and a new species of Antillotolania from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    McKamey, Stuart H; Brodbeck, Brent V

    2013-01-01

    The nymphs of Antillotolania Ramos and Deiroderes Ramos are described for the first time, along with the first host record for the genus Antillotolania, represented by Antillotolania myricae, sp. n. Nymphal features of both genera, such as a ventrally fused, cylindrical tergum IX (anal tube), the presence of abdominal lamellae, and heads with foliaceous ventrolateral lobes confirm their placement in Membracidae and are consistent with phylogenetic analyses placing them in Stegaspidinae but in conflict with a cladistic analysis showing a closer relationship to Nicomiinae. Head processes and emarginate forewing pads in the last instars of both genera support an earlier estimate, based on nuclear genes, that the two genera form a monophyletic group in Stegaspidinae. Distinguishing features of the four species of Antillotolania are tabulated. PMID:23794891

  6. Immature Stages and Hosts of Two Plesiomorphic, Antillean Genera of Membracidae (Hemiptera) and a new species of Antillotolania from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Stuart H.; Brodbeck, Brent V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The nymphs of Antillotolania Ramos and Deiroderes Ramos are described for the first time, along with the first host record for the genus Antillotolania, represented by Antillotolania myricae, sp. n. Nymphal features of both genera, such as a ventrally fused, cylindrical tergum IX (anal tube), the presence of abdominal lamellae, and heads with foliaceous ventrolateral lobes confirm their placement in Membracidae and are consistent with phylogenetic analyses placing them in Stegaspidinae but in conflict with a cladistic analysis showing a closer relationship to Nicomiinae. Head processes and emarginate forewing pads in the last instars of both genera support an earlier estimate, based on nuclear genes, that the two genera form a monophyletic group in Stegaspidinae. Distinguishing features of the four species of Antillotolania are tabulated. PMID:23794891

  7. 15,000-yr pollen record of vegetation change in the high altitude tropical Andes at Laguna Verde Alta, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Valentí; Abbott, Mark B.; Polissar, Pratigya J.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Bezada, Maximiliano; Bradley, Raymond S.

    2005-11-01

    Pollen analysis of sediments from a high-altitude (4215 m), Neotropical (9°N) Andean lake was conducted in order to reconstruct local and regional vegetation dynamics since deglaciation. Although deglaciation commenced ˜15,500 cal yr B.P., the area around the Laguna Verde Alta (LVA) remained a periglacial desert, practically unvegetated, until about 11,000 cal yr B.P. At this time, a lycopod assemblage bearing no modern analog colonized the superpáramo. Although this community persisted until ˜6000 cal yr B.P., it began to decline somewhat earlier, in synchrony with cooling following the Holocene thermal maximum of the Northern Hemisphere. At this time, the pioneer assemblage was replaced by a low-diversity superpáramo community that became established ˜9000 cal yr B.P. This replacement coincides with regional declines in temperature and/or available moisture. Modern, more diverse superpáramo assemblages were not established until ˜4600 cal yr B.P., and were accompanied by a dramatic decline in Alnus, probably the result of factors associated with climate, humans, or both. Pollen influx from upper Andean forests is remarkably higher than expected during the Late Glacial and early to middle Holocene, especially between 14,000 and 12,600 cal yr B.P., when unparalleled high values are recorded. We propose that intensification of upslope orographic winds transported lower elevation forest pollen to the superpáramo, causing the apparent increase in tree pollen at high altitude. The association between increased forest pollen and summer insolation at this time suggests a causal link; however, further work is needed to clarify this relationship.

  8. Isotope Tracers as Tools for Identifying Water Sources in Developing Regions: Case of Study in Southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, G.; Lazo, P.; Crespo, P.; Célleri, R.

    2014-12-01

    ramo ecosystems are widely recognized for their high water regulation capacity and as the main source of runoff generation in the Andean region. Understanding the hydrological functioning of the fragile wet Andean páramo ecosystems is critical in the mountainous regions of South America given their high susceptibility to global and local stressors such as land use change and climate change and variability . Despite this, most of the basins in the Andean mountain range are still ungauged, resulting in a currently hindered hydrologic analysis of the water sources contributing to runoff generation in the high-elevation páramo ecosystems. To improve this situation and provide a baseline for future tracer-based hydrologic studies, the isotopic signature of water samples collected within the Zhurucay River experimental basin (7.53 km2) was analyzed. The study area is located in the southern Ecuador and stretches over an altitudinal range of 3200 and 3900 m a.s.l. Water samples in rainfall, streamflow, and soils were collected between May 2011 and May 2013. Streamflow hydrometric and isotopic information within the study site was collected using a nested monitoring system. The main soils in the study site are the Andosols mainly located in the steep slopes, and the Histosols (Andean páramo wetlands) predominantly located at the bottom of the valley. Results reveal that the Andosols drain the infiltrated rainfall water to the Histosols. The Histosols on their turn feed creeks and small rivers. Pre-event water stored in the Histosols is the primary source of runoff generation throughout the year. Defining the water sources contributing to runoff generation is the first step towards the establishment of scientifically-based programs of management and conservation of water resources in the Andean region; and the monitoring of isotopic information has proven useful to improve the understanding of the ecosystem's hydrologic behavior.

  9. Targeted Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using MS2-Based (129)Xe NMR.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Keunhong; Netirojjanakul, Chawita; Munch, Henrik K; Sun, Jinny; Finbloom, Joel A; Wemmer, David E; Pines, Alexander; Francis, Matthew B

    2016-08-17

    We have synthesized targeted, selective, and highly sensitive (129)Xe NMR nanoscale biosensors using a spherical MS2 viral capsid, Cryptophane A molecules, and DNA aptamers. The biosensors showed strong binding specificity toward targeted lymphoma cells (Ramos line). Hyperpolarized (129)Xe NMR signal contrast and hyper-CEST (129)Xe MRI image contrast indicated its promise as highly sensitive hyperpolarized (129)Xe NMR nanoscale biosensor for future applications in cancer detection in vivo. PMID:27454679

  10. NSB nominations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Reagan has nominated three members to the National Science Board (NSB), the governing body of the National Science Foundation (NSF). None have been confirmed by Congress. They are Simon Ramo, director of TRW, Inc.; Annelise G. Anderson, a senior research fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University; and K. June Lindstedt-Siva, manager for environmental sciences at Atlantic Richfield Company and a director of the Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco.

  11. [Communicative action for building nursing knowledge].

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Suzana Rodrigues; do Prado, Marta Lenise

    2004-01-01

    It is a theoretical essay aiming at proposing the usage of the communicative action theory, by philosopher Jürger Habermas, as a mediator of educational technologies in building nursing knowledge. Based on the contributions by the philosopher and authors such as Demo, Morin, Assman, Perrenoud, Waldow, and Ramos, we reflect on technological advances and the necessary innovations in the field of nursing education. We believe that this proposal can contribute to implementing the national curriculum guidelines in undergraduate courses. PMID:15535528

  12. Long-term effects of climate and land cover change on freshwater provision in the tropical Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, A.; Vanacker, V.; Brisson, E.; Mora, D.; Balthazar, V.

    2015-06-01

    Andean headwater catchments play a pivotal role to supply fresh water for downstream water users. However, few long-term studies exist on the relative importance of climate change and direct anthropogenic perturbations on flow regimes. In this paper, we assess multi-decadal change in freshwater provision based on long time series (1974-2008) of hydrometeorological data and land cover reconstructions for a 282 km2 catchment located in the tropical Andes. Three main land cover change trajectories can be distinguished: (1) rapid decline of native vegetation in montane forest and páramo ecosystems in ~1/5 or 20% of the catchment area, (2) expansion of agricultural land by 14% of the catchment area, (3) afforestation of 12% of native páramo grasslands with exotic tree species in recent years. Given the strong temporal variability of precipitation and streamflow data related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation, we use empirical mode decomposition techniques to detrend the time series. The long-term increasing trend in rainfall is remarkably different from the observed changes in streamflow that exhibit a decreasing trend. Hence, observed changes in streamflow are not the result of long-term climate change but very likely result from direct anthropogenic disturbances after land cover change. Partial water budgets for montane cloud forest and páramo ecosystems suggest that the strongest changes in evaporative water losses are observed in páramo ecosystems, where progressive colonization and afforestation of high alpine grasslands leads to a strong increase in transpiration losses.

  13. Pointers from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Aragon-choudhury, P

    1992-01-01

    During a sharing session which took place at a conference sponsored by the Philippine Institute for Social Studies and Action in 1991, Peruvian Victoria Villanueva and US citizen Margaret Ann Schuller discussed their work. Schuller reported on her upcoming book entitled "Freedom from Violence: Women's Strategies Around the World." In addition to proposing a definition of violence against women, the book will include 12 case studies from Malaysia, Bolivia, Mexico, India, Pakistan, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Chile, Africa, and Alaska describing how national organizations of women are dealing with the problem. An important advance is the development of a framework to look at the connection which exists between violence and health issues. Villanueva described the work of the Movimiento Manuela Ramos, which was organized informally to deal with reproductive rights and abortion and has since expanded to parent groups of women who defend legal and medical cases as paid paralegals. Manuela Ramos uses popular media, traditional drama, and even state television to publicize its issues. Manuela Ramos has accomplished important work on rape, unsafe abortion, and maternal mortality, but most importantly, the women involved with the organization have had the opportunity to develop their self-esteem. PMID:12288567

  14. Models as multiple working hypotheses: Hydrological simulation of neotropical alpine wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Beven, Keith

    2010-05-01

    Tropical alpine grasslands, locally known as páramos, are the water towers of the northern Andes. They are an essential water source for drinking water, irrigation schemes and hydropower plants. But despite their high socio-economic relevance, their hydrological processes are very poorly understood. Since environmental change, ranging from small scale land-use changes to global climate change, is expected to have a strong impact on the hydrological behaviour, a better understanding and hydrological prediction is urgently needed. In this study, we apply a set of nine hydrological models of different complexity to a small, well monitored upland catchment in the Ecuadorian Andes. The models represent different hypotheses on the hydrological functioning of the páramo ecosystem at catchment scale. Interpretation of the results of the model prediction and uncertainty analysis of the model parameters reveals important insights in the evapotranspiration, surface runoff generation and base flow in the páramo. However, problems with boundary conditions, particularly spatial variability of precipitation, pose serious constraints on the differentiation between model representations.

  15. Examination of Land Use, Hydrology, and Perceptions of Use and Management of the Colombian Paramo with Implications for Water Quality and Availability Concerns for Affected Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, A. F.; Covino, T.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern and Central Andes have experienced greater anthropogenic land use/land-cover (LULC) change than nearly any other high mountain system on Earth. In particular, páramo ecosystems, high elevation grasslands of the tropical Andes of Colombia, are undergoing rapid conversion to cropland and pasture. These systems have strong hydrologic buffering capacity and have historically provided consistent freshwater flows to downstream communities. Therefore, loss of these systems could threaten the viability of freshwater resources in the region. While this region has some of the highest runoff ratios, precipitation, and largest river flows in the world, the resiliency of these hydrologic systems and the influence LULC change may have on them remains poorly understood. Here we seek to develop a deeper understanding of these relationships through quantitative analyses of LULC change and impacts on the quantity and quality of water exported from páramo landscapes of Colombia. Our results indicate the intensity and spatial distribution of LULC change, build upon past remote sensing studies of the region, and aid in prioritizing areas of concern for hydrologic research on the ground. This information provides an initial framework for characterizing the degree of modification and impact to water quantity/quality, as well as the long-term sustainability of water resources in the region. We highlight the complexities of watershed management practices in the Colombian páramo and the need to account for the impact of human activity on changes in water quantity and quality in the region.

  16. Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the winter half of the year have major socio-economic impacts associated with floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. In recent years, a number of works have shed new light on the role played by Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) in the occurrence of extreme precipitation events in both Europe and USA. ARs are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV responsible for horizontal transport in the lower atmosphere corresponding to the core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. Over the North Atlantic ARs are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. It was shown that more than 90% of the meridional WV transport in the mid-latitudes occurs in the AR, although they cover less than 10% of the area of the globe. The large amount of WV that is transported can lead to heavy precipitation and floods. An automated ARs detection algorithm is used for the North Atlantic Ocean Basin allowing the identification and a comprehensive characterization of the major AR events that affected the Iberian Peninsula over the 1948-2012 period. The extreme precipitation days in the Iberian Peninsula were assessed recently by us (Ramos et al., 2014) and their association (or not) with the occurrence of AR is analyzed in detail here. The extreme precipitation days are ranked by their magnitude and are obtained after considering 1) the area affected and 2) the precipitation intensity. Different rankings are presented for the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also for the six largest Iberian river basins (Minho, Duero, Tagus, Guadiana, Guadalquivir and Ebro) covering the 1950-2008 period (Ramos et al., 2014). Results show that the association between ARs and extreme precipitation days in the western domains (Portugal

  17. The effect of land-use changes on the hydrological behaviour of Histic Andosols in south Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, W.; Wyseure, G.; de Bièvre, B.; Deckers, J.

    2005-12-01

    The south Ecuadorian Andean mountain belt between 3500 and 4500 m altitude is covered by a highly endemic and fragile ecosystem called páramo. The Histic Andosols covering this region have highly developed hydric properties and exert a key function in the hydrological regulation of the páramo ecosystem. Unlike most Andosols, their extreme water retention capacity is not due to the presence of typical minerals such as allophane or imogolite. Although these minerals are virtually absent, the large organic carbon content, due to organometallic complexation, gives rise to similar properties. The water content at 1500 kPa can exceed 2000 g kg-1, and the high hydraulic conductivity at saturation (about 15 mm h-1) drops sharply when low suction is applied. The three methods applied, i.e. the inverted auger hole, the tension infiltrometer and the constant-head permeameter method, give very similar results. The páramo is characterized by a slow hydrological response and a good water regulation, caused by the combination of a high water storage capacity and high conductivity. The wide pore size distribution of the organometallic complexes results in a water retention curve that differs significantly from the classic Mualem-Van Genuchten description, but can better be described with a simple linear or semilogarithmic model. The soils investigated are very prone to irreversible structural changes caused by land-use changes. The conversion of natural land for cultivation has a large impact on the hydrological function of the region. The water storage capacity increases by 5 to 30%, and the hydraulic conductivity is 31% higher in cultivated catchments. These changes are related to a larger peak flow, a smaller base flow and generally a smaller discharge buffering capacity, despite the higher storage capacity. Copyright

  18. A Tale of an Isotope: Where Does the Water Come from in Tropical Andean Ecosystems? A Case of Study in South Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, Giovanny; Breuer, Lutz; Windhorst, David; Célleri, Rolando; Lazo, Patricio; Vaché, Kellie; Crespo, Patricio

    2015-04-01

    Only few catchments in the Andean mountain range are currently monitored. Most basins in the region remain ungauged, and as a result, little knowledge is available on the processes governing their hydrological behavior. In particular, despite the importance of tropical alpine grasslands of the northern Andes (commonly known as the páramo) as providers of abundant high-quality water for downstream populations as well as a variety of other environmental services, very little is known about their hydrologic functioning. Understanding the hydrological behavior of the fragile Andean páramo ecosystems is critical given their high susceptibility to global and local stressors such as changes in land use, and the impacts of climate change and variability. To improve this situation, an analysis of the isotopic composition of oxygen-18 in the Zhurucay River experimental catchment (7.53 km2) located in south Ecuador between 3400 and 3900 m a.s.l. was conducted. Water samples for isotopic analysis were collected in rainfall, streamflow, and soils between May 2011 and May 2013. The main soils in the study site are the Andosols mainly located in the steep slopes, and the Histosols (Andean páramo wetlands) predominantly located at the bottom of the valley. Results from the tracer analysis show that pre-event water stored in the Histosols is the primary source of runoff generation, demonstrating hydrologic connectivity between the Histosols and the drainage network; while the most common soils, the Andosols, laterally drain the infiltrated rainfall recharging the lower situated Histosols. Overall, these findings depict that the use of stable isotopes for investigating hydrological processes at catchment scale provides a more complete understanding of the ecosystem's hydrologic functioning. Moreover, in developing regions, such as the Andean region, acquiring better understanding of the origin and fate of water is a crucial step towards the establishment of scientifically

  19. Insights into the water mean transit time in a high-elevation tropical ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, Giovanny M.; Segura, Catalina; Vaché, Kellie B.; Windhorst, David; Breuer, Lutz; Crespo, Patricio

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on the investigation of the mean transit time (MTT) of water and its spatial variability in a tropical high-elevation ecosystem (wet Andean páramo). The study site is the Zhurucay River Ecohydrological Observatory (7.53 km2) located in southern Ecuador. A lumped parameter model considering five transit time distribution (TTD) functions was used to estimate MTTs under steady-state conditions (i.e., baseflow MTT). We used a unique data set of the δ18O isotopic composition of rainfall and streamflow water samples collected for 3 years (May 2011 to May 2014) in a nested monitoring system of streams. Linear regression between MTT and landscape (soil and vegetation cover, geology, and topography) and hydrometric (runoff coefficient and specific discharge rates) variables was used to explore controls on MTT variability, as well as mean electrical conductivity (MEC) as a possible proxy for MTT. Results revealed that the exponential TTD function best describes the hydrology of the site, indicating a relatively simple transition from rainfall water to the streams through the organic horizon of the wet páramo soils. MTT of the streams is relatively short (0.15-0.73 years, 53-264 days). Regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between the catchment's average slope and MTT (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.05). MTT showed no significant correlation with hydrometric variables, whereas MEC increases with MTT (R2 = 0.89, p < 0.001). Overall, we conclude that (1) baseflow MTT confirms that the hydrology of the ecosystem is dominated by shallow subsurface flow; (2) the interplay between the high storage capacity of the wet páramo soils and the slope of the catchments provides the ecosystem with high regulation capacity; and (3) MEC is an efficient predictor of MTT variability in this system of catchments with relatively homogeneous geology.

  20. Human impacts on headwater fluvial systems in the northern and central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, Carol P.

    2006-09-01

    South America delivers more freshwater runoff to the ocean per km 2 land area than any other continent, and much of that water enters the fluvial system from headwaters in the Andes Mountains. This paper reviews ways in which human occupation of high mountain landscapes in the Andes have affected the delivery of water and sediment to headwater river channels at local to regional scales for millennia, and provides special focus on the vulnerability of páramo soils to human impact. People have intentionally altered the fluvial system by damming rivers at a few strategic locations, and more widely by withdrawing surface water, primarily for irrigation. Unintended changes brought about by human activities are even more widespread and include forest clearance, agriculture, grazing, road construction, and urbanization, which increase rates of rainfall runoff and accelerate processes of water erosion. Some excavations deliver more sediment to river channels by destabilizing slopes and triggering processes of mass-movement. The northern and central Andes are more affected by human activity than most high mountain regions. The wetter northern Andes are also unusual for the very high water retention characteristics of páramo (high elevation grass and shrub) soils, which cover most of the land above 3000 m. Páramo soils are important regulators of headwater hydrology, but human activities that promote vegetation loss and drying cause them to lose water storage capacity. New data from a case study in southern Ecuador show very low bulk densities (median 0.26 g cm - 3 ), high organic matter contents (median 43%), and high water-holding capacities (12% to 86% volumetrically). These data document wetter soils under grass than under tree cover. Effects of human activity on the fluvial system are evident at local scales, but difficult to discern at broader scales in the regional context of geomorphic adjustment to tectonic and volcanic processes.

  1. A distinctive new subspecies of Scytalopusgriseicollis (Aves, Passeriformes, Rhinocryptidae) from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Donegan, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopusgriseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies Scytalopusgriseicollisgriseicollis and Scytalopusgriseicollisgilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and páramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. PMID:26085800

  2. A spatial implementation of the BIOME-BGC to model grassland GPP production and water budgets in the Ecuadorian Andean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaya, Veronica; Corzo, Gerald; van der Kwast, Johannes; Mynett, Arthur

    2016-04-01

    Many terrestrial biogeochemistry process models have been applied around the world at different scales and for a large range of ecosystems. Grasslands, and in particular the ones located in the Andean Region are essential ecosystems that sustain important ecological processes; however, just a few efforts have been made to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) and the hydrological budgets for this specific ecosystem along an altitudinal gradient. A previous study, which is one of the few available in the region, considered the heterogeneity of the main properties of the páramo vegetation and showed significant differences in plant functional types, site/soil parameters and daily meteorology. This study extends the work above mentioned and uses spatio-temporal analysis of the BIOME-BGC model results. This was done to simulate the GPP and the water fluxes in space and time, by applying altitudinal analysis. The catchment located at the southwestern slope of the Antisana volcano in Ecuador was selected as a representative area of the Andean páramos and its hydrological importance as one of the main sources of a water supply reservoir in the region. An accurate estimation of temporal changes in GPP in the region is important for carbon budget assessments, evaluation of the impact of climate change and biomass productivity. This complex and yet interesting problem was integrated by the ecosystem process model BIOME-BGC, the results were evaluated and associated to the land cover map where the growth forms of vegetation were identified. The responses of GPP and the water fluxes were not only dependent on the environmental drivers but also on the ecophysiology and the site specific parameters. The model estimated that the GPP at lower elevations doubles the amount estimated at higher elevations, which might have a large implication during extrapolations at larger spatio-temporal scales. The outcomes of the stand hydrological processes demonstrated a wrong

  3. Fluid equations in the presence of electron cyclotron current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Kruger, Scott E.

    2012-12-15

    Two-fluid equations, which include the physics imparted by an externally applied radiofrequency source near electron cyclotron resonance, are derived in their extended magnetohydrodynamic forms using the formalism of Hegna and Callen [Phys. Plasmas 16, 112501 (2009)]. The equations are compatible with the closed fluid/drift-kinetic model developed by Ramos [Phys. Plasmas 17, 082502 (2010); 18, 102506 (2011)] for fusion-relevant regimes with low collisionality and slow dynamics, and they facilitate the development of advanced computational models for electron cyclotron current drive-induced suppression of neoclassical tearing modes.

  4. Cell rotation using optoelectronic tweezers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan-Li; Huang, Yuan-Peng; Lu, Yen-Sheng; Hou, Max T; Yeh, J Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A cell rotation method by using optoelectronic tweezers (OET) is reported. The binary image of a typical OET device, whose light and dark sides act as two sets of parallel plates with different ac voltages, was used to create a rotating electric field. Its feasibility for application to electrorotation of cells was demonstrated by rotating Ramos and yeast cells in their pitch axes. The electrorotation by using OET devices is dependent on the medium and cells' electrical properties, the cells' positions, and the OET device's geometrical dimension, as well as the frequency of the electric field. PMID:21267435

  5. Effects of the interstrip gap on the efficiency and response of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, D.; Forneris, J.; Grassi, L.; Acosta, L.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Grilj, V.; Jakic, M.; Lattuada, M.; Mijatovic, T.; Milin, M.; Prepolec, L.; Skukan, N.; Soic, N.; Stanko, D.; Tokic, V.; Uroic, M.; Zadro, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this work the effects of the segmentation of the electrodes of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) are investigated. In order to characterize the response of the DSSSDs we perform a first experiment by using tandem beams of different energies directly sent on the detector and a second experiment by mean of a proton microbeam. Results show that the effective width of the inter-strip region and the efficiency for full energy detection, varies with both detected energy and bias voltage. The experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by a simplified model based on the Shockley-Ramo-Gunn framework.

  6. 12. Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8' x ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8' x 10' contact print; May 12, 1982 revision of a January 18, 1974 as built drawing by F. Marquez Ramos, in possesion of the Bridge Evaluation Office of the Puerto Rico Department of Transportation and Public Works) BRIDE (sic) OVER RIO GRANDE DE LOIZA, ROAD NO. 980 KM. 10.6 - Puente de la Marina, San Lorenzo-Florida & Cerro Gordo Neighborhoods, spanning Rio Grande de Loiza River at Narciso Varona-Suarez Street, San Lorenzo, San Lorenzo Municipio, PR

  7. On the role of the four-qubit state in two-qubit gate teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, P. R. M.; Mendes, F. V.; Ramos, R. V.

    2016-05-01

    The full analysis of quantum protocols requires the knowledge of the role of quantum states, bases of measurement and quantum gates involved. In what concerns the famous two-qubit quantum gate teleportation protocol, the role of the basis of measurement was considered in a recent work by Mendes and Ramos. In this work, we analyze the role of the four-qubit state used as resource. We show that the quantum two-qubit gate teleportation divides the set of pure four-qubit states in two classes. For one class, deterministic and probabilistic teleportation can be achieved, while for the other class, probabilistic remote two-qubit gate preparation is achieved.

  8. Simulations of Operation Dynamics of Different Type GaN Particle Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Vysniauskas, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    The operation dynamics of the capacitor-type and PIN diode type detectors based on GaN have been simulated using the dynamic and drift-diffusion models. The drift-diffusion current simulations have been implemented by employing the software package Synopsys TCAD Sentaurus. The monopolar and bipolar drift regimes have been analyzed by using dynamic models based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem. The carrier multiplication processes determined by impact ionization have been considered in order to compensate carrier lifetime reduction due to introduction of radiation defects into GaN detector material. PMID:25751080

  9. A distinctive new subspecies of Scytalopus griseicollis (Aves, Passeriformes, Rhinocryptidae) from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Donegan, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopus griseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies Scytalopus griseicollis griseicollis and Scytalopus griseicollis gilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and páramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. PMID:26085800

  10. Fits and Starts: A Mother-Infant Case-Study Involving Intergenerational Violent Trauma and Pseudoseizures Across Three Generations

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Kaminer, Tammy; Grienenberger, John F.; Amat, Jose

    2007-01-01

    This case-study presents in detail the clinical assessment of a 29-year-old mother and her daughter who first presented to infant mental health specialists at age 16-months, with a hospital record suggesting the presence of a dyadic disturbance since age 8-months. Data from psychiatric and neurological assessments, as well as observational measures of child and mother are reviewed with attention to issues of disturbed attachment, intergenerational trauma, and cultural factors for this inner-city Latino dyad. Severe maternal affect dysregulation in the wake of chronic, early-onset violent-trauma exposure manifested as psychogenic seizures, referred to in the mother’s native Spanish as “ataques de nervios,” the latter, an idiom of distress, commonly associated with childhood trauma and dissociation. We explore the mechanisms by which the mothers’ reexperiencing of violent traumatic experience, together with physiologic hyperarousal and associated negative affects, are communicated to the very young child and the clinician-observer via action and language from moment to moment during the assessment process. The paper concludes with a discussion of diagnostic and treatment implications by Drs. Marshall, Gaensbauer, and Zeanah. PMID:18007961

  11. Ethnomedical syndromes and treatment-seeking behavior among Mayan refugees in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryce D; Sabin, Miriam; Berlin, Elois Ann; Nackerud, Larry

    2009-09-01

    This survey investigated the prevalence of ethnomedical syndromes and examined treatments and treatment-seeking in Mayan Guatemalans living in United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee (UNHCR) camps in Chiapas, Mexico. Methods included a rapid ethnographic assessment to refine survey methods and inform the cross-sectional survey, which also examined mental health outcomes; 183 households were approached for interview, representing an estimated 1,546 residents in five refugee camps and 93% of all households. One adult per household (N = 170) was interviewed regarding his or her health; an additional 9 adults in three surveyed households participated and were included in this analysis; of the 179 participants, 95 primary child-care providers also answered a children's health questionnaire for their children. Results indicated that ethnomedical syndromes were common in this sample, with 59% of adults and 48.4% of children having experienced susto (fright condition) and 34.1% of adults reporting ataques de nervios (nervous attacks); both conditions were significantly associated with symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression and are mental health conditions recognized by the American Psychiatric Association. Combining healthcare provider and indigenous treatments such as physician prescribed medication (65%), medicinal plants (65.7%), and limpias (spiritual cleansings) (40.6%) was reported. Most participants (86%) sought routine medical treatment from UNHCR trained health promoters in their camp. Assessing ethnomedical health is important for informing mental health programs among this population. PMID:19526330

  12. Barriers and facilitators of treatment for depression in a latino community: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Uebelacker, Lisa A; Marootian, Beth A; Pirraglia, Paul A; Primack, Jennifer; Tigue, Patrick M; Haggarty, Ryan; Velazquez, Lavinia; Bowdoin, Jennifer J; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W

    2012-02-01

    We conducted focus groups with Latinos enrolled in a Medicaid health plan in order to ask about the barriers to and facilitators of depression treatment in general as well as barriers to participation in depression telephone care management. Telephone care management has been designed for and tested in primary care settings as a way of assisting physicians with caring for their depressed patients. It consists of regular brief contacts between the care manager and the patient; the care manager educates, tracks, and monitors patients with depression, coordinates care between the patient and primary care physician, and may provide short-term psychotherapy. We conducted qualitative analyses of four focus groups (n = 30 participants) composed of Latinos who endorsed having been depressed themselves or having had a close friend or family member with depression, stress, nervios, or worries. Within the area of barriers and facilitators of receiving care for depression, we identified the following themes: vulnerability, social connection and engagement, language, culture, insurance/money, stigma, disengagement, information, and family. Participants discussed attitudes toward: importance of seeking help for depression, specific types of treatments, healthcare providers, continuity and coordination of care, and phone calls. Improved understanding of barriers and facilitators of depression treatment in general and depression care management in particular for Latinos enrolled in Medicaid should lead to interventions better able to meet the needs of this particular group. PMID:21267653

  13. Modifying cellular properties using artificial aptamer-lipid receptors.

    PubMed

    Altman, Meghan O; Chang, Yun Min; Xiong, Xiangling; Tan, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that artificial aptamer-lipid receptors (AR), which anchor on the surface of cells, can modify important cellular functions, including protein binding, enzymatic activity, and intercellular interactions. Streptavidin (SA)-AR-modified CEM cells captured the tetravalent SA with one biotin binding site. The remaining biotin sites captured biotinylated TDO5 aptamers, which target IgM on Ramos cells, to form CEM-Ramos cell assemblies. In another design, thrombin, an enzyme involved in blood clotting, was captured by thrombin-AR-modified cells and clot formation was visualized. Lastly, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mimics were modified with a tenascin-C-AR to improve the homing of HSC after an autologous bone marrow transplant. Tenascin-C-AR modified cells aggregated to cells in a tenascin-C expressing stem cell niche model better than library-AR modified cells. Modification of cellular properties using ARs is a one-step, dosable, nontoxic, and reversible method, which can be applied to any cell-type with any protein that has a known aptamer. PMID:24275961

  14. Circuital characterisation of space-charge motion with a time-varying applied bias

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul; Moon, Eun-Yi; Hwang, Jungho; Hong, Hiki

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of space-charge between two electrodes is important for a number of applications. The Shockley-Ramo theorem and equivalent circuit models are useful for this; however, fundamental questions of the microscopic nature of the space-charge remain, including the meaning of capacitance and its evolution into a bulk property. Here we show that the microscopic details of the space-charge in terms of resistance and capacitance evolve in a parallel topology to give the macroscopic behaviour via a charge-based circuit or electric-field-based circuit. We describe two approaches to this problem, both of which are based on energy conservation: the energy-to-current transformation rule, and an energy-equivalence-based definition of capacitance. We identify a significant capacitive current due to the rate of change of the capacitance. Further analysis shows that Shockley-Ramo theorem does not apply with a time-varying applied bias, and an additional electric-field-based current is identified to describe the resulting motion of the space-charge. Our results and approach provide a facile platform for a comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of space-charge between electrodes. PMID:26133999

  15. Aptamer-conjugated bio-bar-code Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles as amplification station for electrochemiluminescence detection of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Bi, Sai; Jia, Xiaoqiang; He, Peng

    2014-07-21

    An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay has been developed for highly sensitive and selective detection of tumor cells based on cell-SELEX aptamer-target cell interactions through a cascaded amplification process by using bio-bar-code Au-Fe3O4 as amplification station. Firstly, bio-bar-code toehold-aptamer/DNA primer/Au-Fe3O4 (TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4) nanoconjugates are fabricated with a ratio of 1:10 to efficiently avoid cross-linking reaction and recognize target cells, which are immobilized on the substrate by hybridizing aptamer to capture probe with 18-mer. Through strand displacement reaction (SDR), the TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4 composites further act as the amplification station to initiate rolling circle amplification (RCA). As a result, on the surface of TA/DP/Au-Fe3O4, a large number of Ru(bpy)2(dcbpy)NHS-labeled probes hybridize to RCA products, which are easily trapped by magnetic electrode to perform the magnetic particle-based ECL platform. Under isothermal conditions, this powerful amplification strategy permits detection of Ramos cells as low as 16 cells with an excellent selectivity. Moreover, analysis of Ramos cells in complex samples and whole blood samples further show the great potential of this ultrasensitive approach in clinical application involving cancer cells-related biological processes. PMID:25000857

  16. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment. PMID:25763024

  17. Plitidepsin (Aplidin) is a potent inhibitor of diffuse large cell and Burkitt lymphoma and is synergistic with rituximab.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Nora M; Medina, Daniel J; Budak-Alpdogan, Tulin; Aracil, Miguel; Jimeno, José M; Bertino, Joseph R; Banerjee, Debabrata

    2012-01-15

    Plitidepsin (Aplidin), an antitumor agent of marine origin, presently is undergoing phase II/III clinical trials, and has shown promise for the treatment of lymphoma. Here, we describe the antitumor effects of plitidepsin alone and in combination with rituximab and investigated the effects of each drug and the combination on the cell cycle and mechanism of cell death. Several Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma (DLCL) lines and Burkitt cell lines were tested for sensitivity to plitidepsin and rituximab. All DLCL and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines were inhibited by plitidepsin in nanomolar concentrations, while rituximab sensitivity varied among different cell lines. Ramos and the RL cell lines proved sensitive to rituximab and were used to test the effects of each of the two drugs. The two agents exhibited synergism at all tested concentrations. For in vivo studies, irradiated athymic nude mice were engrafted with the Ramos lymphoma. Treatment was initiated when the tumors were ~0.5 cm in diameter, and toxic and therapeutic effects were monitored. In the in vivo study, additive effects of the combined two drugs, was demonstrated without an increase in host toxicity. The in vitro synergy and the in vivo additive antitumor effects without an increase in host toxicity with two relatively non-marrow suppressive agents encourages further development of this combination for treatment of aggressive B-cell lymphomas. PMID:22336911

  18. Persistence of Jahn-Teller Distortion up to the Insulator to Metal Transition in LaMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Maria; Struzhkin, Viktor; Goncharov, Alex; Postorino, Paolo; Mao, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    High pressure, low temperature Raman measurements performed on LaMnO3 up to 34 GPa provide the first evidence for the persistence of the Jahn-Teller distortion over the entire stability range of the insulating phase. This result resolves the ongoing debate about the nature of the pressure driveninsulator to metal transition (IMT), demonstrating that LaMnO3 is not a classical Mott insulator. The formation of domains of distorted and regular octahedra, observed from 3 to 34 GPa, suggests that LaMnO3 becomes metallic when the fraction of undistorted octahedra domains increases beyond a critical threshold. In this scenario, it is interesting to consider whether or not the CMR effect may be induced in LaMnO3 by applying pressure. Preliminary results obtained performing high pressure resistivity measurements in a magnetic field will be reported. [4pt] [1] I. Loa, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 125501 (2001). [0pt] [2] A.Y. Ramos et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 052103(2007). [0pt] [3] A.Y. Ramos et al., J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 190, 012096 (2009). [0pt] [4] A. Yamasaki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166401 (2006). [0pt] [5]J. D. Fuhr et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 216402 (2008). [0pt] [6] M. Baldini et al., Phys. Rev. Letter 106, 066402 (2011).

  19. Rapid synthesis of tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles by microwave induced thermohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jouhannaud, J. Rossignol, J.; Stuerga, D.

    2008-06-15

    Tin oxide nanopowders, with an average size of 5 nm, were prepared by microwave flash synthesis. Flash synthesis was performed in aqueous solutions of tin tetrachloride and hydrochloric acid using a microwave autoclave (RAMO system) specially designed by the authors. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, nitrogen adsorption isotherm analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were used to characterize these nanoparticles. Compared with conventional synthesis, nanopowders can be produced in a short period (e.g. 60 s). In addition, high purity and high specific surface area are obtained. These characteristics are fundamental for gas sensing applications. - Graphical abstract: Tin oxide-based gas sensors have been extensively studied in recent years in order to understand and improve their sensing properties to a large variety of gaseous species. As is well known, high specific surface area increase the responses of gas sensors. Microwave-induced thermohydrolysis appears as an efficient way to produce nanoparticles in a very short time, with controlled size (4-5 nm) and high-specific area (160-190 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). Pictogram represents our original microwave reactor, the RAMO (French acronym of Reacteur Autoclave Micro-Onde), containing the reactants and submitted to the microwave irradiation (multicolour candy represent obtained material), and a typical TEM image of the as-prepared SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  20. Circuital characterisation of space-charge motion with a time-varying applied bias.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul; Moon, Eun-Yi; Hwang, Jungho; Hong, Hiki

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of space-charge between two electrodes is important for a number of applications. The Shockley-Ramo theorem and equivalent circuit models are useful for this; however, fundamental questions of the microscopic nature of the space-charge remain, including the meaning of capacitance and its evolution into a bulk property. Here we show that the microscopic details of the space-charge in terms of resistance and capacitance evolve in a parallel topology to give the macroscopic behaviour via a charge-based circuit or electric-field-based circuit. We describe two approaches to this problem, both of which are based on energy conservation: the energy-to-current transformation rule, and an energy-equivalence-based definition of capacitance. We identify a significant capacitive current due to the rate of change of the capacitance. Further analysis shows that Shockley-Ramo theorem does not apply with a time-varying applied bias, and an additional electric-field-based current is identified to describe the resulting motion of the space-charge. Our results and approach provide a facile platform for a comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of space-charge between electrodes. PMID:26133999

  1. Circuital characterisation of space-charge motion with a time-varying applied bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul; Moon, Eun-Yi; Hwang, Jungho; Hong, Hiki

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the behaviour of space-charge between two electrodes is important for a number of applications. The Shockley-Ramo theorem and equivalent circuit models are useful for this; however, fundamental questions of the microscopic nature of the space-charge remain, including the meaning of capacitance and its evolution into a bulk property. Here we show that the microscopic details of the space-charge in terms of resistance and capacitance evolve in a parallel topology to give the macroscopic behaviour via a charge-based circuit or electric-field-based circuit. We describe two approaches to this problem, both of which are based on energy conservation: the energy-to-current transformation rule, and an energy-equivalence-based definition of capacitance. We identify a significant capacitive current due to the rate of change of the capacitance. Further analysis shows that Shockley-Ramo theorem does not apply with a time-varying applied bias, and an additional electric-field-based current is identified to describe the resulting motion of the space-charge. Our results and approach provide a facile platform for a comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of space-charge between electrodes.

  2. [The nutritional status of the child entering the Nuevo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Garibay, E M; Sandoval-Galindo, D M; Kumazawa-Ichikawa, M R; Romero-Velarde, E; Nápoles-Rodríguez, F

    1993-06-01

    With the purpose to evaluate the nutritional status of children hospitalized in the Nuevo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara, they were included 278 subjects that entered in the infant, preschool, schoolchildren and infectious disease clinical ward of the Division of Pediatrics. There were chosen two subjects every day during one year. It was obtained information about family and sociodemographic background. In addition, there were undertaken anthropometric measurements; weight/age, weight/height and height/age indices were also calculated. It was obtained the parameters of median, percentiles and Z-score. Undernutrition was determined by the Gómez and Waterlow classifications. Is was also compared the reference pattern of Ramos-Galván and National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Blood was drawn for total protein and hemoglobin. Mean of height/age was 95.74% (NCHS), weight/age 84.04% and weight/height 89.7%. It was not difference on weight/age between Ramos-Galván and NCHS. Weight/height and height/age had little difference. The median system identified more cases with deficit than Z-score, which seems to be more specific and conservative. There is a high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition identified with the median system, and maybe reflects the poor quality of life and major morbidity in this population. PMID:8517933

  3. Modifying cellular properties using artificial aptamer-lipid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Meghan O.; Chang, Yun Min; Xiong, Xiangling; Tan, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that artificial aptamer-lipid receptors (AR), which anchor on the surface of cells, can modify important cellular functions, including protein binding, enzymatic activity, and intercellular interactions. Streptavidin (SA)-AR-modified CEM cells captured the tetravalent SA with one biotin binding site. The remaining biotin sites captured biotinylated TDO5 aptamers, which target IgM on Ramos cells, to form CEM-Ramos cell assemblies. In another design, thrombin, an enzyme involved in blood clotting, was captured by thrombin-AR-modified cells and clot formation was visualized. Lastly, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mimics were modified with a tenascin-C-AR to improve the homing of HSC after an autologous bone marrow transplant. Tenascin-C-AR modified cells aggregated to cells in a tenascin-C expressing stem cell niche model better than library-AR modified cells. Modification of cellular properties using ARs is a one-step, dosable, nontoxic, and reversible method, which can be applied to any cell-type with any protein that has a known aptamer. PMID:24275961

  4. Effects of cartilage impact with and without fracture on chondrocyte viability and the release of inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Stolberg-Stolberg, Josef A; Furman, Bridgette D; Garrigues, N William; Lee, Jaewoo; Pisetsky, David S; Stearns, Nancy A; DeFrate, Louis E; Guilak, Farshid; Olson, Steven A

    2013-08-01

    Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) frequently develops after intra-articular fracture of weight bearing joints. Loss of cartilage viability and post-injury inflammation have both been implicated as possible contributing factors to PTA progression. To further investigate chondrocyte response to impact and fracture, we developed a blunt impact model applying 70%, 80%, or 90% surface-to-surface compressive strain with or without induction of an articular fracture in a cartilage explant model. Following mechanical loading, chondrocyte viability, and apoptosis were assessed. Culture media were evaluated for the release of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and immunostimulatory activity via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity in Toll-like receptor (TLR) -expressing Ramos-Blue reporter cells. High compressive strains, with or without articular fracture, resulted in significantly reduced chondrocyte viability. Blunt impact at 70% strain induced a loss in viability over time through a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, whereas blunt impact above 80% strain caused predominantly necrosis. In the fracture model, a high level of primarily necrotic chondrocyte death occurred along the fracture edges. At sites away from the fracture, viability was not significantly different than controls. Interestingly, both dsDNA release and NF-κB activity in Ramos-Blue cells increased with blunt impact, but was only significantly increased in the media from fractured cores. This study indicates that the mechanism of trauma determines the type of chondrocyte death and the potential for post-injury inflammation. PMID:23620164

  5. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment. PMID:25763024

  6. DOCK2 regulates cell proliferation through Rac and ERK activation in B cell lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Kimura, Taichi; Kato, Yasutaka; Tanino, Mishie; Nishio, Mitsufumi; Obara, Masato; Endo, Tomoyuki; Koike, Takao; Tanaka, Shinya

    2010-04-23

    DOCK2; a member of the CDM protein family, regulates cell motility and cytokine production through the activation of Rac in mammalian hematopoietic cells and plays a pivotal role in the modulation of the immune system. Here we demonstrated the alternative function of DOCK2 in hematopoietic tumor cells, especially in terms of its association with the tumor progression. Immunostaining for DOCK2 in 20 cases of human B cell lymphoma tissue specimens including diffuse large B cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma revealed the prominent expression of DOCK2 in all of the lymphoma cells. DOCK2-knockdown (KD) of the B cell lymphoma cell lines, Ramos and Raji, using the lentiviral shRNA system presented decreased cell proliferation compared to the control cells. Furthermore, the tumor formation of DOCK2-KD Ramos cell in nude mice was significantly abrogated. Western blotting analysis and pull-down assay using GST-PAK-RBD kimeric protein suggested the presence of DOCK2-Rac-ERK pathway regulating the cell proliferation of these lymphoma cells. This is the first report to clarify the prominent role of DOCK2 in hematopoietic malignancy.

  7. Coalescence of fog droplets: Differential fog water deposition on wet and dry forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobón, C.; Barrero, J.

    2010-07-01

    The Páramo ecosystem is a high-altitude (2800 - 4500 masl), natural ecosystems which comprises approximately 42000 km2, extending across the Andes from north of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and western part of Venezuela. Andean páramos are widely considered to be prime suppliers of large volumes of high-quality water for large cities and for hydropower production. As páramos tend to be subjected to persistent fog incidence, fog interception by the vegetation is a common process in these ecosystems, representing not only an extra input of water to the ecosystem but also to suppress evaporation. In this process, small drops of water, transported by the wind, are captured by the surfaces of the vegetation, acting as physical obstacles to the flow of fog. These drops condense in the exposed surfaces and drip towards the ground or evaporate from the surfaces. The quantification of the magnitude of these processes is important for the quantification of the water balance of river basins where these types of ecosystems exist. Although the great hydrological importance of fog in montane tropical ecosystems little is known about its physical principles related to the interception of fog by physical barriers as vegetation, notably the differential behaviour of a wet and dry vegetation in the efficiency of capturing water from the fog. To characterize and quantify this efficiency of páramo vegetation in capturing water from the fog, during wet and dry canopy conditions, an experimental design was set up at the Páramo de Chingaza (Colombia) where paired samples of espeletia branches (dry and wet) were exposed to different fog events, and at the same time Juvik cylinders were exposed by the side of the experimental site, to measured fog inputs. Cylinders were also paired (wet and dry) at the beginning of the experiments. Results indicated that exposed wet and dry samples have a significant difference on the magnitude of water intercepted from the fog, being, in average, the wet

  8. Carbon stabilization mechanisms in soils in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Boris; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    The volcanic ash soils of the Andes contain very large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) per unit area. Consequently, they constitute significant potential sources or sinks of the greenhouse gas CO2. Climate and/or land use change potentially have a strong effect on these large SOM stocks. To clarify the role of chemical and physical stabilisation mechanisms in volcanic ash soils in the montane tropics, we investigated carbon stocks and stabilization mechanisms in the top- and subsoil along an altitudinal transect in the Ecuadorian Andes. The transect encompassed a sequence of paleosols under forest and grassland (páramo), including a site where vegetation cover changed in the last century. We applied selective extraction techniques, performed X-ray diffraction analyses of the clay fraction and estimated pore size distributions at various depths in the top- and subsoil along the transect. In addition, from several soils the molecular composition of SOM was further characterized with depth in the current soil as well as the entire first and the top of the second paleosol using GC/MS analyses of extractable lipids and Pyrolysis-GC/MS analyses of bulk organic matter. Our results show that organic carbon stocks in the mineral soil under forest a páramo vegetation were roughly twice as large as global averages for volcanic ash soils, regardless of whether the first 30cm, 100cm or 200cm were considered. We found the carbon stabilization mechanisms involved to be: i) direct stabilization of SOM in organo-metallic (Al-OM) complexes; ii) indirect protection of SOM through low soil pH and toxic levels of Al; and iii) physical protection of SOM due to a very high microporosity of the soil (Tonneijck et al., 2010; Jansen et al. 2011). When examining the organic carbon at a molecular level, interestingly we found extensive degradation of lignin in the topsoil while extractable lipids were preferentially preserved in the subsoil (Nierop and Jansen, 2009). Both vegetation

  9. Interannual changes in snow cover and its impact on ground surface temperatures in Livingston Island (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2015-04-01

    In permafrost areas the seasonal snow cover is an important factor on the ground thermal regime. Snow depth and timing are important in ground insulation from the atmosphere, creating different snow patterns and resulting in spatially variable ground temperatures. The aim of this work is to characterize the interactions between ground thermal regimes and snow cover and the influence on permafrost spatial distribution. The study area is the ice-free terrains of northwestern Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". Air and ground temperatures and snow thickness data where analysed from 4 sites along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2012: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). The data covers 6 cold seasons showing different conditions: i) very cold with thin snow cover; ii) cold with a gradual increase of snow cover; iii) warm with thick snow cover. The data shows three types of periods regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: a) thin snow cover and short-term fluctuation of ground temperatures; b) thick snow cover and stable ground temperatures; c) very thick snow cover and ground temperatures nearly constant at 0°C. a) Thin snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show frequent temperature variations, alternating between short-term fluctuations and stable ground temperatures. Nuevo Incinerador displays during most of the winter stable ground temperatures; b) Cold winters with a gradual increase of the snow cover: Nuevo Incinerador, Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show similar behavior, with a long period of stable ground temperatures; c) Thick snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski show long periods of stable ground, while Nuevo Incinerador shows temperatures close to 0°C since the beginning of the winter, due to early snow cover

  10. Using the stratigraphic record to document tectonic-geomorphologic interactions in a foreland basin setting: outcrop study of the Ainsa Basin, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyles, D. R.; Moody, J.; Gordon, G.; Hoffman, M.; Moss-Russell, A.; Silalahi, H.; Setiawan, P.; Clark, J.; Bracken, B.; Guzofski, C.

    2013-12-01

    Eocene strata of the Ainsa Basin (Spain) contain clastic and carbonate strata deposited in a relatively small (100 km^2), structurally active piggyback foreland basin. The basin is bounded by the Mediano Anticline to the east and the Boltana Anticline to the west. Clastic strata were sourced by an eastern fluvial-deltaic system whereas carbonate strata were sourced from shallow-water carbonate systems that rimmed the southern and western margins of the basin. Four time-stratigraphic units, which form an upward transect through the basin-fill succession, were studied in detail: Ainsa, Morillo, Guaso, Sobrarbe-Escanilla. The study uses the stratigraphic record to document linkages between progressive uplift of the basin-bounding structures, spatial-temporal changes in the amount and location of subsidence, and temporal changes in the landscape. The Ainsa unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east and exited the basin to the northwest, although some channels locally transfer to lobes near the northwest end of the basin. The Morillo unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east, dispersed onto the basin floor, then converged at the western end of the basin where they continued onto the longitudinally adjacent Jaca Basin. The Guaso unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east and transfer to a ponded distributive submarine fan at the center of the basin. The Escanilla-Sobrarbe unit contains a linked shelf-to-basin system that prograded from south to north and records the final filling of the basin. Four lines of evidence collectively support the basin-fill succession was deposited during structural growth. First, the depocenter, which is interpreted to reflect the position of maximum subsidence during deposition, of the systems systematically shifted westward as the basin filled. Second, the axial part of the clastic sediment systematically shifted southward as the basin filled. Third, the

  11. Properties of immunotoxins against a glycolipid antigen associated with Burkitt's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wiels, J; Junqua, S; Dujardin, P; Le Pecq, J B; Tursz, T

    1984-01-01

    A monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody (38-13) which recognizes Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells, by reacting with the neutral glycolipid Gal alpha 1 leads to 4-Gal beta 1 leads to 4-Glc beta 1 leads to 1-ceramide, was recently characterized. This monoclonal IgM was coupled to either ricin A chain or gelonin. The two different immunotoxins obtained retained the apparent immunological specificity of 38-13 IgM, as shown by flow cytofluorometry analysis and complement-dependent cytotoxicity test. The BL Ramos cells and the apparently irrelevant Epstein-Barr virus-containing lymphoblastoid Priess cells were used as targets in in vitro assays of the cytotoxic properties of the two immunotoxins by measuring the inhibition of protein synthesis. Isolated ricin A chain, gelonin, and 38-13 IgM exhibited very low intrinsic cytotoxicity on both target cells. 38-13 ricin A chain and 38-13 gelonin conjugates exerted toxic effects on both target cells which were about 6000-fold and 3000-fold higher than uncoupled ricin A chain and gelonin, respectively. The toxicity of these conjugates almost reached that of intact ricin. On Ramos BL cells, the kinetics of action of the 38-13 ricin A chain conjugate was almost as fast as that of intact ricin, because 50% protein synthesis inhibition was reached after 3 hr. In contrast, the kinetics of action in the non-BL Priess was much slower (50% protein synthesis inhibition after 10 hr). An obviously irrelevant immunotoxin (anti-trinitrophenol IgM-ricin A chain) had no significant cytotoxic effect on BL Ramos and non-BL Priess cells. An excess of D-galactose was shown previously to inhibit the 38-13 IgM from binding to the reactive glycolipid antigen bearing a terminal galactose. An excess of D-galactose (0.1 M) inhibited the cytotoxic effect of the two 38-13 immunotoxins, whereas it did not prevent the cytotoxic effect of the anti-trinitrophenol immunotoxin on the same trinitrophenol labeled target cells. These data suggest that the

  12. Ethno-cultural variations in the experience and meaning of mental illness and treatment: implications for access and utilization.

    PubMed

    Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Chu, Edward; Drake, Robert E; Ritsema, Mieka; Smith, Beverly; Alverson, Hoyt

    2010-04-01

    We conducted a study to investigate how understandings of mental illness and responses to mental health services vary along ethno-racial lines. Participants were 25 African American, Latino, and Euro-American inner-city residents in Hartford Connecticut diagnosed with severe mental illness and currently enrolled in a larger study of a community mental health center. Data were collected through 18 months of ethnographic work in the community. Overall, Euro-Americans participants were most aligned with professional disease-oriented perspectives on severe mental illness and sought the advice and counsel of mental health professionals. African-American and Latino participants emphasized non-biomedical interpretations of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive problems and were critical of mental health services. Participants across the sample expressed expectations and experiences of psychiatric stigma. Although Euro-Americans were aware of the risk of social rejection because of mental illness, psychiatric stigma did not form a core focus of their narrative accounts. By contrast, stigma was a prominent theme in the narrative accounts of African Americans, for whom severe mental illness was considered to constitute private "family business." For Latino participants, the cultural category of nervios appeared to hold little stigma, whereas psychiatric clinical labels were potentially very socially damaging. Our findings provide further empirical support for differences in symptom interpretation and definitions of illness among persons from diverse ethno-racial backgrounds. First-person perspectives on contemporary mental health discourses and practices hold implications for differential acceptability of mental health care that may inform variations in access and utilization of services in diverse populations. PMID:20603387

  13. A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1–)4–6(–7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km2, this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

  14. Inferring runoff generation processes through high resolution spatial and temporal UV-Vis absorbance measurements in a mountainous headwater catchment in Southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, David; Schob, Sarah; Zang, Carina; Crespo, Patricio; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The alpine grassland páramo - typically occurring in the headwater catchments of the Andes - plays an important role in flow regulation, hydropower generation and local water supply. However, hydrological and hydro-biogeochemical processes in the páramo and their potential reactions to climate and land use change are largely unknown. Therefore, we used a UV-Vis absorbance spectrometer to investigate fluxes of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity and nitrate (NO3-N) in a small headwater catchment (91.31 km²) in the páramo in south Ecuador on a 5 min temporal and 100 m spatial resolution to gain first insights in its hydrological functioning. Spatial sampling was realized during three snapshot sampling campaigns along the 14.2 km long stream between October 2013 and January 2014, while temporal sampling took place at a permanent sampling site within the catchment between February and June 2014. To identify the runoff generation processes the spatial patterns have been associated with local site specific (e.g. fish ponds) and sub-catchment wide (e.g. land use) characteristics. Storm flow events within the time series allowed to further study temporal changes and rotational patterns of concentration-discharge relations (hysteresis). In total, 35 events were identified to be suitable for analyzing hysteresis effects of BOD, COD, and turbidity. Nitrate concentrations could be studied for 20 events. Regardless of the flow conditions nitrate leaching increased with a growing share of non-native pine forests or pastures in the study area. During low flow conditions, the high water holding capacity of the upstream páramo areas ensured a continuous supply of BOD to the stream. Pasture and pine forest sites, mostly occurring in the downstream section of the stream, contributed to BOD only during discharge events. Contradicting the expectations the trout farms along the lower part of the streams had a relatively closed nutrient cycle and

  15. Photo-Nernst current in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Helin; Aivazian, Grant; Fei, Zaiyao; Ross, Jason; Cobden, David H.; Xu, Xiaodong

    2016-03-01

    Photocurrent measurements provide a powerful means of studying the spatially resolved optoelectronic and electrical properties of a material or device. Generally speaking there are two classes of mechanism for photocurrent generation: those involving separation of electrons and holes, and thermoelectric effects driven by electron temperature gradients. Here we introduce a new member in the latter class: the photo-Nernst effect. In graphene devices in a perpendicular magnetic field we observe photocurrent generated uniformly along the free edges, with opposite sign at opposite edges. The signal is antisymmetric in field, shows a peak versus gate voltage at the neutrality point flanked by wings of opposite sign at low fields, and exhibits quantum oscillations at higher fields. These features are all explained by the Nernst effect associated with laser-induced electron heating. This `photo-Nernst’ current provides a simple and clear demonstration of the Shockley-Ramo nature of long-range photocurrent generation in a gapless material.

  16. A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1-)4-6(-7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km(2), this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

  17. Chemical composition and phenolic compound profile of mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth).

    PubMed

    Vasco, Catalina; Riihinen, Kaisu; Ruales, Jenny; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    2009-09-23

    The phenolic compounds in mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth, family Ericaceae) from the páramos of Ecuador were studied by LC-DAD-MS/MS for the first time. (-)-Epicatechin, one dimer A and one trimer A were found at a total concentration of 18 mg/100 g FW. Of the flavonol glycosides (38 mg/100 g FW), quercetin and myricetin were found as -3-O-hexosides, -3-O-pentosides and -3-O-deoxyhexosides. Chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids together with caffeic/ferulic acid derivatives were found as predominant components among the hydroxycinnamic acids in the berry. Anthocyanins, including cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives, were the major phenolic compound class quantified (345 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside/100 g FW). PMID:19719139

  18. Improved Poisson solver for cfa/magnetron simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dombrowski, G.E.

    1996-12-31

    E{sub dc}, the static field of a device having vane-shaped anodes, has been determined by application of Hockney`s method, which in turn uses Buneman`s cyclic reduction. This result can be used for both cfa and magnetrons, but does not solve the general space-charge fields. As pointed out by Hockney, the matrix of coupling capacitive factors between the vane-defining mesh points can also be used to solve the Poisson equation for the entire cathode-anode domain. Space-charge fields of electrons between anode electrodes can now be determined. This technique also computes the Ramo function for the entire region. This method has been applied to the magnetron. Extension to the cfa with many different space-charge bunches does not appear to be practicable. Calculations for the type 4J50 magnetron by the various degrees of accuracy in solving the Poisson equation are compared with experimental measurements.

  19. Weak Values from Displacement Currents in Multiterminal Electron Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, D.; Zanghı, N.; Oriols, X.

    2016-03-01

    Weak values allow the measurement of observables associated with noncommuting operators. Up to now, position-momentum weak values have been mainly developed for (relativistic) photons. In this Letter, a proposal for the measurement of such weak values in typical electronic devices is presented. Inspired by the Ramo-Shockley-Pellegrini theorem that provides a relation between current and electron velocity, it is shown that the displacement current measured in multiterminal configurations can provide either a weak measurement of the momentum or strong measurement of position. This proposal opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied physics with state-of-the-art electronic technology. As an example, a setup for the measurement of the Bohmian velocity of (nonrelativistic) electrons is presented and tested with numerical experiments.

  20. Nuclear Fission Investigation with Twin Ionization Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynalova, O.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Nazarenko, M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2011-11-29

    The purpose of the present paper was to report the recent results, obtained in development of digital pulse processing mathematics for prompt fission neutron (PFN) investigation using twin ionization chamber (TIC) along with fast neutron time-of-flight detector (ND). Due to well known ambiguities in literature (see refs. [4, 6, 9 and 11]), concerning a pulse induction on TIC electrodes by FF ionization, we first presented detailed mathematical analysis of fission fragment (FF) signal formation on TIC anode. The analysis was done using Ramo-Shockley theorem, which gives relation between charged particle motion between TIC electrodes and so called weighting potential. Weighting potential was calculated by direct numerical solution of Laplace equation (neglecting space charge) for the TIC geometry and ionization, caused by FF. Formulae for grid inefficiency (GI) correction and digital pulse processing algorithms for PFN time-of-flight measurements and pulse shape analysis are presented and discussed.

  1. Facile Functionalization of Ag@SiO2 Core-Shell Metal Enhanced Fluorescence Nanoparticles for Cell Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Meicong; Tian, Yu; Pappas, Dimitri

    2014-01-01

    We describe a versatile approach for functionalizing core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles for live-cell imaging. The approach uses physical adsorption and does not need covalent linkage to synthesize antibody-based labels. The surface orientation is not controlled in this approach, but the signal enhancement is strong and consistent. Antibodies were then attached using a non-covalent process that takes advantage of biotin-avidin affinity. Metal-enhanced nanoparticles doped with rhodamine B were used as the luminescent reporter. The enhancement of rhodamine B was between 2.7–6.8 times. We demonstrated labeling of CD19+ Ramos B lymphocytes and CD4+ HuT 78 T lymphocytes using anti-CD19 and anti-CD4 nanocomposite labels, respectively. This physical adsorption process can accommodate a variety of fluorophore types, and has broad potential in bioanalytical and biosensing applications. PMID:24683421

  2. Simulations on time-of-flight ERDA spectrometer performance.

    PubMed

    Julin, Jaakko; Arstila, Kai; Sajavaara, Timo

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a time-of-flight spectrometer consisting of two timing detectors and an ionization chamber energy detector has been studied using Monte Carlo simulations for the recoil creation and ion transport in the sample and detectors. The ionization chamber pulses have been calculated using Shockley-Ramo theorem and the pulse processing of a digitizing data acquisition setup has been modeled. Complete time-of-flight-energy histograms were simulated under realistic experimental conditions. The simulations were used to study instrumentation related effects in coincidence timing and position sensitivity, such as background in time-of-flight-energy histograms. Corresponding measurements were made and simulated results are compared with data collected using the digitizing setup. PMID:27587115

  3. Benchhmark of NIMROD kinetic electron closures with the NEO code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Eric; Kruger, Scott; Belli, Emily; Callen, James

    2010-11-01

    The need to close the extended magnetohydrodynamic equations to include perturbed bootstrap current physics in response to magnetic island formation has long been recognized. In this work we discuss a numerical solution of the second-orderootnotetextJ. Ramos, private communication drift-kinetic equation (DKE) which supplies the bootstrap current closure for the perturbed Ohms Law in simulations of slowly growing, neoclassical tearing modes. Important aspects of this numerical solution include the conservative properties of the adopted Chapman-Enskog like approach as well as the fully implicit solution for the electron DKE which is staggered in time from the advancing fluid equations. The complexity of the analytic formulation and numerical implementation makes verification of this closure paramount. To this end, we compare axisymmetric NIMROD calculations with the results of NEOootnotetextE. A. Belli, J. M. Candy PPCF 50, 095010 (2008)., which numerically solves the DKE in 2D geometry, and with various analytic formulas.

  4. The Current Trajectory of Seismic Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Ana E.; Ruddick, Barry R.; Biescas-Gorriz, Berta

    2013-09-01

    Seismic oceanography (SO) uses multichannel seismic techniques to visualize the ocean's fine structure, yielding a tool for investigating ocean mixing processes and their links with mesoscale features such as eddies, fronts, and currents. Ten years after the seminal paper initiating the SO field (W. S. Holbrook, P. Páramo, S. Pearse, and R. W. Schmitt, Thermohaline fine structure in an oceanographic front from seismic reflection profiling, Science, 301, 821-824, 2003), a special session and mini-workshop were convened at the International Congress on Acoustics in Montreal on 2-7 June 2013. At the workshop, participants discussed the successes of SO, the challenges it faces as an observational tool, and ways to move the field forward.

  5. Can an "impulse response" really be defined for a photoreceiver?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile-Pelaez, F. Javier

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we examine the validity of the concept of impulse response employed to characterize the time response and the signal-to-noise ratio of p-i-n and similar photodetecting devices. We analyze critically the way in which the formalism of analog linear systems has been extrapolated, by employing results from macroscopic electromagnetic theory such as the Shockley-Ramo theorem or any equivalent approach, to the extreme case of a single-photon detection. We argue that the concept of "response to an optical impulse" is ill-defined in the customary terms it is envisioned in the literature, this is, as an output current pulse having a certain predictable, calculated temporal shape, in response to the detection of an optical "Dirac delta" impulse, conceived in turn as the absorption of a single photon.

  6. Identification of a functional nuclear export signal in the green fluorescent protein asFP499

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, Huseyin . E-mail: huseyinm@hotmail.com; Strasser, Bernd; Rauth, Sabine; Irving, Robert A.; Wark, Kim L.

    2006-04-21

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) asFP499 from Anemonia sulcata is a distant homologue of the GFP from Aequorea victoria. We cloned the asFP499 gene into a mammalian expression vector and showed that this protein was expressed in the human lymphoblast cell line Ramos RA1 and in the embryonic kidney 293T cell line (HEK 293T). In HEK 293T cells, asFP499 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, suggesting that the protein was excluded from the nucleus. We identified {sub 194}LRMEKLNI{sub 201} as a candidate nuclear export signal in asFP499 and mutated the isoleucine at position 201 to an alanine. Unlike the wildtype form, the mutant protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. This is First report of a GFP that contains a functional NES.

  7. Weak Values from Displacement Currents in Multiterminal Electron Devices.

    PubMed

    Marian, D; Zanghì, N; Oriols, X

    2016-03-18

    Weak values allow the measurement of observables associated with noncommuting operators. Up to now, position-momentum weak values have been mainly developed for (relativistic) photons. In this Letter, a proposal for the measurement of such weak values in typical electronic devices is presented. Inspired by the Ramo-Shockley-Pellegrini theorem that provides a relation between current and electron velocity, it is shown that the displacement current measured in multiterminal configurations can provide either a weak measurement of the momentum or strong measurement of position. This proposal opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied physics with state-of-the-art electronic technology. As an example, a setup for the measurement of the Bohmian velocity of (nonrelativistic) electrons is presented and tested with numerical experiments. PMID:27035291

  8. Comment on “Human impacts on headwater fluvial systems in the northern and central Andes” (Carol P. Harden, Geomorphology 79, 249 263)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert; Celleri, Rolando; Cisneros, Felipe; Wyseure, Guido; Deckers, Seppe

    2008-04-01

    The high altitude grasslands of the tropical Andes, known as páramo, are a very fragile and unique ecosystem. Despite increasing human activities, many of its geomorphological and hydrological processes are still very poorly understood. We therefore welcome the paper of Harden [Harden, C.P., 2006. Human impacts on headwater fluvial systems in the northern and central Andes. Geomorphology 79, 249-263.] about "Human impacts on headwater fluvial systems in the northern and central Andes" as a valuable contribution to a better understanding of this complex ecosystem. However, in view of the available literature, we would like to complement the interpretation of the presented results and discuss some of the claims made in the paper.

  9. Weightfield2: A fast simulator for silicon and diamond solid state detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenna, Francesca; Cartiglia, N.; Friedl, M.; Kolbinger, B.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Zatserklyaniy, Anton

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a fast simulation program to study the performance of silicon and diamond detectors, Weightfield2. The program uses GEANT4 libraries to simulate the energy released by an incoming particle in silicon (or diamond), and Ramo's theorem to generate the induced signal current. A graphical interface allows the user to configure many input parameters such as the incident particle, sensor geometry, presence and value of internal gain, doping of silicon sensor and its operating conditions, the values of an external magnetic field, ambient temperature and thermal diffusion. A simplified electronics simulator is also implemented to include the response of an oscilloscope and front-end electronics. The program has been validated by comparing its predictions for minimum ionizing and α particles with measured signals and TCAD simulations, finding very good agreement in both cases.

  10. Terrestrial applications of FEP-encapsulated solar cell modules. [power systems using Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    The NASA-Lewis Research Center program of transferring the FEP-encapsulated solar cell technology developed for the space program to terrestrial applications is presented. The electrical power system design and the array mechanical design are described, and power systems being tested are discussed. The latter are located at NOAA-RAMOS weather stations at Sterling, Va., and Mammoth Mountain, Calif.; on the roof of the Lewis Research Center; on a NOAA-Coast Guard buoy in the Gulf of Mexico; in a U.S. Forest Service mountaintop voice repeater station in the Inyo National Forest, Calif., and in a backpack charger for portable transmitter/receivers being used in the same place. Preliminary results of testing are still incomplete, but show that rime ice can cause cracks in modular cells without damaging the FEP though, which keeps the grid lines intact, and that electrically active elements of the module must be completely sealed from salt water to prevent FEP delamination.

  11. Unified theory of resistive and inertial ballooning modes in three-dimensional configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Hegna, C. C.; Callen, J. D.

    2009-10-15

    Analytic results for the stability of resistive ballooning modes (RBMs) and electron inertial ballooning modes are obtained using a two-scale analysis. This work generalizes previous calculations used for axisymmetric s-{alpha} geometry [R. H. Hastie, J. J. Ramos, and F. Porcelli, Phys. Plasmas 10, 4405 (2003)] to general three-dimensional geometry. A unified theory is developed for RBMs and inertial ballooning modes, in which the effects of both ideal magnetohydrodynamic free energy (as measured by the asymptotic matching parameter {delta}{sup '}) and geodesic curvature drives in the nonideal layer are included in the dispersion relation. This unified theory can be applied to determine the stability of drift-resistive-inertial ballooning modes in the low temperature edge regions of tokamak and stellarator plasmas where steep density gradients exist.

  12. Development of Purine-Based Hydroxamic Acid Derivatives: Potent Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Marked in Vitro and in Vivo Antitumor Activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xiang, Wei; He, Lin; Tang, Minghai; Wang, Fang; Wang, Taijin; Yang, Zhuang; Yi, Yuyao; Wang, Hairong; Niu, Ting; Zheng, Li; Lei, Lei; Li, Xiaobin; Song, Hang; Chen, Lijuan

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, a series of novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors using the morpholinopurine as the capping group were designed and synthesized. Several compounds demonstrated significant HDAC inhibitory activities and antiproliferative effects against diverse human tumor cell lines. Among them, compound 10o was identified as a potent class I and class IIb HDAC inhibitor with good pharmaceutical profile and druglike properties. Western blot analysis further confirmed that 10o more effectively increased acetylated histone H3 than panobinostat (LBH-589) and vorinostat (SAHA) at the same concentration in vitro. In in vivo efficacy evaluations of HCT116, MV4-11, Ramos, and MM1S xenograft models, 10o showed higher efficacy than SAHA or LBH-589 without causing significant loss of body weight and toxicity. All the results indicated that 10o could be a suitable candidate for treatment of both solid and hematological cancer. PMID:27186676

  13. Processing inflectional and derivational morphology: electrophysiological evidence from Spanish.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carlos J; Urrutia, Mabel; Domínguez, Alberto; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2011-02-18

    The goal of this paper is to study possible differences between the processing of inflectional vs. derivational morphology in Spanish word recognition using electrophysiological measures. A lexical decision task to target words preceded by morphological-related (or unrelated) primes was used. The orthographic and phonological overlap and the grammatical class for the two experimental conditions were exactly the same. Examples of the related conditions were, for inflection, NIÑO-NIÑA ("girl"-"boy"), and for derivation, RAMO-RAMA ("bunch"-"branch"). These conditions were compared with unrelated pairs without orthographic, phonological or semantic relationships. An attenuation of the N-400 component was found for both related conditions from 300 ms until 450 ms (until 500 ms for inflections only). In addition, different locations were suggested by the source analysis. These findings are consistent with accounts that argue for differences between the processing of inflections and derivations. PMID:21167910

  14. ANNOTATION TAKEN, IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CRIMINAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AS WELL AS IN CRIMINOLOGY, TO THE DECISION OF THE PORTUGUESE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT, OF JANUARY 13, 2011--WITH RESPECT TO THE PROBLEMS OF "CONSENT" AND "MEDICAL ACT".

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Gonçalo S de Melo

    2014-07-01

    1--Summary of the decision taken by the Portuguese Constitutional Court, of January 13, 2011; 2--Complete text of the decision of the Portuguese Constitutional Court, of January 13, 2011, Judge Maria João ANTUNES (Reporter), Judge Carlos Pamplona de OLIVEIRA, Judge José Borges SOEIRO, Judge Gil GALVÃO, Judge Rui Manuel Moura RAMOS (President)--in terms of the appositive declaration to the sentence n. 487/2010: t.c.http://www. tribunalconstitucional.pt, August 1, 2011; 3--Brief annotation to the problem of the "medical act"; 3.1--Plus some conclusions on the brief annotation to the problem of the "medical act"; 3.2--Brief annotation to the problem of "consent"--continuation of the previous comments; 4--Conclusions. It must never be forgotten that "consent" does not stand as the only cause of exclusion of unlawfulness. PMID:27359009

  15. The influence of electron track lengths on the γ-ray response of compound semiconductor detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhostin, M.; Esmaili-Torshabi, A.

    2015-10-01

    The charge-trapping effect in compound semiconductor γ-ray detectors in the presence of a uniform electric field is commonly described by Hecht's relation. However, Hecht's relation ignores the geometrical spread of charge carriers caused by the finite range of primary and secondary electrons (δ-rays) in the detector. In this paper, a method based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem is developed to calculate γ-ray induced charge pulses by taking into account the charge-trapping effect associated with the geometrical spread of charge carriers. The method is then used to calculate the response of a planar CdTe detector to energetic γ-rays by which the influence of electron track lengths on the γ-ray response of the detectors is clearly shown.

  16. More Than A SketchUp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Derrick D.

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 summer internship assignment at John F. Kennedy Space Center (K.S.C) was conducted with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Technology (NE) group in support of the Control and Data Systems Division (NE-C) within the Test, Operations & Support Software Engineering Branch (NE-C2). The primary focus of this project was to assist Branch Chief Laurie B. Griffin, to support NASA's Small Payload Launch Integrated Testing Services (SPLITS) mission, by mastering the capabilities of 3-D modeling software called SketchUp. I used SketchUp to create a virtual environment for different laboratories of the NE-00 Division. My mission was to have these models uploaded into a K.S.C Partnerships Website and be used as a visual aid to viewers who browsed the site. The leads of this project were Kay L. Craig, Business and Industry Specialist (AD-A) and Steven E. Cain, (FA-C). I teamed with fellow intern Tait Sorenson of the Flight Structures and Thermal Protection Systems Branch (NE-M5) and met with many K.S.C lab managers willing to display their lab's structure and capabilities. The information collected during these lab tours was vital to the building of the K.S.C Partnerships Website. To accomplish this goal Sorenson and I later teamed with fellow Marketing intern Marlee Pereda-Ramos, of the Spaceport Planning Office In Center Planning And Development (AD-A) Along with Ramos, Tait and I toured an array of laboratories and got first hand exposure to their functions and capabilities.

  17. Preface to special issue: Granite magmatism in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll

    2016-07-01

    Granites are important both to the geologic evolution and to the economy of Brazil. Deposits of precious and rare metals, such as Au, Sn and many others, are directly or indirectly associated with granites, especially in the geologically under-explored Amazon region. On the opposite eastern side of the country, expanding exploitation of natural granite as dimension stone makes Brazil currently the world's second largest exporter of granite blocks. Granites are a major constituent of the Brazilian Archean-Proterozoic cratonic domains (the Amazon and São Francisco cratons) and their surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts. The granites are thus fundamental markers of the major events of crustal generation and recycling that shaped the South American Platform. As a result, Brazilian granites have received great attention from the national and international community, and a number of influential meetings focused on the study of granites were held in the country in the last three decades. These meetings include the two International Symposia on Granites and Associated Mineralization (Salvador, January 21-31, 1987, and August 24-29, 1997), the Symposium on Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks (Belém, August 2-5, 1995) and the Symposium on Magmatism, Crustal Evolution, and Metallogenesis of the Amazonian Craton (Belém, August 2006). Special issues dedicated to contributions presented at these meetings in the Journal of South American Earth Sciences (Sial et al., 1998), Lithos (Stephens et al., 1999), Canadian Mineralogist (Dall'Agnol and Ramo, 2006), Precambrian Research (Ramo et al., 2002) and Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Dall'Agnol and Bettencourt, 1997; Sial et al., 1999a) are still important references on the knowledge of Brazilian granites and granite petrology in general.

  18. MytiLec, a Mussel R-Type Lectin, Interacts with Surface Glycan Gb3 on Burkitt's Lymphoma Cells to Trigger Apoptosis through Multiple Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Sugawara, Shigeki; Fujii, Yuki; Koide, Yasuhiro; Terada, Daiki; Iimura, Naoya; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Keisuke G; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Rajia, Sultana; Kawsar, Sarkar M A; Kanaly, Robert A; Uchiyama, Hideho; Hosono, Masahiro; Ogawa, Yukiko; Fujita, Hideaki; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsui, Taei; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-01

    MytiLec; a novel lectin isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis); shows strong binding affinity to globotriose (Gb3: Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc). MytiLec revealed β-trefoil folding as also found in the ricin B-subunit type (R-type) lectin family, although the amino acid sequences were quite different. Classification of R-type lectin family members therefore needs to be based on conformation as well as on primary structure. MytiLec specifically killed Burkitt's lymphoma Ramos cells, which express Gb3. Fluorescein-labeling assay revealed that MytiLec was incorporated inside the cells. MytiLec treatment of Ramos cells resulted in activation of both classical MAPK/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-ERK) and stress-activated (p38 kinase and JNK) Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways. In the cells, MytiLec treatment triggered expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (a ligand of death receptor-dependent apoptosis) and activation of mitochondria-controlling caspase-9 (initiator caspase) and caspase-3 (activator caspase). Experiments using the specific MEK inhibitor U0126 showed that MytiLec-induced phosphorylation of the MEK-ERK pathway up-regulated expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, leading to cell cycle arrest and TNF-α production. Activation of caspase-3 by MytiLec appeared to be regulated by multiple different pathways. Our findings, taken together, indicate that the novel R-type lectin MytiLec initiates programmed cell death of Burkitt's lymphoma cells through multiple pathways (MAPK cascade, death receptor signaling; caspase activation) based on interaction of the lectin with Gb3-containing glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains on the cell surface. PMID:26694420

  19. Induction of apoptosis through B-cell receptor cross-linking occurs via de novo generated C16-ceramide and involves mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, B J; Pettus, B; Luberto, C; Busman, M; Sietsma, H; de Leij, L; Hannun, Y A

    2001-04-27

    B-cells, triggered via their surface B-cell receptor (BcR), start an apoptotic program known as activation-induced cell death (AICD), and it is widely believed that this phenomenon plays a role in the restriction and focusing of the immune response. Although both ceramide and caspases have been proposed to be involved in AICD, the contribution of either and the exact molecular events through which AICD commences are still unknown. Here we show that in Ramos B-cells, BcR-triggered cell death is associated with an early rise of C16 ceramide that derives from activation of the de novo pathway, as demonstrated using a specific inhibitor of ceramide synthase, fumonisin B1 (FB1), and using pulse labeling with the metabolic sphingolipid precursor, palmitate. There was no evidence for activation of sphingomyelinases or hydrolysis of sphingomyelin. Importantly, FB1 inhibited several specific apoptotic hallmarks such as poly(A)DP-ribose polymerase cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Electron microscopy revealed morphological evidence of mitochondrial damage, suggesting the involvement of mitochondria in BcR-triggered apoptosis, and this was inhibited by FB1. Moreover, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed in Ramos cells after BcR cross-linking, which was inhibited by the addition of FB1. Interestingly, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-dl-Asp, a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor did not inhibit BcR-induced mitochondrial membrane permeability transition but did block DNA fragmentation. These results suggest a crucial role for de novo generated C16 ceramide in the execution of AICD, and they further suggest an ordered and more specific sequence of biochemical events in which de novo generated C16 ceramide is involved in mitochondrial damage resulting in a downstream activation of caspases and apoptosis. PMID:11278517

  20. Transient induction of a nuclear antigen unrelated to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen in cells of two human B-lymphoma lines converted by Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Fresen, K O; zur Hausen, H

    1977-01-01

    Infection of cells of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative human B-lymphoma lines BJAB and Ramos with EBV preparations from P3HR-1 or B 95-8 cells converted these cells to EBV genome carriers expressing Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) in almost 100% of these cells. Induction of these cells as well as of clones from P3HR-1 EBV-converted BJAB cells with iododeoxyuridine, aminopterin, and hypoxanthine resulted in the appearance of a nuclear antigen in about 1-6% of the cells 1-4 days after induction. The antigen is different from known EBV-induced antigens like EBNA, viral capsid antigen (VCA) or the D- and R-subspecificities of the early antigen (EA) complex. It is demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence and inactivated after acetone fixation. The antigen was not detectable after induction of uninfected BJAB and Ramos cells nor has it been found in noninduced or induced P3HR-1 and Raji cells. Thus, it appears that EBV-infection mediates the expression of this antigen, for which the name TINA (transiently induced nuclear antigen) is suggested. Sera reacting against TINA generally contained high antibody titers against EBV-induced EA. Only a limited number of highly EA-reactive sera, however, were also positive for TINA. Among 200 sera tested thus far, TINA reactivity was most frequently observed in sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (7 out of 28), in sera of the only two patients with immunoblastoma tested and occasionally in sera from patients with Hodgkin's disease and chronic lymphatic leukemia. Among 70 sera from nontumor patients, TINA reactivity was observed three times: two patients suffered from "chronic" infectious mononucleosis, the other revealed persistent splenomegaly. PMID:189313

  1. The effect of varying carboxylate ligation on the electronic environment of N2O(x) (x = 1-3) nonheme iron: a DFT analysis.

    PubMed

    Cappillino, Patrick J; McNally, Joshua S; Wang, Feng; Caradonna, John P

    2012-01-14

    Mononuclear nonheme iron oxygenase (MNO) enzymes contain a subclass of metalloproteins capable of catalyzing the O(2)-dependent hydroxylation of unactivated substrates at a ferrous ion center coordinated to a highly conserved His-His-Glu/Asp motif. These enzymes, which utilize additional reducing equivalents obtained from the decarboxylation of a coordinated α-ketoglutarate (αKG) cofactor, do not readily interact with O(2) in the absence of αKG binding. Density functional theory calculations with the B3LYP functional were performed to gain insight into the electrochemical behavior of three sets of Fe(II/III) complexes containing a core N, N, O facial binding motif in which the number of carboxylate ligands was systematically altered, to provide one, two (cis) or three (fac) labile sites. The calculated trend in Fe(II/III) reduction potentials was observed to parallel that observed in cyclic voltammetry experiments, showing a decrease in potential (stabilized oxidized state) with increasing carboxylate ligation. This trend does not appear to be the result of differential charge on the metal complex. Changes in the redox-active molecular orbital (RAMO) energy due to covalent effects dominate across the series of complexes when chloride is modeled as the labile ligand, with the π anti-bonding nature of the RAMO being an important factor. With water molecules as the labile ligands, however, a much steeper redox dependence on the number of carboxylate ligands is observed and this effect seems to be largely electrostatic in origin. Differential relaxation of the occupied molecular orbitals in the ferric complexes appears to contribute to the redox trend as well. Finally, these observations are placed in the context of MNO enzyme mechanisms. PMID:22042235

  2. Interleukin-4-induced transcriptional activation by stat6 involves multiple serine/threonine kinase pathways and serine phosphorylation of stat6.

    PubMed

    Pesu, M; Takaluoma, K; Aittomäki, S; Lagerstedt, A; Saksela, K; Kovanen, P E; Silvennoinen, O

    2000-01-15

    Stat6 transcription factor is a critical mediator of IL-4-specific gene responses. Tyrosine phosphorylation is required for nuclear localization and DNA binding of Stat6. The authors investigated whether Stat6-dependent transcriptional responses are regulated through IL-4-induced serine/threonine phosphorylation. In Ramos B cells, the serine/threonine kinase inhibitor H7 inhibited IL-4-induced expression of CD23. Treatment with H7 did not affect IL-4R-mediated immediate signaling events such as tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1, Jak3, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2, or tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding of Stat6. To analyze whether the H7-sensitive pathway was regulating Stat6-activated transcription, we used reporter constructs containing different IL-4 responsive elements. H7 abrogated Stat6-, as well as Stat5-, mediated reporter gene activation and partially reduced C/EBP-dependent reporter activity. By contrast, IL-4-induced transcription was not affected by wortmannin, an inhibitor of the phosphatidyl-inositol 3'-kinase pathway. Phospho-amino acid analysis and tryptic phosphopeptide maps revealed that IL-4 induced phosphorylation of Stat6 on serine and tyrosine residues in Ramos cells and in 32D cells lacking endogenous IRS proteins. However, H7 treatment did not inhibit the phosphorylation of Stat6. Instead, H7 inhibited the IL-4-induced phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II. These results indicate that Stat6-induced transcription is dependent on phosphorylation events mediated by H7-sensitive kinase(s) but that it also involves serine phosphorylation of Stat6 by an H7-insensitive kinase independent of the IRS pathway. (Blood. 2000;95:494-502) PMID:10627454

  3. MytiLec, a Mussel R-Type Lectin, Interacts with Surface Glycan Gb3 on Burkitt’s Lymphoma Cells to Trigger Apoptosis through Multiple Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Sugawara, Shigeki; Fujii, Yuki; Koide, Yasuhiro; Terada, Daiki; Iimura, Naoya; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Keisuke G.; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Rajia, Sultana; Kawsar, Sarkar M. A.; Kanaly, Robert A.; Uchiyama, Hideho; Hosono, Masahiro; Ogawa, Yukiko; Fujita, Hideaki; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsui, Taei; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    MytiLec; a novel lectin isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis); shows strong binding affinity to globotriose (Gb3: Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc). MytiLec revealed β-trefoil folding as also found in the ricin B-subunit type (R-type) lectin family, although the amino acid sequences were quite different. Classification of R-type lectin family members therefore needs to be based on conformation as well as on primary structure. MytiLec specifically killed Burkitt's lymphoma Ramos cells, which express Gb3. Fluorescein-labeling assay revealed that MytiLec was incorporated inside the cells. MytiLec treatment of Ramos cells resulted in activation of both classical MAPK/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-ERK) and stress-activated (p38 kinase and JNK) Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways. In the cells, MytiLec treatment triggered expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (a ligand of death receptor-dependent apoptosis) and activation of mitochondria-controlling caspase-9 (initiator caspase) and caspase-3 (activator caspase). Experiments using the specific MEK inhibitor U0126 showed that MytiLec-induced phosphorylation of the MEK-ERK pathway up-regulated expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, leading to cell cycle arrest and TNF-α production. Activation of caspase-3 by MytiLec appeared to be regulated by multiple different pathways. Our findings, taken together, indicate that the novel R-type lectin MytiLec initiates programmed cell death of Burkitt’s lymphoma cells through multiple pathways (MAPK cascade, death receptor signaling; caspase activation) based on interaction of the lectin with Gb3-containing glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains on the cell surface. PMID:26694420

  4. Klystron beam-bunching lecture

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.

    1996-10-01

    Electron beam current modulation in a klystron is the key phenomenon that accounts for klystron gain and rf power generation. Current modulation results from the beams` interaction with the rf fields in a cavity, and in turn is responsible for driving modulation in the next rf cavity. To understand the impact of the current modulation in a klystron, we have to understand both the mechanism leading to the generation of the current modulation and the interaction of a current-modulated electron beam with an rf cavity. The cavity interaction is subtle, because the fields in the cavity modify the bunching of the beam within the cavity itself (usually very dramatically). We will establish the necessary formalism to understand klystron bunching phenomena which can be used to describe rf accelerator cavity/beam interactions. This formalism is strictly steady-state; no transient behavior will be considered. In particular, we will discuss the following: general description of klystron operation; beam harmonic current; how beam velocity modulation induced by an rf cavity leads to current modulation in both the ballistic and space-charge dominated regimes; use of Ramo`s theorem to define the power transfer between a bunched electron beam and the cavity; general cavity model with external coupling (including an external generator if needed), used to describe the input cavity, idler cavities, and the output cavity, including the definition of beam loaded-cavity impedance. Although all these are conceptually straight-forward, they represent a fair amount of physics, and to derive some elements of the formalism from first principles requires excessive steps. Our approach will be to present a self-consistent set of equations to provide a mechanism that leads to a quantifiable description of klystron behavior; derivations for moderately complex formulas will be outlined, and a relatively complex derivation of the self-consistent set of equations can be found in the Appendix. 6 figs.

  5. Optical properties of Si and Ge nanocrystals: Parameter-free calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, L. E.; Weissker, H.-Ch.; Furthmüller, J.; Bechstedt, F.

    2005-12-01

    The cover picture of the current issue refers to the Edi-tor's Choice article of Ramos et al. [1]. The paper gives an overview of the electronic and optical properties of silicon and germanium nanocrystals determined by state-of-the-art ab initio methods. Nanocrystals have promising applications in opto-electronic devices, since they can be used to confine electrons and holes and facilitate radiative recombination. Since meas-urements for single nanoparticles are difficult to make, ab initio theoretical investigations become important to understand the mechanisms of luminescence.The cover picture shows nanocrystals of four sizes with tetrahedral coordination whose dangling bonds at the surface are passivated with hydrogen. As often observed in experiments, the nanocrystals are not perfectly spherical, but contain facets. Apart from the size of the nanocrystals, which determines the quantum confinement, the way their dangling bonds are passivated is relevant for their electronic and optical properties. For instance, the passivation with hydroxyls reduces the quantum confine-ment. On the other hand, the oxidation of the silicon nanocrys-tals increases the quantum confinement and reduces the effect of single surface terminations on the gap. Due to the oscillator strengths of the lowest-energy optical transitions, Ge nanocrys-tals are in principle more suitable for opto-electronic applica-tions than Si nanocrystals.The first author, Luis E. Ramos, is a postdoc at the Institute of Solid-State Physics and Optics (IFTO), Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Germany. He investigates electronic and optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystallites and is a member of the European Network of Excellence NANO-QUANTA and of the European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF).

  6. Soil porosity correlation and its influence in percolation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Alfredo; Capa-Morocho, Mirian; Ruis-Ramos, Margarita; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2016-04-01

    The prediction of percolation in natural soils is relevant for modeling root growth and optimizing infiltration of water and nutrients. Also, it would improve our understanding on how pollutants as pesticides, and virus and bacteria (Darnault et al., 2003) reach significant depths without being filtered out by the soil matrix (Beven and Germann, 2013). Random walk algorithms have been used successfully to date to characterize the dynamical characteristics of disordered media. This approach has been used here to describe how soil at different bulk densities and with different threshold values applied to the 3D gray images influences the structure of the pore network and their implications on particle flow and distribution (Ruiz-Ramos et al., 2009). In order to do so first we applied several threshold values to each image analyzed and characterized them through Hurst exponents, then we computed random walks algorithms to calculate distances reached by the particles and speed of those particles. At the same time, 3D structures with a Hurst exponent of ca 0.5 and with different porosities were constructed and the same random walks simulations were replicated over these generated structures. We have found a relationship between Hurst exponents and the speed distribution of the particles reaching percolation of the total soil depth. REFERENCES Darnault, C.J. G., P. Garnier, Y.J. Kim, K.L. Oveson, T.S. Steenhuis, J.Y. Parlange, M. Jenkins, W.C. Ghiorse, and P. Baveye (2003), Preferential transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in variably saturated subsurface environments, Water Environ. Res., 75, 113-120. Beven, Keith and Germann, Peter. 2013. Macropores and water flow in soils revisited. Water Resources Research, 49(6), 3071-3092. DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20156. Ruiz-Ramos, M., D. del Valle, D. Grinev, and A.M. Tarquis. 2009. Soil hydraulic behaviour at different bulk densities. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 11, EGU2009-6234.

  7. Multi-Parameter Cell Affinity Chromatography: Separation and Analysis in a Single Microfluidic Channel

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Gao, Yan; Pappas, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    The ability to sort and capture more than one cell type from a complex sample will enable a wide variety of studies of cell proliferation, death, and the analysis of disease states. In this work, we integrated a pneumatic actuated control layer to an affinity separation layer to create different antibody coating regions on the same fluidic channel. The comparison of different antibody capture capabilities to the same cell line was demonstrated by flowing Ramos cells through anti-CD19 and anti-CD71 coated regions in the same channel, respectively. It was determined that cell capture density on anti-CD19 region was 2.44±0.13 times higher than on anti-CD71 coated region. This approach can be used to test different affinity molecules for selectivity and capture efficiency using a single cell line in one separation. Selective capture of Ramos and HuT 78 cells from a mixture was also demonstrated using two antibody regions in the same channel. Greater than 90% purity was obtained on both capture areas in both continuous flow and stop flow separation modes. A four-region antibody coated device was then fabricated to study the simultaneous, serial capture of three different cell lines. In this case the device showed effective capture of cells in a single separation channel, opening up the possibility of multiple cell sorting. Multi-parameter sequential blood sample analysis was also demonstrated with high capture specificity (>97% for both CD19+ and CD4+ leukocytes). The chip can also be used to selectively treat cells after affinity separation. PMID:22958145

  8. Science policy for the '80s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Science policy (if it ever was a policy) usually was to support ill-defined or ‘basic’ research in science; the ‘policy’ was embodied in the hope that supported research would someday pay off in the form of improved technology. One of the fathers of this policy during the post-WW-II period was Simon Ramo, a founding member of the National Academy of Engineering, chief scientist of United States ICBM defense operation, founder of the TRW Corporation, and now a member of President Reagan's science and technology task force. Simon Ramo represents an influential group dedicated to a ‘systems analysis’ approach to forecasting technological progress, and as such the ‘systems’ approach emerges as a central theme for science policy in the 1980s.The new shift in national policy introduced by the Reagan administration includes revisions in science policy that have recently been termed as ‘searching examination’ (Chemical & Engineering News, Feb. 23, 1981, p. 22), ‘Unkind cuts’ (New Scientist, Feb. 12, 1981), and ‘The Spectrum from Truth to Power’ (Science, Technology, and National Policy, edited by T. Kuehn and A. Porter, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 1981). The idea now is to speed the conversion of scientific discovery into technology in an orderly way. As never before, there are growing debates over the roles of science in society, its lines of support, its applications. More than ever, social scientists, economists, and philosophical types are trying their hand at influencing science policy in very different ways than scientists themselves, as Vannevar Bush did 30 years ago.

  9. Modeling adenovirus latency in human lymphocyte cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yange; Huang, Wen; Ornelles, David A; Gooding, Linda R

    2010-09-01

    Species C adenovirus establishes a latent infection in lymphocytes of the tonsils and adenoids. To understand how this lytic virus is maintained in these cells, four human lymphocytic cell lines that support the entire virus life cycle were examined. The T-cell line Jurkat ceased proliferation and died shortly after virus infection. BJAB, Ramos (B cells), and KE37 (T cells) continued to divide at nearly normal rates while replicating the virus genome. Viral genome numbers peaked and then declined in BJAB cells below one genome per cell at 130 to 150 days postinfection. Ramos and KE37 cells maintained the virus genome at over 100 copies per cell over a comparable period of time. BJAB cells maintained the viral DNA as a monomeric episome. All three persistently infected cells lost expression of the cell surface coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) within 24 h postinfection, and CAR expression remained low for at least 340 days postinfection. CAR loss proceeded via a two-stage process. First, an initial loss of cell surface staining for CAR required virus late gene expression and a CAR-binding fiber protein even while CAR protein and mRNA levels remained high. Second, CAR mRNA disappeared at around 30 days postinfection and remained low even after virus DNA was lost from the cells. At late times postinfection (day 180), BJAB cells could not be reinfected with adenovirus, even when CAR was reintroduced to the cells via retroviral transduction, suggesting that the expression of multiple genes had been stably altered in these cells following infection. PMID:20573817

  10. Understanding ethnic/racial health disparities in youth and families in the US.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J; Carranza, Miguel A; Martinez, Miriam M

    2011-01-01

    To summarize, ethnic and social class disparities are evident across a spectrum of markers of psychological, behavioral, and physical health. Furthermore, the pattern is often complex such that disparities are sometimes found within ethnic/racial groups as well as across those groups. Indeed, it is likely that the causes of health disparities may be different across specific subgroups. Moreover, theoretical models are needed that examine biological, contextual, and person-level variables (including culture-specific variables) to account for health disparities. The scholars in the present volume provide exemplary research that moves us towards more comprehensive and integrative models of health disparities. A brief glance at the work summarized by these scholars yields some common elements of focus for future researchers regarding risk (e.g., poverty, lack of contextual diversity) and protective (e.g., family support, cultural identity) factors yet they also identify aspects (e.g., genetic vulnerabilities) that may be unique to specific ethnic/racial groups. In addition to employing more integrative and culturally sensitive models of health disparities, future research studies could expand the scope of investigation to include transnational studies of health disparities and the processes contributing to them. They might also consider culture-specific health problems and syndromes such as "nervios" in Latino cultures. Within nations, further attention might be directed to the community contexts in which ethnic minority and low SES families reside, not only urban areas but the much less studied rural areas. Finally, efforts to assess health disparities and the factors contributing to them across cultural and ethnic groups need to attend closely to the issue of measurement equivalence in order to ensure valid cross-group comparisons. We would add that future research on health disparities will need to examine markers of positive health outcomes and well being (e

  11. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  12. Mesozoic transtensional basin history of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombian Andes: Inferences from tectonic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento-Rojas, L. F.; Van Wess, J. D.; Cloetingh, S.

    2006-09-01

    factors >1.4) and maximum stretching of the subcrustal lithosphere. During the Aptian-early Albian, the basin extended toward the south in the Upper Magdalena Valley. Differences between crustal and subcrustal stretching values suggest some lowermost crustal decoupling between the crust and subcrustal lithosphere or that increased thermal thinning affected the mantle lithosphere. Late Cretaceous subsidence was mainly driven by lithospheric cooling, water loading, and horizontal compressional stresses generated by collision of oceanic terranes in western Colombia. Triassic transtensional basins were narrow and increased in width during the Triassic and Jurassic. Cretaceous transtensional basins were wider than Triassic-Jurassic basins. During the Mesozoic, the strike-slip component gradually decreased at the expense of the increase of the extensional component, as suggested by paleomagnetic data and lithosphere stretching values. During the Berriasian-Hauterivian, the eastern side of the extensional basin may have developed by reactivation of an older Paleozoic rift system associated with the Guaicáramo fault system. The western side probably developed through reactivation of an earlier normal fault system developed during Triassic-Jurassic transtension. Alternatively, the eastern and western margins of the graben may have developed along older strike-slip faults, which were the boundaries of the accretion of terranes west of the Guaicáramo fault during the Late Triassic and Jurassic. The increasing width of the graben system likely was the result of progressive tensional reactivation of preexisting upper crustal weakness zones. Lateral changes in Mesozoic sediment thickness suggest the reverse or thrust faults that now define the eastern and western borders of the EC were originally normal faults with a strike-slip component that inverted during the Cenozoic Andean orogeny. Thus, the Guaicáramo, La Salina, Bitúima, Magdalena, and Boyacá originally were transtensional

  13. Spatial variability of the active layer thickness at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica) and the role of snow cover.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, Miguel A.; Molina, Antonio; Ramos, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    research also required developing a qualitative grain-size analyses and geomorphological cartography of the ground at the CALM-S site. Here we show the first results of our analyses and how some factors correlate by the spatial evolution of the thaw depth in the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site. de Pablo, M.A., Blanco, J.J., Molina, A., Ramos, M., Quesada, A., and Vieira, G. 2013. Interannual active layer variability at the Limnopolar Lake CALM site on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 25(2). 167-180. de Pablo, M.A., Ramos, M., and Molina, A. 2014. Thermal characterization of the active layer at the Limnopolar lake CALM site on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island), Antarctica. Solid Earth, 5. 721-739. de Pablo, M.A., Ramos, M., and Molina, A. 2016. Snow cover evolution at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica, 2009-2014. Catena. Submitted. Lewkowicz, A. G. 2008. Evaluation of miniature temperature-loggers to monitor snowpack evolution at mountain permafrost sites, northwestern Canada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 19. 323-331.

  14. Quantifying the effect of Tmax extreme events on local adaptation to climate change of maize crop in Andalusia for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabaldon, Clara; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Ines Minguez, M.; Lizaso, Jon; Dosio, Alessandro; Sanchez, Enrique; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Extreme events of Tmax can threaten maize production on Andalusia (Ruiz-Ramos et al., 2011). The objective of this work is to attempt a quantification of the effects of Tmax extreme events on the previously identified (Gabaldón et al., 2013) local adaptation strategies to climate change of irrigated maize crop in Andalusia for the first half of the 21st century. This study is focused on five Andalusia locations. Local adaptation strategies identified consisted on combinations of changes on sowing dates and choice of cultivar (Gabaldón et al., 2013). Modified cultivar features were the duration of phenological phases and the grain filling rate. The phenological and yield simulations with the adaptative changes were obtained from a modelling chain: current simulated climate and future climate scenarios (2013-2050) were taken from a group of regional climate models at high resolution (25 km) from the European Project ENSEMBLES (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). After bias correcting these data for temperature and precipitation (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012) crop simulations were generated by the CERES-maize model (Jones and Kiniry, 1986) under DSSAT platform, previously calibrated and validated. Quantification of the effects of extreme Tmax on maize yield was computed for different phenological stages following Teixeira et al. (2013). A heat stress index was computed; this index assumes that yield-damage intensity due to heat stress increases linearly from 0.0 at a critical temperature to a maximum of 1.0 at a limit temperature. The decrease of crop yield is then computed by a normalized production damage index which combines attainable yield and heat stress index for each location. Selection of the most suitable adaptation strategy will be reviewed and discussed in light of the quantified effect on crop yield of the projected change of Tmax extreme events. This study will contribute to MACSUR knowledge Hub within the Joint Programming Initiative on

  15. Carbon stabilization mechanisms in Ecuadorian Andosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Boris; Tonneijck, Femke; Nierop, Klaas; Verstraten, Koos

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic ash soils contain very large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) per unit area. Consequently, they constitute potential sources or sinks of the greenhouse gas CO2. Whether soils become a net carbon source or sink upon climate and/or land-use change depends on the stability of SOM against decomposition, which is influenced by stabilisation mechanisms in the soil. To clarify the role of chemical and physical carbon stabilisation mechanisms in volcanic ash soils, we applied selective extraction techniques, performed X-ray diffraction analyses of the clay fraction and estimated pore size distributions at various depths in the top- and subsoil along an altitudinal transect in the Ecuadorian Andes. The transect encompassed a sequence of paleosols under natural upper montane forest as well as grassland (páramo). From several soils SOM was further characterized at a molecular level using GC/MS analyses of extractable lipids and Pyrolysis-GC/MS analyses of bulk organic matter. Our results show that organic carbon stocks under forest as well as páramo vegetation roughly doubled global averages for volcanic ash soils. The carbon stabilization mechanisms involved are: i) direct stabilization of SOM in organo-metallic (Al-OM) complexes; ii) indirect protection of SOM through low soil pH and toxic levels of Al; and iii) physical protection of SOM due to a very high microporosity. When examining the organic carbon at a molecular level, interestingly we found extensive degradation of lignin while extractable lipids were preferentially preserved, hinting at fungal degradation in the face of inhibited bacterial decomposition. Both vegetation types contributed to soil acidification, thus increasing SOM accumulation and inducing positive feedbacks. Most types of land-use change will result in immediate and substantial carbon loss to the atmosphere. Our results stress the urgent need to protect the Tropical Andes 'hotspot' from destructive land-use change, not only for the

  16. BcR-induced apoptosis involves differential regulation of C16 and C24-ceramide formation and sphingolipid-dependent activation of the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Jacobs, Susan; Pettus, Benjamin J; Sietsma, Hannie; Kok, Jan Willem; Hannun, Yusuf A; de Leij, Lou F M H

    2003-04-25

    In this study, we describe an ordered formation of long- and very long-chain ceramide species in relation to the progression of B-cell receptor (BcR) triggering induced apoptosis. An early and caspase-independent increase in long-chain ceramide species, in which C(16)- ceramide predominated, was observed 6 h after BcR triggering. In contrast, very long-chain ceramide species were generated later, 12-24 h after BcR triggering. The formation of these very long-chain ceramide species, in which C(24)-ceramide predominated, required the activation of effector caspases. BcR-induced formation of long-chain ceramide species resulted in proteasomal activation and degradation of XIAP and subsequent activation of effector caspases, demonstrating an important cell-biological mechanism through which long-chain ceramides may be involved in the progression of BcR triggering induced apoptosis and subsequent formation of very long-chain ceramide species. BcR-induced activation of the proteasome was blocked with ISP-1/myriocin, a potent and selective inhibitor of serine palmitoyl transferase that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the de novo formation of ceramide. Both ISP-1 and clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone, an irreversible inhibitor of the proteasome, prevented BcR cross-linking-induced XIAP degradation. Also, a mutant XIAP lacking the ubiquitin-ligating ring finger motif was completely resistant to proteasome-mediated degradation, and Ramos cells overexpressing XIAP became highly resistant to BcR cross-linking-induced activation of caspases. The formation of C(16)-ceramide in response to BcR cross-linking was found unaltered in XIAP overexpressing Ramos cells, whereas C(24)-ceramide formation was completely abolished. These results demonstrate how de novo generated long-chain ceramide species may be involved in the activation of downstream effector caspases and subsequent formation of very long-chain ceramide species. As such, these results provide novel and

  17. Combining Traditional Hydrometric Data, Isotope Tracers and Biophysical Landscape Characteristics to Improve the Understanding of Landscape Hydrology in the Humid Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, G.; Lazo, P.; Célleri, R.; Wilcox, B. P.; Breuer, L.; Windhorst, D.; Crespo, P.

    2014-12-01

    Only few catchments in the Andean mountain range are currently monitored. Most basins in the region remain ungauged, and as a result, little knowledge is available on the processes governing their hydrological behavior. In particular, despite the importance of tropical alpine grasslands of the northern Andes (commonly known as the páramo) as providers of abundant high-quality water for downstream populations as well as a variety of other environmental services, very little is known about their hydrologic functioning. To improve this situation, an analysis of 1) the isotopic signature of oxygen-18, and 2) the relations between various landscape attributes and hydrologic behavior in the Zhurucay River experimental catchment (7.53 km2) was conducted. The catchment is located in southern Ecuador between 3200 and 3900 m a.s.l. The isotopic analysis was conducted in water samples collected in rainfall, streamflow, and soils. The influence of soil type, vegetation cover, catchment area, geology, and topography on runoff coefficient, and streamflow rates was investigated using linear regression analysis. Results reveal that water yield accounts for a high percentage of the water budget; runoff coefficient, and high and moderate streamflow rates are highly correlated with the extent of Histosols soils (Andean páramo wetlands), and increase with catchment size; and low streamflow rates are highly correlated with steep slopes. Results from the tracer analysis show that pre-event water stored in the Histosols is the primary source of runoff generation, demonstrating hydrologic connectivity between the Histosols (mainly located at the bottom of the valley) and the drainage network; while the most common soils, the Andosols (mainly located on the steep slopes), laterally drain the infiltrated rainfall recharging the lower situated Histosols. Overall, these findings depict that the combination of different methodologies for investigating hydrological processes at catchment

  18. Combined use of isotopic and hydrometric data to conceptualize ecohydrological processes in a high-elevation tropical ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosquera, Giovanny M; Celleri, Rolando; Lazo, Patricio X; Vache, Kellie B; Perakis, Steven; Crespo, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Few high-elevation tropical catchments worldwide are gauged and even fewer are studied using combined hydrometric and isotopic data. Consequently, we lack information needed to understand processes governing rainfall-runoff dynamics and to predict their influence on downstream ecosystem functioning. To address this need, we present a combination of hydrometric and water stable isotopic observations in the wet Andean páramo ecosystem of the Zhurucay Ecohydrological Observatory (7.53 km2). The catchment is located in the Andes of south Ecuador between 3400 and 3900 m a.s.l. Water samples for stable isotopic analysis were collected during 2 years (May 2011 – May 2013), while rainfall and runoff measurements were continuously recorded since late 2010. The isotopic data reveal that Andosol soils predominantly situated on hillslopes drain laterally to Histosols (Andean páramo wetlands) mainly located at the valley bottom. Histosols, in turn, feed water to creeks and small rivers throughout the year, establishing hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and the drainage network. Runoff is primarily comprised of pre-event water stored in the Histosols, which is replenished by rainfall that infiltrates through the Andosols. Contributions from the mineral horizon and the top of the fractured bedrock are small and only seem to influence discharge in small catchments during low flow generation (non-exceedance flows < Q35). Variations in source contributions are controlled by antecedent soil moisture, rainfall intensity, and duration of rainy periods. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils, higher than the year-round low precipitation intensity, indicates that Hortonian overland flow rarely occurs during high intensity precipitation events. Deep groundwater contributions to discharge seem to be minimal. These results suggest that, in this high-elevation tropical ecosystem: 1) subsurface flow is a dominant hydrological process and 2) (Histosols) wetlands are the major

  19. Comparative efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Booth, Garrett C.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Lin, Yukang; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Pagel, John M.; et al

    2015-03-18

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targetingmore » either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibodystreptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTAbiotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0% cured with 177Lu-PRIT. Toxicities were comparable with both isotopes. Conclusion 90Y was therapeutically superior to 177Lu for streptavidin-biotin PRIT

  20. Comparative efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Booth, Garrett C.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Lin, Yukang; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Pagel, John M.; Bäck, Tom A.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Press, Oliver W.; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-03-18

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibodystreptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTAbiotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0

  1. Palynological signal of the Younger Dryas in the tropical Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Valentí; Stansell, Nathan D.; Montoya, Encarni; Bezada, Maximiliano; Abbott, Mark B.

    2010-11-01

    The occurrence, or not, of the Younger Dryas cold reversal in the tropical Andes remains a controversial topic. This study reports a clear signal for this event in the Venezuelan Andes, employing high-resolution palynological analysis of a well-dated sediment core from Laguna de Los Anteojos, situated around 3900 m elevation, within grass páramo vegetation. The lake is surrounded by some Polylepis forests which are close to their upper distribution limit. The section of the core discussed here is 150-cm long and dated between about 14.68 and 9.35 cal kyr BP, using a polynomial age-depth model based on six AMS radiocarbon dates. Between 12.86 and 11.65 cal kyr BP, an abrupt shift occurred in the pollen assemblage, manifested by a decline of Podocarpus, Polylepis and Huperzia, combined with an increase in Poaceae and Asteraceae. The aquatic pteridophyte Isoëtes also decreased and disappeard, and the algae remains show their minimum values. Pollen assemblages from the Younger Dryas interval show maximum dissimilarity values compared with today's pollen assemblage, and are more similar to modern analogs from superpáramo vegetation, growing at elevations 400-500 m higher. A lowering of vegetation zones of this magnitude corresponds to a temperature decline of between 2.5 and 3.8 °C. During this colder interval lake levels may have been lower, suggesting a decrease in available moisture. The vegetation shift documented in Anteojos record between 12.86 and 11.65 cal kyr BP is comparable to the El Abra Stadial in the Colombian Andes but it differs in magnitude. The Anteojos shift is better dated and coincides with the Younger Dryas chron as recorded in the Cariaco Basin sea surface temperature reconstructions and records of continental runoff, as well as in the oxygen isotope measurements from the Greenland ice cores. When compared to other proxies of quasi-immediate response to climate, the time lag for the response of vegetation to climate is found to be negligible

  2. Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peralvo, M.F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is

  3. Probabilistic forecasting of extreme weather events based on extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Vyver, Hans; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme events in weather and climate such as high wind gusts, heavy precipitation or extreme temperatures are commonly associated with high impacts on both environment and society. Forecasting extreme weather events is difficult, and very high-resolution models are needed to describe explicitly extreme weather phenomena. A prediction system for such events should therefore preferably be probabilistic in nature. Probabilistic forecasts and state estimations are nowadays common in the numerical weather prediction community. In this work, we develop a new probabilistic framework based on extreme value theory that aims to provide early warnings up to several days in advance. We consider the combined events when an observation variable Y (for instance wind speed) exceeds a high threshold y and its corresponding deterministic forecasts X also exceeds a high forecast threshold y. More specifically two problems are addressed:} We consider pairs (X,Y) of extreme events where X represents a deterministic forecast, and Y the observation variable (for instance wind speed). More specifically two problems are addressed: Given a high forecast X=x_0, what is the probability that Y>y? In other words: provide inference on the conditional probability: [ Pr{Y>y|X=x_0}. ] Given a probabilistic model for Problem 1, what is the impact on the verification analysis of extreme events. These problems can be solved with bivariate extremes (Coles, 2001), and the verification analysis in (Ferro, 2007). We apply the Ramos and Ledford (2009) parametric model for bivariate tail estimation of the pair (X,Y). The model accommodates different types of extremal dependence and asymmetry within a parsimonious representation. Results are presented using the ensemble reforecast system of the European Centre of Weather Forecasts (Hagedorn, 2008). Coles, S. (2001) An Introduction to Statistical modelling of Extreme Values. Springer-Verlag.Ferro, C.A.T. (2007) A probability model for verifying deterministic

  4. Comparative Efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Booth, Garrett C.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Lin, Yukang; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Pagel, John M.; Bäck, Tom A.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Press, Oliver W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibody-streptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTA-biotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0% cured with 177Lu-PRIT. Toxicities were comparable with both isotopes. Conclusion 90Y was therapeutically superior to 177Lu for streptavidin-biotin PRIT approaches in

  5. Pulsed current signals in capacitor type particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of pulsed current signals in capacitor type sensors, due to drifting surface charge domain is considered for the analysis of the operational characteristics in photo- and particle-detectors. In this article, the models of the formation of the pulsed currents have been analyzed in vacuum and dielectric filled capacitor-like detectors. Injected charge drift regimes such as Shockley-Ramo's-type (large charge drift) and free flight within Coulomb's force field (small charge drift) are discussed. It has been shown that solutions of the injected charge drift in the vacuum gap capacitor can be employed to emulate charge drift over free path in dynamic solution of the problem with scattering. Pulsed current signals and charge drift in the detectors of the capacitor filled with dielectric type have been analyzed, where the bipolar charge injection and various drift regimes appear. The bipolar carrier drift transformation to a monopolar one is considered, after either electrons or holes, injected within the material, reach the external electrode. The impact of the dynamic capacitance and load resistance in the formation of drift current transients is highlighted. It has been illustrated that the synchronous action of carrier drift, trapping, generation and diffusion can lead to a vast variety of possible current pulse waveforms.

  6. Initiation points for cellular deoxyribonucleic acid replication in human lymphoid cells converted by Epstein-Barr virus

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheim, A.; Shlomai, Z.; Ben-Bassat, H.

    1981-08-01

    Replicon size was estimated in two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative human lymphoma lines, BJAB and Ramos, and four EBV-positive lines derived from the former ones by infection (conversion) with two viral strains, B95-8 and P3HR-1. Logarithmic cultures were pulse-labeled with (/sup -3/H)thymidine, and the deoxyribonucleic acid was spread on microscopic slides and autoradiographed by the method of Huberman and Riggs. Three of the four EBV-converted cell lines, BJAB/B95-8, Ra/B95-8, and Ra/HRIK, were found to have significantly shorter replicons (41, 21, 54% shorter, respectively), i.e., more initiation points, than their EBV-negative parents. BJAB/HRIK had replicons which were only slightly shorter (11%) than those of BJAB. However, analysis of track length demonstrated that extensive track fusion occurred during the labeling of BJAB/HRIK, implying that its true average replicon size is shorter than the observed value. The results indicate that in analogy to simian virus 40, EBV activates new initiation points for cellular DNA replication in EBV-transformed cells.

  7. Identification of neural stem cell differentiation repressor complex Pnky-PTBP1

    PubMed Central

    Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Splicing increases immensely the complexity of gene products expressed in the cell. The precise regulation of splicing is critical for the development, homeostasis, and function of all tissues in the body, including those comprising the neural system. Ramos et al. recently identified Pnky as a long noncoding RNA expressed selectively in neural tissues that was implicated in the transition of neural stem cells (NSCs) to mature neurons. Pnky actions appeared to be mediated by its interaction with the splicing factor and RNA-binding protein (RBP) polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTBP1), as silencing either Pnky or PTBP1 modulated in similar ways the patterns of spliced and expressed mRNAs in the cell. Strikingly, lowering the expression levels of Pnky or PTBP1 in NSCs actually enhanced neurogenesis, suggesting that the Pnky-PTBP1 complex elicited a splicing program of suppression of neurogenesis. With rapid progress in the design and delivery of RNA-based therapies, interventions to reduce Pnky levels may prove beneficial towards enhancing neurogenesis in disease states characterized by aberrant neuronal loss. PMID:27358902

  8. A characterisation of electronic properties of alkaline texturized polycrystalline silicon solar cells using IBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, A. M.; Spemann, D.; Thies, R.; Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, electronic properties of p-type alkaline texturized polycrystalline silicon solar cells were investigated using ion beam induced charge (IBIC) analysis. With this technique, quantitative information on electronic diffusion lengths and average electronic capture cross sections of lattice defects generated by high energy protons were obtained. Angular-resolved IBIC analysis was used to quantify the electronic diffusion lengths. For this purpose, the experimental data were fitted using a simulation based on the Ramo-Shockley-Gunn (RSG) theorem and the assumption of an abrupt pn-junction. In order to determine the average electronic capture cross section of proton-induced lattice defects, the loss of charge collection efficiency (CCE) was plotted vs. the accumulated ion fluence. As will be demonstrated, a simple model based on charge carrier diffusion and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination is able to fit the CCE loss well. Furthermore, spatially and energetically highly resolved IBIC-maps of grain boundaries were recorded. A comparison with PIXE-maps shows that there is no correlation observable between CCE variations at grain boundaries and metallic impurities within the PIXE detection limits of a few ppm. On the contrary, there is an evident correlation to the morphology of the sample's surface as was observed by comparing IBIC-maps and SEM-micrographs. These local CCE fluctuations are dominated by the interplay of charge carrier diffusion processes and the sample surface morphology.

  9. APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation.

  10. Flash microwave synthesis of trevorite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bousquet-Berthelin, C. Chaumont, D.; Stuerga, D.

    2008-03-15

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles have several possible applications as cathode materials for rechargeable batteries, named 'lithium-ion' batteries. In this study, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by microwave induced thermohydrolysis. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). All the results show that the microwave one-step flash synthesis leads in a very short time to NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with elementary particles size close to 4-5 nm, and high specific surfaces (close to 240 m{sup 2}/g). Thus, microwave heating appears as an efficient source of energy to produce quickly nanoparticles with complex composition as ferrite. - Graphical abstract: At the end of the 20th century, a new concept of battery was introduced, named 'Li ion', where electrodes are both lithium-storage materials. Compounds with a spinel structure are so investigated and microwave heating appears as an efficient source of energy to produce nanoparticles in a very short time and at low temperature, with controlled size (4-5 nm) and high specific area (240 m{sup 2}/g). Legend: Pictogram represents our original microwave reactor, the RAMO (French acronym of Reacteur Autoclave Micro-Onde), containing the reactants and submitted to the microwave irradiation. Multicolor candy represents obtained material.

  11. Selective Delivery of PEGylated Compounds to Tumor Cells by Anti-PEG Hybrid Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tung, Hsin-Yi; Su, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Bing-Mae; Burnouf, Pierre-Alain; Huang, Wei-Chiao; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Yan, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Roffler, Steve R

    2015-06-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is attached to many peptides, proteins, liposomes, and nanoparticles to reduce their immunogenicity and improve their pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties. Here, we describe hybrid antibodies that can selectively deliver PEGylated medicines, imaging agents, or nanomedicines to target cells. Human IgG1 hybrid antibodies αPEG:αHER2 and αPEG:αCD19 were shown by ELISA, FACS, and plasmon resonance to bind to both PEG and HER2 receptors on SK-BR-3 breast adenocarcinoma and BT-474 breast ductal carcinoma cells or CD19 receptors on Ramos and Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. In addition, αPEG:αHER2 specifically targeted PEGylated proteins, liposomes, and nanoparticles to SK-BR-3 cells that overexpressed HER2, but not to HER2-negative MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. Endocytosis of PEGylated nanoparticles into SK-BR-3 cells was induced specifically by the αPEG:αHER2 hybrid antibody, as observed by confocal imaging of the accumulation of Qdots inside SK-BR-3 cells. Treatment of HER2(+) SK-BR-3 and BT-474 cancer cells with αPEG:αHER2 and the clinically used chemotherapeutic agent PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin for 3 hours enhanced the in vitro effectiveness of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin by over two orders of magnitude. Hybrid anti-PEG antibodies offer a versatile and simple method to deliver PEGylated compounds to cellular locations and can potentially enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PEGylated medicines. PMID:25852063

  12. Prodigiosin from the supernatant of Serratia marcescens induces apoptosis in haematopoietic cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Montaner, Beatriz; Navarro, Sira; Piqué, Maria; Vilaseca, Marta; Martinell, Marc; Giralt, Ernest; Gil, Joan; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo

    2000-01-01

    The effects of supernatant from the bacterial strain Serratia marcescens 2170 (CS-2170) on the viability of different haematopoietic cancer cell lines (Jurkat, NSO, HL-60 and Ramos) and nonmalignant cells (NIH-3T3 and MDCK) was studied. We examined whether this cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, and we purified the molecule responsible for this effect and determined its chemical structure.Using an MTT assay we showed a rapid (4 h) decrease in the number of viable cells. This cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, according to the fragmentation pattern of DNA, Hoechst 33342 staining and FACS analysis of the phosphatidylserine externalization. This apoptosis was blocked by using the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, indicating the involvement of caspases.Prodigiosin is a red pigment produced by various bacteria including S. marcescens. Using mutants of S. marcescens (OF, WF and 933) that do not synthesize prodigiosin, we further showed that prodigiosin is involved in this apoptosis. This evidence was corroborated by spectroscopic analysis of prodigiosin isolated from S. marcescens.These results indicate that prodigiosin, an immunosuppressor, induces apoptosis in haematopoietic cancer cells with no marked toxicity in nonmalignant cells, raising the possibility of its therapeutic use as an antineoplastic drug. PMID:11015311

  13. Structural analysis of the activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase required in immunoglobulin diversification.

    PubMed

    Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A; Shimoda, Mayuko; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Pedersen, Lars C; Goodman, Myron F

    2016-07-01

    Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) by deaminating C→U during transcription of Ig-variable (V) and Ig-switch (S) region DNA, which is essential to produce high-affinity antibodies. Here we report the crystal structure of a soluble human AID variant at 2.8Å resolution that favors targeting WRC motifs (W=A/T, R=A/G) in vitro, and executes Ig V SHM in Ramos B-cells. A specificity loop extending away from the active site to accommodate two purine bases next to C, differs significantly in sequence, length, and conformation from APOBEC proteins Apo3A and Apo3G, which strongly favor pyrimidines at -1 and -2 positions. Individual amino acid contributions to specificity and processivity were measured in relation to a proposed ssDNA binding cleft. This study provides a structural basis for residue contributions to DNA scanning properties unique to AID, and for disease mutations in human HIGM-2 syndrome. PMID:27258794

  14. Microbial and Functional Diversity within the Phyllosphere of Espeletia Species in an Andean High-Mountain Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Microbial populations residing in close contact with plants can be found in the rhizosphere, in the phyllosphere as epiphytes on the surface, or inside plants as endophytes. Here, we analyzed the microbiota associated with Espeletia plants, endemic to the Páramo environment of the Andes Mountains and a unique model for studying microbial populations and their adaptations to the adverse conditions of high-mountain neotropical ecosystems. Communities were analyzed using samples from the rhizosphere, necromass, and young and mature leaves, the last two analyzed separately as endophytes and epiphytes. The taxonomic composition determined by performing sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene indicated differences among populations of the leaf phyllosphere, the necromass, and the rhizosphere, with predominance of some phyla but only few shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Functional profiles predicted on the basis of taxonomic affiliations differed from those obtained by GeoChip microarray analysis, which separated community functional capacities based on plant microenvironment. The identified metabolic pathways provided insight regarding microbial strategies for colonization and survival in these ecosystems. This study of novel plant phyllosphere microbiomes and their putative functional ecology is also the first step for future bioprospecting studies in search of enzymes, compounds, or microorganisms relevant to industry or for remediation efforts. PMID:26746719

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in Lycopodiaceae.

    PubMed

    Winther, Jennifer L; Friedman, William E

    2008-01-01

    This study characterizes the molecular and phylogenetic identity of fungi involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations in extant Huperzia and Lycopodium (Lycopodiaceae). Huperzia and Lycopodium are characterized by a life cycle with long-lived autotrophic sporophytes and long-lived mycoheterotrophic (obtain all organic carbon from fungal symbionts) gametophytes. 18S ribosomal DNA was isolated and sequenced from Glomus symbionts in autotrophic sporophytes of seven species of Huperzia and Lycopodium and mycoheterotrophic Huperzia gametophytes collected from the Páramos of Ecuador. Phylogenetic analyses recovered four Glomus A phylotypes in a single clade (MH3) that form AM associations with Huperzia and Lycopodium. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of Glomus symbionts from other nonphotosynthetic plants demonstrate that most AM fungi that form mycoheterotrophic associations belong to at least four specific clades of Glomus A. These results suggest that most mycoheterotrophic plants that form AM associations do so with restricted clades of Glomus A. Moreover, the correspondence of identity of AM symbionts in Huperzia sporophytes and gametophytes raises the possibility that photosynthetic sporophytes are a source of carbon to conspecific mycoheterotrophic gametophytes via shared fungal networks. PMID:17971070

  16. Environmental change in moorland landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J.; Shotbolt, L.; Bonn, A.; Burt, T. P.; Chapman, P. J.; Dougill, A. J.; Fraser, E. D. G.; Hubacek, K.; Irvine, B.; Kirkby, M. J.; Reed, M. S.; Prell, C.; Stagl, S.; Stringer, L. C.; Turner, A.; Worrall, F.

    2007-05-01

    Moorlands are unique environments found in uplands of the temperate zone including in the UK, New Zealand and Ireland, and in some high altitude tropical zones such as the Andean páramos. Many have been managed through grazing, burning or drainage practices. However, there are a number of other environmental and social factors that are likely to drive changes in management practice over the next few decades. Some moorlands have been severely degraded and in some countries conservation and restoration schemes are being attempted, particularly to revegetate bare soils. Native or non-native woodland planting may increase in some moorland environments while atmospheric deposition of many pollutants may also vary. Moorland environments are very sensitive to changes in management, climate or pollution. This paper reviews how environmental management change, such as changes in grazing or burning practices, may impact upon moorland processes based on existing scientific understanding. It also reviews the impacts of changes in climate and atmospheric deposition chemistry. The paper focuses on the UK moorlands as a case study of moorland landscapes that are in different states of degradation. Future research that is required to improve our understanding of moorland processes is outlined. The paper shows that there is a need for more holistic and spatial approaches to understanding moorland processes and management. There is also a need to develop approaches that combine understanding of interlinked social and natural processes.

  17. Growth rates, reproductive phenology, and pollination ecology of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae), a giant Andean caulescent rosette.

    PubMed

    Fagua, J C; Gonzalez, V H

    2007-01-01

    From March 2001 to December 2002, we studied the reproductive phenology, pollination ecology, and growth rates of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. and Bonpl. (Asteraceae), a giant caulescent rosette from the Páramos of the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Espeletia grandiflora was found to be predominantly allogamous and strongly self-incompatible. Bumblebees (Bombus rubicundus and B. funebris) were the major pollinators of E. grandiflora, although moths, hummingbirds, flies, and beetles also visited flowers. Inflorescence development began in March and continued through August to September. Plants flowered for 30 - 96 days with a peak from the beginning of October through November. The percentage of flowering plants strongly differed among size classes and between both years. Seed dispersal occurred as early as September through May of the following year. The average absolute growth rate for juveniles and adults rate was 7.6 cm/year. Given the scarcity of floral visitors at high altitudes due to climatic conditions, we suggest that even small contributions from a wide range of pollinators might be advantageous for pollination of E. grandiflora. Long-term studies on different populations of E. grandiflora are required to determine if the high growth rates are representative, to quantify the variation in the flowering behavior within and among populations, and to establish if nocturnal pollination is a trait that is exclusive to our population of E. grandiflora. PMID:17066366

  18. EpCAM aptamer-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for efficient colon cancer cell-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaodong; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Huijuan; Lu, Yusheng; Lian, Shu; Lin, Hang; Gao, Yu; Jia, Lee

    2016-02-15

    Targeted delivery of anticancer agents by functional nanoparticles is an attractive strategy to increase their therapeutic efficacy while reducing toxicity. In this work, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were modified with aptamer (Ap) against the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery of DOX to colon cancer cells. These nanoparticles (Ap-MSN-DOX) were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, aptamer conjugation efficiency, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release properties. The in vitro cell recognition, cellular uptake, EpCAM protein inhibition efficiency, and cytotoxicity of Ap-MSN-DOX were also studied. Results demonstrated that EpCAM conjugation increased binding of Ap-MSN-DOX to EpCAM over-expressing SW620 colon cancer cells but not EpCAM-negative Ramos cells, resulting in enhanced cellular uptake and increased cytotoxicity of the DOX in SW620 cells when compared to non-Ap-modified nanoparticles (MSN-DOX). Additionally, Ap-MSN-DOX exhibited significant inhibition effects on the expression of EpCAM on SW620 cells. These results suggested that Ap-MSN-DOX has the potential for the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into EpCAM positive colon cancer cells to improve therapeutic index while reducing side effects. PMID:26690044

  19. Modelling adaptation to climate change of Ecuadorian agriculture and associated water resources: uncertainties in coastal and highland cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Bastidas, Wellington; Cóndor, Amparo; Villacís, Marcos; Calderón, Marco; Herrera, Mario; Zambrano, José Luis; Lizaso, Jon; Hernández, Carlos; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Capa-Morocho, Mirian

    2016-04-01

    Climate change threatens sustainability of farms and associated water resources in Ecuador. Although the last IPCC report (AR5) provides a general framework for adaptation, , impact assessment and especially adaptation analysis should be site-specific, taking into account both biophysical and social aspects. The objective of this study is to analyse the climate change impacts and to sustainable adaptations to optimize the crop yield. Furthermore is also aimed to weave agronomical and hydrometeorological aspects, to improve the modelling of the coastal ("costa") and highland ("sierra") cropping systems in Ecuador, from the agricultural production and water resources points of view. The final aim is to support decision makers, at national and local institutions, for technological implementation of structural adaptation strategies, and to support farmers for their autonomous adaptation actions to cope with the climate change impacts and that allow equal access to resources and appropriate technologies. . A diagnosis of the current situation in terms of data availability and reliability was previously done, and the main sources of uncertainty for agricultural projections have been identified: weather data, especially precipitation projections, soil data below the upper 30 cm, and equivalent experimental protocol for ecophysiological crop field measurements. For reducing these uncertainties, several methodologies are being discussed. This study was funded by PROMETEO program from Ecuador through SENESCYT (M. Ruiz-Ramos contract), and by the project COOP-XV-25 funded by Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

  20. Phylogeny and biogeography of the New World siskins and goldfinches: rapid, recent diversification in the Central Andes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Elizabeth J; Witt, Christopher C

    2015-06-01

    Time-calibrated molecular phylogenies can help us to understand the origins of the diverse and unique Andean avifauna. Previous studies have shown that the tempo of diversification differed between the Andes and adjacent lowland regions of South America. Andean taxa were found to have speciated more recently and to have avoided the decelerated diversification that is typical of Neotropical lowland clades. The South American siskins, a Pleistocene finch radiation, may typify this Andean pattern. We investigated the phylogenetic biogeography of all the New World siskins and goldfinches in new detail. To understand the specific role of the Andes in siskin diversification, we asked: (1) Was diversification faster in Andean siskin lineages relative to non-Andean ones? (2) Did siskin lineages move into and out of the Andes at different rates? We found that siskin lineages in the Andes had higher diversification rates and higher outward dispersal rates than siskin lineages outside the Andes. We conclude that páramo expansion and contraction in response to Pleistocene climatic cycles caused accelerated diversification and outward dispersal in Andean siskins. The younger average age of bird species in the Andes compared to lowland South America may be attributable to bursts of recent diversification in siskins and several other vagile, open-habitat clades. PMID:25796324

  1. gp140, the C3d receptor of human B lymphocytes, is also the Epstein-Barr virus receptor.

    PubMed

    Frade, R; Barel, M; Ehlin-Henriksson, B; Klein, G

    1985-03-01

    The relationship between gp140, the membrane C3d receptor (CR2) of human B lymphocytes, and the Epstein-Barr virus receptor (EBVR) was analyzed by using the polyclonal anti-gp140, previously prepared by immunizing rabbits with highly purified gp140 (isolated by some of us) from CR2/EBVR-positive Raji cells. Polyclonal anti-gp72, a C3-binding membrane component, not related to the EBVR but also expressed on the Raji cell surface, was used as a control. Binding of rabbit IgG and EBV on cells was assessed by using immunofluorescence techniques with analysis by flow cytofluorometry. A semiquantitative bioassay was also used to measure the EBV binding. Polyclonal monospecific anti-gp140 IgG inhibits directly the binding of EBV to Raji cells at the same concentration that inhibits the binding of EC3d on cells, whereas a 35 times higher concentration of anti-gp72 IgG or preimmune serum IgG does not. Anti-gp140 IgG treatment also inhibits the induction of EBV-determined nuclear antigen in normal tonsil B lymphocytes or in EBV-negative Ramos cells, whereas high concentrations of anti-gp72 IgG or preimmune serum IgG have no effect. These data strongly suggest that gp140, the CR2 of human B lymphocytes, is also the EBVR. PMID:2983347

  2. Currents Induced by Injected Charge in Junction Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas

    2013-01-01

    The problem of drifting charge-induced currents is considered in order to predict the pulsed operational characteristics in photo- and particle-detectors with a junction controlled active area. The direct analysis of the field changes induced by drifting charge in the abrupt junction devices with a plane-parallel geometry of finite area electrodes is presented. The problem is solved using the one-dimensional approach. The models of the formation of the induced pulsed currents have been analyzed for the regimes of partial and full depletion. The obtained solutions for the current density contain expressions of a velocity field dependence on the applied voltage, location of the injected surface charge domain and carrier capture parameters. The drift component of this current coincides with Ramo's expression. It has been illustrated, that the synchronous action of carrier drift, trapping, generation and diffusion can lead to a vast variety of possible current pulse waveforms. Experimental illustrations of the current pulse variations determined by either the rather small or large carrier density within the photo-injected charge domain are presented, based on a study of Si detectors. PMID:24036586

  3. Photocurrent spectroscopy of 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobden, David

    Confocal photocurrent measurements provide a powerful means of studying many aspects of the optoelectronic and electrical properties of a 2D device or material. At a diffraction-limited point they can provide a detailed absorption spectrum, and they can probe local symmetry, ultrafast relaxation rates and processes, electron-electron interaction strengths, and transport coefficients. We illustrate this with several examples, once being the photo-Nernst effect. In gapless 2D materials, such as graphene, in a perpendicular magnetic field a photocurrent antisymmetric in the field is generated near to the free edges, with opposite sign at opposite edges. Its origin is the transverse thermoelectric current associated with the laser-induced electron temperature gradient. This effect provides an unambiguous demonstration of the Shockley-Ramo nature of long-range photocurrent generation in gapless materials. It also provides a means of investigating quasiparticle properties. For example, in the case of graphene on hBN, it can be used to probe the Lifshitz transition that occurs due to the minibands formed by the Moire superlattice. We also observe and discuss photocurrent generated in other semimetallic (WTe2) and semiconducting (WSe2) monolayers. Work supported by DoE BES and NSF EFRI grants.

  4. Vacuum Kundt waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ⩽ 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

  5. Performance of the Fourier transform reconstructor for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, I.; Reyes, M.; Le Louarn, M.; Marichal-Hernández, J. G.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.; Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.

    2008-07-01

    The forthcoming Extremely Large Telescopes, and the new generation of Extreme Adaptive Optics systems, carry on a boost in the number of actuators that makes the real-time correction of the atmospheric aberration computationally challenging. It is necessary to study new algorithms for performing Adaptive Optics at the required speed. Among the last generation algorithms that are being studied, the Fourier Transform Reconstructor (FTR) appears as a promising candidate. Its feasibility to be used for Single-Conjugate Adaptive Optics has been extensively proved by Poyneer et al.[1] As part of the activities supported by the ELT Design Study (European Community's Framework Programme 6) we have studied the performance of this algorithm applied to the case of the European ELT, in two different cases: single-conjugate and ground-layer adaptive optics and we are studying different approaches to apply it to the more complex multi-conjugate case. The algorithm has been tested on ESO's OCTOPUS software, which simulates the atmosphere, the deformable mirror, the sensor and the closed-loop control. The performance has been compared with other algorithms as well as their response in the presence of noise and with various atmospheric conditions. The good results on performance and robustness, and the possibility of parallelizing the algorithm (shown by Rodríguez-Ramos and Marichal-Hernández) make it an excellent alternative to the typically used Matrix-Vector Multiply algorithm.

  6. Modulation of tubulin mRNA levels by interferon in human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fellous, A; Ginzburg, I; Littauer, U Z

    1982-01-01

    Blot hybridization with labeled tubulin cDNA showed that treatment of Ramos cells, a human cell line of lymphoblastoid origin, with either alpha or beta interferon (IFN) induced a marked increase in the amount of tubulin mRNA sequences. The level of tubulin mRNA sequences increased rapidly after exposure of cells to IFN-alpha and reached a maximum after 1 h of treatment, which was four times the control level. Treatment with IFN-beta induced a maximal increase after 4 h; the amount of tubulin mRNA sequences was seven times higher than the control level. The mRNA extracted from IFN-treated and nontreated cells was translated in vitro in a reticulocyte lysate cell-free system containing [35S]methionine. Electrophoretic analysis of the labeled cell-free products showed an increase in the amount of translatable tubulin mRNA that parallels the time course of induction of tubulin mRNA sequences. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the labeled protein products directed by mRNA indicates that IFN caused a more pronounced increase in the level of alpha-tubulin than beta-tubulin mRNA. Treatment with colchicine, which disrupts the cell microtubules, caused a marked decrease in the tubulin mRNA content. Concomitant treatment of the cells with colchicine and IFN abolished the interferon-dependent induction of tubulin mRNA. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6964957

  7. Severe respiratory insufficiency during pandemic H1N1 infection: prognostic value and therapeutic potential of pulmonary surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Monica Fern; Palaniyar, Nades

    2014-01-01

    For almost two decades, studies have shown collectins to be critical for effective antimicrobial defense of the airways. Members of this protein family, which includes surfactant proteins (SP)-A and D, provide broad-spectrum protection through promoting the aggregation and clearance of pathogens. Interestingly, these proteins may also modulate the immune response, and growing evidence has shown collectins to be protective against several markers of inflammation and injury. In a recent study by Herrera-Ramos and colleagues, genetic variants of collectins were examined in Spanish patients with the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus. Comparing genotypes for measures of poor lung function, inflammation, and admission to intensive care, these authors identified three variants of the SP-A gene SFTPA2 that positively correlated with flu severity. Remarkably, they also found the haplotype 1A(1) of SFTPA2 to be protective against these indicators, suggesting that targeted therapy with a recombinant form of SP-A2 may improve patient outcome. Although further work is required to confirm the specificity and efficacy of SP-A in therapeutic H1N1 protection, this study is one of the first to suggest a clinical role for SP-A in pandemic influenza. PMID:25184962

  8. Late Ordovician pelecypod faunas from the Cincinnati, Ohio area

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of pelecypod faunas in the Late Ordovician strata exposed in the Cincinnati, Ohio area, points to a close relationship between lithofacies type and the life habits of these Ordovician bivalves. Muddy clastic shallow marine facies of Edenian, Maysvillian, and early Richmondian age support faunas dominated by endobyssate filter-feeding species, including a variety of modiomorphids and the genus Ambonychia, plus infaunal filter-feeding orthonotids, and in faunal deposit-feeding palaeotaxodonts. These pelecypod groups occur in claystones with a fauna of calymenid and asaphid trilobites, nautiloids, cyclomyan monoplacophorans, and occasionally crinoids and asterozoans. Younger Richmondian strata in the area are predominantly carbonate platform facies and support pelecypod faunas dominated by robust endobyssate and epibyssate ambonychiids, cyrtodontids, and colpomyids. These pelecypods are associated with diverse assemblage of articulate brachiopods, trepostome ectoprocts, solitary rugose corals, and mollusks in skeletal limestones representing storm-reworked thickets or ramos ectoprocts. This fundamental dichotomy in Late Ordovician pelecypod faunas is recognized not only in the Cincinnati area, but in Late Ordovician strata exposed on Manitoulin Island in Ontario and eastward into Quebec. Reconstructions of the life habits of these pelecypods demonstrates the dominance of the endobyssate mode of life in these Early Paleozoic pelecypods.

  9. PREFACE: Workshop on Oxide Materials 2014: Novel Multifunctional Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, M. E.; Lopera, W.

    2015-07-01

    The 2014 Workshop on Oxide Materials: Novel Multifunctional Properties was held in Cali, Colombia, from September 15 to September 19 on the campus of Universidad del Valle. It was a great privilege to have had this workshop in Cali after the first workshop on oxide materials commemorating the first centennial of the discovery of the superconductivity in 2011. The meeting gathered an audience of 80 participants, 10 invited speakers with two or three plenary talks each, 20 short oral contributions, two poster sessions with 20 presentations each. This proceedings volume contains papers reported at the conference. The Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Oxide Materials: Novel Multifunctional Properties were edited by Maria Elena Gomez and Wilson Lopera with the assistance of Carlos William Sanchez and Albert Ortiz as copy editor. We are grateful for the financial support from COLCIENCIAS through research project COLCIENCIAS-UNIVALLE contract 002/2013; Universidad de Valle through Professor Ivan Ramos, Rector; the Faculty of Science with Professor Jaime Cantera, Dean; the Center of Excellence on Novel Materials with Professor Pedro Prieto, Director; ICETEX, and INTECO Ltda. Further details about the conference, including details of the invited speakers and plenary sessions are available in the PDF. Maria Elena Gómez, Editor Wilson Lopera, Editor

  10. Piperlongumine inhibits proliferation and survival of Burkitt lymphoma in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seong-Su; Son, Dong-Ju; Yun, Hwakyung; Kamberos, Natalie L.; Janz, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    Piperlongumine (PL), a pepper plant alkaloid from Piper longum, kills solid tumor cells in a highly selective, potent fashion. To evaluate whether PL may have similar effects on malignant blood cells, we determined the efficacy with which PL inhibits the B-lymphocyte derived neoplasm, Burkitt lymphoma (BL). Low micromolar concentrations of PL (IC50 = 2.8 × 8.5 μM) curbed growth and survival of two EBV+ BL cell lines (Daudi, Raji) and two EBV− BL cell lines (Ramos, DG-75), but left normal peripheral blood B-lymphocytes unharmed. PL-dependent cytotoxicity was effected in part by reduced NF-κB and MYC activity, with the former being caused by inhibition of IκBα degradation, nuclear translocation of p65, and binding of NF-κB dimers to cognate DNA sequences in gene promoters. In 4 of 4 BL cell lines, the NF-κB/MYC-regulated cellular target genes, E2F1 and MYB, were down regulated, while the stress sensor gene, GADD45B, was up regulated. The EBV-encoded oncogene, LMP-1, was suppressed in Daudi and Raji cells. Considering that NF-κB, MYC and LMP-1 play a crucial role in the biology of many blood cancers including BL, our results provide a strong preclinical rationale for considering PL in new intervention approaches for patients with hematologic malignancies. PMID:23237561

  11. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. Results A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham’s π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. Conclusion The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/− 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale. PMID:24289110

  12. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase IX expression and extracellular pH in B-cell lymphoma cell line models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liu Qi; Howison, Christine M.; Spier, Catherine; Stopeck, Alison T.; Malm, Scott W.; Pagel, Mark D.; Baker, Amanda F.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX) and it’s relation to acidosis in lymphomas has not been widely studied. We investigated the protein expression of CA IX in a human B-cell lymphoma tissue microarray, and in Raji, Ramos, and Granta 519 lymphoma cell lines and tumor models, while also investigating the relation with hypoxia. An imaging method, acidoCEST MRI, was used to estimate lymphoma xenograft extracellular pH (pHe). Our results showed that clinical lymphoma tissues and cell line models in vitro and in vivo had moderate CA IX expression. Although in vitro studies showed that CA IX expression was induced by hypoxia, in vivo studies did not show this correlation. Untreated lymphoma xenograft tumor pHe had acidic fractions, and an Acidity Score was qualitatively correlated with CA IX expression. Therefore, CA IX is expressed in B-cell lymphomas and is qualitatively correlated with extracellular acidosis in xenograft tumor models. PMID:25130478

  13. Expression of phenazine biosynthetic genes during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of Glomus intraradices

    PubMed Central

    León-Martínez, Dionicia Gloria; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Olalde-Portugal, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    To explore the molecular mechanisms that prevail during the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis involving the genus Glomus, we transcriptionally analysed spores of Glomus intraradices BE3 during early hyphal growth. Among 458 transcripts initially identified as being expressed at presymbiotic stages, 20% of sequences had homology to previously characterized eukaryotic genes, 30% were homologous to fungal coding sequences, and 9% showed homology to previously characterized bacterial genes. Among them, GintPbr1a encodes a homolog to Phenazine Biosynthesis Regulator (Pbr) of Burkholderia cenocepacia, an pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates phenazine production through transcriptional activation of the protein D isochorismatase biosynthetic enzyme phzD (Ramos et al., 2010). Whereas GintPbr1a is expressed during the presymbiotic phase, the G. intraradices BE3 homolog of phzD (BGintphzD) is transcriptionally active at the time of the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. DNA from isolated bacterial cultures found in spores of G. intraradices BE3 confirmed that both BGintPbr1a and BGintphzD are present in the genome of its potential endosymbionts. Taken together, our results indicate that spores of G. intraradices BE3 express bacterial phenazine biosynthetic genes at the onset of the fungal-plant symbiotic interaction. PMID:24031884

  14. Taxonomy and bathymetric distribution of the outer neritic/upper bathyal ostracodes (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from the southernmost Brazilian continental margin.

    PubMed

    Bergue, Cristianini Trescastro; Coimbra, João Carlos; Ramos, Maria Inês Feijó

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-five ostracode species belonging to 41 genera and 17 families were recorded in the outer shelf and upper slope off Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states, southernmost Brazil, between 100 and 586 m water depth interval. The ostracode occurrences are hypothesized to be influenced by both, the coastal waters and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). The taxonomy of some species of Bradleya Hornibrook, 1952, Legitimocythere Coles & Whatley, 1989 and Henryhowella Puri, 1957 previously described in the same study area is revised. Bradleya gaucha sp. nov., Legitimocythere megapotamica sp. nov., Apatihowella acelos sp. nov., Apatihowella capitulum sp. nov., Apatihowella besnardi sp. nov., Apatihowella convexa sp. nov., and Aversovalva tomcronini sp. nov. are herein proposed. Trachyleberis aorata Bergue & Coimbra, 2008 is reassigned to the genus Legitimocythere and Bradleya pseudonormani Ramos et al., 2009 has its diagnosis emended. Bythocypris praerenis Brandão, 2008 is considered a junior synonym of Bythocypris kyamos Whatley et al., 1998a. Apatihowella Jellinek & Swanson, 2003 and Legitimocythere species have well-defined bathymetric distributions and are potential paleoceanographic markers for the Quaternary in the Southern Brazilian Margin. PMID:27395992

  15. HACE1 is a putative tumor suppressor gene in B-cell lymphomagenesis and is down-regulated by both deletion and epigenetic alterations.

    PubMed

    Bouzelfen, Abdelilah; Alcantara, Marion; Kora, Hafid; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, Philippe; Cornic, Marie; Mareschal, Sylvain; Bohers, Elodie; Maingonnat, Catherine; Ruminy, Philippe; Adriouch, Sahil; Boyer, Olivier; Dubois, Sydney; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Hervé; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste; Jardin, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1, HACE1, located on chromosome 6q, encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is downregulated in many human tumors. Here, we report HACE1 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene down-regulated by a combination of deletion and epigenetic mechanisms. HACE1 deletions were observed in 40% of B-cell lymphoma tumors. Hypermethylation of the HACE1 promoter CpG177 island was found in 60% (68/111) of cases and in all tested B-cell lymphoma lines. Using HDAC inhibitors, we observed predominantly inactive chromatin conformation (methylated H3 histones H3K9me2) in HACE1 gene promoter region. We demonstrated in Ramos and Raji cells that down-regulation of HACE1 expression was associated with a significant decrease in apoptosis and an accumulation of cells in the S and G2/M phases. Our experiments indicate that HACE1 can act as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene in most B-cell lymphomas and can be downregulated by deacetylation of its promoter region chromatin, which makes HACE1 a potential target for HDAC inhibitors. PMID:27107267

  16. Three-dimensional relativistic field-electron interaction in a multicavity high-power klystron. 1: Basic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of three dimensional relativistic klystron action is described. The relativistic axisymmetric equations of motion are derived from the time-dependent Lagrangian function for a charged particle in electromagnetic fields. An analytical expression of the fringing RF electric and magnetic fields within and in the vicinity of the interaction gap and the space-charge forces between axially and radially elastic deformable rings of charges are both included in the formulation. This makes an accurate computation of electron motion through the tunnel of the cavities and the drift tube spaces possible. Method of analysis is based on Lagrangian formulation. Bunching is computed using a disk model of electron stream in which the electron stream is divided into axisymmetric disks of equal charge and each disk is assumed to consist of a number of concentric rings of equal charges. The Individual representative groups of electrons are followed through the interaction gaps and drift tube spaces. Induced currents and voltages in interacting cavities are calculated by invoking the Shockley-Ramo theorem.

  17. Assessment of selected water-quality and biological data collected in the Wichita River basin, Texas, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Phillips, D. Grant

    2000-01-01

    The Wichita River Basin in northwest Texas (fig. 1) covers about 3,440 square miles (mi2 ) of the 94,500-mi2 Red River Basin. The drainage area above Lake Kemp (fig. 1) is 2,086 mi2. The Wichita River Basin is characterized by rolling plains and prairie with an average annual (1961–90) rainfall of 28.9 inches at Wichita Falls (population about 100,000), the largest city in the basin (Ramos, 1997). Cattle grazing and agriculture are predominant industries outside the Wichita Falls city limits. One of the earliest oil fields in Texas, the Electra oil field, is in the basin; although some oil is still being produced, oil field activity has decreased from the boom years of the 1920s–30s. The surfacewater supply in this basin generally is of poor quality—dissolved solids concentrations vary from slightly saline (1,000 to 3,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L)) to very saline (10,000 to 35,000 mg/L).

  18. An examination of the resettlement program at Mayon Volcano: what can we learn for sustainable volcanic risk reduction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamah, Muhibuddin; Haynes, Katharine

    2012-05-01

    This paper investigates a resettlement program for communities impacted by volcanic hazards from Mayon volcano in the Philippines. Two resettlement sites are selected, the first FVR-FNM village (named after President Fidel V. Ramos and Mayor Florencio N. Munoz) was settled after the 1993 eruption. The second, Bungkaras Village, was settled after the 2006 eruption and associated typhoon Reming lahar event. These two sites were selected in order to explore the process of relocation over the short and longer term, although the main focus of the study is in the more recently settled Bungkaras Village. The overall aim is to determine if exposure to volcanic hazards has decreased without adding to vulnerability through loss of livelihood, community and culture, and exposure to new risks. A mixed method qualitative approach was utilized including semistructured interviews, participant observations, and a participatory workshop. This enabled an in-depth understanding of life and the challenges faced at the resettlement sites vis-à-vis the original settlements. In order to document the process of site selection, planning, and building, semistructured interviews were conducted with key government officials, emergency managers, and donors of the resettlement projects. This research demonstrates that a volcanic resettlement program must be directed by meaningful consultation with the impacted community who also share in the decision making. Successful resettlement must consider aspects of livelihood security, house design, and the availability of public and lifeline facilities.

  19. Highly sensitive detection of leukemia cells based on aptamer and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yating; Duan, Siliang; He, Jian; Liang, Wei; Su, Jing; Zhu, Jianmeng; Hu, Nan; Zhao, Yongxiang; Lu, Xiaoling

    2016-08-01

    Detection of leukemia at the early stage with high sensitivity is a significant clinical challenge for clinicians. In the present study, we developed a sensitive detector consisting of the product of oligonucleotides hybridized with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) to generate a stronger fluorescent signal so that leukemic cells can be captured. In the present study, a biotin-modified Sgc8 aptamer was used to identify CCRF-CEM cells, and then biotin-appended QDs were labeled with the aptamer via streptavidin and biotin amplification interactions. We described the complex as QDs-bsb-apt. CEM and Ramos cells were used to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the novel complex. These results revealed that the complex could be more effective in diagnosing leukemia at the early stage. In conclusion, an innovative structure based on aptamer and QDs for leukemia diagnosis was provided. It has the potential to image tumor cells in vitro or in vivo and to realize the early diagnosis of disease. Furthermore, it may be used to provide guidance for clinicians to implement individualized patient therapy. PMID:27375197

  20. Unified theory of resistive and inertial ballooning modes in three-dimensional configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, Tariq; Hegna, Chris C.; Callen, James D.

    2007-11-01

    A linear stability theory of non-ideal MHD ballooning modes is investigated using a two fluid model. Electron inertia, diamagnetic effects, parallel ion dynamics, transverse particle diffusion and perpendicular viscous stress terms are included in calculations for arbitrary three-dimensional electron ion plasmas. Drift RBM eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are calculated for a variety of equilibria including axisymmetric shifted circular geometry and configurations of interest to the Helically Symmetric Stellarator (HSX). For parameters of interest to HSX, characteristic growth rates exceed the electron collision frequency. In this regime, electron inertia effects can dominate plasma resistivity and produce an instability whose growth rate scales with the electron skin depth. Attempts to generalize previous analytic calculations of RBM stability using a two scale analysis on (s-α)[1] equilibria to more general 3-D equilibria will be addressed. In this work, a unified theory of RBM and inertial ballooning modes is developed where both the effects of ideal MHD energy and geodesic curvature drives in the non-ideal layer are included in the dispersion relation. [1] R. H Hastie, J.J. Ramos and F. Porcelli Phys. Plasmas 10, 4405 (2003).

  1. Implementation of chiral quantum optics with Rydberg and trapped-ion setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermersch, Benoît; Ramos, Tomás; Hauke, Philipp; Zoller, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We propose two setups for realizing a chiral quantum network, where two-level systems representing the nodes interact via directional emission into discrete waveguides, as introduced in T. Ramos et al. [Phys. Rev. A 93, 062104 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.062104]. The first implementation realizes a spin waveguide via Rydberg states in a chain of atoms, whereas the second one realizes a phonon waveguide via the localized vibrations of a string of trapped ions. For both architectures, we show that strong chirality can be obtained by a proper design of synthetic gauge fields in the couplings from the nodes to the waveguide. In the Rydberg case, this is achieved via intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the dipole-dipole interactions, while for the trapped ions it is obtained by engineered sideband transitions. We take long-range couplings into account that appear naturally in these implementations, discuss useful experimental parameters, and analyze potential error sources. Finally, we describe effects that can be observed in these implementations within state-of-the-art technology, such as the driven-dissipative formation of entangled dimer states.

  2. Final Report for "Tech-X Corporation work for the SciDAC Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM)"

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Kruger, Scott E.

    2013-03-25

    Work carried out by Tech-X Corporation for the DoE SciDAC Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM; U.S. DoE Office of Science Award Number DE-FC02-06ER54899) is summarized and is shown to fulfil the project objectives. The Tech-X portion of the SWIM work focused on the development of analytic and computational approaches to study neoclassical tearing modes and their interaction with injected electron cyclotron current drive. Using formalism developed by Hegna, Callen, and Ramos [Phys. Plasmas 16, 112501 (2009); Phys. Plasmas 17, 082502 (2010); Phys. Plasmas 18, 102506 (2011)], analytic approximations for the RF interaction were derived and the numerical methods needed to implement these interactions in the NIMROD extended MHD code were developed. Using the SWIM IPS framework, NIMROD has successfully coupled to GENRAY, an RF ray tracing code; additionally, a numerical control system to trigger the RF injection, adjustment, and shutdown in response to tearing mode activity has been developed. We discuss these accomplishments, as well as prospects for ongoing future research that this work has enabled (which continue in a limited fashion under the SciDAC Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) project and under a baseline theory grant). Associated conference presentations, published articles, and publications in progress are also listed.

  3. A Quantitative Examination of Undergraduate Neuroscience Majors Applying and Matriculating to Osteopathic Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Raddy L.; Guercio, Erik; Levitan, Thomas; O’Malley, Shannon; Smith, Phoebe T.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduates choose to become neuroscience majors for a number of reasons including future career goals. Faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs understand that many neuroscience majors have aspirations of applying and matriculating to medical school (Prichard, 2015); however a quantitative understanding of this particular student population remains unknown, especially in the context of the national growth in undergraduate neuroscience education (Ramos et al., 2011). In the present report, we use medical school application data to establish a novel quantitative understanding of the number of neuroscience majors that apply and matriculate to osteopathic medical school. Our data indicate that a substantial number of neuroscience majors do indeed apply and matriculate to medical school compared to other majors in the life sciences, math and physical sciences, and humanities. These data are relevant to faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs and suggest that when programmatic, curricular, and training decisions are made, they should be made in the context of the diverse motivations and professional goals of neuroscience majors including careers in medicine. Finally, our novel quantitative approach of determining student motivation and professional goals based on application/matriculation data, can complement traditional methods such as surveys and questionnaires and can be used to determine the extent to which neuroscience majors apply to other professional and graduate degree programs. PMID:27385924

  4. MHD results from a collisionless fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J. J.

    2002-11-01

    A non-conventional closure ansatz for collisionless MHD has been proposed in Ref.[1]. The truncation of the set of fluid moment equations is suggested by a comparison between the standard non-relativistic set and the non-relativistic limit of the relativistic set derived in Ref.[2]. The resulting model is a closed system of evolution equations in conservation form for the particle, momentum and energy densities, and the energy flux, allowing for pressure anisotropy and parallel heat flux. The static equilibrium condition is the same as in the Chew-Goldberger-Low theory, supplemented by the condition that the parallel energy flux be constant along the magnetic field. We study the linear perturbations about such static equilibria to derive the MHD wave dispersion relations in a homogeneous background and the perturbed potential energy associated with a stability energy principle. [1] J.J. Ramos, 2002 International Sherwood Theory Meeting, Rochester, NY, paper 1D25. [2] R.D. Hazeltine and S.M. Mahajan, Ap. J. 567, 1262 (2002).

  5. Relationship between X(5) models and the interacting boson model

    SciTech Connect

    Barea, Jose; Arias, Jose M.; Garcia-Ramos, Jose Enrique

    2010-08-15

    The connections between the X(5) models [the original X(5) using an infinite square well, X(5)-{beta}{sup 8}, X(5)-{beta}{sup 6}, X(5)-{beta}{sup 4}, and X(5)-{beta}{sup 2}], based on particular solutions of the geometrical Bohr Hamiltonian with harmonic potential in the {gamma} degree of freedom, and the interacting boson model (IBM) are explored. This work is the natural extension of the work presented in Garcia-Ramos and Arias, Phys. Rev. C 77, 054307 (2008) for the E(5) models. For that purpose, a quite general one- and two-body IBM Hamiltonian is used and a numerical fit to the different X(5) model energies is performed; then the obtained wave functions are used to calculate B(E2) transition rates. It is shown that within the IBM one can reproduce well the results for energies and B(E2) transition rates obtained with all these X(5) models, although the agreement is not so impressive as for the E(5) models. From the fitted IBM parameters the corresponding energy surface can be extracted and, surprisingly, only the X(5) case corresponds in the moderately large N limit to an energy surface very close to the one expected for a critical point, whereas the rest of models are situated a little further away.

  6. An explicit physics-based model of ionic polymer-metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugal, David; Kim, Kwang J.; Aabloo, Alvo

    2011-10-01

    The Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations is used to simulate the charge dynamics due to ionic current and resulting time-dependent displacement of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) materials. Measured data show that currents through the polymer of IPMC cause potential gradients on the electrodes. Existing physics based models of IPMC do not explicitly consider how this affects the charge formation near the electrodes and resulting actuation of IPMC. We have developed an explicit physics based model that couples the currents in the polymer to the electric current in the continuous electrodes of IPMC. The coupling is based on the Ramo-Shockley theorem. The circular dependency concept is used to explain how the dependency between the ionic current and the potential drop in the electrodes is calculated and how they affect each other. Simulations were carried out using the finite element method. Calculated potential gradients, electric currents, and tip displacement of IPMC were validated against experimental data. We also show how the model is general in respect to the different types of currents in the polymer and how it can be used in more complicated cases such as 3D simulations.

  7. 12th meeting of Asian Parliamentarians on Population and Development.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    At the 12th annual Asian Parliamentarians Meeting on Population and Development, co-sponsored by the Asian Population and Development Association (APDA) of Japan and the Philippine Legislative Committee on Population and Development (PLCPD), the adverse effect of population growth on economic development and the importance of improvements in women's status were central themes. Fukusaburo Maeda, President of APDA Japan, noted that an understanding of women's issues is key to solving global population problems. Numerous participants urged rapid implementation of plans outlined at recent conferences in Cairo and Beijing to empower women and involve them in all stages of the development process. Even issues of food security are linked to women's issues, since women are generally responsible for feeding their families. Participants voted to adopt the "Manila Resolution on Women, Gender, Population, and Development"--a call for social and economic empowerment of women and resources for gender-related programs. Dr. Patricia Licuanan, Chair of the UN Committee on the Status of Women, noted that men should not feel threatened by women holding positions of power; rather, they should welcome an equal partnership between men and women. In her closing address, Senator Leticia Ramos Shahani, Chair of PLCPD, stressed the importance of placing women's empowerment on various parliamentary agendas and commended APDA for its research and population-based surveys in Asia. PMID:12320525

  8. Identifying gp85-regions involved in Epstein-Barr virus binding to B-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Urquiza, Mauricio; Suarez, Jorge; Lopez, Ramses; Vega, Erika; Patino, Helena; Garcia, Javier; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Guzman, Fanny; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2004-06-18

    Epstein-Barr virus lacking glycoprotein gp85 cannot infect B-cells and epithelial cells. The gp85 belongs to the molecular complex required for virus invasion of B-lymphocyte or epithelial cells. Moreover, there is evidence that gp85 is necessary for virus attachment to epithelial cells. Thirty-six peptides from the entire gp85-sequence were tested in epithelial and lymphoblastoid cell line binding assays to identify gp85-regions involved in virus-cell interaction. Five of these peptides presented high binding activity to Raji, Ramos, P3HR-1, and HeLa cells, but not to erythrocytes; Raji-cell affinity constants were between 80 and 140nM. Of these five peptides, 11435 ((181)TYKRVTEKGDEHVLSLVFGK(200)), 11436 ((201)TKDLPDLRGPFSYPSLTSAQ(220)), and 11438 ((241)YFVPNLKDMFSRAVTMTAAS(260)) bound to a 65kDa protein on Raji-cell surface. These peptides and antibodies induced by them (recognising live EBV-infected cells) inhibited Epstein-Barr virus interaction with cord blood lymphocytes. It is thus probable that gp85-regions defined by peptides 11435, 11436, and 11438 are involved in EBV invasion of B-lymphocytes. PMID:15158465

  9. Expression of phenazine biosynthetic genes during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of Glomus intraradices.

    PubMed

    León-Martínez, Dionicia Gloria; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Olalde-Portugal, Víctor

    2012-04-01

    To explore the molecular mechanisms that prevail during the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis involving the genus Glomus, we transcriptionally analysed spores of Glomus intraradices BE3 during early hyphal growth. Among 458 transcripts initially identified as being expressed at presymbiotic stages, 20% of sequences had homology to previously characterized eukaryotic genes, 30% were homologous to fungal coding sequences, and 9% showed homology to previously characterized bacterial genes. Among them, GintPbr1a encodes a homolog to Phenazine Biosynthesis Regulator (Pbr) of Burkholderia cenocepacia, an pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates phenazine production through transcriptional activation of the protein D isochorismatase biosynthetic enzyme phzD (Ramos et al., 2010). Whereas GintPbr1a is expressed during the presymbiotic phase, the G. intraradices BE3 homolog of phzD (BGintphzD) is transcriptionally active at the time of the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. DNA from isolated bacterial cultures found in spores of G. intraradices BE3 confirmed that both BGintPbr1a and BGintphzD are present in the genome of its potential endosymbionts. Taken together, our results indicate that spores of G. intraradices BE3 express bacterial phenazine biosynthetic genes at the onset of the fungal-plant symbiotic interaction. PMID:24031884

  10. Development of a simplified simulation model for performance characterization of a pixellated CdZnTe multimodality imaging system.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Santos, A; Darambara, D G

    2008-02-21

    Current requirements of molecular imaging lead to the complete integration of complementary modalities in a single hybrid imaging system to correlate function and structure. Among the various existing detector technologies, which can be implemented to integrate nuclear modalities (PET and/or single-photon emission computed tomography with x-rays (CT) and most probably with MR, pixellated wide bandgap room temperature semiconductor detectors, such as CdZnTe and/or CdTe, are promising candidates. This paper deals with the development of a simplified simulation model for pixellated semiconductor radiation detectors, as a first step towards the performance characterization of a multimodality imaging system based on CdZnTe. In particular, this work presents a simple computational model, based on a 1D approximate solution of the Schockley-Ramo theorem, and its integration into the Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) platform in order to perform accurately and, therefore, improve the simulations of pixellated detectors in different configurations with a simultaneous cathode and anode pixel readout. The model presented here is successfully validated against an existing detailed finite element simulator, the multi-geometry simulation code, with respect to the charge induced at the anode, taking into consideration interpixel charge sharing and crosstalk, and to the detector charge induction efficiency. As a final point, the model provides estimated energy spectra and time resolution for (57)Co and (18)F sources obtained with the GATE code after the incorporation of the proposed model. PMID:18263961

  11. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  12. Seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 in human immunodeficiency virus 1-positive and human immunodeficiency virus 1-negative populations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Taguchi, H; Katano, H; Mori, S; Nakamura, T; Nojiri, N; Nakajima, K; Tadokoro, K; Juji, T; Iwamoto, A

    1999-02-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) among human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-positive (HIV-1+) and HIV-1-negative (HIV-1-) populations in Japan, 276 HIV-1+ patients and 1,000 HIV-1- blood donors were enrolled in this study. Antibodies against HHV8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) were examined through indirect immunofluorescent assay by using a B-cell line that was infected latently with HHV8 (body cavity-based lymphoma 1). An HHV8- and Epstein-Barr virus-negative B-cell line (Ramos) was used as a control. Thirty-two seropositive cases against LANA (anti-LANA+) were identified among the 276 HIV-1+ patients who were studied. Five cases were foreigners living in Japan. The risk factor of all 27 Japanese cases was unprotected sexual intercourse, and the great majority of these cases (23 in 27; 85%) reported homosexual/bisexual behavior. Anti-LANA+ status correlated with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, such as amoeba and HBV infection, further suggesting male homosexual behavior as the main route of HHV8 transmission in Japan. Only two LANA+ cases were identified among 1,000 HIV- blood donors in Japan; thus, seroprevalence of HHV8 identified by LANA was estimated to be 0.2% among HIV-1- populations in this country. PMID:9892401

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Water maser emission toward post-AGB and PN (Gomez+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, J. F.; Rizzo, J. R.; Suarez, O.; Palau, A.; Miranda, L. F.; Guerrero, M. A.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Torrelles, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    The observed sources are listed in Table 1. They comprise most of the sources in Ramos-Larios et al. (2009A&A...501.1207R). They are post-AGB stars and PN candidates with the IRAS color criteria of Suarez et al. (2006A&A...458..173S) and with signs of strong optical obscuration. We have also included some optically visible post-AGB stars from Suarez et al. (2006A&A...458..173S) that were not included in our previous water maser observations of Suarez et al. (2007A&A...467.1085S, 2009A&A...505..217S) or for which those observations had poor sensitivity. We observed the 616-523 transition of H2O (rest frequency = 22235.08MHz) using three different telescopes: the DSS-63 antenna (70m diameter) at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) near Robledo de Chavela (Spain), the 64m antenna at the Parkes Observatory of the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), and the 100m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The observed positions, rms noise per spectral channel, and observing dates are listed in Table 1. (3 data files).

  14. Visualization of the light injection in one dimensional Photonic Crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archuleta-Garcia, Raul

    2005-03-01

    In this work we present time variation simulations of the light injection in one dimension photonic crystals (1D-PC). This phenomenon is due to the coupling of an incoming plane-wave to the discrete vibration modes in finite 1D-PC. In order to present a live animation of the system we proceed in two stages. First, we present the discrete relation dispersion and then we choose the better combination of frequency and wave-vector. Second, for this combination we reconstruct the field amplitudes in each one of the media. This phenomenon has been described in three previous works [1-3] for the case of a metal-dielectric-metal system. In this work we present the simulation of this system and also the extension of the idea for the case of a multilayer system. The visualization of the electromagnetic field gives a better comprehension of the phenomena. [1]R. Garcia-Llamas, J.A. Gaspar-Armenta, F.Ramos-Mendieta, R.F. Haglund, R. Ruiz. ``Design, manufacturing and testing of planar optical waveguide devices'',.), Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 4439, 2001, pp 88-94. [2] F. Villa, T. Lopez-Rios, L.E. Regalado, ``Electromagnetic modes in metal-insulator-metal structures'', Phys. Rev. B 63 (2001) 165103. [3] A.S. Ramirez-Duverger, R. Garcia-Llamas, ``Light scattering from a multimode waveguide of planar metalic walls'', Optics Communications, (2003)

  15. Adalimumab (TNFα Inhibitor) Therapy Exacerbates IgA Glomerulonephritis Acute Renal Injury and Induces Lupus Autoantibodies in a Psoriasis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Wei, S. S.; Sinniah, R.

    2013-01-01

    Adalimumab (Humira) is a tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn's disease, ankylosing spondylitis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (Sullivan and Preda (2009), Klinkhoff (2004), and Medicare Australia). Use of TNFα inhibitors is associated with the induction of autoimmunity (systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, and sarcoidosis or sarcoid-like granulomas) (Ramos-Casals et al. (2010)). We report a patient with extensive psoriasis presenting with renal failure and seropositive lupus markers without classical lupus nephritis after 18 months treatment with adalimumab. He has renal biopsy proven IgA nephritis instead. Renal biopsy is the key diagnostic tool in patients presenting with adalimumab induced nephritis and renal failure. He made a remarkable recovery after adalimumab cessation and steroid treatment. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of a psoriasis patient presenting with seropositive lupus markers without classical lupus nephritis renal failure and had renal biopsy proven IgA glomerulonephritis after receiving adalimumab. PMID:24558628

  16. Reconciling the effects of inflammatory cytokines on mesenchymal cell osteogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sagar; James, Aaron W.; Blough, Jordan; Donneys, Alexis; Wang, Stewart C.; Cederna, Paul S.; Buchman, Steven R.; Levi, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Therapies using mesenchymal stem cells are a popular current avenue for development and utilization, especially in the fields of de novo tissue engineering (Sanchez-Ramos J, Song S, Cardozo-Pelaez F, et al. Adult bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neural cells in vitro. Exp Neurol 2000;164:247.) or tissue regeneration after physical injury (Kitoh H, Kitakoji T, Tsuchiya H, et al. Transplantation of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma during distraction osteogenesis—a preliminary result of three cases. Bone 2004;35:892; Shumakov VI, Onishchenko NA, Rasulov MF, Krasheninnikov ME, Zaidenov VA. Mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells more effectively stimulate regeneration of deep burn wounds than embryonic fibroblasts. Bull Exp Biol Med 2003;136:192; Bruder SP, Fink DJ, Caplan AI. Mesenchymal stem cells in bone development, bone repair, and skeletal regeneration therapy. J Cell Biochem 1994;56:283.). The osteogenic potential of these cells is of particular interest, given their recent usage for the closure of critical-sized bone defects and other nonhealing bone scenarios such as a nonunion. Recent literature suggests that inflammatory cytokines can significantly impact the osteogenic potential of these cells. A review of relevant, recent literature is presented regarding the impact of the inflammatory cascade on the osteogenic differentiation of these cells and how this varies across species. Finally, we identify areas of conflicting or absent evidence regarding the behavior of mesenchymal stem cells in response to inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23972621

  17. Microbial and Functional Diversity within the Phyllosphere of Espeletia Species in an Andean High-Mountain Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Carlos A; Restrepo, Silvia; Zambrano, María Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Microbial populations residing in close contact with plants can be found in the rhizosphere, in the phyllosphere as epiphytes on the surface, or inside plants as endophytes. Here, we analyzed the microbiota associated with Espeletia plants, endemic to the Páramo environment of the Andes Mountains and a unique model for studying microbial populations and their adaptations to the adverse conditions of high-mountain neotropical ecosystems. Communities were analyzed using samples from the rhizosphere, necromass, and young and mature leaves, the last two analyzed separately as endophytes and epiphytes. The taxonomic composition determined by performing sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene indicated differences among populations of the leaf phyllosphere, the necromass, and the rhizosphere, with predominance of some phyla but only few shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Functional profiles predicted on the basis of taxonomic affiliations differed from those obtained by GeoChip microarray analysis, which separated community functional capacities based on plant microenvironment. The identified metabolic pathways provided insight regarding microbial strategies for colonization and survival in these ecosystems. This study of novel plant phyllosphere microbiomes and their putative functional ecology is also the first step for future bioprospecting studies in search of enzymes, compounds, or microorganisms relevant to industry or for remediation efforts. PMID:26746719

  18. Contrasting plant diversification histories within the Andean biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Pennington, R Toby; Lavin, Matt; Särkinen, Tiina; Lewis, Gwilym P; Klitgaard, Bente B; Hughes, Colin E

    2010-08-01

    The Andes are the most species-rich global biodiversity hotspot. Most research and conservation attention in the Andes has focused on biomes such as rain forest, cloud forest, and páramo, where much plant species diversity is the hypothesized result of rapid speciation associated with the recent Andean orogeny. In contrast to these mesic biomes, we present evidence for a different, older diversification history in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) occupying rain-shadowed inter-Andean valleys. High DNA sequence divergence in Cyathostegia mathewsii, a shrub endemic to inter-Andean SDTF, indicates isolation for at least 5 million years of populations separated by only ca. 600 km of high cordillera in Peru. In conjunction with fossil evidence indicating the presence of SDTF in the Andes in the late Miocene, our data suggest that the disjunct small valley pockets of inter-Andean SDTF have persisted over millions of years. These forests are rich in endemic species but massively impacted, and merit better representation in future plans for science and conservation in Andean countries. PMID:20643954

  19. How to pose the question matters: Behavioural Economics concepts in decision making on the basis of ensemble forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Leonardo; van Andel, Schalk Jan

    2014-05-01

    Part of recent research in ensemble and probabilistic hydro-meteorological forecasting analyses which probabilistic information is required by decision makers and how it can be most effectively visualised. This work, in addition, analyses if decision making in flood early warning is also influenced by the way the decision question is posed. For this purpose, the decision-making game "Do probabilistic forecasts lead to better decisions?", which Ramos et al (2012) conducted at the EGU General Assembly 2012 in the city of Vienna, has been repeated with a small group and expanded. In that game decision makers had to decide whether or not to open a flood release gate, on the basis of flood forecasts, with and without uncertainty information. A conclusion of that game was that, in the absence of uncertainty information, decision makers are compelled towards a more risk-averse attitude. In order to explore to what extent the answers were driven by the way the questions were framed, in addition to the original experiment, a second variant was introduced where participants were asked to choose between a sure value (for either loosing or winning with a giving probability) and a gamble. This set-up is based on Kahneman and Tversky (1979). Results indicate that the way how the questions are posed may play an important role in decision making and that Prospect Theory provides promising concepts to further understand how this works.

  20. Probing Hypoxia-Induced Staurosporine Resistance in Prostate Cancer Cells with a Microfluidic Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Grishma; Hiemstra, Scott

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic system for cell culture and drug response studies was developed to elucidate the effects of hypoxia on drug susceptibility. Drug response studies were performed in prostate cancer cells and Ramos B cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. A vacuum actuated microfluidic culture device was used for cell culture and PC3 cells were cultured in the chip up to 16 hours. Cells were treated with several concentrations of staurosporine and apoptosis was assayed using the fluorescent probes MitoTracker Red and Annexin-V. For hypoxic samples, the chip was placed in a hypoxia chamber and pre-conditioned at <1% oxygen before inducing the cells with staurosporine. Cells exposed to 2 μM staurosporine were 32% ± 10% apoptotic under normoxic conditions but only 1.5% ± 12% apoptotic under hypoxic conditions. As little as 1 hour of hypoxic preconditioning increased drug resistance. Cell apoptosis correlated with drug dose, although in each case hypoxia reduced the apoptotic fraction significantly. Given the rapid nature of cell adaptation to hypoxia, this chip and analysis approach can be used to identify compounds that can induce cell death in hypoxic tumor cells rapidly. PMID:24479128

  1. A Quantitative Examination of Undergraduate Neuroscience Majors Applying and Matriculating to Osteopathic Medical School.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Raddy L; Guercio, Erik; Levitan, Thomas; O'Malley, Shannon; Smith, Phoebe T

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduates choose to become neuroscience majors for a number of reasons including future career goals. Faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs understand that many neuroscience majors have aspirations of applying and matriculating to medical school (Prichard, 2015); however a quantitative understanding of this particular student population remains unknown, especially in the context of the national growth in undergraduate neuroscience education (Ramos et al., 2011). In the present report, we use medical school application data to establish a novel quantitative understanding of the number of neuroscience majors that apply and matriculate to osteopathic medical school. Our data indicate that a substantial number of neuroscience majors do indeed apply and matriculate to medical school compared to other majors in the life sciences, math and physical sciences, and humanities. These data are relevant to faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs and suggest that when programmatic, curricular, and training decisions are made, they should be made in the context of the diverse motivations and professional goals of neuroscience majors including careers in medicine. Finally, our novel quantitative approach of determining student motivation and professional goals based on application/matriculation data, can complement traditional methods such as surveys and questionnaires and can be used to determine the extent to which neuroscience majors apply to other professional and graduate degree programs. PMID:27385924

  2. Navitoclax (ABT-263) and bendamustine ± rituximab induce enhanced killing of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma tumours in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ackler, S; Mitten, MJ; Chen, J; Clarin, J; Foster, K; Jin, S; Phillips, DC; Schlessinger, S; Wang, B; Leverson, JD; Boghaert, ER

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bendamustine with or without rituximab provides an effective and more tolerable alternative to the polytherapy cyclophosphamide–doxorubicin–vincristine–prednisolone (CHOP) in the treatment of haematological tumours and is currently approved for the treatment of many haematological malignancies. Navitoclax (ABT-263) is a potent inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w, which has demonstrated efficacy in haematological tumours alone and in combination with other agents. This paper describes the in vivo efficacy of combining either bendamustine or bendamustine plus rituximab (BR) with navitoclax in xenograft models of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Activity was tested in xenograft models of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DoHH-2, SuDHL-4), mantle cell lymphoma (Granta 519) and Burkitt's lymphoma (RAMOS). Activity was also monitored in a systemic model of Granta 519. KEY RESULTS Navitoclax potentiated bendamustine activity in all cell lines tested. Bendamustine activated p53 in Granta 519 tumours, concurrent with activation of caspase 3. Navitoclax also improved responses to bendamustine-rituximab (BR) in a subset of tumours. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Navitoclax in combination with bendamustine and BR is a viable combination strategy for use in the clinic and demonstrated superior efficacy compared with previously reported data for navitoclax plus CHOP and rituximab-CHOP. PMID:22624727

  3. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase IX expression and extracellular pH in B-cell lymphoma cell line models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liu Qi; Howison, Christine M; Spier, Catherine; Stopeck, Alison T; Malm, Scott W; Pagel, Mark D; Baker, Amanda F

    2015-05-01

    The expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) and its relationship to acidosis in lymphomas has not been widely studied. We investigated the protein expression of CA IX in a human B-cell lymphoma tissue microarray, and in Raji, Ramos and Granta 519 lymphoma cell lines and tumor models, while also investigating the relationship with hypoxia. An imaging method, acidoCEST magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was used to estimate lymphoma xenograft extracellular pH (pHe). Our results showed that clinical lymphoma tissues and cell line models in vitro and in vivo had moderate CA IX expression. Although in vitro studies showed that CA IX expression was induced by hypoxia, in vivo studies did not show this correlation. Untreated lymphoma xenograft tumor pHe had acidic fractions, and an acidity score was qualitatively correlated with CA IX expression. Therefore, CA IX is expressed in B-cell lymphomas and is qualitatively correlated with extracellular acidosis in xenograft tumor models. PMID:25130478

  4. Novel oral histone deacetylase inhibitor, MPT0E028, displays potent growth-inhibitory activity against human B-cell lymphoma in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han-Li; Peng, Chieh-Yu; Lai, Mei-Jung; Chen, Chun-Han; Lee, Hsueh-Yun; Wang, Jing-Chi; Liou, Jing-Ping; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Teng, Che-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor has been a promising therapeutic option in cancer therapy due to its ability to induce growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrated that MPT0E028, a novel HDAC inhibitor, reduces the viability of B-cell lymphomas by inducing apoptosis and shows a more potent HDAC inhibitory effect compared to SAHA, the first HDAC inhibitor approved by the FDA. In addition to HDACs inhibition, MPT0E028 also possesses potent direct Akt targeting ability as measured by the kinome diversity screening assay. Also, MPT0E028 reduces Akt phosphorylation in B-cell lymphoma with an IC50 value lower than SAHA. Transient transfection assay revealed that both targeting HDACs and Akt contribute to the apoptosis induced by MPT0E028, with both mechanisms functioning independently. Microarray analysis also shows that MPT0E028 may regulate many oncogenes expression (e.g., TP53, MYC, STAT family). Furthermore, in vivo animal model experiments demonstrated that MPT0E028 (50–200 mg/kg, po, qd) prolongs the survival rate of mice bearing human B-cell lymphoma Ramos cells and inhibits tumor growth in BJAB xenograft model. In summary, MPT0E028 possesses strong in vitro and in vivo activity against malignant cells, representing a potential therapeutic approach for cancer therapy. PMID:25669976

  5. Y chromosome haplotype analysis in Portuguese cattle breeds using SNPs and STRs.

    PubMed

    Ginja, Catarina; Telo da Gama, Luís; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T

    2009-01-01

    DNA samples from 307 males of 13 Portuguese native cattle breeds, 57 males of the 3 major exotic breeds in Portugal (Charolais, Friesian, and Limousin), and 5 Brahman (Bos indicus) were tested for 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1 "indel," and 7 microsatellites specific to the Y chromosome. The 13 Y-haplotypes defined included 3 previously described patrilines (Y1, Y2, and Y3) and 10 new haplotypes within Bos taurus. Native cattle contained most of the diversity with 7 haplotypes (H2Y1, H3Y1, H5Y1, H7Y2, H8Y2, H10Y2, and H12Y2) found only in these breeds. H6Y2 and H11Y2 occurred in high frequency across breeds including the exotics. Introgression of Friesian cattle into Ramo Grande was inferred through their sharing of haplotype H4Y1. Among the native breeds, Mertolenga had the highest haplotype diversity (0.68 +/- 0.07), Brava de Lide was the least differentiated. The analyses of molecular variance showed significant (P < 0.0001) differences between breeds with more than 64% of the total genetic variation found among breeds within groups and 33-35% within breeds. The detection of INRA189-104 allele in 8 native breeds suggested influence of African cattle in breeds of the Iberian Peninsula. The presence in Portuguese breeds of Y1 patrilines, also found in aurochs, could represent more ancient local haplotypes. PMID:18832111

  6. In-situ laser synthesis of rare earth aluminate coatings in the system Ln-Al-O ( Ln = Y, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Francisco, I.; Lennikov, V. V.; Bea, J. A.; Vegas, A.; Carda, J. B.; de la Fuente, G. F.

    2011-09-01

    Laser zone melting (LZM) was employed in this work to prepare Ln-Al-O coatings on polycrystalline Al 2O 3 substrates, using the corresponding mixtures of powdered rare-earth oxides and Al 2O 3 as starting materials. In-situ synthesis of the compounds Ln = Y, Gd was performed using a CO 2 laser, emitting at 10.6 μm. Microstructure (SEM) and phase nature (XRD) demonstrated in-situ formation of Al 2O 3/Y 3Al 5O 12(YAG) and Al 2O 3/GdAlO 3(GAP) eutectic systems. The interaction with the substrate resulted in mechanically stable, well integrated 200-500 μm thick composite coatings, as observed in nanoindentation tests. The phase relations found in these materials are consistent with the crystallographic concepts advanced by Vegas (Ramos-Gallardo & Vegas, J. Solid State Chem. 128 (1997) 69), where cation sub-arrays are proposed to play an important role in governing metal oxide structures. These sub-arrays are suggested as the structural drive behind eutectic oxide formation. LZM proves to be a convenient method to investigate the behaviour of complex oxide systems at high temperature, to apply a rational concept towards the understanding of phase relations and to develop design criteria for oxide coatings.

  7. Proteomic Changes during B Cell Maturation: 2D-DIGE Approach

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Johanna; Rönnholm, Gunilla; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Vihinen, Mauno

    2013-01-01

    B cells play a pivotal role in adaptive immune system, since they maintain a delicate balance between recognition and clearance of foreign pathogens and tolerance to self. During maturation, B cells progress through a series of developmental stages defined by specific phenotypic surface markers and the rearrangement and expression of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. To get insight into B cell proteome during the maturation pathway, we studied differential protein expression in eight human cell lines, which cover four distinctive developmental stages; early pre-B, pre-B, plasma cell and immature B cell upon anti-IgM stimulation. Our two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry based proteomic study indicates the involvement of large number of proteins with various functions. Notably, proteins related to cytoskeleton were relatively highly expressed in early pre-B and pre-B cells, whereas plasma cell proteome contained endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi system proteins. Our long time series analysis in anti-IgM stimulated Ramos B cells revealed the dynamic regulation of cytoskeleton organization, gene expression and metabolic pathways, among others. The findings are related to cellular processes in B cells and are discussed in relation to experimental information for the proteins and pathways they are involved in. Representative 2D-DIGE maps of different B cell maturation stages are available online at http://structure.bmc.lu.se/BcellProteome/. PMID:24205016

  8. Regional polyphase deformation of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina Andean foreland): strengths and weaknesses of paleostress inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traforti, Anna; Zampieri, Dario; Massironi, Matteo; Viola, Giulio; Alvarado, Patricia; Di Toro, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas of central Argentina are composed of a series of basement-cored ranges, located in the Andean foreland c. 600 km east of the Andean Cordillera. Although uplift of the ranges is partly attributed to the regional Neogene evolution (Ramos et al. 2002), many questions remain as to the timing and style of deformation. In fact, the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas show compelling evidence of a long lasting brittle history (spanning the Early Carboniferous to Present time), characterised by several deformation events reflecting different tectonic regimes. Each deformation phase resulted in further strain increments accommodated by reactivation of inherited structures and rheological anisotropies (Martino 2003). In the framework of such a polyphase brittle tectonic evolution affecting highly anisotropic basement rocks, the application of paleostress inversion methods, though powerful, suffers from some shortcomings, such as the likely heterogeneous character of fault slip datasets and the possible reactivation of even highly misoriented structures, and thus requires careful analysis. The challenge is to gather sufficient fault-slip data, to develop a proper understanding of the regional evolution. This is done by the identification of internally consistent fault and fracture subsets (associated to distinct stress states on the basis of their geometric and kinematic compatibility) in order to generate a chronologically-constrained evolutionary conceptual model. Based on large fault-slip datasets collected in the Sierras de Cordoba (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas), reduced stress tensors have been generated and interpreted as part of an evolutionary model by considering the obtained results against: (i) existing K-Ar illite ages of fault gouges in the study area (Bense et al. 2013), (ii) the nature and orientation of pre-existing anisotropies and (iii) the present-day stress field due to the convergence of the Nazca and South America plates (main shortening

  9. Changes in circulation type frequencies for present and future climates - the case of Northwestern Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Taboada, J. J.; Gimeno, L.

    2010-05-01

    Circulation types are associated with surface climatic variables, like precipitation or temperature. Because of these links, the circulation types can also be a useful tool not only to validate the control simulations of the coupled general circulation models (CGCM) but also to analyze changes in the circulation patterns under future climate change scenarios. In this study, the circulation type used was an automated version of the Lamb weather types adopted with success for the NW Iberian Peninsula in 2008 by Lorenzo et al and using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Mean seasonal circulation type frequencies for the period 1948-2008 were also computed. Linear trends were analyzed taking into account not only all period of analysis but also for two sub-periods (1948-1975 and 1976-2008); these two sub-periods are coincident with a general change in circulation in the Northern Hemisphere (Trenberth, 1990; Ramos et al, 2009). The Mann-Kendall test was applied to analyze the trends' significance. We have also studied changes in WT frequency in future climate change scenarios based on the output runs of several GCMs used for the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. The chosen models were the IPSL-CM4; the ECHAM5/MPI-OM and the CCSM3 motivated by the availability of the daily data. To do so, we have used Sea Level Pressure (SLP) data from different forcing simulations corresponding to three emission scenarios representing low (B1), medium (A1B) and high (A2) concentration of CO2 and from a 20th century control simulation. The difference between the seasonal mean SLP fields of three models and the reanalysis are computed in order to evaluate the ability of the models to reproduce the present climate. Since our WT classification (Lorenzo et al, 2008) is sensitive to the SLP fields, the circulation types for each model were computed by removing the correspondent systematic seasonal errors observed in the SLP fields of each model. The comparison between seasonal frequency of circulation

  10. Peculiarity and vulnerability of karst settings, analyzed through a review of available environmental indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario; Mazzei, Marianna

    2016-04-01

    literature. They include indices as the Karst Disturbance Index (van Beynen & Townsend, 2005; North et al., 2009), the Karst Sustainibility Index (van Beynen et al., 2012), as well as indices defined for protected areas (Angulo et al., 2013), and for single caves, including those open to tourists (Cigna & Forti, 1988; de Freitas, 2010; Pani & Cigna, 2013; Ramos Donato et al., 2014; Trofimova, 2014). Each index will be critically reviewed, and its main aim(s) and scales of application (national, regional, protected karst area, show cave, single cave, etc.) described, by analyzing their practical implementation, and pointing out to the problems and difficulties, as well as to their advantages. References Angulo B., Morales T., Uriarte J.A. & Antigüedad I., 2013, Implementing a comprehensive approach for evaluating significance and disturbance in protected karst areas to guide management strategies. J. Environ. Management, 130, 386-96. Cigna A.A. & Forti P., 1988. The environmental impact assessment of a tourist cave. Proc. Int. Symp. 170th Anniv. Postojnska Jama, 29-38. de Freitas C.R., 2010, The role and importance of cave microclimate in the sustainable use and management of show caves. Acta Carsologica, 39 (3), 477-489. North L.A., van Beynen P.E. & Parise M., 2009, Interregional comparison of karst disturbance: West-central Florida and southeast Italy. Journal of Environmental Management, 90 (5), 1770-1781. Pani D. & Cigna A.A., 2013, The paradox of cave mine conservation. In: De Waele J., Forti P. & Naseddu A. (eds.), Mine Caves. Memorie dell'Istituto Italiano di Speleologia, ser. II, 28, 247-262. Ramos Donato C., de Souza Ribeiro A. & de Sousa Souto L., 2014, A conservation status index, as an auxiliary tool for the management of cave environments. International Journal of Speleology, 43 (3), 315-322. Trofimova E.V., 2014, A new approach to the assessment of cave environmental changes (as exemplified by caves in the Muradimovskoe Uschelie Natural Park). Geographia