De Vries, Anthon K.
Examines early childhood education in the Netherlands: its history, general conceptions of child upbringing and developmental psychology, organizational patterns, main research projects, and goals. (JH)
This discussion of the Netherlands Antilles focuses on the following: geography, the people, history, government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1980 the population totaled 253,400 with an annual growth rate of 1%. The Netherlands Antilles consists of 2 groups of 3 islands each, situated in the Caribbean Sea about 880 kilometers apart. 40 nationalities are represented. Dutch is the official language, but Spanish and English are spoken widely. Alonzo de Ojeda, a Spanish navigator, landed on Curacao in 1499, and in 1527 the Spanish took possession of Curacao, Bonaire, and Aruba. In 1634 the 3 islands passed to the Netherlands, where they have remained except for 2 short periods during the Napoleonic wars when the British ruled at Willemstad. According to the statute of 1954, which serves as the constitution, the Netherlands Antilles has a constitutional and parliamentary form of government. The highest power in the Kingdom of the Netherlands is the sovereign, Queen Beatrix, who is represented in the Antilles by an appointed governor. The independent court system is under the control of the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Justice. Each of the island territories has its own representative body, the Island Council. Politics are dominated by 3 issues: economic problems, the prospect of independence, and Aruban separatism. The economic well-being of the Netherlands Antilles is based principally on the operations of 2 huge oil refineries. Because of the high volume of shipments in and out of the 2 islands, Curacao and Aruba ports are among the busiest in the world. Until recently, petroleum or petroleum products accounted for about 85% of the dollar volume of imports and exports from the Netherlands Antilles. That figure has declined with the worldwide oil glut, and the refineries are using only 50-60% of capacity. The next most important industries are tourism and offshore investment and banking. The per capita income in the Antilles is one
Oomen, Annemarie; de Vos, J. A. M.
The labor market in the Netherlands is characterized by rapid economic and technological development. In response to this, a new approach to career development has been to expand individuals' career competencies. Education, employment policy, non-profit organizations, and corporate life are facing the task of developing career development services…
Información acerca de cómo sopesar la fuerza de los datos probatorios obtenidos de los estudios de investigación sobre terapias integrales, alternativas y complementarias en seres humanos con cáncer.
Boland, Wilfried; Habing, Harm
We describe the state of astronomical research in the Netherlands per early 2012. We add some notes on its history of this research and on the strategic choices for the future. Compared to the size of the country (16 million people) the Netherlands is maintaining a high profile in astronomical research over a period of more than one century. The professional research community consists of about 650 people. This includes research staff, postdocs, PhD students, technical staff working on instrumentation projects and people involved in the operations of ground-based telescopes and astronomical space missions. We do not take into account staff working for international organizations based in the Netherlands. Astronomical research in the Netherlands is carried out at four university institutes and two national research institutes that fall under the umbrella of the national funding agency NWO. The Netherlands is the host of two international organizations: ESTEC, the technology division of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE). The Netherlands are one of the founding members of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and of ESA. This paper will address a number of significant multilateral collaborations.
Vermetten, Eric; Olff, Miranda
The contribution to psychotrauma literature from Dutch authors has a long tradition. The relatively high lifetime prevalence of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not unique for the Netherlands and does not fully explain the interest in trauma and its consequences. In this overview of psychotraumatology in the Netherlands, we will discuss some of the key events and processes that contribute to the current interest. We outlined the historical basis and development of the field in the Netherlands, including the impact of World War II, the effects of major man-made or natural disasters, engagement in military conflicts, as well as smaller scale traumatic events like sexual abuse and traffic accidents. The liberal and open culture may have reduced stigma to trauma, while other sociocultural aspects may have contributed to increased prevalence. Finally, we describe Dutch psychotraumatology today and how history and culture have shaped the current scientific basis. PMID:23671764
Vermetten, Eric; Olff, Miranda
The contribution to psychotrauma literature from Dutch authors has a long tradition. The relatively high lifetime prevalence of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not unique for the Netherlands and does not fully explain the interest in trauma and its consequences. In this overview of psychotraumatology in the Netherlands, we will discuss some of the key events and processes that contribute to the current interest. We outlined the historical basis and development of the field in the Netherlands, including the impact of World War II, the effects of major man-made or natural disasters, engagement in military conflicts, as well as smaller scale traumatic events like sexual abuse and traffic accidents. The liberal and open culture may have reduced stigma to trauma, while other sociocultural aspects may have contributed to increased prevalence. Finally, we describe Dutch psychotraumatology today and how history and culture have shaped the current scientific basis. PMID:23671764
This 2-part report summarizes Dutch policy on mass media and reviews the status of cable television in the Netherlands. The first part defines the underlying principles of a national policy on mass media in relation to the press, commercial and educational television broadcasting, radio, cable television, and media research. Parliamentary debate…
This discussion of the Netherlands covers the country's cities and regions, population growth, households and families, housing, contruction, and spatial planning; ethnicity and religion; education; labor force and income; consumption; and transport and communications. As a small and mineral poor nation with a seafaring tradition, the Netherlands survives on foreign trade. In 1983, total export earnings amounted to nearly 62% of the entire national income. Over 72% of Dutch exports go to other member countries of the European Economic Community (EEC), but imports are more diversified, with 47% originating outside the EEC. Since 1848, the Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. As such, it is one of the most stable democracies in the world. The main administrative units are the 11 provinces, of which Noord-Holland and Zuid-Holland are the most populous and economically most important. Amsterdam remains the commercial center of the country, but its role as the principal port city has been taken over by Rotterdam. No community has more than 700,000 inhabitants, but the country as a whole is highly urbanized because of the large numbers of medium-sized cities. In 1983 the population of the Netherlands totaled 14.34 million, compared to 5.10 million at the turn of the century. In 1965, the total fertility rate was 3.0. The death rate has virtually stabilized at 8/1000. The Dutch life expectancy stands at 72.7 years for men and 79.4 for women (1983). Natural increase has already dropped to 0.4% a year. Apart from the slight impact of net immigration, the positive growth rate reflects the large proportion (53%) of the population in its reproductive years. Mean household sizes in the 11 provinces vary from 2.5 in Noord-Holland (in 1981) to nearly 3 in Overijssel and Noord-Brabant, whereas the proportion of 1 person households ranges from 16% in Drenthe and 17% in the somewhat traditionalist southern provinces of Limburg and
Kroneman, Madelon; Boerma, Wienke; van den Berg, Michael; Groenewegen, Peter; de Jong, Judith; van Ginneken, Ewout
This analysis of the Dutch health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, two major reforms implemented since the mid-2000s are among the main issues today. The newly implemented long-term care reform will have to realize a transition from publicly provided care to more self-reliance on the part of the citizens and a larger role for municipalities in its organization. A particular point of attention is how the new governance arrangements and responsibilities in long-term care will work together. The 2006 reform replaced the division between public and private insurance by one universal social health insurance and introduced managed competition as a driving mechanism in the healthcare system. Although the reform was initiated almost a decade ago, its stepwise implementation continues to bring changes in the healthcare system in general and in the role of actors in particular. In terms of performance, essential healthcare services are within easy reach and waiting times have been decreasing. The basic health insurance package and compensations for lower incomes protect citizens against catastrophic spending. Out-of-pocket payments are low from an international perspective. Moreover, the Dutch rate the quality of the health system and their health as good. International comparisons show that the Netherlands has low antibiotic use, a low number of avoidable hospitalizations and a relatively low avoidable mortality. National studies show that healthcare has made major contributions to the health of the Dutch population as reflected in increasing life expectancy. Furthermore, some indicators such as the prescription of generics and length of stay reveal improvements in efficiency over the past years. Nevertheless, the Netherlands still has one of the highest per capita health expenditures in Europe, although growth has slowed considerably after
Eling, Paul; Draaisma, Douwe; Conradi, Matthijs
In March 1805, Franz Joseph Gall left Vienna to start what has become known as his cranioscopic tour. He traveled through Germany, Denmark, and The Netherlands. In this article, we will describe his visit to The Netherlands in greater detail, as it has not yet received due attention. Gall was eager to go to Amsterdam because he was interested in the large collection of skulls of Petrus Camper. Gall presented a series of lectures, reports of which can be found in a local newspaper and in a few books, published at that time. We will summarize this material. We will first outline developments in the area of physiognomy, in particular in The Netherlands, and what the Dutch knew about Gall's doctrine prior to his arrival. We will then present a reconstruction of the contents of the lectures. Finally, we will discuss the reception of his ideas in the scientific community. PMID:21480037
Information and Documentation Centre for the Geography of the Netherlands, Utrecht.
This short booklet on the geography of the Netherlands, designed for use at the upper elementary and secondary levels, contains 17 short descriptive analyses of Dutch physical and human geography. Each section is well illustrated with diagrams and maps. Titles of the sections include (1) High Netherlands--Low Netherlands, (2) Land Reclamation, (3)…
PEB Exchange, 1998
Presents awardees of the Netherland's School Building Prize: those schools that have shown they can embrace new directions in school building design while adhering to budgetary limitations. Highlights general findings of the judges on school design and construct as presented by the 41 participating schools. (GR)
Information and Documentation Centre for the Geography of the Netherlands, Utrecht.
The atlas contains almost 40 photographs and 40 maps of geographical aspects of the Netherlands: the coast, dikes, canals, towns, and farmland. Each page contains a photograph, a section of a map showing the area in which the photograph was taken, and a discussion of several paragraphs about the geographical problems of the area and how they have…
SLOOS, ISAAEC; AND OTHERS
RECENT TRENDS AND EVIDENCES OF PROGRESS IN CORRESPONDENCE EDUCATION IN THE NETHERLANDS ARE CONSIDERED, TOGETHER WITH RESEARCH ON THE SOCIOCULTURAL AND MOTIVATIONAL ASPECTS OF PARTICIPATION IN CORRESPONDENCE STUDY, AND THE SPECIAL FUNCTIONS AND ADVANTAGES OF THE CORRESPONDENCE METHOD. THEORIES AND IDEAS UNDERLYING THE DIDACTICS OF CORRESPONDENCE…
A short, concise summary of the geography of the Netherlands is presented in this document. The introduction describes the country's governmental forms, physical location, provinces, population, and history. Geographic coverage includes: (1) the high and low Netherlands; (2) the struggle against flooding and land reclamation; (3) the polders, or…
Schäfer, Willemijn; Kroneman, Madelon; Boerma, Wienke; van den Berg, Michael; Westert, Gert; Devillé, Walter; van Ginneken, Ewout
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of health systems and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems. They also describe the institutional framework, process, content, and implementation of health and health care policies, highlighting challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. Undoubtedly the dominant issue in the Dutch health care system at present is the fundamental reform that came into effect in 2006. With the introduction of a single compulsory health insurance scheme, the dual system of public and private insurance for curative care became history. Managed competition for providers and insurers became a major driver in the health care system. This has meant fundamental changes in the roles of patients, insurers, providers and the government. Insurers now negotiate with providers on price and quality and patients choose the provider they prefer and join a health insurance policy which best fits their situation. To allow patients to make these choices, much effort has been made to make information on price and quality available to the public. The role of the national government has changed from directly steering the system to safeguarding the proper functioning of the health markets. With the introduction of market mechanisms in the health care sector and the privatization of former sickness funds, the Dutch system presents an innovative and unique variant of a social health insurance system. Since the stepwise realization of the blueprint of the system has not yet been completed, the health care system in The Netherlands should be characterized as being in transition. Many measures have been taken to move from the old to the new system as smoothly as possible. Financial measures intended to prevent sudden budgetary
Eindhoven, the Netherlands was one of the locations were Plasma Medicine originated: Eva Stoffels was one of the founders of the field. Since then, the attention for the field steadily increased. Nowadays, strong collaborations exist between the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) and the Red Cross Burn Wound Hospital in Beverwijk, the Amsterdam Medical Center, the Maxima Medical Center in Eindhoven, the Radboud University in Nijmegen, the Free University in Amsterdam, and also companies, both large industries (Philips) and SME's (Vabrema, Lavoisier, Plastech). At TU/e we focus on the plasma itself: developing real time non-invasive diagnostics like TALIF, LIF, IF absorption, Thomson, Rayleigh and Raman scattering, mass spectroscopy, etc, while at the same time developing numerical models on the MD2D platform. For the biology, microbiology and medical aspects we rely on our colleagues who have specialized in those areas. Lesions that are studied are burn wounds, permanent inflammations, diabetic feet, skin infections, and internal diseases like Crohn's disease.
Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient. PMID:24427846
Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.
The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.
This article outlines some of the policy issues currently faced by research-based universities in the Netherlands. The focus is on four leading universities (University of Amsterdam: UvA; Free University of Amsterdam: VU; Leiden University; and Delft University of Technology: TUD). The author visited these institutions as part of a Study Tour…
Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France). Ad Hoc Committee for Educational Documentation and Information.
In connection with the first simulation exercise of the Council of Europe's EUDISED project carried out in the field of research and development in education, national agencies were asked to provide 5-page reports on completed research and pilot projects. The Netherlands report covers 12 projects, providing for each the theme, project team,…
Romkens, Leon; Visser, Karel
The structure, history, objectives, and delivery of vocational education in the Netherlands were characterized through a review of existing documents explaining/regulating the Dutch vocational system and input from representatives of government, business, and labor. Vocational education was discussed within the context of the Dutch political and…
A Dutch physiotherapist expounds upon the conditions and culture surrounding the Bolderkar case. Despite being an extremely open society, the Netherlands has a strong Calvinistic tradition of noninterference in family matters. This was the primary reason for the public reaction about the case, and because of the denial of public officials of the…
Akgunduz, Yusuf Emre; Plantenga, Janneke
In 2005 the Child Care Act was introduced in the Netherlands. The explicit objective of the childcare reform has been to stimulate the operation of market forces so that childcare services are provided in an efficient way. The change towards a demand-driven financing system implies that there is no longer public provision of childcare services in…
Haartsen, Tialda; Strijker, Dirk
A remarkable present-day phenomenon in rural areas in the Netherlands is that young people, mostly males, often meet in small groups in self-built or at least self-fitted out sheds or caravans ("keten"). At first glance, these "keten" seem to be substitutes for more official entertainment sites in the relatively sparsely populated parts of the…
Information and Documentation Centre for the Geography of the Netherlands, Utrecht.
This document presents information on the physical and human geography of the Netherlands. In this third revised edition, the contents have been brought up-to-date and expanded. In addition, sections on physical planning and environmental problems have been added. The booklet is intended for use by geography classroom teachers and students at…
This article sets out the Dutch approach to the multicultural question. It focuses on how national policies, schools, teachers and teacher educators are addressing and making sense of questions of cultural and religious diversity. The article shows how the Netherlands has partly accommodated itself to greater cultural diversity through compulsory…
Labrujere, Th. E.
Aerodynamic design activities in the Netherlands, which take place mainly at Fokker, the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and Delft University of Technology (TUD), are discussed. The survey concentrates on the development of the Fokker 100 wing, glider design at TUD, and research at NLR in the field of aerodynamic design. Results are shown to illustrate these activities.
van der Schrier, G.; van Ulden, A.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.
The Central Netherlands Temperature (CNT) is a monthly daily mean temperature series constructed from homogenized time series from the centre of the Netherlands. The purpose of this series is to offer a homogeneous time series representative of a larger area in order to study large-scale temperature changes. It will also facilitate a comparison with climate models, which resolve similar scales. From 1906 onwards, temperature measurements in the Netherlands have been sufficiently standardized to construct a high-quality series. Long time series have been constructed by merging nearby stations and using the overlap to calibrate the differences. These long time series and a few time series of only a few decades in length have been subjected to a homogeneity analysis in which significant breaks and artificial trends have been corrected. Many of the detected breaks correspond to changes in the observations that are documented in the station metadata. This version of the CNT, to which we attach the version number 1.1, is constructed as the unweighted average of four stations (De Bilt, Winterswijk/Hupsel, Oudenbosch/Gilze-Rijen and Gemert/Volkel) with the stations Eindhoven and Deelen added from 1951 and 1958 onwards, respectively. The global gridded datasets used for detecting and attributing climate change are based on raw observational data. Although some homogeneity adjustments are made, these are not based on knowledge of local circumstances but only on statistical evidence. Despite this handicap, and the fact that these datasets use grid boxes that are far larger then the area associated with that of the Central Netherlands Temperature, the temperature interpolated to the CNT region shows a warming trend that is broadly consistent with the CNT trend in all of these datasets. The actual trends differ from the CNT trend up to 30 %, which highlights the need to base future global gridded temperature datasets on homogenized time series.
van der Gaag, J; Rutten, F F; van Praag, B M
Hospital use in the Netherlands is examined in a cross-section analysis of 1969 and 1971 data for 120 service regions. Elasticities of admissions with respect to bed supply and supply of general practitioners are calculated, and the substitutability of first level care (by general practitioners) for hospital care is considered. Substitution effects found indicate that the Dutch government's plan to reduce the ratio of hospital beds to population is feasible. PMID:1225868
Quality assurance in hospitals by means of an accreditation programme is becoming standard practice in more and more countries worldwide. Accreditation being defined as: "A self-assessment and external peer assessment process used by health care organizations to accurately assess their level of performance in relation to established standards and to implement ways to continuously improve". This article provides an overview of the current situation in The Netherlands. PMID:17249469
Vanheemstra, W.; Devries, B.
A computer model was used to estimate the technical/economical potential of wind energy in the northern Netherlands. Local wind supply, technical and economic characteristics of wind turbines, and local energy consumptions were assessed. The data of an average dairy farm are investigated to determine the parameters to be used. Results for several consumer groups are determined. A potential estimate for the province of Friesland is presented.
THE BIRTH OF THE DUTCH LAW: Euthanasia has been recently legalized in the Netherlands (since April 1, 2002). In this Article, we present the various cultural and historical factors that contributed to the law, the guidelines for the procedure and the resulting controversy. THE INTERVENING FACTORS: Internationally, the attitude concerning end of life care are heterogenic and also directly depend on religious and cultural factors. In the Netherlands, the health system promotes the maintenance at home of the terminally ill. However, the financial aspects (private health insurance) interact with the management of these patients. The rules for euthanasia are very strict and a declaration must be registered. Dedicated commissions are organised to control that the rules are applied. The current debate concerns the pertinence of the regulations, the attitude towards handicapped people and children, and the need to develop palliative care. The latter have only recently been developed in the country. The priority is focusing on old peoples' homes. The Netherlands is slow in this regard, but a new draft law is soon to be presented to the Authorities, and will most probably enable the gaps to be bridged. PMID:15105777
Weerts, A. H.; Berendrecht, W. L.; Veldhuizen, A.; Goorden, N.; Vernimmen, R.; Lourens, A.; Prinsen, G.; Mulder, M.; Kroon, T.; Stam, J.
During periods of droughts the National Coordinating Committee for Water Distribution of the Netherlands has to decide how the available surface water is used and allocated between different users (agriculture, navigation, industry etc). To support this decision making, real-time information is needed about the availability of surface water, groundwater levels, saturation of the root zone, etc. This real-time information must give insight into the current state of the system as well as into its state in the near future (i.e. 10 days ahead). For this purpose, the National Hydrological Instrument (NHI), running on a daily time step and consisting of a nationwide distribution model and surface water model coupled with a MODFLOW-METASWAP model of the saturated-unsaturated zone of the whole of the Netherlands, driven by measured and forecasted precipitation and evaporation (ECMWF-DET and -EPS), is used to obtain insight into the actual and forecasted states of the surface, ground and soil water in the Netherlands. The tool also gives insight in the actual and forecasted water demands by the different actors. The whole system is operationalised within Delft-FEWS, an operational forecasting system to manage data and models in a real time environment. The surface water and groundwater models can be compared with surface water measurements (discharges and water levels) and groundwater level measurements in real-time. ECMWF reforecasts will be used to gain insight in the performance of the drought forecasting system.
Bleijs, D A; Haenen, I T W C; Bergmans, J E N
Several regulatory organisations are involved in the assessment of clinical gene therapy trials involving genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in The Netherlands. Medical, ethical and scientific aspects are, for instance, evaluated by the Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (CCMO). The Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) is the competent authority for the environmental risk assessment according to the deliberate release Directive 2001/18/EC. A Gene Therapy Office has been established in order to streamline the different national review processes and to enable the official procedures to be completed as quickly as possible. Although the Gene Therapy Office improved the application process at the national level, there is a difference of opinion between the EU member states with respect to the EU Directive according to which gene therapy trials are assessed, that urges for harmonisation. This review summarises the gene therapy legislation in The Netherlands and in particular The Netherlands rationale to follow Directive 2001/18/EC for the environmental risk assessment. PMID:17721872
EEM Luiten; JJ Dooley; K Blok
This report documents trends in R and D and in particular (public) energy R and D in the Netherlands. Besides quantitative information on R and D and energy R and D, the report gives an impression of changes in science and technology policy, energy policy and changes in energy research priorities (both organizational and financial). In the Netherlands, 2.09% of GDP (or $6.7 billion) was invested in R and D activities in 1995. The private sector financed 46% of all R and D in that year. A small but significant fraction (9.3%) of the research performed in the Netherlands is financed by foreign public and private sector entities. Energy R and D has been identified by the national Strategic Foresight Activity as an important area of R and D for government support in the future. This is due in part to the overall decline in public support for energy R and D that occurred from 1985 to 1995. However, recent concern over climate change and energy policy has resulted in increased budgets for energy R and D. Recent policy documents (e.g., the Memorandum on Energy R and D in April 1998) and initiatives (e.g., a recent university energy R and D program; intensification of climate policy, partly in R and D) indicate the growing interest in addressing the issue of climate change partly through energy R and D. The Dutch government believes that the liberalization of the energy market in the Netherlands justifies an active role for the government to guarantee the longer-term transformation to a sustainable energy system. In terms of climate policy, the expanded and more efficient use of natural gas is seen as a suitable transition option towards a sustainable energy system. However, energy efficiency (and in particular energy efficiency in the industrial sector) and the introduction of renewable technologies (solar energy, wind energy and biomass) are generally favored for the long term. Recently, additional funding was allocated for research on industrial ''breakthrough
Mulder, Martin; Kupper, Hendrik
Agricultural education has been an essential factor in the success of agricultural development in the Netherlands. At present, as in many countries throughout the world, the position of agricultural education is threatened. Does agricultural education have a future in the Netherlands, and if so, what strategies are being used for its survive? This…
Schippers, Jan; Schorerstichting, J. A.
During the last 20 years, the Netherlands has established a name for itself throughout the gay communities in the world as a tolerant country for homosexuality. This document addresses some theoretical issues that play a major role in gay affirmative counseling and psychotherapy in the Netherlands and discusses some examples of the work in the…
James, Russell N., III; Wiepking, Pamala
Using data from 1,373 households participating in the 2005 Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey, this paper examines the characteristics of educational donors in comparison with other types of charitable donors and with nondonors. Charitable giving is quite common in the Netherlands, but there is no established higher education advancement…
Gerritsen, Debby; Maier, Robert
This article compares the perspectives of young migrants in the Netherlands with the dominant discourse on "migrants" at present. The integration of young "migrants" have been studied in the European research projects TRESEGY and PROFACITY with the help of a number of ethnographic studies and a questionnaire in the Netherlands. At present, the…
This one-page article examines recent trends in migration from the Caribbean to the Netherlands. "The number of immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba has risen since 1994. This increase is probably due to the economic situation in these countries." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293877
Stiekema, Esther I.
When the objectives of the Lisbon Convention were formulated in 2000, the Dutch Government decided that the Netherlands should give priority to achieving these objectives. In 2010 the Netherlands should be one of the most successful economies in Europe, which should itself be the most competitive knowledge-based economic region in the world. With…
van der Ploeg, Piet
In the Netherlands there are 400 Dalton schools, while Dalton education has all but disappeared elsewhere, including in its country of origin: the USA. Following a brief period in the 1920s in which it enjoyed strong international interest, it disappeared from the scene. How can it be that the Dalton Plan still exists only in the Netherlands? This…
New interest is being focussed on the more than 100-year-old field of fish culture in the Netherlands. The systems of production available show varying degrees of control of the fish and their environment, and they have a corresponding yield: 0.01-250 kg/m3/year. The recently developed recirculation systems (40-80 kg/m3) make possible the commercial production of luxury species of fish, independently of climatological conditions and having minimum effects on the environment. Some technical aspects of reproduction, housing, nutrition, growth, health control and marketing of the fish require further attention. But the absence of a solid tradition of fish culture is the main problem in the development of fish culture in the Netherlands today. Good fish stockmanship is required at farmers' level. And the organisation and governmental support, that turned agriculture into a highly successful industry, are also essential. For the moment, the most promising commercial prospects are provided by a number of luxury fish species: trout, salmon, eel, sole, turbot, tilapia, catfish, seabass and seabream. A joint effort may help to overcome the remaining technical and logistical uncertainties. PMID:3798438
van Tuyll, Maaike
The national security strategy is the Dutch government's instrument for multihazard risk management and is intended to contribute to the prevention of societal disruption as a consequence of a (future) disaster or crisis in the Netherlands. It considers the likelihood that a certain incident will occur, the impact if it should occur, and what can be done to prevent the occurrence and/or reduce the impact. In other words, "which threats is the Netherlands faced with, how serious are they, and what can be done to mitigate the consequences?" By annually assessing the likelihood and impact of different scenarios, the government is able to continually improve its overview of risks and to determine priorities regarding the allocation of resources for the prevention of, preparation for, and response to threats. At the start of the annual cycle of the implementation of the national security strategy, possible scenarios are identified. These scenarios are then drawn up and assessed by the Network of Analysts for National Security, resulting in the national risk assessment (NRA). On the basis of this risk assessment, a capabilities analysis is performed. This capabilities analysis assesses whether the country (government, private sector, and civilians) has sufficient capabilities (people, material, knowledge, skills, and procedures) at its disposal to adequately deal with the threat, and it considers which capabilities should be strengthened or developed. Finally, a report is prepared for the council of ministers. On the basis of this report, the cabinet decides which capabilities will be strengthened. PMID:23971823
De Jager, J. ); Doyle, M. ); Grantham, P. ); Mabillard, J. )
The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.
van Raan, Anthony F. J.; van der Meulen, Gerwin; Goedhart, Willem
We investigated the socioeconomic scaling behavior of all cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands and found significant superlinear scaling of the gross urban product with population size. Of these cities, 22 major cities have urban agglomerations and urban areas defined by the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics. For these major cities we investigated the superlinear scaling for three separate modalities: the cities defined as municipalities, their urban agglomerations and their urban areas. We find superlinearity with power-law exponents of around 1.15. But remarkably, both types of agglomerations underperform if we compare for the same size of population an agglomeration with a city as a municipality. In other words, an urban system as one formal municipality performs better as compared to an urban agglomeration with the same population size. This effect is larger for the second type of agglomerations, the urban areas. We think this finding has important implications for urban policy, in particular municipal reorganizations. A residual analysis suggests that cities with a municipal reorganization recently and in the past decades have a higher probability to perform better than cities without municipal restructuring. PMID:26751785
Kimman, J.T.N.; Horst, E.W. ter; Lysen, E.H.
The main goal of the Netherlands Photovoltaic Program is to create conditions to let photovoltaic solar energy play an important role in the dutch energy supply for the 21st century. Four of the most important conditions are: to create social support; to achieve progress in solar cell and PV-system R and D; to create a market for stand-alone PV-systems; and to gain experience with grid-connected systems in the built environment. For the grid-connected systems a plan has been adopted to reach 250 MWp of installed solar capacity in 2010. The main purpose of this so-called PV pilot plan is not just a scaling up of the production volume but to reach specific learning goals. In this way the scaling-up is an important and justified by-product.
Schleijpen, H. M. A.
This paper gives an overview of the activities on research and development in the technology area for landmine detection in the Netherlands. The main players, their projects and the long term and short term project goals are presented. The projects cover the range from military applications to humanitarian demining. In the "conventional" detection systems area the activities on Metal detection, Ground Penetrating Radar and Thermal Infrared are covered. Signal processing and Sensor fusion are key activities in this area and examples of these activities are shown as well. The focus for these techniques is on vehicle mounted and airborne multi-sensor systems. The activities are supported by more fundamental modeling of the interaction of sensors with the landmines and especially the effects of the environment of the mines on this interaction. In the area of more future oriented techniques the following techniques are discussed: forward looking Polarised Infrared for moving platforms, Neutron Backscattering techniques and Laser Vibrometry for acoustic detection.
Wagenaar, Karin; Baars, Jan
This article describes how families are functioning in the Netherlands, and how family therapy is used in mental healthcare. In the open Dutch society, new ideas are easily incorporated, as exemplified by the rapid introduction and growth of family therapy in the 1980s. In recent decades, however, family therapy has lost ground to other treatment models that are more individually orientated, and adhere to stricter protocols. This decline of family therapy has been exacerbated by recent budget cuts in mental healthcare. In regular healthcare institutes family therapy now has a marginal position at best, although family treatment models are used in specific areas such as forensic treatments. In addition, the higher trained family therapists have found their own niches to work with couples and families. We argue that a stronger position of family therapy would be beneficial for patients and for families, in order to counteract the strong individualization of Dutch society. PMID:22515464
Hendriks, Aart C; van Hellemondt, Rachèl E
The Netherlands does not have any specific legislation pertaining to human biological materials and data collection by biobanks. Instead, these issues are governed by a patchwork of laws, codes of practices, and other ethical instruments, where special emphasis is given to the right to privacy and self-determination. While draft legislation for biobanking was scheduled to enter into force in 2007, as of mid-2015 such legislation was still under consideration, with the intent that it would focus particularly on individual self-determination, the interests of research, the use of bodily materials collected by biobanks for criminal law purposes, and dilemmas around results that are clinically relevant for biobank participants. Under the current framework, the amount of privacy protection afforded to data is linked to its level of identifiability. International sharing of personal data to non-EU/European Economic Area countries is allowed if these countries provide adequate protection. PMID:27256125
Materstvedt, Lars Johan; Magelssen, Morten
This article is a response to Raphael Cohen-Almagor's paper entitled 'First do no harm: intentionally shortening lives of patients without their explicit request in Belgium'. His paper deals with very important matters of life and death, however its concept usage is in part misleading. For instance, the fact that medical murder takes place both in Belgium and the Netherlands is missed. Cohen-Almagor calls such acts 'worrying' and considers them to be 'abuse'. However, it remains an open question whether or not there can be such a thing as legitimate murder in a medical context. From the combined perspectives of justice and the duty to end unbearable suffering, there might be. Thus, key arguments for euthanasia are also prominent in an argument for medical murder. PMID:27114470
de Veer, Anke; den Ouden, Dirk-Jan; Francke, Anneke
As a result of the shortage of nurses, Dutch health care organizations want to recruit nurses from outside Europe (e.g. Indonesia, South Africa). The Dutch government, however, is not encouraging this policy and prefers to recruit within the European Union. In order to better support such nurses, it is important to know the problems European nurses encounter in The Netherlands. This study is about the experience of nurses from other European countries in The Netherlands. This paper addresses itself to three principal questions. First, how many nurses qualified in other EU or EU candidate states are starting to work in The Netherlands. Second, why do they come to The Netherlands. And finally what problems do they encounter when working in The Netherlands. A questionnaire has been send to all registered nurses trained in another EU or EU candidate state. The response has been 987 or 67%. Thus, far approximately 1500 nurses from other EU/candidate states have come to The Netherlands. Personal reasons, including marriage, are the most important reasons for their coming here. Half of the nurses took one or more courses before starting work in nursing in The Netherlands. These were often Dutch language courses. The nurses had to make a number of adjustments. Major difficulties were unfamiliarity with Dutch laws and the fiscal and social security systems, recognition of their qualifications and application for permits. Some basic issues, such as how to write a letter of application, caused problems. The language and unfamiliarity with the Dutch health care system made it difficult to find a job. When they had gained employment in nursing these problems remained the most serious. The conclusion is that international employment mobility in nursing is rather low in the case of The Netherlands. If the Dutch government decides to encourage the employment of nurses from abroad, several measures can be taken to make working in The Netherlands more attractive. PMID:15033553
Wyers, P J
After the Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) published the construction of his string galvanometer in 1901, the development of electrocardiography in the Netherlands was slow. During the next twenty years only a few string galvanometers were in use in the Netherlands, mostly in physiology laboratories. Publications concerning electrocardiographic tests on patients were scarce. In 1924, Einthoven was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for discovering the mechanism of the electrocardiogram. From that moment onwards, electrocardiography developed rapidly in the Netherlands and during the following 30 years particular use was made of the French string galvanometer designed by Boulitte. PMID:11789151
O'Sullivan, Dermot A.
Discussed are efforts originating in the Netherlands to assist the Soviet Union and Eastern European counties to form and carry out significant air and water pollution improvement policies. Examples of proposals and programs being formed are described. (CW)
Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.
The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S
Fricke, J. T.; Ruigrok, E. N.; Evers, L. G.; Simons, D. G.; Wapenaar, K.
The travel time of infrasound through the atmosphere depends on the temperature and the wind. These atmospheric conditions could be estimated by measuring the travel times between different receivers (microbarometers). For such an estimation an inverse model of the propagation of infrasound through the atmosphere is essential. In the first step it is useful to build a forward model. The inputs of our raytracing model are the atmospheric conditions and the positions of source and receiver. The model consists of three elements the source, the channel and the receiver. The source is a blast wave or microbaroms. The channel is the atmosphere and it takes into account the travel time along the eigen ray, the attenuation of the different atmospheric layers, the spreading of the rays and the influence of caustics. Each receiver is reached by different rays (eigen rays). To determine the eigen rays is part of the receiver element. As output the model generates synthetic barograms. The synthetic barograms can be used to explain measured barograms. Furthermore the synthetic barograms can also be used to evaluate the determination of the travel time. The accurate travel time is for the inverse model as input essential. Since small changes of the travel time lead to big changes of the output (temperature and wind). The travel time between two receivers is determined by crosscorrelating the barograms of these two receivers. This technique was already successfully applied in the troposphere (Haney, 2009). We show that the same can be achieved with more complicated stratospheric phases. Now we compare the crosscorrelation of synthetic barograms with the crosscorrelation of measured barograms. These barograms are measured with the 'Large Aperture Infrasound Array' (LAIA). LAIA is being installed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) in the framework of the radio-astronomical 'Low Frequency Array' (LOFAR) initiative. LAIA will consist of thirty microbarometers
Evers, F. W. R.
The situation in the Netherlands with respect to noise abatement is dominated by a steadily increasing activity both at the political and the administrative level. A new law with respect to the designation of noise zones around existing and future airports and military airfields was enacted on 1 October 1978. A comprehensive new noise nuisance act was signed by the Queen on 16 February 1979. Both laws were accepted by Parliament unanimously. This article describes the new regulations with respect to noise zoning around airports. To maintain the habitability of the environment around airports, a demarcation will be made between the interest of the people living there and those of aviation. A noise zone will be designated outside which the noise load from aircraft movements may not exceed a fixed maximum. Within this area, where a noise load above the fixed maximum is allowed, planning and building design measures will have to be taken. Although the exclusion of new housing within the noise zone is an essential element, the area will be used for other purposes by exchanging previously intended developments with those from areas outside the zone. The Minister in charge of physical planning will issue directives concerning the contents of local development plans and will indicate how such plans, once amended, should be put into effect. Termination of the use or habitation of existing buildings is possible as well as soundproofing of buildings. The costs of measures taken to prevent undesirable new developments and measures taken to improve the existing state of affairs are borne by the central government. But a charge has to be paid by the users of the airports to defray the costs.
de Wee, Eva M; Leebeek, Frank W G; Eikenboom, Jeroen C J
In the Netherlands, specialized care for patients with a bleeding disorder, including hemophilia, von Willebrand disease (VWD), and allied disorders, is concentrated in 13 Hemophilia Treatment Centers. The Dutch Hemophilia Treaters Society, the Dutch Hemophilia Nurses' Society, and the Netherlands Hemophilia Patients Society collaborate to optimize management of patients with a bleeding disorder. A recently updated consensus guideline of hemophilia and allied bleeding disorders provide guidance on the current optimal diagnostic strategy and treatment of VWD. Genetic testing is not routinely performed in the Netherlands. Desmopressin (DDAVP) is the choice of treatment in VWD patients responsive to DDAVP, as determined by a test infusion. Coagulation factor concentrates are used in nonresponsive individuals, in case of a contraindication for DDAVP, or in type 2B and type 3 VWD. These concentrates are available for all patients in the Netherlands; however, these may only be administered in a Hemophilia Treatment Center or under the care of a Hemophilia Treatment Center. Recently a study on moderate and severe VWD (the Willebrand in Netherlands study) was initiated to obtain more insight on VWD diagnosis, treatment, and the burden of the disease. PMID:22102190
All radioactive waste produced in The Netherlands is managed by COVRA, the central organization for radioactive waste. The Netherlands forms a good example of a country with a small nuclear power program which will end in the near future. However, radioisotope production, nuclear research and other industrial activities will continue to produce radioactive waste. For the small volume, but broad spectrum of radioactive waste, including TENORM, The Netherlands has developed a management system based on the principles to isolate, to control and to monitor the waste. Long term storage is an essential element of the management system and forms a necessary step in the strategy of controlled containment that will ultimately result in final removal of the waste. Since the waste will remain retrievable for long time new technologies and new disposal options can be applied when available and feasible.
Van Hoorn, W D
A multivariate analysis of the 1984 Quality of Life-Survey, which was held among Turkish and Moroccan heads of households in the Netherlands, shows that their fertility is affected by factors concerning their native country as well as by some aspects of life in the Netherlands. A low current number of children is associated with a higher education in the native country, an urban background and no strong commitment to Islam. In addition, the marital status at immigration and the nationality of the woman also show a particular correlation with the fertility. Some socio-cultural characteristics such as the woman's work and house-ownership also have a certain association with the family size. The likelihood of further declines in fertility among Turks and Moroccans living in the Netherlands is discussed. PMID:12314889
Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the
Euthanasia has been decriminalised in The Netherlands for the last 30 years, but it was only in April 2001 that the Dutch Parliament legalised voluntary physician-assisted suicide. The legislation incorporates developments in case law, including scope for peer review, and provides common ethical principles for a clear system of control over doctors' actions in regard to patients who request euthanasia. The legalised regulatory system may prove more effective in controlling voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia in The Netherlands than in countries where euthanasia remains illegal. PMID:12497737
Harmsen, C N; Van Der Heijdt, J
The authors provide data from a 1992 enumeration taken from computerized municipal population registers in the Netherlands. Information is included on characteristics of persons born in Suriname, the Netherlands Antilles, and Aruba who live in the Netherlands. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12286844
1999-01-01This is a three-frequency false color image of Flevoland, The Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. It was produced by combining data from the X-band, C-band and L-band radars. The area shown is approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers (15-1/2 by 17-1/2 miles). Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the image, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the image, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this image in blue. The changes in the brightness of the blue areas are equal to the changes in roughness. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is being used for both calibration and agricultural studies. Several soil and crop ground-truth studies will be conducted during the shuttle flight. In addition, about 10calibration devices and 10 corner reflectors have been deployed to calibrate and monitor the radar signal. One of these transponders can be seen as a bright star in the lower right quadrant of the image. This false-color image was made using L-band total power in the red channel, C-band total power in the green channel, and X-band VV polarization in the blue channel. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be
De Witte, Kristof; Cabus, Sofie J.
In line with the Lisbon Agenda, set by the European Council in the year 2000, European governments formulated ambitious plans to halve the level of early school-leavers by 2012. This paper outlines the dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands and analyzes their influence at both the individual and school level. While most policy measures…
The conducive economy challenges both the conceptual foundations and the practices of present-day economies. In the Netherlands, a few initiatives during the 1980s and early 1990s looked promising, in particular, as these initiatives focused on work quality as one major precondition for reducing disability and enhancing labor participation.…
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).
This volume presents a report on recent developments and current policy objectives in vocational education and training in the Netherlands. The study is based on a conceptual and analytical framework jointly elaborated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Secretariat and representatives of member countries. Organized in two…
Schapendonk, Claudia M.E.; van Beek, Janko; Vennema, Harry; Schürch, Anita C.; Schipper, Debby; Bodewes, Rogier; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Koopmans, Marion P.
Emerging viral infections can be identified by using a viral metagenomics approach for clinical human material. Diarrhea samples of patients with unexplained gastroenteritis from the Netherlands were analyzed by using viral metagenomics. Novel circular DNA viruses, bufaviruses, and genogroup III picobirnaviruses were identified. These data expand our knowledge of the human virome. PMID:24964003
Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education, The Hague.
This booklet describes opportunities for higher education study in the Netherlands along with information, addresses, and practical tips for foreign students who are considering taking a course or earning a degree at a Dutch institution of higher education. Six sections cover: (1) the investment of study abroad, (2) background on contemporary…
Patrinos, Harry Anthony
One of the key features of the Dutch education system is freedom of education--freedom to establish schools and organize teaching. Almost 70% of schools in the Netherlands are administered by private school boards, and all schools are government funded equally. This allows school choice. Using an instrument to identify private school attendance,…
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).
The Netherlands' career guidance system and policies were evaluated. Data were collected through meetings with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, analysis of data from a national questionnaire, and a review of pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: markets and the role of…
Describes Pica, an organization in the Netherlands which evolved from the Project for Integrated Catalogue Automation that includes the National Library and all university libraries. Topics include the organizational structure, the shared online cataloging system, interlibrary loan, library networks and database access, and electronic document…
Berg, M. J. M. van den
Recent legislation on adult basic education (ABE) in the Netherlands has two important aims: to offer one uniform organizational financial structure and to improve educational quality. ABE institutes have concentrated on restructuring the organization and merging the precursors. The change in structure is supported by a change in organizational…
Wolfensberger, Marca V. C.; Van Eijl, Pierre; Pilot, Albert
In Dutch universities, honors programs are a fast growing development. The first such programs started in 1993. Twenty years later a large number of programs are implemented at nearly all research universities and also at many universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands. Recent data have revealed significant diversity in the types and…
Helbing, J. C.
Although this report is several years old, it explores test development in another country, specifically the Netherlands, using American-developed and normed-instruments. The development of vocational maturity tests and the adaptation of Crites' Vocational Developmental Inventory (VDI), Super's Career Development Inventory (CDI) and Westbrook's…
Nieveen, Nienke; Kuiper, Wilmad
The extent to which the goals and contents of (compulsory) education should to be regulated has been a complicated balancing act in the Netherlands. Against a background of a long-standing statutory tradition of freedom of education, governmental decisions about "what knowledge is of most worth" have been delicate. The purpose of the analysis…
This article discusses several aspects of language planning with respect to Sign Language of the Netherlands, or Nederlandse Gebarentaal (NGT). For nearly thirty years members of the Deaf community, the Dutch Deaf Council (Dovenschap) have been working together with researchers, several organizations in deaf education, and the organization of…
van den Berg, Renate J.; Debast, Sylvia; Visser, Caroline E.; Veenendaal, Dick; Troelstra, Annet; van der Kooi, Tjallie; van den Hof, Susan; Notermans, Daan W.
Outbreaks due to Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 027, toxinotype III, were detected in 7 hospitals in the Netherlands from April 2005 to February 2006. One hospital experienced at the same time a second outbreak due to a toxin A–negative C. difficile PCR ribotype 017 toxinotype VIII strain. The outbreaks are difficult to control. PMID:16704846
In the Netherlands, as in the United States, the introduction of the concept of "mental health" in education is closely related to the development of a network of child guidance clinics. The first of these was established in Amsterdam in 1928. However, a substantial movement to actively promote mental health did not come into existence until after…
Fortuijn, Joos Droogleever
Feminist geography teaching in universities in the Netherlands originated 30 years ago in an academic context that counteracted this new development for ideological reasons. Nowadays, the neoliberal conditions of the market have replaced the conservative ideology that prevailed 30 years ago. Feminist geography is supported as far as it returns…
De Jong, Cornelis; Luycks, Lonneke; Delicat, Jan-Wilm
Since 2007 there is a full-time, 2-year professional training in addiction medicine in the Netherlands. The aim of this article is to describe in detail the development and present status of the Dutch Master in Addiction Medicine (MiAM) program. In this competency-based professional training, theoretical courses are integrated with learning in…
Statistical data relating to The Netherlands is presented in 50 maps that were originally published in the "Journal of Economic and Social Geography" between 1977 and 1986. Lengthy annotations accompanying each map provide important background information on the issues depicted. These elucidations were written with the foreign reader in mind, who…
Hirasing, R. A.; van Zaal, M. A. E.; Meulmeester, J. F.; Verbrugge, H. P.
This book presents information on the current health status of children and adolescents in the Netherlands. Chapter 1 discusses demographic factors, including population trends and life expectancy. Chapter 2 focuses on children's health status, reporting on child mortality rates, abortion, birth rate, family planning, perinatal health problems,…
... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden (70 FR 39734). The Commission is conducting reviews... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b)(19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May...
The Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden are leaders in introducing comprehensive and targeted risk reduction programs for pesticides. Describes these programs and their implementation, incorporating material obtained through interviews with representatives of the main constituencies involved in reduction Tables list pesticides that do not meet the…
Janssen, Fanny; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.
Purpose: This study assesses whether the stagnation of old-age (80+) mortality decline observed in The Netherlands in the 1980s continued in the 1990s and determines which factors contributed to this stagnation. Emphasis is on the role of smoking. Design and Methods: Poisson regression analysis with linear splines was applied to total and…
Fortuijn, Joos Droogleever
This paper discusses reforms in postgraduate education in geography in the Netherlands in the context of Europeanization and globalization. Europeanization and globalization have resulted in challenges as well as opportunities for students and universities. In terms of internationalization, Europeanization and the global economic crisis have…
Kranenburg, L C; van Ree, H E M I; Calis, A N M; de Pater, M; Buter, G J; van Maanen, C; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaarn, M M
Equine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis is an emerging disease of weanling foals and affects their growth and development. The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in The Netherlands is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in The Netherlands. Blood samples were taken from healthy foals before and after weaning and from healthy yearlings and mature horses on farms throughout The Netherlands. These samples were analysed for the presence of Lawsonia intracellularis-specific antibodies with a blocking ELISA. White blood cell count, packed cell volume, and total protein concentration were also measured in all foals. Information regarding housing, pasture access, and contact with pig manure on the premises was obtained for all animals. The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis antibodies in foals increased significantly from 15% before weaning to 23% after weaning (p = 0.019); it was 89% in yearlings and 99% in horses older than 2 years. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between the pasture-kept and stable-confined adult horses (97% and 100%, respectively), and there was no significant influence of contact with pig manure. None of the sampled animals showed clinical disease. In conclusion, the results suggest that Lawsonia intracellularis is widespread in The Netherlands and that seropositivity is not necessarily associated with clinical problems. The high seroprevalence in adult horses suggests long-term persistence of antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis or constant exposure to the bacterium. PMID:21528618
van Dijk, Cor; And Others
This document on the links between the world of work and the world of vocational training in the Netherlands includes 5 chapters, a list of abbreviations, and a 42-item reference list. Chapter 1 introduces the report. Chapter 2 outlines the Dutch system of industrial relations and presents the concept of "neocorporatism." Chapter 3 identifies…
Higher education in the Netherlands is divided into three sectors: traditional universities; schools for higher occupational education, known as "hoger beroepsonderwijs," or HBOs; and the Open University, which offers both university and HBO degrees for students unable or unprepared to attend traditional institutions. The HBO system, having…
Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.
In the Netherlands, the constitutional freedom of education offers the opportunity for the growing number of Muslims to establish state-funded Islamic schools. At the moment there are 46 Islamic primary schools; a number of schools are in the process of being established and there is still a need for an additional 120 such schools. Right from the…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…
de Bruijn, Elly
The orientation of vocational education towards competence-based education has led to fundamental changes in the work of vocational education teachers. This article pictures teaching in innovative, competence-based vocational education in the Netherlands. In a multiple case study, the teaching practices of 10 teachers from five vocational schools…
Wals, Arjen E. J.
In this article, the author talks about a student-initiated Initiative for Transformative Sustainability Education (ITSE) at Wageningen University in The Netherlands which has led to the development of an undergraduate minor called Sustainability-in-Action consisting of four interlinked courses. When formally approved, the minor will be offered…
Mooij, J J A; Albrecht, K W; Grotenhuis, J A; Zeilstra, D J; Staal, M J; Koot, R W
In 1993 the Netherlands Society for Neurosurgery started a yearly event, a "Quality Conference", specifically devoted to continuous medical education (CME). These conferences differ from "normal" scientific meetings, in the choice for specific topics, in the preparation with inquiries among all the Dutch neurosurgical centres, and in the way the results of these inquiries are discussed, preceded by lectures concerning the chosen topic by guest faculty and Dutch neurosurgeons. Each year's principal guest delivers the "Beks Lecture", named after the former professor in Neurosurgery in Groningen, Jan Beks. On several occasions, the foreign guests suggested to present this format for a larger neurosurgical forum. Therefore, it was decided to describe the various aspects of this format for CME in the Netherlands in a paper for Acta Neurochirugica. Examples of topics are given, a summary of two recent inquiries are presented and discussed, and the way of organizing such a conference including finance and the obligatory character are described. PMID:19194649
de Wit, M. A.; Koopmans, M. P.; Kortbeek, L. M.; van Leeuwen, N. J.; Bartelds, A. I.; van Duynhoven, Y. T.
From 1996 to 1999, the incidence of gastroenteritis in general practices and the role of a broad range of pathogens in the Netherlands were studied. All patients with gastroenteritis who had visited a general practitioner were reported. All patients who had visited a general practitioner for gastroenteritis (cases) and an equal number of patients visiting for nongastrointestinal symptoms (controls) were invited to participate in a case-control study. The incidence of gastroenteritis was 79.7 per 10,000 person years. Campylobacter was detected most frequently (10% of cases), followed by Giardia lamblia (5%), rotavirus (5%), Norwalk-like viruses (5%) and Salmonella (4%). Our study found that in the Netherlands (population 15.6 million), an estimated 128,000 persons each year consult their general practitioner for gastroenteritis, slightly less than in a comparable study in 1992 to 1993. A pathogen could be detected in almost 40% of patients (bacteria 16%, viruses 15%, parasites 8%). PMID:11266298
The Netherlands is the only industrialized country in which a large percentage of obstetric care takes place at home. Almost 31% of all deliveries are home confinements under supervision of a midwife or a general practitioner, and 84% of all postnatal care is given at home by maternity care assistants. To gain a better understanding of this unique situation, the structure of Dutch obstetric care is examined with special attention to the four pillars on which the system rests: the special protected position of the midwife, a generally accepted screening system for high-risk pregnancies, a well-organized maternity home care system, and the sociocultural environment in The Netherlands in which pregnancy and childbirth are considered normal physiological processes. Description of the obstetric system shows a degree of competition between the obstetricians, midwives, and general practitioners, in which the general practitioner has lost a considerable part of the "obstetric market." PMID:7830147
Stroobach, P.; Boerefijn, Ivar J.
The object of this study was to find the connection of photonic training in the Netherlands between the participating schools and the trade and industry. The Dutch Society of Optics did an enquiry into the quality of photonic education at the MBO/HBO level during the period of November 1996 to July 1997. The research was about the connection of the schools which educate photonics and the trade and industry. The main target of the research is to have a better understanding of the quality of the connection. Both from a students and/or graduate point of view as well as from a trainee mentors one. This research was strongly supported by the schools in the Netherlands who teach this kind of education. The way of research was by poll, which is held under a population of students and graduated people which at least had been in contact with the trade and industry in the area of photonics and their mentors.
De Wachter, Maurice A M; De Wert, Guido MWR
Two ethicists from the Netherlands' Institute for Bioethics file a report on their country in one of six Hastings Center Report articles on the status of reproductive technologies around the world. The situation in the Netherlands reflects the tolerant attitudes of the Dutch toward what are regarded as private matters. Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, and surrogate motherhood are available, and research on embryos is in the planning stages. Facilities offering reproductive services are regulated by the Minister of Health, with advice from the independent Health Council on Artificial Reproduction, the National Council for Public Health, and various insurance companies and professional medical organizations. Public policy debates center around such issues as the value of parenthood; involvement of third parties; secrecy about a child's genetic origins; privacy for semen, ovum, and embryo donors; access to services; and insurance coverage of treatment. PMID:11644022
Rudolf, Petra; de Graaf, Noortje; Koornstra, Renée-Andrée; van Tijn, Paula; Kool, Dorien
The visibility of women and the awareness of a healthy gender balance in physics in the Netherlands have clearly improved over the last few years. Initiatives to promote women and their possibilities to pursue a career in physics are plentiful and commendable. Nevertheless, the numbers do not yet show the desired impact of all these initiatives. Although student numbers have increased, the percentage of female first-year student remains at approximately 13% of the total students in physics. Similarly, the relative numbers of female PhD candidates and postdocs have been stable over the last years at (both) approximately 20% to 25%. Despite the number of women obtaining a PhD in physics and continuing a scientific career as postdoc, the presence of women further up on the scientific ladder in physics remains strikingly low. We will here focus on the current status, ambitions, and initiatives in the Netherlands to promote women, and especially to keep them, in physics.
de Nijs, Ton C M; de Niet, R; Crommentuijn, L
The National Environmental Assessment Agency of the RIVM in the Netherlands is obliged to report on future trends in the environment and nature every 4 years. The last report, Nature Outlook 2, evaluated the effects of four alternative socio-economic and demographic scenarios on nature and the landscape. Spatially detailed land-use maps are needed to assess effects on nature and landscape. The objective of the study presented here was how to create spatially detailed land-use maps of the Netherlands in 2030 using the Environment Explorer, a Cellular Automata-based land-use model to construct land-use maps from four scenarios. One of these is discussed in great detail to show how the maps were constructed from the various scenario elements, story lines and additional data and assumptions on national, regional and local land-use developments. It was the first time in the history of our outlooks that consistent, spatially detailed land-use maps of the Netherlands for 2030 were constructed from national economic and demographic scenarios. Each map represents a direct reflection of model input and assumptions. The maps do not show the most probable developments in the Netherlands but describe the possible change in land use if Dutch society were to develop according to one of the four scenarios. The large (societal) uncertainties are reflected in the total set of future land-use maps. The application of a land-use model such as the Environment Explorer ensures that all relevant aspects of a scenario, i.e. economic and demographic developments, zoning policies and urban growth, are integrated systematically into one consistent framework. PMID:15246572
Hendriks, Carlijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Kuenen, Jeroen; van Gijlswijk, René; Wichink Kruit, Roy; Segers, Arjo; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn
Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the origin of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Netherlands for 2007-2009 at the source sector level, distinguishing between national and foreign sources. The results suggest that 70-80% of modeled PM10 and 80-95% of PM2.5 in the Netherlands is of anthropogenic origin. About 1/3 of anthropogenic PM10 is of Dutch origin and 2/3 originates in foreign countries. Agriculture and transport are the Dutch sectors with the largest contribution to PM10 mass in the Netherlands, whereas the foreign contribution is more equally apportioned to road transport, other transport, industry, power generation and agriculture. For the PM2.5 fraction, a larger share is apportioned to foreign and anthropogenic origin than for PM10, but the same source sectors are dominant. The national contribution to PM levels is significantly higher in the densely populated Randstad area than for the country on average and areas close to the borders. In general, the Dutch contribution to the concentration of primary aerosol is larger than for secondary species. The sectoral origin varies per component and is location and time dependent. During peak episodes, natural sources are less important than under normal conditions, whereas especially road transport and agriculture become more important.
Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the
van der Eerden, L J; Tonneijck, A E; Wijnands, J H
The extent of yield reduction and economic loss caused by air pollution has been estimated for The Netherlands. Based on available data on direct effects only, each species was designated as sensitive, moderately sensitive or tolerant. On a nationwide scale, only ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen fluoride (HF) exceeded effect thresholds. Effects from pollutant combinations were assumed to be additive. Yield reductions were calculated, using 10 exposure-response relationships and concentration data from the Dutch air pollution monitoring network. Changes in air pollution levels result in changes in supply. By multiplying the supply with the current price, the so-called crop volume was calculated. Subsequently, changes in crop volume were converted into economic terms, taking into account demand elasticity. On the basis of these calculations, air pollution in The Netherlands reduces total crop volume by 5%:3.4% by O3, 1.2% by SO2, and 0.4% by HF. The slope of the nonlinear relationship between crop volume reduction and exposure level increases at higher concentrations. In general, air pollution causes relatively little loss to producers, since yield reductions are largely compensated by higher prices. If air pollution in The Netherlands would be reduced to background concentrations, consumers would experience a net gain of Dfl 640 million (US 320 million dollars). Although large amounts of data were attained through literature and our own experience for this study, many assumptions still had to be made to arrive at these conclusions. With the current available knowledge, validation of our results in the field is not yet possible. PMID:15092562
Early 1994 the 250 MWe IGCC demonstration plant in Buggenum, the Netherlands has been commissioned. Start-up of the integrated plant is in progress. From 1994 till 1996 a demonstration program is to be performed concentrating on economical aspects of IGCC, environmental aspects of IGCC, the IGCC performance, operation, control and availability and single component behavior. The IGCC demonstration project is accompanied by a long term R and D program which aims at reduced investment costs and improved efficiency, high availability and low maintenance costs, fulfillment of (Dutch) environmental requirements.
Robben, J H; Lumeij, J T
The composition of a number of parrot foods commercially available in the Netherlands was put to the test for the (partly hypothetical) needs of the larger psittacine birds such as African Grey parrots, Amazon parrots, macaws and cockatoos. These studies showed that the majority of the foods is multideficient. When the deficient foods are supplied to parrots without any additions, this will give rise to the appearance of disease. However, some of the products recently put on the market (Bogena and Kasper Fauna Food) comply better with the requirements of a 'complete parrot food'. As regards public enlightenment, food producers, petshops, consumer organisations and veterinarians are obviously responsible. PMID:2913689
Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L; Van Franeker, Jan A; Jansen, Okka E; Brasseur, Sophie M J M
Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics. Incidence of plastic was 11% for stomachs, 1% for intestines, and 0% for scats. Younger animals, up to 3 years of age, were most affected. This is the first quantitative study of plastic ingestion by phocid seals. The observed level of incidence is of environmental concern, but is low in the sense of suitability of seals for MSFD monitoring purposes. PMID:23245459
Bloemen, Hans; Hochguertel, Stefan; Zweerink, Jochem
Gradual retirement by which individuals leave their career jobs and withdraw incrementally from the labor force is an important empirical phenomenon in the United States. We analyze the current state of gradual retirement in the Netherlands using administrative data that allow much more precise tracking of labor market transitions than most survey panel data. We estimate multinomial transition models, taking into account competing pathways out of career employment at older ages, and discuss institutional aspects that limit the scope of gradual retirement, such as financial incentives to retire early. PMID:25963739
van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Platform Aardkundige Waarden, members
The Netherlands are known world-wide for its engineered landscapes, its deep polders and bulb fields. The deep polders, up to more than 5 meters below sea level, originated by reclaiming peat lakes and peat quarries made for fuel. Its bulb fields are situated on levelled permeable dunes on which the precise water management is possible that growing bulbs requires. The Waddensea and -islands are less widely known (except by German bathers), although they are a World Heritage. The Waddensea is a highly pristine tidal landscape that already occurs along the Dutch coast for over 10,000 years and an important Natura 2000 area. The Wadden islands have an interesting history of erosion and re-growth and old cultural landscapes that show the interaction of land use and small-scale differences in geology and geomorphology during different cultural periods. Therefore, it is time to change the international perception of foreign visitors to The Netherlands and add the high variety of its historical landscapes, partly pristine and partly old cultural landscapes, to its tourism qualities. The poster presents a Top 20 of a less spectacular but another internationally important Dutch landscape: the coversand sites of the Netherlands. The Top 20 is selected by Geoheritage NL's Platform Aardkundige Waarden. The coversands evolved during the Late Weichselian, when the Netherlands was not covered by land ice and for a long period of time was part of a polar desert. The coversand landscape with dunes of 0,5 m up to 15 metres is not spectacular, but very characteristic. The coversands comprise of more than half a kilometre broad and 40 kilometre long dunes, series of river dunes as well as isolated dunes. The coversands and related Holocene drift sands make up about a quarter of the Dutch landscape. Over a century ago more than half of this landscape still had its pristine topography. Now less than a few percent is remaining. Especially the few remaining heathlands on coversand are an
Lelkens, C C M; Koning, J G; de Kort, B; Floot, I B G; Noorman, F
For peacekeeping and peace enforcing missions abroad the Netherlands Armed Forces decided to use universal donor frozen blood products in addition to liquid products. This article describes our experiences with the frozen blood inventory, with special attention to quality control. It is shown that all thawed (washed) blood products are in compliance with international regulations and guidelines. By means of the -80 degrees C frozen stock of red cells, plasma and platelets readily available after thaw (and wash), we can now safely reduce shipments and abandon the backup 'walking' blood bank, without compromising the availability of blood products in theatre. PMID:16815757
Zomer, Jeroen; Spek, Theo
In recent decades, significant changes have occurred in ways of thinking about the genesis of the coastal areas of Northwest Europe. In the study of the Holocene coastal genesis of Northwest Europe, a new diversified model has been developed. While the old model was based on a synchronized and coherent development of the entire Northwest European coast, the new model focuses attention on domain-specific natural processes. At the same time, the interaction between man and nature in the coastal zone is put into another perspective. The idea that man unilaterally conformed to the natural influence of the sea has gradually been replaced by a more dynamic and co-adaptive model. These developments in ways of thinking are also important for the research of medieval reclamation of peatlands in the coastal area in the Northern Netherlands (present provinces of Friesland and Groningen). This research has long been overshadowed by theories and research concerning other areas, particularly the Western Netherlands. The classic uniform reclamation model, which has until now been applied to the peatland reclamations in the Northern Netherlands, needs revision. In my PhD research, I develop a new diversified reclamation model based on interdisciplinary research into the natural landscape and the reclamation history. The study focusses on the medieval peatland reclamations in the Hunze basin. The Hunze basin is a deeply eroded Pleistocene valley filled up with Holocene sediments in the Northern Netherlands, where in the late Holocene a tidal system has developed with its own domain-specific characteristics. This paper, based on empirical research, covers the reconstruction of the 'natural' early medieval coastal peatlands in the Hunze basin. From previous research, it is known that the complete study area was covered with a layer of peat. In these studies, however, no statements are made about the peat landscape itself or the vegetation. At present a major part of the peatlands has
Onstenk, Jeroen; Voncken, Eva
The impact of developments in work organizations on the skilling process in the Netherlands was studied through a macro analysis of available statistical information about the development of education for work in the Netherlands and case studies of three Dutch firms. The macro analysis focused on the following: vocational education in the…
Analyzes differences in the availability of school choice in the Netherlands, England, and Scotland, focusing on trends in 10 choice-related variables. Concludes that all three countries are moving toward an increased market mechanism but exhibit extensive differences, with the Netherlands approaching the market mechanism most closely. Contains 61…
International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).
At the request of the government of the Netherlands Antilles for assistance in the field of workers' education, the United Nations Development Program and the International Labor Office agreed to implement a three months mission in 1972 for an expert to advise and assist the government and the trade unions of the Netherlands Antilles to develop a…
Stolk, Vincent; Los, Willeke; Karsten, Sjoerd
Education during World War I has been a relatively unexplored field of research, especially in the case of countries with a neutral stance in that war. The Netherlands is one such country. This article argues that even though the Netherlands was politically neutral, it was and considered itself a part of western civilisation and shared in the…
Zandstra, Anne M.
This study compares the mission statements of a small sample of Christian elementary schools in the United States and the Netherlands. In the United States, Christian schools are private schools, while in the Netherlands Christian schools receive state funding, just like public schools. Content analysis of mission statements revealed similarities…
Bakker, Nelleke; de Beer, Fedor
In this article the authors address the question of why school medical inspection in the Netherlands developed not only considerably slower than the British service but did so also on a more modest scale in terms of the impact on children's lives. In the Netherlands school doctors were not allowed to treat children's illnesses and therefore never…
... Carboxymethylcellulose from the Netherlands; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 36519... clarification, see Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR... Netherlands and Sweden, 70 FR 39734 (July 11, 2005). These cash-deposit requirements, when imposed,...
For the Netherlands and England, higher education (HE) is of particular importance. Their knowledge-intensive economies would not remain competitive without highly qualified human resources and innovative research. Despite the importance of higher education in public and political debate, both England and the Netherlands spend a lower percentage…
Verheijen, Edwin; Jabben, Jan; Schreurs, Eric; Smith, Kevin B
The Dutch government aims at an increase of wind energy up to 6 000 MW in 2020 by placing new wind turbines on land or offshore. At the same time, the existing noise legislation for wind turbines is being reconsidered. For the purpose of establishing a new noise reception limit value expressed in L den , the impact of wind turbine noise under the given policy targets needs to be explored. For this purpose, the consequences of different reception limit values for the new Dutch noise legislation have been studied, both in terms of effects on the population and regarding sustainable energy policy targets. On the basis of a nation-wide noise map containing all wind turbines in The Netherlands, it is calculated that 3% of the inhabitants of The Netherlands are currently exposed to noise from wind turbines above 28 dB(A) at the faηade. Newly established dose-response relationships indicate that about 1500 of these inhabitants are likely to be severely annoyed inside their dwellings. The available space for new wind turbines strongly depends on the noise limit value that will be chosen. This study suggests an outdoor A-weighted reception limit of L den = 45 dB as a trade-off between the need for protection against noise annoyance and the feasibility of national targets for renewable energy. PMID:22122963
Bottelberghs, P H
In the Netherlands, external safety policy has been developed and implemented since the early eighties on the basis of a risk-based approach involving quantitative criteria for the tolerability of risk. Good experiences have been gained with the risk policy that applies to some 4000 establishments in the Netherlands where hazardous substances are present. On the basis of these experiences, legislation is now being prepared to give the risk tolerability criteria a full legal basis. This is aimed, in particular, to balance between risk control measures at the source through the licensing system, and spatial planning instruments to protect, e.g. residential areas against major hazards. The revision of the Seveso directive (96/82/EC) leads to the implementation of an integrated form of safety reporting, evaluation and inspection. Practical tools were developed for this implementation, e.g. for facilitating the selection of establishments and for assessing risks from major hazard establishments to surface water. In the past few years, the application of risk-based safety policy has been extended to other fields than establishments, e.g. for transport of hazardous chemicals and external safety of airports. PMID:10677654
Jongman, B.; Koks, E. E.; Husby, T. G.; Ward, P. J.
The effectiveness of disaster risk management and financing mechanisms depends on an accurate assessment of current and future hazard exposure. The increasing availability of detailed data offers policy makers and the insurance sector new opportunities to understand trends in risk, and to make informed decisions on ways to deal with these trends. In this paper we show how comprehensive property level information can be used for the assessment of exposure to flooding on a national scale, and how this information provides valuable input to discussions on possible risk financing practices. The case study used is the Netherlands, which is one of the countries most exposed to flooding globally, and which is currently undergoing a debate on strategies for the compensation of potential losses. Our results show that flood exposure has increased rapidly between 1960 and 2012, and that the growth of the building stock and its economic value in flood-prone areas has been higher than in non-flood-prone areas. We also find that property values in flood-prone areas are lower than those in non-flood-prone areas. We argue that the increase in the share of economic value located in potential flood-prone areas can have a negative effect on the feasibility of private insurance schemes in the Netherlands. The methodologies and results presented in this study are relevant for many regions around the world where the effects of rising flood exposure create a challenge for risk financing.
Lodder, Willemijn J; Rutjes, Saskia A; Takumi, Katsuhisa; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria
Detection of Aichi virus in humans was initially reported in Japan in 1989. To establish a timeline for the prevalence of Aichi virus infection among humans in the Netherlands, we conducted molecular analysis of archival water samples from 1987-2000 and 2009-2012. Aichi virus RNA was detected in 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 100% (7/7) of surface water samples collected during 1987-2000 and 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 71% (5/7) of surface water samples collected during 2009-2012. Several genotype A and B Aichi virus lineages were observed over the 25-year period studied, but the time course of viral genetic diversity showed recent expansion of the genotype B population over genotype A. Our results show that Aichi virus has been circulating among the human population in the Netherlands since before its initial detection in humans was reported and that genotype B now predominates in this country. PMID:23876456
Rutjes, Saskia A.; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Husman, Ana Maria de Roda
Detection of Aichi virus in humans was initially reported in Japan in 1989. To establish a timeline for the prevalence of Aichi virus infection among humans in the Netherlands, we conducted molecular analysis of archival water samples from 1987–2000 and 2009–2012. Aichi virus RNA was detected in 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 100% (7/7) of surface water samples collected during 1987–2000 and 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 71% (5/7) of surface water samples collected during 2009–2012. Several genotype A and B Aichi virus lineages were observed over the 25-year period studied, but the time course of viral genetic diversity showed recent expansion of the genotype B population over genotype A. Our results show that Aichi virus has been circulating among the human population in the Netherlands since before its initial detection in humans was reported and that genotype B now predominates in this country. PMID:23876456
Van Adrichem Boogaert, A. ); Kouwe, W. )
In 1991, the Geological Survey of the Netherlands started a project for revision and updating of the pre-Quaternary lithostratigraphy of Netherlands. This had not been done systematically since 1980. Main objective of the study are (1) to bring the lithostratigraphic ideas into agreement with new findings and increased knowledge of Dutch subsurface geology (lithostratigraphy was extended into the Lower Carboniferous and Devonian), (2) expansion and standardization of the definitions and descriptions of existing lithostratigraphic units, (3) application of modern concepts (e.g. sequence stratigraphy) in order to describe better the distribution of reservoir-prone sediments, and (4) to reach consensus on a number of stratigraphy-related subjects, such as a chronological time frame, application of biozonations, and the designation of the behavior of main structural elements through time. Eight working groups were formed, each working on a specific aspect or stratigraphic interval, under the supervision of a steering committee. Both working groups and steering committee were composed of persons from the Geological Survey, several leading oil companies and, in some cases, universities. Several working groups have completed their tasks, and updates of these stratigraphic intervals are available at the conference. Posters will display stratigraphic updates of lithostratigraphy for the Carboniferous, Zechstein, Lower Triassic, and Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous.
Davids, Femke; Stam, Jasper; Sprokkereef, Eric; van Dijk, Marc
Fluvial flooding is one of the major natural hazards in the modern world. In a densely populated area, such as The Netherlands, the possibility of flooding of the Rhine and Meuse poses a significant threat to society. There is a clear need for reliable and robust hydrological forecasting. The Water Management Centre for the Netherlands and Deltares have developed an early warning system that uses real-time data provided by a large number of European meteorological and hydrological gauging stations, weather forecasts from three different weather services, and rainfall-runoff and hydraulic models. Data assimilation techniques are used to update both model states and parameter outputs. In addition, a post processing method, quantile regression, is applied to hydrological ensemble output. This presentation will demonstrate the operational flood early warning system (based on Delft-FEWS) applied to these rivers. Recent challenges are, for example, the visualization of uncertainties on deterministic and probabilistic forecasts, the clear communication and visualization of the enormous amount of data available, and snow modelling.
Liu, Cha-Hsuan; Ingleby, David; Meeuwesen, Ludwien
This study examines utilisation of the Dutch health care system by Chinese people in the Netherlands as well as their attitudes to the system, paying special attention to mental health. Information was gathered by semistructured interviews (n = 102). The main issues investigated are access, help-seeking behaviour, and quality of care. Results showed that most respondents used Dutch health care as their primary method of managing health problems. Inadequate knowledge about the system and lack of Dutch language proficiency impede access to care, in particular registration with a General Practitioner (GP). Users complained that the care given differed from what they expected. Results also showed that the major problems are to be found in the group coming from the Chinese-speaking region. Western concepts of mental health appear to be widely accepted by Chinese in the Netherlands. However, almost half of our respondents believed that traditional Chinese medicine or other methods can also help with mental health problems. The provision of relevant information in Chinese appears to be important for improving access. Better interpretation and translation services, especially for first-generation migrants from the Chinese-speaking region, are also required. PMID:22295191
Been, J; Bok, L; Andriessen, P; Renier, W
Background: Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy is a rare cause of seizures in childhood. The diagnosis is made on clinical criteria, that in many cases are never met. Therefore, epidemiological data on pyridoxine dependency are scarce. Aims: To study the epidemiology of pyridoxine dependent epilepsy in the Netherlands, and to determine whether the diagnosis is based on the appropriate criteria. Methods: Nationwide all departments of paediatrics (n = 113) and of paediatric or neonatal neurology (n = 17) were asked to report cases of pyridoxine dependent seizures. Birth incidences were calculated using national data on live births from 1991 to 2003. Results: Response was received from 67% of paediatric departments, including all university hospitals and 94% of child neurology departments. Thirteen patients were reported. Four definite (31%), three probable (23%), and four possible cases (31%) were identified. Two cases (15%) did not meet criteria for either of these groups. The birth incidence was 1:396 000 for definite and probable cases and 1:252 000 when possible cases are included. Conclusions: Thus far, epidemiological data on pyridoxine dependent seizures were only available from the UK and Ireland. A higher incidence was found in the Netherlands, in accordance with earlier suggestions of a regional difference. The study shows that the diagnosis is often made without performance of a formal trial of withdrawal. The importance of confirming the diagnosis, concerning the consequences as for individual prognosis, the potential side effects of prolonged pyridoxine substitution, and the possibility of treating the mother in case of future pregnancies are emphasised. PMID:16159904
Background Most midwives in the Netherlands work in primary care where they are the lead professionals providing care to women with 'normal' or uncomplicated pregnancies, while some midwives work in hospitals ("clinical midwives"). The actual involvement of midwives in maternity care in hospitals is unknown, because in all statistics births in secondary care are registered as births assisted by gynaecologists. The aim of this study is to gain insight in the involvement of midwives with births in secondary care, under supervision of a gynaecologist. This is done using data from the PRN (The Netherlands Perinatal Registry), a voluntary registration of births in the Netherlands. The PRN covers 97% to 99% of all births taking place under responsibility of a gynaecologist. Methods All births registered in secondary care in the period 1998-2007 (1,102,676, on average 61% of all births) were selected. We analyzed trends in socio-demographic, obstetric and organisational characteristics, associated with the involvement of midwives, using frequency tables and uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses. As main outcome measure the percentage of births in secondary care with a midwife 'catching' the baby was used. Results The proportion of births attended by a midwife in secondary care increased from 8.3% in 1998 to 26.06% in 2007, the largest increase involving spontaneous births of a second or later child, on weekdays during day shifts (8.00-20.00 hr) from younger mothers with a gestational age (almost) at term. After 2002, parallel to the growing numbers of midwives working in hospitals, the percentage of instrumental births decreased. Conclusions In 2007 more midwives are assisting with more births in secondary care than in 1998. Hospital-based midwives are primarily involved with uncomplicated births of women with relatively low risk demographical and obstetrical characteristics. However, they are still only involved with half of the less complicated births
Zondag, Hessel J; Van Halen, Cor; Wojtkowiak, Joanna
This article reports a study of the relation between narcissism as a personality characteristic and the cultural dimension of individualism/collectivism. Participants from a more collectivistic society (Poland; n = 167) were compared with participants from a more individualistic society (The Netherlands; n = 156). Two dimensions of narcissism were distinguished: overt and covert. The cultural tendency for narcissism was measured by comparing average scores on both types of narcissism in both countries, as well as by the meaning that overt and covert narcissism seems to have for psychological well-being. More specifically, the correlations were compared among both types of narcissism and depression and meaning of life. In the Polish sample, the average score on covert narcissism was higher. In the Dutch sample, on the other hand, depression and meaning of life were significantly related to covert narcissism. PMID:19708410
Kempen, Elise van
The impact of environmental noise on public health, in The Netherlands, is limited: Less than 1% of the myocardial infarction cases per year are attributable to long-term exposure to road traffic noise. Furthermore, although the Dutch noise policy is not directed to prevent cardiovascular disease due to noise exposure, health does play a role in Dutch noise policy. These are the main conclusions of a systematic review of Dutch observational studies, investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Since 1970, 14 Dutch studies were published investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Within these studies a large variety of outcomes were investigated, ranging from blood pressure changes to cardiovascular mortality. The results of the studies were not consistent and only weak associations were found. PMID:21537106
Roeleveld, P J; van Loosdrecht, M C M
In this paper experiences and results are presented with guidelines for wastewater characterisation that are standardised in The Netherlands for modelling purposes with ASM. The wastewater characterisation is based on a physical-chemical method to characterise the soluble and particulate fractions, combined with a BOD-analysis for characterising the biodegradable fraction of the influent COD. By following the guidelines, a sufficiently detailed and practical characterisation is obtained, and the results can be used for simulation studies on treatment plants for process optimisation, trouble-shooting and design assistance. At present, five years of experience is gained with the guidelines and they were used for the simulation of circa 100 treatment plants. The guidelines are evaluated as simple and easy to implement in routine analysis programs. PMID:11989880
de Winter, Renske; Ruessink, Gerben
The dunes in the Netherlands are occasionally eroded as a result of storms and corresponding storm surge levels and extreme waves. We discuss the effect of climate change and the corresponding sea level rise on dune erosion. With the XBeach dune erosion model we studied two representative profiles and analysed the effect of sea-level rise ranging from 0.20 to 2.50 m on dune erosion, as well as changes in the angle of wave incidence. The eroded volume in our XBeach model under storm conditions is in the order of magnitude of previous studies. In contrast with the Bruun-rule, which suggests a relation between sea-level rise and retreat distance, we found a linear relation between SLR and the amount of eroded volume of the dunes. Changes in the wave angle from shore normal to ~40 degrees, increase the erosion volume to the same extend as 40 cm sea-level rise.
van Steensel-Moll, H A; Valkenburg, H A; Vandenbroucke, J P; van Zanen, G E
In the western part of the Netherlands during 1973-80 leukaemia was diagnosed in 293 patients aged under 15 years. An overall incidence rate of 2.91 per 100000 person years was calculated. No seasonal influence on months of birth or months of diagnosis of these patients could be traced by the method of Edwards. Time space clustering was looked for by both methods of Mantel and Knox. No significant time space clustering of date and place of diagnosis of childhood leukaemia was found in all types of leukaemia, acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), ALL in boys and girls, ALL in children under 6 years at diagnosis, and in acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia. PMID:6577127
There are many misconceptions about Lyme disease. At the initiative of the Dutch Association for Lyme Patients, the Lower House of the Dutch Parliament requested a report on Lyme disease. The Health Council of the Netherlands advised standardization of Lyme serology in all Dutch laboratories as soon as possible. Standardization of diagnostic serological tests was strongly recommended. Studies into new tests which discriminate between active disease and past infection were recommended. Patients with Lyme disease were divided in those with Lyme specific and non-specific symptoms and duration of symptoms. Treatment advice was given for each of these 6 patient categories with a prominent role for the decision of the attending physician. Additionally it was advised to set up specialized treatment centers with a multidisciplinary approach. The report clearly shows the problems in care for Lyme patients from the perspective of both patients and physicians, but is cautious in the solutions offered. PMID:23859114
Kwekkeboom, Jaap; van der Laan, Luc J W; Betjes, Michiel G H; Manintveld, Olivier C; Hoek, Rogier A S; Cransberg, Karlien; de Bruin, Ron W F; Dor, Frank J M F; de Jonge, Jeroen; Boor, Patrick P C; van Gent, Rogier; van Besouw, Nicole M; Boer, Karin; Litjens, Nicolle H R; Hesselink, Dennis A; Hoogduijn, Martin J; Massey, Emma; Rowshani, Ajda T; van de Wetering, Jacqueline; de Jong, Huib; Hendriks, Rudi W; Metselaar, Herold J; van Gelder, Teun; Weimar, Willem; IJzermans, Jan N M; Baan, Carla C
This overview describes the full spectrum of current pre-clinical and clinical kidney-, liver-, heart- and lung transplantation research performed in Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. An update is provided on the development of a large living donor kidney transplantation program and on optimization of kidney allocation, including the implementation of a domino kidney-donation program. Our current research efforts to optimize immunosuppressive regimens and find novel targets for immunosuppressive therapy, our recent studies on prevention of ischemia-reperfusion-induced graft injury, our newest findings on stimulation of tissue regeneration, our novel approaches to prevent rejection and viral infection, and our latest insights in the regulation of allograft rejection, are summarized. PMID:25240732
Boer, Kimberly R.; Duarte, Tamara A.T.E.; Kliffen, Suzanne J.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.
To increase knowledge of leptospirosis in the Netherlands and identify changing trends of this disease over time, we analyzed historical passive surveillance reports for an 84-year period (1925–2008). We found that 2,553 mainly severe leptospirosis cases were diagnosed (average annual incidence rate 0.25 cases/100,000 population). The overall case-fatality rate for patients with reported leptospirosis was 6.5% but decreased over the period, probably because of improved treatment. Ninety percent of reported leptospirosis cases were in male patients. Most autochthonous leptospirosis infections were associated with recreational exposures, but 15.5% of the cases were attributed to accidents that resulted in injury and to concomitant water contact. Since the end of the 1950s, the proportion of imported infections gradually increased, reaching 53.1% of the total during 2005–2008. Most (80.1%) imported infections were associated with sporting and adventurous vacation activities. PMID:23622144
Goorhuis, Maarten; Reus, Pieter; Nieuwenhuis, Ellen; Spanbroek, Natascha; Sol, Mario; van Rijn, Jørgen
With a current recycling rate of 51% the Netherlands has one of the leading positions in the recycling of household waste in Europe. However, in the last 10-15 years there have been few developments made in the recycling of household waste. The introduction of producer responsibility for waste electrical and electronic equipment in 1999 and for packaging in 2005 have been the biggest changes in this period. However, these measures have, so far, not significantly influenced the overall recycling rate for household waste. In order to plan the next steps, which are necessary to reach the goals of the National Waste Management plan, new innovative methods are needed. A number of Dutch municipalities and waste collection companies are investigating promising new paths to enhance separate collection and recycling of household waste. This article reports on three of the most interesting initiatives. PMID:22993136
Thirteen years of activities in the field of quality assurance in the health care field in The Netherlands bring to life the many ups and some downs in this intriguing endeavour. Back in 1974, quality assurance was in the minds of few individuals and in the hands of nobody. This has changed dramatically: not only are there now functioning programmes carried out by knowledgeable and dedicated health care providers, there is legislation that suits the convenience of quality assurance, and a firm delineation of responsibilities. At the same time there is flexibility which enables the various actors to interpret their roles according to their capabilities and tastes. The various contributions in this issue are part of this national development. PMID:3566639
De Boer, I J; Van Der Togt, P L; Grossman, M; Kwakkel, R P
Government targets for ammonia emission and for N and P loss per hectare (ha) of agricultural land were used to assess carrying capacity for poultry production in The Netherlands with data from 1990. In addition, the effect of alternative management strategies on carrying capacity was determined. Ammonia emission from poultry production in 1990 [20.5 gigagrams (Gg) N] exceeded the target for 2000 (i.e., 6.9 Gg N). Targets defined for 2000 and 2010 (i.e., 4.6 Gg N) can be achieved, however, without reducing poultry numbers, assuming national introduction of measurements studied. Measures that reduced ammonia emission directly, i.e., introduction of low-emission housing or manure application techniques, were most effective. In 1990, N and P losses equalled 215 kg/ha for N and 31 kg/ha for P. The N loss was slightly lower than the target for 2000 (219 kg N/ha) but exceeded the target for 2010 (144 kg N/ha). Reduction of application of artificial N fertilizer, however, reduced N loss effectively from 215 to 22 kg/ha. National P loss in 1990 exceeded the target for 2000 (15.3 kg P/ha). Reduction of application of artificial P fertilizer reduced P loss most effectively from 31 to 14 kg/ha. To achieve the target for 2010 (8.7 kg P/ha), additional reduction in P excretion by poultry is required. This reduction can be achieved by use of phytase in layer and broiler feed and by use of a coarse Ca source in layer feed. Unlike pig production, carrying capacity for poultry production in The Netherlands is not limited by governmental targets for acidification, eutrophication, or drinking water contamination. PMID:10735744
Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with considerable comorbidity and severe complications, which reduce quality of life of the patients and require high levels of healthcare. The Diabetes Pearl is a large cohort of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, covering different geographical areas in the Netherlands. The aim of the study is to create a research infrastructure that will allow the study of risk factors, including biomarkers and genetic determinants for severe diabetes complications. Methods/design Baseline examinations began November 2009 and will continue through 2012. By the end of 2012, it is expected that 7000 patients with type 2 diabetes will be included in the Diabetes Pearl cohort. To ensure quality of the data collected, standard operation procedures were developed and used in all 8 recruitment centers. From all patients who provide informed consent, the following information is collected: personal information, medication use, physical examination (antropometry, blood pressure, electrocardiography (ECG), retina photographs, ankle-brachial index, peripheral vibration perception), self-report questionnaire (socio-economic status, lifestyle, (family) history of disease, and psychosocial well-being), laboratory measurements (glucose, A1c, lipid profile, kidney function), biobank material (storage of urine and blood samples and isolated DNA). All gathered clinical data and biobank information is uploaded to a database for storage on a national level. Biobanks are maintained locally at all recruitment centers. Discussion The Diabetes Pearl is large-scale cohort of type 2 diabetes patients in the Netherlands aiming to study risk factors, including biomarkers and genetic markers, for disease deterioration and the development of severe diabetes complications. As a result of the well-designed research design and the national coverage, the Diabetes Pearl data can be of great value to national and international researchers with an interest in diabetes
Hoitink, T.; Eekhout, J.; de Brouwer, J.; Verdonschot, P.
Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Re-meandering is the common practice in restoring these lowland streams. Three lowland streams were monitored during the initial two years after construction of a new channel. The monitoring program included morphological surveys, sediment sampling, habitat pattern surveys, and discharge and water level measurements. Adjustments of the longitudinal bed profile formed the main morphological response. These adjustments were most likely caused by a lack of longitudinal connectivity of the streams as a whole, interrupting transport of sediment at locations of weirs and culverts. Bank erosion was observed only in a limited number of channel bends, and was often related to floodplain heterogeneity. Longitudinal channel bed adjustments and bank erosion were mainly caused by exogenous influences. In channel bends, the cross-sectional shape transformed from trapezoidal to the typical asymmetrical shape as found in meandering rivers. This behaviour can be attributed to an autogenous response to the prevailing flow conditions. Due to the prevailing fine sediment characteristics, bed material is readily set in motion and is being transported during the entire year. The existing design principles fail to address the initial morphological development after reconstruction. An evaluation of pre-set targets to realize water depth and flow velocity ranges shows the current procedures to be deficient. Based on this unfavourable evaluation, and the two-dimensional nature of habitat patterns needed to improve the conditions for stream organisms, we recommend to predict morphological developments as part of the design procedures for lowland stream restoration in the Netherlands.
Feijtel, T.; Plassche, E. van de
The Dutch Soap Association (NVZ) and the Dutch Environmental Ministry (VROM) developed in 1991 an aquatic hazard priority list of all detergent ingredients. The agreed priority list consisted of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alcohol ethoxylates (AE), alcohol ethoxylated sulfates (AES), and soap. A stepwise or tiered risk assessment approach was adopted as the recommended approach to evaluate the risk of these surfactants. This implies that depending on the risk (or PEC/PNEC) ratio, the sequential test program or assessment would proceed further, to ensure adequate protection of the ecosystem. The agreed calculation scheme for the aquatic compartment is based on the comparison of the 90th percentile of Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) in the Netherlands -- at 1,000 meter below the sewage outfall -- to the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for ecosystems. The 90th percentile surfactant concentrations at 1,000 meter below the sewage outfall can be calculated using information or data on (1) release, (2) in-sewer removal, (3) treatment efficiency, (4) dilution and (5) instream-removal and/or measured in representative sites in The Netherlands. In addition, all toxicological data was critically reviewed by company experts and experts of RIVM and VROM to present a rationale for a sound database for the derivation of a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC). It was concluded that the risk of LAS, AE and AES and soap for the aquatic environment is low. Also taking the estimated uncertainty into account, the predicted environmental concentrations are always considerably lower that the predicted no effect concentrations.
Abdellaoui, Abdel; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Knijff, Peter de; Nivard, Michel G; Xiao, Xiangjun; Scheet, Paul; Brooks, Andrew; Ehli, Erik A; Hu, Yueshan; Davies, Gareth E; Hudziak, James J; Sullivan, Patrick F; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boomsma, Dorret I
Genetic variation in a population can be summarized through principal component analysis (PCA) on genome-wide data. PCs derived from such analyses are valuable for genetic association studies, where they can correct for population stratification. We investigated how to capture the genetic population structure in a well-characterized sample from the Netherlands and in a worldwide data set and examined whether (1) removing long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions and LD-based SNP pruning significantly improves correlations between PCs and geography and (2) whether genetic differentiation may have been influenced by migration and/or selection. In the Netherlands, three PCs showed significant correlations with geography, distinguishing between: (1) North and South; (2) East and West; and (3) the middle-band and the rest of the country. The third PC only emerged with minimized LD, which also significantly increased correlations with geography for the other two PCs. In addition to geography, the Dutch North–South PC showed correlations with genome-wide homozygosity (r=0.245), which may reflect a serial-founder effect due to northwards migration, and also with height (♂: r=0.142, ♀: r=0.153). The divergence between subpopulations identified by PCs is partly driven by selection pressures. The first three PCs showed significant signals for diversifying selection (545 SNPs - the majority within 184 genes). The strongest signal was observed between North and South for the functional SNP in HERC2 that determines human blue/brown eye color. Thus, this study demonstrates how to increase ancestry signals in a relatively homogeneous population and how those signals can reveal evolutionary history. PMID:23531865
Meesters, A. G. C. A.; Tolk, L. F.; Peters, W.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Vellinga, O. S.; Elbers, J. A.; Vermeulen, A. T.; van der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Dolman, A. J.
CO2 fluxes for the Netherlands and surroundings are estimated for the year 2008, from concentration measurements at four towers, using an inverse model. The results are compared to direct CO2flux measurements by aircraft, for 6 flight tracks over the Netherlands, flown multiple times in each season. We applied the Regional Atmospheric Mesoscale Modeling system (RAMS) coupled to a simple carbon flux scheme (including fossil fuel), which was run at 10 km resolution, and inverted with an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The domain had 6 eco-regions, and inversions were performed for the four seasons separately. Inversion methods with pixel-dependent and -independent parameters for each eco-region were compared. The two inversion methods, in general, yield comparable flux averages for each eco-region and season, whereas the difference from the prior flux may be large. Posterior fluxes co-sampled along the aircraft flight tracks are usually much closer to the observations than the priors, with a comparable performance for both inversion methods, and with best performance for summer and autumn. The inversions showed more negative CO2 fluxes than the priors, though the latter are obtained from a biosphere model optimized using the Fluxnet database, containing observations from more than 200 locations worldwide. The two different crop ecotypes showed very different CO2uptakes, which was unknown from the priors. The annual-average uptake is practically zero for the grassland class and for one of the cropland classes, whereas the other cropland class had a large net uptake, possibly because of the abundance of maize there.
Abdellaoui, Abdel; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Knijff, Peter; Nivard, Michel G; Xiao, Xiangjun; Scheet, Paul; Brooks, Andrew; Ehli, Erik A; Hu, Yueshan; Davies, Gareth E; Hudziak, James J; Sullivan, Patrick F; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boomsma, Dorret I
Genetic variation in a population can be summarized through principal component analysis (PCA) on genome-wide data. PCs derived from such analyses are valuable for genetic association studies, where they can correct for population stratification. We investigated how to capture the genetic population structure in a well-characterized sample from the Netherlands and in a worldwide data set and examined whether (1) removing long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions and LD-based SNP pruning significantly improves correlations between PCs and geography and (2) whether genetic differentiation may have been influenced by migration and/or selection. In the Netherlands, three PCs showed significant correlations with geography, distinguishing between: (1) North and South; (2) East and West; and (3) the middle-band and the rest of the country. The third PC only emerged with minimized LD, which also significantly increased correlations with geography for the other two PCs. In addition to geography, the Dutch North-South PC showed correlations with genome-wide homozygosity (r=0.245), which may reflect a serial-founder effect due to northwards migration, and also with height (♂: r=0.142, ♀: r=0.153). The divergence between subpopulations identified by PCs is partly driven by selection pressures. The first three PCs showed significant signals for diversifying selection (545 SNPs - the majority within 184 genes). The strongest signal was observed between North and South for the functional SNP in HERC2 that determines human blue/brown eye color. Thus, this study demonstrates how to increase ancestry signals in a relatively homogeneous population and how those signals can reveal evolutionary history. PMID:23531865
van Drenth, Annemieke
Examines educational activities organized by local committees and women's organizations in 19th-century Netherlands to protect working girls from prostitution. Places these activities in the context of the social construction of gender identity. (Contains 27 references.) (SK)
... review (75 FR 57815, September 22, 2010). Due to a scheduling conflict with the hearing in another... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY:...
Botzen, W J W; van den Bergh, J C J M
Climate change is projected to cause severe economic losses, which has the potential to affect the insurance sector and public compensation schemes considerably. This article discusses the role insurance can play in adapting to climate change impacts. The particular focus is on the Dutch insurance sector, in view of the Netherlands being extremely vulnerable to climate change impacts. The usefulness of private insurance as an adaptation instrument to increased flood risks is examined, which is currently unavailable in the Netherlands. It is questioned whether the currently dominant role of the Dutch government in providing damage relief is justified from an economic efficiency perspective. Characteristics of flood insurance arrangements in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France are compared in order to identify possible future directions for arrangements in the Netherlands. It is argued that social welfare improves when insurance companies take responsibility for part of the risks associated with climate change. PMID:18419658
... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 48310 (August 10, 2010) (Preliminary Results... clarification, see Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR... Orders: Purified Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, the Netherlands and Sweden, 70 FR...
de Graaf, Joris A; Reimerink, Johan H J; Voorn, G Paul; Bij de Vaate, Elisabeth A; de Vries, Ankje; Rockx, Barry; Schuitemaker, Alie; Hira, Vishal
In July 2016, the first autochthonous case of tick-borne encephalitis was diagnosed in the Netherlands, five days after a report that tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) had been found in Dutch ticks. A person in their 60s without recent travel history suffered from neurological symptoms after a tick bite. TBEV serology was positive and the tick was positive in TBEV qRT-PCR. TBEV infection should be considered in patients with compatible symptoms in the Netherlands. PMID:27562931
In this paper the common practice of water/steam conditioning in the Netherlands is discussed. All-Volatile Treatment and Oxygenated Treatment are the main conditioning techniques that are utilized for high pressure boilers. The results of recent years have been very satisfactory. One case is discussed, in which a small deviation from the (KEMA-)recommendations led to serious damage. Furthermore, new developments and optimization of operation, environmental impact and efficiency improvement are discussed, as they are developing in the Netherlands.
van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Riksen, Michel
The authors carried out detailed field studies of more than twelve drift sand landscapes in The Netherlands. The objective of these studies was to restore Natura-2000 values by restoring the wind activity. Active drift sands occur almost exclusively in The Netherlands, Natura 2000 habitat 2330 'Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands', for which reason our country is largely responsible for this European landscape. Active drift sands had almost disappeared for two reasons: first, the stabilization of the drift sands by air pollution, mainly nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of algae and grasses that initiate soil formation, and second, by the growth of forests surrounding the sands, which decreases the wind force. The restoration studies revealed differences in the geodiversity between and within the drift sand areas. Whereas the drift sands on geological and soil maps show as almost homogenous areas, they have in fact highly variable geo-conditions of which examples will be given. These geodiversity aspects concern differences in geomorphological structure, origin, sediments and age of the drift sands. Differences in wind and water erosion, trampling and soil formation add to the geodiversity within the drift sand areas. Especially in the primary stages of succession the differences in geodiversity are relevant for the Natura-2000 values. We discerned three main types of active sands. Firstly, the impressive drift sands with large parabolic dune structures, often consisting of series of interlocking parabolic dunes. They developed from the northeast towards the southwest, against the direction of the dominant wind, and must have taken centuries to develop. Small parts of these systems are still active, other parts show different degrees of soil formation. Their origin is still unclear but probably dates from medieval times (Heidinga, 1985, Jungerius & Riksen, 2008). Second are the drift sand areas with irregular hills from 0.5 to about 2
Boumans, Leo; Fraters, Dico; Wattel, Esther
The implementation of EU environmental directives and national policies into measures has led to a decrease in nitrogen (N) surplus in agriculture, notably at dairy farms in the 1995-2002 period. In addition, N emissions to air from agricultural fields have been reduced, and atmospheric N deposition on nature areas subsequently lessened. The nitrate concentrations in root zone leaching at dairy farms and nature areas in the Sand region of the Netherlands also decreased. These decreases were larger than would be expected based on the decreases in net loads. We have formulated and tested hypotheses to explain these extra decreases at farms and in nature areas. Dairy farms cover about 60% of the area in the sandy region of the Netherlands. They have shown a nitrate leaching decrease of 100 mg/l during the 1992-2010 period (67%). The N-surplus at dairy farms decreased from about 340 to 180 kg/ha in this period (47%). Other farm management factors may have caused the additional decrease in root zone leaching concentration on farm level. The main potential factors are the ratio grassland - arable land, the grazing intensity and the ratio artificial fertilizer N - manure N. There are no indications that the ratio grassland - arable land or the ratio artificial fertilizer N - manure N significantly changed between 1992 and 2010. The mowing percentage, as an indicator for grazing intensity, increased from about 180 to 290% in the study period. About 80% (80 mg/l) of the decrease at dairy farms can be attributed to a lower N-surplus and about 20% (20 mg/l) is postulated to be caused by an increasing mowing percentage or less fodder grazing. Nature areas cover about 20% of the area in the Sand region. Nitrate concentrations in root zone leaching in nature areas showed a decrease of 55% in 2010 compared to 1990. Yet in rainwater, the concentration decrease is only 40%. Several factors may cause an additional decrease in nitrate concentration particularly an increase of plant
Koolmees, P A
The feminisation of veterinary medicine occurred in The Netherlands, as elsewhere in the world, in the course of the twentieth century. In 1930, Jeannette Voet (1907-1979) was the first female veterinarian graduate of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University. In contrast with the first Dutch female physician who graduated in 1878, Jeannette Voet was not an active feminist. Instead, she concentrated on the development of various fields of veterinary medicine during her career. Nevertheless, she played an important role in the acceptance of women in Dutch veterinary medicine. The integration of women into all areas of the veterinary profession was a gradual process. Meat inspection, in particular, proved to be rather conservative in its acceptance of female veterinarians. The number of women veterinarians in the profession increased only gradually throughout the twentieth century. In 1970, women represented not more than 5 % of all veterinarians in The Netherlands. A significant increase in female students was first observed in the 1980s. The large influx of city girls who are primarily interested in companion animal and horse medicine is still quite remarkable. The average percentage of female first-year students between 1988 and 1992 was 60; over the last 5 years, this increased to 70%. Between 1988 and 1999, the average percentage of female graduates grew from 35 to 60%. Consequently, the proportion of Dutch female veterinarians increased from 5 to 25% between 1970 and 2000. In spite of this development, the representation of women veterinarians among policymaking officials, leading veterinary authorities and academic staff (particularly at the professor level) is still quite low. From this point of view, veterinary medicine could still be considered as 'a man's job'. Feminisation of veterinary medicine is often explained by an increase in the numbers of companion animals and horses and part-time jobs or by a different, gender-based attitude
Euser, S M; Bruin, J P; Brandsema, P; Reijnen, L; Boers, S A; Den Boer, J W
Legionnaires' disease (LD) is an acute pneumonia caused by the inhalation or aspiration of aerosols contaminated with Legionella bacteria. The watery environment is considered to be the natural habitat for these bacteria. Therefore, drinking water legislation is used in the primary prevention of LD, focussing on the different water sources to which the general public is exposed. For 10 years, secondary prevention of LD in the Netherlands has been organised using an outbreak detection programme that eliminates potential sources of infection that LD patients have been exposed to during their incubation period. To evaluate the two prevention strategies, we compared the distribution of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 genotypes isolated from patient material (n = 179) with the distribution resulting from primary (n = 182) and secondary (n = 60) prevention actions, respectively. The sequence type profiles were generated using the HiMLST method that employs next generation sequencing. We found that genotypes collected during primary prevention differ to a large extent from those isolated from patients. Genotypes collected during secondary prevention efforts had a greater similarity to that of patient isolates, but could be further improved. Our results suggest that primary prevention is not aiming at the correct reservoir, whereas secondary prevention is only partially focussed. It seems that there is a still unknown reservoir. PMID:23430195
Berntorp, Erik; Hart, Daniel; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; d'Oiron, Roseline; Perry, David; O'Mahony, Brian; Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Crato, Miguel; Pasi, John; Miners, Alec; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Kitchen, Steve; Boehlen, Françoise; Giangrande, Paul; Cebura, Elizabete; Uitslager, Nanda; Osooli, Mehdi; Janeckova, Daniela; Haldon, Rosie; Rivolta, Gianna Franca
Haemophilia remains a complex disorder to diagnose and manage, requiring close cooperation between multidisciplinary healthcare professionals. There are still many unmet challenges in haemophilia care. The first Team Haemophilia Education (THE) meeting, held on 7-8 May 2015 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, aimed to promote the optimal care of haemophilia patients through education of the multidisciplinary treatment team. This was achieved by reviewing the latest developments in haemophilia management, considering how these can be implemented in the clinic to improve patient care and providing a platform for networking and debate for all haemophilia treatment team members. Haemophilia treatment centres from several countries were asked to complete a premeeting online questionnaire to establish the biggest challenges that they face when managing patients. The concerns expressed were used to develop the agenda, which comprised a combination of formal presentations, case studies and informal workshops covering such topics as pharmacokinetics, laboratory assays and tailoring of treatment to individual patients. This report is a summary of the key developments in haemophilia care presented by various investigators and healthcare professionals at THE meeting 2015. PMID:27272000
Grund, J P; Kaplan, C D; Adriaans, N F
BACKGROUND. Needle sharing has been reported to be the main cause of the rapid spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among injecting drug users. Risk behaviors such as needle sharing are, however, the end result of complicated interaction patterns in drug user networks, which have their specific rules and rituals, and larger social structures and official drug policy. METHODS. To study these interaction patterns we examined the drug administration rituals of heroin addicts in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Intensive ethnographic descriptions were collected by participant observation. RESULTS. In less than 10% of the observed self-injections unsafe syringes were used. In 68% of the self-injections new, sterile syringes were used. Needle sharing as a planned sequence was not observed. Sharing was determined primarily by the availability of syringes, experience with the injecting ritual, and drug craving. In all observed needle-sharing events, subjects were aware of the risks involved and undertook efforts to clean the injection equipment. CONCLUSIONS. In contrast to psychological approaches aimed at reducing individual "risk behavior," these findings suggest that HIV prevention can be made more effective if active drug injectors are organized to help themselves and their peers prevent high-risk exchange situations. PMID:1746657
Gonzalez, C.; Ferrer, L.
The Western Group of the Trichterbecherkultur (TRB Culture) built the megalithic monuments in Northwest Germany and The Netherlands. These monuments include different types of megaliths belonging to the TRB-West group, among which the most common are Passage Graves. We have obtained data for 163 monuments in this area in three campaigns. The present study completes two previous communications at SEAC meetings. We consider that the measured sample is largely competed and therefore we attempt a full analysis of the data. We have measured the orientation of the chamber and passages (where possible) for the Passage Graves, and for the so-called Langebetten. The general orientation of the chamber of the Passage Graves is east west, with another concentration of monuments at azimuths around 70 degrees. The passage is always located to the southern or eastern sides of the chamber. Possible astronomical explanations involving the Sun and the Moon are attempted. We find a preference towards lunar orientations. The general orientation of the Langebetten is similar to the Passage Graves although a preference to significant positions of the Sun and Moon is detected. Finally we perform a comparison with data from the literature of other TRB groups and give a tentative explanation for the evolution of the megaliths and their orientation.
van der Lee, Romy; Ellemers, Naomi
We examined the application and review materials of three calls (n=2,823) of a prestigious grant for personal research funding in a national full population of early career scientists awarded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). Results showed evidence of gender bias in application evaluations and success rates, as well as in language use in instructions and evaluation sheets. Male applicants received significantly more competitive "quality of researcher" evaluations (but not "quality of proposal" evaluations) and had significantly higher application success rates than female applicants. Gender disparities were most prevalent in scientific disciplines with the highest number of applications and with equal gender distribution among the applicants (i.e., life sciences and social sciences). Moreover, content analyses of the instructional and evaluation materials revealed the use of gendered language favoring male applicants. Overall, our data reveal a 4% "loss" of women during the grant review procedure, and illustrate the perpetuation of the funding gap, which contributes to the underrepresentation of women in academia. PMID:26392544
Veld, H. ); Fermont, W.J.J.; Jegers, L.F. ); Kerp, J.H.F. )
This study presents a database of maturity measurements and a reconstruction of coalification patterns and trends in the Carboniferous rocks of south Limburg, Netherlands. Coalification maps of the Carboniferous abrasion surface and one selected stratigraphic level (i.e., the coal seam G.B. 23 [Furth, Westphalian A]) are given together with rank profiles. For selected wells, vertical coalification trends are presented. Coalification data are primarily based on vitrinite reflectance measurements. In addition, volatile matter values have been evaluated. Burial history diagrams are given for selected wells. The data suggest a complex coalification history of the area, determined by regional variations in overburden, heat flow, and timing of thermal events in front of the Variscan orogeny. The results indicate that the present-day coalification was established in the late Westphalian to early Permian. The coalification of the southern part of the area has mainly been attributed to variations in overburden. In the north, an additional heat flow, presumably connected with Permian intrusions, overprinted the earlier maturation pattern. Both phases of coalification are separated by a local compressional event that caused the north-south-trending Vise-Puth anticline. finally, an intermittent block fault system modified the older geologic structures of the south Limburg area. The maturity of the Upper Carboniferous Coal Measures of south Limburg range from early mature to overmature. Results are compared with data from adjacent areas in Belgium and Germany.
Jongbloed-Zoet, C; Bol-van den Hil, E M; La Rivière-Ilsen, J; van der Sanden-Stoelinga, M S E
Dental hygiene education in the Netherlands started in 1968 after a long political debate about roles, functions and the working domain. From a slow start with five students in a school based on the American model with a 2-year curriculum, dental hygiene education is now a 4-year, higher professional education with an admission of 300 students annually who pursue the degree of Bachelor of Health at a University of Applied Sciences. In the 45 years of its existence, the dental hygiene profession has undergone a tremendous change. In the beginning, dental hygienists worked under the supervision of a dentist, which changed in 1992 to their working 'under referral' from a dentist, and again in 2006, when dental hygienists became directly accessible. One-third of the working force of approximately 2700 dental hygienists (2010) is now working in their own independent practice. The focus of professional practice has changed from the prevention of caries via periodontology to the relationship between dental health and general health and well-being. The profession, the education and the Dutch Dental Hygienists' Association (Nederlandse Vereniging van Mondhygiënisten) have matured, and its members are now serious partners in oral health care. PMID:23046003
Robben, J H; Mout, H C; Kuijpers, E A
The occurrence, the diagnosis, and the treatment of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in dogs in the Netherlands was evaluated by a survey among Dutch veterinarians carried out by the National Poisons Control Center (NPCC). The survey included information on 54 dogs, 32 being treated by veterinarians who consulted the NPCC and 22 that were admitted to the Utrecht University Clinic for Companion Animals (UUCCA). The poisons that were suspected were brodifacoum (n = 19), bromadiolone (n = 14), difenacoum (n = 8), difethialone (n = 6) and chlorophacinone (n = 1). In 6 dogs the identity of the poison was unknown. Of 31 dogs with hemorrhages, 2 died shortly after presentation to practitioners and 2 died shortly after admission to the UUCCA. Signs of bleeding occurred especially in poisoning by brodifacoum (n = 16). In all but one of the dogs without hemorrhages, the intake of poison had taken place within 24 hours before presentation. The method of treatment varied, with the induction of vomiting and the use of vitamin K mentioned most. The choice of therapy was determined by the length of time after intake of the poison, the clinical signs and whether or not an anticoagulant toxicosis was suspected at the time of the initial examination. These findings provide the basis for discussion of several aspects of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:9534772
Vet, Sebastiaan J.
Two meteorites impacted in 1925 around the town of Serooskerke on the isle of Schouwen, the Netherlands. The largest mass is widely known as the "Ellemeet" diogenite, while a second mass, heavily weathered due to environmental exposure, also survived until the present day. This work aims to reconstruct the history of the 1925 fall and for the first time documents the second mass, known as the "Serooskerke," by integrating a historical and experimental approach. The study of historical news archives and cadastral records redefined the 1925 impact site at N 51°42.086' E 3°49.789'. Environmental exposure experiments reproducing the effects of rainfall and frost weathering identified the latter as the main cause for the second mass' reported disintegration in the field sometime during the 1925-1926 winter. The bulk mineralogy of the second mass was established using XRD powder diffraction for a 2θ range of 3-70° and was found to be identical to an Ellemeet reference sample. UV/VIS/nIR spectroscopy (300-2500 nm) was subsequently used to broadly compare the second mass to HED clan meteorites Bouvante, EET87503, Johnstown and asteroid 4 Vesta in order to corroborate its vestan origin. The historical and geographic relationship of the two masses and the comparable bulk mineralogy supported the pairing of these two meteorites. This makes the Serooskerke a valuable legacy of the 1925 fall, especially as the location of ~50% of the remaining Ellemeet mass is presently unknown.
In the second half of the 1980s the government in the Netherlands adopted a regulated competition policy as part of a comprehensive programme designed to restructure the health care system. The programme was a product of its social and political context, promoted by a group of political entrepreneurs and created to improve efficiency. Despite the initial political support and a long political debate the government had to acknowledge by 1992 that the restructuring would not take place. But changes fostered limited competition between sickness funds and more extensive competition in the small market for supplementary policies. This, however, has not led to sickness funds becoming powerful purchasers that forced hospitals and doctors to improve their efficiency. Rather, they compete for subscribers, become part of large insurance conglomerates, and market more supplementary options. Culturally, health care institutions have become more entrepreneurial, taken up more business concepts, and made the language of markets, products and consumer sovereignty more common. The impact of these changes on the health care system is still unknown, but they create pressure for more health care services, leaving the government with problems that equal those of the 1980s. PMID:11281402
Marnette, E.C.L.; Van Breemen, N. ); Hordijk, K.A.; Cappenberg, T.E. )
Cycling of Fe and S was investigated in sediments of Gerritsfles and Kliplo, two acidic shallow moorland pools in the Netherlands, in order to reveal the importance of pyrite as a pool of inorganic S. The porewater chemistry in both pool sediments is extremely dynamic as, e.g., Fe[sup 2+] concentrations may increase twentyfold within a time span of a month. Periodic oxidized conditions occur in the top several centimetres of the sediment. The redox status appeared to be a main factor in determining whether pyrite or a monosulfide, defined by the content of acid volatile sulfur (AVS), is formed. In Gerritsfles and Kliplo, pyrite was the most important iron sulfide phase; sedimentary FeS[sub 2]-S/AVS-S molar ratios were 32 and 55, respectively. In other lakes, where stratification caused anaerobic conditions in the hypolimmion, FeS[sub 2]/AVS ratios were <1. Morphological investigation by light and scanning electron microscopy indicated that pyrite was present as single crystals and as framboids. The framboids, mainly associated with organic matter, were thought to form in microsites where they may form slowly. The presence of a single crystal morphology point to a rapid formation of pyrite.
Ketting, E; Visser, A P
This article gives a review of the main factors that are related to the low abortion rate in the Netherlands. Attention is payed to figures on abortion and the use of contraceptive methods since the beginning of the 1960s up to the end of the 1980s. The strong acceptance of family planning was influenced by changing values regarding sexuality and the family, the transition from an agricultural to a modern industrial society, rapid economic growth, declining influence of the churches on daily life, introduction of modern mass media and the increased general educational level. The introduction of modern contraceptives (mainly the pill and contraceptive sterilization) was stimulated by a strong voluntary family planning movement, fear for overpopulation, a positive role of GPs, and the public health insurance system. A reduction of unwanted pregnancies has been accomplished through successful strategies for the prevention of teenage pregnancy (including sex education, open discussions on sexuality in mass media, educational campaigns and low barrier services) as well as through wide acceptance of sterilization. The Dutch experience with family planning shows the following characteristics: a strong wish to reduce reliance on abortion, ongoing sexual and contraceptive education related to the actual experiences of the target groups, and low barrier family planning services. PMID:7971545
van Steensel-Moll, H. A.; Valkenburg, H. A.; van Zanen, G. E.
The childhood leukaemia incidence rate for the Netherlands was estimated at 3.11 per 100.000 children (aged 0-15 year) per year, based on a complete nation-wide childhood leukaemia registry comprising the period 1973-1980. Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) accounted for 82.4% of the patients, acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia for 13.6% and chronic myeloid leukaemia for 2.9%. ALL occurred more frequently in boys (sex ratio 1.2). The highest ALL rate was observed in the 3-4 year age group. These figures corresponded with the data of the Manchester Children's Tumour Registry. Neither the incidence rates according to year of diagnosis nor the incidence rates according to year of birth showed a significant trend with time. The total leukaemia incidence rate in urban areas was somewhat higher than in rural areas. While the direct comparison of the incidence rate between these areas is not significant, the trend over the three categories of urbanisation is significant. PMID:6573905
Abma, Tineke A; Heijsman, Anke
A health promotion programme focusing on the meaning of everyday activities was implemented and evaluated to test its usefulness for community-dwelling seniors in the Netherlands. To evaluate how senior migrants with a Surinamese-Hindustani background and professionals received the programme, and how it could be contextualized and improved in line with their values and expectations. A responsive evaluation methodology was followed to foster reflexive learning in and among stakeholders as the basis for programme contextualization. The evaluation consisted of three phases. Outcomes of former phases served as input for subsequent phases. Methods included interviews and focus groups with seniors and professionals. Open and selective coding techniques were used to analyse the interactively derived data. A. small group of women was interested and followed the programme. It was not individual concerns or daily life problems that dominated, but the wish to become well informed, to maintain functional capacities and to continue their roles in the family and community. Striking differences in perspectives between professionals and migrants related to conflict between the underlying Western values of the programme (independence, personal control and autonomy) and the values of the migrants (interdependence, predestination, rebirth and destiny). Awareness among professionals of their own cultural background and the values of the migrant seniors was enhanced, but adapting the programme to the local context and values appeared far more complicated than originally expected. Adaptation requires intensive collaboration with participants and cultural brokers in the community. PMID:24001443
Westerdijk, Machiel; Zuurbier, Joost; Ludwig, Martijn; Prins, Sarah
A case-mix project started in the Netherlands with the primary goal to define a complete set of health care products for hospitals. The definition of the product structure was completed 4 years later. The results are currently being used for billing purposes. This paper focuses on the methodology and techniques that were developed and applied in order to define the casemix product structure. The central research question was how to develop a manageable product structure, i.e., a limited set of hospital products, with acceptable cost homogeneity. For this purpose, a data warehouse with approximately 1.5 million patient records from 27 hospitals was build up over a period of 3 years. The data associated with each patient consist of a large number of a priori independent parameters describing the resource utilization in different stages of the treatment process, e.g., activities in the operating theatre, the lab and the radiology department. Because of the complexity of the database, it was necessary to apply advanced data analysis techniques. The full analyses process that starts from the database and ends up with a product definition consists of four basic analyses steps. Each of these steps has revealed interesting insights. This paper describes each step in some detail and presents the major results of each step. The result consists of 687 product groups for 24 medical specialties used for billing purposes. PMID:21350859
Thacker, Robert W.; Díaz, M. Cristina; de Voogd, Nicole J.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Freeman, Christopher J.; Mobley, Andrew S.; LaPietra, Jessica; Cope, Kevin; McKenna, Sheila
Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. Conclusions/Significance This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity. PMID:20502643
Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M
Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers. PMID:25460418
This is a three-frequency false color image of Flevoland, the Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Shuttle Endeavour. The area shown covers an area approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers. Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the image, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the image, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this image in blue. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43941.
van Eerd, Adrianne R. T.; van der Marel, Nienke; Rudolf, Petra; de Wolf, Els
Although women are still a small minority in physics in the Netherlands, their visibility has increased markedly over the past five years. The measures put in place after the first IUPAP Women in Physics Conference in 2002 have in fact not increased the total number of female staff, but put the spotlight on female talent in physics. Affirmative actions by Dutch science faculties and physics departments have brought about a more than fivefold increase of female full professors: by now only one university is left without a female chair. At the assistant and associate professor levels, the MEERVOUD and ASPASIA programs of NWO (the national funding agency for scientific research) have been a success. The FOm/f program of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter has accomplished its goal of stimulating the participation of women in physics through covering salary costs, giving research funding and postdoctoral positions, and highlighting outstanding female physicists through the MINERVA prize. Despite these success stories, the number of female physics students is still far too low, and even if there is an important influx of foreigners at all career levels from the PhD student upward, reaching 10% women in permanent positions in physics is still a goal for the future.
van der Lee, Romy; Ellemers, Naomi
We examined the application and review materials of three calls (n = 2,823) of a prestigious grant for personal research funding in a national full population of early career scientists awarded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). Results showed evidence of gender bias in application evaluations and success rates, as well as in language use in instructions and evaluation sheets. Male applicants received significantly more competitive “quality of researcher” evaluations (but not “quality of proposal” evaluations) and had significantly higher application success rates than female applicants. Gender disparities were most prevalent in scientific disciplines with the highest number of applications and with equal gender distribution among the applicants (i.e., life sciences and social sciences). Moreover, content analyses of the instructional and evaluation materials revealed the use of gendered language favoring male applicants. Overall, our data reveal a 4% “loss” of women during the grant review procedure, and illustrate the perpetuation of the funding gap, which contributes to the underrepresentation of women in academia. PMID:26392544
Erkens, Connie G M; Slump, Erika; Verhagen, Maurits; Schimmel, Henrieke; de Vries, Gerard; Cobelens, Frank; van den Hof, Susan
Targeted diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) among persons with a high risk of exposure to TB or of developing TB when infected has been performed and monitored routinely in the Netherlands since 1993. We describe trends in target groups, diagnostic methods and treatment regimens, and explore determinants for treatment initiation, treatment completion and adverse events.In total, 37 729 persons were registered with LTBI from 1993 to 2013, of whom 28 931 (77%) started preventive treatment; 82% of those completed preventive treatment and 8% stopped preventive treatment due to adverse events. Two-thirds of the notified cases were detected through contact investigation.Increasing numbers of persons with immunosuppressive disorders, elderly persons and foreign-born persons were notified in recent years, due to policy changes and the introduction of the interferon-γ release assay. Children (96%) and the immunosuppressed (95%) were more likely to start preventive treatment. Children (93%) were also more likely to complete preventive treatment, as were persons treated with rifampicin or rifampicin/isoniazid regimens (91% and 92%, respectively). The latter groups were also 40% less likely to stop preventive treatment due to adverse events.Under these operational conditions, the estimated risk reduction on incident TB in the target population for LTBI management is 40-60%. PMID:26917614
Halbersma, R S; Mikkers, M C; Motchenkova, E; Seinen, I
In 2005, competition was introduced in part of the hospital market in the Netherlands. Using a unique dataset of transactions and list prices between hospitals and insurers in the years 2005 and 2006, we estimate the influence of buyer and seller concentration on the negotiated prices. First, we use a traditional structure-conduct-performance model (SCP-model) along the lines of Melnick et al. (J Health Econ 11(3): 217-233, 1992) to estimate the effects of buyer and seller concentration on price-cost margins. Second, we model the interaction between hospitals and insurers in the context of a generalized bargaining model similar to Brooks et al. (J Health Econ 16: 417-434, 1997). In the SCP-model, we find that the market shares of hospitals (insurers) have a significantly positive (negative) impact on the hospital price-cost margin. In the bargaining model, we find a significant negative effect of insurer concentration, but no significant effect of hospital concentration. In both models, we find a significant impact of idiosyncratic effects on the market outcomes. This is consistent with the fact that the Dutch hospital sector is not yet in a long-run equilibrium. PMID:20853127
Adams, R.; Bon, V.
Background The prehospital use of adenosine in the treatment of supraventricular arrhythmias has recently been implemented in standard ambulance care. However, establishing the origin and nature of the arrhythmia with certainty is an absolute requirement for using adenosine. Methods The ability of the ambulance nurse to predict supraventricular arrhythmias and the necessity of prehospital treatment of arrhythmias in general was evaluated. To do this, cardiologists at the Academic Medical Centre of Amsterdam were consulted and a literature search by means of an electronic search in Pubmed was performed. The search was complemented by a second survey concerning antagonists of adenosine using the keywords: adenosine and theophylline. Moreover, the Ambulance Nurse textbook, the National Protocol for Ambulance Care as well as the explanatory memorandum to the protocol were consulted. Results No strong indication for the prehospital use of adenosine was found, while detrimental effects of the drug can occur. There is no literature showing the ability of ambulance staff to correctly interpret complex cardiac arrhythmias in the Netherlands; the current ambulance protocol does not prevent an incorrect choice of therapy and medication. Conclusion It is strongly advised against using antiarrhythmic medication for the treatment of tachycardias in a prehospital setting if this treatment can be postponed to the hospital environment. PMID:25696211
Crul, B J; van Weel, C
Over the last few decades the attention devoted to the palliative aspects of medicine, particularly those in hospital care, has declined due to the emphasis on medical technology. In Anglo-Saxon countries a review of this development resulted in structured palliative care that benefited terminally ill patients with a progressive fatal disease, especially cancer patients. Due to increasing national and international criticism of both the practice of euthanasia (assumed to be too liberal) and the lack of attention devoted to structured palliative care in the Netherlands, the Dutch government decided to improve the structure of palliative care. The government's viewpoint is based on the assumption that good palliative care that includes adequate pain control benefits patient care and might eventually lead to fewer requests for euthanasia. The improvements to palliative care should be realised by means of improvements in the structure, training and knowledge. Six academic medical clusters have been designated as Centres for the Development of Palliative Care (Dutch acronym: COPZ) for a 5-year period. Each COPZ must develop the various aspects needed to improve palliative care within the region it serves and ensure that its activities are carefully coordinated with those in the other centres. Research will focus on measuring the efficacy of palliative care as well as ethical and epidemiological aspects. A government committee will assess the appropriateness of the activities undertaken by each of the centres. PMID:11695096
Hoogerduijn Strating, Eilard; Seinen, Chiel; Heeringa, Henk; Pestman, Bart
In 2011, after several years without frack activities onshore in the Netherlands, a new conventional frack campaign was planned. In the interim, anti-shalegas sentiments had carried over from the US to Europe and various countries had announced a frack moratorium. The Netherlands was not amongst these yet, but it was recognized that starting a new conventional frack campaign could potentially result in a significant negative public sentiment and affect our License to Operate. A team of subsurface and communication experts drafted a communication strategy that was premised on the "Discuss > Decide > Deliver" philosophy, implying that a decision on the campaign-start would only be taken after the results of the engagements with key stakeholders indicated sufficient support. It was recognized that in order to start communication with stakeholders and the general public through engagements, infographics, websites etc., several minimum requirements had to be in place: 1] An explanation about why fracking is done and what it entails 2] An assessment and description of the risks (eg groundwater contamination, tremors) 3] A description of the REACH compliant chemicals used (composition & quantities). With the basic info in place, a staged engagement process was set up where key stakeholders at the national level were informed first, followed by those at regional level (including waterboards), followed by local stakeholders. Several "Go-No go" decision points were build in. Throughout it was agreed that a target date for the actual frack campaign was only to be set once local engagements were going to start. Several of the technical staff (eg subsurface and well engineers) received media and communication training to prep them for the engagements with external stakeholders and communities. Also several staff were identified that would be involved in the writing of Q&A's, external bulletins etc. Having technical staff involved in such communications helped build credibility
Baur, L.H.B.; Veenstra, L.; Lenderink, T.; der Bolt, C.L.B. Lodewijks-van; Winkens, R.A.G.; Soomers, F.L.M.; Stoffers, H.E.J.H.
Objectives In an urban region in the Netherlands, general practitioners (GPs) were offered an open access echocardiographic service. We report the outcomes of the first two years of this project. Methods GPs were given a course on the indications and restrictions for diagnostic referral as well as the interpretation of echocardiographic results. Indications were restricted to `dyspnoea', `cardiac murmur' and `peripheral oedema'. A uniform request form was developed, using ticking boxes for quick completion. The echocardiogram was performed within one week after the request. Results were interpreted by the cardiologist according to the criteria of the Dutch, European and American Societies of Echocardiography. Results Sixty GPs from 43 general practices participated, covering a practice population of 130,000 persons. During a period of 24 months, 198 patients were referred. Only 1.5% of the workload of the echocardiography department was due to requests from GPs. The GPs kept well to the agreements on indications for echocardiography (91% approved reasons). An abnormal echocardiographic outcome was found in 53% of all patients. For `cardiac murmur' this was 52%, for `dyspnoea' 63%, and for `peripheral oedema' 58%. Left ventricular dysfunction was present in 49 patients (25%); diastolic dysfunction was present in most of them (39 patients, 19%). Systolic dysfunction (LVEF < 40%) was found in 19 patients (10%). Twenty patients (10%) appeared to have relevant aortic or mitral valve disease. Conclusion GPs did not overuse the open access echocardiographic service; they possibly used it conservatively. To prevent underdiagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction, diagnostic strategies in which electrocardiogram, NT-pro-BNP and echocardiography are combined, should be developed. PMID:25696570
van den Brandt, P A; Goldbohm, R A; van 't Veer, P
Although the results of cohort studies on the association between alcohol and breast cancer are rather consistent, the current evidence is based solely on North American cohorts. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, conducted since 1986 among 62,573 women aged 55-69 years. After 3.3 years of follow-up (1986-1989), 422 incident breast cancer cases for which there were complete alcohol consumption data were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses, the rate ratio for breast cancer in drinkers versus nondrinkers was 1.31 (95 percent confidence interval 1.00-1.71). When separate alcohol intake categories were compared with nondrinking, the rate ratios were 1.30, 1.29, 1.28, and 1.72 for women who consumed < 5, 5-14, 15-29, and > or = 30 g of alcohol per day, respectively (trend p = 0.047). Whereas beer consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk, increased risks were found at higher levels of both wine and liquor consumption. The alcohol-breast cancer association was found to be stronger among women with a history of benign breast disease, women with a history of breast cancer among sister(s), and women with an early menopause, and it varied considerably according to age at first birth. These results support a positive association between alcohol and breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The increased risk was particularly found among women who consumed 30 g or more of alcohol daily. PMID:7741120
Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Aarnink, André J. A.
In the Netherlands, emissions from animal houses represent a major source of ambient particulate matter (PM). The objective of the present paper was to provide accurate and up to date concentrations and emission rates of PM10 and PM2.5 for commonly used animal housing systems, under representative inside and outside climate conditions and ventilation rates. We set up a national survey which covered 13 housing systems for poultry, pigs, and dairy cattle, and included 36 farms. In total, 202 24-h measurements were carried out, which included concentrations of inhalable PM, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity. On an animal basis, geometric mean emission rates of PM10 ranged from 2.2 to 12.0 mg h-1 in poultry and from 7.3 to 22.5 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM10 emission rate in dairy cattle was 8.5 mg h-1. Geometric mean emission rates of PM2.5 ranged from 0.11 to 2.41 mg h-1 in poultry and from 0.21 to 1.56 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM2.5 emission rate in dairy cattle was 1.65 mg h-1. Emissions are also reported per Livestock Unit and Heat Production Unit. PM emission rates increased exponentially with increasing age in broilers and turkeys and increased linearly with increasing age in weaners and fatteners. In laying hens, broiler breeders, sows, and dairy cattle, emission levels were variable throughout the year.
Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Verhoeff, A; van Wijnen, J; Fischer, P
We studied the association of daily mortality with short-term variations in the ambient concentrations of major gaseous pollutants and PM in the Netherlands. The magnitude of the association in the four major urban areas was compared with that in the remainder of the country. Daily cause-specific mortality counts, air quality, temperature, relative humidity, and influenza data were obtained from 1986 to 1994. The relationship between daily mortality and air pollution was modeled using Poisson regression analysis. We adjusted for potential confounding due to long-term and seasonal trends, influenza epidemics, ambient temperature and relative humidity, day of the week, and holidays, using generalized additive models. Influenza episodes were associated with increased mortality up to 3 weeks later. Daily mortality was significantly associated with the concentration of all air pollutants. An increase in the PM10 concentration by 100 micrograms/m3 was associated with a relative risk (RR) of 1.02 for total mortality. The largest RRs were found for pneumonia deaths. Ozone had the most consistent, independent association with mortality. Particulate air pollution (e.g., PM10, black smoke [BS]) was not more consistently associated with mortality than were the gaseous pollutants SO2 and NO2. Aerosol SO4(-2), NO3-, and BS were more consistently associated with total mortality than was PM10. The RRs for all pollutants were substantially larger in the summer months than in the winter months. The RR of total mortality for PM10 was 1.10 for the summer and 1.03 for the winter. There was no consistent difference between RRs in the four major urban areas and the more rural areas. PMID:11002600
Background Adolescence is a critical developmental period regarding exposure to substances. Therefore, it is important to be able to identify those adolescents who are most vulnerable to substance abuse in the (near) future. The JOiN study was specifically designed to examine two endophenotypes of adolescent substance use in a normal risk (NR) and high risk (HR) sample of adolescents: (1) behavioural disinhibition, and (2) individual differences in stress sensitivity. Methods The NR adolescents were part of a longitudinal general population study at the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands of children and adolescents initially aged 6 to 18 years old. Three assessment waves have been nearly completed, and data are available of N = 711 participants for stress sensitivity measures, and of a subsample of N = 110 for electroencephalography (EEG) measures. Added to this study, HR adolescents who had at least one parent with a substance use disorder and who were treated by an outpatient clinic of a primary addiction care provider were approached via their parent(s). In total, N = 83 adolescents formed this HR sample. NR and HR adolescents participated in standardized stress procedure and EEG procedures in our laboratory. Questionnaires were filled out on background variables, behavioural and emotional problems, and substance use, and a diagnostic interview was conducted with adolescents and parents to assess psychopathology symptoms. DNA was collected through saliva or blood samples. Discussion The design of the JOiN study is optimal for examining the predictive role of endophenotypes of adolescent substance use. The combination of different methods, i.e. stress physiology, electrophysiology, genetics, and questionnaire data from several informants on a range of behaviours and environmental factors enables the investigation of the multifactorial nature of adolescent substance use. PMID:22583863
Takumi, K; Hegglin, D; Deplazes, P; Gottstein, B; Teunis, P; van der Giessen, J
The parasite Echinococcus multilocularis was first detected in The Netherlands in 1996 and repeated studies have shown that the parasite subsequently spread in the local population of foxes in the province of Limburg. It was not possible to quantify the human risk of alveolar echinococcosis because no relationship between the amount of parasite eggs in the environment and the probability of infection in humans was known. Here, we used the spread of the parasite in The Netherlands as a predictor, together with recently published historical records of the epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis in Switzerland, to achieve a relative quantification of the risk. Based on these analyses, the human risk in Limburg was simulated and up to three human cases are predicted by 2018. We conclude that the epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis in The Netherlands might have changed from a period of negligible risk in the past to a period of increasing risk in the forthcoming years. PMID:21733269
Deliens, L; van der Wal, G
Recently, a law on euthanasia has been adopted in both the Netherlands and Belgium. In both countries euthanasia has been legalized under strict conditions and after confirmation with a notification procedure. Although both laws are similar, the Belgian law is more extensive on the requirements of prudent practice. On the other hand, in Dutch society the norm-setting on euthanasia has been more widely developed through jurisprudence. Nevertheless, we expect that the implementation of the new law and the notification procedure in Belgium will be more difficult than in the Netherlands. In order to promote, safeguard and guarantee the quality of the euthanasia practice, the present euthanasia notification procedure in the Netherlands is supplemented with feedback to the physicians. The strict anonymous procedure in the Belgian notification procedure prevents this possibility. Therefore, Belgian physicians will not be supported by the notification procedure to improve their knowledge and skills in euthanasia. PMID:12635551
Duvivier, Robbert J; van Zanten, Marta
On 10 October 2010, the former Netherlands Antilles was dissolved politically; Curacao and St Maarten became autonomous countries, while Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba (the 'BES islands') joined the Netherlands with the status 'special municipalities'. At that time there was one medical school on each of the BES islands, providing medical education to students predominantly from the United States and Canada. A process was instigated for recognition and accreditation within the Netherlands system of the education provided by these schools. This article provides an overview of this process, and investigates its consequences, including admission and registration requirements, student mobility and financial aspects. The current location and status of the different educational programmes will be explained. PMID:25990329
van Welie, S D; van Leeuwen, T N; Bouma, C J; Klaassen, A B M
Biomedical scientific research in the Netherlands has a good reputation worldwide. Quantitatively, the university medical centres (UMCs) deliver about 40 % of the total number of scientific publications of this research. Analysis of the bibliometric output data of the UMCs shows that their research is highly cited. These output-based analyses also indicate the high impact of cardiovascular scientific research in these centres, illustrating the strength of this research in the Netherlands. A set of six joint national cardiovascular research topics selected by the UMCs can be recognised. At the top are heart failure, rhythm disorder research and atherosclerosis. National collaboration of top scientists in consortia in these three areas is successful in acquiring funding of large-scale programs. Our observations suggest that funding national consortia of experts focused on a few selected research topics may increase the international competitiveness of cardiovascular research in the Netherlands. PMID:27043238
Ferguson, Rebecca M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Knijn, Trudie
The Netherlands is often recognized for its approach to adolescent sexual health, noted by the country's low rates of teen pregnancy and high contraceptive use among young people. Different studies have compared the sexual health outcomes of youth in The Netherlands with those of young people in other developed countries, and, to varying degrees,…
Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; van der Tuin, Leo
A comparison between the Netherlands and Germany concerning religious, cultural and ethnic plurality provides interesting insights. Germany has never defined itself as a multicultural society, as was historically the case in the Netherlands. The outcomes of the research are somewhat surprising. Dutch pupils--especially boys--are more negative…
Ladd, Helen F.; Fiske, Edward B.; Ruijs, Nienke
The Netherlands has a long history of parental choice and school anatomy. This paper examines why segregation by educational disadvantage has only recently emerged as a policy issue in the Netherlands. In addition, we document the levels and trends of school segregation in Dutch cities. We find segregation levels that are high both absolutely and…
Owings, William A.; Kaplan, Leslie S.; Volman, Monique
Using an equity perspective, this article compares the education systems of the United States and the Netherlands. Existing data examining student demographics, the organizational structures, curricula, funding, and student outcomes are examined. The Netherlands appears to be getting a "bigger bang for their buck." We make the case that…
Fleischmann, Fenella; de Haas, Annabel
Ethnic minority parents are often less involved with their children's schooling, and this may hamper their children's academic success, thus contributing to ethnic educational inequality. The authors aim to explain differences in parental involvement, using nationally representative survey data from the Netherlands of parents of primary…
Groenendijk, Leendert F.; Bakker, Nelleke
Discusses the history and outcomes of psychoanalysis and child rearing practices in the 1950s Netherlands to present. Depicts the 20th century as a century of child rearing experts with parents blamed for all that was wrong with their child. States the dynamics of psychology has undermined society's self-supporting and self-healing capacity. (KDR)
Ketzer, Jan W.
A media education curriculum developed in the Netherlands is designed to increase the media literacy of children aged 4-12 years by helping them to acquire information and insights into the meaning of mass media; teaching them to produce and use audiovisual materials as a method of expression; and using audiovisual equipment in the classroom. (LRW)
van der Klauw, C. F., Ed.; And Others
Information is presented concerning the European Association for Research and Development in Higher Education (EARDHE) and educational research and development occurring at the universities in the Netherlands. Additionally, perspectives on how university teachers in Hamburg, Germany, can improve their teaching methods are considered. The goals and…
Kalmijn, Matthijs; Liefbroer, Aart C.; van Poppel, F. W. A.; van Solinge, Hanna
The tendency of members of many ethno-religious groups to marry within their group has been considered evidence for the persistent role of ascription in modern society. What is the role of the family of origin in this process? To answer this question, we study the marriage choices of Jews in the Netherlands, using a unique dataset and a novel…
Huijnk, Willem; Liefbroer, Aart C.
This study examined the influence of the family on native Dutch attitudes toward having ethnic minority members as kin through marriage using multiactor data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (N = 1,652). Results from multilevel models showed that 28% of the variation in ethnic attitudes can be ascribed to the family. We investigated…
Van Meel, R. M.; Jansen, B. P. G. M.
The institutes that provide higher vocational education (HVE) constitute one of the three major branches of higher education in the Netherlands. Three actors play a decisive role in HVE: the government, the Council for Higher Vocational Education, and the institutes. The main factors exerting an influence on HVE include the following: the…
du Bois-Reymond, Manuela, Ed.; And Others
This book examines how young people in Germany and the Netherlands grow into adults in their society and how they cope with the accompanying experiences and changes. The 14 chapters of the book are: (1) "The Modernization of the Youth Phase. Educational, Professional and Family Careers of Dutch Youth in the Nineties" (Els Peters); (2) "Courtship…
van der Knaap, Linda; Jedeloo, Susan
Young people living with HIV are challenged when it comes to exploring their sexuality. Their sex education is hampered by the fact that their preferences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour are little known about. In this study from the Netherlands, Q-methodology was used to identify sizeable and meaningful sub-groups sharing common attitudes…
In this article I compare the lines of argumentation that are used in two public debates about the introduction of national canons in Sweden and the Netherlands. These arguments illustrate how different political actors understand the balance they think should be struck between the interests of individual children and society in obtaining social…
Foreign language education at early ages involves a broad spectrum of communication skills using communication, culture, connections, comparisons and community. The aim of this study is to compare the primary foreign language curricula of Turkey, Germany and the Netherlands in terms of objectives, content, teaching processes and evaluation…
Aronowitz, Teri; Fawcett, Jacqueline
The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of the philosophical, historical, sociological, political, and economic perspectives reflected in the public policies about lifespan sexuality education of Germany and The Netherlands. A new conceptual framework for analysis and evaluation of sexuality education policies that integrates the…
Dodge, Brian; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Yarber, William L.; de Wit, John
Objectives: To assess differences in sexual health behaviors, outcomes, and potential sociocultural determinants among male college students in the United States and the Netherlands. Methods: Survey data were collected from random samples of students from both national cultures. Results: American men were more likely to report inadequate…
The 4th workshop of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) was held on May 8 in Utrecht, The Netherlands, in conjunction with the NATO/SPS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application. AQMEII was launched in 2009 as a l...
Suijkerbuijk, Anita W M; Woudenberg, Tom; Hahné, Susan J M; Nic Lochlainn, Laura; de Melker, Hester E; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Lugnér, Anna K
In 2013 and 2014, the Netherlands experienced a measles outbreak in orthodox Protestant communities with low measles-mumps-rubella vaccination coverage. Assessing total outbreak costs is needed for public health outbreak preparedness and control. Total costs of this outbreak were an estimated $4.7 million. PMID:26488199
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).
In the Netherlands, 15 to 17.5 percent of the working age population participated in further education and training for adults in 1985-88. Enterprises, state ministries, and private institutions supply adult education; enterprises, ministries, and sectoral institutions finance it. The Ministry of Education and Sciences provides basic education,…
Kuijpers, Marinka; Meijers, Frans
This article focuses on the question: which aspects of a learning environment, aimed at fostering career learning, correspond with the development of career competencies among university students in the Netherlands? A questionnaire-based study was carried out among 4820 students and 371 career counsellors in 11 universities. Four career…
Vennema, Harry; Duizer, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion P.G.
From 1994 through 2005, gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus generally increased in the Netherlands, with 3 epidemic seasons associated with new GGII.4 strains. Increased percentages of GGII.4 strains during these epidemics, followed by a sharp decrease in their absolute and relative numbers, suggest development of immunity. PMID:17370531
Theoretical and technical problems are covered in this progress report on methods of forecasting enrollment in grammar schools and universities in the Netherlands. A review of the combined efforts of persons who have contributed to the work of analyzing and forecasting this enrollment is contained. The analysis of grammar school enrollment…
Guignard, Romain; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Mons, Ute; Beck, François; van den Putte, Bas; Crone, Mathilde; de Vries, Hein; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T.
Background: As exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a cause of premature death and disease in non-smokers, and studies have demonstrated that smoking in cars produces high levels of TSP, this study will investigate smokers’ rules for smoking in their cars, and predictors of car smoking rules, including potentially modifiable correlates. Methods: Data were drawn from nationally representative samples of current smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys in France (2007), Germany (2007), and the Netherlands (2008). Smokers in France and Germany were asked about smoking rules in their cars, and smokers in the Netherlands were asked about smoking rules in cars carrying children. Results: In France and Germany, 59% and 52% of smokers respectively, allowed smoking in their cars. In the Netherlands, 36% of smokers allowed smoking in cars carrying children. Predictors of allowing smoking in cars included: being a daily vs. non-daily smoker, being younger vs. older age, having no (young) children in the home, being a heavier smoker, and allowing smoking in the home. In the Netherlands, smokers who agreed that TSP is dangerous to non-smokers were less likely to allow smoking in cars carrying children. Conclusion: Overall, a sizeable proportion of smokers allowed smoking in their cars across the three countries. Media campaigns with information about the dangers of TSP may increase the adoption of smoke-free cars. These media campaigns could target smokers who are most likely to allow smoking in cars. PMID:22294780
Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education, The Hague.
This booklet describes opportunities for higher education study in the Netherlands along with information, addresses, and practical tips for foreign students who are considering taking a course or earning a degree at a Dutch institution of higher education. Six sections cover: (1) the rewards of the investment in study abroad; (2) background on…
van Swet, Jacqueline; Ponte, Petra
This article reports findings from a case study into reciprocal learning in tutor groups in a research-based master's programme, run jointly by Roehampton University, London, UK and Fontys OSO, The Netherlands. The research was designed to investigate to what extent, and how, forms of reciprocal learning arose in tutor groups for experienced…
Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Kok, Matthijs; Vrijling, Johannes K
Large parts of The Netherlands are below sea level. Therefore, it is important to have insight into the possible consequences and risks of flooding. In this article, an analysis of the risks due to flooding of the dike ring area South Holland in The Netherlands is presented. For different flood scenarios the potential number of fatalities is estimated. Results indicate that a flood event in this area can expose large and densely populated areas and result in hundreds to thousands of fatalities. Evacuation of South Holland before a coastal flood will be difficult due to the large amount of time required for evacuation and the limited time available. By combination with available information regarding the probability of occurrence of different flood scenarios, the flood risks have been quantified. The probability of death for a person in South Holland due to flooding, the so-called individual risk, is small. The probability of a flood disaster with many fatalities, the so-called societal risk, is relatively large in comparison with the societal risks in other sectors in The Netherlands, such as the chemical sector and aviation. The societal risk of flooding appears to be unacceptable according to some of the existing risk limits that have been proposed in literature. These results indicate the necessity of a further societal discussion on the acceptable level of flood risk in The Netherlands and the need for additional risk reducing measures. PMID:18761731
Bijen, J. ); Montfort, J. van
High-solids epoxy coatings on steel flood barriers in The Netherlands showed cracking shortly after application. An investigation revealed the cause of cracking. It appeared that shrinkage-induced stresses caused the coatings to fail. Two cracking phenomena are described and simulated by an accelerated test and computer modeling.
This paper discusses the role brain disease has played in the discourse and practices of child scientists involved in the study of learning disabilities and behavioural disorders from the 1950s up to the mid-1980s, particularly in the Netherlands as part of a developing international scientific community. In the pre-ADHD era, when child sciences…
Verkuyten, Maykel; Brug, Peary
Examined ethnic identity achievement among Surinamese adolescents in the Netherlands as it related to self-esteem, perceived discrimination, and Dutch national identification. Surveys of Surinamese and ethnic Dutch adolescents indicated that ethnic identity achievement and self-esteem were positively correlated for Surinamese students.…
Jonkman, Harrie B.; Junger-Tas, Josine; van Dijk, Bram
This paper will provide a general overview of the implementation of the Communities that Care (CtC) programme in the Netherlands. It outlines the socio-historical development of the initiative and considers the rationale and starting point for the Dutch experiment and the tools used in the process. Attention will also be paid to the implementation…
This document presents an overview of the systems and procedures in place for certifying vocational qualifications in the Netherlands. Chapter 1 describes the following components of the Dutch education system: primary and special education; first phase of secondary education; second phase of secondary education; higher education; adult education;…
Meerburg, Bastiaan G; van Gent-Pelzer, Marga PE; Schoelitsz, Bruce; van der Lee, Theo AJ
BACKGROUND Rodenticide resistance to anticoagulants in Rattus norvegicus will lead to increased difficulties in combating these pest animals. Here, the authors present the results of a survey in the Netherlands where tissue samples and droppings were tested using a newly developed TaqMan PCR test for genotypic variation at codon 139 in the Vkorc1 gene associated with anticoagulant rodenticide resistance. Test results are linked to results of a questionnaire that was conducted among pest controllers. RESULTS Genetic mutations at codon 139 of the Vkorc1 gene in R. norvegicus can be encountered in many parts of the Netherlands. In 34/61 rat tails, a genotype was found that is linked to anticoagulant rodenticide resistance (56%). In droppings, 42/169 samples (25%) showed a resistance-mediating genotype. In addition, indications of a clear genetic substructure in the Netherlands were found. In some regions, only resistance-mediating genotypes were found, corroborating results from the questionnaire in which pest controllers indicated they suspected resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides. CONCLUSION This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of multiple genetic mutations at codon 139 of the Vkorc1 gene in R. norvegicus in the Netherlands. As rodenticides should keep their efficacy because they are a last resort in rodent management, more studies are urgently needed that link specific genetic mutations to the efficacy of active substances. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:24753361
Within policy circles, graduate employability remains a problem. It is often understood as an individual phenomenon, overlooking the influence of the organisation of higher education on the competition for graduate jobs. This article explores and compares how graduate employability is socially constructed within Great Britain and the Netherlands.…
Two papers examine vocational training, special education, and government services for the disabled in the Netherlands. Originally presented at a convention poster session of the 16th World Congress of Rehabilitation International, the first paper focuses on the national institute at Werkenrode which provides a residential practice-based education…
Beishuizen, Jos; Van Boxel, Patris; Banyard, Philip; Twiner, Alison; Vermeij, Helle; Underwood, Jean
This article describes a comparative study of the introduction of student portfolios in two departments of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in the Netherlands and Nottingham Trent University in the UK. Portfolios are designed to facilitate effective management of lifelong learning, to provide a record of achievements and to encourage…
Nederland Independent School District, TX.
GRADES OR AGES: Grade 4. SUBJECT MATTER: Social Studies; including units entitled "Getting Ready for Our World Journey,""Africa,""Australia," and "The Netherlands." ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four separately bound units. Each unit is further subdivided into lessons. The units are mimeographed and staple-bound.…
..., except to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036..., 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). Additional written submissions to the Commission, including... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY:...
Civitillo, Sauro; De Moor, Jan M. H.; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.
Teachers' beliefs are crucial to the success of inclusion programmes and reform efforts for children with special educational needs (SEN). Based on this evidence, one hundred and thirty-nine primary pre-service teachers from one training institution in the Netherlands completed an adapted version of a measure of beliefs towards inclusive…
Kucel, Aleksander; Vilalta-Bufi, Montserrat
In this paper we investigate the determinants of regret of study program for tertiary education graduates in Spain and the Netherlands. These two countries differ in their educational system in terms of the tracking structure in their secondary education and the strength of their education-labor market linkages in tertiary education. Therefore, by…
Jansen, Bram J.; Dijkstra, Maurits J.; Bloem, Alex
Describes the new national biology curriculum in the Netherlands, including a modern branch of biology called ethology. Topics covered include General Objectives, Lessons on Ethology and Student Skills, Role of Ethological Theory in Lessons, Emphasis on Human Behavior, Student Skills to be Developed, and items to be included in lessons such as…
Geijsel, Femke; Ledoux, Guuske; Reumerman, Rene; ten Dam, Geert
The results of a nationwide study of the citizenship competences of adolescents in the Netherlands are presented from the perspective of democratic citizenship in this article. Citizenship competences are defined as the knowledge, skills, attitudes and reflection needed by young people in a democratic and multicultural society to adequately fulfil…
Leat, David; Van der Schee, Joop; Vankan, Leon
Following a constructivist view on learning and based on the work of Adey and Shayer a group of teachers and lecturers in geographical education from northeast England developed some successful strategies to stimulate pupils' thinking skills. At the start of this century the ideas reached The Netherlands. This article presents the results of a…
Ribbert, Anne; Kuiken, Folkert
This article reports on an investigation of changes in the grammatical competence of Germans living in the Netherlands. The participants (N = 52) were asked to give their judgments on the grammaticality of infinitive clauses in German. The judgments of this group were compared to those of a control group that lived in Germany and did not have…
Huisman, Chip; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.; Monshouwer, Karin
This article empirically examines the effect of social background, education, and school organization on adolescent tobacco use in the Netherlands. We test theories of norm enforcing and horizon expanding social networks and distinction by examining the relationship between daily smoking behavior and school organization. Using the 2007 Dutch…
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.
This volume, number three in a series of three, investigates the relationship between modes of finance for primary schools and educational policy objectives in the countries of the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Italy. The first purpose of the book was to tell the history of educational finance arrangements in order to frame the context within…
Reiding, Jurrie; De Vos, Wobbe
Describes and analyzes five years of an attempt to introduce the public understanding of science as a subject in its own right to be taught in The Netherlands. Concludes that in spite of its status as a separate subject, the current vision of the course does not yet have a clear identity that distinguishes it from traditional school science…
Kan, Kees-Jan; Dolan, Conor V.; Nivard, Michel G.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.
Objective: To review findings on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and attention problems (AP) in children, adolescents, and adults, as established in the database of the Netherlands Twin Register and increase the understanding of stability in AP across the lifespan as a function of genetic and environmental influences. Method: A…
Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.
The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority…
Bron, Jeroen; Thijs, Annette
Background: The Netherlands traditionally has a strong civil society. This has had an impact on the education system through the relatively high degree of autonomy for schools on moral and didactical choices as well as on the curriculum. Such freedom provides ample room for citizenship to develop at a local level. The large degree of curricular…
Molleman, Gerard; Fransen, Gerdine
A logical and promising next step for the development of an effective infrastructure for health promotion in the Netherlands are Academic Collaborative Centres (ACCs). Their aims are to bridge the gap between research, policy and practice; make better use of available knowledge and strengthen the evidence base for health promotion practice. To understand their position, they must be seen in light of the strong growth in health promotion in the Netherlands. Since the 1970s, the emphasis in health promotion has shifted from simple unidimensional interventions to much more comprehensive and integrated programmes. Comprehensive research programmes, which explicitly involve actual practice and policy, are also thus called for. These developments are described in this article. There is considerable and widespread enthusiasm about the establishment of ACCs in the Netherlands. Experiences from the first 5 years of collaboration between research, policy and practice within the ACCs, however, shows research to still have the dominant position. The different groups of stakeholders in the public health infrastructure are also shown to perceive and appreciate the current infrastructure rather differently. These findings are similar to results found in the USA. The predominance of research has recently led the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) to impose stricter criteria and guidelines for the funding of such centres. These measures are aimed at eliciting a shift of power from science to practice. They seem to be a promising contribution to bridging the gap between research, policy and practice. PMID:22399547
van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan
The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…
We explored the relationships between immigrant adolescents' first-and second-language proficiency and their psychological and sociocultural adaptation using three models: the ethnic identity model, the language assimilation model, and the language integration model. The study was conducted in the Netherlands. Participants were 161 Turkish and 95…
Kalmijn, Matthijs; De Graaf, Paul M.; Poortman, Annerigt
This study examines the relationship between gendered family roles and divorce in The Netherlands. Cultural and economic aspects of this relationship are distinguished. Economic hypotheses argue that the likelihood of divorce is increased if women work for pay and have attractive labor market resources. Cultural hypotheses argue that divorce…
At present, about 20% of the scientific publications worldwide are freely (open-access) available (Bjork, Welling, Laakso, Majlender, Hedlund, & Guonason, 2010) and this percentage is constantly on the rise. In the Netherlands, a similar trend is visible (see Fig. 1). Why is open-access (OA) publishing important, and why will it become even more…
CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS
THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE MOBILITY RESEARCH CONFERENCE HELD IN ROTTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS, AUGUST 3-7, 1964. PROGRESS REPORTS ARE GIVEN ON THE FOLLOWING--(1) ULTRASONIC MOBILITY AID, (2) ULTRASONIC GUIDANCE SYSTEM, (3) ELEKTROFTALM MOBILITY AID, (4) PASSIVE ENVIRONMENT SENSORS, (5) AMBIENT-LIGHT OBJECT DETECTOR, (6) TRAVEL PATH…
... the change in the political status of the islands that comprised the Netherlands Antilles. DATES..., successor political entities remain eligible as beneficiary countries. Therefore, the definitions have been... Government. The rule only reflects the political status of the islands that comprised the...
Gibbons, Judith L.; And Others
Compared adolescent perceptions of the opposite-sex ideal. Subjects were students from 44 countries attending secondary schools or universities in the Netherlands. Results showed that males put more emphasis on physical attributes whereas females placed emphasis on inner qualities. (GG)
Burt, Sara A; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H M
Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source. PMID:27147250