Science.gov

Sample records for neurogenomics song initiative

  1. The Songbird Neurogenomics (SoNG) Initiative: Community-based tools and strategies for study of brain gene function and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Replogle, Kirstin; Arnold, Arthur P; Ball, Gregory F; Band, Mark; Bensch, Staffan; Brenowitz, Eliot A; Dong, Shu; Drnevich, Jenny; Ferris, Margaret; George, Julia M; Gong, George; Hasselquist, Dennis; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Kim, Ryan; Lewin, Harris A; Liu, Lei; Lovell, Peter V; Mello, Claudio V; Naurin, Sara; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Wade, Juli; Clayton, David F

    2008-01-01

    Background Songbirds hold great promise for biomedical, environmental and evolutionary research. A complete draft sequence of the zebra finch genome is imminent, yet a need remains for application of genomic resources within a research community traditionally focused on ethology and neurobiological methods. In response, we developed a core set of genomic tools and a novel collaborative strategy to probe gene expression in diverse songbird species and natural contexts. Results We end-sequenced cDNAs from zebra finch brain and incorporated additional sequences from community sources into a database of 86,784 high quality reads. These assembled into 31,658 non-redundant contigs and singletons, which we annotated via BLAST search of chicken and human databases. The results are publicly available in the ESTIMA:Songbird database. We produced a spotted cDNA microarray with 20,160 addresses representing 17,214 non-redundant products of an estimated 11,500–15,000 genes, validating it by analysis of immediate-early gene (zenk) gene activation following song exposure and by demonstrating effective cross hybridization to genomic DNAs of other songbird species in the Passerida Parvorder. Our assembly was also used in the design of the "Lund-zfa" Affymetrix array representing ~22,000 non-redundant sequences. When the two arrays were hybridized to cDNAs from the same set of male and female zebra finch brain samples, both arrays detected a common set of regulated transcripts with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.895. To stimulate use of these resources by the songbird research community and to maintain consistent technical standards, we devised a "Community Collaboration" mechanism whereby individual birdsong researchers develop experiments and provide tissues, but a single individual in the community is responsible for all RNA extractions, labelling and microarray hybridizations. Conclusion Immediately, these results set the foundation for a coordinated set of 25 planned

  2. Nicotine addiction through a neurogenomic prism

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Lorraine; Karkazis, Katrina; Raffin, Thomas A.; Swan, Gary; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Studies are under way to examine the neurogenetic factors contributing to smoking behaviors. The combined approaches of genomics, molecular biology, neuroscience, and pharmacology are expected to fuel developments in pharmacogenetics, to create new genetic tests, and ultimately to provide the basis for innovative strategies for smoking cessation and prevention. The emergence of a neurogenomic understanding of nicotine addiction is likely to induce fundamental changes in popular, clinical, and public health views of smoking, which could significantly shape existing practices and policies to reduce tobacco use. Still a nascent area of research, nicotine addiction provides an excellent case study through which to anticipate key ethical and policy issues in both behavioral genetics and the neurogenomics of addictive behaviors. PMID:16036275

  3. Japanese; Japanese Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

  4. Arabic Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This collection of 10 songs was prepared as supplementary material for the Defense Language Institute's basic course in Modern Standard Arabic. The songs appear in Arabic script with special vocabulary items glossed in English. The lyrics also appear in transliteration at the end of the text. Musical scores accompany some of the selections. [Not…

  5. Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that male mice, when they encounter female mice or their pheromones, emit ultrasonic vocalizations with frequencies ranging over 30–110 kHz. Here, we show that these vocalizations have the characteristics of song, consisting of several different syllable types, whose temporal sequencing includes the utterance of repeated phrases. Individual males produce songs with characteristic syllabic and temporal structure. This study provides a quantitative initial description of male mouse songs, and opens the possibility of studying song production and perception in an established genetic model organism. PMID:16248680

  6. Neurogenomics: An opportunity to integrate neuroscience, genomics and bioinformatics research in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Karikari, Thomas K.; Aleksic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Modern genomic approaches have made enormous contributions to improving our understanding of the function, development and evolution of the nervous system, and the diversity within and between species. However, most of these research advances have been recorded in countries with advanced scientific resources and funding support systems. On the contrary, little is known about, for example, the possible interplay between different genes, non-coding elements and environmental factors in modulating neurological diseases among populations in low-income countries, including many African countries. The unique ancestry of African populations suggests that improved inclusion of these populations in neuroscience-related genomic studies would significantly help to identify novel factors that might shape the future of neuroscience research and neurological healthcare. This perspective is strongly supported by the recent identification that diseased individuals and their kindred from specific sub-Saharan African populations lack common neurological disease-associated genetic mutations. This indicates that there may be population-specific causes of neurological diseases, necessitating further investigations into the contribution of additional, presently-unknown genomic factors. Here, we discuss how the development of neurogenomics research in Africa would help to elucidate disease-related genomic variants, and also provide a good basis to develop more effective therapies. Furthermore, neurogenomics would harness African scientists' expertise in neuroscience, genomics and bioinformatics to extend our understanding of the neural basis of behaviour, development and evolution. PMID:26937352

  7. Neurogenomic signatures of spatiotemporal memories in time-trained forager honey bees.

    PubMed

    Naeger, Nicholas L; Van Nest, Byron N; Johnson, Jennifer N; Boyd, Sam D; Southey, Bruce R; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Moore, Darrell; Robinson, Gene E

    2011-03-15

    Honey bees can form distinct spatiotemporal memories that allow them to return repeatedly to different food sources at different times of day. Although it is becoming increasingly clear that different behavioral states are associated with different profiles of brain gene expression, it is not known whether this relationship extends to states that are as dynamic and specific as those associated with foraging-related spatiotemporal memories. We tested this hypothesis by training different groups of foragers from the same colony to collect sucrose solution from one of two artificial feeders; each feeder was in a different location and had sucrose available at a different time, either in the morning or afternoon. Bees from both training groups were collected at both the morning and afternoon training times to result in one set of bees that was undergoing stereotypical food anticipatory behavior and another that was inactive for each time of day. Between the two groups with the different spatiotemporal memories, microarray analysis revealed that 1329 genes were differentially expressed in the brains of honey bees. Many of these genes also varied with time of day, time of training or state of food anticipation. Some of these genes are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes, including metabolism and behavior. These results indicate that distinct spatiotemporal foraging memories in honey bees are associated with distinct neurogenomic signatures, and the decomposition of these signatures into sets of genes that are also influenced by time or activity state hints at the modular composition of this complex neurogenomic phenotype. PMID:21346126

  8. Neurogenomics in Africa: Perspectives, progress, possibilities and priorities.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Rufus O; Owolabi, Mayowa O; Oyeniyi, Tolulope; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Arnett, Donna K; Tiwari, Hemant K; Walker, Richard; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-07-15

    The understanding of the genetic basis of neurological disorders has grown rapidly in the last two decades. Despite the genomic heterogeneity within African populations, large-scale candidate gene or linkage and exome studies are lacking. However, current knowledge on neurogenetics in African populations is limited and geographically very uneven. Isolated reports indicate the existence of autosomal dominant or recessive conditions incorporating cerebrovascular, movement, neuromuscular, seizure and motor neuron disorders in Africans. In addition, few African families with neurodegenerative disorders associated with dementia have been characterized in North, West and South Africa. The current insurgency in genomic research triggered by among others the Human Health and Heredity (H3) Africa Initiative indicates that there are unique opportunities to advance our knowledge and understanding of the influence of genomic variation on the pattern, presentations and prognosis of neurological disorders in Africa. These have enormous potential to unmask novel genes and molecular pathways germane to the neurobiology of brain disorders. It would facilitate the development of novel diagnostics, preventative and targeted treatments in the new paradigm of precision medicine. Nevertheless, it is crucial to strike a balance between effective traditional public health strategies and personalized genome based care. The translational barriers can be overcome through robust stakeholder engagement and sustainable multilevel, multigenerational and multidisciplinary capacity building and infrastructural development for genomic medicine in Africa. PMID:27288810

  9. Strawberry Square. Song Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Tom

    Designed to accompany a series of 33 television programs in music education for kindergarten and first grade children, this song book (containing sheet music) correlates with activities in the teacher's guide. Titles of songs included in the book are: Let a Song Tell a Story (short and long versions); If I Had a Hammer; A Happy Street; Let the…

  10. Functional genomic analysis and neuroanatomical localization of miR-2954, a song-responsive sex-linked microRNA in the zebra finch

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ya-Chi; Balakrishnan, Christopher N.; Clayton, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Natural experience can cause complex changes in gene expression in brain centers for cognition and perception, but the mechanisms that link perceptual experience and neurogenomic regulation are not understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have the potential to regulate large gene expression networks, and a previous study showed that a natural perceptual stimulus (hearing the sound of birdsong in zebra finches) triggers rapid changes in expression of several miRs in the auditory forebrain. Here we evaluate the functional potential of one of these, miR-2954, which has been found so far only in birds and is encoded on the Z sex chromosome. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we show that miR-2954 is present in subsets of cells in the sexually dimorphic brain regions involved in song production and perception, with notable enrichment in cell nuclei. We then probe its regulatory function by inhibiting its expression in a zebra finch cell line (G266) and measuring effects on endogenous gene expression using Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Approximately 1000 different mRNAs change in expression by 1.5-fold or more (adjusted p < 0.01), with increases in some but not all of the targets that had been predicted by Targetscan. The population of RNAs that increase after miR-2954 inhibition is notably enriched for ones involved in the MAP Kinase (MAPK) pathway, whereas the decreasing population is dominated by genes involved in ribosomes and mitochondrial function. Since song stimulation itself triggers a decrease in miR-2954 expression followed by a delayed decrease in genes encoding ribosomal and mitochondrial functions, we suggest that miR-2954 may mediate some of the neurogenomic effects of song habituation. PMID:25565940

  11. Koyukon Athabaskan Dance Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulu, Tupou L.

    Nineteen songs sung at potlach activities to honor the dead have been transcribed and compiled to foster greater understanding and appreciation among Alaskan school children of the place of songs in the life of the Central Koyukon Athabaskans who believe that singing and dancing allow emotional release from the sadness of losing a loved one. The…

  12. French Basic Course: Supplementary Material. Song Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This song book is presented as supplementary material for the French Basic Course. It provides the words to 36 French songs. The songs are divided into five categories: (1) military songs, (2) sea songs, (3) drinking songs, (4) folklore songs, and (5) Christmas carols. (AMH)

  13. Distinct Neurogenomic States in Basal Ganglia Subregions Relate Differently to Singing Behavior in Songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, Austin T.; Miller, Julie E.; Horvath, Steve; White, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Both avian and mammalian basal ganglia are involved in voluntary motor control. In birds, such movements include hopping, perching and flying. Two organizational features that distinguish the songbird basal ganglia are that striatal and pallidal neurons are intermingled, and that neurons dedicated to vocal-motor function are clustered together in a dense cell group known as area X that sits within the surrounding striato-pallidum. This specification allowed us to perform molecular profiling of two striato-pallidal subregions, comparing transcriptional patterns in tissue dedicated to vocal-motor function (area X) to those in tissue that contains similar cell types but supports non-vocal behaviors: the striato-pallidum ventral to area X (VSP), our focus here. Since any behavior is likely underpinned by the coordinated actions of many molecules, we constructed gene co-expression networks from microarray data to study large-scale transcriptional patterns in both subregions. Our goal was to investigate any relationship between VSP network structure and singing and identify gene co-expression groups, or modules, found in the VSP but not area X. We observed mild, but surprising, relationships between VSP modules and song spectral features, and found a group of four VSP modules that were highly specific to the region. These modules were unrelated to singing, but were composed of genes involved in many of the same biological processes as those we previously observed in area X-specific singing-related modules. The VSP-specific modules were also enriched for processes disrupted in Parkinson's and Huntington's Diseases. Our results suggest that the activation/inhibition of a single pathway is not sufficient to functionally specify area X versus the VSP and support the notion that molecular processes are not in and of themselves specialized for behavior. Instead, unique interactions between molecular pathways create functional specificity in particular brain regions during

  14. Cognitive processes in bird song

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cynx, Jeffrey

    2001-05-01

    Anthropomorphic hypotheses can alter previous ethological concepts. Songbirds have been traditionally categorized as open- or close-ended learners. Open-ended learners such as canaries and starlings continue to learn new songs throughout life. Close-ended learners such as song sparrows and zebra finches appear to learn song once and then repeat this song in a stereotyped or crystallized manner for the rest of their lives. Research over the last dozen years or so has produced evidence that whatever is close-ended in songbirds may be more than a little ajar. It is clear that adult song is a highly dynamic and closely monitored act. In these regards, it has a number of cognitive processes similar to human speech. Birds appear to continually monitor their own song, being able to stop in midsong if necessary. They also regulate the song amplitude given environmental and social conditions, and show song perturbations when experiencing delayed auditory feedback. However, so far as is known, close-ended learners cannot learn new song elements from a model, although there are hints to the contrary, including both behavioral and physiological results.

  15. Parapraxes in song recall: a neglected variable.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Chumaceiro, C L

    1993-09-01

    In addition to expressing themselves with verbal and nonverbal communications, and by the countertransference reactions perceived by analysts, patients also reveal their inner world of images and feelings specifically with music evocations. This paper presents an initial attempt to identify and classify some of the parapraxes produced in the evocation of lyrics and music by polyglot members of treatment dyads in two empirical studies and in private practice. There may be many others, particularly related to the music per se. This paper has focused mainly on the lyrics, the equivalent of the manifest content of dreams, which nonmusician therapists can learn to handle well. Instead, in the case of the musical latent content, some knowledge of music is necessary. Supervisors' songs were considered beyond the scope of this paper and will be addressed separately. Parapraxes in song recall signal unconscious transference-countertransference states in process at the moment of evocation. PMID:8214208

  16. Song Recognition in Zebra Finches: Are There Sensitive Periods for Song Memorization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Male zebra finches learn to sing songs that they hear between 25 and 65 days of age, the sensitive period for song learning. In this experiment, male and female zebra finches were exposed to zebra finch songs either before (n = 9) or during (n = 4) the sensitive period. Following song exposure, recognition memory for the songs was assessed with an…

  17. BrainSeq: Neurogenomics to Drive Novel Target Discovery for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    2015-12-16

    We outline an ambitious project to characterize the genetic and epigenetic regulation of multiple facets of transcription in distinct brain regions across the human lifespan in samples of major neuropsychiatric disorders and controls. Initially focused on schizophrenia and mood disorders, the goal of this consortium is to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of genetic associations with the goal of identifying novel therapeutic targets. The consortium currently consists of seven pharmaceutical companies and a not-for-profit medical research institution working as a precompetitive team to generate and analyze publicly available archival brain genomic data related to neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:26687217

  18. Primary song by a juvenile willow flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The timing of song development in suboscines, in which song appears not to be learned from other adults is poorly known. The Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a suboscine with a primary song typically referred to as fitz-bew. I report here an instance of very early singing by a 6-8-wk-old Willow Flycatcher, which sang in an aggressive context in response to a recording of adult flycatcher song. This is exceptionally early development of primary song, even among suboscines. Early song development may assist in the defense of winter territories.

  19. Drinking Songs: Alcohol Effects on Learned Song of Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Christopher R.; Owen, Devin C.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.; Mello, Claudio V.

    2014-01-01

    Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds’ ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors. PMID:25536524

  20. Predicting bird song from space

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas B; Harrigan, Ryan J; Kirschel, Alexander N G; Buermann, Wolfgang; Saatchi, Sassan; Blumstein, Daniel T; de Kort, Selvino R; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally imposed selection pressures are well known to shape animal signals. Changes in these signals can result in recognition mismatches between individuals living in different habitats, leading to reproductive divergence and speciation. For example, numerous studies have shown that differences in avian song may be a potent prezygotic isolating mechanism. Typically, however, detailed studies of environmental pressures on variation in animal behavior have been conducted only at small spatial scales. Here, we use remote-sensing data to predict animal behavior, in this case, bird song, across vast spatial scales. We use remotely sensed data to predict the song characteristics of the little greenbul (Andropadus virens), a widely distributed African passerine, found across secondary and mature rainforest habitats and the rainforest-savanna ecotone. Satellite data that captured ecosystem structure and function explained up to 66% of the variation in song characteristics. Song differences observed across habitats, including those between human-altered and mature rainforest, have the potential to lead to reproductive divergence, and highlight the impacts that both natural and anthropogenic change may have on natural populations. Our approach offers a novel means to examine the ecological correlates of animal behavior across large geographic areas with potential applications to both evolutionary and conservation biology. PMID:24062797

  1. "Bird Song Metronomics": Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm.

    PubMed

    Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a "signal-derived pulse," or pulse(S), of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulse(S) significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulse(P)), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulses(S) that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulse(S) periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel

  2. "Singin' the Blues": Women in Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Donald V. S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity to demonstrate how popular music can perpetuate the stereotyping of women. Identifies materials needed, suggested songs, and questions to ask students. Suggests homework assignment dealing with contemporary songs. (DK)

  3. Songs for Residential Outdoor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Diane, Comp.

    A collection of songs for residential outdoor education programs gives the lyrics to 42 recent and traditonal songs. Recent songs include "Leaving on a Jet Plane,""Blowin' in the Wind,""Country Roads,""Last Thing on My Mind,""City of New Orleans,""Me and Bobby McGee,""Moon River," and "I Shall be Released." Modern folk songs included are "Jamaica…

  4. Courtship Love Songs: doublesex Makes the Connection.

    PubMed

    Arbeitman, Michelle N; Newell, Nicole R

    2016-06-20

    During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males sing to females a song composed of rhythmic pulses and sine song. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Shirangi et al. (2016) show that a cluster of doublesex-expressing neurons directs the production of the sine song component through functional linkages to wing motoneurons. PMID:27326925

  5. Some Contemporary Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents several new rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) songs. Claims that the songs may be used in both academic and therapeutic settings as a humorous way to address cognitive distortions or irrational beliefs. Reports that students and clients have responded favorably to these songs. (RJM)

  6. The Referent of Children's Early Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2005-01-01

    Musical creativity during early childhood is readily exemplified in vocal behaviours. This paper is a discussion of observations on children's performance of learned songs and self-generated songs. Longitudinal observations suggest that self-generated songs may be seen as referent-guided improvisation using source materials derived from learned…

  7. Looking Back: Teaching "Landeskunde" with "Liedermacher" Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundell, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Popular music is a "lingua franca" for young people. The songs of German "Liedermacher" lend themselves to classroom uses. "Liedermacher" are cultural commentators who entertain and edify with their songs. Focusing on social and political aspects of postwar Germany, "Liedermacher" songs have been a "gesungene Landeskunde" resource since the early…

  8. Songs that Teach: Using Song-Poems to Teach Critically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Guiding students through a unit of study in any discipline can be a challenging endeavor. Answers to possible questions that may be raised about historical events and literary texts cannot be confined to just one text, one author's point of view, or even one genre. The song-poem, in combination with poetry, novels, nonfiction, and other genres, is…

  9. Lingering with Dicey: Robin's Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Laura S.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a case study which shows how a middle school student was transformed through her interactions with her teacher, the novels she read, and her journal. Discusses how a single text, "Dicey's Song" by Cynthia Voigt, became the touchstone that the student returned to throughout the school year, generating the potential for intertextuality…

  10. Humpback whale song: A new review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Adam S.

    2003-04-01

    The humpback whale song has been described and investigated since the early 1970s. Much has been learned about the humpback whale social structure, but the understanding of the song and its function remains elusive. The hierarchical nature of the song structure was described early on: Songs can be sung for a long period, apparently by males, and primarily during the mating season. However, singers also become physically competitive, suggesting alternative mating strategies. There are a number of unique structural features of song. Its structure evolves over time and combination. The nature of song evolution strongly implies cultural transmission. Song structure appears to be shared within an entire population, even though there appears to be little interchange of individuals between sub populations. Despite over thirty years of inquiry there are still numerous unanswered questions: Why is the song structure so complex? Is song a sexual advertisement, an acoustic space mediation mechanism, or both? How do females choose mates, or do they? What drives song evolution, and why is there so much variation in the rate of change? Are there nonreproductive functions of song? What prompts a male to begin or end singing? Our current understanding and the outstanding questions yet to be answered will be reviewed.

  11. Cover song identification by sequence alignment algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Li; Zhong, Qian; Wang, Szu-Ying; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2011-10-01

    Content-based music analysis has drawn much attention due to the rapidly growing digital music market. This paper describes a method that can be used to effectively identify cover songs. A cover song is a song that preserves only the crucial melody of its reference song but different in some other acoustic properties. Hence, the beat/chroma-synchronous chromagram, which is insensitive to the variation of the timber or rhythm of songs but sensitive to the melody, is chosen. The key transposition is achieved by cyclically shifting the chromatic domain of the chromagram. By using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to obtain the time sequences of songs, the system is made even more robust. Similar structure or length between the cover songs and its reference are not necessary by the Smith-Waterman Alignment Algorithm.

  12. [Songs in music therapy with children].

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    For most of us, songs and nursery rhymes have a special emotional quality and, thus, are part of the basic repertoire of a music therapist. This paper outlines the meaning and applicability of songs in music therapy with children. The first part discusses the significance of songs within the context of developmental psychology, referring to the development of basic psychological functions such as motorical skills, language, cognition, emotion, mental representations, motivation and intention. The second part deals with indications and objectives as well as different applications of songs in music therapy. Traditional and new nursery rhymes, free renderings, playing songs, spontaneous tunes, welcome and farewell songs and semi-structured tunes are introduced. Finally, the article reviews the diverse therapeutical functions of songs within the process of music therapy as well as essential qualifications for a music therapist. PMID:17323817

  13. Factors limiting song acquisition in adult zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Funabiki, Yasuko; Funabiki, Kazuo

    2009-09-15

    Song learning takes place in two separate or partially overlapping periods, a sensory phase in which a tutor song is memorized and a sensorimotor phase in which a copy of the model is produced. The stage of song development where song becomes stable and stereotyped is called crystallization. Adult birds usually do not learn new song in many species including the zebra finch. However, it is not known whether song crystallization as such or aging impedes adult learning. Exposure to loud noises prevents birds from developing and crystallizing their song, because they cannot control their voice by auditory feedback. Zebra finches even without previous experience of hearing or singing a song failed to learn a song model provided in adulthood. Thus, neither the absence of a tutor song nor the lack of song crystallization enables new song learning in adulthood, but age per se limits the ability or motivation to learn song. PMID:19623623

  14. Songs of a Medicine Woman. Native Language and Culture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Alice; Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Traditional and contemporary Hupa songs as sung by a Hupa medicine woman in her 70's are collected in this booklet. Songs are presented in Hupa and English on facing pages that are illustrated with pen and ink drawings. The four songs are "Flower Dance Song" and "Kick Dance Song" (both for traditional religious ceremonial dances) and "The Bear…

  15. Cultural change in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) from Tonga

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eriksen, N.; Miller, L.A.; Tougaard, J.; Helweg, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Some humpback whales migrate annually from Antarctic feeding grounds to the seas around the Tongan Islands to give birth and mate. The Tongan humpbacks are considered part of Southern Hemisphere Group V that splits during migration, some swimming to Eastern Australia and others to various Polynesian Islands. During this time long complex songs are produced. The song is thought to be a male breeding display and may serve either as an intra-sexual or an inter-sexual signal or both. It is in a constant state of change that occurs every season. Since these changes are directional they cannot be described by drift, and singers incorporate changes as they occur, thus song must be shared through cultural transmission. This investigation describes the cultural changes that occurred in 158 songs recorded from Tongan humpbacks through the 1990s. The rate of change differed within years, some themes were retained for as much as five years and others were lost after only two years. The farther apart the years the less similar are the songs, as in the humpback songs of the Northern Hemisphere. The largest number of changes seems to have occurred in the early 1990s where all themes seemed to have been lost and new ones originated. What initiates these changes remains speculative, but we assess some hypotheses in relation to humpback whale behaviour and cultural transmission in avian song. ?? Koninklijke Brill NV, 2005.

  16. Bowhead whale springtime song off West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Kathleen M; Moore, Sue E; Laidre, Kristin L; Heide-Jørgensen, M P

    2008-11-01

    Three songs were recorded from bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Disko Bay, West Greenland, during 59 h of recordings via sonobuoys deployed on seven days between 5 and 14 April 2007. Song elements were defined by units following the protocol of previous description of bowhead whale song. The two most prominent songs were loud, complex, and repeated in long bouts on multiple recording days while the third song was much simpler and recorded on only one day. Bowhead whale simple calls and faint song elements were also recorded using digital audio tape recorders and a dipping hydrophone deployed from the sea ice approximately 100-150 km southwest of Disko Bay on three separate days suggesting that song is also produced in the central portion of Baffin Bay in winter. Songs recorded in Disko Bay are from an area where approximately 85% of the whales have been determined to be adult females. Although it is not known which sex was singing, we speculate that, as in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), male bowhead whales may sing to mediate sexual competition or mate selection behaviors. This is the first detailed description of springtime songs for bowhead whales in the eastern Arctic. PMID:19045814

  17. The importance of calling song and courtship song in female mate choice in the variable field cricket.

    PubMed

    Wagner; Reiser

    2000-06-01

    Male field crickets produce calling songs, courtship songs, tactile signals and chemical signals. Although calling songs are known to play an important role in female mate choice, the importance of the other signals in mate choice is poorly understood. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females select mates, in part, based on variation in male calling song. Females prefer higher chirp rates, a trait which is partially dependent on male nutrient intake, and females prefer longer chirp durations, a trait which appears to be independent of male nutrient intake. We tested whether females also have preferences based on variation in male courtship song, and whether the structure of male courtship song varies with nutrient intake. First, we reexamined female preference for calling song chirp rate. Then, we examined: (1) female preference based on courtship song chirp rate; (2) the relative importance of calling song and courtship song chirp rate; (3) the nutrition dependence of courtship song chirp rate; and (4) the correlation between calling song and courtship song chirp rate. As reported previously, females preferred higher calling song chirp rates, and in addition, preferred higher courtship song chirp rates. Females were more likely to switch from a speaker broadcasting more attractive calling song to a speaker broadcasting less attractive calling song when the attractive calling song was associated with an unattractive courtship song than when it was associated with an attractive courtship song. Preferences based on courtship song may thus cause females to alter the choices that they made based on calling song. Males that received greater nutrients did not produce higher courtship song chirp rates. There was no correlation between calling song and courtship song chirp rate. As a result, the two traits may provide information to females about different aspects of male quality. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID

  18. Integration over song classification replicates: song variant analysis in the hihi.

    PubMed

    Ranjard, Louis; Withers, Sarah J; Brunton, Dianne H; Ross, Howard A; Parsons, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Human expert analyses are commonly used in bioacoustic studies and can potentially limit the reproducibility of these results. In this paper, a machine learning method is presented to statistically classify avian vocalizations. Automated approaches were applied to isolate bird songs from long field recordings, assess song similarities, and classify songs into distinct variants. Because no positive controls were available to assess the true classification of variants, multiple replicates of automatic classification of song variants were analyzed to investigate clustering uncertainty. The automatic classifications were more similar to the expert classifications than expected by chance. Application of these methods demonstrated the presence of discrete song variants in an island population of the New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta). The geographic patterns of song variation were then revealed by integrating over classification replicates. Because this automated approach considers variation in song variant classification, it reduces potential human bias and facilitates the reproducibility of the results. PMID:25994687

  19. Broadside Ballads: Social Consciousness in Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junda, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights a group ballad project which is a part of student experiences in Sing and Shout!, a course that integrates academic study with singing and song writing to develop a deeper understanding of problems in society. Students explore the intricacies of song composition and social consciousness drawn from past events that reflect…

  20. Turkish-Folk Song Activities for Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapusuzoglu, Kelly Mem

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to teach kindergarten students using Turkish folk songs that incorporate the National Standards for Music Education and guidelines from the Ministry of Education in Turkey. Includes activities that accompany songs such as "Fly, Little Bug" and "Little Green Frog." Offers additional resources. (CMK)

  1. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  2. KinderApache Song and Dance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, M. Trevor; Paciotto, Carla; Prater, Greg

    This paper describes activities and evaluation of the KinderApache Song and Dance Project, piloted in a kindergarten class in Cedar Creek (Arizona) on the White Mountain Apache Reservation. Introducing Native-language song and dance in kindergarten could help foster a sense of community and cultural pride and greater awareness of traditional…

  3. Pete Seeger: If I Had a Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Songwriter, political activist, ethnomusicologist, gardener, singer, environmentalist, storyteller, woodcutter, history buff, cookieholic...Pete Seeger is all these and more. One has probably heard his name before, and maybe one can attach it to certain songs or political movements. Seeger is 91 years old and keeps active singing, writing songs,…

  4. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Song Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Reyna Leigh

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the neural basis of song, a universal human behavior. The relationship of words and melodies in the perception of song at phonological, semantic, melodic, and rhythmic levels of processing was investigated using the fine temporal resolution of Electroencephalography (EEG). The observations reported here may shed light on…

  5. Endeavour's Crew Wakes to Song Contest Winner

    NASA Video Gallery

    The STS-134 crew members were awakened on the final day of their mission with the song “Sunrise Number 1,” performed by the band Stormy Mondays. This song was chosen in an online vote of the ge...

  6. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  7. The Role of Songs in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claerr, Thomas A.; Gargan, Richard

    1984-01-01

    With some imagination, songs can be used to teach all aspects of foreign language. The language teacher can take advantage of the cultural content of songs by playing holiday music during the appropriate season; explaining the traditions and history of songs; discussing songs with cultural flavor; presenting a variety of music types; and…

  8. The temporal characteristics of humpback whale songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Lammers, Marc O.; Stimpert, Alison; Schotten, Michiel

    2005-09-01

    Songs sung by male humpback whales consist of distinct, pulsed sounds that are designated as units. Units are produced in some sequence to form a phrase, a repeated set of phrases forms a theme, and repeated themes form a song. A song can last from minutes to hours. The songs of eight humpback whales were recorded with a vertical array of five hydrophones spaced 7 m apart with the array located within 100 m of the whales. At least seven distinct units were identified aurally from this data set obtained during the 2002 winter humpback whale session in Hawaii. Four distinct recurring themes were found in the songs, and for each whale at least two themes were recorded. The average duration of each unit sampled and the silent interval following the unit were determined in order to describe the temporal characteristics of the songs. From the data the temporal consistency and cadence control of unit production by each humpback whale and between whales were determined. Understanding the temporal and spectral characteristics of units within songs and how these units vary between whales could ultimately help in the design of computer algorithms to automatically identify individual whales.

  9. On the maintenance of bird song dialects.

    PubMed

    Planqué, Robert; Britton, Nicholas F; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Many bird species, especially song birds but also for instance some hummingbirds and parrots, have noted dialects. By this we mean that locally a particular song is sung by the majority of the birds, but that neighbouring patches may feature different song types. Behavioural ecologists have been interested in how such dialects come about and how they are maintained for over 45 years. As a result, a great deal is known about different mechanisms at play, such as dispersal, assortative mating and learning of songs, and there are several competing hypotheses to explain the dialect patterns known in nature. There is, however, surprisingly little theoretical work testing these different hypotheses at present. We analyse the simplest kind of model that takes into account the most important biological mechanisms, and in which one may speak of dialects: a model in which there are but two patches, and two song types. It teaches us that a combination of little dispersal and strong assortative mating ensures dialects are maintained. Assuming a simple, linear frequency-dependent learning rule has little effect on the maintenance of dialects. A nonlinear learning rule, however, has dramatic consequences and greatly facilitates dialect maintenance. Adding fitness benefits for singing particular songs in a given patch also has a great impact. Now rare song types may invade and remain in the population. PMID:23334321

  10. Functional identification of sensory mechanisms required for developmental song learning

    PubMed Central

    London, Sarah E; Clayton, David F

    2008-01-01

    A young male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) learns to sing by copying the vocalizations of an older tutor in a process that parallels human speech acquisition. Brain pathways that control song production are well defined, but little is known about the sites and mechanisms of tutor song memorization. Here we test the hypothesis that molecular signaling in a sensory brain area outside of the song system is required for developmental song learning. Using controlled tutoring and a pharmacological inhibitor, we transiently suppressed the extracellular signal–regulated kinase signaling pathway in a portion of the auditory forebrain specifically during tutor song exposure. On maturation, treated birds produced poor copies of tutor song, whereas controls copied the tutor song effectively. Thus the foundation of normal song learning, the formation of a sensory memory of tutor song, requires a conserved molecular pathway in a brain area that is distinct from the circuit for song motor control. PMID:18391944

  11. Crew Looking Forward to Top Wakeup Songs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Discovery Commander Steve Lindsey thanks everyone for voting for their favorite space shuttle wakeup songs. The crew is looking forward to hearing your selections on the last two days of Discovery'...

  12. NASA Beams Beatles Song to Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    The transmission over NASA's Deep Space Network will commemorate the 40th anniversary of the day The Beatles recorded the song, as well as the 50th anniversary of NASA's founding and the group's be...

  13. Czech Basic Course: Songs of Czechoslovakia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This songbook contains some 77 songs, with words and music, reflecting the daily life and culture of the people of Czechoslovakia. The text is designed for use, as supplementary material, in the Defense Language Institute's "Czech: Basic Course." (RL)

  14. [Role of lyrics and melody in song recognition: why is song recognition faster?].

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoko; Sakuma, Naoko; Ishii, Kenji; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2009-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the role of lyrics and melody in song recognition. Experiment 1 (N = 30) investigated the ratings of familiarity, age of acquisition, retrievability of lyrics or melody, and happiness for 100 Japanese children's songs. In Experiment 2 (N = 31), a familiarity-judgment task was conducted involving three stimulus types-sung lyrics (SONG), spoken lyrics (LYRICS), and sung melody using the syllable/la/ (MELODY)--for two excerpts (beginning and middle locations). The participants were instructed to judge whether an excerpt sounded familiar as quickly as possible. The more familiar the songs, the easier could they be identified from the three stimulus types. SONG-response time (RT) was shorter than MELODY-RT for both beginning and middle, and than LYRICS-RT for the middle. The location effect emerged most prominently for LYRICS-RT. Our results suggest that interactively connected information of lyrics and melody may facilitate song recognition. Lyrics in the beginning might be an index only for certain, very familiar songs, whereas melody may play a facilitative role for song recognition regardless of location. PMID:20095443

  15. AstroCappella: Songs of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, A. P.; Smale, K. M.

    2008-05-01

    The AstroCappella Project is a classroom-ready collection of upbeat pop songs, lesson plans, and background information, all rich in science content. It was developed as a collaboration between working research astronomers, educators, and an established contemporary vocal band, The Chromatics. A multimedia music CD, "AstroCappella 2.0", has been produced containing 13 astronomically correct songs with original lyrics and music. Song topics range from the Sun, Moon, planets and small bodies of the Solar System, through the Doppler shift, the nearest stars, and extra-solar planets, to radio and X-ray astronomy. The CD also contains extensive CD-ROM materials including science background information, curriculum notes, lesson plans and activities for each song, images, movies, and slide shows. The songs and accompanying information have been extensively field-tested, and align to the K-12 National Science Education Standards. The AstroCappella materials are in widespread use in classrooms and homes across the US, and are supplemented with frequent live performances and teacher workshops. Full information can be found at http://www.astrocappella.com. Since the release of AstroCappella 2.0, additional songs have been written for missions as diverse as Messenger ("Messenger to Mercury") and AIM ("Noctilucent Cloud"; with music video available on YouTube). Now, to commemorate IYA, and in collaboration with the Johannes Kepler Project, the Chromatics are continuing their mission to spread science through a cappella and a cappella through science by creating a new original song celebrating the discoveries of the telescope, from Galileo's first glimpse of mountains and craters on the moon to the detection of planets around nearby stars and the expansion of the Universe."

  16. Familial bias and auditory feedback regulation of vocal babbling patterns during early song development.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Mori, Chihiro; Sawai, Azusa; Wada, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Learned vocalizations are a crucial acoustic biosignal conveying individual traits in many species. Songbirds learn song patterns by listening to a tutor song and performing vocal practice during a sensitive developmental period. However, when and how individual differences in song patterns develop remain unknown. Here, we report that individual differences in vocal output exist even at the earliest song development stage, called subsong. Experiments involving the manipulation of both breeding pairs and song tutoring conditions revealed that the parental pair combination contributes to generating familial differences in syllable duration and variability in the subsong of offspring. Furthermore, after deafening, juveniles immediately changed their subsong by shortening the syllable durations but maintained the individual variability of their subsong temporal patterns, suggesting both auditory-sensitive modification and independent intrinsic regulation of vocal output. These results indicate that the temporal patterns of subsong are not merely disordered vocalization but are regulated by familial bias with sensitivity to auditory feedback, thus generating individual variability at the initiation of vocal development. PMID:27444993

  17. Familial bias and auditory feedback regulation of vocal babbling patterns during early song development

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Daisuke; Mori, Chihiro; Sawai, Azusa; Wada, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Learned vocalizations are a crucial acoustic biosignal conveying individual traits in many species. Songbirds learn song patterns by listening to a tutor song and performing vocal practice during a sensitive developmental period. However, when and how individual differences in song patterns develop remain unknown. Here, we report that individual differences in vocal output exist even at the earliest song development stage, called subsong. Experiments involving the manipulation of both breeding pairs and song tutoring conditions revealed that the parental pair combination contributes to generating familial differences in syllable duration and variability in the subsong of offspring. Furthermore, after deafening, juveniles immediately changed their subsong by shortening the syllable durations but maintained the individual variability of their subsong temporal patterns, suggesting both auditory-sensitive modification and independent intrinsic regulation of vocal output. These results indicate that the temporal patterns of subsong are not merely disordered vocalization but are regulated by familial bias with sensitivity to auditory feedback, thus generating individual variability at the initiation of vocal development. PMID:27444993

  18. Mate Choice in Adult Female Bengalese Finches: Females Express Consistent Preferences for Individual Males and Prefer Female-Directed Song Performances

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Jeffery L.; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  19. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  20. Composing Songs for Teaching Science to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee Pinn Tsin, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that songs may enhance learning as they function as mnemonic devices to increase memorability. In this research, songs based on the more difficult subtopics in Chemistry were composed, encompassing many formulas, equations and facts to be remembered. This technique of song composition can be used in any subject, any point…

  1. Factlore, Fakelore, or Folklore: Sorting through Folk Song Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, E. Martin

    1997-01-01

    Explicates the fascinating origins (and conflicting versions thereof) for a number of well-known folk songs including, "Casey Jones,""John Henry,""Frankie and Johnny," and "Tom Dooley." Notes that source material on these and other songs is widely available through liner notes, folk song periodicals, and folklore journals. (MJP)

  2. Brain-Compatible Music Teaching Part 2: Teaching "Nongame" Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In the previous issue of "General Music Today," the Early Childhood column explored brain-compatible ways of teaching action songs and singing games. This article illustrates the application of brain-compatible ways to teach songs that do not lend themselves to actions or games. There are two ways of teaching songs. One is based on the assumption…

  3. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of a Yoruba Song-Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Moji. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal discourse analysis of a story that has been turned into a Yoruba song-drama, highlighting the ideational, interpersonal and textual aspects of the song-drama. The data is a short song-drama meant to teach children importunity, determination and hard work through persistence. The multimodal and narrative conventions…

  4. Children's Judgements of Emotion in Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, J. Bruce; Trehub, Sandra E.

    2007-01-01

    Songs convey emotion by means of expressive performance cues (e.g. pitch level, tempo, vocal tone) and lyrics. Although children can interpret both types of cues, it is unclear whether they would focus on performance cues or salient verbal cues when judging the feelings of a singer. To investigate this question, we had 5- to 10-year-old children…

  5. Music Activities for "Little Wolf's Song"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from Britta Techentrup's children's book "Little Wolf's Song", the author shares music activities appropriate for preschool and children in primary grades. Children will enjoy Technentrup's tender family story, while exploring vocal and instrumental timbres, as well as reading, writing, and creating with melodic contour.

  6. Work Songs, Hegemony, and Illusions of Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Suggests a complex dialectical relationship among (1) the meanings that acculturation encourages workers to attribute to their everyday experiences; (2) the meanings enacted in country music work songs; and (3) the support of hierarchical social and organizational power relationships in workers' identities. (MS)

  7. A Song of Vice and Mire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The author has been reading George R.R. Martin's marvelous fantasy epic, "A Song of Ice and Fire," about a medieval-ish kingdom and its wars and intrigues. What fascinates him most about the narrative is the extent to which it parallels his experiences as a community-college professor and administrator. The author argues that for all the good they…

  8. Northern Song Reflections on the Tang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    In the mid-eleventh century Chinese intellectuals argued about history, and left their competing narratives to us in print. They contested how history should be written, and what relevant lessons ought to be adapted to the changing society of Song (960-1279) dynasty China. They were particularly concerned with the history of the long-lasting Tang…

  9. Hand-Clap Songs across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.

    2012-01-01

    This teaching tip focuses on using hand-clapping to teach content area material across the curriculum. We begin with a brief history of hand-clap songs, followed by a rationale for using them in content area literacy. Then, we describe the instructional lesson, share samples that resulted, and discuss lesson extensions. Our goal is to have…

  10. Using Songs to Strengthen Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Pooja; Laud, Leslie E.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of songs with lyrics to increase the reading fluency rates of three middle school students. In the first condition, students heard fluent reading modeled, read regular passages repeatedly and then received feedback on accuracy, phrasing and expression. After that, students received the same intervention, except that…

  11. Local song elements indicate local genotypes and predict physiological condition in song sparrows Melospiza melodia.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kathryn A; MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A

    2008-06-23

    Geographical variation in birdsong is taxonomically widespread and behaviourally salient, with females often preferring local over non-local song. However, the benefits associated with this preference remain poorly understood. One potential explanation is that song may reflect a male's place of origin and thus allow females to obtain genes well adapted to the local environment. We studied naturally occurring variation in the degree to which the elements of a male's song repertoire matched those of the local population ('syllable sharing') in migratory song sparrows (Melospiza melodia melodia). Syllable sharing was correlated with genetic similarity to the local population, suggesting that song reflects population of origin. Males sharing more syllables also had larger testosterone-dependent traits, fewer blood-borne parasites and reduced indicators of stress. Our findings are consistent with locally good genes models. Alternatively, immigrants' condition may suffer due to unfamiliarity with the breeding site or inability to match song elements during territorial interactions. Females preferring 'local-sounding' males may thus obtain genetic and/or direct benefits for their offspring. PMID:18331976

  12. Vocal exploration is locally regulated during song learning

    PubMed Central

    Ravbar, Primoz; Parra, Lucas C.; Lipkind, Dina; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory variability is essential for sensory-motor learning, but it is not known how and at what time scales it is regulated. We manipulated song learning in zebra finches to experimentally control the requirements for vocal exploration in different parts of their song. We first trained birds to perform a one-syllable song, and once they mastered it we added a new syllable to the song model. Remarkably, when practicing the modified song, birds rapidly alternated between high and low acoustic variability to confine vocal exploration to the newly added syllable. Further, even within syllables, acoustic variability changed independently across song elements that were only milliseconds apart. Analysis of the entire vocal output during learning revealed that the variability of each song element decreased as it approached the target, correlating with momentary local distance from the target and less so with the overall distance. We conclude that vocal error is computed locally in sub-syllabic time scales and that song elements can be learned and crystalized independently. Songbirds have dedicated brain circuitry for vocal babbling in the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), which generates exploratory song patterns that drive premotor neurons at the song nucleus RA (robust nucleus of the arcopallium). We hypothesize that either AFP adjusts the gain of vocal exploration in fine time scales, or that the sensitivity of RA premotor neurons to AFP/HVC inputs varies across song elements. PMID:22399765

  13. 'Out of tune': consequences of inbreeding on bird song.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Raïssa A; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2016-07-27

    The expression of bird song is expected to signal male quality to females. 'Quality' is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but, surprisingly, there is very limited evidence if and how genetic aspects of male quality are reflected in song. Here, we manipulated the genetic make-up of canaries (Serinus canaria) via inbreeding, and studied its effects upon song output, complexity, phonetics and, for the first time, song learning. To this end, we created weight-matched inbred and outbred pairs of male fledglings, which were subsequently exposed to the same tutor male during song learning. Inbreeding strongly affected syllable phonetics, but there were little or no effects on other song features. Nonetheless, females discriminated among inbred and outbred males, as they produced heavier clutches when mated with an outbred male. Our study highlights the importance of song phonetics, which has hitherto often been overlooked. PMID:27466453

  14. Nursing problem-based learning activity: song writing and singing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2014-08-01

    The function of song is not only to deliver individual's messages, but also to serve as a learning approach to facilitate students' learning. To observe the effectiveness of songs in facilitating students' learning, a Problem-based Learning (PBL) class with twenty students was divided into four groups with five students per group. Each group was asked to write a song based on two given scenarios, to sing the song out loud, and to participate in a follow-up focus group interview afterwards. The four songs reflected the students' understanding of academic knowledge and their perspectives toward the protagonists in the presented scenarios. Two songs are presented in this paper to demonstrate how the approach was carried out in the nursing PBL class. This paper aims to show the implication of song writing and singing in PBL and shed some light on teaching and learning. PMID:24560491

  15. Syllable chunking in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song.

    PubMed

    Williams, H; Staples, K

    1992-09-01

    We examined how 61 young zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) males copied song from 5 adult tutors. Zebra finch song consists of a string of 5-15 distinct syllables, and these syllables were copied as chunks, or strings of consecutive syllables (modal length = 3). The silent interval between 2 syllables was copied as part of the syllable after the silence. Copied chunks had boundaries that fell at consistent locations within the tutor's song, marked by a relatively long intersyllable silent period, a transition between call-like and noncall-like syllables, and a tendency for the tutor male to stop his song short. Young males also tended to break their songs off at the boundaries of the chunks they had copied. Chunks appear to be an intermediate level of hierarchy in song organization and to have both perceptual (syllables were learned as part of a chunk) and motor (song delivery was broken almost exclusively at chunk boundaries) aspects. PMID:1395497

  16. Information System on Russian Folklore Songs of Karelia as a Tool of Formalization and Classification of Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varfolomeyev, Aleksey G.; Moskin, Nikolay D.; Kravtsov, Ignat V.

    The authors elaborate the project of information system dedicated to folklore songs of North Russia. For increase of research potential of information system it is necessary to decide a task of formalization of the song content. In our opinion the most adequate mathematical structure describing a folklore song is the set of oriented graphs connected among themselves. In each graph the vertexes are the objects of the text, the edges are relations between objects. Our information system will contain both complete texts of songs and their formal representations by graphs that will allow to carry out comparisons of songs, to find invariants, to decide tasks of classification.

  17. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-08-22

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  18. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to ‘cheat’ females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  19. Are bird song complexity and song sharing shaped by habitat structure? An information theory and statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Briefer, Elodie; Osiejuk, Tomasz S; Rybak, Fanny; Aubin, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    In songbirds, song complexity and song sharing are features of prime importance for territorial defence and mate attraction. These aspects of song may be strongly influenced by changes in social environment caused by habitat fragmentation. We tested the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation induced by human activities influences song complexity and song sharing in the skylark, a songbird with a very large repertoire and whose population recently underwent a large decline. We applied powerful mathematical and statistical tools to assess and compare song complexity and song sharing patterns of syllables and sequences of syllables in two populations: a declining population in a fragmented habitat, in which breeding areas are separated from each other by unsuitable surroundings, and a stable population in a continuous habitat. Our results show that the structure of the habitat influences song sharing, but not song complexity. Neighbouring birds shared more syllables and sequences of syllables in the fragmented habitat than in the continuous one. Habitat fragmentation seems thus to have an effect on the composition of elements in songs, but not on the number and complexity of these elements, which may be a fixed feature of song peculiar to skylarks. PMID:19782691

  20. Recurring patterns in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Green, Sean R; Mercado, Eduardo; Pack, Adam A; Herman, Louis M

    2011-02-01

    Humpback whales, unlike most mammalian species, learn new songs as adults. Populations of singers progressively and collectively change the sounds and patterns within their songs throughout their lives and across generations. In this study, humpback whale songs recorded in Hawaii from 1985 to 1995 were analyzed using self-organizing maps (SOMs) to classify the sounds within songs, and to identify sound patterns that were present across multiple years. These analyses supported the hypothesis that recurring, persistent patterns exist within whale songs, and that these patterns are defined at least in part by acoustic relationships between adjacent sounds within songs. Sound classification based on acoustic differences between adjacent sounds yielded patterns within songs that were more consistent from year to year than classifications based on the properties of single sounds. Maintenance of fixed ratios of acoustic modulation across sounds, despite large variations in individual sounds, suggests intrinsic constraints on how sounds change within songs. Such acoustically invariant cues may enable whales to recognize and assess variations in songs despite propagation-related distortion of individual sounds and yearly changes in songs. PMID:21215306

  1. Female in-nest chatter song increases predation.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Mahr, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Female song is an ancestral trait in songbirds, yet extant females generally sing less than males. Here, we examine sex differences in the predation cost of singing behaviour. The superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) is a Southern Hemisphere songbird; males and females provision the brood and produce solo song year-round. Both sexes had higher song rate during the fertile period and lower song rate during incubation and chick feeding. Females were more likely than males to sing close to or inside the nest. For this reason, female but not male song rate predicted egg and nestling predation. This study identifies a high fitness cost of song when a parent bird attends offspring inside a nest and explains gender differences in singing when there are gender differences in parental care. PMID:26763214

  2. Female song is widespread and ancestral in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Odom, Karan J; Hall, Michelle L; Riebel, Katharina; Omland, Kevin E; Langmore, Naomi E

    2014-01-01

    Bird song has historically been considered an almost exclusively male trait, an observation fundamental to the formulation of Darwin's theory of sexual selection. Like other male ornaments, song is used by male songbirds to attract females and compete with rivals. Thus, bird song has become a textbook example of the power of sexual selection to lead to extreme neurological and behavioural sex differences. Here we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of female song across songbirds showing that female song is present in 71% of surveyed species including 32 families, and that females sang in the common ancestor of modern songbirds. Our results reverse classical assumptions about the evolution of song and sex differences in birds. The challenge now is to identify whether sexual selection alone or broader processes, such as social or natural selection, best explain the evolution of elaborate traits in both sexes. PMID:24594930

  3. Song Trait Similarity in Great Tits Varies with Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Lysanne; van der Eijk, Jerine; van Rooij, Erica P.; de Goede, Piet; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called “dear enemy” relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in

  4. A Study on New Song of the Sky Pacers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    We investigated `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' (新法步天歌), the latest version of Joseon's `Song of the Sky Pacers' (步天歌). Due to the influence of new knowledge on Chinese asterisms imported from the Ching dynasty, `Song of the Sky Pacers with New Star-Charts' was written in the eighteenth century. However, the disagreement between song and star-charts was causing confusion in practical applications such as Joseon's national examination for selecting astronomers. In order to improve this situation, Royal Observatory of the Joseon dynasty (觀象監) published `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' based upon star-charts and song in the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng (欽定儀象考成續編). The New Song was edited by a middle-class professional astronomer Yi Jun-yang (李俊養), and corrected by a nobleman Nam Byeong-gil (南秉吉). We establish a brief biography of Yi Jun-yang. The New Song preserves the genuine characteristics of previous Joseon's Song including the format of title of each lunar mansion and description on the location of the Milky Way in the asterisms. The description of the Milky Way was newly written based on the data in volume 31 and 32 of the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng.

  5. Common Songs of the Cultural Heritage of the United States: A Compilation of Songs that Most People "Know" and "Should Know."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Kenneth M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines what songs are familiar to most people. Uncovers various epistemological definitions of what it means to "know" a song. Discovers how many of the 42 songs listed in Music Educators National Conference (MENC) publication, "Get America Singing Again!", appeared in previous investigations and in community song movement books. (CMK)

  6. “Bird Song Metronomics”: Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a “signal-derived pulse,” or pulseS, of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulseS significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulseP), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulsesS that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulseS periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel to the

  7. Development of temporal structure in zebra finch song

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Todd W.

    2013-01-01

    Zebra finch song has provided an excellent case study in the neural basis of sequence learning, with a high degree of temporal precision and tight links with precisely timed bursting in forebrain neurons. To examine the development of song timing, we measured the following four aspects of song temporal structure at four age ranges between 65 and 375 days posthatch: the mean durations of song syllables and the silent gaps between them, timing variability linked to song tempo, timing variability expressed independently across syllables and gaps, and transition probabilities between consecutive syllable pairs. We found substantial increases in song tempo between 65 and 85 days posthatch, due almost entirely to a shortening of gaps. We also found a decrease in tempo variability, also specific to gaps. Both the magnitude of the increase in tempo and the decrease in tempo variability were correlated on gap-by-gap basis with increases in the reliability of corresponding syllable transitions. Syllables had no systematic increase in tempo or decrease in tempo variability. In contrast to tempo parameters, both syllables and gaps showed an early sharp reduction in independent variability followed by continued reductions over the first year. The data suggest that links between syllable-based representations are strengthened during the later parts of the traditional period of song learning and that song rhythm continues to become more regular throughout the first year of life. Similar learning patterns have been identified in human sequence learning, suggesting a potentially rich area of comparative research. PMID:23175805

  8. How the songbird brain listens to its own songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahnloser, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Songbirds are capable of vocal learning and communication and are ideally suited to the study of neural mechanisms of auditory feedback processing. When a songbird is deafened in the early sensorimotor phase after tutoring, it fails to imitate the song of its tutor and develops a highly aberrant song. It is also known that birds are capable of storing a long-term memory of tutor song and that they need intact auditory feedback to match their own vocalizations to the tutor's song. Based on these behavioral observations, we investigate feedback processing in single auditory forebrain neurons of juvenile zebra finches that are in a late developmental stage of song learning. We implant birds with miniature motorized microdrives that allow us to record the electrical activity of single neurons while birds are freely moving and singing in their cages. Occasionally, we deliver a brief sound through a loudspeaker to perturb the auditory feedback the bird experiences during singing. These acoustic perturbations of auditory feedback reveal complex sensitivity that cannot be predicted from passive playback responses. Some neurons are highly feedback sensitive in that they respond vigorously to song perturbations, but not to unperturbed songs or perturbed playback. These findings suggest that a computational function of forebrain auditory areas may be to detect errors between actual feedback and mirrored feedback deriving from an internal model of the bird's own song or that of its tutor.

  9. Male response to historical and geographical variation in bird song.

    PubMed

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2011-02-23

    In many species, individuals discriminate among sexual signals of conspecific populations in the contexts of mate choice and male-male competition. Differences in signals among populations (geographical variation) are in part the result of signal evolution within populations (temporal variation). Understanding the relative effect of temporal and geographical signal variation on signal salience may therefore provide insight into the evolution of behavioural discrimination. However, no study, to my knowledge, has compared behavioural response to historical signals with response to current signal variation among populations. Here, I measured the response of male white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) to historical songs compared with current songs from their local population, a nearby non-local population and a distant population. Males responded most strongly to current local songs, less, but equally, to historical local and current non-local songs, and least to songs of the distant population. Moreover, response to both temporal and geographical variation in song was proportional to how much songs differed acoustically from current local songs. Signal evolution on an ecological time scale appears to have an effect on signal salience comparable to differences found between current neighbouring populations, supporting the idea that behavioural discrimination among learned signals of conspecific populations can evolve relatively rapidly. PMID:20685696

  10. A Brief Look at the Community Song Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Patricia S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a 1913 Music Supervisors National Conference (MENC) committee identified 18 songs to be included in the curriculum and taught to all U.S. students. Reviews the expansion of the song list and its contribution to a common repertoire for U.S. community sings. (GG)

  11. Dynamic sensory cues shape song structure in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coen, Philip; Clemens, Jan; Weinstein, Andrew J.; Pacheco, Diego A.; Deng, Yi; Murthy, Mala

    2014-03-01

    The generation of acoustic communication signals is widespread across the animal kingdom, and males of many species, including Drosophilidae, produce patterned courtship songs to increase their chance of success with a female. For some animals, song structure can vary considerably from one rendition to the next; neural noise within pattern generating circuits is widely assumed to be the primary source of such variability, and statistical models that incorporate neural noise are successful at reproducing the full variation present in natural songs. In direct contrast, here we demonstrate that much of the pattern variability in Drosophila courtship song can be explained by taking into account the dynamic sensory experience of the male. In particular, using a quantitative behavioural assay combined with computational modelling, we find that males use fast modulations in visual and self-motion signals to pattern their songs, a relationship that we show is evolutionarily conserved. Using neural circuit manipulations, we also identify the pathways involved in song patterning choices and show that females are sensitive to song features. Our data not only demonstrate that Drosophila song production is not a fixed action pattern, but establish Drosophila as a valuable new model for studies of rapid decision-making under both social and naturalistic conditions.

  12. Building Schema: Exploring Content with Song Lyrics and Strategic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stygles, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Teaching with song lyrics has many popular variations. The Common Core State Standards discourage pre-teaching, leaving students somewhat adrift. Song lyrics possess the potential to scaffold students' schema in select social studies topics. Using reciprocal teaching (Palinscar & Brown 1984) within the reading workshop students ponder…

  13. Neural Systems for Speech and Song in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Grace; Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Schneider, Harry; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Despite language disabilities in autism, music abilities are frequently preserved. Paradoxically, brain regions associated with these functions typically overlap, enabling investigation of neural organization supporting speech and song in autism. Neural systems sensitive to speech and song were compared in low-functioning autistic and age-matched…

  14. Oh Say, Can You Sing Our National Songs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elward, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information on and suggestions to help K-12 students better sing and understand four national songs: "The Star-Spangled Banner,""America the Beautiful,""America," and "Lift Every Voice and Sing." To make songs easier to sing, alternative keys are suggested to bring them within range of student singers. (AM)

  15. Teaching with Toys: A Handbook of Songs and Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sally

    Songs, rhymes, and sayings entered in this handbook are particularly useful as basic teaching techniques for babies and small children. Popular and easy to learn, many are simple Mother Goose nursery rhymes. Others are traditional songs and sayings that have been passed on from generation to generation in our culture. Some are appropriate for use…

  16. They Came Singing: Songs from California's History. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlen, Karen; Batt, Margaret; Benson, Mary Ann; Kester, Nancy N.

    This resource presents a collection of over 60 traditional songs set in the context of California's history. Throughout its history, music has played an important part in the lives of California's diverse peoples. The book opens with songs of Native California tribes and continues through European exploration, Spanish and Mexican rule, U.S.…

  17. Walker Calhoun: Cherokee Song and Dance Man. Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Ted

    1995-01-01

    Born in 1918, the youngest of 12 children, Walker Calhoun describes growing up on the Cherokee Reservation in North Carolina. The schools turned the Cherokee against their old ways, but Walker learned many old songs and dances from his uncle, Will West. Since retirement, Walker has taught the dances and songs to children. His material has been…

  18. The Syntax and Meaning of Wild Gibbon Songs

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Esther; Reichard, Ulrich H.; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Spoken language is a result of the human capacity to assemble simple vocal units into more complex utterances, the basic carriers of semantic information. Not much is known about the evolutionary origins of this behaviour. The vocal abilities of non-human primates are relatively unimpressive in comparison, with gibbon songs being a rare exception. These apes assemble a repertoire of call notes into elaborate songs, which function to repel conspecific intruders, advertise pair bonds, and attract mates. We conducted a series of field experiments with white-handed gibbons at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, which showed that this ape species uses songs also to protect themselves against predation. We compared the acoustic structure of predatory-induced songs with regular songs that were given as part of their daily routine. Predator-induced songs were identical to normal songs in the call note repertoire, but we found consistent differences in how the notes were assembled into songs. The responses of out-of-sight receivers demonstrated that these syntactic differences were meaningful to conspecifics. Our study provides the first evidence of referential signalling in a free-ranging ape species, based on a communication system that utilises combinatorial rules. PMID:17183705

  19. Using Songs To Help Teach the Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Lynn; Edgington, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on using music as a tool for teaching about the U.S. Civil War. States that music was integral to life in the United States and for the soldiers during this time period. Discusses why teachers should use music and how to integrate songs into instruction. Includes song lyrics. (CMK)

  20. Purpose Statements and Song Categories of Selected Community Songbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Harriet I.

    1999-01-01

    Examines (1) the purpose statements and the contents of six selected songbooks for community singing published from 1913 to 1996 and (2) songs listed by E. D. Hirsch in "Cultural Literacy" and "The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." Indicates that the idea of a common core of song repertoire that represents our heritage should be reexamined. (CMK)

  1. Continuous Time Representations of Song in Zebra Finches.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Todd W

    2016-05-18

    Neurons in the songbird nucleus HVC produce premotor bursts time locked to song with millisecond precision. In this issue of Neuron, Lynch et al. (2016) and Picardo et al. (2016) provide convincing evidence that the population of these bursts contain a continuous representation of time throughout song. PMID:27196971

  2. Alcohol themes within country-western songs.

    PubMed

    Connors, G J; Alpher, V S

    1989-05-01

    Cultural norms regarding alcohol use and drinking behavior can be communicated through the lyrics of songs. An analysis of alcohol themes in country-western lyrics was undertaken. Seven categories emerged from a rational clustering procedure used with 58 alcohol-related lyrics. Almost two-thirds of the lyrics were placed in three of the categories, labeled Existential Dilemmas and Lessons Learned, Loneliness and Lost Love, and Negative Consequences. There were few references to drinking for positive, celebratory reasons. Implications for prevention efforts and for further research on drinkers' perceptions and the relationship between popular culture and drinking behavior are discussed. PMID:2793292

  3. Songs as a medium for embedded reproductive messages.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Dawn R; Gallup, Gordon G

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that sensational news stories as well as popular romance novels often feature themes related to important topics in evolutionary psychology. In the first of four studies described in this paper we examined the song lyrics from three Billboard charts: Country, Pop, and R&B. A content analysis of the lyrics revealed 18 reproductive themes that read like an outline for a course in evolutionary psychology. Approximately 92% of the 174 songs that made it into the Top Ten in 2009 contained one or more reproductive messages, with an average of 10.49 reproductive phrases per song. Although differences in the frequency of different themes between charts were found, further analyses showed that the most popular/bestselling songs contained significantly more reproductive messages. An analysis of the lyrics of opera arias and art songs also revealed evidence for many of the same embedded reproductive messages extending back more than 400 years. PMID:22947982

  4. Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, S Eryn; Söderberg, Axel; Wheatcroft, David; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatry with closely related species. PMID:27405379

  5. Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, Axel; Wheatcroft, David; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatry with closely related species. PMID:27405379

  6. Anatomical plasticity in the adult Zebra Finch song system

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kathryn S.; Kirn, John R.

    2012-01-01

    In many songbirds, vocal learning-related cellular plasticity was thought to end following a developmental critical period. However, mounting evidence in one such species, the zebra finch, suggests that forms of plasticity common during song learning continue well into adulthood, including a reliance on auditory feedback for song maintenance. This reliance wanes with increasing age, in tandem with age-related increases in fine motor control. We investigated age-related morphological changes in the adult zebra finch song system by focusing on two cortical projection neuron types that a) share a common efferent target, b) are known to exhibit morphological and functional change during song learning, and c) exert opposing influences on song acoustic structure. Neurons in HVC (proper name) and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN) both project to the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). During juvenile song learning and adult song maintenance, HVC promotes song syllable stereotypy while LMAN promotes learning and acoustic variability. Following retrograde labeling of these two cell types in adults, there were age-related increases in dendritic arbor in HVC-RA but not LMAN-RA neurons, resulting in an increase in the ratio of HVC-RA:LMAN-RA dendritic arbor. Differential growth of HVC relative to LMAN dendrites may relate to increases in song motor refinement, decreases in the reliance of song on auditory feedback, or both. Despite this differential growth with age, we also show that both cell types retain the capacity for experience-dependent growth. These results may provide insights on mechanisms that promote and constrain adult vocal plasticity. PMID:22473463

  7. Cross Fostering Experiments Suggest That Mice Songs Are Innate

    PubMed Central

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Nakanishi, Kaori; Nakagawa, Ryoko; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Background Vocal learning is a central functional constituent of human speech, and recent studies showing that adult male mice emit ultrasonic sound sequences characterized as “songs” have suggested that the ultrasonic courtship sounds of mice provide a mammalian model of vocal learning. Objectives We tested whether mouse songs are learned, by examining the relative role of rearing environment in a cross-fostering experiment. Methods and Findings We found that C57BL/6 and BALB/c males emit a clearly different pattern of songs with different frequency and syllable compositions; C57BL/6 males showed a higher peak frequency of syllables, shorter intervals between syllables, and more upward frequency modulations with jumps, whereas BALB/c males produced more “chevron” and “harmonics” syllables. To establish the degree of environmental influences in mouse song development, sons of these two strains were cross-fostered to another strain of parents. Songs were recorded when these cross-fostered pups were fully developed and their songs were compared with those of male mice reared by the genetic parents. The cross-fostered animals sang songs with acoustic characteristics - including syllable interval, peak frequency, and modulation patterns - similar to those of their genetic parents. In addition their song elements retained sequential characteristics similar to those of their genetic parents' songs. Conclusion These results do not support the hypothesis that mouse “song” is learned; we found no evidence for vocal learning of any sort under the conditions of this experiment. Our observation that the strain-specific character of the song profile persisted even after changing the developmental auditory environment suggests that the structure of these courtship sound sequences is under strong genetic control. Thus, the usefulness of mouse “song” as a model of mammalian vocal learning is limited, but mouse song has the potential to be an indispensable model

  8. "You Need a Song to Bring You through": The Use of Religious Songs to Manage Stressful Life Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jill B.; Sandelowski, Margarete; Moore, Angelo D.; Agarwal, Mansi; Koenig, Harold G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To explore in a sample of older African Americans how religious songs were used to cope with stressful life events and to explore the religious beliefs associated with these songs. Design and Methods: Sixty-five African American older adults residing in the Southeastern US participated in a qualitative descriptive study involving…

  9. Towards an Analysis of the Discourse of Arabic Song: A Case Study--Umm Kulthoum's Song "AlAtlal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Gameel Abdelmageed

    2015-01-01

    Arabic song has always played an important role in the life of Arabs. It reflects cultural attitudes and influences them. However, this major expressive discourse has been almost completely neglected in Arabic literary and critical studies. For this reason, this paper focuses on Arabic song, in the hope that my study will encourage other scholars…

  10. Song I-Yeong's Armillary Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Sam

    In 1669 (the 10th year of the reign of King Hyeonjong), Song I-Yeong (宋以穎, 1619-1692), who was a professor of astronomy at Gwansanggam (Bureau of Astronomy), developed the armillary clock which uses the weight power system of an alarm clock. The armillary clock is a unique astronomical clock that combines the traditional armillary sphere of Joseon and the principle of a Western alarm clock. Song I-Yeong's armillary clock was repaired in 1687-1688 according to the records, and since then not much is known about the history of the armillary clock. After many years, in the early 1930s which was the Japanese colonial era, Inchon (仁村) Kim Seong-Su (金性洙, 1891-1955) purchased the armillary clock at the Insa-dong antique street and donated to the Korea University Museum of the present time (designated as National Treasure No. 230 in 1985). Currently, the armillary clock is not in operation because some of the parts are damaged or lost.

  11. Fractal Dimensions and Entropies of Meragi Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, Adnan; Gündüz, Güngör

    Melodies can be treated as time series systems with the pitches (or frequencies of the notes) representing the values in subsequent intervals. The pattern of a melody can be revealed in a scattering diagram where pitches represent vertices, and the directed pathways which connect the former pitches to the next ones signify the relations established during the performance. The pathways form a pattern which is called animal diagram (or lattice animal) in the vocabulary of graph theory. The slopes of pathways can be used to characterize an animal diagram and thus to characterize a melody; and the scattering diagram can be used to find out the fractal dimension . In addition, the entropy , the maximum entropy , and the negentropy (or the order) of melodies can be determined. The analysis of Meragi songs in terms of fractal dimension and entropy was carried out in this work. It was found out that there is not a correlation between the fractal dimension and the entropy ; therefore, the fractal dimension and the entropy each characterizes different aspects of Meragi songs.

  12. Food for Song: Expression of C-Fos and ZENK in the Zebra Finch Song Nuclei during Food Aversion Learning

    PubMed Central

    Tokarev, Kirill; Tiunova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Background Specialized neural pathways, the song system, are required for acquiring, producing, and perceiving learned avian vocalizations. Birds that do not learn to produce their vocalizations lack telencephalic song system components. It is not known whether the song system forebrain regions are exclusively evolved for song or whether they also process information not related to song that might reflect their ‘evolutionary history’. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this question we monitored the induction of two immediate-early genes (IEGs) c-Fos and ZENK in various regions of the song system in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in response to an aversive food learning paradigm; this involves the association of a food item with a noxious stimulus that affects the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity and tongue, causing subsequent avoidance of that food item. The motor response results in beak and head movements but not vocalizations. IEGs have been extensively used to map neuro-molecular correlates of song motor production and auditory processing. As previously reported, neurons in two pallial vocal motor regions, HVC and RA, expressed IEGs after singing. Surprisingly, c-Fos was induced equivalently also after food aversion learning in the absence of singing. The density of c-Fos positive neurons was significantly higher than that of birds in control conditions. This was not the case in two other pallial song nuclei important for vocal plasticity, LMAN and Area X, although singing did induce IEGs in these structures, as reported previously. Conclusions/Significance Our results are consistent with the possibility that some of the song nuclei may participate in non-vocal learning and the populations of neurons involved in the two tasks show partial overlap. These findings underscore the previously advanced notion that the specialized forebrain pre-motor nuclei controlling song evolved from circuits involved in behaviors related to feeding. PMID:21695176

  13. Beyond the Gap Fill: Dynamic Activities for Song in the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzutti, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This author presents variable and stimulating activities using songs to encourage students to connect with language. Seven dynamic activities include Song Pictures, Re-order It, Matching Meanings, Changing the Text, Song Strip Connections, Song Cards, and Pair Watching. All are outlined to facilitate their use, and many have added extensions and…

  14. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Brauth, Steven E.; Durand, Sarah E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173

  15. Whale song analyses using bioinformatics sequence analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yian A.; Almeida, Jonas S.; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2005-04-01

    Animal songs are frequently analyzed using discrete hierarchical units, such as units, themes and songs. Because animal songs and bio-sequences may be understood as analogous, bioinformatics analysis tools DNA/protein sequence alignment and alignment-free methods are proposed to quantify the theme similarities of the songs of false killer whales recorded off northeast Taiwan. The eighteen themes with discrete units that were identified in an earlier study [Y. A. Chen, masters thesis, University of Charleston, 2001] were compared quantitatively using several distance metrics. These metrics included the scores calculated using the Smith-Waterman algorithm with the repeated procedure; the standardized Euclidian distance and the angle metrics based on word frequencies. The theme classifications based on different metrics were summarized and compared in dendrograms using cluster analyses. The results agree with earlier classifications derived by human observation qualitatively. These methods further quantify the similarities among themes. These methods could be applied to the analyses of other animal songs on a larger scale. For instance, these techniques could be used to investigate song evolution and cultural transmission quantifying the dissimilarities of humpback whale songs across different seasons, years, populations, and geographic regions. [Work supported by SC Sea Grant, and Ilan County Government, Taiwan.

  16. Neural systems for speech and song in autism.

    PubMed

    Lai, Grace; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Schneider, Harry; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-03-01

    Despite language disabilities in autism, music abilities are frequently preserved. Paradoxically, brain regions associated with these functions typically overlap, enabling investigation of neural organization supporting speech and song in autism. Neural systems sensitive to speech and song were compared in low-functioning autistic and age-matched control children using passive auditory stimulation during functional magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging. Activation in left inferior frontal gyrus was reduced in autistic children relative to controls during speech stimulation, but was greater than controls during song stimulation. Functional connectivity for song relative to speech was also increased between left inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus in autism, and large-scale connectivity showed increased frontal-posterior connections. Although fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate fasciculus was decreased in autistic children relative to controls, structural terminations of the arcuate fasciculus in inferior frontal gyrus were indistinguishable between autistic and control groups. Fractional anisotropy correlated with activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for both speech and song conditions. Together, these findings indicate that in autism, functional systems that process speech and song were more effectively engaged for song than for speech and projections of structural pathways associated with these functions were not distinguishable from controls. PMID:22298195

  17. The motor origins of human and avian song structure.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam T; Russo, Frank A; Patel, Aniruddh D

    2011-09-13

    Human song exhibits great structural diversity, yet certain aspects of melodic shape (how pitch is patterned over time) are widespread. These include a predominance of arch-shaped and descending melodic contours in musical phrases, a tendency for phrase-final notes to be relatively long, and a bias toward small pitch movements between adjacent notes in a melody [Huron D (2006) Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)]. What is the origin of these features? We hypothesize that they stem from motor constraints on song production (i.e., the energetic efficiency of their underlying motor actions) rather than being innately specified. One prediction of this hypothesis is that any animals subject to similar motor constraints on song will exhibit similar melodic shapes, no matter how distantly related those animals are to humans. Conversely, animals who do not share similar motor constraints on song will not exhibit convergent melodic shapes. Birds provide an ideal case for testing these predictions, because their peripheral mechanisms of song production have both notable similarities and differences from human vocal mechanisms [Riede T, Goller F (2010) Brain Lang 115:69-80]. We use these similarities and differences to make specific predictions about shared and distinct features of human and avian song structure and find that these predictions are confirmed by empirical analysis of diverse human and avian song samples. PMID:21876156

  18. The learning advantage: bird species that learn their song show a tighter adjustment of song to noisy environments than those that do not learn.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Chelén, Alejandro Ariel; Salaberria, C; Barbosa, I; Macías Garcia, C; Gil, D

    2012-11-01

    Song learning has evolved within several avian groups. Although its evolutionary advantage is not clear, it has been proposed that song learning may be advantageous in allowing birds to adapt their songs to the local acoustic environment. To test this hypothesis, we analysed patterns of song adjustment to noisy environments and explored their possible link to song learning. Bird vocalizations can be masked by low-frequency noise, and birds respond to this by singing higher-pitched songs. Most reports of this strategy involve oscines, a group of birds with learning-based song variability, and it is doubtful whether species that lack song learning (e.g. suboscines) can adjust their songs to noisy environments. We address this question by comparing the degree of song adjustment to noise in a large sample of oscines (17 populations, 14 species) and suboscines (11 populations, 7 species), recorded in Brazil (Manaus, Brasilia and Curitiba) and Mexico City. We found a significantly stronger association between minimum song frequency and noise levels (effect size) in oscines than in suboscines, suggesting a tighter match in oscines between song transmission capacity and ambient acoustics. Suboscines may be more vulnerable to acoustic pollution than oscines and thus less capable of colonizing cities or acoustically novel habitats. Additionally, we found that species whose song frequency was more divergent between populations showed tighter noise-song frequency associations. Our results suggest that song learning and/or song plasticity allows adaptation to new habitats and that this selective advantage may be linked to the evolution of song learning and plasticity. PMID:22905893

  19. Universal patterns in sound amplitudes of songs and music genres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, R. S.; Ribeiro, H. V.; Freire, F. C. M.; Tateishi, A. A.; Lenzi, E. K.

    2011-01-01

    We report a statistical analysis of more than eight thousand songs. Specifically, we investigated the probability distribution of the normalized sound amplitudes. Our findings suggest a universal form of distribution that agrees well with a one-parameter stretched Gaussian. We also argue that this parameter can give information on music complexity, and consequently it helps classify songs as well as music genres. Additionally, we present statistical evidence that correlation aspects of the songs are directly related to the non-Gaussian nature of their sound amplitude distributions.

  20. Siren song: physicians, congress, and medicare fees.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Miriam J

    2009-04-01

    Physicians' fees under Medicare are updated by regulation annually based on a formula called the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR). Since 2003 Congress has reversed impending cuts to fees in response to physician calls for reform of the SGR, yet physician groups supported the SGR when fee increases outstripped medical inflation. Physician groups are partly culpable for the failure of cost containment because physician groups have resisted efforts to regulate their practice or link effectiveness research to coverage and reimbursement decisions. In the story of Ulysses and the Sirens, Ulysses has himself bound to the mast so that he cannot be seduced by the calls of the Sirens. Physician groups are like sirens because legislators cannot resist their songs. Future policy changes should consider physician needs alongside broader cost-containment goals, including linking reimbursement to comparative effectiveness research. PMID:19276315

  1. Vocal imitation of song and speech.

    PubMed

    Mantell, James T; Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2013-05-01

    We report four experiments that explored the cognitive bases of vocal imitation. Specifically, we investigated the accuracy with which normal individuals vocally imitated the pitch-time trajectories of spoken sentences and sung melodies, presented in their original form and with phonetic information removed. Overall, participants imitated melodies more accurately than sentences with respect to absolute pitch but not with respect to relative pitch or timing (overall duration). Notably, the presence of phonetic information facilitated imitation of both melodies and speech. Analyses of individual differences across studies suggested that the accuracy of imitating song predicts accuracy of imitating speech. Overall, these results do not accord with accounts of modular pitch processing that emphasize information encapsulation. PMID:23454792

  2. Flight Day 12 Wake Up Song and Greeting

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Flight Day 12 wakeup music was "Don't Panic" by Coldplay, which was played for Pilot Doug Hurley. This was the last wakeup song played for a shuttle crew while docked to the International Space...

  3. Teaching "Torch Song": Gay Literature in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Marvin

    1993-01-01

    Presents methods and strategies for using gay literature in the English classroom, focusing on the experience of using Harvey Fierstein's play, "Torch Song Trilogy." Provides details about how the text was introduced and used in the classroom. (HB)

  4. Hardware and software for a robotic network of telescopes - SONG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. F.; Grundahl, F.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Frandsen, S.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kjeldsen, H.; Pallé, P.; Skottfelt, J.; Sørensen, A. N.; Weiss, E.

    2014-12-01

    SONG aims at setting up a network of small 1m telescopes around the globe to observe stars uninterrupted throughout days, weeks and even months. This paper describes the fundamental aspects for putting up such a network and how we will operate each site as part of the full network. The SONG observatories will be working autonomously and automatic and can be fully controlled remotely.

  5. Bird song: in vivo, in vitro, in silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Aryesh; Mandre, Shreyas; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayan

    2010-11-01

    Bird song, long since an inspiration for artists, writers and poets also poses challenges for scientists interested in dissecting the mechanisms underlying the neural, motor, learning and behavioral systems behind the beak and brain, as a way to recreate and synthesize it. We use a combination of quantitative visualization experiments with physical models and computational theories to understand the simplest aspects of these complex musical boxes, focusing on using the controllable elastohydrodynamic interactions to mimic aural gestures and simple songs.

  6. Perception of Words and Pitch Patterns in Song and Speech

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Julia; Sammler, Daniela; Bangert, Marc; Goldhahn, Dirk; Lohmann, Gabriele; Turner, Robert; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words and pitch patterns. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to isolate the neural correlates of the word- and pitch-based discrimination between song and speech, corrected for rhythmic differences in both. Therefore, six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy were created: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; and as a control the pure musical or speech rhythm. Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in processing song and speech. While the left IFG coded for spoken words and showed predominance over the right IFG in prosodic pitch processing, an opposite lateralization was found for pitch in song. The IPS showed sensitivity to discrete pitch relations in song as opposed to the gliding pitch in speech. Finally, the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex coded for general differences between words and pitch patterns, irrespective of whether they were sung or spoken. Thus, song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception. However, fine-grained acoustic differences on word and pitch level are reflected in the IPS and the lateralized activity of the IFG. PMID:22457659

  7. GCN and SONG and Interactions with Other Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give a brief description of Gamma-ray burst Coordinates Network (GCN) (distribution methods, filtering criteria, etc) plus the types of notices currently being distributed (GRBs, transients, & monitoring). Then cover how Stellar Observations Network Group (SONG) telescopes could make use of these notice types to fill in some of their observing time. I will then make a pitch to get SONG telescopes to contribute those data products that are consistant with the real-time transient aspects of GCN.

  8. Urban noise and the cultural evolution of bird songs

    PubMed Central

    Luther, David; Baptista, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In urban environments, anthropogenic noise can interfere with animal communication. Here we study the influence of urban noise on the cultural evolution of bird songs. We studied three adjacent dialects of white-crowned sparrow songs over a 30-year time span. Urban noise, which is louder at low frequencies, increased during our study period and therefore should have created a selection pressure for songs with higher frequencies. We found that the minimum frequency of songs increased both within and between dialects during the 30-year time span. For example, the dialect with the highest minimum frequency is in the process of replacing another dialect that has lower frequency songs. Songs with the highest minimum frequency were favoured in this environment and should have the most effective transmission properties. We suggest that one mechanism that influences how dialects, and cultural traits in general, are selected and transmitted from one generation to the next is the dialect's ability to be effectively communicated in the local environment. PMID:19846451

  9. Communication Value of Mistakes in Dark-Eyed Junco Song.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, André C; Atwell, Jonathan W; Whittaker, Danielle J; Ketterson, Ellen D; Cardoso, Gonçalo C

    2016-09-01

    Sexual signals contain information on individual quality or motivation, and most explanations for their reliability are based on signal costs. A recent suggestion is that signaling mistakes, defined as deviations from typical signal design, provide cues on individual quality, contributing to reliable communication even when signal design is not costly. We describe several atypical song traits in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) that may be mistakes during song production or development and occur in up to 6% of songs. These putative mistakes were more frequent in an urban versus a wildland population, and individuals differed in their frequency of mistakes. Some atypical signals were more frequent in younger males or were negatively related to paternity success, supporting the hypothesis that fewer mistakes indicate individual quality. We also discuss unexpected results, such as some atypical signals being more frequent in more ornamented males and in songs with lower performance demands. Song consistency (similarity across syllable renditions) was positively related to male age and paternity success; nonetheless, relations with paternity were stronger when looking at the most deviant syllable renditions, suggesting that the perceptual salience of large mistakes may mediate receiver responses to song consistency. Results indicate that signaling mistakes reveal relevant information to play a role in communication. PMID:27501087

  10. Central neural circuitry mediating courtship song perception in male Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan; Franconville, Romain; Vaughan, Alexander G; Robinett, Carmen C; Jayaraman, Vivek; Baker, Bruce S

    2015-01-01

    Animals use acoustic signals across a variety of social behaviors, particularly courtship. In Drosophila, song is detected by antennal mechanosensory neurons and further processed by second-order aPN1/aLN(al) neurons. However, little is known about the central pathways mediating courtship hearing. In this study, we identified a male-specific pathway for courtship hearing via third-order ventrolateral protocerebrum Projection Neuron 1 (vPN1) neurons and fourth-order pC1 neurons. Genetic inactivation of vPN1 or pC1 disrupts song-induced male-chaining behavior. Calcium imaging reveals that vPN1 responds preferentially to pulse song with long inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), while pC1 responses to pulse song closely match the behavioral chaining responses at different IPIs. Moreover, genetic activation of either vPN1 or pC1 induced courtship chaining, mimicking the behavioral response to song. These results outline the aPN1-vPN1-pC1 pathway as a labeled line for the processing and transformation of courtship song in males. PMID:26390382

  11. Teaching ethics using popular songs: feeling and thinking.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2008-01-01

    A connection has long been made between music and moral education. Recent discussions have focused on concerns that certain lyrics can lead to acceptance of violence, suicide, inappropriate views of women, and other unethical behaviour. Debate over whether such connections exist at least illustrates that popular songs engage listeners with ethical issues; this arises from the unique blend of emotional and cognitive reactions to music. And while the emotional side of ethics has received less attention than other aspects of ethics, it is important and music can be a powerful and unique tool to introduce the emotional aspects of ethics. Music appeals to almost everyone. Throughout history songs have rallied people to action and drawn people into deeper reflection. Music engages our emotions, our imagination and our intellect. Students already spend many hours listening to songs, some of which address ethical issues; it is thus an ideal pedagogic aid in teaching subjects like ethics. This article will discuss how carefully selected songs can encourage thoughtful reflection and critical thinking about ethical issues: a number of specific examples will be described, along with a discussion of the general practicalities of using popular songs in teaching ethics and a demonstration of how students learn to listen critically and actively reflect on the ethical messages they receive. The enjoyment of music helps to engage students with ethics and its relevance for their lives and careers. This article aims to share some of the excitement and enthusiasm that popular songs have brought to my teaching of ethics. PMID:19205315

  12. Central neural circuitry mediating courtship song perception in male Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chuan; Franconville, Romain; Vaughan, Alexander G; Robinett, Carmen C; Jayaraman, Vivek; Baker, Bruce S

    2015-01-01

    Animals use acoustic signals across a variety of social behaviors, particularly courtship. In Drosophila, song is detected by antennal mechanosensory neurons and further processed by second-order aPN1/aLN(al) neurons. However, little is known about the central pathways mediating courtship hearing. In this study, we identified a male-specific pathway for courtship hearing via third-order ventrolateral protocerebrum Projection Neuron 1 (vPN1) neurons and fourth-order pC1 neurons. Genetic inactivation of vPN1 or pC1 disrupts song-induced male-chaining behavior. Calcium imaging reveals that vPN1 responds preferentially to pulse song with long inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), while pC1 responses to pulse song closely match the behavioral chaining responses at different IPIs. Moreover, genetic activation of either vPN1 or pC1 induced courtship chaining, mimicking the behavioral response to song. These results outline the aPN1-vPN1-pC1 pathway as a labeled line for the processing and transformation of courtship song in males. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08477.001 PMID:26390382

  13. Neural representations of courtship song in the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Tootoonian, Sina; Coen, Philip; Kawai, Risa; Murthy, Mala

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic communication in Drosophilid flies is based on the production and perception of courtship songs, which facilitate mating. Despite decades of research on courtship songs and behavior in Drosophila, central auditory responses have remained uncharacterized. In this study, we report on intracellular recordings from central neurons that innervate the Drosophila AMMC (antennal mechanosensory and motor center), the first relay for auditory information in the fly brain. These neurons produce graded-potential (non-spiking) responses to sound; we compare recordings from AMMC neurons to extracellular recordings of the receptor neuron population (Johnston’s Organ neurons or JONs). We discover that while steady-state response profiles for tonal and broadband stimuli are significantly transformed between the JON population in the antenna and AMMC neurons in the brain, transient responses to pulses present in natural stimuli (courtship song) are not. For pulse stimuli in particular, AMMC neurons simply low-pass filter the receptor population response, thus preserving low-frequency temporal features (such as the spacing of song pulses) for analysis by postsynaptic neurons. We also compare responses in two closely related Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, and find that pulse song responses are largely similar, despite differences in the spectral content of their songs. Our recordings inform how downstream circuits may read out behaviorally-relevant information from central neurons in the AMMC. PMID:22262877

  14. Amplitude modulation of sexy phrases is salient for song attractiveness in female canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Pasteau, Magali; Ung, Davy; Kreutzer, Michel; Aubin, Thierry

    2012-07-01

    Song discrimination and recognition in songbird species have usually been studied by measuring responses to song playbacks. In female canaries, Serinus canaria, copulation solicitation displays (CSDs) are used as an index of female preferences, which are related to song recognition. Despite the fact that many studies underline the role of song syntax in this species, we observed that short segments of songs (a few seconds long) are enough for females to discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific songs, whereas such a short duration is not sufficient to identify the syntax rules. This suggests that other cues are salient for song recognition. In this experiment, we investigated the influence of amplitude modulation (AM) on the responses (CSDs) of female canaries to song playbacks. We used two groups of females: (1) raised in acoustic isolation and (2) raised in normal conditions. When adult, we tested their preferences for sexy phrases with different AMs. We broadcast three types of stimuli: (1) songs with natural canary AM, (2) songs with AM removed, or (3) song with wren Troglodytes troglodytes AM. Results indicate that female canaries prefer and have predispositions for a song type with the natural canary AM. Thus, this acoustic parameter is a salient cue for song attractiveness. PMID:22476242

  15. Degradation of Rural and Urban Great Tit Song: Testing Transmission Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mockford, Emily J.; Marshall, Rupert C.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic signals play a fundamental role in avian territory defence and mate attraction. Several studies have now shown that spectral properties of bird song differ between urban and rural environments. Previously this has been attributed to competition for acoustic space as a result of low-frequency noise present in cities. However, the physical structure of urban areas may have a contributory effect. Here we investigate the sound degradation properties of woodland and city environments using both urban and rural great tit song. We show that although urban surroundings caused significantly less degradation to both songs, the transmission efficiency of rural song compared to urban song was significantly lower in the city. While differences between the two songs in woodland were generally minimal, some measures of the transmission efficiency of rural song were significantly lower than those of urban song, suggesting additional benefits to singing rural songs in this setting. In an attempt to create artificial urban song, we mimicked the increase in minimum frequency found several times previously in urban song. However, this did not replicate the same transmission properties as true urban song, suggesting changes in other song characteristics, such as temporal adjustments, are needed to further increase transmission of an avian signal in the city. We suggest that the structure of the acoustic environment, in addition to the background noise, plays an important role in signal adaptation. PMID:22174781

  16. The relationship of neurogenesis and growth of brain regions to song learning

    PubMed Central

    Kirn, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Song learning, maintenance and production require coordinated activity across multiple auditory, sensory-motor, and neuromuscular structures. Telencephalic components of the sensory-motor circuitry are unique to avian species that engage in song learning. The song system shows protracted development that begins prior to hatching but continues well into adulthood. The staggered developmental timetable for construction of the song system provides clues of subsystems involved in specific stages of song learning and maintenance. Progressive events, including neurogenesis and song system growth, as well as regressive events such as apoptosis and synapse elimination, occur during periods of song learning and the transitions between stereotyped and variable song during both development and adulthood. There is clear evidence that gonadal steroids influence the development of song attributes and shape the underlying neural circuitry. Some aspects of song system development are influenced by sensory, motor and social experience, while other aspects of neural development appear to be experience-independent. Although there are species differences in the extent to which song learning continues into adulthood, growing evidence suggests that despite differences in learning trajectories, adult refinement of song motor control and song maintenance can require remarkable behavioral and neural flexibility reminiscent of sensory-motor learning. PMID:19853905

  17. Hatching late in the season requires flexibility in the timing of song learning.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Stefan; Teichel, Johanna; Ter Maat, Andries; Voigt, Cornelia

    2015-08-01

    Most songbirds learn their songs from adult tutors, who can be their father or other male conspecifics. However, the variables that control song learning in a natural social context are largely unknown. We investigated whether the time of hatching of male domesticated canaries has an impact on their song development and on the neuroendocrine parameters of the song control system. Average age difference between early- and late-hatched males was 50 days with a maximum of 90 days. Song activity of adult tutor males decreased significantly during the breeding season. While early-hatched males were exposed to tutor songs for on average the first 99 days, late-hatched peers heard adult song only during the first 48 days of life. Remarkably, although hatching late in the season negatively affected body condition, no differences between both groups of males were found in song characteristics either in autumn or in the following spring. Similarly, hatching date had no effect on song nucleus size and circulating testosterone levels. Our data suggest that late-hatched males must have undergone accelerated song development. Furthermore, the limited tutor song exposure did not affect adult song organization and song performance. PMID:26311160

  18. Songs of the Universe - The AstroCappella Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, P. T.; Smale, K. M.; Smale, A. P.

    2004-12-01

    The AstroCappella Project is a classroom-ready collection of upbeat pop songs, lesson plans, and background information, all rich in science content. It was developed as a collaboration between working research astronomers, educators, and a contemporary vocal band. A multimedia music CD ("AstroCappella 2.0") has been produced containing 13 astronomically correct songs with original lyrics and music. Song topics range from the Sun, Moon, planets and small bodies of the Solar System, through the Doppler shift, the nearest stars, and extra-solar planets, to radio astronomy, X-ray astronomy, and the Hubble Space Telescope and Swift astronomy satellites. The CD also contains extensive CD-ROM materials including science background information, curriculum notes, lesson plans and activities for each song, images, movies, and slide shows. The songs and accompanying information have been extensively field-tested, and align to the K-12 National Science Education Standards. The AstroCappella materials are in widespread use in classrooms and homes across the US, and are supplemented with frequent live performances and teacher workshops. We describe here the history, content, and educational strategy behind the AstroCappella Project, and the plans for its future development.

  19. Dynamic variation in forebrain estradiol levels during song learning

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Andrew; Paon, Ashley; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens shape brain circuits during development, and the capacity to synthesize estrogens locally has consequences for both sexual differentiation and the acute modulation of circuits during early learning. A recently-optimized method to detect and quantify fluctuations in brain estrogens in vivo provides a direct means to explore how brain estrogen production contributes to both differentiation and neuromodulation during development. Here, we use this method to test the hypothesis that neuroestrogens are sexually-differentiated as well as dynamically responsive to song tutoring (via passive video/audio playback) during the period of song learning in juvenile zebra finches. Our results show that baseline neuroestradiol levels in the caudal forebrain do not differ between males and females during an early critical masculinization window. Instead, we observe a prominent difference between males and females in baseline neuroestradiol that emerges during the subadult stage as animals approach sexual maturity. Second, we observe that fluctuating neuroestradiol levels during periods of passive song tutoring exhibit a markedly different profile in juveniles as compared to adults. Specifically, neuroestrogens in the caudal forebrain are elevated following (rather than during) tutor song exposure in both juvenile males and females, suggesting an important role for the early consolidation of tutor song memories. These results further reveal a circadian influence on the fluctuations in local neuroestrogens during sensory/cognitive tasks. Taken together, these findings uncover several unexpected features of brain estrogen synthesis in juvenile animals that may have implications for secondary masculinization as well as the consolidation of recent sensory experiences. PMID:25205304

  20. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A.; Scharff, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. PMID:25646520

  1. Cues to Androgens and Quality in Male Gibbon Songs

    PubMed Central

    Barelli, Claudia; Mundry, Roger; Heistermann, Michael; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Animal vocal signals may provide information about senders and mediate important social interactions like sexual competition, territory maintenance and mate selection. Hence, it is important to understand whether vocal signals provide accurate information about animal attributes or status. Gibbons are non-human primates that produce loud, distinctive and melodious vocalizations resembling more those of birds than of other non-human primates. Wild gibbons are characterized by flexibility in social organization (i.e., pairs and multimale units) as well as in mating system (i.e., monogamy and polyandry). Such features make them a suitable model to investigate whether the physiology (hormonal status) and socio-demographic features find their correspondence in the structure of their songs. By combining male solo song recordings, endocrine outputs using non-invasive fecal androgen measures and behavioral observations, we studied 14 groups (10 pair-living, 4 multimale) of wild white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) residing at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. We collected a total of 322 fecal samples and recorded 48 songs from 18 adult animals. Our results confirmed inter-individuality in male gibbon songs, and showed a clear correlation between androgen levels and song structures. Gibbons with higher androgen levels produced calls having higher pitch, and similarly adult individuals produced longer calls than senior males. Thus, it is plausible that gibbon vocalizations provide receivers with information about singers' attributes. PMID:24367551

  2. Dynamic variation in forebrain estradiol levels during song learning.

    PubMed

    Chao, Andrew; Paon, Ashley; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2015-03-01

    Estrogens shape brain circuits during development, and the capacity to synthesize estrogens locally has consequences for both sexual differentiation and the acute modulation of circuits during early learning. A recently optimized method to detect and quantify fluctuations in brain estrogens in vivo provides a direct means to explore how brain estrogen production contributes to both differentiation and neuromodulation during development. Here, we use this method to test the hypothesis that neuroestrogens are sexually differentiated as well as dynamically responsive to song tutoring (via passive video/audio playback) during the period of song learning in juvenile zebra finches. Our results show that baseline neuroestradiol levels in the caudal forebrain do not differ between males and females during an early critical masculinization window. Instead, we observe a prominent difference between males and females in baseline neuroestradiol that emerges during the subadult stage as animals approach sexual maturity. Second, we observe that fluctuating neuroestradiol levels during periods of passive song tutoring exhibit a markedly different profile in juveniles as compared to adults. Specifically, neuroestrogens in the caudal forebrain are elevated following (rather than during) tutor song exposure in both juvenile males and females, suggesting an important role for the early consolidation of tutor song memories. These results further reveal a circadian influence on the fluctuations in local neuroestrogens during sensory/cognitive tasks. Taken together, these findings uncover several unexpected features of brain estrogen synthesis in juvenile animals that may have implications for secondary masculinization as well as the consolidation of recent sensory experiences. PMID:25205304

  3. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A; Scharff, Constance

    2015-03-19

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. PMID:25646520

  4. Sensorimotor Transformations Underlying Variability in Song Intensity during Drosophila Courtship.

    PubMed

    Coen, Philip; Xie, Marjorie; Clemens, Jan; Murthy, Mala

    2016-02-01

    Diverse animal species, from insects to humans, utilize acoustic signals for communication. Studies of the neural basis for song or speech production have focused almost exclusively on the generation of spectral and temporal patterns, but animals can also adjust acoustic signal intensity when communicating. For example, humans naturally regulate the loudness of speech in accord with a visual estimate of receiver distance. The underlying mechanisms for this ability remain uncharacterized in any system. Here, we show that Drosophila males modulate courtship song amplitude with female distance, and we investigate each stage of the sensorimotor transformation underlying this behavior, from the detection of particular visual stimulus features and the timescales of sensory processing to the modulation of neural and muscle activity that generates song. Our results demonstrate an unanticipated level of control in insect acoustic communication and uncover novel computations and mechanisms underlying the regulation of acoustic signal intensity. PMID:26844835

  5. Immature male gibbons produce female-specific songs.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Oyakawa, Chisako; Kato, Akemi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Rizaldi; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gibbons are apes that are well known to produce characteristic species-specific loud calls, referred to as "songs." Of particular interest is the sex specificity of the "great calls" heard in gibbon songs. However, little is known about the development of such calls. While great calls are given by female gibbons of various ages, they have never been recorded from males. Here, we report two observations of immature male gibbons from two different species, wild Hylobates agilis and captive H. lar, which spontaneously sang female-specific great calls. Based on the video clips, we conclude that immature males also have the potential to produce great calls. Our observations led us to propose a new hypothesis for the development of sexual differentiation in the songs of gibbons, and its implications for the general issue of sex-specific behavior in primates. PMID:24158401

  6. The development of stimulus-specific auditory responses requires song exposure in male but not female zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Kristen K.; Voss, Henning U.; Parra, Lucas C.; Salgado-Commissariat, Delanthi; Ballon, Douglas; Tchernichovski, Ofer; Helekar, Santosh A.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile male zebra finches develop their song by imitation. Females do not sing but are attracted to males' songs. With functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) we tested how early auditory experience shapes responses in the auditory forebrain of the adult bird. Adult male birds kept in isolation over the sensitive period for song learning showed no consistency in auditory responses to conspecific songs, calls, and syllables. Thirty seconds of song playback each day over development, which is sufficient to induce song imitation, was also sufficient to shape stimulus-specific responses. Strikingly, adult females kept in isolation over development showed responses similar to those of males that were exposed to songs. We suggest that early auditory experience with songs may be required to tune perception towards conspecific songs in males, whereas in females song selectivity develops even without prior exposure to song. PMID:19937773

  7. Sharing Songs: A Powerful Tool for Teaching Tolerance and Honoring Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascale, Louise Mary

    2011-01-01

    Teaching songs from a wide variety of cultures is commonplace in music classrooms around the United States. Students gain understanding of and insight into a wide range of cultures by singing their songs and listening to their music. The Afghan Children's Songbook Project is a project focused on preserving and returning traditional songs,…

  8. The Relationship of Neurogenesis and Growth of Brain Regions to Song Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirn, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Song learning, maintenance and production require coordinated activity across multiple auditory, sensory-motor, and neuromuscular structures. Telencephalic components of the sensory-motor circuitry are unique to avian species that engage in song learning. The song system shows protracted development that begins prior to hatching but continues well…

  9. L'Italiano tra le Note: The Value and Power of a Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Mariagrazia

    A series of class exercises for Italian language instruction based on a song, "La Vita Mia" by Amedeo Minghi, is presented. The song was selected because of its rich literary content and appealing melody. Objectives, in-class activities, and homework assignments are outlined. In them, students listen to the song, discuss the relationship of poetry…

  10. Vocal Communications and the Maintenance of Population Specific Songs in a Contact Zone

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Jonathan T.; Servedio, Maria R.

    2012-01-01

    Bird song has been hypothesized to play a role in several important aspects of the biology of songbirds, including the generation of taxonomic diversity by speciation; however, the role that song plays in speciation within this group may be dependent upon the ability of populations to maintain population specific songs or calls in the face of gene flow and external cultural influences. Here, in an exploratory study, we construct a spatially explicit model of population movement to examine the consequences of secondary contact of populations singing distinct songs. We concentrate on two broad questions: 1) will population specific songs be maintained in a contact zone or will they be replaced by shared song, and 2) what spatial patterns in the distribution of songs may result from contact? We examine the effects of multiple factors including song-based mating preferences and movement probabilities, oblique versus paternal learning of song, and both cultural and genetic mutations. We find a variety of conditions under which population specific songs can be maintained, particularly when females have preferences for their population specific songs, and we document many distinct patterns of song distribution within the contact zone, including clines, banding, and mosaics. PMID:22574116

  11. Teaching Listening Skills to Young Learners through "Listen and Do" Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevik, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the use of songs to improve the listening skills of young learners. He first provides a theoretical discussion about listening skills and YLs, and about songs and YLs in general; second, he provides a sample lesson for what can be called "Listen and Do" songs for YLs at the beginning level. These are the songs…

  12. Song Recognition among Preschool-Age Children: An Investigation of Words and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feierabend, John M.; Saunders, T. Clark; Getnick, Pamela E.; Holahan, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to discover whether listening to songs over an extended period of time contributes to a greater integration of words and music in memory among preschool children. Finds more accurate recognition of songs performed without text when they had heard them previously with texts and that melodic content influenced song-recognition ability. (DSK)

  13. Female Lincoln's sparrows modulate their behavior in response to variation in male song quality

    PubMed Central

    Sewall, Kendra B.; Salvante, Katrina G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexually reproducing organisms should mate with the highest quality individuals that they can. When female songbirds choose a mate, they are thought to use several aspects of male song that reflect his quality. Under resource-limited environmental conditions, male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) vary among one another in several aspects of song quality, including song length, song complexity, and trill performance. In a 2-pronged approach, we tested whether variation in song quality of male Lincoln's sparrows influences the behavior of females that are in a reproductive-like state. Over two trials, we exposed females to songs from the high and low ends of the distribution of naturally occurring song quality variation and found a higher level of behavioral activity in females exposed to high-quality songs, especially when they had first been exposed to low-quality songs. We also examined female phonotaxis toward antiphonally played songs with experimentally elevated and reduced trill performance and found that females moved preferentially toward the songs with elevated trill performance. Contrary to most studies investigating the behavioral responses of wild, female songbirds to variation in male song, we obtained our results without administering exogenous estradiol, which can artificially perturb the female's physiology. Our results demonstrate that the behavior of female Lincoln's sparrows is modulated by the quality of male songs to which they are exposed and that trill performance plays a significant role in this behavioral modulation. Furthermore, as the order of song quality presentation matters, it appears that recent song experience also influences female behavior. PMID:22476505

  14. The Immediate Effects of Homicidal, Suicidal, and Nonviolent Heavy Metal and Rap Songs on the Moods of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary E.; Coates, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Examined the impact of homicidal, suicidal, and nonviolent heavy metal and rap songs on the moods of male college undergraduates. Students (n=164) completed mood inventories after listening to 1 of 6 songs. Results show no effects of these songs on suicidal ideation, anxiety, or self-esteem. Rap songs elicited greater angry responses than heavy…

  15. Head movements encode emotions during speech and song.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    When speaking or singing, vocalists often move their heads in an expressive fashion, yet the influence of emotion on vocalists' head motion is unknown. Using a comparative speech/song task, we examined whether vocalists' intended emotions influence head movements and whether those movements influence the perceived emotion. In Experiment 1, vocalists were recorded with motion capture while speaking and singing each statement with different emotional intentions (very happy, happy, neutral, sad, very sad). Functional data analyses showed that head movements differed in translational and rotational displacement across emotional intentions, yet were similar across speech and song, transcending differences in F0 (varied freely in speech, fixed in song) and lexical variability. Head motion specific to emotional state occurred before and after vocalizations, as well as during sound production, confirming that some aspects of movement were not simply a by-product of sound production. In Experiment 2, observers accurately identified vocalists' intended emotion on the basis of silent, face-occluded videos of head movements during speech and song. These results provide the first evidence that head movements encode a vocalist's emotional intent and that observers decode emotional information from these movements. We discuss implications for models of head motion during vocalizations and applied outcomes in social robotics and automated emotion recognition. PMID:26501928

  16. Alors, la chanson francaise? (And So, the French Song?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvet, Louis Jean

    1977-01-01

    The introductory article in an issue devoted to songs as a teaching device. The article deals with English and American rock, folk and pop music. It makes the point that learning a language is also learning the culture of the people who speak the language. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  17. A Comparison of Mexican Children's Music Compositions and Contextual Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to make observations and comparisons between original music composed by Mexican children, and traditional Mexican songs. Data were obtained through notated music compositions created by the children, and through videotaped interviews during which the children performed their compositions, talked about both their…

  18. Chinese Songs We Can Sing and Chinese Instrumental Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific.

    This booklet includes a number of Chinese songs (with English translations) designed for use with a tape recording produced by the Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific, Educational Foundations, University of Hawaii. A pronunciation key and a listing of cassette recordings of Chinese instrumental music are provided. (EB)

  19. Elevated aromatase activity in forebrain synaptic terminals during song

    PubMed Central

    Remage-Healey, Luke; Oyama, Randi K.; Schlinger, Barney A.

    2009-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase (which converts androgens into oestrogens) is expressed throughout the brain in zebra finches. Aromatase is enzymatically active in both cell bodies and synaptic terminals of neurones of the songbird brain, particularly within forebrain motor and auditory networks. Aromatisation within synaptic terminals could thus provide localised and acute modulatory oestrogens within the forebrain during singing and/or audition. In male zebra finches, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain aromatase activity is elevated during singing behaviour and/or hearing male song. This study reports that aromatase activity is elevated in males that were singing for 30 min as compared to non-singing males, and that this elevation occurs only within the cellular compartment that contains synaptic terminals. In a separate experiment, males that heard acoustic playback of song for 30 min exhibited no differences in aromatase activity or in aromatase mRNA levels as revealed by quantitative PCR analysis. Therefore, these results indicate that activation of the motor pathway for song production is linked to local elevations in synaptic aromatase activity within the forebrain of male zebra finches. Future experiments could assess whether elevated synaptic aromatase activity during song is dependent on acute regulation of the aromatase protein. PMID:19207827

  20. Move to the Music: Protest Songs in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettway, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Teachers don't typically encourage students to bring iPods to school, but when a girl in Ken Giles's class brought him "One Tribe," a song by the Black Eyed Peas, he was thrilled. Giles, a music teacher in Washington, D.C., uses protest music to illustrate the connections among culture, art, history and social movements and to help his students…

  1. Using science songs to enhance learning: an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Music is recognized as an effective mode of teaching young children but is rarely used in university-level science courses. This article reviews the somewhat limited evidence on whether and how content-rich music might affect college students' understanding of science and offers practical suggestions for incorporating music into courses. Aside from aiding memorization, songs may potentially improve learning by helping students feel relaxed and welcome in stressful settings, engaging students through multiple modes (verbal vs. nonverbal) and modalities (auditory vs. visual vs. kinesthetic) simultaneously, challenging students to integrate and "own" the material through the medium of song lyrics, and increasing students' time on task outside of class through enjoyable listening or songwriting assignments. Students may produce content-rich songs of good quality if given sufficient assistance and encouragement by instructors and peers. The challenges ahead include 1) defining the circumstances in which music is most likely to promote learning and 2) developing rubrics for evaluating the quality of songs. PMID:22383614

  2. Preserving American Folk Heritage through Story and Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    Underscoring folklore's appropriateness to multicultural classroom settings are its connection with past and present cultures, its constancy and change, and its potential for oral transmission of human values. Most importantly, folktales and songs enable children to participate in the history of universal human emotions. To effectively include…

  3. Caretaking of Children's Souls. Teaching the Deep Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sandra B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes ways early childhood caregivers can facilitate children's spiritual development by observing the "canto hondo," the deep song. Discusses characteristics of the canto hondo as a metaphor for caring for the souls of children and their uniqueness, including safety, celebration, respect, acceptance, dreaming, and laughter. (KB)

  4. "Global Voices in Song": New Methods of Multicultural Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Min; Goetze, Mary; Fern, Jay

    2006-01-01

    "Global Voices in Song" is a CD-ROM series that provides singers or listeners in classrooms and choirs with the materials needed for effective oral transmission of choral music from sources outside the European art music tradition. It was developed by Dr. Mary Goetze, Professor of Music at Indiana University (IU) and Dr. Jay Fern from IU Academic…

  5. Elemental gesture dynamics are encoded by song premotor cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Amador, Ana; Perl, Yonatan Sanz; Mindlin, Gabriel B; Margoliash, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative biomechanical models can identify control parameters that are used during movements, and movement parameters that are encoded by premotor neurons. We fit a mathematical dynamical systems model including subsyringeal pressure, syringeal biomechanics and upper-vocal-tract filtering to the songs of zebra finches. This reduces the dimensionality of singing dynamics, described as trajectories (motor 'gestures') in a space of syringeal pressure and tension. Here we assess model performance by characterizing the auditory response 'replay' of song premotor HVC neurons to the presentation of song variants in sleeping birds, and by examining HVC activity in singing birds. HVC projection neurons were excited and interneurons were suppressed within a few milliseconds of the extreme time points of the gesture trajectories. Thus, the HVC precisely encodes vocal motor output through activity at the times of extreme points of movement trajectories. We propose that the sequential activity of HVC neurons is used as a 'forward' model, representing the sequence of gestures in song to make predictions on expected behaviour and evaluate feedback. PMID:23446354

  6. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, “urban-typical” calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  7. Critical Song Features for Auditory Pattern Recognition in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Meckenhäuser, Gundula; Hennig, R. Matthias; Nawrot, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Many different invertebrate and vertebrate species use acoustic communication for pair formation. In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, females recognize their species-specific calling song and localize singing males by positive phonotaxis. The song pattern of males has a clear structure consisting of brief and regular pulses that are grouped into repetitive chirps. Information is thus present on a short and a long time scale. Here, we ask which structural features of the song critically determine the phonotactic performance. To this end we employed artificial neural networks to analyze a large body of behavioral data that measured females’ phonotactic behavior under systematic variation of artificially generated song patterns. In a first step we used four non-redundant descriptive temporal features to predict the female response. The model prediction showed a high correlation with the experimental results. We used this behavioral model to explore the integration of the two different time scales. Our result suggested that only an attractive pulse structure in combination with an attractive chirp structure reliably induced phonotactic behavior to signals. In a further step we investigated all feature sets, each one consisting of a different combination of eight proposed temporal features. We identified feature sets of size two, three, and four that achieve highest prediction power by using the pulse period from the short time scale plus additional information from the long time scale. PMID:23437054

  8. Tune Up to Literacy: Original Songs and Activities for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Al

    2009-01-01

    Encourage literacy with twenty original songs by musician and educator Al Balkin! Children's and school librarians will welcome "Tune Up to Literacy", a handy package of music and activities that musically introduces and reinforces crucial literacy concepts such as the alphabet, vowels, consonants, nouns, verbs, adjectives, sentence construction,…

  9. Lighting up the Brain with Songs and Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Songs and stories have a strong relationship to each other and have the capacity to boost brain development, increase vocabulary, and promote future academic success. The sounds and foundational structures of reading and singing provide young children with successful pathways for advancing language skills, increasing memory, and promoting emerging…

  10. La voie de la chanson (The Way of the Song).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiro, Carmen Mata

    1986-01-01

    Describes a French civilization course offered in Spain that compared French and Spanish cultures by looking at each from the perspective and stereotypes of the other. A module devoted to the influence of song in various contexts is described in some detail. (MSE)

  11. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, "urban-typical" calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  12. The Video Song Clip in the ESL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filice, Serafina Lina; Sturino, Domenico

    1999-01-01

    Presents a number of practical ideas in promoting the learning of English through the use of a video song clip based on successful use of the classic "We Are the World," over the years with students at the University of Calabria, Italy as well as with adults in the adult Education program at Mohawk College in Ontario, Canada. (Author/VWL)

  13. A Different Approach to Teaching Social Studies: Folk Songs History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangülü, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of teaching and learning the subjects of Social Studies with folk songs in secondary school students. This study is made in 2012-2013 Academic Year Spring Term with seventh grade students studying in secondary school bounded Mugla Provincial Directorate for National Education. 67 students have…

  14. Strike up Student Interest through Song: Technology and Westward Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Meg

    2014-01-01

    Sheet music, song lyrics, and audio recordings may not be the first primary sources that come to mind when considering ways to teach about changes brought about by technology during westward expansion, but these sources engage students in thought provoking ways. In this article the author presents a 1917 photograph of Mountain Chief, of the Piegan…

  15. The Song of the Earth: A Pragmatic Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In "The Song of the Earth," Jonathan Bate promotes "ecopoesis", contrasting it with "ecopolitical" poetry (and by implication, other forms of writing and expression). Like others recently, including Simon James and Michael Bonnett, he appropriates the notion of "dwelling" from Heidegger to add force to this distinction. Bate's argument is…

  16. Juegos, Canciones, Poemas y Adivinanzas (Games, Songs, Poems and Riddles).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Printed in Spanish, this booklet contains games, songs, poems, riddles, and sayings for use with Puerto Rican migrant children. Eleven matching exercises present Spanish vocabulary related to clothing, food, and musical instruments. Eleven word search games teach Spanish names for body parts, masculine and feminine nouns, famous names, fruits and…

  17. Michael Stipe Wake-Up Song and Greeting

    NASA Video Gallery

    The four astronauts of the final space shuttle mission are greeted by R.E.M. front man Michael Stipe and the group’s hit, "Man on the Moon" to begin Flight Day 7. On recording this song for the A...

  18. Using Science Songs to Enhance Learning: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Music is recognized as an effective mode of teaching young children but is rarely used in university-level science courses. This article reviews the somewhat limited evidence on whether and how content-rich music might affect college students' understanding of science and offers practical suggestions for incorporating music into courses. Aside from aiding memorization, songs may potentially improve learning by helping students feel relaxed and welcome in stressful settings, engaging students through multiple modes (verbal vs. nonverbal) and modalities (auditory vs. visual vs. kinesthetic) simultaneously, challenging students to integrate and “own” the material through the medium of song lyrics, and increasing students' time on task outside of class through enjoyable listening or songwriting assignments. Students may produce content-rich songs of good quality if given sufficient assistance and encouragement by instructors and peers. The challenges ahead include 1) defining the circumstances in which music is most likely to promote learning and 2) developing rubrics for evaluating the quality of songs. PMID:22383614

  19. A circular model for song motor control in Serinus canaria.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Rodrigo G; Trevisan, Marcos A; Amador, Ana; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B

    2015-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is controlled by a network of nuclei distributed across several brain regions, which drives respiratory and vocal motor systems to generate sound. We built a model for birdsong production, whose variables are the average activities of different neural populations within these nuclei of the song system. We focus on the predictions of respiratory patterns of song, because these can be easily measured and therefore provide a validation for the model. We test the hypothesis that it is possible to construct a model in which (1) the activity of an expiratory related (ER) neural population fits the observed pressure patterns used by canaries during singing, and (2) a higher forebrain neural population, HVC, is sparsely active, simultaneously with significant motor instances of the pressure patterns. We show that in order to achieve these two requirements, the ER neural population needs to receive two inputs: a direct one, and its copy after being processed by other areas of the song system. The model is capable of reproducing the measured respiratory patterns and makes specific predictions on the timing of HVC activity during their production. These results suggest that vocal production is controlled by a circular network rather than by a simple top-down architecture. PMID:25904860

  20. Children's identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Papsin, Blake C.; Gordon, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4–7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1) the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2) the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo), and (3) the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals). Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues. PMID:25147537

  1. "Lieder machen Leute": Teaching Postwar German Identity through Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The negotiation of a West German identity in the decades that followed World War II can be traced in the issues and movements that preoccupied the populace. These in turn are documented in the work of socially and politically motivated "Liedermacher". Songs thus serve as a point of entry for students into how Germans saw themselves in the Bonn…

  2. Music as a Teaching Tool: Creating Story Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringgenberg, Shelly

    2003-01-01

    Describes music as a mnemonic that adds variety and interest to the curriculum and is an important component of multisensory learning. Offers suggestions for creating/using story songs with young children, including the use of one musical phrase in an existing story and creating a melody for an entire story. Gives practical advice for using and…

  3. CitySongs: Primary Prevention in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivnick, Helen Q.; Lymburner, Allison M.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes CitySongs, a primary prevention, out-of-school program in the inner city that promotes social justice through integrated activities aimed at healthy youth development, arts achievement, and community vitality through diversity. Key ideas from social science and human service disciplines that inform the design and…

  4. Distributed Recognition of Natural Songs by European Starlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Daniel; Thompson, Jason V.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2010-01-01

    Individual vocal recognition behaviors in songbirds provide an excellent framework for the investigation of comparative psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that support the perception and cognition of complex acoustic communication signals. To this end, the complex songs of European starlings have been studied extensively. Yet, several…

  5. Humpback Whale Song on the Southern Ocean Feeding Grounds: Implications for Cultural Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Ellen C.; Gedamke, Jason; Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Noad, Michael J.; Garrigue, Claire; Gales, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the Southern Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider Southern Ocean. PMID:24278134

  6. Shared songs are of lower performance in the dark-eyed junco

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Social learning enables the adjustment of behaviour to complex social and ecological tasks, and underlies cultural traditions. Understanding when animals use social learning versus other forms of behavioural development can help explain the dynamics of animal culture. The dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) is a songbird with weak cultural song traditions because, in addition to learning songs socially, male juncos also invent or improvise novel songs. We compared songs shared by multiple males (i.e. socially learned) with songs recorded from only one male in the population (many of which should be novel) to gain insight into the advantages of social learning versus invention or improvisation. Song types shared by multiple males were on average of lower performance, on aspects of vocal performance that have been implicated in agonistic communication in several species. This was not explained by cultural selection among socially learned songs (e.g. selective learning) because, for shared song types, song performance did not predict how many males shared them. We discuss why social learning does not maximize song performance in juncos, and suggest that some songbirds may add novel songs to culturally inherited repertoires as a means to acquire higher-quality signals. PMID:27493786

  7. Shared songs are of lower performance in the dark-eyed junco.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Atwell, Jonathan W

    2016-07-01

    Social learning enables the adjustment of behaviour to complex social and ecological tasks, and underlies cultural traditions. Understanding when animals use social learning versus other forms of behavioural development can help explain the dynamics of animal culture. The dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) is a songbird with weak cultural song traditions because, in addition to learning songs socially, male juncos also invent or improvise novel songs. We compared songs shared by multiple males (i.e. socially learned) with songs recorded from only one male in the population (many of which should be novel) to gain insight into the advantages of social learning versus invention or improvisation. Song types shared by multiple males were on average of lower performance, on aspects of vocal performance that have been implicated in agonistic communication in several species. This was not explained by cultural selection among socially learned songs (e.g. selective learning) because, for shared song types, song performance did not predict how many males shared them. We discuss why social learning does not maximize song performance in juncos, and suggest that some songbirds may add novel songs to culturally inherited repertoires as a means to acquire higher-quality signals. PMID:27493786

  8. Acoustic mate copying: female cowbirds attend to other females' vocalizations to modify their song preferences.

    PubMed

    Freed-Brown, Grace; White, David J

    2009-09-22

    We conducted a tutoring experiment to determine whether female brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) would attend to vocalizations of other females and use those cues to influence their own preferences for male courtship songs. We collected recordings of male songs that were unfamiliar to the subject females and paired half of the songs with female chatter vocalizations-vocalizations that females give in response to songs sung by males that are courting the females effectively. Thus, chatter immediately following a song provided a cue indicating that the song was sung by a male who was of high-enough quality to court a female successfully. Using a cross-over design, we tutored two groups of females with song-chatter pairings prior to the breeding season. In the breeding season, we placed the tutored females into sound-attenuating chambers and played them the same songs without the chatter. Females produced significantly more copulation solicitation displays in response to the songs that they had heard paired with chatter than to songs that had not been paired with chatter. This experiment is the first demonstration that females can modify their song preferences by attending to the vocal behaviour of other females. PMID:19535371

  9. Auditory experience-dependent cortical circuit shaping for memory formation in bird song learning

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Shin; Yazaki-Sugiyama, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    As in human speech acquisition, songbird vocal learning depends on early auditory experience. During development, juvenile songbirds listen to and form auditory memories of adult tutor songs, which they use to shape their own vocalizations in later sensorimotor learning. The higher-level auditory cortex, called the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), is a potential storage site for tutor song memory, but no direct electrophysiological evidence of tutor song memory has been found. Here, we identify the neuronal substrate for tutor song memory by recording single-neuron activity in the NCM of behaving juvenile zebra finches. After tutor song experience, a small subset of NCM neurons exhibit highly selective auditory responses to the tutor song. Moreover, blockade of GABAergic inhibition, and sleep decrease their selectivity. Taken together, these results suggest that experience-dependent recruitment of GABA-mediated inhibition shapes auditory cortical circuits, leading to sparse representation of tutor song memory in auditory cortical neurons. PMID:27327620

  10. Auditory experience-dependent cortical circuit shaping for memory formation in bird song learning.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Shin; Yazaki-Sugiyama, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    As in human speech acquisition, songbird vocal learning depends on early auditory experience. During development, juvenile songbirds listen to and form auditory memories of adult tutor songs, which they use to shape their own vocalizations in later sensorimotor learning. The higher-level auditory cortex, called the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), is a potential storage site for tutor song memory, but no direct electrophysiological evidence of tutor song memory has been found. Here, we identify the neuronal substrate for tutor song memory by recording single-neuron activity in the NCM of behaving juvenile zebra finches. After tutor song experience, a small subset of NCM neurons exhibit highly selective auditory responses to the tutor song. Moreover, blockade of GABAergic inhibition, and sleep decrease their selectivity. Taken together, these results suggest that experience-dependent recruitment of GABA-mediated inhibition shapes auditory cortical circuits, leading to sparse representation of tutor song memory in auditory cortical neurons. PMID:27327620

  11. An unexpected advantage of insectivorism: insect moulting hormones ingested by song birds affect their ticks

    PubMed Central

    Hornok, Sándor; Kováts, Dávid; Flaisz, Barbara; Csörgő, Tibor; Könczöl, Árpád; Balogh, György Tibor; Csorba, Attila; Hunyadi, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Ecdysteroids are important hormones that regulate moulting in arthropods. Three-host ixodid ticks normally moult to the next stage after finishing their blood meal, in the off-host environment. Presumably, three-host ticks that feed on the blood of insectivorous vertebrate hosts can be exposed to high levels of exogenous ecdysteroids causing them to initiate apolysis (the first step of moulting) on the vertebrate host. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ticks undergo apolysis on insectivorous song birds, and if this phenomenon is associated with the seasonal variation in the availability of moths and with the presence of naturally acquired ecdysteroids in avian blood. During a triannual survey, 3330 hard tick larvae and nymphs were collected from 1164 insectivorous song birds of 46 species. A noteworthy proportion of ticks, 20.5%, showed apolysis. The occurrence of apolytic ticks on birds was correlated with the known seasonality of lepidopteran caterpillars. In addition, 18 blood samples of tick-infested birds were analysed with liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry. Eight samples contained ecdysteroids or their derivatives, frequently in high concentrations, and the presence of these was associated with tick apolysis. In conclusion, naturally acquired ecdysteroids may reach high levels in the blood of insectivorous passerine birds, and will affect ticks (feeding on such blood) by shortening their parasitism. PMID:26996354

  12. An unexpected advantage of insectivorism: insect moulting hormones ingested by song birds affect their ticks.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Kováts, Dávid; Flaisz, Barbara; Csörgő, Tibor; Könczöl, Árpád; Balogh, György Tibor; Csorba, Attila; Hunyadi, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Ecdysteroids are important hormones that regulate moulting in arthropods. Three-host ixodid ticks normally moult to the next stage after finishing their blood meal, in the off-host environment. Presumably, three-host ticks that feed on the blood of insectivorous vertebrate hosts can be exposed to high levels of exogenous ecdysteroids causing them to initiate apolysis (the first step of moulting) on the vertebrate host. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ticks undergo apolysis on insectivorous song birds, and if this phenomenon is associated with the seasonal variation in the availability of moths and with the presence of naturally acquired ecdysteroids in avian blood. During a triannual survey, 3330 hard tick larvae and nymphs were collected from 1164 insectivorous song birds of 46 species. A noteworthy proportion of ticks, 20.5%, showed apolysis. The occurrence of apolytic ticks on birds was correlated with the known seasonality of lepidopteran caterpillars. In addition, 18 blood samples of tick-infested birds were analysed with liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. Eight samples contained ecdysteroids or their derivatives, frequently in high concentrations, and the presence of these was associated with tick apolysis. In conclusion, naturally acquired ecdysteroids may reach high levels in the blood of insectivorous passerine birds, and will affect ticks (feeding on such blood) by shortening their parasitism. PMID:26996354

  13. A Song of Our Warming Planet: Using Music to Communicate Critical Concepts in Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St George, S.; Crawford, D.; Reubold, T.

    2014-12-01

    When climate science is communicated to the broader public, many of its key findings are shared in the form of conceptual diagrams or information-dense data graphics. In this collaboration, we applied a data sonification approach to express NASA's global temperature record as a musical composition for the cello. The resulting piece, which we titled 'A Song of Our Warming Planet', transformed 133 years of annual global temperature anomalies into a haunting, atonal melody that stretched across almost all of the instrument's range. Since its release in June 2013, the song has been featured by several national and international media outlets, including the New York Times, the Weather Channel, and National Public Radio, and its accompanying video has received more than 140,000 views from nearly every corner of the world. We are currently preparing a new composition for string quartet that will add a geographic dimension to describe both the pace and place of global warming. We believe the success of our initial sonification project is testament to the power of music to reach audiences who respond less enthusiastically to traditional methods used to communicate climate science. We also imagine this approach could be applied more broadly to allow students to create novel, visceral, and memorable encounters with other aspects of the geophysical sciences.

  14. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Erin E; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M; Trehub, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the music of a culture reflects the speech rhythm of the prevailing language. The normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) is a measure of durational contrast between successive events that can be applied to vowels in speech and to notes in music. Music-language parallels may have implications for the acquisition of language and music, but it is unclear whether native-language rhythms are reflected in children's songs. In general, children's songs exhibit greater rhythmic regularity than adults' songs, in line with their caregiving goals and frequent coordination with rhythmic movement. Accordingly, one might expect lower nPVI values (i.e., lower variability) for such songs regardless of culture. In addition to their caregiving goals, children's songs may serve an intuitive didactic function by modeling culturally relevant content and structure for music and language. One might therefore expect pronounced rhythmic parallels between children's songs and language of origin. To evaluate these predictions, we analyzed a corpus of 269 English and French songs from folk and children's music anthologies. As in prior work, nPVI values were significantly higher for English than for French children's songs. For folk songs (i.e., songs not for children), the difference in nPVI for English and French songs was small and in the expected direction but non-significant. We subsequently collected ratings from American and French monolingual and bilingual adults, who rated their familiarity with each song, how much they liked it, and whether or not they thought it was a children's song. Listeners gave higher familiarity and liking ratings to songs from their own culture, and they gave higher familiarity and preference ratings to children's songs than to other songs. Although higher child-directedness ratings were given to children's than to folk songs, French listeners drove this effect, and their ratings were uniquely predicted by n

  15. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Erin E.; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M.; Trehub, Sandra E.

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the music of a culture reflects the speech rhythm of the prevailing language. The normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) is a measure of durational contrast between successive events that can be applied to vowels in speech and to notes in music. Music–language parallels may have implications for the acquisition of language and music, but it is unclear whether native-language rhythms are reflected in children's songs. In general, children's songs exhibit greater rhythmic regularity than adults' songs, in line with their caregiving goals and frequent coordination with rhythmic movement. Accordingly, one might expect lower nPVI values (i.e., lower variability) for such songs regardless of culture. In addition to their caregiving goals, children's songs may serve an intuitive didactic function by modeling culturally relevant content and structure for music and language. One might therefore expect pronounced rhythmic parallels between children's songs and language of origin. To evaluate these predictions, we analyzed a corpus of 269 English and French songs from folk and children's music anthologies. As in prior work, nPVI values were significantly higher for English than for French children's songs. For folk songs (i.e., songs not for children), the difference in nPVI for English and French songs was small and in the expected direction but non-significant. We subsequently collected ratings from American and French monolingual and bilingual adults, who rated their familiarity with each song, how much they liked it, and whether or not they thought it was a children's song. Listeners gave higher familiarity and liking ratings to songs from their own culture, and they gave higher familiarity and preference ratings to children's songs than to other songs. Although higher child-directedness ratings were given to children's than to folk songs, French listeners drove this effect, and their ratings were uniquely predicted by n

  16. The Comparison of the Effect of Block Flute Accompanied Song Teaching with Multi-Sound Notation and Vocalization Program Accompanied Song Teaching on the Success of Students' Song Learning Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saktanli, S. Cem

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study was done to see if using computer supported notation and vocalization program for teaching songs instead of using block flute accompanied song teaching has any significant effect on students' singing behavior. The study group is composed of the 5th, 6th and 7th graders of 2008-2009 educational term in T.O.K.I. Yahya Kemal…

  17. Social Context–Induced Song Variation Affects Female Behavior and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah C; Doupe, Allison J

    2008-01-01

    Social cues modulate the performance of communicative behaviors in a range of species, including humans, and such changes can make the communication signal more salient. In songbirds, males use song to attract females, and song organization can differ depending on the audience to which a male sings. For example, male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) change their songs in subtle ways when singing to a female (directed song) compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected song), and some of these changes depend on altered neural activity from a specialized forebrain-basal ganglia circuit, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP). In particular, variable activity in the AFP during undirected song is thought to actively enable syllable variability, whereas the lower and less-variable AFP firing during directed singing is associated with more stereotyped song. Consequently, directed song has been suggested to reflect a “performance” state, and undirected song a form of vocal motor “exploration.” However, this hypothesis predicts that directed–undirected song differences, despite their subtlety, should matter to female zebra finches, which is a question that has not been investigated. We tested female preferences for this natural variation in song in a behavioral approach assay, and we found that both mated and socially naive females could discriminate between directed and undirected song—and strongly preferred directed song. These preferences, which appeared to reflect attention especially to aspects of song variability controlled by the AFP, were enhanced by experience, as they were strongest for mated females responding to their mate's directed songs. We then measured neural activity using expression of the immediate early gene product ZENK, and found that social context and song familiarity differentially modulated the number of ZENK-expressing cells in telencephalic auditory areas. Specifically, the number of ZENK-expressing cells in the caudomedial

  18. Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song unit and phrase repertoire progression on a subarctic feeding ground.

    PubMed

    Magnúsdóttir, Edda E; Miller, Patrick J O; Lim, Rangyn; Rasmussen, Marianne H; Lammers, Marc O; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2015-11-01

    The songs of the male humpback whales have traditionally been associated with breeding activities at low latitude breeding grounds during winter. This study provides the first detailed analysis of humpback whale songs recorded in the subarctic waters of Iceland using passive acoustic recorders. Recordings were collected during three winter seasons: 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2011 during which singing was detected in all seasons. Peak song occurrence was during January-February in all years; this coincides with the timing of the peak breeding season of humpback whales in the Northern hemisphere. A total of 2810 song units from all years were measured and statistically divided into 14 groups, which constructed 25 phrases. The song unit repertoires included stable song unit types that occurred frequently in songs during all years while the occurrence of other song unit types varied more between years. Around 60% of the phrases were conserved between the first two study seasons, while the majority of phrases found during the last study season had not been observed before. This study indicates the importance of a subarctic feeding ground for song progression and song exchange and possibly as an opportunistic mating ground for migrating or overwintering humpback whales. PMID:26627808

  19. Recent northward range expansion promotes song evolution in a passerine bird, the Light-vented Bulbul.

    PubMed

    Xing, X Y; Alström, P; Yang, X J; Lei, F M

    2013-04-01

    In common with human speech, song is culturally inherited in oscine passerine birds ('songbirds'). Intraspecific divergence in birdsong, such as development of local dialects, might be an important early step in the speciation process. It is therefore vital to understand how songs diverge, especially in founding populations. The northward expansion of the Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis (J. F. Gmelin, 1789) into north China in the last 30 years provides an excellent opportunity to study birdsong evolution. We compared ~4400 songs from newly established northern populations with ~2900 songs from southern populations to evaluate song divergence after recent expansion. The total pool of syllables and especially song types was considerably smaller in the north than in the south, indicating 'founder effects' in the new population. The ancestral pattern of mosaic song dialects changed into a pattern of wide geographical sharing of a few song types and syllables, likely the result of fewer geographical barriers to 'meme flow', and the recent spread across a large area in the north. Our results suggest that song evolution and vocal trait shifts can arise rapidly after range expansion, and that in the Light-vented Bulbul 'founder effects', geographical isolation, and recent rapid expansions played important roles in the evolution of song dialects. PMID:23438018

  20. Web-Based Music Study: The Effects of Listening Repetition, Song Likeability, and Song Understandability on EFL Learning Perceptions and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Robert E.; Chuang, Yuangshan

    2008-01-01

    This study adds to the body of empirical knowledge regarding the use of music in the EFL classroom. This original investigation centered around the following question: Does listening repetition, song likeability, and/or song understandability influence learning environment perceptions, learning perceptions, and/or learning outcomes in Taiwanese…

  1. Character displacement of song and morphology in African tinkerbirds

    PubMed Central

    Kirschel, Alexander N. G.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Divergence in acoustic signals between populations of animals can lead to species recognition failure, reproductive isolation, and speciation. Character displacement may facilitate coexistence of species in natural communities, yet evidence for character displacement in acoustic signals is scant. Here, we find evidence of character displacement in song as well as body size and bill size of 2 related African tinkerbirds. Playback experiments indicate that related species' songs are perceived differently in sympatry than in allopatry. We suggest character displacement occurs in phenotypic traits facilitating species recognition, which has important implications for understanding the processes that lead to speciation and diversification. Because many of the sites where the 2 species coexist are areas where pristine rainforest has been degraded, results also suggest that anthropogenic pressures resulting from deforestation may be a contributing cause of character displacement in these species. PMID:19420223

  2. Feeling-of-knowing for songs and instrumental music.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, Brian E; Peynircioğlu, Zehra F

    2011-09-01

    We explored the differences between metamemory judgments for titles as well as for melodies of instrumental music and those for songs with lyrics. Participants were given melody or title cues and asked to provide the corresponding titles or melodies or feeling of knowing (FOK) ratings. FOK ratings were higher but less accurate for titles with melody cues than vice versa, but only in instrumental music, replicating previous findings. In a series of seven experiments, we ruled out style, instrumentation, and strategy differences as explanations for this asymmetry. A mediating role of lyrics between the title and the melody in songs was also ruled out. What emerged as the main explanation was the degree of familiarity with the musical pieces, which was manipulated either episodically or semantically, and within this context, lyrics appeared to serve as an additional source of familiarity. Results are discussed using the Interactive Theory of how FOK judgments are made. PMID:21640958

  3. Seasonal and sex-related variation in song control nuclei in a species with near-monomorphic song, the northern cardinal.

    PubMed

    Jawor, Jodie M; Macdougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2008-10-10

    Studies concerning the song control system (SCS) in songbirds generally focus on males due to their prodigious song production. Both seasonal and age related differences have been found in the size of male SCS regions. Among those studies that have addressed females some level of sexual size dimorphism has been found, with females generally having smaller SCS area than males. Among those species where female song has been studied, typically females either sing much less than males, or they duet with their mates, but in general do not produce independent song. Here we present information on seasonal and sex differences in SCS in the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) a species where both sexes sing, females sing independent of their mates, and song is produced by males over a prolonged period of time (7-8 months). We collected brains from free-living adult cardinals, both in the late non-breeding season and during the early breeding season, and measured three song control nuclei; HVC, Area X and RA. There were sex differences in all three areas assessed at the two time points considered. Additionally, there was a seasonal difference in both sexes for all areas assessed. In both time points male SCS nuclei were 1.5-2.0 times larger than female SCS nuclei. These data show that even in those species with independent female song there may still exist sex differences in the SCS nuclei. Similarity in song between the sexes could be related to differences in hormone receptors or hormone levels in the brain, while the small-observed changes in SCS area in males may allow for early breeding season song production and song production outside of the breeding season. PMID:18692546

  4. Appreciating the Power of a Song--and a Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2010-01-01

    For 8-year-old Josh Greiner, the old cliche that music is a universal language has new meaning. As he adapts to a world where being non-verbal sometimes makes it hard to fit in, Josh is coming to understand the power of a song to break everyday communication barriers and provide motivation to try things. Music has always been a part of his daily…

  5. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed. PMID:24815291

  6. Sex, death, and genetic variation: natural and sexual selection on cricket song

    PubMed Central

    Gray, D. A.; Cade, W. H.

    1999-01-01

    Male field crickets, Gryllus integer, in Texas, USA, produce a trilled calling song that attracts female crickets, resulting in enhanced mating success. Gravid female parasitoid flies, Ormia ochracea, are also attracted to male cricket calling song, resulting in the death of the male within about seven days. Using playbacks of field-cricket calling song in the natural habitat, we show that both female crickets and female parasitoid flies prefer male calling song with average numbers of pulses per trill. Thus female crickets exert stabilizing sexual selection, whereas flies exert disruptive natural selection on male song. Disruptive natural selection will promote genetic variation and population divergence. Stabilizing sexual selection will reduce genetic variation and maintain population cohesiveness. These forces may balance and together maintain the observed high levels of genetic variation (ca. 40%) in male calling song.

  7. Reported Drosophila courtship song rhythms are artifacts of data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In a series of landmark papers, Kyriacou, Hall, and colleagues reported that the average inter-pulse interval of Drosophila melanogaster male courtship song varies rhythmically (KH cycles), that the period gene controls this rhythm, and that evolution of the period gene determines species differences in the rhythm’s frequency. Several groups failed to recover KH cycles, but this may have resulted from differences in recording chamber size. Results Here, using recording chambers of the same dimensions as used by Kyriacou and Hall, I found no compelling evidence for KH cycles at any frequency. By replicating the data analysis procedures employed by Kyriacou and Hall, I found that two factors - data binned into 10-second intervals and short recordings - imposed non-significant periodicity in the frequency range reported for KH cycles. Randomized data showed similar patterns. Conclusions All of the results related to KH cycles are likely to be artifacts of binning data from short songs. Reported genotypic differences in KH cycles cannot be explained by this artifact and may have resulted from the use of small sample sizes and/or from the exclusion of samples that did not exhibit song rhythms. PMID:24965095

  8. The tectonic structure of the Song Ma fault zone, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Strong; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Tang, Chi-Cha; Phong, Lai Hop; Toan, Dinh Van; Chang, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chau-Huei

    2015-08-01

    Indochina area is a tectonic active region where creates complex topographies and tectonic structures. In particular, the Song Ma fault zone plays an important role in understanding the mechanism and revolution of the collision between the Indian plate and Eurasian plate. In order to have better understanding the seismotectonic structures of the Song Ma fault zone, a three-year project is proposed to study the seismotectonic structures of crust in this region. The main goal of this project is to deploy temporary broad-band seismic stations around/near the shear zone to record high quality microearthquakes. By using the data recorded by the temporary array and the local seismic network, we are able to conduct seismological studies which include using waveform inversion to obtain precise fault plane solutions of microearthquakes, one-dimensional (1-D) velocity structure of the crust in the region as well as the characteristics of seismogeneric zone. From the results of earthquake relocation and focal mechanisms, we find that the spatial distribution of events occurred in Song Ma fault zone forms in several distinct groups which are well correlated local geological structures and further use to gain insights on tectonic evolution.

  9. De novo establishment of wild-type song culture in the zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Olga; Wang, Haibin; Saar, Sigal; Mitra, Partha P; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2009-05-28

    Culture is typically viewed as consisting of traits inherited epigenetically, through social learning. However, cultural diversity has species-typical constraints, presumably of genetic origin. A celebrated, if contentious, example is whether a universal grammar constrains syntactic diversity in human languages. Oscine songbirds exhibit song learning and provide biologically tractable models of culture: members of a species show individual variation in song and geographically separated groups have local song dialects. Different species exhibit distinct song cultures, suggestive of genetic constraints. Without such constraints, innovations and copying errors should cause unbounded variation over multiple generations or geographical distance, contrary to observations. Here we report an experiment designed to determine whether wild-type song culture might emerge over multiple generations in an isolated colony founded by isolates, and, if so, how this might happen and what type of social environment is required. Zebra finch isolates, unexposed to singing males during development, produce song with characteristics that differ from the wild-type song found in laboratory or natural colonies. In tutoring lineages starting from isolate founders, we quantified alterations in song across tutoring generations in two social environments: tutor-pupil pairs in sound-isolated chambers and an isolated semi-natural colony. In both settings, juveniles imitated the isolate tutors but changed certain characteristics of the songs. These alterations accumulated over learning generations. Consequently, songs evolved towards the wild-type in three to four generations. Thus, species-typical song culture can appear de novo. Our study has parallels with language change and evolution. In analogy to models in quantitative genetics, we model song culture as a multigenerational phenotype partly encoded genetically in an isolate founding population, influenced by environmental variables and taking

  10. Female happy wrens select songs to cooperate with their mates rather than confront intruders.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Christopher N; Ríos-Chelén, Alejandro A; Quirós-Guerrero, Esmeralda; Mann, Nigel I; Slater, Peter J B

    2013-02-23

    Vocal duetting occurs in many taxa, but its function remains much-debated. Like species in which only one sex sings, duetting birds can use their song repertoires to signal aggression by singing song types that match those of territorial intruders. However, when pairs do not share specific combinations of songs (duet codes), individuals must choose to signal aggression by matching the same-sex rival, or commitment by replying appropriately to their mate. Here, we examined the song types used by female happy wrens (Pheugopedius felix) forced to make this decision in a playback experiment. We temporarily removed the male from the territory and then played songs from two loudspeakers to simulate an intruding female and the removed mate's response, using song types that the pair possessed but did not naturally combine into duets. Females were aggressive towards the female playback speaker, approaching it and overlapping the female playback songs, but nevertheless replied appropriately to their mate's songs instead of type matching the intruding female. This study indicates that females use song overlapping to signal aggression but use their vocal repertoires to create pair-specific duet codes with their mates, suggesting that duetting functions primarily to demonstrate pair commitment. PMID:23097462

  11. Zebra Finch Mates Use Their Forebrain Song System in Unlearned Call Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ter Maat, Andries; Trost, Lisa; Sagunsky, Hannes; Seltmann, Susanne; Gahr, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Unlearned calls are produced by all birds whereas learned songs are only found in three avian taxa, most notably in songbirds. The neural basis for song learning and production is formed by interconnected song nuclei: the song control system. In addition to song, zebra finches produce large numbers of soft, unlearned calls, among which “stack” calls are uttered frequently. To determine unequivocally the calls produced by each member of a group, we mounted miniature wireless microphones on each zebra finch. We find that group living paired males and females communicate using bilateral stack calling. To investigate the role of the song control system in call-based male female communication, we recorded the electrical activity in a premotor nucleus of the song control system in freely behaving male birds. The unique combination of acoustic monitoring together with wireless brain recording of individual zebra finches in groups shows that the neuronal activity of the song system correlates with the production of unlearned stack calls. The results suggest that the song system evolved from a brain circuit controlling simple unlearned calls to a system capable of producing acoustically rich, learned vocalizations. PMID:25313846

  12. Variability in the temporal parameters in the song of the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica).

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Ryosuke O; Koumura, Takuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Birdsong provides a unique model for studying the control mechanisms of complex sequential behaviors. The present study aimed to demonstrate that multiple factors affect temporal control in the song production. We analyzed the song of Bengalese finches in various time ranges to address factors that affected the duration of acoustic elements (notes) and silent intervals (gaps). The gaps showed more jitter across song renditions than did notes. Gaps had longer duration in branching points of song sequence than in stereotypic transitions, and the duration of a gap was correlated with the duration of the note that preceded the gap. When looking at the variation among song renditions, we found notable factors in three time ranges: within-day drift, within-bout changes, and local jitter. Note durations shortened over time from morning to evening. Within each song bout note durations lengthened as singing progressed, while gap durations lengthened only during the late part of song bout. Further analysis after removing these drift factors confirmed that the jitter remained in local song sequences. These results suggest distinct sources of temporal variability exist at multiple levels on the basis of this note-gap relationship, and that song comprised a mixture of these sources. PMID:26512015

  13. Neural representation of calling songs and their behavioral relevance in the grasshopper auditory system.

    PubMed

    Meckenhäuser, Gundula; Krämer, Stefanie; Farkhooi, Farzad; Ronacher, Bernhard; Nawrot, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic communication plays a key role for mate attraction in grasshoppers. Males use songs to advertise themselves to females. Females evaluate the song pattern, a repetitive structure of sound syllables separated by short pauses, to recognize a conspecific male and as proxy to its fitness. In their natural habitat females often receive songs with degraded temporal structure. Perturbations may, for example, result from the overlap with other songs. We studied the response behavior of females to songs that show different signal degradations. A perturbation of an otherwise attractive song at later positions in the syllable diminished the behavioral response, whereas the same perturbation at the onset of a syllable did not affect song attractiveness. We applied naïve Bayes classifiers to the spike trains of identified neurons in the auditory pathway to explore how sensory evidence about the acoustic stimulus and its attractiveness is represented in the neuronal responses. We find that populations of three or more neurons were sufficient to reliably decode the acoustic stimulus and to predict its behavioral relevance from the single-trial integrated firing rate. A simple model of decision making simulates the female response behavior. It computes for each syllable the likelihood for the presence of an attractive song pattern as evidenced by the population firing rate. Integration across syllables allows the likelihood to reach a decision threshold and to elicit the behavioral response. The close match between model performance and animal behavior shows that a spike rate code is sufficient to enable song pattern recognition. PMID:25565983

  14. Synchronous seasonal change in fin whale song in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Erin M; Širović, Ana; Bayless, Alexandra R; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-01-01

    Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) song consists of down-swept pulses arranged into stereotypic sequences that can be characterized according to the interval between successive pulses. As in blue (B. musculus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), these song sequences may be geographically distinct and may correlate with population boundaries in some regions. We measured inter-pulse intervals of fin whale songs within year-round acoustic datasets collected between 2000 and 2006 in three regions of the eastern North Pacific: Southern California, the Bering Sea, and Hawaii. A distinctive song type that was recorded in all three regions is characterized by singlet and doublet inter-pulse intervals that increase seasonally, then annually reset to the same shorter intervals at the beginning of each season. This song type was recorded in the Bering Sea and off Southern California from September through May and off Hawaii from December through April, with the song interval generally synchronized across all monitoring locations. The broad geographic and seasonal occurrence of this particular fin whale song type may represent a single population broadly distributed throughout the eastern Pacific with no clear seasonal migratory pattern. Previous studies attempting to infer population structure of fin whales in the North Pacific using synchronous individual song samples have been unsuccessful, likely because they did not account for the seasonal lengthening in song intervals observed here. PMID:25521493

  15. Metabolic and Respiratory Costs of Increasing Song Amplitude in Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Zollinger, Sue Anne; Goller, Franz; Brumm, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Bird song is a widely used model in the study of animal communication and sexual selection, and several song features have been shown to reflect the quality of the singer. Recent studies have demonstrated that song amplitude may be an honest signal of current condition in males and that females prefer high amplitude songs. In addition, birds raise the amplitude of their songs to communicate in noisy environments. Although it is generally assumed that louder song should be more costly to produce, there has been little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We tested the assumption by measuring oxygen consumption and respiratory patterns in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) singing at different amplitudes in different background noise conditions. As background noise levels increased, birds significantly increased the sound pressure level of their songs. We found that louder songs required significantly greater subsyringeal air sac pressure than quieter songs. Though increased pressure is probably achieved by increasing respiratory muscle activity, these increases did not correlate with measurable increases in oxygen consumption. In addition, we found that oxygen consumption increased in higher background noise, independent of singing behaviour. This observation supports previous research in mammals showing that high levels of environmental noise can induce physiological stress responses. While our study did not find that increasing vocal amplitude increased metabolic costs, further research is needed to determine whether there are other non-metabolic costs of singing louder or costs associated with chronic noise exposure. PMID:21915258

  16. Synchronous Seasonal Change in Fin Whale Song in the North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erin M.; Širović, Ana; Bayless, Alexandra R.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) song consists of down-swept pulses arranged into stereotypic sequences that can be characterized according to the interval between successive pulses. As in blue (B. musculus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), these song sequences may be geographically distinct and may correlate with population boundaries in some regions. We measured inter-pulse intervals of fin whale songs within year-round acoustic datasets collected between 2000 and 2006 in three regions of the eastern North Pacific: Southern California, the Bering Sea, and Hawaii. A distinctive song type that was recorded in all three regions is characterized by singlet and doublet inter-pulse intervals that increase seasonally, then annually reset to the same shorter intervals at the beginning of each season. This song type was recorded in the Bering Sea and off Southern California from September through May and off Hawaii from December through April, with the song interval generally synchronized across all monitoring locations. The broad geographic and seasonal occurrence of this particular fin whale song type may represent a single population broadly distributed throughout the eastern Pacific with no clear seasonal migratory pattern. Previous studies attempting to infer population structure of fin whales in the North Pacific using synchronous individual song samples have been unsuccessful, likely because they did not account for the seasonal lengthening in song intervals observed here. PMID:25521493

  17. Hamilton and Zuk meet heterozygosity? Song repertoire size indicates inbreeding and immunity in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).

    PubMed

    Reid, Janem; Arcese, Peter; Cassidy, Alicel E V; Marr, Amyb; Smith, Jamesn M; Keller, Lukasf

    2005-03-01

    Hamilton and Zuk's influential hypothesis of parasite-mediated sexual selection proposes that exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments indicate a male's addictive genetic immunity to parasites. However, genetic correlated of ornaments and immunity have rarely been explicitly identified. Evidence supporting Hamilton and Zuk's hypothesis has instead been gathered by looking for positive phenotypic correlations between ornamentation and immunity; such correlations are assumed to reflect causal, addictive relationships between these traits. We show that in a song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, male's song repertoire size, a secondary sexual trait, increased with his cell-mediated immune response (CMI) to an experimental challenge. However, this phenotypic correlation could be explained because both repertoire size and CMI declined with a male's inbreeding level. Repertoire size therefore primarily indicated a male's relative heterozygosity, a non-addictive genetic predictor of immunity. Caution may therefore be required when interpreting phenotypic correlations as support for Hamilton and Zuk's addictive model of sexual selection. However, our results suggest that female song sparrows choosing with large repertoires would on average acquire more outbred and therefore more heterozygous mates. Such genetic dominance effects on ornamentation are likely to influence evolutionary trajectories of female choice, and should be explicitly incorporated into genetic models of sexual selection. PMID:15799943

  18. Zebra Finch Song Phonology and Syntactical Structure across Populations and Continents-A Computational Comparison.

    PubMed

    Lachlan, Robert F; van Heijningen, Caroline A A; Ter Haar, Sita M; Ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    Learned bird songs are often characterized by a high degree of variation between individuals and sometimes between populations, while at the same time maintaining species specificity. The evolution of such songs depends on the balance between plasticity and constraints. Captive populations provide an opportunity to examine signal variation and differentiation in detail, so we analyzed adult male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) songs recorded from 13 populations across the world, including one sample of songs from wild-caught males in their native Australia. Cluster analysis suggested some, albeit limited, evidence that zebra finch song units belonged to universal, species-wide categories, linked to restrictions in vocal production and non-song parts of the vocal repertoire. Across populations, songs also showed some syntactical structure, although any song unit could be placed anywhere within the song. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant differentiation between populations, but the effect size was very small, and its communicative significance dubious. Our results suggest that variation in zebra finch songs within a population is largely determined by species-wide constraints rather than population-specific features. Although captive zebra finch populations have been sufficiently isolated to allow them to genetically diverge, there does not appear to have been any divergence in the genetically determined constraints that underlie song learning. Perhaps more surprising is the lack of locally diverged cultural traditions. Zebra finches serve as an example of a system where frequent learning errors may rapidly create within-population diversity, within broad phonological and syntactical constraints, and prevent the formation of long-term cultural traditions that allow populations to diverge. PMID:27458396

  19. Recognition of variable courtship song in the field cricket Gryllus assimilis.

    PubMed

    Vedenina, Varvara Yu; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed the courtship song of the field cricket Gryllus assimilis. The song comprises two elements: groups of ca. 10 pulses (chirps) with low fundamental frequency (3.5-3.7 kHz) alternating with high-frequency (15-17 kHz) pulses (ticks) that usually occur as doublets. Some elements of courtship song are quite variable (high coefficient of variation) both within and between males, whereas others are more stereotypical. In experiments with playback of synthesized courtship songs, we studied the importance of several song parameters for mating success, which we evaluated as the probability with which females mounted muted, courting males. Altering some features that show little variability, such as chirp-pulse rate or carrier frequency of ticks, resulted in significant decreases in mounting frequency, consistent with the notion that trait values showing little variability are constrained by stabilizing selection exerted by females. However, alteration of one invariant trait, the occurrence of both song components, by omitting either component from test songs only slightly affected female responsiveness. Alteration of a variable song trait, the number of ticks per song phrase, had no effect on female response rate, thus failing to provide support for the idea that variable traits provide a substrate for sexual selection. An unusual characteristic feature of the song of G. assimilis is that chirp pulses often contain substantial high-frequency power, and indeed may entirely lack power at the fundamental frequency. Playback experiments showed that such songs are, nevertheless, behaviorally effective. To understand the neural basis for this, we recorded the responses of the two principal ascending auditory interneurons of crickets, AN1 and AN2. Our results suggest that the frequency selectivity of the neurons is sufficiently broad to tolerate the spectral variability of courtship chirps. PMID:22675181

  20. Zebra Finch Song Phonology and Syntactical Structure across Populations and Continents—A Computational Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Lachlan, Robert F.; van Heijningen, Caroline A. A.; ter Haar, Sita M.; ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    Learned bird songs are often characterized by a high degree of variation between individuals and sometimes between populations, while at the same time maintaining species specificity. The evolution of such songs depends on the balance between plasticity and constraints. Captive populations provide an opportunity to examine signal variation and differentiation in detail, so we analyzed adult male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) songs recorded from 13 populations across the world, including one sample of songs from wild-caught males in their native Australia. Cluster analysis suggested some, albeit limited, evidence that zebra finch song units belonged to universal, species-wide categories, linked to restrictions in vocal production and non-song parts of the vocal repertoire. Across populations, songs also showed some syntactical structure, although any song unit could be placed anywhere within the song. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant differentiation between populations, but the effect size was very small, and its communicative significance dubious. Our results suggest that variation in zebra finch songs within a population is largely determined by species-wide constraints rather than population-specific features. Although captive zebra finch populations have been sufficiently isolated to allow them to genetically diverge, there does not appear to have been any divergence in the genetically determined constraints that underlie song learning. Perhaps more surprising is the lack of locally diverged cultural traditions. Zebra finches serve as an example of a system where frequent learning errors may rapidly create within-population diversity, within broad phonological and syntactical constraints, and prevent the formation of long-term cultural traditions that allow populations to diverge. PMID:27458396

  1. Female signalling to male song in the domestic canary, Serinus canaria.

    PubMed

    Amy, Mathieu; Salvin, Pauline; Naguib, Marc; Leboucher, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on sexual selection focus on male characteristics such as male song in songbirds. Yet female vocalizations in songbirds are growing in interest among behavioural and evolutionary biologists because these vocalizations can reveal the female's preferences for male traits and may affect male display. This study was designed to test whether male song performance influences the different female signals in the domestic canary (Serinus canaria). Female canaries were exposed to three types of song performance, differing in the repetition rate of sexy syllables. This experiment demonstrates that female birds are engaged in multimodal communication during sexual interaction. The results support the copulation solicitation hypothesis for female-specific trills: these trills were positively correlated and had a similar pattern to the copulation solicitation displays; responses were higher to the songs with higher performance and responses decreased with the repetition of the stimulation. Also, we observed a sensitization effect with the repetition of the song of the highest performance for the simple calls. Simple trills and other calls were more frequent during the broadcast of canary songs compared with the heterospecific control songs. The differential use of female signals in response to different song performance reveals a highly differentiated female signalling system which is discussed in light of the role of female traits to understand sexual selection in a broader perspective. PMID:26064577

  2. Captive Rearing Experiments Confirm Song Development without Learning in a Tracheophone Suboscine Bird

    PubMed Central

    Touchton, Janeene M.; Seddon, Nathalie; Tobias, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of vocal learning in animals has long been the subject of debate, but progress has been limited by uncertainty regarding the distribution of learning mechanisms across the tree of life, even for model systems such as birdsong. In particular, the importance of learning is well known in oscine songbirds, but disputed in suboscines. Members of this diverse group (∼1150 species) are generally assumed not to learn their songs, but empirical evidence is scarce, with previous studies restricted to the bronchophone (non-tracheophone) clade. Here, we conduct the first experimental study of song development in a tracheophone suboscine bird by rearing spotted antbird (Hylophylax naevioides) chicks in soundproofed aviaries. Individuals were raised either in silence with no tutor or exposed to standardized playback of a heterospecific tutor. All individuals surviving to maturity took a minimum of 79 days to produce a crystallized version of adult song, which in all cases was indistinguishable from wild song types of their own species. These first insights into song development in tracheophone suboscines suggest that adult songs are innate rather than learnt. Given that empirical evidence for song learning in suboscines is restricted to polygamous and lek-mating species, whereas tracheophone suboscines are mainly monogamous with long-term social bonds, our results are consistent with the view that sexual selection promotes song learning in birds. PMID:24788343

  3. Losses of female song with changes from tropical to temperate breeding in the New World blackbirds

    PubMed Central

    Price, J. Jordan; Lanyon, Scott M.; Omland, Kevin E.

    2009-01-01

    Birds in which both sexes produce complex songs are thought to be more common in the tropics than in temperate areas, where typically only males sing. Yet the role of phylogeny in this apparent relationship between female song and latitude has never been examined. Here, we reconstruct evolutionary changes in female song and breeding latitude in the New World blackbirds (Icteridae), a family with both temperate and tropical representatives. We provide strong evidence that members of this group have moved repeatedly from tropical to temperate breeding ranges and, furthermore, that these range shifts were associated with losses of female song more often than expected by chance. This historical perspective suggests that male-biased song production in many temperate species is the result not of sexual selection for complex song in males but of selection against such songs in females. Our results provide new insights into the differences we see today between tropical and temperate songbirds, and suggest that the role of sexual selection in the evolution of bird song might not be as simple as we think. PMID:19324802

  4. Variation in the volume of zebra finch song control nuclei is heritable: developmental and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed Central

    Airey, D C; Castillo-Juarez, H; Casella, G; Pollak, E J; DeVoogd, T J

    2000-01-01

    In many songbird species, females prefer males that sing a larger repertoire of syllables. Males with more elaborate songs have a larger high vocal centre (HVC) nucleus, the highest structure in the song production pathway. HVC size is thus a potential target of sexual selection. Here we provide evidence that the size of the HVC and other song production nuclei are heritable across individual males within a species. In contrast, we find that heritabilities of other nuclei in a song-learning pathway are lower, suggesting that variation in the sizes of these structures is more closely tied to developmental and environmental differences between individuals. We find that evolvability, a statistical measure that predicts response to selection, is higher for the HVC and its target for song production, the robustus archistriatalis (RA), than for all other brain volumes measured. This suggests that selection based on the functions of these two structures would result in rapid major shifts in their anatomy. We also show that the size of each song control nucleus is significantly correlated with the song related nuclei to which it is monosynaptically connected. Finally, we find that the volume of the telencephalon is larger in males than in females. These findings begin to join theoretical analyses of the role of female choice in the evolution of bird song to neurobiological mechanisms by which the evolutionary changes in behaviour are expressed. PMID:11416915

  5. Patriotic Songs in Primary School Textbooks in Taiwan from 1949-1987

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the inclusion of patriotic songs in schooling that were popular in Taiwan between 1949 and 1987. Many patriotic songs were composed after 1949, and these frequently found their way into primary textbooks. School curriculum policies such as "education for patriotism" cultivate Chinese consciousness among Taiwanese…

  6. Tunes of the Times: Historical Songs as Pedagogy for Recent US History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkiewicz, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    Songs are powerful pedagogical tools that enliven a classroom and enhance student learning in an enjoyable manner. Historical songs are valuable primary sources that provide listeners with direct commentary, attitudes, and emotions expressed by real people in particular historical periods. When utilizing primary documentation, music should be…

  7. Influence of Songs in Primary School Students' Motivation for Learning English in Lima, Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Diego; Bustinza, Daisy; Garvich, Mijail

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that using music and songs while learning a new language can be of great benefit to students in aspects such as grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. However, the use of songs in class as motivation to learn English is a subject that has not been explored thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to explore how the use of…

  8. Testing the absolute-tempo hypothesis: context effects for familiar and unfamiliar songs.

    PubMed

    Rashotte, Matthew A; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    In two experiments, we investigated context effects on tempo judgments for familiar and unfamiliar songs performed by popular artists. In Experiment 1, participants made comparative tempo judgments to a remembered standard for song clips drawn from either a slow or a fast context, created by manipulating the tempos of the same songs. Although both familiar and unfamiliar songs showed significant shifts in their points of subjective equality toward the tempo context values, more-familiar songs showed significantly reduced contextual bias. In Experiment 2, tempo pleasantness ratings showed significant context effects in which the ordering of tempos on the pleasantness scale differed across contexts, with the most pleasant tempo shifting toward the contextual values, an assimilation of ideal points. Once again, these effects were significant but reduced for the more-familiar songs. The moderating effects of song familiarity support a weak version of the absolute-tempo hypothesis, in which long-term memory for tempo reduces but does not eliminate contextual effects. Thus, although both relative and absolute tempo information appear to be encoded in memory, the absolute representation may be subject to rapid revision by recently experienced tempo-altered versions of the same song. PMID:24972559

  9. Juvenile zebra finches learn the underlying structural regularities of their fathers’ song

    PubMed Central

    Menyhart, Otília; Kolodny, Oren; Goldstein, Michael H.; DeVoogd, Timothy J.; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Natural behaviors, such as foraging, tool use, social interaction, birdsong, and language, exhibit branching sequential structure. Such structure should be learnable if it can be inferred from the statistics of early experience. We report that juvenile zebra finches learn such sequential structure in song. Song learning in finches has been extensively studied, and it is generally believed that young males acquire song by imitating tutors (Zann, 1996). Variability in the order of elements in an individual’s mature song occurs, but the degree to which variation in a zebra finch’s song follows statistical regularities has not been quantified, as it has typically been dismissed as production error (Sturdy et al., 1999). Allowing for the possibility that such variation in song is non-random and learnable, we applied a novel analytical approach, based on graph-structured finite-state grammars, to each individual’s full corpus of renditions of songs. This method does not assume syllable-level correspondence between individuals. We find that song variation can be described by probabilistic finite-state graph grammars that are individually distinct, and that the graphs of juveniles are more similar to those of their fathers than to those of other adult males. This grammatical learning is a new parallel between birdsong and language. Our method can be applied across species and contexts to analyze complex variable learned behaviors, as distinct as foraging, tool use, and language. PMID:26005428

  10. Structural Design Principles of Complex Bird Songs: A Network-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Cody, Martin L.; Cohen, David; Taylor, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Bird songs are acoustic communication signals primarily used in male-male aggression and in male-female attraction. These are often monotonous patterns composed of a few phrases, yet some birds have extremely complex songs with a large phrase repertoire, organized in non-random fashion with discernible patterns. Since structure is typically associated with function, the structures of complex bird songs provide important clues to the evolution of animal communication systems. Here we propose an efficient network-based approach to explore structural design principles of complex bird songs, in which the song networks–transition relationships among different phrases and the related structural measures–are employed. We demonstrate how this approach works with an example using California Thrasher songs, which are sequences of highly varied phrases delivered in succession over several minutes. These songs display two distinct features: a large phrase repertoire with a ‘small-world’ architecture, in which subsets of phrases are highly grouped and linked with a short average path length; and a balanced transition diversity amongst phrases, in which deterministic and non-deterministic transition patterns are moderately mixed. We explore the robustness of this approach with variations in sample size and the amount of noise. Our approach enables a more quantitative study of global and local structural properties of complex bird songs than has been possible to date. PMID:23028539

  11. Use of Songs to Promote Independence in Morning Greeting Routines for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Petra; Wolery, Mark; Aldridge, David

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of individually composed songs on the independent behaviors of two young children with autism during the morning greeting/entry routine into their inclusive classrooms. A music therapist composed a song for each child related to the steps of the morning greeting routine and taught the children's teachers to sing…

  12. Storyscape: The Power of Song in the Protection of Native Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Melissa; Klasky, Philip M.

    2001-01-01

    An indigenous rights organization works to preserve and revitalize indigenous communities and their lands by recording tribal creation songs. The songs spiritually reconnect Native people with their land, establish indigenous territorial rights, and preserve endangered languages. An ethnographic audio recording training program will enable tribes…

  13. [Temporal stability in song dialects of black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros rufiventris) in Menyuan, Qinghai Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Zhen

    2010-12-01

    Bird song dialects provide a useful model for the study of cultural evolution and its interactions with genetic evolution. By comparing song dialects over an 8-year span in the black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros rufiventris) of Haibei station (37(0)29'N, 101(0)28'E, 3, 200 m a.s.l.) in Menyuan county, Qinghai Province,This study examined the temporal stability of the birds'song dialects. Songs of black redstarts were recorded from mid-April to late May in 2001 by Uher-CR 210 tape recorder with Sony directional microphone and in 2009 by Marantz PMD 670 digital recorder with Sennheiser ME 66 directional microphone. Songs were analyzed by using Avisoft-SASLab pro. The similarity of songs between different years were analyzed by investigating the sonagram, measuring temporal and frequency properties and processing cluster analysis by Spss 10.0 on windows. The results showed that species-specific syllable, typical song forms, and the typical strophe keep high temporal stability. Males investigated from 2001 and 2009 shared the entire strophe or some of the syllables. Males sampled from 2009 have a larger strophe repertoire than that from 2001. The study also indicated that the divergence of shared strophe in 2009 is correlated with distance between territories. The degree of strophe type sharing and song similarity are higher between neighbours than that from more distant males. PMID:21174351

  14. New Song Academy: Linking Education and Community Development To Build Stronger Families and Neighborhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Prudence; Fiester, Leila

    This report describes the New Song Academy, led by New Song Urban Ministries (NSUM), which serves preK-8 children in Baltimore, Maryland, and promotes quality education for urban students through partnerships with families and the community. It operates year-round in six 6-week sessions. Despite the often chaotic nature of children's lives outside…

  15. Salta a Cantar (Jump Up to Sing). Children's Songs in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Mona

    Since most children like to sing, singing Spanish songs is a learning experience that will be remembered. For Spanish speaking children, singing Spanish songs will build their self esteem and create a more comfortable environment. Children who do not speak Spanish will obtain a good feeling for the beauty of the language and will enjoy learning…

  16. Codeswitching for Humour and Ethnic Identity: Written Danish-American Occasional Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolen, Marianne

    1992-01-01

    Individual bilingual language performance in occasional songs is examined with focus on the use of Danish and English by a female member of a Danish-American organization in both song-writing and organizational written recordkeeping. The findings confirm the hypothesis of a conditioning effect of features of genre and social role on the…

  17. Quantitative integration of genetic factors in the learning and production of canary song

    PubMed Central

    Mundinger, Paul C.; Lahti, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Learned bird song is influenced by inherited predispositions. The canary is a model system for the interaction of genes and learning on behaviour, especially because some strains have undergone artificial selection for song. In this study, roller canaries (bred for low-pitched songs) and border canaries (whose song is higher pitched, similar to the wild-type) were interbred and backcrossed to produce 58 males that sorted into seven genetically distinct groups. All males were tutored with the same set of songs, which included both low- and high-pitched syllables. Individuals were consistent within genetic groups but differed between groups in the proportion of low- versus high-pitched syllables they learned and sang. Both sex-linked and autosomal factors affected song learning and song production, in an additive manner. Dominant Z-chromosome factors facilitated high-pitched syllable learning and production, whereas the sex-linked alleles associated with the switch to low-pitched syllables under artificial selection were largely recessive. With respect to autosomal effects, the most surprising result is that males in the same genetic group had almost identical repertoires. This result challenges two common preconceptions: that genetic changes at different loci lead to distinct phenotypic changes, and that genetic predispositions affect learning in simple and general ways. Rather, different combinations of genetic changes can be associated with the same phenotypic effect; and predispositions can be remarkably specific, such as a tendency to learn and sing one song element rather than another. PMID:24598419

  18. Using Songs to Enhance L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Yvette; Gómez Gracia, Remei

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the effects of a teaching sequence of song-based activities on the L2 vocabulary acquisition of a group of five-year-old Spanish child EFL learners. Twenty-five preschool children received three 30-minute lessons organized around the presentation and practice of a well-known children's song. Vocabulary picture tests were…

  19. Content Analysis of Songs in Elementary Music Textbooks in Accordance with Values Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalçinkaya, Begüm

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which values are included in education songs in elementary school textbooks and the level of these values. This study, conducted using document analysis method, involved primary education music class textbooks. Education songs in textbooks were analyzed within the frame of 29 values determined based on…

  20. Singers' Recall for the Words and Melody of a New, Unaccompanied Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsborg, Jane; Sloboda, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between words and music in memory has been studied in a variety of ways, from investigations of listeners' recall for the words of songs stored in long-term memory to recall for novel information set to unfamiliar melodies. We asked singers to perform an unaccompanied song from memory following deliberate learning…

  1. Nostalgia and the emotional tone and content of song lyrics.

    PubMed

    Batcho, Krystine Irene

    2007-01-01

    Emotion and topic were manipulated in original song lyrics. Participants completed Batcho's and Holbrook's nostalgia surveys and rated 6 sets of lyrics for happiness, sadness, anger, nostalgia, meaning, liking, and relevance. Nostalgic lyrics were characterized by bittersweet reverie, loss of the past, identity, and meaning. Contrary to theories linking nostalgia to pathology, participants who scored high on Batcho's measure of personal nostalgia preferred happy lyrics, found them more meaningful, and related more closely to them. Consistent with theories relating nostalgia to social connectedness, high-nostalgia respondents preferred other-directed to solitary themes. Historical nostalgia was associated with relating more closely to sad lyrics. PMID:17892084

  2. [The Prevalence and prevention of Cattle Epidemics in Song dynasty].

    PubMed

    Han, Yi

    2011-07-01

    Cattle epidemics broke out many times in Song Dynasty due to pasture transferring to south, abnormal climate, poor stabling hygiene and climatic sickness caused by migration. Mass Mortality and reduction of animal agriculture productivity threatened the stable production of grain, which influenced society and attracted attention from all social classes. Based on the principle of 'prevention before sicken' and 'contagion protection after sicken', the government took a series of medical and economical actions for prevention, such as veterinarians dispatching, drugs providing, pasturage rule regulating, law modifying (cattle trade permitted) and new farm implements popularization (to prevent missing the opportunity of cultivation), which was effective for Cattle Epidemics prevention at that time. PMID:22169486

  3. CitySongs: primary prevention in the field.

    PubMed

    Kivnick, Helen Q; Lymburner, Allison M

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes CitySongs, a primary prevention, out-of-school program in the inner city that promotes social justice through integrated activities aimed at healthy youth development, arts achievement, and community vitality through diversity. Key ideas from social science and human service disciplines that inform the design and implementation of the program are summarized. The authors describe elements of the program's structure and process, as these elements enact primary prevention and promote social justice. Finally, program impact is discussed as reflected in ongoing staff case notes and in de-identified reflective comments from participants, parents, and audience members. PMID:19089618

  4. What Radio Can Do to Increase a Song's Appeal: A Study of Canadian Music Presented to American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Kathleen M.; Silva, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether it was possible to quickly and easily increase the appeal of unfamiliar rock songs presented to American college students. In Experiment 1, reading an essay about an artist increased the appeal of the artist's songs, but repeated exposure to the songs did not. In Experiments 2a and 2b, repeatedly following an…

  5. African Children's Songs for American Elementary Children. Resources for Teaching and Research in African Studies, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukuna, Kazadi wa

    Intended for use by elementary teachers, this publication contains the music for ten songs from the Luba in the Kasai and Shaba regions of Zaire. The songs provide a means for young people to enjoy and to appreciate the musical heritage of Africa as a part of their more general understanding of music from around the world. The songs included are…

  6. Strawberry Square II: Take Time Song Book. 33 Lessons in the Arts to Help Children Take Time with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Tom, Comp.

    Designed to accompany a series of telelessons to stimulate art activities in grades 2 and 3, this songbook correlates with activities in the teacher's guide. Titles of songs included in this book are: Take Time; The Frog's Flute; Howjido; 59th Street Bridge Song; The Put-Togetherer; Good Morning Starshine; Let the Sunshine In; Elephant Song; Spin…

  7. Reversing song behavior phenotype: testosterone driven induction of singing and measures of song quality in adult male and female canaries (Serinus canaria)

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Farrah N.; Rouse, Melvin L.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2014-01-01

    In songbirds, such as canaries (Serinus canaria), the song control circuit has been shown to undergo a remarkable change in morphology in response to exogenous testosterone (T). It is also well established that HVC, a telencephalic nucleus involved in song production, is significantly larger in males than in females. T regulates seasonal changes in HVC volume in males and exposure to exogenous T in adult females increases HVC volume and singing activity such that their song becomes more male-like in frequency and structure. However, whether there are sex differences in the ability of T to modulate changes in the song system and song behavior has not been investigated in canaries. In this study, we compared the effects of increasing doses of T on singing and song control nuclei volumes in adult male and female American Singer canaries exposed to identical environmental conditions. Males were castrated and all birds were placed on short days (8L:16D) for 8 weeks. Males and females were implanted either with a 2, 6 or 12 mm long Silastic™ implant filled with crystalline T or an empty 12 mm implant as control. Birds were then housed individually in sound attenuated chambers. Brains were collected from six birds from each group after 1 week or 3 weeks of treatment. Testosterone was not equally effective in increasing singing activity in both males and females. Changes in song quality and occurrence rate took place after a shorter latency in males than in females however, females did undergo marked changes in a number of measures of song behavior if given sufficient time. Males responded with an increase in HVC volume at all three doses. In females, T-induced changes in HVC volume only had limited amplitude and these volumes never reached male-typical levels a suggesting that there are sex differences in the neural substrate that responds to T. PMID:25260250

  8. Natural Changes in Brain Temperature Underlie Variations in Song Tempo during a Mating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Aronov, Dmitriy; Fee, Michale S.

    2012-01-01

    The song of a male zebra finch is a stereotyped motor sequence whose tempo varies with social context – whether or not the song is directed at a female bird – as well as with the time of day. The neural mechanisms underlying these changes in tempo are unknown. Here we show that brain temperature recorded in freely behaving male finches exhibits a global increase in response to the presentation of a female bird. This increase strongly correlates with, and largely explains, the faster tempo of songs directed at a female compared to songs produced in social isolation. Furthermore, we find that the observed diurnal variations in song tempo are also explained by natural variations in brain temperature. Our findings suggest that brain temperature is an important variable that can influence the dynamics of activity in neural circuits, as well as the temporal features of behaviors that some of these circuits generate. PMID:23112858

  9. Convergent transcriptional specializations in the brains of humans and song-learning birds

    PubMed Central

    Pfenning, Andreas R.; Hara, Erina; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Wang, Rui; Roulhac, Petra L.; Howard, Jason T.; Wirthlin, Morgan; Lovell, Peter V.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Mouncastle, Jacquelyn; Moseley, M. Arthur; Thompson, J. Will; Soderblom, Erik J.; Iriki, Atsushi; Kato, Masaki; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zhang, Guojie; Bakken, Trygve; Bongaarts, Angie; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed; Mello, Claudio V.; Hartemink, Alexander J.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Song-learning birds and humans share independently evolved similarities in brain pathways for vocal learning that are essential for song and speech and are not found in most other species. Comparisons of brain transcriptomes of song-learning birds and humans relative to vocal nonlearners identified convergent gene expression specializations in specific song and speech brain regions of avian vocal learners and humans. The strongest shared profiles relate bird motor and striatal song-learning nuclei, respectively, with human laryngeal motor cortex and parts of the striatum that control speech production and learning. Most of the associated genes function in motor control and brain connectivity. Thus, convergent behavior and neural connectivity for a complex trait are associated with convergent specialized expression of multiple genes. PMID:25504733

  10. Song recognition without identification: when people cannot "name that tune" but can recognize it as familiar.

    PubMed

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M

    2009-02-01

    Recognition without identification (RWI) is a common day-to-day experience (as when recognizing a face or a tune as familiar without being able to identify the person or the song). It is also a well-established laboratory-based empirical phenomenon: When identification of recognition test items is prevented, participants can discriminate between studied and unstudied test items. The present study demonstrates this finding in the realm of music. A song RWI effect is reported across 4 experiments, despite very low identification rates in each. The effect was found with unidentifiable song fragments (Experiment 1), with song notes removed from their original rhythms (Experiment 2), and with songs unidentifiable from their tapped out rhythms (Experiments 3 and 4). Theoretical implications of these results are relevant to both the study of familiarity-based recognition and the study of music cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19203174

  11. Stay tuned: active amplification tunes tree cricket ears to track temperature-dependent song frequency.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Natasha; Pollack, Gerald; Mason, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Tree cricket males produce tonal songs, used for mate attraction and male-male interactions. Active mechanics tunes hearing to conspecific song frequency. However, tree cricket song frequency increases with temperature, presenting a problem for tuned listeners. We show that the actively amplified frequency increases with temperature, thus shifting mechanical and neuronal auditory tuning to maintain a match with conspecific song frequency. Active auditory processes are known from several taxa, but their adaptive function has rarely been demonstrated. We show that tree crickets harness active processes to ensure that auditory tuning remains matched to conspecific song frequency, despite changing environmental conditions and signal characteristics. Adaptive tuning allows tree crickets to selectively detect potential mates or rivals over large distances and is likely to bestow a strong selective advantage by reducing mate-finding effort and facilitating intermale interactions. PMID:27122007

  12. Dissociable effects of social context on song and doublecortin immunoreactivity in male canaries

    PubMed Central

    Alward, Beau A.; Mayes, Wade D.; Peng, Katherine; Stevenson, Tyler J.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in environmental factors such as day length and social context greatly affects reproductive behavior and the brain areas that regulate these behaviors. One such behavior is song in songbirds, which males use to attract a mate during the breeding season. In these species the absence of a potential mate leads to an increase in the number of songs produced, while the presence of a mate greatly diminishes singing. Interestingly, although long days promote song behavior, producing song itself can promote the incorporation of new neurons in brain regions controlling song output. Social context can also affect such neuroplasticity in these song control nuclei. The goal of the present study was to investigate in canaries (Serinus canaria), a songbird species, how photoperiod and social context affect song and the incorporation of new neurons, as measured by the microtubule-associated protein, doublecortin (DCX), in HVC, a key vocal production brain region of the song control system. We show that long days increased HVC size and singing activity. In addition, male canaries paired with a female for two weeks showed enhanced DCX-immunoreactivity in HVC relative to birds housed alone. Strikingly, however, paired males sang fewer songs that exhibited a reduction in acoustic features such as song complexity and energy, compared to birds housed alone, which sang prolifically. These results show that social presence plays a significant role in the regulation of neural and behavioral plasticity in songbirds and can exert these effects in opposition to what might be expected based on activity-induced neurogenesis. PMID:24974859

  13. Dissociable effects of social context on song and doublecortin immunoreactivity in male canaries.

    PubMed

    Alward, Beau A; Mayes, Wade D; Peng, Katherine; Stevenson, Tyler J; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2014-09-01

    Variation in environmental factors such as day length and social context greatly affects reproductive behavior and the brain areas that regulate these behaviors. One such behavior is song in songbirds, which males use to attract a mate during the breeding season. In these species the absence of a potential mate leads to an increase in the number of songs produced, while the presence of a mate greatly diminishes singing. Interestingly, although long days promote song behavior, producing song itself can promote the incorporation of new neurons in brain regions controlling song output. Social context can also affect such neuroplasticity in these song control nuclei. The goal of the present study was to investigate in canaries (Serinus canaria), a songbird species, how photoperiod and social context affect song and the incorporation of new neurons, as measured by the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX) in HVC, a key vocal production brain region of the song control system. We show that long days increased HVC size and singing activity. In addition, male canaries paired with a female for 2 weeks showed enhanced DCX-immunoreactivity in HVC relative to birds housed alone. Strikingly, however, paired males sang fewer songs that exhibited a reduction in acoustic features such as song complexity and energy, compared with birds housed alone, which sang prolifically. These results show that social presence plays a significant role in the regulation of neural and behavioral plasticity in songbirds and can exert these effects in opposition to what might be expected based on activity-induced neurogenesis. PMID:24974859

  14. Does age matter in song bird vocal interactions? Results from interactive playback experiments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The song of oscines provides an extensively studied model of age-dependent behaviour changes. Male and female receivers might use song characteristics to obtain information about the age of a signaller, which is often related to its quality. Whereas most of the age-dependent song changes have been studied in solo singing, the role of age in vocal interactions is less well understood. We addressed this issue in a playback study with common nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos). Previous studies showed that male nightingales had smaller repertoires in their first year than older males and males adjusted their repertoire towards the most common songs in the breeding population. We now compared vocal interaction patterns in a playback study in 12 one year old and 12 older nightingales (cross-sectional approach). Five of these males were tested both in their first and second breeding season (longitudinal approach). Song duration and latency to respond did not differ between males of different ages in either approach. In the cross-sectional approach, one year old nightingales matched song types twice as often as did older birds. Similarly, in the longitudinal approach all except one bird reduced the number of song type matches in their second season. Individuals tended to overlap songs at higher rates in their second breeding season than in their first. The higher levels of song type matches in the first year and song overlapping by birds in their second year suggest that these are communicative strategies to establish relationships with competing males and/or choosy females. PMID:22071317

  15. Neural substrates for semantic memory of familiar songs: is there an interface between lyrics and melodies?

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoko; Ishii, Kenji; Sakuma, Naoko; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Findings on song perception and song production have increasingly suggested that common but partially distinct neural networks exist for processing lyrics and melody. However, the neural substrates of song recognition remain to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural substrates involved in the accessing "song lexicon" as corresponding to a representational system that might provide links between the musical and phonological lexicons using positron emission tomography (PET). We exposed participants to auditory stimuli consisting of familiar and unfamiliar songs presented in three ways: sung lyrics (song), sung lyrics on a single pitch (lyrics), and the sung syllable 'la' on original pitches (melody). The auditory stimuli were designed to have equivalent familiarity to participants, and they were recorded at exactly the same tempo. Eleven right-handed nonmusicians participated in four conditions: three familiarity decision tasks using song, lyrics, and melody and a sound type decision task (control) that was designed to engage perceptual and prelexical processing but not lexical processing. The contrasts (familiarity decision tasks versus control) showed no common areas of activation between lyrics and melody. This result indicates that essentially separate neural networks exist in semantic memory for the verbal and melodic processing of familiar songs. Verbal lexical processing recruited the left fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, whereas melodic lexical processing engaged the right middle temporal sulcus and the bilateral temporo-occipital cortices. Moreover, we found that song specifically activated the left posterior inferior temporal cortex, which may serve as an interface between verbal and musical representations in order to facilitate song recognition. PMID:23029492

  16. Mechanisms of song production in the Australian magpie

    PubMed Central

    Suthers, Roderick A.; Wild, J. Martin; Kaplan, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen) are notable for their vocal prowess. We investigated the syringeal and respiratory dynamics of vocalization by two 6-month-old males, whose songs had a number of adult features. There was no strong lateral syringeal dominance and unilateral phonation was most often achieved by closing the syringeal valve on the contralateral side of the syrinx. Unlike other songbirds studied, magpies sometimes used an alternative syringeal motor pattern during unilateral phonation in which both sides of the syrinx are partially adducted and open to airflow. Also, in contrast to most other songbirds, the higher fundamental frequency during two-voice syllables was usually generated on the left side of the syrinx. Amplitude modulation, a prominent feature of magpie song, was produced by linear or nonlinear interactions between different frequencies which may originate either on opposite sides of the syrinx or on the same side. Pulse tones, similar to vocal fry in human speech, were present in some calls. Unlike small songbirds, the fundamental of the modal frequency can be as low as that of the pulse tone, suggesting that large birds may have evolved pulse tones to increase acoustic diversity, rather than decrease the fundamental frequency. PMID:20852867

  17. Mechanisms of song production in the Australian magpie.

    PubMed

    Suthers, Roderick A; Wild, J Martin; Kaplan, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen) are notable for their vocal prowess. We investigated the syringeal and respiratory dynamics of vocalization by two 6-month-old males, whose songs had a number of adult features. There was no strong lateral syringeal dominance and unilateral phonation was most often achieved by closing the syringeal valve on the contralateral side of the syrinx. Unlike other songbirds studied, magpies sometimes used an alternative syringeal motor pattern during unilateral phonation in which both sides of the syrinx are partially adducted and open to airflow. Also, in contrast to most other songbirds, the higher fundamental frequency during two-voice syllables was usually generated on the left side of the syrinx. Amplitude modulation, a prominent feature of magpie song, was produced by linear or nonlinear interactions between different frequencies which may originate either on opposite sides of the syrinx or on the same side. Pulse tones, similar to vocal fry in human speech, were present in some calls. Unlike small songbirds, the fundamental of the modal frequency can be as low as that of the pulse tone, suggesting that large birds may have evolved pulse tones to increase acoustic diversity, rather than decrease the fundamental frequency. PMID:20852867

  18. Construction of pre-slit system of Chinese SONG spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Pengfei; Hu, Zhongwen; Dai, Songxin

    2015-10-01

    The pre-slit system of Chinese SONG spectrograph is a multi-function unit. The main function is to direct the incoming light from the coudé path to the entrance slit of the spectrograph. The specific functions includes maintaining exit pupil stable, fast guiding and telescope focus corrections. The original optics of this pre-slit system were designed by Aarhus University in Denmark. We built the system and designed the software for it. This system holds a guide/slit-viewing camera, a pupil-viewing camera, two tip-tilt mirrors and its tip-tilt controllers. So it includes two sets of the fast-steering mirror systems applied to image tracking and correction. When this image tracking and correction systems is running, the real-time software algorithm will be presented and simulated simultaneously. From the images taken with camera, a closed loop signals are generated for the tip-tilt mirror to correct image motion. When the camera exposure time is 25ms,the correcting frequency of slit imge tip-tilt motion is about 30Hz. The correcting frequency of pupil imge tip-tilt motion is about 1Hz. In addition, a temperature control system surrounding the spectrograph is necessary to keep spectrograph at a constant temperature. The test results shows that the error is about +/-0.005°C in 69.4 hours. The results prove that the pre-slit system of Chinese SONG spectrograph is effective and feasible.

  19. Bird song and anthropogenic noise: vocal constraints may explain why birds sing higher-frequency songs in cities

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Erwin; Pieretti, Nadia; Zollinger, Sue Anne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Partecke, Jesko; Miranda, Ana Catarina; Brumm, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    When animals live in cities, they have to adjust their behaviour and life histories to novel environments. Noise pollution puts a severe constraint on vocal communication by interfering with the detection of acoustic signals. Recent studies show that city birds sing higher-frequency songs than their conspecifics in non-urban habitats. This has been interpreted as an adaptation to counteract masking by traffic noise. However, this notion is debated, for the observed frequency shifts seem to be less efficient at mitigating noise than singing louder, and it has been suggested that city birds might use particularly high-frequency song elements because they can be produced at higher amplitudes. Here, we present the first phonetogram for a songbird, which shows that frequency and amplitude are strongly positively correlated in the common blackbird (Turdus merula), a successful urban colonizer. Moreover, city blackbirds preferentially sang higher-frequency elements that can be produced at higher intensities and, at the same time, happen to be less masked in low-frequency traffic noise. PMID:23303546

  20. Bird song and anthropogenic noise: vocal constraints may explain why birds sing higher-frequency songs in cities.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Erwin; Pieretti, Nadia; Zollinger, Sue Anne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Partecke, Jesko; Miranda, Ana Catarina; Brumm, Henrik

    2013-03-01

    When animals live in cities, they have to adjust their behaviour and life histories to novel environments. Noise pollution puts a severe constraint on vocal communication by interfering with the detection of acoustic signals. Recent studies show that city birds sing higher-frequency songs than their conspecifics in non-urban habitats. This has been interpreted as an adaptation to counteract masking by traffic noise. However, this notion is debated, for the observed frequency shifts seem to be less efficient at mitigating noise than singing louder, and it has been suggested that city birds might use particularly high-frequency song elements because they can be produced at higher amplitudes. Here, we present the first phonetogram for a songbird, which shows that frequency and amplitude are strongly positively correlated in the common blackbird (Turdus merula), a successful urban colonizer. Moreover, city blackbirds preferentially sang higher-frequency elements that can be produced at higher intensities and, at the same time, happen to be less masked in low-frequency traffic noise. PMID:23303546

  1. Developmental shifts in gene expression in the auditory forebrain during the sensitive period for song learning

    PubMed Central

    London, Sarah E.; Dong, Shu; Replogle, Kirstin; Clayton, David F.

    2009-01-01

    A male zebra finch begins to learn to sing by memorizing a tutor’s song during a sensitive period in juvenile development. Tutor song memorization requires molecular signaling within the auditory forebrain. Using microarray and in situ hybridizations, we tested whether the auditory forebrain at an age just prior to tutoring expresses a different set of genes compared to later in life after song learning has ceased. Microarray analysis revealed differences in expression of thousands of genes in the male auditory forebrain at posthatch day 20 (P20) compared to adulthood. Further, song playbacks had essentially no impact on gene expression in P20 auditory forebrain, but altered expression of hundreds of genes in adults. Most genes that were song-responsive in adults were expressed at constitutively high levels at P20. Using in situ hybridization with a representative sample of 44 probes, we confirmed these effects and found that birds at P20 and P45 were similar in their gene expression patterns. Additionally, 8 of the probes showed male-female differences in expression. We conclude that the developing auditory forebrain is in a very different molecular state from the adult, despite its relatively mature gross morphology and electrophysiological responsiveness to song stimuli. Developmental gene expression changes may contribute to fine-tuning of cellular and molecular properties necessary for song learning. PMID:19360720

  2. Geographic analysis of nucleotide diversity and song sparrow (Aves: Emberizidae) population history.

    PubMed

    Fry, A J; Zink, R M

    1998-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region (CR) sequences were analysed to address three questions regarding the evolution of geographical variation in song sparrows. (i) Are mtDNA sequences more informative about phylogenetic relationships and population history than previously published restriction fragment (RFLP) data? (ii) Are song sparrow CR sequences evolving in a selectively neutral manner? (iii) What do the haplotype cladogram and geographical pattern of nucleotide diversity (pi) suggest about the recent evolutionary history of song sparrow populations? Results from phylogenetic analyses of CR sequences corroborate RFLP results and reveal instances in which haplotypes do not group by locality. Neutrality tests (Tajima 1989a) suggest that song sparrow mtDNA is evolving in a selectively neutral manner, although exceptions are noted. A novel geographical pattern of pi suggests a model of song sparrow population history involving multiple Pleistocene refugia and colonization of some formerly glaciated regions from multiple sources. Moreover, application of coalescence theory to the haplotype cladogram suggests that two different haplotypes (48NF and 151HA) may have predominated in different parts of the song sparrow's range. This model provides insight into the current distribution of song sparrow mtDNA haplotypes and may explain the discordance between evolutionary history inferred from mtDNA and morphology in this species. PMID:9787442

  3. Physically Challenging Song Traits, Male Quality, and Reproductive Success in House Wrens

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Emily R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Physically challenging signals are likely to honestly indicate signaler quality. In trilled bird song two physically challenging parameters are vocal deviation (the speed of sound frequency modulation) and trill consistency (how precisely syllables are repeated). As predicted, in several species, they correlate with male quality, are preferred by females, and/or function in male-male signaling. Species may experience different selective pressures on their songs, however; for instance, there may be opposing selection between song complexity and song performance difficulty, such that in species where song complexity is strongly selected, there may not be strong selection on performance-based traits. I tested whether vocal deviation and trill consistency are signals of male quality in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), a species with complex song structure. Males’ singing ability did not correlate with male quality, except that older males sang with higher trill consistency, and males with more consistent trills responded more aggressively to playback (although a previous study found no effect of stimulus trill consistency on males’ responses to playback). Males singing more challenging songs did not gain in polygyny, extra-pair paternity, or annual reproductive success. Moreover, none of the standard male quality measures I investigated correlated with mating or reproductive success. I conclude that vocal deviation and trill consistency do not signal male quality in this species. PMID:23527137

  4. Macrogeographical variation in the song of a widely distributed African warbler.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Lauryn; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2009-08-23

    The songs of oscine passerine birds vary on many spatial scales, reflecting the actions of diverse evolutionary pressures. Here we examine the songs of Cisticola erythrops, which effectively signal species identity across a geographical area spanning 6500 km in sub-Saharan Africa. Selection for species identification should promote stability in song traits, while sexual selection and geographical segregation should promote diversity. Cisticola erythrops share syllable types across the entire range of species and structure songs similarly, but individuals sing highly variable songs through improvisational recombination of syllables. Patterns of syllable use change gradually across the range of the species and do not show distinct breaks at subspecies boundaries. The acoustic properties of the most common syllable type also change gradually with distance. The results illustrate how songs can be simultaneously species-specific and highly variable at an individual level. At a larger level, patterns of variation indicate that cultural drift has generated song diversity through an isolation by distance mechanism. PMID:19443510

  5. The two parts of the blackcap song: Acoustic analysis and male responses to playbacks.

    PubMed

    Linossier, Juliette; Courvoisier, Hélène; Aubin, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Bird songs are complex manifold acoustic signals serving two main functions: mate attraction and territorial defense. The way information is encoded in the song often reflects adaptation to proximate and ultimate constraints. Male blackcaps, Sylvia atricapilla, display versatile songs with two parts, a warble and a whistle, whose functions remain unclear. We showed that the two parts of songs differ in terms of intensity, frequency and temporal parameters. They also contain totally different sets of syllables. Furthermore, the warble is versatile whereas the whistle part shows syllable sharing between individuals leaving closeby. Altogether, the results of our analysis suggest that the two parts encode different information potentially directed to different audiences. In order to test the potential function of these two parts, we performed playback experiments by broadcasting entire songs and each part separately. Warble and whistle alone are sufficient to trigger male responses and males sing both parts in responses to all stimuli, showing that both parts of the song are used in male-male competition. It is suggested that the segregation of information in the blackcap song could be related to public versus private communication, used in both intra- and intersexual contexts, rather than directed to male versus female audiences only. PMID:26522931

  6. The organisation of musical semantic memory: evidence from false memories for familiar songs.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Susan M; Kennerley, Jo

    2014-01-01

    By adapting a well-known paradigm for studying memory for words-the Deese-Roediger-McDermott or DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959, Roediger & McDermott, 1995)-the two experiments reported here explore memory for song titles and song clips. Participants were presented with five song titles (Experiment 1a) or five 30-second song clips (Experiment 1b) for each of nine popular artists (e.g., Robbie Williams). The most popular song identified for each artist in a pilot task was omitted from the sets of titles/clips. Following a distractor task, participants were asked to write down as many of the songs as they could recall. They were also asked to return a week later and complete a second recall task. Participants falsely recalled a significant number of the related but non-presented songs in both experiments and this increased a week later, while correct recall for presented items decreased. The results are discussed in terms of theory for musical memory as well as in the context of providing a novel method for exploring the organisation of musical memory. PMID:24111630

  7. Acoustic Divergence with Gene Flow in a Lekking Hummingbird with Complex Songs

    PubMed Central

    González, Clementina; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Hummingbirds have developed a remarkable diversity of learned vocalizations, from single-note songs to phonologically and syntactically complex songs. In this study we evaluated if geographic song variation of wedge-tailed sabrewings (Campylopterus curvipennis) is correlated with genetic divergence, and examined processes that explain best the origin of intraspecific song variation. We contrasted estimates of genetic differentiation, genetic structure, and gene flow across leks from microsatellite loci of wedge-tailed sabrewings with measures for acoustic signals involved in mating derived from recordings of males singing at leks throughout eastern Mexico. We found a strong acoustic structure across leks and geography, where lek members had an exclusive assemblage of syllable types, differed in spectral and temporal measurements of song, and song sharing decreased with geographic distance. However, neutral genetic and song divergence were not correlated, and measures of genetic differentiation and migration estimates indicated gene flow across leks. The persistence of acoustic structuring in wedge-tailed sabrewings may thus best be explained by stochastic processes across leks, in which intraspecific vocal variation is maintained in the absence of genetic differentiation by postdispersal learning and social conditions, and by geographical isolation due to the accumulation of small differences, producing most dramatic changes between populations further apart. PMID:25271429

  8. Acoustic divergence with gene flow in a lekking hummingbird with complex songs.

    PubMed

    González, Clementina; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Hummingbirds have developed a remarkable diversity of learned vocalizations, from single-note songs to phonologically and syntactically complex songs. In this study we evaluated if geographic song variation of wedge-tailed sabrewings (Campylopterus curvipennis) is correlated with genetic divergence, and examined processes that explain best the origin of intraspecific song variation. We contrasted estimates of genetic differentiation, genetic structure, and gene flow across leks from microsatellite loci of wedge-tailed sabrewings with measures for acoustic signals involved in mating derived from recordings of males singing at leks throughout eastern Mexico. We found a strong acoustic structure across leks and geography, where lek members had an exclusive assemblage of syllable types, differed in spectral and temporal measurements of song, and song sharing decreased with geographic distance. However, neutral genetic and song divergence were not correlated, and measures of genetic differentiation and migration estimates indicated gene flow across leks. The persistence of acoustic structuring in wedge-tailed sabrewings may thus best be explained by stochastic processes across leks, in which intraspecific vocal variation is maintained in the absence of genetic differentiation by postdispersal learning and social conditions, and by geographical isolation due to the accumulation of small differences, producing most dramatic changes between populations further apart. PMID:25271429

  9. Speech versus Song: Multiple Pitch-Sensitive Areas Revealed by a Naturally Occurring Musical Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Fred; Deutsch, Diana; Sereno, Marty

    2013-01-01

    It is normally obvious to listeners whether a human vocalization is intended to be heard as speech or song. However, the 2 signals are remarkably similar acoustically. A naturally occurring boundary case between speech and song has been discovered where a spoken phrase sounds as if it were sung when isolated and repeated. In the present study, an extensive search of audiobooks uncovered additional similar examples, which were contrasted with samples from the same corpus that do not sound like song, despite containing clear prosodic pitch contours. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that hearing these 2 closely matched stimuli is not associated with differences in response of early auditory areas. Rather, we find that a network of 8 regions, including the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) just anterior to Heschl's gyrus and the right midposterior STG, respond more strongly to speech perceived as song than to mere speech. This network overlaps a number of areas previously associated with pitch extraction and song production, confirming that phrases originally intended to be heard as speech can, under certain circumstances, be heard as song. Our results suggest that song processing compared with speech processing makes increased demands on pitch processing and auditory–motor integration. PMID:22314043

  10. Mutations of the Drosophila Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Affect Courtship Song and Reduce Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Samya; Vu, Hien; Foelber, Veronica; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) rely on an enhanced stretch-activation response to generate high power output for flight. The IFM is neurally activated during the male courtship song, but its role, if any, in generating the small amplitude wing vibrations that produce the song is not known. Here, we examined the courtship song properties and mating behavior of three mutant strains of the myosin regulatory light chain (DMLC2) that are known to affect IFM contractile properties and impair flight: (i) Dmlc2Δ2–46 (Ext), an N-terminal extension truncation; (ii) Dmlc2S66A,S67A (Phos), a disruption of two MLC kinase phosphorylation sites; and (iii) Dmlc2Δ2–46;S66A,S67A (Dual), expressing both mutations. Our results show that the Dmlc2 gene is pleiotropic and that mutations that have a profound effect on flight mechanics (Phos and Dual) have minimal effects on courtship song. None of the mutations affect interpulse interval (IPI), a determinant of species-specific song, and intrapulse frequency (IPF) compared to Control (Dmlc2+ rescued null strain). However, abnormalities in the sine song (increased frequency) and the pulse song (increased cycles per pulse and pulse length) evident in Ext males are not apparent in Dual males suggesting that Ext and Phos interact differently in song and flight mechanics, given their known additive effect on the latter. All three mutant males produce a less vigorous pulse song and exhibit impaired mating behavior compared to Control males. As a result, females are less receptive to Ext, Phos, and Dual males when a Control male is present. These results open the possibility that DMLC2, and perhaps contractile protein genes in general, are partly under sexual selection. That mutations in DMLC2 manifest differently in song and flight suggest that this protein fulfills different roles in song and flight and that stretch activation plays a smaller role in song production than in flight. PMID:24587213

  11. [Military medical and health care system in the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    DU, J

    2016-05-01

    The military medical and health care system in the Song Dynasty manifested as two aspects, namely disease prevention and medical treatment. Disease prevention included ensuring food and drink safety, avoiding dangerous stations and enjoying regular vacations, etc. Medical treatment included sending medical officials to patrol, stationing military physicians to follow up, applying emergency programs, establishing military medical and pharmacy centers, dispensing required medicines, and accommodating and nursing sick and injured personnel, etc. Meanwhile, the imperial court also supervised the implementation of military medical mechanism, in order to check the soldiers' foods, check and restrict the military physicians' responsibilities, etc., which did play a positive role in protecting soldier's health, guaranteeing the military combat effectiveness, and maintaining national security. PMID:27485867

  12. Avian cognition: examples of sophisticated capabilities in space and song.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Neil; Hahn, Allison H; Spetch, Marcia L; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    Although birds have traditionally and colloquially been considered less cognitively complex than mammals, and especially primates, more recent research has consistently refuted these assumptions. We argue that the impressive abilities of birds to navigate and communicate require considerable information-processing capabilities. These capacities include collecting, organizing, and selecting from a wide variety of navigational cues to orient toward and find a goal location in the spatial domain, and utilizing open-ended categorization and possibly even abstract reasoning to discriminate species-specific acoustic features of songs and calls. Furthermore, these abilities may be present across many avian species, providing evidence for domain-general cognitive facilities. We provide examples of processes in spatial learning and communication in birds, and locate them within the general literature, as evidence that the term 'bird-brain' should not be considered a pejorative. PMID:26263230

  13. Typical versions of learned swamp sparrow song types are more effective signals than are less typical versions

    PubMed Central

    Lachlan, R. F.; Anderson, R. C.; Peters, S.; Searcy, W. A.; Nowicki, S.

    2014-01-01

    The learned songs of songbirds often cluster into population-wide types. Here, we test the hypothesis that male and female receivers respond differently to songs depending on how typical of those types they are. We used computational methods to cluster a large sample of swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana) songs into types and to estimate the degree to which individual song exemplars are typical of these types. We then played exemplars to male and female receivers. Territorial males responded more aggressively and captive females performed more sexual displays in response to songs that are highly typical than to songs that are less typical. Previous studies have demonstrated that songbirds distinguish song types that are typical for their species, or for their population, from those that are not. Our results show that swamp sparrows also discriminate typical from less typical exemplars within learned song-type categories. In addition, our results suggest that more typical versions of song types function better, at least in male–female communication. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that syllable type typicality serves as a proxy for the assessment of song learning accuracy. PMID:24807252

  14. The interplay of within-species perceptual predispositions and experience during song ontogeny in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    ter Haar, Sita M.; Kaemper, Wiebke; Stam, Koen; Levelt, Clara C.; ten Cate, Carel

    2014-01-01

    Vocal acquisition in songbirds and humans shows many similarities, one of which is that both involve a combination of experience and perceptual predispositions. Among languages some speech sounds are shared, while others are not. This could reflect a predisposition in young infants for learning some speech sounds over others, which combines with exposure-based learning. Similarly, in songbirds, some sounds are common across populations, while others are more specific to populations or individuals. We examine whether this is also due to perceptual preferences for certain within-species element types in naive juvenile male birds, and how such preferences interact with exposure to guide subsequent song learning. We show that young zebra finches lacking previous song exposure perceptually prefer songs with more common zebra finch song element types over songs with less common elements. Next, we demonstrate that after subsequent tutoring, birds prefer tutor songs regardless of whether these contain more common or less common elements. In adulthood, birds tutored with more common elements showed a higher song similarity to their tutor song, indicating that the early bias influenced song learning. Our findings help to understand the maintenance of similarities and the presence of differences among birds' songs, their dialects and human languages. PMID:25320162

  15. The interplay of within-species perceptual predispositions and experience during song ontogeny in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    ter Haar, Sita M; Kaemper, Wiebke; Stam, Koen; Levelt, Clara C; ten Cate, Carel

    2014-12-01

    Vocal acquisition in songbirds and humans shows many similarities, one of which is that both involve a combination of experience and perceptual predispositions. Among languages some speech sounds are shared, while others are not. This could reflect a predisposition in young infants for learning some speech sounds over others, which combines with exposure-based learning. Similarly, in songbirds, some sounds are common across populations, while others are more specific to populations or individuals. We examine whether this is also due to perceptual preferences for certain within-species element types in naive juvenile male birds, and how such preferences interact with exposure to guide subsequent song learning. We show that young zebra finches lacking previous song exposure perceptually prefer songs with more common zebra finch song element types over songs with less common elements. Next, we demonstrate that after subsequent tutoring, birds prefer tutor songs regardless of whether these contain more common or less common elements. In adulthood, birds tutored with more common elements showed a higher song similarity to their tutor song, indicating that the early bias influenced song learning. Our findings help to understand the maintenance of similarities and the presence of differences among birds' songs, their dialects and human languages. PMID:25320162

  16. Dopamine regulation of human speech and bird song: A critical review

    PubMed Central

    Simonyan, Kristina; Horwitz, Barry; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the neural basis of human speech control, extensive research has been done using a variety of methodologies in a range of experimental models. Nevertheless, several critical questions about learned vocal motor control still remain open. One of them is the mechanism(s) by which neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, modulate speech and song production. In this review, we bring together the two fields of investigations of dopamine action on voice control in humans and songbirds, who share similar behavioral and neural mechanisms for speech and song production. While human studies investigating the role of dopamine in speech control are limited to reports in neurological patients, research on dopaminergic modulation of bird song control has recently expanded our views on how this system might be organized. We discuss the parallels between bird song and human speech from the perspective of dopaminergic control as well as outline important differences between these species. PMID:22284300

  17. Neural circuits. Inhibition protects acquired song segments during vocal learning in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Vallentin, Daniela; Kosche, Georg; Lipkind, Dina; Long, Michael A

    2016-01-15

    Vocal imitation involves incorporating instructive auditory information into relevant motor circuits through processes that are poorly understood. In zebra finches, we found that exposure to a tutor's song drives spiking activity within premotor neurons in the juvenile, whereas inhibition suppresses such responses upon learning in adulthood. We measured inhibitory currents evoked by the tutor song throughout development while simultaneously quantifying each bird's learning trajectory. Surprisingly, we found that the maturation of synaptic inhibition onto premotor neurons is correlated with learning but not age. We used synthetic tutoring to demonstrate that inhibition is selective for specific song elements that have already been learned and not those still in refinement. Our results suggest that structured inhibition plays a crucial role during song acquisition, enabling a piece-by-piece mastery of complex tasks. PMID:26816377

  18. Second Language Acquisition: Possible Insights from Studies on How Birds Acquire Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neapolitan, Denise M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research that demonstrates parallels between general linguistic and cognitive processes in human language acquisition and avian acquisition of song and discusses how such research may provide new insights into the processes of second-language acquisition. (Author/CB)

  19. Repertoire and classification of non-song calls in Southeast Alaskan humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Fournet, Michelle E; Szabo, Andy; Mellinger, David K

    2015-01-01

    On low-latitude breeding grounds, humpback whales produce complex and highly stereotyped songs as well as a range of non-song sounds associated with breeding behaviors. While on their Southeast Alaskan foraging grounds, humpback whales produce a range of previously unclassified non-song vocalizations. This study investigates the vocal repertoire of Southeast Alaskan humpback whales from a sample of 299 non-song vocalizations collected over a 3-month period on foraging grounds in Frederick Sound, Southeast Alaska. Three classification systems were used, including aural spectrogram analysis, statistical cluster analysis, and discriminant function analysis, to describe and classify vocalizations. A hierarchical acoustic structure was identified; vocalizations were classified into 16 individual call types nested within four vocal classes. The combined classification method shows promise for identifying variability in call stereotypy between vocal groupings and is recommended for future classification of broad vocal repertoires. PMID:25618033

  20. Langue francaise et chanson (debat) (The French Language and Song -- a Discussion)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvet, Louis Jean; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the difficulties one experiences in understanding a foreign language in song. The difficulty comes from the rhyme and rhythm, and from the medium, the form of linguistic expression, itself. (AMH)

  1. Music, emotion, and autobiographical memory: they're playing your song.

    PubMed

    Schulkind, M D; Hennis, L K; Rubin, D C

    1999-11-01

    Very long-term memory for popular music was investigated. Older and younger adults listened to 20-sec excerpts of popular songs drawn from across the 20th century. The subjects gave emotionality and preference ratings and tried to name the title, artist, and year of popularity for each excerpt. They also performed a cued memory test for the lyrics. The older adults' emotionality ratings were highest for songs from their youth; they remembered more about these songs, as well. However, the stimuli failed to cue many autobiographical memories of specific events. Further analyses revealed that the older adults were less likely than the younger adults to retrieve multiple attributes of a song together (i.e., title and artist) and that there was a significant positive correlation between emotion and memory, especially for the older adults. These results have implications for research on long-term memory, as well as on the relationship between emotion and memory. PMID:10586571

  2. Inhibition protects acquired song segments during vocal learning in zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Vallentin, Daniela; Kosche, Georg; Lipkind, Dina; Long, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Vocal imitation involves incorporating instructive auditory information into relevant motor circuits through processes that are poorly understood. In zebra finches, we find that exposure to a tutor’s song drives spiking activity within premotor neurons in the juvenile but that inhibition suppresses such responses upon learning in adulthood. We measure inhibitory currents evoked by the tutor song throughout development while simultaneously quantifying each bird’s learning trajectory. Surprisingly, we find that the maturation of synaptic inhibition onto premotor neurons is correlated with learning but not age. We used synthetic tutoring to demonstrate that inhibition is selective for specific song elements that have already been learned and not those still in refinement. Our results suggest that structured inhibition is playing a crucial role during song acquisition, enabling a piece-by-piece mastery of complex tasks. PMID:26816377

  3. Context-Dependent Links between Song Production and Opioid-Mediated Analgesia in Male European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.; Stevenson, Sharon A.; Riters, Lauren V.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms that ensure appropriate vocal behaviors within specific social contexts. Male songbirds produce spontaneous (undirected) songs as well as female-directed courtship songs. Opioid neuropeptide activity in specific brain regions is rewarding, at least in mammals, and past studies suggest that the opioid met-enkephalin in such areas is more tightly linked to undirected than female-directed song. Recent data using a song-associated place preference paradigm further suggest that production of undirected but not directed song is tightly linked to intrinsic reward. Opioids have analgesic properties. Therefore, if production of undirected song is closely linked to opioid-mediated reward, the production of undirected but not directed song should be associated with analgesia. Consistent with this prediction, in male starlings we identified a positive correlation between analgesia (decreased reactivity to a hot water bath) and undirected song (in non-breeding season condition males in affiliative flocks) but not female-directed song (in breeding season condition males presented with females). When breeding condition males were divided according to social status, a negative correlation was found in subordinate males (i.e. males that failed to acquire a nest box). These data are consistent with the hypotheses 1) that the production of undirected song is facilitated or maintained by opioids (and/or other neuromodulators that also induce analgesia) and 2) that production of female-directed song is not linked in the same way to release of the same neuromodulators. Results also demonstrate a link between analgesia and song in subordinate individuals lacking a nesting territory within the breeding season. Overall, the findings indicate that distinct neural mechanisms regulate communication in different social contexts and support the working hypothesis that undirected but not directed song is tightly linked to opioid release. PMID:23056422

  4. Context-dependent links between song production and opioid-mediated analgesia in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A; Stevenson, Sharon A; Riters, Lauren V

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms that ensure appropriate vocal behaviors within specific social contexts. Male songbirds produce spontaneous (undirected) songs as well as female-directed courtship songs. Opioid neuropeptide activity in specific brain regions is rewarding, at least in mammals, and past studies suggest that the opioid met-enkephalin in such areas is more tightly linked to undirected than female-directed song. Recent data using a song-associated place preference paradigm further suggest that production of undirected but not directed song is tightly linked to intrinsic reward. Opioids have analgesic properties. Therefore, if production of undirected song is closely linked to opioid-mediated reward, the production of undirected but not directed song should be associated with analgesia. Consistent with this prediction, in male starlings we identified a positive correlation between analgesia (decreased reactivity to a hot water bath) and undirected song (in non-breeding season condition males in affiliative flocks) but not female-directed song (in breeding season condition males presented with females). When breeding condition males were divided according to social status, a negative correlation was found in subordinate males (i.e. males that failed to acquire a nest box). These data are consistent with the hypotheses 1) that the production of undirected song is facilitated or maintained by opioids (and/or other neuromodulators that also induce analgesia) and 2) that production of female-directed song is not linked in the same way to release of the same neuromodulators. Results also demonstrate a link between analgesia and song in subordinate individuals lacking a nesting territory within the breeding season. Overall, the findings indicate that distinct neural mechanisms regulate communication in different social contexts and support the working hypothesis that undirected but not directed song is tightly linked to opioid release. PMID:23056422

  5. Minke whale song, spacing, and acoustic communication on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedamke, Jason

    An inquisitive population of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) that concentrates on the Great Barrier Reef during its suspected breeding season offered a unique opportunity to conduct a multi-faceted study of a little-known Balaenopteran species' acoustic behavior. Chapter one investigates whether the minke whale is the source of an unusual, complex, and stereotyped sound recorded, the "star-wars" vocalization. A hydrophone array was towed from a vessel to record sounds from circling whales for subsequent localization of sound sources. These acoustic locations were matched with shipboard and in-water observations of the minke whale, demonstrating the minke whale was the source of this unusual sound. Spectral and temporal features of this sound and the source levels at which it is produced are described. The repetitive "star-wars" vocalization appears similar to the songs of other whale species and has characteristics consistent with reproductive advertisement displays. Chapter two investigates whether song (i.e. the "star-wars" vocalization) has a spacing function through passive monitoring of singer spatial patterns with a moored five-sonobuoy array. Active song playback experiments to singers were also conducted to further test song function. This study demonstrated that singers naturally maintain spatial separations between them through a nearest-neighbor analysis and animated tracks of singer movements. In response to active song playbacks, singers generally moved away and repeated song more quickly suggesting that song repetition interval may help regulate spatial interaction and singer separation. These results further indicate the Great Barrier Reef may be an important reproductive habitat for this species. Chapter three investigates whether song is part of a potentially graded repertoire of acoustic signals. Utilizing both vessel-based recordings and remote recordings from the sonobuoy array, temporal and spectral features, source levels, and

  6. True Katydids (Pseudophyllinae) from Guadeloupe: Acoustic Signals and Functional Considerations of Song Production

    PubMed Central

    Stumpner, Andreas; Dann, Angela; Schink, Matthias; Gubert, Silvia; Hugel, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Guadeloupe, the largest of the Leeward Islands, harbors three species of Pseudophyllinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) belonging to distinct tribes. This study examined the basic aspects of sound production and acousto-vibratory behavior of these species. As the songs of many Pseudophyllinae are complex and peak at high frequencies, they require high quality recordings. Wild specimens were therefore recorded ex situ. Collected specimens were used in structure-function experiments. Karukerana aguilari Bonfils (Pterophyllini) is a large species with a mirror in each tegmen and conspicuous folds over the mirror. It sings 4–6 syllables, each comprising 10–20 pulses, with several peaks in the frequency spectrum between 4 and 20 kHz. The song is among the loudest in Orthoptera (> 125 dB SPL in 10 cm distance). The folds are protective and have no function in song production. Both mirrors may work independently in sound radiation. Nesonotus reticulatus (Fabricius) (Cocconotini) produces verses from two syllables at irregular intervals. The song peaks around 20 kHz. While singing, the males often produce a tremulation signal with the abdomen at about 8–10 Hz. To our knowledge, it is the first record of simultaneous calling song and tremulation in Orthoptera. Other males reply to the tremulation with their own tremulation. Xerophyllopteryx fumosa (Brunner von Wattenwyl) (Pleminiini) is a large, bark-like species, producing a syllable of around 20 pulses. The syllables are produced with irregular rhythms (often two with shorter intervals). The song peaks around 2–3 kHz and 10 kHz. The hind wings are relatively thick and are held between the half opened tegmina during singing. Removal of the hind wings reduces song intensity by about 5 dB, especially of the low frequency component, suggesting that the hind wings have a role in amplifying the song. PMID:24785151

  7. The Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on the Song of Two Passerine Species

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon, Sara; Halitschke, Rayko; Hames, Ralph S.; Kessler, André; DeVoogd, Timothy J.; Dhondt, André A.

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemical pollutants with demonstrated detrimental toxic and developmental effects on humans and wildlife. Laboratory studies suggest that PCBs influence behavior due to their effects on endocrine and neurological systems, yet little is known about the behavioral consequences of sublethal PCB exposure in the field. Additionally, specific PCB congener data (in contrast to total PCB load) is necessary to understand the possible effects of PCBs in living organisms since number and position of chlorine substitution in a PCB molecule dictates the toxicity and chemical fate of individual PCB congeners. We non-lethally investigated total PCB loads, congener specific PCB profiles, and songs of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) along a historical PCB gradient at the Hudson River in New York State. Our results indicate that black-capped chickadees and song sparrows have higher total blood PCBs in regions with higher historic PCB contamination. The two bird species varied substantially in their congener-specific PCB profiles; within sites, song sparrows showed a significantly higher proportion of lower chlorinated PCBs, while black-capped chickadees had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCBs. In areas of PCB pollution, the species-specific identity signal in black-capped chickadee song varied significantly, while variation in song sparrow trill performance was best predicted by the mono-ortho PCB load. Thus, PCBs may affect song production, an important component of communication in birds. In conclusion, we suggest that the ramifications of changes in song quality for bird populations may extend the toxic effects of environmental PCB pollution. PMID:24058475

  8. Learning and Knowing Songs: A Study of Children as Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kullenberg, Tina; Pramling, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyze how learners constitute what it means to learn and know a song. This is investigated in the context of four 9- to 10-year-old children in dyads teaching each other to sing a song of their own choosing. How the children take on this task is studied in terms of how they dialogically co-construct pedagogical and musical…

  9. Sleepless in Town – Drivers of the Temporal Shift in Dawn Song in Urban European Blackbirds

    PubMed Central

    Nordt, Anja; Klenke, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds. PMID:23940759

  10. The effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on the song of two passerine species.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Sara; Halitschke, Rayko; Hames, Ralph S; Kessler, André; DeVoogd, Timothy J; Dhondt, André A

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemical pollutants with demonstrated detrimental toxic and developmental effects on humans and wildlife. Laboratory studies suggest that PCBs influence behavior due to their effects on endocrine and neurological systems, yet little is known about the behavioral consequences of sublethal PCB exposure in the field. Additionally, specific PCB congener data (in contrast to total PCB load) is necessary to understand the possible effects of PCBs in living organisms since number and position of chlorine substitution in a PCB molecule dictates the toxicity and chemical fate of individual PCB congeners. We non-lethally investigated total PCB loads, congener specific PCB profiles, and songs of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) along a historical PCB gradient at the Hudson River in New York State. Our results indicate that black-capped chickadees and song sparrows have higher total blood PCBs in regions with higher historic PCB contamination. The two bird species varied substantially in their congener-specific PCB profiles; within sites, song sparrows showed a significantly higher proportion of lower chlorinated PCBs, while black-capped chickadees had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCBs. In areas of PCB pollution, the species-specific identity signal in black-capped chickadee song varied significantly, while variation in song sparrow trill performance was best predicted by the mono-ortho PCB load. Thus, PCBs may affect song production, an important component of communication in birds. In conclusion, we suggest that the ramifications of changes in song quality for bird populations may extend the toxic effects of environmental PCB pollution. PMID:24058475

  11. Sleepless in town--drivers of the temporal shift in dawn song in urban European blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Nordt, Anja; Klenke, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds. PMID:23940759

  12. Testosterone Affects Song Modulation during Simulated Territorial Intrusions in Male Black Redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros)

    PubMed Central

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Kipper, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that testosterone plays an important role in resource allocation for competitive behavior, details of the interplay between testosterone, territorial aggression and signal plasticity are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated if testosterone acts specifically on signals that communicate the motivation or ability of individuals to engage in competitive situations in a natural context. We studied the black redstart, a territorial songbird species, during two different life-cycle stages, the early breeding phase in spring and the non-breeding phase in fall. Male territory holders were implanted with the androgen receptor blocker flutamide (Flut) and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Let) to inhibit the action of testosterone and its estrogenic metabolites. Controls received a placebo treatment. Three days after implantation birds were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion (STI). Song was recorded before, during and after the challenge. In spring, both treatment groups increased the number of elements sung in parts of their song in response to the STI. However, Flut/Let-implanted males reacted to the STI with a decreased maximum acoustic frequency of one song part, while placebo-implanted males did not. Instead, placebo-implanted males sang the atonal part of their song with a broader frequency range. Furthermore, placebo-, but not Flut/Let-implanted males, sang shorter songs with shorter pauses between parts in the STIs. During simulated intrusions in fall, when testosterone levels are naturally low in this species, males of both treatment groups sang similar to Flut/Let-implanted males during breeding. The results suggest that song sung during a territorial encounter is of higher competitive value than song sung in an undisturbed situation and may, therefore, convey information about the motivation or quality of the territory holder. We conclude that testosterone facilitates context-dependent changes in song structures

  13. Testosterone affects song modulation during simulated territorial intrusions in male black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros).

    PubMed

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Kiefer, Sarah; Mortega, Kim G; Goymann, Wolfgang; Kipper, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that testosterone plays an important role in resource allocation for competitive behavior, details of the interplay between testosterone, territorial aggression and signal plasticity are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated if testosterone acts specifically on signals that communicate the motivation or ability of individuals to engage in competitive situations in a natural context. We studied the black redstart, a territorial songbird species, during two different life-cycle stages, the early breeding phase in spring and the non-breeding phase in fall. Male territory holders were implanted with the androgen receptor blocker flutamide (Flut) and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Let) to inhibit the action of testosterone and its estrogenic metabolites. Controls received a placebo treatment. Three days after implantation birds were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion (STI). Song was recorded before, during and after the challenge. In spring, both treatment groups increased the number of elements sung in parts of their song in response to the STI. However, Flut/Let-implanted males reacted to the STI with a decreased maximum acoustic frequency of one song part, while placebo-implanted males did not. Instead, placebo-implanted males sang the atonal part of their song with a broader frequency range. Furthermore, placebo-, but not Flut/Let-implanted males, sang shorter songs with shorter pauses between parts in the STIs. During simulated intrusions in fall, when testosterone levels are naturally low in this species, males of both treatment groups sang similar to Flut/Let-implanted males during breeding. The results suggest that song sung during a territorial encounter is of higher competitive value than song sung in an undisturbed situation and may, therefore, convey information about the motivation or quality of the territory holder. We conclude that testosterone facilitates context-dependent changes in song structures

  14. Pauses enhance chunk recognition in song element strings by zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Spierings, Michelle; de Weger, Anouk; Ten Cate, Carel

    2015-07-01

    When learning a language, it is crucial to know which syllables of a continuous sound string belong together as words. Human infants achieve this by attending to pauses between words or to the co-occurrence of syllables. It is not only humans that can segment a continuous string. Songbirds learning their song tend to copy 'chunks' from one or more tutors' songs and combine these into their own song. In the tutor songs, these chunks are often separated by pauses and a high co-occurrence of elements, suggesting that these features affect chunking and song learning. We examined experimentally whether the presence of pauses and element co-occurrence affect the ability of adult zebra finches to discriminate strings of song elements. Using a go/no-go design, two groups of birds were trained to discriminate between two strings. In one group (Pause-group), pauses were inserted between co-occurring element triplets in the strings, and in the other group (No-pause group), both strings were continuous. After making a correct discrimination, an individual proceeded to a reversal training using string segments. Segments were element triplets consistent in co-occurrence, triplets that were partly consistent in composition and triplets consisting of elements that did not co-occur in the strings. The Pause-group was faster in discriminating between the two strings. This group also responded differently to consistent triplets in the reversal training, compared to inconsistent triplets. The No-pause group did not differentiate among the triplet types. These results indicate that pauses in strings of song elements aid song discrimination and memorization of co-occurring element groups. PMID:25771964

  15. Music and dance make me feel alive: from Mandela's prison songs and dances to public policy.

    PubMed

    Buis, Johann S

    2013-01-01

    How is it possible for song and dance to exist in political incarceration and manifest itself later as public policy responding to apartheid atrocities? Examining the body of songs, oral history accounts, and eye-witness reports provided by fellow-prisoners of Mandela on Robben Island prison, I uncover a psychological environment mediated through music and dance--within the confines of a political prison. This source of prison music-making by political prisoners in detention, provide us with the artistic expressions of revolutionary songs, parody songs, praise songs, laments, etc. These music genres reflect ontologies embedded in Mandela's juristic imagination. My framework for explaining these ontologies is a theoretical framework I call an aesthetic of function: internal ontologies that speak to the African cultural ground against which external ontologies are expressed in the jurisprudential redress to apartheid atrocities. Examining his external (jurisprudential) ontologies through song and dance, one realizes that the best way for him to have solved the unprecedented public redress of apartheid atrocities is evident in the songs he sang in Robben Island prison. Retribution could have been a logical solution for him. Instead, he turned to truth-telling and reconciliation as public policy. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission's unprecedented breaking of social and jurisprudential boundaries, the claim of agency for both victims and perpetrators, and public policy of South Africa's first democratically elected black president, lie deeply embedded in cultural practices he testified to in his autobiography, "The Long Walk to Freedom". These cultural practices in prison were singing and dancing. This paper complements the music-as-torture trope: here music in detention carries ontological agency. Musical evidence of stylistic features, text, and contextual analyses, and related literary criticism devices, expose Mandela's embedded internal and external

  16. Male song quality modulates c-Fos expression in the auditory forebrain of the female canary.

    PubMed

    Monbureau, Marie; Barker, Jennifer M; Leboucher, Gérard; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    In canaries, specific phrases of male song (sexy songs, SS) that are difficult to produce are especially attractive for females. Females exposed to SS produce more copulation displays and deposit more testosterone into their eggs than females exposed to non-sexy songs (NS). Increased expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos or zenk (a.k.a. egr-1) has been observed in the auditory forebrain of female songbirds hearing attractive songs. C-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cell numbers were quantified here in the brain of female canaries that had been collected 30min after they had been exposed for 60min to the playback of SS or NS or control white noise. Fos-ir cell numbers increased in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM) and caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) of SS birds as compared to controls. Song playback (pooled SS and NS) also tended to increase average Fos-ir cell numbers in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) but this effect did not reach full statistical significance. At the individual level, Fos expression in CMM was correlated with its expression in NCM and in MBH but also with the frequency of calls that females produced in response to the playbacks. These data thus indicate that male songs of different qualities induce a differential metabolic activation of NCM and CMM. The correlation between activation of auditory regions and of the MBH might reflect the link between auditory stimulation and changes in behavior and reproductive physiology. PMID:25846435

  17. Prediction of Potential Hit Song and Musical Genre Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monterola, Christopher; Abundo, Cheryl; Tugaff, Jeric; Venturina, Lorcel Ericka

    Accurately quantifying the goodness of music based on the seemingly subjective taste of the public is a multi-million industry. Recording companies can make sound decisions on which songs or artists to prioritize if accurate forecasting is achieved. We extract 56 single-valued musical features (e.g. pitch and tempo) from 380 Original Pilipino Music (OPM) songs (190 are hit songs) released from 2004 to 2006. Based on an effect size criterion which measures a variable's discriminating power, the 20 highest ranked features are fed to a classifier tasked to predict hit songs. We show that regardless of musical genre, a trained feed-forward neural network (NN) can predict potential hit songs with an average accuracy of ΦNN = 81%. The accuracy is about +20% higher than those of standard classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA, ΦLDA = 61%) and classification and regression trees (CART, ΦCART = 57%). Both LDA and CART are above the proportional chance criterion (PCC, ΦPCC = 50%) but are slightly below the suggested acceptable classifier requirement of 1.25*ΦPCC = 63%. Utilizing a similar procedure, we demonstrate that different genres (ballad, alternative rock or rock) of OPM songs can be automatically classified with near perfect accuracy using LDA or NN but only around 77% using CART.

  18. Common cues to emotion in the dynamic facial expressions of speech and song

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Steven R.; Thompson, William F.; Wanderley, Marcelo M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Speech and song are universal forms of vocalization that may share aspects of emotional expression. Research has focused on parallels in acoustic features, overlooking facial cues to emotion. In three experiments, we compared moving facial expressions in speech and song. In Experiment 1, vocalists spoke and sang statements each with five emotions. Vocalists exhibited emotion-dependent movements of the eyebrows and lip corners that transcended speech–song differences. Vocalists’ jaw movements were coupled to their acoustic intensity, exhibiting differences across emotion and speech–song. Vocalists’ emotional movements extended beyond vocal sound to include large sustained expressions, suggesting a communicative function. In Experiment 2, viewers judged silent videos of vocalists’ facial expressions prior to, during, and following vocalization. Emotional intentions were identified accurately for movements during and after vocalization, suggesting that these movements support the acoustic message. Experiment 3 compared emotional identification in voice-only, face-only, and face-and-voice recordings. Emotion judgements for voice-only singing were poorly identified, yet were accurate for all other conditions, confirming that facial expressions conveyed emotion more accurately than the voice in song, yet were equivalent in speech. Collectively, these findings highlight broad commonalities in the facial cues to emotion in speech and song, yet highlight differences in perception and acoustic-motor production. PMID:25424388

  19. Variation in social relationships relates to song preferences and EGR1 expression in a female songbird.

    PubMed

    Schubloom, Hannah E; Woolley, Sarah C

    2016-09-01

    Social experiences can profoundly shape social behavior and the underlying neural circuits. Across species, the formation of enduring social relationships is associated with both neural and behavioral changes. However, it remains unclear how longer-term relationships between individuals influence brain and behavior. Here, we investigated how variation in social relationships relates to variation in female preferences for and neural responses to song in a pair-bonding songbird. We assessed variation in the interactions between individuals in male-female zebra finch pairs and found that female preferences for their mate's song were correlated with the degree of affiliation and amount of socially modulated singing, but not with the frequency of aggressive interactions. Moreover, variation in measures of pair quality and preference correlated with variation in the song-induced expression of EGR1, an immediate early gene related to neural activity and plasticity, in brain regions important for auditory processing and social behavior. For example, females with weaker preferences for their mate's song had greater EGR1 expression in the nucleus Taeniae, the avian homologue of the mammalian medial amygdala, in response to playback of their mate's courtship song. Our data indicate that the quality of social interactions within pairs relates to variation in song preferences and neural responses to ethologically relevant stimuli and lend insight into neural circuits sensitive to social information. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1029-1040, 2016. PMID:26713856

  20. Patterns of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase vary with song production in female starlings

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jesse M. S.; Riters, Lauren V.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal signal production in male songbirds is well studied, but the neural correlates of female song production are poorly understood. In European starlings, females sing to defend nesting resources, and song can be considered agonistically motivated. Across vertebrates catecholamines strongly influence motivated, agonistic social behaviors. The present study was designed to provide insight into a possible role for catecholamine activity in territorial song in female starlings. We presented females that were defending nest-cavities with an unfamiliar female and assessed song production. We then measured immunolabeling for phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (pTH-ir), a rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine synthesis, in brain regions in which catecholamines stimulate agonistic behavior. Females that sang had higher pTH-ir in the caudomedial ventral tegmental area and the lateral septum than females that did not sing. Furthermore, the number of songs produced correlated positively with pTH-ir in the medial preoptic nucleus. Phosphorylation of TH is thought to occur after catecholamine release, so these results link increased catecholamine activity in several brain regions governing agonistic behavior to territorial song production in females. PMID:23270608

  1. Interaction between auditory and motor activities in an avian song control nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    McCasland, J S; Konishi, M

    1981-01-01

    Discrete telencephalic nuclei HVc (hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudale) and RA (nucleus robustus archistriatalis) have been implicated by lesion studies in the control of vocalization in songbirds. We demonstrate directly the role of HVc in vocalization by presenting neuronal recordings taken from HVc of singing birds. Intracellular recordings from anesthetized birds have shown that many neurons in HVc respond to auditory stimuli. We confirm this result in the extracellular recordings from awake-behaving birds and further demonstrate responses of HVc neurons to playback of the bird's own song. The functional significance of these responses is not yet clear, but behavioral studies show that auditory feedback plays a crucial role in the development of normal song. We show that the song-correlated temporal pattern of neural activity persists even in the deaf bird. Furthermore, we show that in the normal bird, the activity pattern correlated with production of certain song elements can be clearly distinguished from the pattern of auditory responses to the same song elements. This result implies that an interaction occurs in HVc of the singing bird between motor and auditory activity. Through experiments involving playback of sound while the bird is singing, we show that the interaction consists of motor inhibition of auditory activity in HVc and that this inhibition decays slowly over a period of seconds after the song terminates. PMID:6950421

  2. Pairing context determines condition-dependence of song rate in a monogamous passerine bird

    PubMed Central

    David, Morgan; Auclair, Yannick; Dall, Sasha R. X.; Cézilly, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Condition-dependence of male ornaments is thought to provide honest signals on which females can base their sexual choice for genetic quality. Recent studies show that condition-dependence patterns can vary within populations. Although long-term association is thought to promote honest signalling, no study has explored the influence of pairing context on the condition-dependence of male ornaments. In this study, we assessed the influence of natural variation in body condition on song rate in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in three different situations: during short and long encounters with an unfamiliar female, and within heterosexual mated pairs. We found consistent individual differences in male directed and undirected song rate. Moreover, body condition had a positive effect on song rate in paired males. However, male song rate was not influenced by body condition during short or long encounters with unfamiliar females. Song rate appears to be an unreliable signal of condition to prospective females as even poor-condition birds can cheat and sing at a high rate. By contrast, paired females can reliably use song rate to assess their mate's body condition, and possibly the genetic quality. We propose that species' characteristics, such as mating system, should be systematically taken into account to generate relevant hypotheses about the evolution of condition-dependent male ornaments. PMID:23256191

  3. Male mice song syntax depends on social contexts and influences female preferences

    PubMed Central

    Chabout, Jonathan; Sarkar, Abhra; Dunson, David B.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, Holy and Guo advanced the idea that male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) with some features similar to courtship songs of songbirds. Since then, studies showed that male mice emit USV songs in different contexts (sexual and other) and possess a multisyllabic repertoire. Debate still exists for and against plasticity in their vocalizations. But the use of a multisyllabic repertoire can increase potential flexibility and information, in how elements are organized and recombined, namely syntax. In many bird species, modulating song syntax has ethological relevance for sexual behavior and mate preferences. In this study we exposed adult male mice to different social contexts and developed a new approach of analyzing their USVs based on songbird syntax analysis. We found that male mice modify their syntax, including specific sequences, length of sequence, repertoire composition, and spectral features, according to stimulus and social context. Males emit longer and simpler syllables and sequences when singing to females, but more complex syllables and sequences in response to fresh female urine. Playback experiments show that the females prefer the complex songs over the simpler ones. We propose the complex songs are to lure females in, whereas the directed simpler sequences are used for direct courtship. These results suggest that although mice have a much more limited ability of song modification, they could still be used as animal models for understanding some vocal communication features that songbirds are used for. PMID:25883559

  4. Song type matching is an honest early threat signal in a hierarchical animal communication system

    PubMed Central

    Akçay, Çag˘lar; Tom, Mari E.; Campbell, S. Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive encounters between animals often involve significant amounts of signalling before or in lieu of physical fights. When, as is often the case, these apparent threat signals are neither inherently costly nor inherently indicative of fighting ability, we should ask whether they are in fact honest signals, i.e. do they predict that escalation is imminent? While signalling theories have indicated that such ‘conventional’ threat signals can honestly predict escalation, attempts to gather supporting empirical evidence have mostly failed. For example, recent studies in songbirds of song type matching (replying to an opponent's song with the same song type he has just sung) have failed to confirm that it predicts an eventual attack by the signaller. In the present study of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we tested the hypothesis that song type matching is an early threat signal in a hierarchical signalling system. We used an improved model-playback design that simulated an escalating intrusion onto the subject's territory: the simulated opponent first sang in hiding from the boundary before moving to the centre of the territory, where he revealed himself and continued to sing. We found that type matching beginning in the boundary phase and continuing into the escalation phase, or beginning immediately after the escalation, reliably predicted both subsequent escalated signalling (soft songs and wing waves) and subsequent attack on the model, supporting the hypothesis that type matching is a reliable early threat signal. PMID:23378665

  5. Transcontinental latitudinal variation in song performance and complexity in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon).

    PubMed

    Kaluthota, Chinthaka; Brinkman, Benjamin E; Dos Santos, Ednei B; Rendall, Drew

    2016-02-10

    There is growing interest in latitudinal effects on animal behaviour and life history. One recent focus is on birdsong, which is hypothesized to be more elaborated or complex in the north temperate zone compared with the tropics. Current evidence is mixed and based on cross-species comparisons, or single species with restricted distributions. We circumvent these limitations using a transcontinental sample of 358 songs from house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) at 281 locations spanning more than 100° of latitude (52° N-55° S) across the Americas. We found a significant latitudinal gradient in several basic elements of song performance and complexity between north temperate and tropical populations. Furthermore, we document convergence in song patterns between populations at higher latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Effects were strongest for the number of elements in a song, and the rate of element production, both increasing towards the poles, with similar but weaker effects for other song dimensions (e.g. number of unique elements, trills and trill rate). We consider possible causes related to variable habitats and morphology, concluding that the shorter breeding seasons at higher latitudes in both hemispheres may favour greater song elaboration to mediate territory competition and mate choice. PMID:26865297

  6. Assessing visual requirements for social context-dependent activation of the songbird song system

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Erina; Kubikova, Lubica; Hessler, Neal A.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2008-01-01

    Social context has been shown to have a profound influence on brain activation in a wide range of vertebrate species. Best studied in songbirds, when males sing undirected song, the level of neural activity and expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) in several song nuclei is dramatically higher or lower than when they sing directed song to other birds, particularly females. This differential social context-dependent activation is independent of auditory input and is not simply dependent on the motor act of singing. These findings suggested that the critical sensory modality driving social context-dependent differences in the brain could be visual cues. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining IEG activation in song nuclei in hemispheres to which visual input was normal or blocked. We found that covering one eye blocked visually induced IEG expression throughout both contralateral visual pathways of the brain, and reduced activation of the contralateral ventral tegmental area, a non-visual midbrain motivation-related area affected by social context. However, blocking visual input had no effect on the social context-dependent activation of the contralateral song nuclei during female-directed singing. Our findings suggest that individual sensory modalities are not direct driving forces for the social context differences in song nuclei during singing. Rather, these social context differences in brain activation appear to depend more on the general sense that another individual is present. PMID:18826930

  7. Dominance-related seasonal song production is unrelated to circulating testosterone in a subtropical songbird.

    PubMed

    York, Jenny E; Radford, Andrew N; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G; Young, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Circulating testosterone (T) is widely considered to play a key role in the production of sexual displays by male vertebrates. While numerous studies support a role for circulating T in promoting the production of song in male birds, this understanding is based primarily on evidence from seasonally breeding northern temperate species, leaving it unclear whether this mechanism generalizes to other regions of the world. Here we investigate whether variation in circulating levels of T can explain the marked within- and among-individual variation in male song performance observed in a subtropical population of the year-round territorial white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali mahali). Our findings reveal that both circulating T and male song production peaked at a similar time point, halfway through the population-level breeding season. However, while dominant males were more likely to sing and sang for longer than subordinate males, within-group paired comparisons revealed no dominance-related differences in circulating T. Moreover, comparisons both among and within individual dominant males revealed that song duration, syllable rate and proportion of time spent singing were all unrelated to circulating T. Together, our findings suggest that natural variation in male song production, at least in this population of white-browed sparrow weavers, is achieved principally through mechanisms other than variation in circulating T concentration. More widely, our results are in line with the view that male song production is not exclusively regulated by gonadally synthesized steroids. PMID:27179883

  8. Sensory Constraints on Birdsong Syntax: Neural Responses to Swamp Sparrow Songs with Accelerated Trill Rates

    PubMed Central

    Prather, JF; Peters, S; Mooney, R; Nowicki, S

    2013-01-01

    Both sensory and motor mechanisms can constrain behavioral performance. Sensory mechanisms may be especially important for constraining behaviors that depend on experience, such as learned birdsongs. Swamp sparrows learn to sing by imitating the song of a tutor, but sparrows fail to accurately imitate artificial tutor songs with abnormally accelerated trills, instead singing brief and rapid trills interrupted by silent gaps. This “broken syntax” has been proposed to arise from vocal-motor limitations. Here we consider whether sensory limitations exist that could also contribute to broken syntax. We tested this idea by recording auditory-evoked activity of sensorimotor neurons in the swamp sparrow’s brain that are known to be important for the learning, performance and perception of song. In freely behaving adult sparrows that sang songs with normal syntax, neurons were detected that exhibited precisely time-locked activity to each repetition of the syllable in a trill when presented at a natural rate. Those cells failed to faithfully follow syllables presented at an accelerated rate, however, and their failure to respond to consecutive syllables increased as a function of trill rate. This “flickering” auditory representation in animals performing normal syntax reveals a central constraint on the sensory processing of rapid trills. Furthermore, because these neurons are implicated in both song learning and perception, and because auditory flickering began to occur at accelerated trill rates previously associated with the emergence of broken song syntax, these sensory constraints may contribute to the emergence of broken syntax. PMID:23976787

  9. Songs of two starling species: common traits versus adaptations to the social environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdelier, C.; Hausberger, M.; Craig, A. J. F. K.

    2012-12-01

    We analysed, for the first time, songs of the African Red-winged Starling Onychognathus morio and compared their general characteristics with those of the European Starling Sturnus vulgaris. Both species are gregarious during the non-breeding season, but European Starlings tend to nest in colonies, form unstable pair-bonds and are occasionally polygynous, whereas Red-winged Starlings form long-term pair-bonds and occupy exclusive nesting territories. Red-winged Starlings produced the same basic song categories as European Starlings: warbles and whistles. These two categories appeared to be involved in similar social interactions in the two species. However, several aspects of song behaviour differed between the two species: Red-winged Starlings, breeding in isolated nests, preferentially used whistles for long-distance communication and showed a simpler organization of warbling song. Whistles in the Red-winged Starling were mostly shared between birds and, in contrast to the European Starling, were not indicators of individual identity. Also in contrast to the European Starling, female song in Red-winged Starlings appeared very important throughout the breeding period. Our results suggest that some song characteristics in the two species are phylogenetically conserved whereas others are affected by the distinct social systems of the two species.

  10. Geographic variation in Northwest Atlantic fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) song: implications for stock structure assessment.

    PubMed

    Delarue, Julien; Todd, Sean K; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Di Iorio, Lucia

    2009-03-01

    Passive acoustic data are increasingly being used as a tool for helping to define marine mammal populations and stocks. Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) songs present a unique opportunity to determine interstock differences. Their highly stereotyped interpulse interval has been shown to vary between geographic areas and to remain stable over time in some areas. In this study the structure of songs recorded at two geographically close feeding aggregations in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL) and Gulf of Maine (GoM) was compared. Recordings were made from September 2005 through February 2006 in the GSL and intermittently between January 2006 and September 2007 at two locations in the GoM. 6257 pulse intervals corresponding to 19 GSL and 29 GoM songs were measured to characterize songs from both areas. Classification trees showed that GSL songs differ significantly from those in the GoM. The results are consistent with those derived from other stock structure assessment methodologies, such as chemical signature and photoidentification analysis, suggesting that fin whales in these areas may form separate management stocks. Song structure analysis could therefore provide a useful and cost-efficient tool for defining conservation units over temporal and geographical scales relevant to management objectives in fin whales. PMID:19275334

  11. Eastern Bluebirds Alter their Song in Response to Anthropogenic Changes in the Acoustic Environment.

    PubMed

    Kight, Caitlin R; Swaddle, John P

    2015-09-01

    Vocal responses to anthropogenic noise have been documented in several species of songbird. However, only a few studies have investigated whether these adjustments are made in "real time" or are longer-term responses to particular soundscapes. Furthermore, increased ambient noise often is accompanied by structural changes to the habitat, including the introduction of noisy roadways and the removal of native vegetation. To date, no studies have simultaneously investigated the impact of both acoustic and structural disturbance on the same species. The relevance of each of these variables must be quantified if we wish to refine our understanding of the ways in which human activities influence avian communication. In this study, we quantified both among-male and within-male adjustments of song in response to ambient noise, and also investigated whether anthropogenic modifications of the habitat explained variations in songs' parameters. Recordings of songs were collected from male, breeding eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) residing in a network of nestboxes distributed across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Levels of ambient noise were associated both with the average song-parameters of each male and with the change in a male's song-parameters between the loudest and quietest periods at his nest box. Males' song parameters were also related to habitat structure, as assessed using geographic information systems techniques. Males in noisier sites produced both higher-pitched and louder songs than did birds in quieter areas. Likewise, individual males demonstrated immediate adjustments to disturbance by noise, increasing the amplitude of their song between periods of quiet and loud ambient noise. Both spectral and temporal aspects of a male's song were related to whether his habitat was more "natural" or "anthropogenic." Our results indicate that males' adjustments of song may represent simultaneous responses to multiple modifications of the habitat by humans

  12. Song environment affects singing effort and vasotocin immunoreactivity in the forebrain of male Lincoln’s sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Sewall, Kendra B.; Dankoski, Elyse C.; Sockman, Keith W.

    2010-01-01

    Male songbirds often establish territories and attract mates by singing, and some song features can reflect the singer’s condition or quality. The quality of the song environment can change, so male songbirds should benefit from assessing the competitiveness of the song environment and appropriately adjusting their own singing behavior and the neural substrates by which song is controlled. In a wide range of taxa social modulation of behavior is partly mediated by the arginine vasopressin or vasotocin (AVP/AVT) systems. To examine the modulation of singing behavior in response to the quality of the song environment we compared the song output of laboratory-housed male Lincoln’s sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) exposed to one week of chronic playback of songs categorized as either high or low quality, based on song length, complexity and trill performance. To explore the neural basis of any facultative shifts in behavior, we also quantified the subjects’ AVT immunoreactivity (AVT-IR) in three forebrain regions that regulate socio-sexual behavior: the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), the lateral septum (LS) and the preoptic area. We found that high quality songs increased singing effort and reduced AVT-IR in the BSTm and LS, relative to low quality songs. The effect of the quality of the song environment on both singing effort and forebrain AVT-IR raises the hypothesis that AVT within these brain regions plays a role in the modulation of behavior in response to competition that individual males may assess from the prevailing song environment. PMID:20399213

  13. Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J. Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

  14. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Curcio, Michael T; Swaddle, John P; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations-especially song-in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers' songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats. PMID:27602270

  15. Song Perception by Professional Singers and Actors: An MEG Study.

    PubMed

    Rosslau, Ken; Herholz, Sibylle C; Knief, Arne; Ortmann, Magdalene; Deuster, Dirk; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinetteam; Pantev, Christo; Dobel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences. PMID:26863437

  16. How Do “Mute” Cicadas Produce Their Calling Songs?

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Changqing; Wei, Cong; Nansen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as “mute”. This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the “mute” cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum) are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism. PMID:25714608

  17. Song Perception by Professional Singers and Actors: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosslau, Ken; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Knief, Arne; Ortmann, Magdalene; Deuster, Dirk; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinetteam; Pantev, Christo; Dobel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences. PMID:26863437

  18. Complexity, Predictability and Time Homogeneity of Syntax in the Songs of Cassin's Vireo (Vireo cassinii).

    PubMed

    Hedley, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Many species of animals deliver vocalizations in sequences presumed to be governed by internal rules, though the nature and complexity of these syntactical rules have been investigated in relatively few species. Here I present an investigation into the song syntax of fourteen male Cassin's Vireos (Vireo cassinii), a species whose song sequences are highly temporally structured. I compare their song sequences to three candidate models of varying levels of complexity-zero-order, first-order and second-order Markov models-and employ novel methods to interpolate between these three models. A variety of analyses, including sequence simulations, Fisher's exact tests, and model likelihood analyses, showed that the songs of this species are too complex to be described by a zero-order or first-order Markov model. The model that best fit the data was intermediate in complexity between a first- and second-order model, though I also present evidence that some transition probabilities are conditioned on up to three preceding phrases. In addition, sequences were shown to be predictable with more than 54% accuracy overall, and predictability was positively correlated with the rate of song delivery. An assessment of the time homogeneity of syntax showed that transition probabilities between phrase types are largely stable over time, but that there was some evidence for modest changes in syntax within and between breeding seasons, a finding that I interpret to represent changes in breeding stage and social context rather than irreversible, secular shifts in syntax over time. These findings constitute a valuable addition to our understanding of bird song syntax in free-living birds, and will contribute to future attempts to understand the evolutionary importance of bird song syntax in avian communication. PMID:27050537

  19. Asymmetry in cricket song: female preference and proximate mechanism of discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Hirtenlehner, Stefan; Küng, Saskia; Kainz, Franz; Römer, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Subtle random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilateral traits are suggested to signal reduced phenotypic and genetic quality of a sender, but little is known about the related receiver mechanisms for discriminating symmetrical from asymmetrical traits. Here, we investigated these mechanisms in behavioural and neurophysiological experiments in the Mediterranean field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. A downward frequency modulation at the end of each syllable in the calling song has been suggested to indicate morphological asymmetry in sound radiating structures between left and right forewings. Even under ideal laboratory conditions on a trackball system, female crickets only discriminated between songs of symmetrical and asymmetrical males in two-choice experiments at carrier frequencies of 4.4 kHz and a large modulation depth of 600 and 800 Hz. Under these conditions they preferred the pure-tone calling songs over the modulated (asymmetrical) alternative, whereas no preference was observed at carrier frequencies of 4.9 and 5.2 kHz. These preferences correlate well with the responses of a pair of identified auditory interneurons (AN1), known for their importance in female phonotaxis. The AN1 interneuron is tuned to an average frequency of 4.9 kHz, and the roll-off towards lower and higher frequencies determines the magnitude of responses to pure-tone and frequency-modulated calling songs. The difference in response magnitude between the two neurons appears to drive the decision of females towards the song alternatives. We discuss the relevance of song differences based on asymmetry in the morphology of song-producing structures under natural conditions. PMID:23470661

  20. Song Practice Promotes Acute Vocal Variability at a Key Stage of Sensorimotor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Julie E.; Hilliard, Austin T.; White, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Trial by trial variability during motor learning is a feature encoded by the basal ganglia of both humans and songbirds, and is important for reinforcement of optimal motor patterns, including those that produce speech and birdsong. Given the many parallels between these behaviors, songbirds provide a useful model to investigate neural mechanisms underlying vocal learning. In juvenile and adult male zebra finches, endogenous levels of FoxP2, a molecule critical for language, decrease two hours after morning song onset within area X, part of the basal ganglia-forebrain pathway dedicated to song. In juveniles, experimental ‘knockdown’ of area X FoxP2 results in abnormally variable song in adulthood. These findings motivated our hypothesis that low FoxP2 levels increase vocal variability, enabling vocal motor exploration in normal birds. Methodology/Principal Findings After two hours in either singing or non-singing conditions (previously shown to produce differential area X FoxP2 levels), phonological and sequential features of the subsequent songs were compared across conditions in the same bird. In line with our prediction, analysis of songs sung by 75 day (75d) birds revealed that syllable structure was more variable and sequence stereotypy was reduced following two hours of continuous practice compared to these features following two hours of non-singing. Similar trends in song were observed in these birds at 65d, despite higher overall within-condition variability at this age. Conclusions/Significance Together with previous work, these findings point to the importance of behaviorally-driven acute periods during song learning that allow for both refinement and reinforcement of motor patterns. Future work is aimed at testing the observation that not only does vocal practice influence expression of molecular networks, but that these networks then influence subsequent variability in these skills. PMID:20066039

  1. Neural correlates of binding lyrics and melodies for the encoding of new songs.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Irene; Davachi, Lila; Valabrègue, Romain; Lambrecq, Virginie; Dupont, Sophie; Samson, Séverine

    2016-02-15

    Songs naturally bind lyrics and melody into a unified representation. Using a subsequent memory paradigm, we examined the neural processes associated with binding lyrics and melodies during song encoding. Participants were presented with songs in two conditions: a unified condition (melodies sung with lyrics), and a separate condition (melodies sung with the syllable "la"). In both cases, written lyrics were displayed and participants were instructed to memorize them by repeating them covertly or by generating mental images of the songs. We expected the unified condition to recruit the posterior superior temporal gyrus, known to be involved in perceptual integration of songs, as well as the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Conversely, we hypothesized that the separate condition would engage a larger network including the hippocampus to bind lyrics and melodies of songs, and the basal ganglia and the cerebellum to ensure the correct sequence coupling of verbal and musical information in time. Binding lyrics and melodies in the unified condition revealed activation of the left IFG, bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and left motor cortex, suggesting a strong linguistic processing for this condition. Binding in the separate compared to the unified condition revealed greater activity in the right hippocampus as well as other areas including the left caudate, left cerebellum, and right IFG. This study provides novel evidence for the role of the right hippocampus in binding lyrics and melodies in songs. Results are discussed in light of studies of binding in the visual domain and highlight the role of regions involved in timing and synchronization such as the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. PMID:26706449

  2. Activity in a Cortical-Basal Ganglia Circuit for Song Is Required for Social Context-Dependent Vocal Variability

    PubMed Central

    Stepanek, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Variability in adult motor output is important for enabling animals to respond to changing external conditions. Songbirds are useful for studying variability because they alter the amount of variation in their song depending on social context. When an adult zebra finch male sings to a female (“directed”), his song is highly stereotyped, but when he sings alone (“undirected”), his song varies across renditions. Lesions of the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), the output nucleus of a cortical-basal ganglia circuit for song, reduce song variability to that of the stereotyped “performance” state. However, such lesions not only eliminate LMAN's synaptic input to its targets, but can also cause structural or physiological changes in connected brain regions, and thus cannot assess whether the acute activity of LMAN is important for social modulation of adult song variability. To evaluate the effects of ongoing LMAN activity, we reversibly silenced LMAN in singing zebra finches by bilateral reverse microdialysis of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. We found that LMAN inactivation acutely reduced undirected song variability, both across and even within syllable renditions, to the level of directed song variability in all birds examined. Song variability returned to pre-muscimol inactivation levels after drug washout. However, unlike LMAN lesions, LMAN inactivation did not eliminate social context effects on song tempo in adult birds. These results indicate that the activity of LMAN neurons acutely and actively generates social context-dependent increases in adult song variability but that social regulation of tempo is more complex. PMID:20884763

  3. The Forebrain Song System Mediates Predictive Call Timing in Female and Male Zebra Finches.

    PubMed

    Benichov, Jonathan I; Benezra, Sam E; Vallentin, Daniela; Globerson, Eitan; Long, Michael A; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2016-02-01

    The dichotomy between vocal learners and non-learners is a fundamental distinction in the study of animal communication. Male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are vocal learners that acquire a song resembling their tutors', whereas females can only produce innate calls. The acoustic structure of short calls, produced by both males and females, is not learned. However, these calls can be precisely coordinated across individuals. To examine how birds learn to synchronize their calls, we developed a vocal robot that exchanges calls with a partner bird. Because birds answer the robot with stereotyped latencies, we could program it to disrupt each bird's responses by producing calls that are likely to coincide with the bird's. Within minutes, the birds learned to avoid this disruptive masking (jamming) by adjusting the timing of their responses. Notably, females exhibited greater adaptive timing plasticity than males. Further, when challenged with complex rhythms containing jamming elements, birds dynamically adjusted the timing of their calls in anticipation of jamming. Blocking the song system cortical output dramatically reduced the precision of birds' response timing and abolished their ability to avoid jamming. Surprisingly, we observed this effect in both males and females, indicating that the female song system is functional rather than vestigial. We suggest that descending forebrain projections, including the song-production pathway, function as a general-purpose sensorimotor communication system. In the case of calls, it enables plasticity in vocal timing to facilitate social interactions, whereas in the case of songs, plasticity extends to developmental changes in vocal structure. PMID:26774786

  4. "Wait a while, my love" -- an Indonesian popular song with a family planning message.

    PubMed

    Pekerti, R; Musa, R

    1989-10-01

    "Wait a While, My Love," recorded by pop singer Irianti Emingpraja, was the first Indonesian rock sock to contain a family planning message. The album including the song has sold over 100,000 copies. The song has also been packaged as a 60-second video that can be used as an opening theme for radio and television programs. The song, aimed at encouraging Indonesian youth to postpone marriage, has the following lyrics: "Flying free like a seagull/I'll cover many places 'round the world/Give me time for study and reflection, to grow as a mature wise woman/Oh, wait a while, my love/Don't buy me a ring, reflection of your inner love/I'll climb my way up to the top of the world/And reaching our rainbow of hope." The song was produced with support from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordinating Board. Key factors to be examined in producing a popular song with a family planning message include the specific message desired, the target audience, type of music, the singer, the producer, marketing, a multimedia campaign strategy, and distribution outlets. PMID:12315970

  5. A new paradigm to induce mental stress: the Sing-a-Song Stress Test (SSST)

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

    2014-01-01

    We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input and body movements. In our Sing-a-Song Stress Test, participants are presented with neutral messages on a screen, interleaved with 1-min time intervals. The final message is that the participant should sing a song aloud after the interval has elapsed. Participants sit still during the whole procedure. We found that heart rate and skin conductance during the 1-min intervals following the sing-a-song stress message are substantially higher than during intervals following neutral messages. The order of magnitude of the rise is comparable to that achieved by the Trier Social Stress Test. Skin conductance increase correlates positively with experienced stress level as reported by participants. We also simulated stress detection in real time. When using both skin conductance and heart rate, stress is detected for 18 out of 20 participants, approximately 10 s after onset of the sing-a-song message. In conclusion, the Sing-a-Song Stress Test provides a quick, easy, controlled and potent way to induce mental stress and could be helpful in studies ranging from examining physiological effects of mental stress to evaluating interventions to reduce stress. PMID:25120425

  6. Neural mechanisms underlying song and speech perception can be differentiated using an illusory percept.

    PubMed

    Hymers, Mark; Prendergast, Garreth; Liu, Can; Schulze, Anja; Young, Michellie L; Wastling, Stephen J; Barker, Gareth J; Millman, Rebecca E

    2015-03-01

    The issue of whether human perception of speech and song recruits integrated or dissociated neural systems is contentious. This issue is difficult to address directly since these stimulus classes differ in their physical attributes. We therefore used a compelling illusion (Deutsch et al. 2011) in which acoustically identical auditory stimuli are perceived as either speech or song. Deutsch's illusion was used in a functional MRI experiment to provide a direct, within-subject investigation of the brain regions involved in the perceptual transformation from speech into song, independent of the physical characteristics of the presented stimuli. An overall differential effect resulting from the perception of song compared with that of speech was revealed in right midposterior superior temporal sulcus/right middle temporal gyrus. A left frontotemporal network, previously implicated in higher-level cognitive analyses of music and speech, was found to co-vary with a behavioural measure of the subjective vividness of the illusion, and this effect was driven by the illusory transformation. These findings provide evidence that illusory song perception is instantiated by a network of brain regions that are predominantly shared with the speech perception network. PMID:25512041

  7. Anthropogenic noise affects song structure in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus).

    PubMed

    Hanna, Dalal; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Wilson, David R; Mennill, Daniel J

    2011-11-01

    Anthropogenic noise can mask animal signals that are crucial for communicating information about food, predators and mating opportunities. In response to noise masking, signallers can potentially improve acoustic signal transmission by adjusting the timing, frequency or amplitude of their signals. These changes can be a short-term modification in response to transient noise or a long-term modification in response to chronic noise. An animal's ability to adapt to anthropogenic noise can be crucial to its success. In this study, we evaluated the effects of anthropogenic noise on the structure of red-winged blackbird song. First, we manipulated the presence of anthropogenic noise by experimentally broadcasting either silence or low-frequency white noise to subjects inhabiting quiet marshes located away from roadsides. Subjects exhibited increased signal tonality when temporarily exposed to low-frequency white noise, suggesting that red-winged blackbirds can alter their signals rapidly in response to sudden noise. Second, we compared songs produced in quiet marshes located away from roadsides with songs produced during quiet periods at roadside marshes that are normally noisy. This allowed us to test whether birds that are exposed to chronic anthropogenic noise exhibit altered song structure during temporarily quiet periods. Subjects residing in roadside marshes that are normally polluted with anthropogenic noise sang songs with increased tonality during quiet periods. Overall, our results show that anthropogenic noise influences the structure of birdsong. These effects should be considered in conservation and wildlife management. PMID:21993783

  8. Changes in Humpback Whale Song Occurrence in Response to an Acoustic Source 200 km Away

    PubMed Central

    Risch, Denise; Corkeron, Peter J.; Ellison, William T.; Van Parijs, Sofie M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of underwater anthropogenic sound on marine mammals is of increasing concern. Here we show that humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) was reduced, concurrent with transmissions of an Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment approximately 200 km away. We detected the OAWRS experiment in SBNMS during an 11 day period in autumn 2006. We compared the occurrence of song for 11 days before, during and after the experiment with song over the same 33 calendar days in two later years. Using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM), we demonstrate a significant difference in the number of minutes with detected song between periods and years. The lack of humpback whale song during the OAWRS experiment was the most substantial signal in the data. Our findings demonstrate the greatest published distance over which anthropogenic sound has been shown to affect vocalizing baleen whales, and the first time that active acoustic fisheries technology has been shown to have this effect. The suitability of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing technology for in-situ, long term monitoring of marine ecosystems should be considered, bearing in mind its possible effects on non-target species, in particular protected species. PMID:22253769

  9. Nests and nest sites of the San Miguel Island Song Sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Michael D.; Sogge, Mark K.; Kern, Robert B.; Van Riper, Charles, III

    1993-01-01

    Nests and nest sites of the San Miguel Island (SMI) Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia micronyx) are described; nests are compared with those of 16 other races of Song Sparrows. Bush lupins (Lupinus albifrons), coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) and golden bush (Haplopappus venetus) were the shrubs used most commonly as nest sites by Song Sparrows on SMI. As a result of its location, the nest was effectively concealed from gray foxes (Urocyon littoralis), the major predator of this sparrow. Nest and nest site also moderated the combined chilling effects of cool air temperatures and strong northwesterly winds on the eggs and nestlings. Even in the absence of these moderating effects of the nest site, the energetic cost of incubation, estimated at 41-53% of the sparrow's resting metabolic rate, was modest. Twenty-nine percent of the canopy above the nest was open and as much as 73% of the nest cup was in the sun at midday, a time when surface temperatures of foliage, nest and nestlings sometimes exceeded 40 C. Whereas this exposure did not apparently reduce fledging success, it may explain why the incidence of addled eggs was so high in this population of Song Sparrows compared to others. Significant differences existed among races of Song Sparrows in the size, porosity and insulation of the nest. In most cases, these differences were not related to the latitude of the races' nesting areas.

  10. Male songbird indicates body size with low-pitched advertising songs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle L; Kingma, Sjouke A; Peters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Body size is a key sexually selected trait in many animal species. If size imposes a physical limit on the production of loud low-frequency sounds, then low-pitched vocalisations could act as reliable signals of body size. However, the central prediction of this hypothesis--that the pitch of vocalisations decreases with size among competing individuals--has limited support in songbirds. One reason could be that only the lowest-frequency components of vocalisations are constrained, and this may go unnoticed when vocal ranges are large. Additionally, the constraint may only be apparent in contexts when individuals are indeed advertising their size. Here we explicitly consider signal diversity and performance limits to demonstrate that body size limits song frequency in an advertising context in a songbird. We show that in purple-crowned fairy-wrens, Malurus coronatus coronatus, larger males sing lower-pitched low-frequency advertising songs. The lower frequency bound of all advertising song types also has a significant negative relationship with body size. However, the average frequency of all their advertising songs is unrelated to body size. This comparison of different approaches to the analysis demonstrates how a negative relationship between body size and song frequency can be obscured by failing to consider signal design and the concept of performance limits. Since these considerations will be important in any complex communication system, our results imply that body size constraints on low-frequency vocalisations could be more widespread than is currently recognised. PMID:23437221

  11. Changes in humpback whale song occurrence in response to an acoustic source 200 km away.

    PubMed

    Risch, Denise; Corkeron, Peter J; Ellison, William T; Parijs, Sofie M Van

    2012-01-01

    The effect of underwater anthropogenic sound on marine mammals is of increasing concern. Here we show that humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) was reduced, concurrent with transmissions of an Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment approximately 200 km away. We detected the OAWRS experiment in SBNMS during an 11 day period in autumn 2006. We compared the occurrence of song for 11 days before, during and after the experiment with song over the same 33 calendar days in two later years. Using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM), we demonstrate a significant difference in the number of minutes with detected song between periods and years. The lack of humpback whale song during the OAWRS experiment was the most substantial signal in the data. Our findings demonstrate the greatest published distance over which anthropogenic sound has been shown to affect vocalizing baleen whales, and the first time that active acoustic fisheries technology has been shown to have this effect. The suitability of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing technology for in-situ, long term monitoring of marine ecosystems should be considered, bearing in mind its possible effects on non-target species, in particular protected species. PMID:22253769

  12. The neural dynamics of song syntax in songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Dezhe

    2010-03-01

    Songbird is ``the hydrogen atom'' of the neuroscience of complex, learned vocalizations such as human speech. Songs of Bengalese finch consist of sequences of syllables. While syllables are temporally stereotypical, syllable sequences can vary and follow complex, probabilistic syntactic rules, which are rudimentarily similar to grammars in human language. Songbird brain is accessible to experimental probes, and is understood well enough to construct biologically constrained, predictive computational models. In this talk, I will discuss the structure and dynamics of neural networks underlying the stereotypy of the birdsong syllables and the flexibility of syllable sequences. Recent experiments and computational models suggest that a syllable is encoded in a chain network of projection neurons in premotor nucleus HVC (proper name). Precisely timed spikes propagate along the chain, driving vocalization of the syllable through downstream nuclei. Through a computational model, I show that that variable syllable sequences can be generated through spike propagations in a network in HVC in which the syllable-encoding chain networks are connected into a branching chain pattern. The neurons mutually inhibit each other through the inhibitory HVC interneurons, and are driven by external inputs from nuclei upstream of HVC. At a branching point that connects the final group of a chain to the first groups of several chains, the spike activity selects one branch to continue the propagation. The selection is probabilistic, and is due to the winner-take-all mechanism mediated by the inhibition and noise. The model predicts that the syllable sequences statistically follow partially observable Markov models. Experimental results supporting this and other predictions of the model will be presented. We suggest that the syntax of birdsong syllable sequences is embedded in the connection patterns of HVC projection neurons.

  13. Exploring the Old Town School of Folk Music's Beck "Song Reader" Ensemble: An Interview with Nathaniel Braddock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    This column presents an interview with Nathaniel Braddock, who created and teaches an ensemble devoted to Beck's "Song Reader" at the Old Town School of Folk Music in Chicago, Illinois. "Song Reader" is a collection of 20 compositions published as sheet music for musicians to record and release, with over 17,000 versions…

  14. Factor Structure, Construct Validity and Reliability of the Seeking of Noetic Goals (SONG) and Purpose in Life (PIL) Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reker, Gary T.; Cousins, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    In this study with 240 introductory psychology students, ten interpretable independent dimensions of satisfaction with life were extracted with six factors that loaded on the PIL and four that loaded on the SONG, supporting Crumbaugh's assertion that the SONG is a complementary scale to the PIL. (Author/SJL)

  15. Short-term and long-term effects of vocal distortion on song maintenance in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Hough, Gerald E; Volman, Susan F

    2002-02-01

    Adult zebra finch song is irreversibly altered when birds are deprived of correct feedback by deafening or denervation of the syrinx. To clarify the role of feedback in song maintenance, we developed a reversible technique to distort vocal output without damaging the auditory or vocal systems. We implanted flexible beads adjacent to the syrinx to alter its biomechanics. Immediate song aberrations included low volume, frequency shifts, missing harmonics, and production of click-like syllables. After a few weeks, seven of nine birds stopped producing some syllables. In six of these birds, the gaps left by the silenced syllables gradually shortened, and the lost syllables did not return when beads were removed 16 weeks after treatment began. The nondeleted syllables of all birds regained their preimplant morphology, insofar as could be detected, within 9 d after bead removal. In four other birds, we removed the beads as soon as syllables were deleted, when the silent intervals were still full length. In these birds, all deleted syllables returned within 1 week. Our results indicate that both silenced syllables and syllable morphology can recover as long as the song's temporal structure is maintained, but once altered, changes in the song sequence can be permanent. A hierarchical organization of the song production system has recently been described (Margoliash, 1997). Reversible disruption of song production by our method appears to permanently alter the higher levels of the system that encode song sequence, but not the lower levels that encode individual syllable structure. PMID:11826147

  16. A Content Analysis of Asian-Pacific Folk Songs in American Elementary Music Textbooks from 1967 to 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culig, Edna Aurora C.

    2012-01-01

    In this quanto-historical study, the author conducted a content analysis of Asian-Pacific (AP) folk songs in 18 American elementary music textbooks published from 1967 to 2008. The researcher addressed the questions: (1) To what degree are AP folk songs included in the printed and recorded repertoire of elementary music textbook series published…

  17. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Michael T.; Swaddle, John P.; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers’ songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats. PMID:27602270

  18. An Empirical Study on Teaching Urban Young Children Music and English by Contrastive Elements of Music and Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ling-Yu Liza

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to teach urban young children music concepts and English by composing creative music and songs with contrast elements. The subjects were seven urban young children aged from three to four in a Taiwan kindergarten. The duration was twenty-four weeks, with two sessions per week. The teaching contents included Hello Song,…

  19. Songs in the Foreign Language Classroom. ERIC Focus Reports on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Olivia

    This study, one in a continuing series of concise reports each dealing with a problem in foreign language teaching and learning, discusses the teaching of songs in the foreign language classroom. Commentary on the cultural, esthetic, and academic value of singing introduces an enumerated series of general suggestions on teaching the song. Other…

  20. Use of song as an effective teaching strategy for nutrition education in older adults.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Jacquelyn W; Jayaratne, K S U; Bird, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether singing an educational song would be effective in improving older adults' knowledge about nutrition. We used a randomized controlled design to determine whether singing an educational song would result in increased nutrition knowledge in a low-income population of older adults compared to a control group of similar adults who did not sing the song. Eighteen congregate nutrition sites were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. Analysis via independent samples t -test showed the knowledge gain mean scores for the treatment group were significantly ( P  < 0.05) greater than those of the control group. This study supports a unique new approach to increasing nutrition knowledge of older adults by using music. PMID:25803602

  1. Fast and reliable decisions for a dynamic song parameter in field crickets.

    PubMed

    Trobe, Daniela; Schuster, Richard; Römer, Heiner

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the choice of female crickets for a dynamic song parameter (chirp rate) on a walking compensator, and the underlying neuronal basis for the choice in the form of discharge differences in the pair of AN1-neurons driving the phonotactic steering behaviour. Our analysis reveals that decisions about chirp rate in a choice situation are made fast and reliably by female crickets. They steered towards the higher chirp rate after a delay of only 2.2-6 s, depending on the rate difference between the song alternatives. In this time period, the female experienced only one to two additional chirps in the song model with the higher rate. There was a strong correlation between the accumulated AN1 discharge difference and the amount of steering towards the side with the stronger response. PMID:20878165

  2. Fast and reliable decisions for a dynamic song parameter in field crickets

    PubMed Central

    Trobe, Daniela; Schuster, Richard; Römer, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the choice of female crickets for a dynamic song parameter (chirp rate) on a walking compensator, and the underlying neuronal basis for the choice in the form of discharge differences in the pair of AN1-neurons driving the phonotactic steering behaviour. Our analysis reveals that decisions about chirp rate in a choice situation are made fast and reliably by female crickets. They steered towards the higher chirp rate after a delay of only 2.2–6 s, depending on the rate difference between the song alternatives. In this time period, the female experienced only one to two additional chirps in the song model with the higher rate. There was a strong correlation between the accumulated AN1 discharge difference and the amount of steering towards the side with the stronger response. PMID:20878165

  3. [Preliminary research on the transmission of official printed medical books in the Song dynasty].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Xin

    2010-09-01

    In the Song dynasty, central and municipal governments edited and published a large quantity of medical books. Surveying the transmission of official printed books is important in exploring the process of the transmission of medical knowledge in the Song dynasty. Various library catalogues and related historical materials provided convenient sources for research on the transmission of these medical books. Collections of archives, sales to the public and grants from the court for court ministers, foreign countries and municipalities were the main routes of medical book transmission, by which medical knowledge was widely spread among both city and local areas, to intellectuals and the general public, and which laid the foundation for the prosperity of medicine in the Song dynasty. PMID:21163080

  4. [Feeling with intelligence, thinking with emotion: science and technology in the songs of Humberto Gessinger].

    PubMed

    Mori, Rafael Cava

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the thematic units of science and technology in the songs of Humberto Gessinger. We conducted an analysis of three songs, according to the studies of the Bakhtin Circle, by observing the inclusion of words and expressions of science in this poetic production. It transpires from this analysis that by including these words into popular song, Gessinger brings echoes of scientific texts into this genre, prosifying his poetry by adding an "unfinished" element. Since for Bakhtin prose is more dialogical and is in closer contact with its socio-historical context - compared to poetry - we conclude that by including scientific-technological words and themes in his compositions, Gessinger becomes an active participant of the discussions about postmodernity. PMID:26331642

  5. Fiddler on the tree--a bush-cricket species with unusual stridulatory organs and song.

    PubMed

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Hemp, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Insects of the order Orthoptera are well-known for their acoustic communication. The structures used for this purpose show a high diversity which obviously relates to differences in song parameters and to the physics of sound production. Here we describe song and morphology of the sound producing organs of a tropical bush-cricket, Ectomoptera nepicauda, from East Africa. It has a very unusual calling song consisting of frequency-modulated, pure-tone sounds in the high ultrasonic range of 80 to 120 kHz and produced by extremely fast wing movements. Concerning morphology, it represents the most extreme state in the degree of left-right fore-wing differentiation found among Orthoptera: the acoustic parts of the left fore-wing consist exclusively of the stridulatory file, comparable in function to the bow of a violin, while the right wing carries only the plectrum ( =  string) and mirror ( =  soundbox). PMID:24643071

  6. BRAIN EXPRESSION AND SONG REGULATION OF THE CHOLECYSTOKININ GENE IN THE ZEBRA FINCH (TAENIOPYGIA GUTTATA)

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, Peter V.; Mello, Claudio V.

    2010-01-01

    The gene encoding cholecystokinin (Cck) is abundantly expressed in the mammalian brain and has been associated with such functions as feeding termination and satiety, locomotion and self-stimulation, the modulation of anxiety-like behaviors, and learning and memory. Here we describe the brain expression and song regulation of Cck in the brain of the adult male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), a songbird species. Using in situ hybridization, we demonstrate that Cck is highly expressed in several discrete brain regions, most prominently the caudal-most portion of the hippocampal formation, the caudodorsal nidopallial shelf and the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), the core or shell regions of dorsal thalamic nuclei, dopaminergic cell groups in the mesencephalon and pons, the principal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, and the dorsal raphe. Cck was largely absent in song control system, a group of nuclei required for vocal learning and song production in songbirds, though sparse labeling was detected throughout the striatum, including song nucleus area X. We also show that levels of Cck mRNA and the number of labeled cells increase in the NCM of males and females following auditory stimulation with conspecific song. Double labeling further reveals that the majority of Cck cells, excluding those in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus, are non-GABAergic. Together, these data provide the first comprehensive characterization of Cck expression in a songbird, and suggest a possible involvement of Cck regulation in important aspects of birdsong biology, such as perceptual processing, auditory memorization and/or vocal-motor control of song production. PMID:21165972

  7. EEG Correlates of Song Prosody: A New Look at the Relationship between Linguistic and Musical Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Magne, Cyrille L.; Large, Edward W.

    2011-01-01

    Song composers incorporate linguistic prosody into their music when setting words to melody, a process called “textsetting.” Composers tend to align the expected stress of the lyrics with strong metrical positions in the music. The present study was designed to explore the idea that temporal alignment helps listeners to better understand song lyrics by directing listeners’ attention to instances where strong syllables occur on strong beats. Three types of textsettings were created by aligning metronome clicks with all, some or none of the strong syllables in sung sentences. Electroencephalographic recordings were taken while participants listened to the sung sentences (primes) and performed a lexical decision task on subsequent words and pseudowords (targets, presented visually). Comparison of misaligned and well-aligned sentences showed that temporal alignment between strong/weak syllables and strong/weak musical beats were associated with modulations of induced beta and evoked gamma power, which have been shown to fluctuate with rhythmic expectancies. Furthermore, targets that followed well-aligned primes elicited greater induced alpha and beta activity, and better lexical decision task performance, compared with targets that followed misaligned and varied sentences. Overall, these findings suggest that alignment of linguistic stress and musical meter in song enhances musical beat tracking and comprehension of lyrics by synchronizing neural activity with strong syllables. This approach may begin to explain the mechanisms underlying the relationship between linguistic and musical rhythm in songs, and how rhythmic attending facilitates learning and recall of song lyrics. Moreover, the observations reported here coincide with a growing number of studies reporting interactions between the linguistic and musical dimensions of song, which likely stem from shared neural resources for processing music and speech. PMID:22144972

  8. Smithornis broadbills produce loud wing song by aeroelastic flutter of medial primary wing feathers.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher J; Kirschel, Alexander N G; Hadjioannou, Louis; Prum, Richard O

    2016-04-01

    Broadbills in the genus Smithornis produce a loud brreeeeet during a distinctive flight display. It has been posited that this klaxon-like sound is generated non-vocally with the outer wing feathers (P9, P10), but no scientific studies have previously addressed this hypothesis. Although most birds that make non-vocal communication sounds have feathers with a shape distinctively modified for sound production, Smithornis broadbills do not. We investigated whether this song is produced vocally or with the wings in rufous-sided broadbill (S. rufolateralis) and African broad bill (S. capensis). In support of the wing song hypothesis, synchronized high-speed video and sound recordings of displays demonstrated that sound pulses were produced during the downstroke, subtle gaps sometimes appeared between the outer primary feathers P6-P10, and wing tip speed reached 16 m s(-1) Tests of a spread wing in a wind tunnel demonstrated that at a specific orientation, P6 and P7 flutter and produce sound. Wind tunnel tests on individual feathers P5-P10 from a male of each species revealed that while all of these feathers can produce sound via aeroelastic flutter, P6 and P7 produce the loudest sounds, which are similar in frequency to the wing song, at airspeeds achievable by the wing tip during display flight. Consistent with the wind tunnel experiments, field manipulations of P6, P7 and P8 changed the timbre of the wing song, and reduced its tonality, demonstrating that P6 and P7 are together the sound source, and not P9 or P10. The resultant wing song appears to have functionally replaced vocal song. PMID:27030781

  9. External morphology and calling song characteristics in Tibicen plebejus (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Maedeh; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Zamanian, Hossein

    2015-02-01

    Tibicen plebejus is the largest cicada native to the ecosystem in northern Iran. The male cicada produces a loud calling song for attracting females from a long distance. It is presumed that the female selects a mate based on a combination of passive and active mechanisms, but it is not known if she selects for size, nor if the male's size correlates with any characteristic of the advertisement call. In this study, we report the relationship between calling song features and morphological characters in the male of T. plebejus. Research was conducted in northern Iran during the summer of 2010. Seventeen males were collected and their calling songs were recorded in a natural environment. Two morphological characters were measured: length and weight. Maximum, minimum and average of values of 10 key acoustic variables of the calling song were analyzed: phrase duration, phrase part 1, phrase part 2, number of phrases per minute, echeme duration, echeme period, interecheme interval, number of echeme per second, echeme/intereheme ratio, and dominant frequency. The data were tested for the level of association between morphology and acoustic variables using simple linear regression. In conclusion, in terms of song structure, three significant positive correlations existed between length and (1) mean echeme duration, (2) mean echeme/interecheme ratio, (3) maximum echeme/interecheme ratio. We found out also four significant negative correlations between both length and weight with (1) minimum interecheme intervals, (2) mean dominant frequency, (3) minimum dominant frequency, (4) maximum dominant frequency, and between weight and (1) minimum interecheme intervals, (2) mean dominant frequency, (3) minimum dominant frequency, (4) maximum dominant frequency. It can be found that larger males of T. plebejus produce songs of lower frequency and are less silent between echemes. PMID:25529271

  10. The Acquisition of Sight-Singing Skills in Second-Grade General Music: Effects of Using Solfege and of Relating Tonal Patterns to Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifinger, James L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine two aspects of sight-singing instruction: (1) solfege syllables versus the syllable "loo" for singing patterns and (2) the use of related songs (songs that began with tonal patterns being studied) as compared with unrelated songs. Second-grade students (N = 193) enrolled in general music classes participated in…

  11. Numerical Simulation of Petroleum Generation and Migration in the Song Hong Basin, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Byeong-Kook; Thi Nguyen, Hong; Park, Mee-Sook

    2014-05-01

    The numerical modeling of petroleum systems is an effective tool to understand generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons in a sedimentary basin and hence to determine future targets for the hydrocarbon exploration. The numerical modeling identifies two petroleum systems in the Song Hong Basin, which is a petroliferous Cenozoic basin, offshore eastern Vietnam. These petroleum systems were named DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System and SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System. DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System covers northern and central parts of the Song Hong basin with Oligocene shale and coaly shale source rocks of Dinh Cao formation, which are dominated by type II-III kerogens. The hydrocarbon generation starts at 13 Ma within deeply buried Oligocene strata located in the centre of the basin. The hydrocarbon expels from the Oligocene source rock and migrates laterally and then up dip toward marginal areas where Middle Miocene sandstones of Phu Cu formation are present as major reservoirs. The numerical model shows that the critical moment occurs at about 3.5 Ma. The DinhCao-PhuCu(.) petroleum system is confirmed by sparse occurrence of oil and gas along the coast of eastern Vietnam. SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is identified in limited areas of the central and southern Song Hong basin. The major source rock of this petroleum system is Lower Miocene dark claystones of Song Huong formation which contain gas prone, type III kerogen. The migration model shows that hydrocarbons are generated from the Miocene source rocks in the center of the basin at about 12 Ma, and migrates updip through sand bodies of Quang Ngai formation to the major boundaries faults, and further moves into highly permeable up-dipping units, the Bien Dong formation. The best depiction of the generation-migration-accumulation of hydrocarbons occurs at about 2 Ma. The presence of the SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is indicated by the large gas fields in the central and

  12. The singer and the song: the neuromechanics of avian sound production.

    PubMed

    Elemans, Coen P H

    2014-10-01

    Song is crucial to songbirds for establishing territories and signaling genetic quality and an important driver in speciation. Songbirds also have become a widely used experimental model system to study the neural basis of vocal learning, a form of imitation learning with strong parallels to human speech learning. While there is a strong focus on central processing of song production, we still have limited insights into the functional output of the motor neural circuits. This review focuses on recent developments in motor control, biomechanics and feedback mechanisms of sound production in songbirds. PMID:25171107

  13. A preliminary research about precision of star catalogues in Tang and Song Dynasties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shengchi

    The catalogues of ancient China had an evident progress in Tang and Song Dynasties. The analyses shows, the precision of north polar distance data observed by Yi Xing in Tang Dynasty was rather lower. Perhaps it is due to that those data could not show the real precision in that time. Yi Xing found that there are the difference between the data of same stars' positions observed in different epochs. It is the beginning of the regular observing stars' positions in ancient China. The precision of two catalogues in Song dynasty is better obviously.

  14. Mössbauer study of the Ru porcelain of Chinese Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhengyao, Gao; Songhua, Chen; Xiande, Chen

    1994-12-01

    The Mössbauer spectra from the glazes of the Song Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty Ru porcelains and the imitative ancient Ru porcelain are compared and analyzed. It is determined that the original firing atmosphere of the Yuan Dynasty Ru porcelain was reductive. The firing temperature was 1250±20 ‡C. The original firing atmosphere of the Song Dynasty Ru porcelain was also reductive; the firing temperature was above 1200 ‡C. The coloring mechanism of these glazes is discussed.

  15. Effects of songs with prosocial lyrics on prosocial behavior: further evidence and a mediating mechanism.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2009-11-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to prosocial songs increased the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, led to more interpersonal empathy, and fostered helping behavior. However, inasmuch as cognition, affect, and behavior were measured in different studies, it remained unclear what variable constituted the mediating path from media exposure to action. This was tested in the present research. In four studies, listening to songs with prosocial, relative to neutral, lyrics increased helping behavior. This effect was mediated by interpersonal empathy. The results are consistent with the general learning model and point to the importance of the affective route in explaining how media exposure influences social behavior. PMID:19648562

  16. The Speech-to-Song Illusion Is Reduced in Speakers of Tonal (vs. Non-Tonal) Languages.

    PubMed

    Jaisin, Kankamol; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Figueroa Candia, Mauricio A; Warren, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    The speech-to-song illusion has attracted interest as a probe of the perceptual interface between language and music. One might anticipate differential speech-to-song effects in tonal vs. non-tonal languages, since these language classes differ importantly in the linguistic value they assign to tones. Here we addressed this issue for the first time in a cohort of 20 healthy younger adults whose native language was either tonal (Thai, Mandarin) or non-tonal (German, Italian) and all of whom were also fluent in English. All participants were assessed using a protocol designed to induce the speech-to-song illusion on speech excerpts presented in each of the five study languages. Over the combined participant group, there was evidence of a speech-to-song illusion effect for all language stimuli and the extent to which individual participants rated stimuli as "song-like" at baseline was significantly positively correlated with the strength of the speech-to-song effect. However, tonal and non-tonal language stimuli elicited comparable speech-to-song effects and no acoustic language parameter was found to predict the effect. Examining the effect of the listener's native language, tonal language native speakers experienced significantly weaker speech-to-song effects than non-tonal native speakers across languages. Both non-tonal native language and inability to understand the stimulus language significantly predicted the speech-to-song illusion. These findings together suggest that relative propensity to perceive prosodic structures as inherently linguistic vs. musical may modulate the speech-to-song illusion. PMID:27242580

  17. The Speech-to-Song Illusion Is Reduced in Speakers of Tonal (vs. Non-Tonal) Languages

    PubMed Central

    Jaisin, Kankamol; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Figueroa Candia, Mauricio A.; Warren, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    The speech-to-song illusion has attracted interest as a probe of the perceptual interface between language and music. One might anticipate differential speech-to-song effects in tonal vs. non-tonal languages, since these language classes differ importantly in the linguistic value they assign to tones. Here we addressed this issue for the first time in a cohort of 20 healthy younger adults whose native language was either tonal (Thai, Mandarin) or non-tonal (German, Italian) and all of whom were also fluent in English. All participants were assessed using a protocol designed to induce the speech-to-song illusion on speech excerpts presented in each of the five study languages. Over the combined participant group, there was evidence of a speech-to-song illusion effect for all language stimuli and the extent to which individual participants rated stimuli as “song-like” at baseline was significantly positively correlated with the strength of the speech-to-song effect. However, tonal and non-tonal language stimuli elicited comparable speech-to-song effects and no acoustic language parameter was found to predict the effect. Examining the effect of the listener's native language, tonal language native speakers experienced significantly weaker speech-to-song effects than non-tonal native speakers across languages. Both non-tonal native language and inability to understand the stimulus language significantly predicted the speech-to-song illusion. These findings together suggest that relative propensity to perceive prosodic structures as inherently linguistic vs. musical may modulate the speech-to-song illusion. PMID:27242580

  18. Male mate preferences in mutual mate choice: finches modulate their songs across and within male–female interactions

    PubMed Central

    Heinig, Abbie; Pant, Santosh; Dunning, Jeffery; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    Male songbirds use song to advertise their attractiveness as potential mates, and the properties of those songs have a powerful influence on female mate preferences. One idea is that males may exert themselves maximally in each song performance, consistent with female evaluation and formation of mate preferences being the primary contributors to mate choice. Alternatively, males may modulate their song behaviour to different degrees in the presence of different females, consistent with both male and female mate preferences contributing to mutual mate choice. Here we consider whether male Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata domestica, express mate preferences at the level of individual females, and whether those preferences are manifest as changes in song behaviour that are sufficient to influence female mate choice. We tested this idea by recording songs performed by individual unmated males during a series of 1 h interactions with each of many unmated females. Across recording sessions, males systematically varied both the quantity and the quality of the songs that they performed to different females. Males also varied their song properties throughout the course of each interaction, and behavioural tests using female birds revealed that songs performed at the onset of each interaction were significantly more attractive than songs performed by the same male later during the same interaction. This demonstration of context-specific variation in the properties of male reproductive signals and a role for that variation in shaping female mate preference reveals that male mate preferences play an important role in mutual mate choice in this species. Because these birds thrive so well in the laboratory and are so amenable to observation and experimentation across generations, these results yield a new model system that may prove especially advantageous in disentangling the role of male and female mate preferences in shaping mutual mate choice and its long-term benefits or

  19. Time-dependent localization of high- and low-sulfated keratan sulfates in the song nuclei of developing zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Hisataka; Ohgomori, Tomohiro; Abe, Kentaro; Uchimura, Kenji; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Jinno, Shozo

    2015-11-01

    Keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) consist of a protein core with covalently attached glycosaminoglycan side chain. Although CSPGs are known to regulate the end of the critical period, the role of KSPGs in brain development remains unclear. Young male zebra finches memorise song templates during development. The brain regions that are responsible for song learning, known as song nuclei, are recognized as a suitable model for the study of brain development. To understand the potential role of KSPGs, here we examined the localization of KSs with different degrees of sulfation in the brain of developing male zebra finches. Exclusively in the song nuclei, an increase in expression of 5-D-4-positive (5-D-4(+)) high-sulfated KS started after hatching, and reached a plateau at the end of the sensory period, during which the young bird listens to and memorises the song of an adult tutor. By contrast, weak and ubiquitous expression of BCD-4(+) low-sulfated KS remained unchanged until the end of the sensory period, and first increased in the song nuclei at the end of the sensorimotor period, during which the young bird produces plastic songs. Immunoblot analysis showed that phosphacan was a common core protein of 5-D-4(+) KS and BCD-4(+) KS. Finally, we confirmed that the sulfotransferase responsible for the synthesis of high-sulfated KS was exclusively localised in the song nuclei. Our observations suggest that time-dependent localization of KSPGs with different sulfation patterns in the song nuclei may underlie song learning in developing male zebra finches. PMID:26369722

  20. Male mate preferences in mutual mate choice: finches modulate their songs across and within male-female interactions.

    PubMed

    Heinig, Abbie; Pant, Santosh; Dunning, Jeffery; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-10-01

    Male songbirds use song to advertise their attractiveness as potential mates, and the properties of those songs have a powerful influence on female mate preferences. One idea is that males may exert themselves maximally in each song performance, consistent with female evaluation and formation of mate preferences being the primary contributors to mate choice. Alternatively, males may modulate their song behaviour to different degrees in the presence of different females, consistent with both male and female mate preferences contributing to mutual mate choice. Here we consider whether male Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata domestica, express mate preferences at the level of individual females, and whether those preferences are manifest as changes in song behaviour that are sufficient to influence female mate choice. We tested this idea by recording songs performed by individual unmated males during a series of 1 h interactions with each of many unmated females. Across recording sessions, males systematically varied both the quantity and the quality of the songs that they performed to different females. Males also varied their song properties throughout the course of each interaction, and behavioural tests using female birds revealed that songs performed at the onset of each interaction were significantly more attractive than songs performed by the same male later during the same interaction. This demonstration of context-specific variation in the properties of male reproductive signals and a role for that variation in shaping female mate preference reveals that male mate preferences play an important role in mutual mate choice in this species. Because these birds thrive so well in the laboratory and are so amenable to observation and experimentation across generations, these results yield a new model system that may prove especially advantageous in disentangling the role of male and female mate preferences in shaping mutual mate choice and its long-term benefits or

  1. Adult neuron addition to the zebra finch song motor pathway correlates with the rate and extent of recovery from botox-induced paralysis of the vocal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Pytte, Carolyn; Yu, Yi-Lo; Wildstein, Sara; George, Shanu; Kirn, John

    2011-01-01

    In adult songbirds, neurons are continually incorporated into the telencephalic nucleus HVC, a pre-motor region necessary for the production of learned vocalizations. Previous studies have demonstrated that neuron addition to HVC is highest when song is most variable: in juveniles during song learning, in seasonally singing adults during peaks in plasticity that precede the production of new song components, or during seasonal re-establishment of a previously learned song. These findings suggest that neuron addition provides motor flexibility for the transition from a variable song to a target song. Here we test the association between the quality of song structure and HVC neuron addition by experimentally manipulating syringeal muscle control with botox, which produces a transient partial paralysis. We show that the quality of song structure co-varies with new neuron addition to HVC. Both the magnitude of song distortion and the rate of song recovery following syringeal botox injections were correlated with the number of new neurons incorporated into HVC. We suggest that the quality of song structure is either a cause or consequence of the number of new neurons added to HVC. Birds with naturally high rates of neuron addition may have had the greatest success in recovering song. Alternatively, or in addition, new neuron survival in the song motor pathway may be regulated by the quality of song-generated feedback as song regains its original stereotyped structure. Present results are the first to show a relationship between peripheral muscle control and adult neuron addition to cortical pre-motor circuits. PMID:22114266

  2. Values of Youth: Messages from the Most Popular Songs of Four Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostlund, Deborah R.; Kinnier, Richard T.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzed the lyrics of the 100 most popular songs in America from the 1950s to the 1980s to assess their value themes. Extracted nine value themes: romantic love, celebration, humanitarianism, antiestablishmentarianism, friendship, patriotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and nostalgia. Romantic love, particularly that of "innocent" young love,…

  3. "There's a Surfeit of Java in Rio: Coffee Songs As Teaching Resources".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee; Schurk, William L.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the use of daily habits or common social activities by anthropologists and sociology teachers to illustrate the power of popular culture focuses on the role of coffee. Provides a list of more than 60 specific songs and albums that could be used for classroom discussion. (Author/LRW)

  4. Analogy between Laryngeal Gesture in Mongolian "Long Song" and Supracricoid Partial Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crevier-Buchman, Lise; Pillot-Loiseau, Claire; Rialland, Annie; Narantuya; Vincent, Coralie; Desjacques, Alain

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of a multiparametrical analysis of "Mongolian Long Song," characterised by multiple ornamentation and shows the similarities between the laryngeal behaviour observed during these ornamentations and the compensatory gesture produced by patients after supracricoid partial laryngectomy. This study includes (1) a…

  5. Song Recognition by Young Children with Cochlear Implants: Comparison between Unilateral, Bilateral, and Bimodal Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartov, Tamar; Most, Tova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine song identification by preschoolers with normal hearing (NH) versus preschoolers with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Participants included 45 children ages 3;8-7;3 (years;months): 12 with NH and 33 with CIs, including 10 with unilateral CI, 14 with bilateral CIs, and 9 bimodal users (CI-HA) with unilateral CI and…

  6. Unterrichtsversuche mit dem franzosischen Chanson (Instruction Experiments with the French Song)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbeck-Bollnow, Renate

    1974-01-01

    Five teaching experiments with French songs, in grades 7, 8 and 9, are described. Aural understanding was practiced first, then use of the text. In the 9th grade, work on the content became most important, with the aim of correcting and expanding the common conception of France. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. Name that Word: Using Song Lyrics to Improve the Decoding Skills of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Many adolescents, especially those with learning disabilities, lack basic word identification skills. Finding motivating instructional techniques to improve word-level reading skills is increasingly difficult as students move through the grades. One technique that holds promise in motivating adolescents involves using song lyrics from their…

  8. Notes on Grammar: Singing in ESL with Songs for the Grammar Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Fawn

    The favorable effect of music on the emotions has been recognized since ancient times, and, more recently, many have made use of music to make students in the classroom more receptive to learning. Songs in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom can be helpful in several ways: (1) by introducing basic vocabulary, (2) by imparting…

  9. Perception of warble song in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): evidence for special processing

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Dooling, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The long, rambling warble song of male budgerigars is composed of a large number of acoustically complex elements uttered in streams lasting minutes a time and accompanied by various courtship behaviors. Warble song has no obvious sequential structure or patterned repetition of elements, raising questions as to which aspects of it are perceptually salient, whether budgerigars can detect changes in natural warble streams, and to what extent these capabilities are species-specific. Using operant conditioning and a psychophysical paradigm, we examined the sensitivity of budgerigars, canaries, and zebra finches to changes in long (>6 min) natural warble sequences of a male budgerigar. All three species could detect a single insertion of pure tones, zebra finch song syllables, budgerigar contact calls, or warble elements from another budgerigar’s warble. In each case, budgerigars were more sensitive to these changes than were canaries or finches. When warble elements from the ongoing warble stream were used as targets and inserted, out of order, into the natural warble stream so that the only cue available was the violation of the natural ordering of warble elements, only budgerigars performed above chance. When the experiment was repeated with all the ongoing warble stream elements presented in random order, the performance of budgerigars fell to chance. These results show species-specific advantages in budgerigars for detecting acoustic changes in natural warble sequences and indicate at least a limited sensitivity to sequential rules governing the structure of their species-specific warble songs. PMID:22890832

  10. Enhancing Secondary Stage Students' Writing: Effects of Context of Songs in Teaching Grammar Implicitly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Rhim, Azza Ashraf Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigated the effect of context of songs in teaching grammar implicitly on students writing. The study was conducted on sixty students who were assigned to an experimental group and a control one. The control group was taught grammar explicitly with an explanation of grammatical rules; however, the…

  11. An Analysis of Song-Leading by Kindergarten Teachers in Taiwan and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Mei-Ying; Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine components of the song-leading process used by kindergarten teachers in Taiwan and the United States, including the critical matter of starting pitch. Five public school kindergarten teachers in Taipei, Taiwan, and five public kindergarten teachers in Seattle, USA, were invited to participate in this study…

  12. Teaching Children's Songs: A Taiwan-US Comparison of Approaches by Kindergarten Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Mei-Ying; Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare differences in approaches to teaching children's song by kindergarten teachers in Taiwan and the USA. Five public school kindergarten teachers in Taipei, Taiwan, and five public kindergarten teachers in Seattle, USA, were invited to voluntarily participate in this study. They were asked to teach six…

  13. Handclapping Songs: A Spontaneous Platform for Child Development among 5-10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Warren; Sulkin, Idit

    2011-01-01

    The impact of music activity on children's motor and cognitive skills has been investigated with music learning, instrument lessons and classroom music. While none have employed natural utterances, singing games or playground/street songs, these musical experiences of childhood are acknowledged as a major platform for child development. The…

  14. Promoting Cultural Understandings through Song across the Tasman: Pre-Service Primary Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn; Trinick, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    As tertiary music educators across the Tasman we argue that music, particularly song, is an effective medium for teaching and learning about non-western music when preparing generalist primary Pre-Service Teachers (PSTs). Using "voice" as a portable and accessible vehicle to transmit cultural understandings, we draw on the Zimbabwean…

  15. Natural courtship song variation caused by an intronic retroelement in an ion channel gene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun; Berrocal, Augusto; Morita, Tomoko; Longden, Kit D; Stern, David L

    2016-08-18

    Animal species display enormous variation for innate behaviours, but little is known about how this diversity arose. Here, using an unbiased genetic approach, we map a courtship song difference between wild isolates of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauritiana to a 966 base pair region within the slowpoke (slo) locus, which encodes a calcium-activated potassium channel. Using the reciprocal hemizygosity test, we confirm that slo is the causal locus and resolve the causal mutation to the evolutionarily recent insertion of a retroelement in a slo intron within D. simulans. Targeted deletion of this retroelement reverts the song phenotype and alters slo splicing. Like many ion channel genes, slo is expressed widely in the nervous system and influences a variety of behaviours; slo-null males sing little song with severely disrupted features. By contrast, the natural variant of slo alters a specific component of courtship song, illustrating that regulatory evolution of a highly pleiotropic ion channel gene can cause modular changes in behaviour. PMID:27509856

  16. Life, Labor, and, Song in New England during the Early Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, John W., Ed.; Scott, John A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Singing the tunes in this collection will help students understand many of the realities of life during the early years of the United States. From hearth and home to the perils of the sea, and from factory life to Presidential elections, this journal offers a selection of 19 songs to introduce the life and labor of New England people during the…

  17. Harmony in the Classroom: Using Songs To Teach Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridout, Susan Ramp

    Based on the premise that children's natural love for music makes it appropriate to use songs as a motivational vehicle for reading and writing, this paper presents a reading/singing strategy which promotes vocabulary, word recognition, writing, and comprehension skills while providing appreciation of music. The paper briefly discusses the eight…

  18. Ghanaian Folk Songs: Training Ground for Music and Social Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    The article considers Ghanaian folk songs as a training ground for music and social skill development. The U.S. is in cultural transition. Such changes have brought about reforms in educational policy including how teachers and school boards address ethnic diversity. The music of Africa is as diverse as its geography and its numerous ethnic…

  19. Inventing Songs, Inventing Worlds: The "Genesis" of Creative Thought and Activity in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Margaret S.

    2006-01-01

    This article draws on systems views of creativity and their application in music education, to argue that young children's independent invented song making evolves from their early musico-communicative interaction with others, is evidential of their capacity for "elaboration," and is foundational in the development of creative thought and activity…

  20. Song Recognition without Identification: When People Cannot "Name that Tune" but Can Recognize It as Familiar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    Recognition without identification (RWI) is a common day-to-day experience (as when recognizing a face or a tune as familiar without being able to identify the person or the song). It is also a well-established laboratory-based empirical phenomenon: When identification of recognition test items is prevented, participants can discriminate between…

  1. Divergence in male cricket song and female preference functions in three allopatric sister species.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Ralf Matthias; Blankers, Thomas; Gray, David A

    2016-05-01

    Multivariate female preference functions for male sexual signals have rarely been investigated, especially in a comparative context among sister species. Here we examined male signal and female preference co-variation in three closely related, but allopatric species of Gryllus crickets and quantified male song traits as well as female preferences. We show that males differ conspicuously in either one of two relatively static song traits, carrier frequency or pulse rate; female preference functions for these traits also differed, and would in combination enhance species discrimination. In contrast, the relatively dynamic song traits, chirp rate and chirp duty cycle, show minimal divergence among species and relatively greater conservation of female preference functions. Notably, among species we demonstrate similar mechanistic rules for the integration of pulse and chirp time scales, despite divergence in pulse rate preferences. As these are allopatric taxa, selection for species recognition per se is unlikely. More likely sexual selection combined with conserved properties of preference filters enabled divergent coevolution of male song and female preferences. PMID:27026021

  2. The Fate of a Migrant Language in Northern France (1880-1914): Flemish in Song Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declercq, Elien; D'hulst, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    New research on the history of nineteenth-century Flemish migration into the North of France shows ample evidence of a complex pattern of transfer procedures taking place between the source and target cultures, both via institutions such as newspapers, magazines and associations and via practices such as popular theatre, almanacs and songs. The…

  3. Personality's Top 40: An Assignment to Motivate Students to Apply Personality Concepts to Their Favorite Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesselmann, Eric D.; Kassner, Matthew P.; Graziano, William G.

    2016-01-01

    We created an activity in an upper-level personality psychology course in which interested students created an "entry" for a contest in which they chose a popular song that illustrated a course concept. The class evaluated these entries and voted on their favorites in a tournament-style bracket system; winners received extra credit.…

  4. Diminished FoxP2 levels affect dopaminergic modulation of corticostriatal signaling important to song variability.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Malavika; Harward, Stephen; Scharff, Constance; Mooney, Richard

    2013-12-18

    Mutations of the FOXP2 gene impair speech and language development in humans and shRNA-mediated suppression of the avian ortholog FoxP2 disrupts song learning in juvenile zebra finches. How diminished FoxP2 levels affect vocal control and alter the function of neural circuits important to learned vocalizations remains unclear. Here we show that FoxP2 knockdown in the songbird striatum disrupts developmental and social modulation of song variability. Recordings in anesthetized birds show that FoxP2 knockdown interferes with D1R-dependent modulation of activity propagation in a corticostriatal pathway important to song variability, an effect that may be partly attributable to reduced D1R and DARPP-32 protein levels. Furthermore, recordings in singing birds reveal that FoxP2 knockdown prevents social modulation of singing-related activity in this pathway. These findings show that reduced FoxP2 levels interfere with the dopaminergic modulation of vocal variability, which may impede song and speech development by disrupting reinforcement learning mechanisms. PMID:24268418

  5. Meteor Beliefs Project: Musical Meteors, meteoric imagery as used in near-contemporary song lyrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, Alastair; Gheorghe, Andrei Dorian

    2010-01-01

    Items collected from contemporary song lyrics featuring meteoric imagery, or inspired by meteors, are given, with some discussion. While not a major part of the Meteor Beliefs Project, there are points of interest in how such usage may become passed into popular beliefs about meteors.

  6. On the precision of measurements of star positions in northern Song dynasty.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Sheng-Chi

    1989-03-01

    Partial data of four measurements of star positions in the northern Song dynasty are analysed. The deviations between the four data sets of the ranges of the mansions and the calculated corresponding values are 1 to 0.5 ancient degree of China, respectively.

  7. Perception of warble song in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): evidence for special processing.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Dooling, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    The long, rambling warble song of male budgerigars is composed of a large number of acoustically complex elements uttered in streams lasting minutes a time and accompanied by various courtship behaviors. Warble song has no obvious sequential structure or patterned repetition of elements, raising questions as to which aspects of it are perceptually salient, whether budgerigars can detect changes in natural warble streams, and to what extent these capabilities are species-specific. Using operant conditioning and a psychophysical paradigm, we examined the sensitivity of budgerigars, canaries, and zebra finches to changes in long (>6 min) natural warble sequences of a male budgerigar. All three species could detect a single insertion of pure tones, zebra finch song syllables, budgerigar contact calls, or warble elements from another budgerigar's warble. In each case, budgerigars were more sensitive to these changes than were canaries or finches. When warble elements from the ongoing warble stream were used as targets and inserted, out of order, into the natural warble stream so that the only cue available was the violation of the natural ordering of warble elements, only budgerigars performed above chance. When the experiment was repeated with all the ongoing warble stream elements presented in random order, the performance of budgerigars fell to chance. These results show species-specific advantages in budgerigars for detecting acoustic changes in natural warble sequences and indicate at least a limited sensitivity to sequential rules governing the structure of their species-specific warble songs. PMID:22890832

  8. Singing Songs as a Creative Method for Narrative Inquiry in the English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Narrative inquiry has a long tradition in qualitative educational research, although it remains a relatively untapped method of investigation in English curriculum and pedagogy studies. This paper presents one experimental narrative approach through the use of song lyrics as a musical method for storying interview data. Working with non-linear and…

  9. Songs vs. Stories: Impact of Input Sources on ESL Vocabulary Acquisition by Preliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesniewska, Justyna; Pichette, François

    2016-01-01

    Research in second language acquisition has paid little attention to preliterate children learning a language which is absent from their environment outside the language class. This study examines the acquisition of English words by 24 French-speaking children aged 35-59 months, who were introduced to 57 words, embedded in stories and songs. Four…

  10. Corporeal and Sonic Diagrams for Cinematic Ethics in Rolf De Heer's "Dance Me to My Song"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey-Moody, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Rolf De Heer's 1997 Australian feature film "Dance Me to My Song" was devised with the late Heather Rose, a person with Cerebral Palsy. The film also features a central performance by Heather (as the character of Julia) and is clearly about "her world". The ethic of engagement exemplified by this film resonates with what Gerard Goggin has termed…

  11. FoxP2 in song-learning birds and vocal-learning mammals.

    PubMed

    Webb, D M; Zhang, J

    2005-01-01

    FoxP2 is the first identified gene that is specifically involved in speech and language development in humans. Population genetic studies of FoxP2 revealed a selective sweep in recent human history associated with two amino acid substitutions in exon 7. Avian song learning and human language acquisition share many behavioral and neurological similarities. To determine whether FoxP2 plays a similar role in song-learning birds, we sequenced exon 7 of FoxP2 in multiple song-learning and nonlearning birds. We show extreme conservation of FoxP2 sequences in birds, including unusually low rates of synonymous substitutions. However, no amino acid substitutions are shared between the song-learning birds and humans. Furthermore, sequences from vocal-learning whales, dolphins, and bats do not share the human-unique substitutions. While FoxP2 appears to be under strong functional constraints in mammals and birds, we find no evidence for its role during the evolution of vocal learning in nonhuman animals as in humans. PMID:15618302

  12. Teaching, Learning, and Archetypes: Images of Instruction in Cynthia Voigt's "Dicey's Song."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Presents the three different types of teachers that play an important role in Cynthia Voigt's novel, "Dicey's Song." Analyzes the three models of teaching behavior represented in the novel. Relates these models to Carol Pearson's psychological archetypes for heroic growth. (HB)

  13. Contemporary American Indian Life in "The Owl's Song" and "Smoke Signals."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Discusses "Smoke Signals" (a 1998 award-winning film) and "The Owl's Song" (a 1974 novel), both of which feature young adult American Indian protagonists. Suggests instructional strategies for teaching these works in tandem. Argues that teaching these works informs students about relevant literary, historical, social, and cultural topics in ways…

  14. Lessons from Home: Scaffolding Vocal Improvisation and Song Acquisition with a 2-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Peter

    2005-01-01

    One of the central concepts in Vygotsky's theory of child development is the Zone of Proximal Development. This article identifies how Jack moves through the Zone of Proximal Development in two areas of his musical development, vocal improvisation and song acquisition, from the ages of 24 to 36 months, with scaffolding provided by me, his father.…

  15. Dominant male song performance reflects current immune state in a cooperatively breeding songbird.

    PubMed

    York, Jenny E; Radford, Andrew N; Groothuis, Ton G; Young, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    Conspicuous displays are thought to have evolved as signals of individual "quality", though precisely what they encode remains a focus of debate. While high quality signals may be produced by high quality individuals due to "good genes" or favourable early-life conditions, whether current immune state also impacts signalling performance remains poorly understood, particularly in social species. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that male song performance is impaired by immune system activation in the cooperatively breeding white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali). We experimentally activated the immune system of free-living dominant males via subcutaneous injection of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and contrasted its effects with those of a control (phosphate buffered saline) injection. PHA-challenged males showed significant reductions in both the duration and the rate of their song performance, relative to controls, and this could not be readily attributed to effects of the challenge on body mass, as no such effects were detected. Furthermore, male song performance prior to immune-challenge predicted the scale of the inflammatory response to the challenge. Our findings suggest that song performance characteristics are impacted by current immune state. This link between current state and signal performance might therefore contribute to enforcing the honesty of signal performance characteristics. Impacts of current state on signaling may be of particular importance in social species, where subordinates may benefit from an ability to identify and subsequently challenge same-sex dominants in a weakened state. PMID:26811745

  16. Preschoolers' Recall of Science Content from Educational Videos Presented with and without Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental investigation evaluated the impact of educational songs on a child's ability to recall scientific content from an educational television program. Preschoolers' comprehension of the educational content was examined by measuring children's ability to recall the featured science content (the function of a pulley and…

  17. Estradiol and song affect female zebra finch behavior independent of dopamine in the striatum

    PubMed Central

    Svec, Lace A.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Wade, Juli

    2009-01-01

    Female songbirds display preferences for certain song characteristics, but the neural and hormonal mechanisms mediating these preferences are not fully clear. The present study sought to further explore the role of estradiol, as well as assess potential roles of dopaminergic systems, on behavioral responses to song. Adult female zebra finches were treated with estradiol and exposed to tutored or untutored song or silence. Behavior was quantified and neurochemistry of the nucleus accumbens and striatum was examined with high performance liquid chromatography. As a control, the responses of these two systems to treatment with raclopride, a specific D2 receptor antagonist, were also evaluated. This manipulation did not affect dopamine (DA), but did increase DOPAC and the DOPAC/DA ratio. Estradiol reduced the display of two behaviors, distance calls and visual scanning, but had no effect on dopaminergic responses. Auditory stimulus exposure affected other vocalizations, but song presentation did not modulate the levels of DA or its metabolite, DOPAC in the nucleus accumbens or striatum. Collectively, the results suggest that both estradiol and auditory stimuli can modify the behavioral responses of adult zebra finches, but they may not change DA concentration or turnover in striatal dopamine neurons. PMID:19615392

  18. Teaching and Learning Science through Song: Exploring the Experiences of Students and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor, Donna; Hall, Jori; Jackson, David

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, multi-case study explored the use of science-content music for teaching and learning in six middle school science classrooms. The researcher sought to understand how teachers made use of content-rich songs for teaching science, how they impacted student engagement and learning, and what the experiences of these teachers and…

  19. Shared neural substrates for song discrimination in parental and parasitic songbirds.

    PubMed

    Louder, Matthew I M; Voss, Henning U; Manna, Thomas J; Carryl, Sophia S; London, Sarah E; Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-05-27

    In many social animals, early exposure to conspecific stimuli is critical for the development of accurate species recognition. Obligate brood parasitic songbirds, however, forego parental care and young are raised by heterospecific hosts in the absence of conspecific stimuli. Having evolved from non-parasitic, parental ancestors, how brood parasites recognize their own species remains unclear. In parental songbirds (e.g. zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata), the primary and secondary auditory forebrain areas are known to be critical in the differential processing of conspecific vs. heterospecific songs. Here we demonstrate that the same auditory brain regions underlie song discrimination in adult brood parasitic pin-tailed whydahs (Vidua macroura), a close relative of the zebra finch lineage. Similar to zebra finches, whydahs showed stronger behavioral responses during conspecific vs. heterospecific song and tone pips as well as increased neural responses within the auditory forebrain, as measured by both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and immediate early gene (IEG) expression. Given parallel behavioral and neuroanatomical patterns of song discrimination, our results suggest that the evolutionary transition to brood parasitism from parental songbirds likely involved an "evolutionary tinkering" of existing proximate mechanisms, rather than the wholesale reworking of the neural substrates of species recognition. PMID:27095589

  20. The Application of Humorous Song in EFL Classrooms and Its Effects on Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiee, Marzieh; Kassaian, Zohre; Dastjerdi, Hossein Vahid

    2010-01-01

    Language learners need to feel secure and to be free of stress so they can focus on language tasks (Ellis, 1994). A language teacher should use different tools to encourage students and make them involved in learning process. Humor and song are effective tools, as they develop creativity and make the class environment an appropriate setting for…

  1. Using Songs as Audio Materials in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The use of songs as audio materials in teaching Turkish as foreign language is an important part of language culture and has an important place in culture. Thus, the transfer of cultural aspects accelerates language learning process. In the light of this view, it becomes necessary to transfer cultural aspects into classroom environment in teaching…

  2. The Development of Environmental Song-Based Materials Using a Scientific Approach for Teaching English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaela, Leonora Saantje

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and validate environmental song-based materials using a scientific approach which follow the stages of research and development. The writer created environmental lyrics and put them on traditional melodies that are familiar to the students. The materials were tried out using preliminary field test, main field…

  3. Doublesex Regulates the Connectivity of a Neural Circuit Controlling Drosophila Male Courtship Song.

    PubMed

    Shirangi, Troy R; Wong, Allan M; Truman, James W; Stern, David L

    2016-06-20

    It is unclear how regulatory genes establish neural circuits that compose sex-specific behaviors. The Drosophila melanogaster male courtship song provides a powerful model to study this problem. Courting males vibrate a wing to sing bouts of pulses and hums, called pulse and sine song, respectively. We report the discovery of male-specific thoracic interneurons-the TN1A neurons-that are required specifically for sine song. The TN1A neurons can drive the activity of a sex-non-specific wing motoneuron, hg1, which is also required for sine song. The male-specific connection between the TN1A neurons and the hg1 motoneuron is regulated by the sexual differentiation gene doublesex. We find that doublesex is required in the TN1A neurons during development to increase the density of the TN1A arbors that interact with dendrites of the hg1 motoneuron. Our findings demonstrate how a sexual differentiation gene can build a sex-specific circuit motif by modulating neuronal arborization. PMID:27326931

  4. Hippocampal Lesions Impair Spatial Memory Performance, but Not Song-A Developmental Study of Independent Memory Systems in the Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, David J.; Wade, Juli; Saldanha, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    Songbirds demonstrate song- and spatial-learning, forms of memory that appear distinct in formal characteristics and fitting the descriptions and criteria of procedural and episodic-like memory function, respectively. As in other vertebrates, the neural pathways underlying these forms of memory may also be dissociable, and include the corresponding song circuit and hippocampus (HP). Whether (or not) these two memory systems interact is unknown. Interestingly, the HP distinguishes itself as a site of immediate early gene expression in response to song and as a site of estrogen synthesis, a steroid involved in song learning. Thus, an interaction between these memory systems and their anatomical substrates appears reasonable to hypothesize, particularly during development. To test this idea, juvenile male or female zebra finches received chemical lesions of the HP at various points during song learning, as did adults. Song structure, singing behavior, song preference, and spatial memory were tested in adulthood. Although lesions of the HP severely compromised HP-dependent spatial memory function across all ages and in both sexes, we were unable to detect any effects of HP lesions on song learning, singing, or song structure in males. Interestingly, females lesioned as adults, but not as juveniles, did lose the characteristic preference for their father's song. Since compromise of the neural circuits that subserve episodic-like memory does very little (if anything) to affect procedural-like (song learning) memory, we conclude that these memory systems and their anatomical substrates are well dissociated in the developing male zebra finch. PMID:19280648

  5. Mountain chickadees from different elevations sing different songs: acoustic adaptation, temporal drift or signal of local adaptation?

    PubMed

    Branch, Carrie L; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2015-04-01

    Song in songbirds is widely thought to function in mate choice and male-male competition. Song is also phenotypically plastic and typically learned from local adults; therefore, it varies across geographical space and can serve as a cue for an individual's location of origin, with females commonly preferring males from their respective location. Geographical variation in song dialect may reflect acoustic adaptation to different environments and/or serve as a signal of local adaptation. In montane environments, environmental differences can occur over an elevation gradient, favouring local adaptations across small spatial scales. We tested whether food caching mountain chickadees, known to exhibit elevation-related differences in food caching intensity, spatial memory and the hippocampus, also sing different dialects despite continuous distribution and close proximity. Male songs were collected from high and low elevations at two different mountains (separated by 35 km) to test whether song differs between elevations and/or between adjacent populations at each mountain. Song structure varied significantly between high and low elevation adjacent populations from the same mountain and between populations from different mountains at the same elevations, despite a continuous distribution across each mountain slope. These results suggest that elevation-related differences in song structure in chickadees might serve as a signal for local adaptation. PMID:26064641

  6. Mountain chickadees from different elevations sing different songs: acoustic adaptation, temporal drift or signal of local adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Carrie L.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

    2015-01-01

    Song in songbirds is widely thought to function in mate choice and male–male competition. Song is also phenotypically plastic and typically learned from local adults; therefore, it varies across geographical space and can serve as a cue for an individual's location of origin, with females commonly preferring males from their respective location. Geographical variation in song dialect may reflect acoustic adaptation to different environments and/or serve as a signal of local adaptation. In montane environments, environmental differences can occur over an elevation gradient, favouring local adaptations across small spatial scales. We tested whether food caching mountain chickadees, known to exhibit elevation-related differences in food caching intensity, spatial memory and the hippocampus, also sing different dialects despite continuous distribution and close proximity. Male songs were collected from high and low elevations at two different mountains (separated by 35 km) to test whether song differs between elevations and/or between adjacent populations at each mountain. Song structure varied significantly between high and low elevation adjacent populations from the same mountain and between populations from different mountains at the same elevations, despite a continuous distribution across each mountain slope. These results suggest that elevation-related differences in song structure in chickadees might serve as a signal for local adaptation. PMID:26064641

  7. Song Competition Affects Monoamine Levels in Sensory and Motor Forebrain Regions of Male Lincoln's Sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii)

    PubMed Central

    Sewall, Kendra B.; Caro, Samuel P.; Sockman, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Male animals often change their behavior in response to the level of competition for mates. Male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) modulate their competitive singing over the period of a week as a function of the level of challenge associated with competitors' songs. Differences in song challenge and associated shifts in competitive state should be accompanied by neural changes, potentially in regions that regulate perception and song production. The monoamines mediate neural plasticity in response to environmental cues to achieve shifts in behavioral state. Therefore, using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we compared levels of monoamines and their metabolites from male Lincoln's sparrows exposed to songs categorized as more or less challenging. We compared levels of norepinephrine and its principal metabolite in two perceptual regions of the auditory telencephalon, the caudomedial nidopallium and the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), because this chemical is implicated in modulating auditory sensitivity to song. We also measured the levels of dopamine and its principal metabolite in two song control nuclei, area X and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), because dopamine is implicated in regulating song output. We measured the levels of serotonin and its principal metabolite in all four brain regions because this monoamine is implicated in perception and behavioral output and is found throughout the avian forebrain. After controlling for recent singing, we found that males exposed to more challenging song had higher levels of norepinephrine metabolite in the CMM and lower levels of serotonin in the RA. Collectively, these findings are consistent with norepinephrine in perceptual brain regions and serotonin in song control regions contributing to neuroplasticity that underlies socially-induced changes in behavioral state. PMID:23555809

  8. Characterization and Generation of Male Courtship Song in Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bredlau, Justin P.; Mohajer, Yasha J.; Cameron, Timothy M.; Kester, Karen M.; Fine, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Male parasitic wasps attract females with a courtship song produced by rapid wing fanning. Songs have been described for several parasitic wasp species; however, beyond association with wing fanning, the mechanism of sound generation has not been examined. We characterized the male courtship song of Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and investigated the biomechanics of sound production. Methods and Principal Findings Courtship songs were recorded using high-speed videography (2,000 fps) and audio recordings. The song consists of a long duration amplitude-modulated “buzz” followed by a series of pulsatile higher amplitude “boings,” each decaying into a terminal buzz followed by a short inter-boing pause while wings are stationary. Boings have higher amplitude and lower frequency than buzz components. The lower frequency of the boing sound is due to greater wing displacement. The power spectrum is a harmonic series dominated by wing repetition rate ∼220 Hz, but the sound waveform indicates a higher frequency resonance ∼5 kHz. Sound is not generated by the wings contacting each other, the substrate, or the abdomen. The abdomen is elevated during the first several wing cycles of the boing, but its position is unrelated to sound amplitude. Unlike most sounds generated by volume velocity, the boing is generated at the termination of the wing down stroke when displacement is maximal and wing velocity is zero. Calculation indicates a low Reynolds number of ∼1000. Conclusions and Significance Acoustic pressure is proportional to velocity for typical sound sources. Our finding that the boing sound was generated at maximal wing displacement coincident with cessation of wing motion indicates that it is caused by acceleration of the wing tips, consistent with a dipole source. The low Reynolds number requires a high wing flap rate for flight and predisposes wings of small insects for sound production. PMID:23630622

  9. Applications of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to image brain plasticity in song birds.

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, Annemie; Van Meir, Vincent; Tindemans, Ilse; Verhoye, Marleen; Balthazart, Jacques

    2004-12-01

    The song control system of song birds is an excellent model for studying brain plasticity and has thus far been extensively analyzed by histological and electrophysiological methods. However, these approaches do not provide a global view of the brain and/or do not allow repeated measures, which are necessary to establish correlations between alterations in neural substrate and behavior. Application of in vivo manganese-enhanced MRI enabled us for the first time to visualize the song control system repeatedly in the same bird, making it possible to quantify dynamically the volume changes in this circuit as a function of seasonal and hormonal influences. In this review, we introduce and explore the song control system of song birds as a natural model for brain plasticity to validate a new cutting edge technique, which we called 'repeated dynamic manganese enhanced MRI' or D-MEMRI. This technique is based on the use of implanted permanent cannulae--for accurate repeated manganese injections in a defined target area--and the subsequent MRI acquisition of the dynamics of the accumulation of manganese in projection brain targets. A compilation of the D-MEMRI data obtained thus far in this system demonstrates the usefulness of this new method for studying brain plasticity. In particular it is shown to be a perfect tool for long-term studies of morphological and functional responses of specific brain circuits to changes in endocrine conditions. The method was also successfully applied to obtain quantitative measures of changes in activity as a function of auditory stimuli in different neuronal populations of a same nucleus that project to different targets. D-MEMRI, combined with other MRI techniques, clearly harbors potential for unraveling seasonal, hormonal, pharmacological or even genetically driven changes in a neuronal circuit, by simultaneously measuring changes in morphology, activity and connectivity. PMID:15761949

  10. Hippocampal Sclerosis Affects fMR-Adaptation of Lyrics and Melodies in Songs.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Irene; Sammler, Daniela; Valabrègue, Romain; Dinkelacker, Vera; Dupont, Sophie; Belin, Pascal; Samson, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Songs constitute a natural combination of lyrics and melodies, but it is unclear whether and how these two song components are integrated during the emergence of a memory trace. Network theories of memory suggest a prominent role of the hippocampus, together with unimodal sensory areas, in the build-up of conjunctive representations. The present study tested the modulatory influence of the hippocampus on neural adaptation to songs in lateral temporal areas. Patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and healthy matched controls were presented with blocks of short songs in which lyrics and/or melodies were varied or repeated in a crossed factorial design. Neural adaptation effects were taken as correlates of incidental emergent memory traces. We hypothesized that hippocampal lesions, particularly in the left hemisphere, would weaken adaptation effects, especially the integration of lyrics and melodies. Results revealed that lateral temporal lobe regions showed weaker adaptation to repeated lyrics as well as a reduced interaction of the adaptation effects for lyrics and melodies in patients with left hippocampal sclerosis. This suggests a deficient build-up of a sensory memory trace for lyrics and a reduced integration of lyrics with melodies, compared to healthy controls. Patients with right hippocampal sclerosis showed a similar profile of results although the effects did not reach significance in this population. We highlight the finding that the integrated representation of lyrics and melodies typically shown in healthy participants is likely tied to the integrity of the left medial temporal lobe. This novel finding provides the first neuroimaging evidence for the role of the hippocampus during repetitive exposure to lyrics and melodies and their integration into a song. PMID:24578688

  11. Neurogenomics of speech and language disorders: the road ahead

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is set to transform the discovery of genes underlying neurodevelopmental disorders, and so offer important insights into the biological bases of spoken language. Success will depend on functional assessments in neuronal cell lines, animal models and humans themselves. PMID:23597266

  12. Acoustic signalling for mate attraction in crickets: Abdominal ganglia control the timing of the calling song pattern.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Pedro F; Hedwig, Berthold

    2016-08-01

    Decoding the neural basis of behaviour requires analysing how the nervous system is organised and how the temporal structure of motor patterns emerges from its activity. The stereotypical patterns of the calling song behaviour of male crickets, which consists of chirps and pulses, is an ideal model to study this question. We applied selective lesions to the abdominal nervous system of field crickets and performed long-term acoustic recordings of the songs. Specific lesions to connectives or ganglia abolish singing or reliably alter the temporal features of the chirps and pulses. Singing motor control appears to be organised in a modular and hierarchically fashion, where more posterior ganglia control the timing of the chirp pattern and structure and anterior ganglia the timing of the pulses. This modular organisation may provide the substrate for song variants underlying calling, courtship and rivalry behaviour and for the species-specific song patterns in extant crickets. PMID:27109338

  13. High source levels and small active space of high-pitched song in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus).

    PubMed

    Tervo, Outi M; Christoffersen, Mads F; Simon, Malene; Miller, Lee A; Jensen, Frants H; Parks, Susan E; Madsen, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    The low-frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally powerful, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high frequency song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Western Greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. Four independent, GPS-synchronized hydrophones were deployed through holes in the ice to localize vocalizing bowhead whales, estimate source levels and measure ambient noise. The song had a mean apparent source level of 185±2 dB rms re 1 µPa @ 1 m and a high mean centroid frequency of 444±48 Hz. Using measured ambient noise levels in the area and Arctic sound spreading models, the estimated active space of these song notes is between 40 and 130 km, an order of magnitude smaller than the estimated active space of low frequency blue and fin whale songs produced at similar source levels and for similar noise conditions. We propose that bowhead whales spatially compensate for their smaller communication range through mating aggregations that co-evolved with broadband song to form a complex and dynamic acoustically mediated sexual display. PMID:23300591

  14. High Source Levels and Small Active Space of High-Pitched Song in Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    PubMed Central

    Tervo, Outi M.; Christoffersen, Mads F.; Simon, Malene; Miller, Lee A.; Jensen, Frants H.; Parks, Susan E.; Madsen, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    The low-frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally powerful, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high frequency song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Western Greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. Four independent, GPS-synchronized hydrophones were deployed through holes in the ice to localize vocalizing bowhead whales, estimate source levels and measure ambient noise. The song had a mean apparent source level of 185±2 dB rms re 1 µPa @ 1 m and a high mean centroid frequency of 444±48 Hz. Using measured ambient noise levels in the area and Arctic sound spreading models, the estimated active space of these song notes is between 40 and 130 km, an order of magnitude smaller than the estimated active space of low frequency blue and fin whale songs produced at similar source levels and for similar noise conditions. We propose that bowhead whales spatially compensate for their smaller communication range through mating aggregations that co-evolved with broadband song to form a complex and dynamic acoustically mediated sexual display. PMID:23300591

  15. Water-vapor pressure in nests of the San Miguel Island Song Sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Michael D.; Sogge, Mark K.; van Riper, Charles, III

    1990-01-01

    The water-vapor pressure (PN) in nests of the San Miguel Island race of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia micronyx) averaged 16 torr, but varied considerable between nests and within individual nests during successive days of incubation. Large daily fluctuations occurred throughout the incubation period and did not parallel concurrent changes in ambien vapor pressure (P1). Daily rates of water loss from nest eggs (MH2O) averaged 28 mg day-1, but also varied considerable within and between nests and did not correlate with changes in P1. MH2O increased 6-33% after the third day of incubation. PN was significantly higher and MH2O significantly lower in nests located in sheltered gullies than in nests from a windswept slope. These data suggest that Song Sparrows do not regulate PN to achieve hatching success.

  16. [Medical exchanges between China and Vietnam during the Song, Jin and Yuan Periods].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Xia; Dai, Ming

    2012-01-01

    There were many medical exchanges between China and Vietnam during the Song, Jin and Yuan Periods. For example, in the Li Period, Vietnam established the Imperial Medical Department according to medical administration in China and to the Chen Period, the name was changed to Imperial Academy of Medicine. Through tribute and trade, many medicines circulated between the two countries. Many medicines from Vietnam, especially the spices and perfumes, could be found in prescriptions in China during those periods. Except for herb exchange, Chinese doctors also brought TCM theory to Vietnam and they offered medical attention for people and the Emperor. At the same time, Vietnamese doctors also had treated disease for a Chinese Empress in the Song Dynasty. In the area of the Sino-Vietnam border, people are used to chewing betel, which has been recorded in Chinese medical books. PMID:22613476

  17. SONGS - A high resolution imaging gamma-ray spectrometer for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakano, G. H.; Chase, L. F.; Kilner, J. R.; Sandie, W. G.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The overall design and the instrumental features of the Space-Station Observer for Nuclear Gamma-ray Spectroscopy (SONGS) instrument are described. SONGS comprises an array of 19 two-segment n-type Ge detectors, which have the capability of determining the interaction site in either the upper or the lower segment or in both segments. The detectors provide high energy resolution of 1 keV at 100 keV and of 2 keV at 1 MeV. The close-packed Ge sensor array provides a natural sensitivity for the measurement of gamma ray polarization in the 100 keV to 1 MeV energy range, making it possible to obtain information on the structure of the magnetosphere of neutron stars and of the accretion disk of black holes.

  18. On the phonetic and syntactic processing abilities of birds: from songs to speech and artificial grammars.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Carel

    2014-10-01

    Like speech and language, the songs of many songbirds consist of learned, rapidly produced, structured sequences of distinct vocal units, originating from an interplay between experience and learning biases. Songs are species specific, but also show considerable within species variation in elements or element sequencing. This variation implies that birds possess mechanisms to identify, categorize and combine sounds. I review the abilities for speech sound perception and categorization, as well as for grammatical rule learning by birds. Speech sound perception in birds is in many ways comparable to human speech perception. Birds can also detect and generalize patterns underlying artificially arranged strings of vocal elements. However, there is a need for more comparative studies to examine the limits of their rule learning abilities and how they relate to those of humans. PMID:25078891

  19. Population-Level Representation of a Temporal Sequence Underlying Song Production in the Zebra Finch.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Michel A; Merel, Josh; Katlowitz, Kalman A; Vallentin, Daniela; Okobi, Daniel E; Benezra, Sam E; Clary, Rachel C; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A; Paninski, Liam; Long, Michael A

    2016-05-18

    The zebra finch brain features a set of clearly defined and hierarchically arranged motor nuclei that are selectively responsible for producing singing behavior. One of these regions, a critical forebrain structure called HVC, contains premotor neurons that are active at precise time points during song production. However, the neural representation of this behavior at a population level remains elusive. We used two-photon microscopy to monitor ensemble activity during singing, integrating across multiple trials by adopting a Bayesian inference approach to more precisely estimate burst timing. Additionally, we examined spiking and motor-related synaptic inputs using intracellular recordings during singing. With both experimental approaches, we find that premotor events do not occur preferentially at the onsets or offsets of song syllables or at specific subsyllabic motor landmarks. These results strongly support the notion that HVC projection neurons collectively exhibit a temporal sequence during singing that is uncoupled from ongoing movements. PMID:27196976

  20. Singing in the moonlight: dawn song performance of a diurnal bird varies with lunar phase

    PubMed Central

    York, Jennifer E.; Young, Andrew J.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the lunar cycle can affect the behaviour of nocturnal animals, but its potential to have a similar influence on diurnal species has received less research attention. Here, we demonstrate that the dawn song of a cooperative songbird, the white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali), varies with moon phase. When the moon was above the horizon at dawn, males began singing on average 10 min earlier, if there was a full moon compared with a new moon, resulting in a 67% mean increase in performance period and greater total song output. The lack of a difference between full and new moon dawns when the moon was below the horizon suggests that the observed effects were driven by light intensity, rather than driven by other factors associated with moon phase. Effects of the lunar cycle on twilight signalling behaviour have implications for both pure and applied animal communication research. PMID:24429683

  1. Seismic safety margins research program. Project I SONGS 1 AFWS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, T.Y.; Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Bohn, M.P.; Cummings, G.E.; Wells, J.E.

    1981-02-24

    The seismic qualification requirements of auxiliary feedwater systems (AFWS) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) were developed over a number of years. These are formalized in the publication General Design Criteria (Appendix A to 10CFR50). The full recognition of the system as an engineered safety feature did not occur until publication of the Standard Review Plan (1975). Efforts to determine how to backfit seismic requirements to earlier plants has been undertaken primarily in the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for a limited number of operating reactors. Nuclear Reactor Research (RES) and NRR have requested LLNL to perform a probabilistic study on the AFWS of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Unit 1 utilizing the tools developed by the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The main objectives of this project are to: identify the weak links of AFWS; compare the failure probabilities of SONGS 1 and Zion 1 AFWS: and compare the seismic responses due to different input spectra and design values.

  2. "The Corn People Have a Song Too. It Is Very Good": On Beauty, Truth, and Goodness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, J. Edward

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-first-century skeptics would say that there are really no such things as beauty and truth and certainly not goodness. A Pueblo poet seemed to think there was--"the corn people have a song / it is very good"--and unless people think they know better, they'd better listen up. This article begins with a short piece, set down by the…

  3. Monsoonal versus Anthropogenic Controls on Erosion Patterns and Sediment Flux in the Song Gianh, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter; Jonell, Tara; Carter, Andrew; Van Hoang, Long; Böning, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    The Song Gianh is a small drainage on the northern central coast of Vietnam that delivers sediment into the Gulf of Tonkin. The basin provides the opportunity to evaluate what surface processes control continental erosion rates and patterns because there is a strong monsoonal precipitation gradient from the SW to NE. We apply several complimentary provenance methods to modern siliciclastic sediments of the Song Gianh to pinpoint regions of focused sediment generation and evaluate how sediment is mixed downstream and delivered to the ocean. We find that detrital zircon populations of Song Gianh main channel change radically downstream of the confluence with the northern Rao Tro tributary, which is dominated by 100-300 Ma grains eroded from granite bedrock. This tributary provides almost as much zircon to the main channel as all the headwater tributaries combined, despite being a much smaller, drier, and flatter sub-basin. In contrast, bulk sediment Nd and Sr isotopes indicate that most sediment is derived from the wetter headwater tributaries. Contribution from the southern tributaries to the net siliciclastic river flux is negligible. Precipitation and topography do not appear to modulate zircon production in the modern river although regions controlling bulk Nd and Sr compositions are wetter and have higher local relief. This apparent contrast in regions of sediment production suggests disequilibrium and differential travel times for zircon and mineral phases rich in Nd and Sr. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of alluvial terraces on the main channel show that the valleys aggraded rapidly from ~7-9 ka during a period of strong summer monsoon, suggesting that heavy rainfall generated large sediment volumes. Younger terraces dated to 500-1000 yrs BP are interpreted to reflect erosion and aggradation driven by extensive human agriculture. We speculate that agriculture, together with bedrock compositions, are the most likely control on producing the

  4. Popular song and lyrics synchronization and its application to music information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Gao, Sheng; Zhu, Yongwei; Sun, Qibin

    2006-01-01

    An automatic synchronization system of the popular song and its lyrics is presented in the paper. The system includes two main components: a) automatically detecting vocal/non-vocal in the audio signal and b) automatically aligning the acoustic signal of the song with its lyric using speech recognition techniques and positioning the boundaries of the lyrics in its acoustic realization at the multiple levels simultaneously (e.g. the word / syllable level and phrase level). The GMM models and a set of HMM-based acoustic model units are carefully designed and trained for the detection and alignment. To eliminate the severe mismatch due to the diversity of musical signal and sparse training data available, the unsupervised adaptation technique such as maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) is exploited for tailoring the models to the real environment, which improves robustness of the synchronization system. To further reduce the effect of the missed non-vocal music on alignment, a novel grammar net is build to direct the alignment. As we know, this is the first automatic synchronization system only based on the low-level acoustic feature such as MFCC. We evaluate the system on a Chinese song dataset collecting from 3 popular singers. We obtain 76.1% for the boundary accuracy at the syllable level (BAS) and 81.5% for the boundary accuracy at the phrase level (BAP) using fully automatic vocal/non-vocal detection and alignment. The synchronization system has many applications such as multi-modality (audio and textual) content-based popular song browsing and retrieval. Through the study, we would like to open up the discussion of some challenging problems when developing a robust synchronization system for largescale database.

  5. Preschoolers' Recall of Science Content From Educational Videos Presented With and Without Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechter, Rachel L.

    This experimental investigation evaluated the impact of educational songs on a child's ability to recall scientific content from an educational television program. Preschoolers' comprehension of the educational content was examined by measuring children's ability to recall the featured science content (the function of a pulley and its parts) and their use of the precise scientific terms presented in the episode. A total of 91 preschoolers were included (3-5 years old). Clusters of children were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three video groups: (a) Dialogue Only, which did not include a song; (b) Dialogue Plus Lyrics, which included a song; or (c) Lyrics Only, which consisted of a song, played twice. Results from interviews suggested that children from all video groups (lyrics and/or dialogue) were able to explain the form and function of a pulley better than the control group. The data suggested that children from the Lyrics Only group understood the science content because of the visual imagery, not through the information provided in the lyrics. In terms of precise vocabulary terms, significantly more children in the Dialogue Only group recalled at least one precise term from the program compared to the Lyrics Only group. Looking at the interview as a whole, the children's responses suggested different levels of scientific understanding. Children would require additional teacher-led instruction to deepen their scientific understanding and to clarify any misconceptions. This paper discusses implications of these findings for teachers using multi-media tools in the science classroom and producers creating new educational programming for television and other platforms.

  6. Teaching and Learning Science Through Song: Exploring the experiences of students and teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Governor, Donna; Hall, Jori; Jackson, David

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative, multi-case study explored the use of science-content music for teaching and learning in six middle school science classrooms. The researcher sought to understand how teachers made use of content-rich songs for teaching science, how they impacted student engagement and learning, and what the experiences of these teachers and students suggested about using songs for middle school classroom science instruction. Data gathered included three teacher interviews, one classroom observation and a student focus-group discussion from each of six cases. The data from each unit of analysis were examined independently and then synthesized in a multi-case analysis, resulting in a number of merged findings, or assertions, about the experience. The results of this study indicated that teachers used content-rich music to enhance student understanding of concepts in science by developing content-based vocabulary, providing students with alternative examples and explanations of concepts, and as a sense-making experience to help build conceptual understanding. The use of science-content songs engaged students by providing both situational and personal interest, and provided a mnemonic device for remembering key concepts in science. The use of songs has relevance from a constructivist approach as they were used to help students build meaning; from a socio-cultural perspective in terms of student engagement; and from a cognitive viewpoint in that in these cases they helped students make connections in learning. The results of this research have implications for science teachers and the science education community in developing new instructional strategies for the middle school science classroom.

  7. Vocal tract motor patterns and resonance during constant frequency song: the white-throated sparrow.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A

    2009-02-01

    Bird song is a complex behavior that requires the coordination of several motor systems. Sound is produced in the syrinx and then modified by the upper vocal tract. Movements of the hyoid skeleton have been shown in the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) to be extensively involved in forming an oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC), which contributes a major resonance to the vocal tract transfer function. Here we report that a similar relationship exists between the volume of the OEC and the fundamental frequency in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) whose song, unlike that of the cardinal, consists of a series of almost constant frequency notes. Cineradiography of singing sparrows shows that the oropharyngeal cavity and cranial end of the esophagus expand abruptly at the start of each note and maintain a relatively constant volume until the end of the note. Computation of the vocal tract transfer function suggests a major resonance of the OEC follows the fundamental frequency, making sound transmission more efficient. The presence of similar prominent song-related vocal tract motor patterns in two Oscine families suggests that the active control of the vocal tract resonance by varying the volume of the OEC may be widespread in songbirds. PMID:19082607

  8. Physical interaction and association by contiguity in memory for the words and melodies of songs.

    PubMed

    Crowder, R G; Serafine, M L; Repp, B

    1990-09-01

    Three experiments were designed to investigate two explanations for the integration effect in memory for songs (Serafine, Crowder, & Repp, 1984; Serafine, Davidson, Crowder, & Repp, 1986). The integration effect is the finding that recognition of the melody (or text) of a song is better in the presence of the text (or melody) with which it had been heard originally than in the presence of a different text (or melody). One explanation for this finding is the physical interaction hypothesis, which holds that one component of a song exerts subtle but memorable physical changes on the other component, making the latter different from what it would be with a different companion. In Experiments 1 and 2, we investigated the influence that words could exert on the subtle musical character of a melody. A second explanation for the integration effect is the association-by-contiguity hypothesis, which holds that any two events experienced in close temporal proximity may become connected in memory such that each acts as a recall cue for the other. In Experiment 3, we investigated the degree to which simultaneous presentations of spoken text with a hummed melody would induce an association between the two components. The results gave encouragement for both explanations and are discussed in terms of the distinction between encoding specificity and independent associative bonding. PMID:2233260

  9. The effect of background music and song texts on the emotional understanding of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, June

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of background music and song texts to teach emotional understanding to children with autism. Participants were 12 students (mean age 11.5 years) with a primary diagnosis of autism who were attending schools in Japan. Each participant was taught four emotions to decode and encode: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear by the counterbalanced treatment-order. The treatment consisted of the four conditions: (a) no contact control (NCC)--no purposeful teaching of the selected emotion, (b) contact control (CC)--teaching the selected emotion using verbal instructions alone, (c) background music (BM)--teaching the selected emotion by verbal instructions with background music representing the emotion, and singing songs (SS)--teaching the selected emotion by singing specially composed songs about the emotion. Participants were given a pretest and a posttest and received 8 individual sessions between these tests. The results indicated that all participants improved significantly in their understanding of the four selected emotions. Background music was significantly more effective than the other three conditions in improving participants' emotional understanding. The findings suggest that background music can be an effective tool to increase emotional understanding in children with autism, which is crucial to their social interactions. PMID:19256729

  10. Communication in the third dimension: song perch height of rivals affects singing response in nightingales.

    PubMed

    Sprau, Philipp; Roth, Tobias; Naguib, Marc; Amrhein, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Many animals use long-range signals to compete over mates and resources. Optimal transmission can be achieved by choosing efficient signals, or by choosing adequate signalling perches and song posts. High signalling perches benefit sound transmission and reception, but may be more risky due to exposure to airborne predators. Perch height could thus reflect male quality, with individuals signalling at higher perches appearing as more threatening to rivals. Using playbacks on nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos), we simulated rivals singing at the same height as residents, or singing three metres higher. Surprisingly, residents increased song output stronger, and, varying with future pairing success, overlapped more songs of the playback when rivals were singing at the same height than when they were singing higher. Other than expected, rivals singing at the same height may thus be experienced as more threatening than rivals singing at higher perches. Our study provides new evidence that territorial animals integrate information on signalling height and thus on vertical cues in their assessment of rivals. PMID:22448215

  11. Mechanisms for synchrony and alternation in song interactions of the bushcricket Mecopoda elongata (Tettigoniidae: Orthoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Hartbauer, Manfred; Kratzer, Silvia; Steiner, Klaus; Römer, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Males of the bushcricket Mecopoda elongata synchronise or alternate their chirps with their neighbours in an aggregation. Since synchrony is imperfect, leader and follower chirps are established in song interactions; females prefer leader chirps in phonotactic trials. Using playback experiments and simulations of song oscillator interactions, we investigate the mechanisms that result in synchrony and alternation, and the probability for the leader role in synchrony. A major predictor for the leader role of a male is its intrinsic chirp period, which varies in a population from 1.6 to 2.3 s. Faster singing males establish the leader role more often than males with longer chirp periods. The phase-response curve (PRC) of the song oscillators differs to other rhythmically calling or flashing insects, in that only the disturbed cycle is influenced in duration by a stimulus. This results in sustained leader or follower chirps of one male, when the intrinsic chirp periods of two males differ by 150 ms or more. By contrast, the individual shape of the male’s PRC has only little influence on the outcome of chirp interactions. The consequences of these findings for the evolution of synchrony in this species are discussed. PMID:15614532

  12. Sequential Filtering Processes Shape Feature Detection in Crickets: A Framework for Song Pattern Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hedwig, Berthold G.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioral and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behavior is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioral experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further, processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behavior is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song. PMID:26941647

  13. [Carving and spread of Xu Shuwei's medical books in the Southern Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haipeng

    2015-09-01

    Xu Shuwei's Pu ji ben shi fang (Moxibustion in Prescription for Universal Relief) was carved for several times and disseminated to Hubei, Hunan, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Fujian, Sichuan Provinces and the areas under the rule of the Jin ethnic minority group. While Shang han bai zheng ge (Poets of Syndrome of Exo-pathogenic Cold disease), Shang han fa wei lun (Discourse on Elucidation of Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease), and Shang han jiu shi lun (90 Discourses on Exo-pathogenic Disease) were scarcely carved or spread in its copying form with very limited distribution. Hence, Pu ji ben shi fang exerts greater influence in the Southern Song Dynasty. When analysing the citations from the Pu ji ben sgiu fang in the books of the Southern Song Dynasty, very few texts were cited from Pu ji ben shi fang. Thus, in terms of knowledge on exo-pathogenic cold disease in the Southern Song Dynasty, Xu's influence was quite limited even though he himself had deep insight into this art of disease. PMID:26813096

  14. Genome size variation affects song attractiveness in grasshoppers: evidence for sexual selection against large genomes.

    PubMed

    Schielzeth, Holger; Streitner, Corinna; Lampe, Ulrike; Franzke, Alexandra; Reinhold, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Genome size is largely uncorrelated to organismal complexity and adaptive scenarios. Genetic drift as well as intragenomic conflict have been put forward to explain this observation. We here study the impact of genome size on sexual attractiveness in the bow-winged grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Grasshoppers show particularly large variation in genome size due to the high prevalence of supernumerary chromosomes that are considered (mildly) selfish, as evidenced by non-Mendelian inheritance and fitness costs if present in high numbers. We ranked male grasshoppers by song characteristics that are known to affect female preferences in this species and scored genome sizes of attractive and unattractive individuals from the extremes of this distribution. We find that attractive singers have significantly smaller genomes, demonstrating that genome size is reflected in male courtship songs and that females prefer songs of males with small genomes. Such a genome size dependent mate preference effectively selects against selfish genetic elements that tend to increase genome size. The data therefore provide a novel example of how sexual selection can reinforce natural selection and can act as an agent in an intragenomic arms race. Furthermore, our findings indicate an underappreciated route of how choosy females could gain indirect benefits. PMID:25200798

  15. Imaging auditory representations of song and syllables in populations of sensorimotor neurons essential to vocal communication.

    PubMed

    Peh, Wendy Y X; Roberts, Todd F; Mooney, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Vocal communication depends on the coordinated activity of sensorimotor neurons important to vocal perception and production. How vocalizations are represented by spatiotemporal activity patterns in these neuronal populations remains poorly understood. Here we combined intracellular recordings and two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine how learned birdsong and its component syllables are represented in identified projection neurons (PNs) within HVC, a sensorimotor region important for song perception and production. These experiments show that neighboring HVC PNs can respond at markedly different times to song playback and that different syllables activate spatially intermingled PNs within a local (~100 μm) region of HVC. Moreover, noise correlations were stronger between PNs that responded most strongly to the same syllable and were spatially graded within and between classes of PNs. These findings support a model in which syllabic and temporal features of song are represented by spatially intermingled PNs functionally organized into cell- and syllable-type networks within local spatial scales in HVC. PMID:25855175

  16. The fitness consequences of honesty: Under-signalers have a survival advantage in song sparrows.

    PubMed

    Akçay, Çağlar; Campbell, S Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    How honest or reliable signaling can evolve and be maintained has been a major question in evolutionary biology. The question is especially puzzling for a particular class of signals used in aggressive interactions: threat signals. Here, we report a study on song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in which we assayed males with playbacks on their territories to quantify their aggressiveness (flights and close proximity) and aggressive signaling levels (rates of soft song, a close-range signal reliably predicting attack) and asked whether these traits affect individuals' survival on territory. We found that the effect of aggressive signaling via soft song interacted with aggressive behaviors such that there was a negative correlational selection: among males with low aggression, those males that signaled at higher levels (over-signalers) had higher survival whereas among males with high aggression those that signaled at low levels (under-signalers) survived longer. In other words, males that deviate from reliable signaling have a survival advantage. These results, along with previous research that suggested most of the deviation from reliable signaling in this system is in the form of under-signaling (high-aggression males signaling at low levels) pose a puzzle for future research on how this reliable signaling system is maintained. PMID:26573880

  17. Sequential Filtering Processes Shape Feature Detection in Crickets: A Framework for Song Pattern Recognition.

    PubMed

    Hedwig, Berthold G

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioral and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behavior is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioral experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further, processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behavior is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song. PMID:26941647

  18. Growth and development of thermoregulation in nestling San Miguel Island Song Sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, Mark K.; Kern, Michael D.; Kern, Robert; van Riper, Charles, III

    1991-01-01

    Patterns of growth (reviewed by Ricklefs 1968, 1969; O'Connor 1984) and the development of endothermy (reviewed by Dawson and Hudson 1970, Dunn 1975, Hill and Beaver 1982) have been well-studied in altricial wild birds, especially passerines. But few studies compare grown and thermogenesis in separate populations of the same species. Results of such studies with emberizids varied among species. King and Hubbard (1981), for example, found that nestlings from subarctic, subalpine, and low-altitude montane populations of White-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) grew at similar rates. In contrast, Rogers (1985) reported that the growth rates of nestlings in different populations of Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) varied in response to the different environmental constraints of the localities in which they were reared. Nice (1937) and Smith et al. (1982) documented patterns of nestling growth in mainland (Ohio) and insular (Mandarte Island, British Columbia, Canada) populations of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), respectively, and found that they were similar to those reported for most other passerines by Ricklefs (1968, 1969) and O'Connor (1984). In 1985-1986, we had the opportunity to examine the growth of nestlings from a third race of Song Sparrows, M. m. micronyx, which is endemic to San Miguel Island near Santa Barbara, California. We also studied the development of endothermy in these young birds, a process not hitherto described for nestling Song Sparrows. We report both in this paper.

  19. NICU music therapy: song of kin as critical lullaby in research and practice.

    PubMed

    Loewy, Joanne

    2015-03-01

    Music therapy can improve neonatal function and reduce anxiety in parents during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stays. Live music entrained to an infant's observed vital signs, provided by a certified music therapist with First Sounds RBL (rhythm, breath, and lullaby) training, enhanced bonding for infant-parent dyads and triads. The author's song of kin intervention, which employs parent-selected songs, is compared to the presentation of a well-known folk theme ("Twinkle") in 272 neonates. Culturally based, parent-selected, personalized musical tunes provided in song, as a noninvasive intervention, foster optimal, continuous quality of care. Music psychotherapy sessions for parents before working with their infants can instill a potent means of nonconfrontational support, allowing for expression of fear or anxiety related to the premature birth. Although most attention is typically directed to their infant, using music can support the parents' grief and assist in the expression of hope that can instill a sense of security and containment. From the NICU to home, a familiar thread-line theme can be resourced directly from the family and/or parent and applied effortlessly throughout the growing baby's transitional moments. PMID:25773633

  20. A neural circuit mechanism for regulating vocal variability during song learning in zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Garst-Orozco, Jonathan; Babadi, Baktash; Ölveczky, Bence P

    2014-01-01

    Motor skill learning is characterized by improved performance and reduced motor variability. The neural mechanisms that couple skill level and variability, however, are not known. The zebra finch, a songbird, presents a unique opportunity to address this question because production of learned song and induction of vocal variability are instantiated in distinct circuits that converge on a motor cortex analogue controlling vocal output. To probe the interplay between learning and variability, we made intracellular recordings from neurons in this area, characterizing how their inputs from the functionally distinct pathways change throughout song development. We found that inputs that drive stereotyped song-patterns are strengthened and pruned, while inputs that induce variability remain unchanged. A simple network model showed that strengthening and pruning of action-specific connections reduces the sensitivity of motor control circuits to variable input and neural ‘noise’. This identifies a simple and general mechanism for learning-related regulation of motor variability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03697.001 PMID:25497835

  1. Songbirds tune their vocal tract to the fundamental frequency of their song.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A; Fletcher, Neville H; Blevins, William E

    2006-04-01

    In human speech, the sound generated by the larynx is modified by articulatory movements of the upper vocal tract, which acts as a variable resonant filter concentrating energy near particular frequencies, or formants, essential in speech recognition. Despite its potential importance in vocal communication, little is known about the presence of tunable vocal tract filters in other vertebrates. The tonal quality of much birdsong, in which upper harmonics have relatively little energy, depends on filtering of the vocal source, but the nature of this filter is controversial. Current hypotheses treat the songbird vocal tract as a rigid tube with a resonance that is modulated by the end-correction of a variable beak opening. Through x-ray cinematography of singing birds, we show that birdsong is accompanied by cyclical movements of the hyoid skeleton and changes in the diameter of the cranial end of the esophagus that maintain an inverse relationship between the volume of the oropharyngeal cavity and esophagus and the song's fundamental frequency. A computational acoustic model indicates that this song-related motor pattern tunes the major resonance of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity to actively track the song's fundamental frequency. PMID:16567614

  2. No Effect of Body Size on the Frequency of Calling and Courtship Song in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body size and vocalization parameters has been studied in many animal species. In insect species, however, the effect of body size on song frequency has remained unclear. Here we analyzed the effect of body size on the frequency spectra of mating songs produced by the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. We recorded the calling songs and courtship songs of male crickets of different body sizes. The calling songs contained a frequency component that peaked at 5.7 kHz. On the other hand, courtship songs contained two frequency components that peaked at 5.8 and 14.7 kHz. The dominant frequency of each component in both the calling and courtship songs was constant regardless of body size. The size of the harp and mirror regions in the cricket forewings, which are the acoustic sources of the songs, correlated positively with body size. These findings suggest that the frequency contents of both the calling and courtship songs of the cricket are unaffected by whole body, harp, or mirror size. PMID:26785351

  3. No Effect of Body Size on the Frequency of Calling and Courtship Song in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body size and vocalization parameters has been studied in many animal species. In insect species, however, the effect of body size on song frequency has remained unclear. Here we analyzed the effect of body size on the frequency spectra of mating songs produced by the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. We recorded the calling songs and courtship songs of male crickets of different body sizes. The calling songs contained a frequency component that peaked at 5.7 kHz. On the other hand, courtship songs contained two frequency components that peaked at 5.8 and 14.7 kHz. The dominant frequency of each component in both the calling and courtship songs was constant regardless of body size. The size of the harp and mirror regions in the cricket forewings, which are the acoustic sources of the songs, correlated positively with body size. These findings suggest that the frequency contents of both the calling and courtship songs of the cricket are unaffected by whole body, harp, or mirror size. PMID:26785351

  4. Differentiating the evolution of female song and male-female duets in the New World blackbirds: can tropical natural history traits explain duet evolution?

    PubMed

    Odom, Karan J; Omland, Kevin E; Price, J Jordan

    2015-03-01

    Female bird song and combined vocal duets of mated pairs are both frequently associated with tropical, monogamous, sedentary natural histories. Little is known, however, about what selects for duetting behavior versus female song. Female song likely preceded duet evolution and could drive apparent relationships between duets and these natural histories. We compared the evolution of female song and male-female duets in the New World blackbirds (Icteridae) by investigating patterns of gains and losses of both traits and their relationships with breeding latitude, mating system, nesting pattern, and migratory behavior. We found that duets evolved only in lineages in which female song was likely ancestral. Both female song and duets were correlated with tropical breeding, social monogamy, territorial nesting, and sedentary behavior when all taxa were included; however, correlations between duets and these natural history traits disappeared when comparisons were limited to taxa with female song. Also, likelihood values supported stronger relationships between the natural history traits and female song than between these traits and duets. Our results suggest that the natural histories thought to favor the evolution of duetting may in fact be associated with female song and that additional selection pressures are responsible for the evolution of duets. PMID:25529233

  5. Don't forget the lyrics! Spatiotemporal dynamics of neural mechanisms spontaneously evoked by gaps of silence in familiar and newly learned songs.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Damien; Wong, Thian Chiew; Nicolier, Magali; Giustiniani, Julie; Mignot, Coralie; Noiret, Nicolas; Monnin, Julie; Magnin, Eloi; Pazart, Lionel; Moulin, Thierry; Haffen, Emmanuel; Vandel, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The vast majority of people experience musical imagery, the sensation of reliving a song in absence of any external stimulation. Internal perception of a song can be deliberate and effortful, but also may occur involuntarily and spontaneously. Moreover, musical imagery is also involuntarily used for automatically completing missing parts of music or lyrics from a familiar song. The aim of our study was to explore the onset of musical imagery dynamics that leads to the automatic completion of missing lyrics. High-density electroencephalography was used to record the cerebral activity of twenty healthy volunteers while they were passively listening to unfamiliar songs, very familiar songs, and songs previously listened to for two weeks. Silent gaps inserted into these songs elicited a series of neural activations encompassing perceptual, attentional and cognitive mechanisms (range 100-500ms). Familiarity and learning effects emerged as early as 100ms and lasted 400ms after silence occurred. Although participants reported more easily mentally imagining lyrics in familiar rather than passively learnt songs, the onset of neural mechanisms and the power spectrum underlying musical imagery were similar for both types of songs. This study offers new insights into the musical imagery dynamics evoked by gaps of silence and on the role of familiarity and learning processes in the generation of these dynamics. The automatic and effortless method presented here is a potentially useful tool to understand failure in the familiarity and learning processes of pathological populations. PMID:27131744

  6. The siren song of vocal fundamental frequency for romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Weusthoff, Sarah; Baucom, Brian R.; Hahlweg, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    A multitude of factors contribute to why and how romantic relationships are formed as well as whether they ultimately succeed or fail. Drawing on evolutionary models of attraction and speech production as well as integrative models of relationship functioning, this review argues that paralinguistic cues (more specifically the fundamental frequency of the voice) that are initially a strong source of attraction also increase couples’ risk for relationship failure. Conceptual similarities and differences between the multiple operationalizations and interpretations of vocal fundamental frequency are discussed and guidelines are presented for understanding both convergent and non-convergent findings. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23874321

  7. Complexity, Predictability and Time Homogeneity of Syntax in the Songs of Cassin’s Vireo (Vireo cassinii)

    PubMed Central

    Hedley, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Many species of animals deliver vocalizations in sequences presumed to be governed by internal rules, though the nature and complexity of these syntactical rules have been investigated in relatively few species. Here I present an investigation into the song syntax of fourteen male Cassin’s Vireos (Vireo cassinii), a species whose song sequences are highly temporally structured. I compare their song sequences to three candidate models of varying levels of complexity–zero-order, first-order and second-order Markov models–and employ novel methods to interpolate between these three models. A variety of analyses, including sequence simulations, Fisher’s exact tests, and model likelihood analyses, showed that the songs of this species are too complex to be described by a zero-order or first-order Markov model. The model that best fit the data was intermediate in complexity between a first- and second-order model, though I also present evidence that some transition probabilities are conditioned on up to three preceding phrases. In addition, sequences were shown to be predictable with more than 54% accuracy overall, and predictability was positively correlated with the rate of song delivery. An assessment of the time homogeneity of syntax showed that transition probabilities between phrase types are largely stable over time, but that there was some evidence for modest changes in syntax within and between breeding seasons, a finding that I interpret to represent changes in breeding stage and social context rather than irreversible, secular shifts in syntax over time. These findings constitute a valuable addition to our understanding of bird song syntax in free-living birds, and will contribute to future attempts to understand the evolutionary importance of bird song syntax in avian communication. PMID:27050537

  8. [Exploring the changes of inheritance model of medical knowledge as viewed from the description of physicians in the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haipeng

    2014-11-01

    From the Southern and Northern Dynasties to the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty, the models of "master and apprentice" and "physician of long family tradition for generations" were the main ways for teaching medical knowledge. With the rapid amassment of medical books in the Song Dynasty, "reading text" became increasingly important and prominent in the inheritance of medical knowledge, which could be seen clearly from the descriptions on physicians in the Song Dynasty. For instance, Hao Yun's medical knowledge was recorded as a model of "master and apprentice" in Hao Yun's Epitaph written by Zhang Xun. However, in Ye Mengde's description, this model was played down, while at the same time, "reading text" was emphasized. Pang Anshi, though coming from a physician family for generations, got rid of some medical knowledge from his own family and turned to the medical knowledge by "reading text". According to Pang Anshi's Epitaph written by Zhang Lei and Fang ji Zhuan (Biography of Technicians) in Song shi (The Song History), Pang Anshi was a typical model of becoming a famous physician by "reading text". In the Epitaph, Pang Anshi's brilliance was stressed, and in the latter, "reading text" was more important and the family tradition was denied. In the description of the Song Dynasty, Chen Zhaoyu's wonderful medical skills was coming from the "practice", and "reading text" was denied right away. What is more, "reading text" was introspected and criticized through Chen Zhaoyu's lip. The different descriptions of the Song Dynasty reflected the change of inheritance model of medical knowledge. PMID:25620356

  9. Vocal production and playback of altered song do not affect ZENK expression in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus).

    PubMed

    Roach, Sean P; Lockyer, Ashley C; Yousef, Tareq; Mennill, Daniel J; Phillmore, Leslie S

    2016-02-01

    The two-note fee bee song of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) is sung at many different absolute frequencies, but the relative frequencies between the start and end of the fee note (the glissando) and between the fee and the bee notes (the inter-note ratio) are preserved regardless of absolute frequency. If these relative frequencies are experimentally manipulated, birds exhibit reduced behavioural responses to playback of altered songs both in field studies and laboratory studies. Interestingly, males appear to be sensitive to alterations in the glissando, while females appear to be sensitive to alterations in both the glissando and the inter-note ratio. In this study, we sought to determine whether the behaviour of male and female chickadees corresponds to differences in zenk protein immunoreactivity (ZENK-ir) in auditory perceptual regions following playback of fee bee songs with typical and altered pitch ratios. Overall, there was a small but significant sex difference in ZENK-ir (females>males), but altering relative frequencies did not reduce ZENK-ir compared to typical song. Birds did vocalize less in response to playback of songs that lacked an inter-note interval, but amount of singing fee bee song, chick-a-dee calls, or gargles was not correlated with ZENK-ir in perceptual regions (caudomedial nidopallium, NCM and caudomedial mesopallium, CMM) or in HVC, which is part of the song system. Our results confirm that ZENK-ir in NCM and CMM is not involved in fine-grain perceptual discrimination, however it did not support the idea that increased vocalizing increases ZENK-ir in HVC. PMID:26523856

  10. Enriched Expression and Developmental Regulation of the Middle-Weight Neurofilament (NF-M) Gene in Song Control Nuclei of the Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    VELHO, TARCISO A.F.; LOVELL, PETER; MELLO, CLAUDIO V.

    2014-01-01

    Songbirds evolved a complex set of dimorphic telencephalic nuclei that are essential for the learning and production of song. These nuclei, which together make up the oscine song control system, present several neurochemical properties that distinguish them from the rest of the telencephalon. Here we show that the expression of the gene encoding the middle-weight neurofilament (NF-M), an important component of the neuronal cytoskeleton and a useful tool for studying the cytarchitectonic organization of mammalian cortical areas, is highly enriched in large neurons within pallial song control nuclei (nucleus HVC, robustus nucleus of the arcopallium, and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the nidopallium) of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We also show that this transcript is highly expressed in large neurons in the medulla, pons, midbrain, and thalamus. Moreover, we demonstrate that NF-M expression in song control nuclei changes during postembryonic development, peaking during an early phase of the song-learning period that coincides with the maturation of the song system. We did not observe changes in NF-M expression in auditory areas or in song control nuclei in the contexts of hearing song or singing, although these contexts result in marked induction of the transcription factor ZENK. This observation suggests that NF-M might not be under the regulatory control of ZENK in auditory areas or in song control nuclei. Overall, our data indicate that NF-M is a neurochemical marker for pallial song control nuclei and provide suggestive evidence of an involvement of NF-M in the development and/or maturation of the oscine song control system. PMID:17120287

  11. Geographic variation in the songs of neotropical singing mice: testing the relative importance of drift and local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Polly; Pasch, Bret; Pino, Jorge L; Crino, Ondi L; Phillips, Molly; Phelps, Steven M

    2010-07-01

    Patterns of geographic variation in communication systems can provide insight into the processes that drive phenotypic evolution. Although work in birds, anurans, and insects demonstrates that acoustic signals are sensitive to diverse selective and stochastic forces, processes that shape variation in mammalian vocalizations are poorly understood. We quantified geographic variation in the advertisement songs of sister species of singing mice, montane rodents with a unique mode of vocal communication. We tested three hypotheses to explain spatial variation in the song of the lower altitude species, Scotinomys teguina: selection for species recognition in sympatry with congener, S. xerampelinus, acoustic adaptation to different environments, and stochastic divergence. Mice were sampled at seven sites in Costa Rica and Panamá; genetic distances were estimated from mitochondrial control region sequences, between-site differences in acoustic environment were estimated from climatic data. Acoustic, genetic and geographic distances were all highly correlated in S. teguina, suggesting that population differentiation in song is largely shaped by genetic drift. Contrasts between interspecific genetic-acoustic distances were significantly greater than expectations derived from intraspecific contrasts, indicating accelerated evolution of species-specific song. We propose that, although much intraspecific acoustic variation is effectively neutral, selection has been important in shaping species differences in song. PMID:20148958

  12. Multivariate sexual selection on male song structure in wild populations of sagebrush crickets, Cyphoderris strepitans (Orthoptera: Haglidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ower, Geoffrey D; Judge, Kevin A; Steiger, Sandra; Caron, Kyle J; Smith, Rebecca A; Hunt, John; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2013-01-01

    While a number of studies have measured multivariate sexual selection acting on sexual signals in wild populations, few have confirmed these findings with experimental manipulation. Sagebrush crickets are ideally suited to such investigations because mating imposes an unambiguous phenotypic marker on males arising from nuptial feeding by females. We quantified sexual selection operating on male song by recording songs of virgin and mated males captured from three wild populations. To determine the extent to which selection on male song is influenced by female preference, we conducted a companion study in which we synthesized male songs and broadcast them to females in choice trials. Multivariate selection analysis revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface, the highest peak of which corresponded to longer train and pulse durations, and longer intertrain intervals. Longer trains and pulses likely promote greater mate attraction, but selection for longer intertrain durations suggests that energetic constraints may necessitate “time outs”. Playback trials confirmed the selection for longer train and pulse durations, and revealed significant stabilizing selection on dominant frequency, suggesting that the female auditory system is tightly tuned to the species-specific call frequency. Collectively, our results revealed a complex pattern of multivariate nonlinear selection characterized primarily by strong stabilizing and disruptive selection on male song traits. PMID:24223293

  13. Social Brains in Context: Lesions Targeted to the Song Control System in Female Cowbirds Affect Their Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sarah E.; Schmidt, Marc F.; White, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Social experiences can organize physiological, neural, and reproductive function, but there are few experimental preparations that allow one to study the effect individuals have in structuring their social environment. We examined the connections between mechanisms underlying individual behavior and social dynamics in flocks of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We conducted targeted inactivations of the neural song control system in female subjects. Playback tests revealed that the lesions affected females' song preferences: lesioned females were no longer selective for high quality conspecific song. Instead, they reacted to all cowbird songs vigorously. When lesioned females were introduced into mixed-sex captive flocks, they were less likely to form strong pair-bonds, and they no longer showed preferences for dominant males. This in turn created a cascade of effects through the groups. Social network analyses showed that the introduction of the lesioned females created instabilities in the social structure: males in the groups changed their dominance status and their courtship patterns, and even the competitive behavior of other female group-mates was affected. These results reveal that inactivation of the song control system in female cowbirds not only affects individual behavior, but also exerts widespread effects on the stability of the entire social system. PMID:23650558

  14. Two distinct genomic regions, harbouring the period and fruitless genes, affect male courtship song in Drosophila montana

    PubMed Central

    Lagisz, M; Wen, S-Y; Routtu, J; Klappert, K; Mazzi, D; Morales-Hojas, R; Schäfer, M A; Vieira, J; Hoikkala, A; Ritchie, M G; Butlin, R K

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic signals often have a significant role in pair formation and in species recognition. Determining the genetic basis of signal divergence will help to understand signal evolution by sexual selection and its role in the speciation process. An earlier study investigated quantitative trait locus for male courtship song carrier frequency (FRE) in Drosophila montana using microsatellite markers. We refined this study by adding to the linkage map markers for 10 candidate genes known to affect song production in Drosophila melanogaster. We also extended the analyses to additional song characters (pulse train length (PTL), pulse number (PN), interpulse interval, pulse length (PL) and cycle number (CN)). Our results indicate that loci in two different regions of the genome control distinct features of the courtship song. Pulse train traits (PTL and PN) mapped to the X chromosome, showing significant linkage with the period gene. In contrast, characters related to song pulse properties (PL, CN and carrier FRE) mapped to the region of chromosome 2 near the candidate gene fruitless, identifying these genes as suitable loci for further investigations. In previous studies, the pulse train traits have been found to vary substantially between Drosophila species, and so are potential species recognition signals, while the pulse traits may be more important in intra-specific mate choice. PMID:22234247

  15. Female Field Crickets Incur Increased Parasitism Risk When Near Preferred Song

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Cassandra M.; Wagner, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Female animals often prefer males with conspicuous traits because these males provide direct or indirect benefits. Conspicuous male traits, however, can attract predators. This not only increases the risk of predation for conspicuous males but also for the females that prefer them. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, males that produce preferred song types provide females with greater material benefits, but they are also more likely to attract lethal parasitoid flies. First, we conducted a field experiment that tested the hypothesis that females have a greater risk of fly parasitism when in association with preferred high chirp rate males. Females were nearly twice as likely to be parasitized when caged with high chirp rate song than when caged with low chirp rate song. Females may thus be forced to trade off the quality of the benefits they receive from mating with preferred males and the risk of being killed by a predator when near these males. Second, we assessed female parasitism rates in a natural population. Up to 6% of the females were parasitized in field samples. Because the females we collected could have become parasitized had they not been collected, this provides a minimum estimate of the female parasitism rate in the field. In a laboratory study, we found no difference in the proportion of time parasitized and unparasitized females spent hiding under shelters; thus, differences in activity patterns do not appear to have biased our estimate of female parasitism rates. Overall, our results suggest that female association costs have the potential to shape the evolution of female mating preferences. PMID:20231888

  16. Female field crickets incur increased parasitism risk when near preferred song.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cassandra M; Wagner, William E

    2010-01-01

    Female animals often prefer males with conspicuous traits because these males provide direct or indirect benefits. Conspicuous male traits, however, can attract predators. This not only increases the risk of predation for conspicuous males but also for the females that prefer them. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, males that produce preferred song types provide females with greater material benefits, but they are also more likely to attract lethal parasitoid flies. First, we conducted a field experiment that tested the hypothesis that females have a greater risk of fly parasitism when in association with preferred high chirp rate males. Females were nearly twice as likely to be parasitized when caged with high chirp rate song than when caged with low chirp rate song. Females may thus be forced to trade off the quality of the benefits they receive from mating with preferred males and the risk of being killed by a predator when near these males. Second, we assessed female parasitism rates in a natural population. Up to 6% of the females were parasitized in field samples. Because the females we collected could have become parasitized had they not been collected, this provides a minimum estimate of the female parasitism rate in the field. In a laboratory study, we found no difference in the proportion of time parasitized and unparasitized females spent hiding under shelters; thus, differences in activity patterns do not appear to have biased our estimate of female parasitism rates. Overall, our results suggest that female association costs have the potential to shape the evolution of female mating preferences. PMID:20231888

  17. The two-colour EMCCD instrument for the Danish 1.54 m telescope and SONG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skottfelt, J.; Bramich, D. M.; Hundertmark, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Michaelsen, N.; Kjærgaard, P.; Southworth, J.; Sørensen, A. N.; Andersen, M. F.; Andersen, M. I.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Frandsen, S.; Grundahl, F.; Harpsøe, K. B. W.; Kjeldsen, H.; Pallé, P. L.

    2015-02-01

    We report on the implemented design of a two-colour instrument based on electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) detectors. This instrument is currently installed at the Danish 1.54 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, and will be available at the SONG (Stellar Observations Network Group) 1m telescope node at Tenerife and at other SONG nodes as well. We present the software system for controlling the two-colour instrument and calibrating the high frame-rate imaging data delivered by the EMCCD cameras. An analysis of the performance of the Two-Colour Instrument at the Danish telescope shows an improvement in spatial resolution of up to a factor of two when doing shift-and-add compared with conventional imaging, and the possibility of doing high-precision photometry of EMCCD data in crowded fields. The Danish telescope, which was commissioned in 1979, is limited by a triangular coma at spatial resolutions below 0.5 arcsec, and better results will thus be achieved at the near diffraction-limited optical system on the SONG telescopes, where spatial resolutions close to 0.2 arcsec have been achieved. Regular EMCCD operations have been running at the Danish telescope for several years and produced a number of scientific discoveries, including microlensing detected exoplanets, detecting previously unknown variable stars in dense globular clusters, and discovering two rings around the small asteroid-like object (10199) Chariklo. Based on data collected with the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory.

  18. A microsatellite-based linkage map for song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).

    PubMed

    Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Camenisch, Glauco; Bucher, Thomas; Slate, Jon; Keller, Lukas F; Postma, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Although linkage maps are important tools in evolutionary biology, their availability for wild populations is limited. The population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) on Mandarte Island, Canada, is among the more intensively studied wild animal populations. Its long-term pedigree data, together with extensive genetic sampling, have allowed the study of a range of questions in evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the availability of genetic markers has been limited. We here describe 191 new microsatellite loci, including 160 high-quality polymorphic autosomal, 7 Z-linked and 1 W-linked markers. We used these markers to construct a linkage map for song sparrows with a total sex-averaged map length of 1731 cM and covering 35 linkage groups, and hence, these markers cover most of the 38-40 chromosomes. Female and male map lengths did not differ significantly. We then bioinformatically mapped these loci to the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome and found that linkage groups were conserved between song sparrows and zebra finches. Compared to the zebra finch, marker order within small linkage groups was well conserved, whereas the larger linkage groups showed some intrachromosomal rearrangements. Finally, we show that as expected, recombination frequency between linked loci explained the majority of variation in gametic phase disequilibrium. Yet, there was substantial overlap in gametic phase disequilibrium between pairs of linked and unlinked loci. Given that the microsatellites described here lie on 35 of the 38-40 chromosomes, these markers will be useful for studies in this species, as well as for comparative genomics studies with other species. PMID:25865627

  19. Inhibition of TrkB limits development of the zebra finch song system.

    PubMed

    Beach, Linda Qi; Tang, Yu Ping; Kerver, Halie; Wade, Juli

    2016-07-01

    Large sexual dimorphisms exist in the zebra finch song system. Masculinization may be mediated by both estradiol and expression of one or more Z-genes (males: ZZ; females: ZW). Roles of the Z-gene tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) in HVC in masculinizing both HVC and one of its targets the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), were tested using siRNA administration in juvenile males at two ages (post-hatching days 15-17 or 25-27). Birds were euthanized 10 days later. Potential interactions or additive effects with estradiol were evaluated by treating males with the estrogen synthesis inhibitor fadrozole. Females treated with estradiol were also exposed to the siRNA at the later age. Local inhibition of TrkB in males of both ages reduced the volume of HVC, an effect due to a change in cell number and not cell size. In the older males, in which the treatment spanned the period when the projection from HVC to RA grows, TrkB inhibition reduced the volume of RA and the relative number of cells within it. TrkB siRNA in HVC decreased the volume of and soma size in the RA of females, and the projection from HVC to RA in both sexes. Estradiol in females masculinized various aspects of the song system, and its effect in masculinizing the volume of RA was decreased by TrkB inhibition. However, effects of fadrozole in males were limited. The data indicate that TrkB is involved in masculinizing the song system, but for most measures it probably does not work in concert with E2. PMID:27086969

  20. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  1. Dawn-song onset coincides with increased HVC androgen receptor expression but is decoupled from high circulating testosterone in an equatorial songbird.

    PubMed

    Quispe, René; Sèbe, Frédéric; da Silva, Maria Luisa; Gahr, Manfred

    2016-03-15

    The song of songbirds is a testosterone-sensitive behavior that is controlled by brain regions expressing androgen receptors. At higher latitudes, seasonal singing is stimulated by increasing day-length and elevated circulating testosterone. However, a large number of songbird species inhabit equatorial regions under a nearly constant photoperiod, and the neuroendocrine mechanisms of seasonal song in these species have rarely been investigated. We studied males from an equatorial population of the silver-beaked tanager (Ramphocelus carbo), an Amazonian songbird. We found seasonality in dawn-song behavior, which was displayed continuously for more than half a year throughout an extended breeding territoriality stage. The seasonal activation of dawn-song was correlated with an increased area of androgen receptor expression in HVC, a major brain area of song control. However, testosterone levels remained low for several weeks after activation of dawn-song. Circulating levels of testosterone were elevated only later in the breeding season, coinciding with a higher dawn-song output and with the mating period. Our results suggest that the seasonal activation of dawn-song and territoriality involves an increase of androgen target cells in HVC. This mechanism could potentially function to circumvent adverse effects of high testosterone levels in a species with an extended breeding season. PMID:26752610

  2. A Frequency Count of Music Elements in Bahian Folk Songs Using Computer and Hand Analysis: Suggestions for Applications in Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alda De Jesus

    1997-01-01

    Explores the frequency of selected musical elements in a sample of folk songs from Bahia Brazil using a computer program and manual analysis. Demonstrates that the contents of each beat are comprised of simple rhythmic elements, melodic ranges are within an octave, and most formal structures of the songs consist of four phrases. (CMK)

  3. Courtship Song Does Not Increase the Rate of Adaptation to a Thermally Stressful Environment in a Drosophila melanogaster Laboratory Population

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Larry G.; Holland, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Courtship song in D. melanogaster contributes substantially to male mating success through female selection. We used experimental evolution to test whether this display trait is maintained through adaptive female selection because it indicates heritable male quality for thermal stress tolerance. We used non-displaying, outbred populations of D. melanogaster (nub1) mutants and measured their rate of adaptation to a new, thermally stressful environment, relative to wild-type control populations that retained courtship song. This design retains sexually selected conflict in both treatments. Thermal stress should select across genomes for newly beneficial alleles, increasing the available genetic and phenotypic variation and, therefore, the magnitude of female benefit derived from courtship song. Following introduction to the thermally stressful environment, net reproductive rate decreased 50% over four generations, and then increased 19% over the following 16 generations. There were no differences between the treatments. Possible explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:25365209

  4. [The activity of searching for books of Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic Diseases) of the Song edition].

    PubMed

    Qian, Chao-chen

    2010-01-01

    Originally, Shang Han Lun in the Song edition referred to the Shang Han Lun with large and small Chinese characters printed in the Northern Song Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, its only edition of Shang Han Lun with small Chinese characters was again block-printed in Zhong Jing Quan Shu (Zhongjing's Complete Works) by Zhao Keimei and then the original one disappeared. So the Shang Han Lun in Zhong Jing Quan Shu was considered as the Song edition. Only 6 sets were in existence in the world, and were read by myself; I have detailed records and photos of 5 of them. The article is the result of textual research on Shang Han Lun of Zhong Jing Quan Shu preserved in Taiwan National Palace Museum. PMID:20403262

  5. [Neo-Confucianism and TCM culture in Mount Wuyish area in Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Wang, Ying-Ying

    2011-07-01

    Mount Wuyi area is the representative cultural region of Fujian province in early time. Medical books and recordings of this area were primary constituents of TCM in ancient Fujian. Zhuzi Theory was formed in this area in Song Dynasty. Influenced by Neo-confucianismborned Songci (Great forensic scientist), Caiyuanding (A scholar of Neo-confucianism with achievements in medical science) and Qianwenli (an official who studied medical science). The spread of Neo-confucianism promoted the development of local printing industry, culture industry and TCM in Mount Wuyi area. PMID:22169487

  6. First song descriptions of some Anatolian species of Tettigoniidae Krauss, 1902 (Orthoptera, Ensifera)

    PubMed Central

    Şirin, Deniz; Taylan, Mehmet Sait; Mol, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fourteen endemic and two sub-endemic species belonging to three subfamilies of Tettigoniidae (Tettigoniinae, Bradyporinae and Saginae) were sampled during field trips throughout the different ranges of Anatolia between the years of 2004 and 2013. Acoustic parameters of these 16 species affiliated to 8 genera (Anterastes, Apholidoptera, Gampsocleis, Parapholidoptera, Pezodrymadusa, Psorodonotus, Bradyporus and Saga) have been described for the first time in this study. Acoustical analysis showed that song characters are species-specific in the genera Saga and Psorodonotus. On the other hand, we could not find big differences among species of the genus Pezodrymadusa and Parapholidoptera castaneoviridis species-group. PMID:24478585

  7. Highly Structured Duets in the Song of the South American Hornero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laje, Rodrigo; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2003-12-01

    The South American Hornero (Furnarius rufus) is a suboscine bird widely known for its mud-made, oven-looking nest. Beyond their architectural skills, the male and female Horneros sing in highly structured duets. The analysis of field recordings reported in this work reveals that as the male increases the note production rate the female responds by switching to different locking states: the ones predicted by the theory of nonlinear forced oscillators. This gives the duet a most appealing rhythm, and unveils the nonlinear nature of the underlying brain activity needed to generate the song.

  8. Dance Movements Enhance Song Learning in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Vongpaisal, Tara; Caruso, Daniela; Yuan, Zhicheng

    2016-01-01

    Music perception of cochlear implants (CI) users is constrained by the absence of salient musical pitch cues crucial for melody identification, but is made possible by timing cues that are largely preserved by current devices. While musical timing cues, including beats and rhythms, are a potential route to music learning, it is not known what extent they are perceptible to CI users in complex sound scenes, especially when pitch and timbral features can co-occur and obscure these musical features. The task at hand, then, becomes one of optimizing the available timing cues for young CI users by exploring ways that they might be perceived and encoded simultaneously across multiple modalities. Accordingly, we examined whether training tasks that engage active music listening through dance might enhance the song identification skills of deaf children with CIs. Nine CI children learned new songs in two training conditions: (a) listening only (auditory learning), and (2) listening and dancing (auditory-motor learning). We examined children's ability to identify original song excerpts, as well as mistuned, and piano versions from a closed-set task. While CI children were less accurate than their normal hearing peers, they showed greater song identification accuracies in versions that preserved the original instrumental beats following learning that engaged active listening with dance. The observed performance advantage is further qualified by a medium effect size, indicating that the gains afforded by auditory-motor learning are practically meaningful. Furthermore, kinematic analyses of body movements showed that CI children synchronized to temporal structures in music in a manner that was comparable to normal hearing age-matched peers. Our findings are the first to indicate that input from CI devices enables good auditory-motor integration of timing cues in child CI users for the purposes of listening and dancing to music. Beyond the heightened arousal from active

  9. Dance Movements Enhance Song Learning in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Vongpaisal, Tara; Caruso, Daniela; Yuan, Zhicheng

    2016-01-01

    Music perception of cochlear implants (CI) users is constrained by the absence of salient musical pitch cues crucial for melody identification, but is made possible by timing cues that are largely preserved by current devices. While musical timing cues, including beats and rhythms, are a potential route to music learning, it is not known what extent they are perceptible to CI users in complex sound scenes, especially when pitch and timbral features can co-occur and obscure these musical features. The task at hand, then, becomes one of optimizing the available timing cues for young CI users by exploring ways that they might be perceived and encoded simultaneously across multiple modalities. Accordingly, we examined whether training tasks that engage active music listening through dance might enhance the song identification skills of deaf children with CIs. Nine CI children learned new songs in two training conditions: (a) listening only (auditory learning), and (2) listening and dancing (auditory-motor learning). We examined children's ability to identify original song excerpts, as well as mistuned, and piano versions from a closed-set task. While CI children were less accurate than their normal hearing peers, they showed greater song identification accuracies in versions that preserved the original instrumental beats following learning that engaged active listening with dance. The observed performance advantage is further qualified by a medium effect size, indicating that the gains afforded by auditory-motor learning are practically meaningful. Furthermore, kinematic analyses of body movements showed that CI children synchronized to temporal structures in music in a manner that was comparable to normal hearing age-matched peers. Our findings are the first to indicate that input from CI devices enables good auditory-motor integration of timing cues in child CI users for the purposes of listening and dancing to music. Beyond the heightened arousal from active

  10. Research Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides detailed information about currently funded RFA initiatives both led by DCCPS, and those led by other NIH Institutes and Centers (I/Cs) that include DCCPS as a partner. Each initiative includes a table of funded grants and a map that shows the location of funded institutions.

  11. [Textural research on the initiator of "new contracted warm disease"].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang

    2011-05-01

    Most scholars of the contemporary age thought that WANG Ji was the initiator of "new contracted warm disease". But no evidence was found in Shang Han Xuan Lu to support the viewpoint. New contracted warm disease was not mentioned in the book, even without significant narratives. It is the wrong quotation of Shang Han Xuan Lu by HE Lianchen in his book Chong Ding Guang Wen Re Lun, which is the root cause of the incorrect viewpoint. Therefore, the wrong statement spread among scholars. Actually, GUO Yong had proposed the theory of "new contracted warm disease" in the Southern Song Dynasty. This wrong statement should be corrected. PMID:21781546

  12. Are high perches in the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla song or listening posts? A sound transmission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathevon, Nicolas; Dabelsteen, Torben; Blumenrath, Sandra H.

    2005-01-01

    Birds often sing from high perches referred to as song posts. However, birds also listen and keep a lookout from these perches. We used a sound transmission experiment to investigate the changes for receiving and sending conditions that a territorial songbird may experience by moving upwards in the vegetation. Representative song elements of the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla were transmitted in a forest habitat in spring using a complete factorial design with natural transmission distances and speaker and microphone heights. Four aspects of sound degradation were quantified: signal-to-noise ratio, excess attenuation, distortion within the sounds determined as a blur ratio, and prolongation of the sounds with ``tails'' of echoes determined as a tail-to-signal ratio. All four measures indicated that degradation decreased with speaker and microphone height. However, the decrease was considerably higher for the microphone than for the speaker. This suggests that choosing high perches in a forest at spring results in more benefits to blackcaps in terms of improved communication conditions when they act as receivers than as senders. .

  13. A Daily Oscillation in the Fundamental Frequency and Amplitude of Harmonic Syllables of Zebra Finch Song

    PubMed Central

    Wood, William E.; Osseward, Peter J.; Roseberry, Thomas K.; Perkel, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Complex motor skills are more difficult to perform at certain points in the day (for example, shortly after waking), but the daily trajectory of motor-skill error is more difficult to predict. By undertaking a quantitative analysis of the fundamental frequency (FF) and amplitude of hundreds of zebra finch syllables per animal per day, we find that zebra finch song follows a previously undescribed daily oscillation. The FF and amplitude of harmonic syllables rises across the morning, reaching a peak near mid-day, and then falls again in the late afternoon until sleep. This oscillation, although somewhat variable, is consistent across days and across animals and does not require serotonin, as animals with serotonergic lesions maintained daily oscillations. We hypothesize that this oscillation is driven by underlying physiological factors which could be shared with other taxa. Song production in zebra finches is a model system for studying complex learned behavior because of the ease of gathering comprehensive behavioral data and the tractability of the underlying neural circuitry. The daily oscillation that we describe promises to reveal new insights into how time of day affects the ability to accomplish a variety of complex learned motor skills. PMID:24312654

  14. Ultrasonic courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma

    2006-06-01

    Although sex pheromone communication in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied intensively, acoustic communication in this genus has not been explored. In this study, we report that male-produced ultrasound serves as a courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, O. furnacalis. Upon landing close to a pheromone-releasing female, a male showed a series of courtship behaviors involving emission of ultrasound. The sounds were produced when the wings were vibrated quickly in an upright position. The male song was composed of chirps, i.e., groups of pulses (duration of a chirp = 58.9 ms, 8.8 pulses/chirp), with a broadband frequency of 25-100 kHz. In flight tunnel experiments, deaf and hearing females showed a significant difference in the incidence of three behavioral responses to courting males, i.e., immediate acceptance, acceptance after walking, and rejection. Deaf females showed more ‘rejection’ and less ‘acceptance after walking’ than hearing females, indicating that the detection of male-produced ultrasound plays an important role in the acceptance of a male. The findings are discussed in the context of exploitation of receiver bias and mate choice.

  15. Auditory synapses to song premotor neurons are gated off during vocalization in zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Hamaguchi, Kosuke; Tschida, Katherine A; Yoon, Inho; Donald, Bruce R; Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Songbirds use auditory feedback to learn and maintain their songs, but how feedback interacts with vocal motor circuitry remains unclear. A potential site for this interaction is the song premotor nucleus HVC, which receives auditory input and contains neurons (HVCX cells) that innervate an anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) important to feedback-dependent vocal plasticity. Although the singing-related output of HVCX cells is unaltered by distorted auditory feedback (DAF), deafening gradually weakens synapses on HVCX cells, raising the possibility that they integrate feedback only at subthreshold levels during singing. Using intracellular recordings in singing zebra finches, we found that DAF failed to perturb singing-related synaptic activity of HVCX cells, although many of these cells responded to auditory stimuli in non-singing states. Moreover, in vivo multiphoton imaging revealed that deafening-induced changes to HVCX synapses require intact AFP output. These findings support a model in which the AFP accesses feedback independent of HVC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01833.001 PMID:24550254

  16. Crickets with extravagant mating songs compensate for predation risk with extra caution.

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, A V

    2000-01-01

    Modern models for the evolution of conspicuous male mating displays assume that males with conspicuous displays must bear the cost of enhanced predation risk. However, if males can compensate behaviourally for their increased conspicuousness by acting more cautiously towards predators, they may be able to lower this cost. In the field cricket Gryllus integer, males call to attract females, and differ in their durations of uninterrupted trilling (calling-bout lengths). Differences among males in calling-bout lengths are heritable, and females prefer males with longer calling bouts. In this study, males with longer, more conspicuous songs behaved more cautiously than males with shorter songs on two different tests of predator avoidance. They took longer to emerge from a safe shelter within a novel, potentially dangerous environment, and they ceased calling for a longer time when their calls were interrupted by a predator cue. Thus, these males appear to compensate behaviourally for their more conspicuous mating displays. Additionally, latencies to emerge from a shelter in the novel environment were consistent over time for both individual males from the field and males that had been reared in the laboratory, indicating that the differences in latency among males may be heritable. PMID:10821611

  17. Dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia: the role of song familiarity.

    PubMed

    Straube, Thomas; Schulz, Alexander; Geipel, Katja; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2008-04-01

    There are several reports on the ability aphasic patients have to sing familiar songs, despite having severe speech impairments. Based on these observations it was also suggested that singing might improve speech production. However, recent experimental studies with aphasic patients found no evidence to illustrate that singing improves word production under controlled experimental conditions. This study investigated the role of singing during repetition of word phrases in a patient severely affected with non-fluent aphasia (GS) who had an almost complete lesion of the left hemisphere. GS showed a pronounced increase in the number of correctly reproduced words during singing as compared to speaking excerpts of familiar lyrics. This dissociation between singing and speaking was not seen for novel song lyrics, regardless of whether these were coupled with an unfamiliar, a familiar, or a spontaneously generated melody during the singing conditions. These findings propose that singing might help word phrase production in at least some cases of severe expressive aphasia. However, the association of melody and text in long-term memory seems to be responsible for this effect. PMID:18294661

  18. Fibre architecture and song activation rates of syringeal muscles are not lateralized in the European starling

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, A. M.; Meyers, R. A.; Cooper, B. G.; Goller, F.

    2010-01-01

    The songbird vocal organ, the syrinx, is composed of two sound generators, which are independently controlled by sets of two extrinsic and four intrinsic muscles. These muscles rank among the fastest vertebrate muscles, but the molecular and morphological foundations of this rapid physiological performance are unknown. Here we show that the four intrinsic muscles in the syrinx of male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are composed of fast oxidative and superfast fibres. Dorsal and ventral tracheobronchialis muscles contain slightly more superfast fibres relative to the number of fast oxidative fibres than dorsal and ventral syringealis muscles. This morphological difference is not reflected in the highest, burst-like activation rate of the two muscle groups during song as assessed with electromyographic recordings. No difference in fibre type ratio was found between the corresponding muscles of the left and right sound generators. Airflow and electromyographic measurements during song indicate that maximal activation rate and speed of airflow regulation do not differ between the two sound sources. Whereas the potential for high-speed muscular control exists on both sides, the two sound generators are used differentially for modulation of acoustic parameters. These results show that large numbers of superfast fibre types are present in intrinsic syringeal muscles of a songbird, providing further confirmation of rapid contraction kinetics. However, syringeal muscles are composed of two fibre types which raises questions about the neuromuscular control of this heterogeneous muscle architecture. PMID:20228343

  19. Leaving the Space Better than You Found It through Song: Music, Diversity, and Mission in One Black Student Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckman, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    In recounting the history and present dynamics in the Kuumba Singers of Harvard College, Sherry Deckman presents a portrait of what it means to leave a space better than you found it through song. The story of Kuumba--Harvard's oldest black student organization and now its largest multicultural organization--is told through the experiences of…

  20. Chinese Students in a "Sea" of Change: One Teacher's Discoveries about Chinese Students' Learning and Emotions through Use of Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbon, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    The research examines one teacher's perceptions of the value of offering a song which allowed her to teach not only the "content" of her unit of study, but which has also become the focus of her "process" and "pedagogy" in the unit. The study also examines the teacher's reactions to the deep level to which (she maintains) the Chinese learners…

  1. Effect of Song Writing versus Recreational Music on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms and Abuse Attribution in Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Susan J.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to develop a song-writing technique to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in abused children from 9 to 17 years old, all patients of an inpatient psychiatric child/adolescent unit who had been physically and/or sexually abused. Finds no significant change in overall scores due to treatment condition. (SR)

  2. Deutsche Feste. Sitten und Brauche mit Liedern Gedichten Ratseln. (German Festivities. Habits and Customs Using Songs and Stories).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawrysz, Ilse, Ed.

    This teacher's guide of supplemental cultural materials includes descriptions of major celebrations and cultural activities of the German people. The text includes songs, poems, and stories about the New Year, carnival, springtime, Easter, fall festivals, and Christmas, as well as a traditional German wedding. (TR)

  3. Children’s Folk Songs of America: The Folk Music Legacies of John Langstaff and Ruth Crawford Seeger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Sarah H.; Bartolome, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of general music are tasked with the challenge of locating high-quality repertoire for classroom use and to incorporate that repertoire into meaningful music learning encounters for children and youth. This task may become all the more difficult when seeking out repertoire of substance from traditional sources, finding songs of folk…

  4. Verbal and Nonverbal Identification of Pitch Changes in a Familiar Song by English- and Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Patricia J.; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    1991-01-01

    Assesses children's ability to indicate verbally and nonverbally their awareness of two-octave pitch shifts in a familiar song. Compares abilities of English- and Spanish-speaking children by age and by native language. Discovers older children indicate changes more proficiently whereas Spanish-speaking children respond less often. Finds many…

  5. The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in song sparrows along Arizona's upper Santa Cruz River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles, III

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.

  6. The effects of familiarity and complexity on appraisal of complex songs by cochlear implant recipients and normal hearing adults.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, Kate; Christ, Aaron; Knutson, John; Witt, Shelley; Mehr, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to develop a test of complex song appraisal that would be suitable for use with adults who use a cochlear implant (assistive hearing device) and (b) to compare the appraisal ratings (liking) of complex songs by adults who use cochlear implants (n = 66) with a comparison group of adults with normal hearing (n = 36). The article describes the development of a computerized test for appraisal, with emphasis on its theoretical basis and the process for item selection of naturalistic stimuli. The appraisal test was administered to the 2 groups to determine the effects of prior song familiarity and subjective complexity on complex song appraisal. Comparison of the 2 groups indicates that the implant users rate 2 of 3 musical genres (country western, pop) as significantly more complex than do normal hearing adults, and give significantly less positive ratings to classical music than do normal hearing adults. Appraisal responses of implant recipients were examined in relation to hearing history, age, performance on speech perception and cognitive tests, and musical background. PMID:14505444

  7. A Modified Mole Cricket Lure and Description of Scapteriscus borellii (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) Range Expansion and Calling Song in California

    PubMed Central

    Dillman, Adler R.; Cronin, Christopher J.; Tang, Joseph; Gray, David A.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mole cricket species in the genus Scapteriscus have become significant agricultural pests and are continuing to expand their range in North America. Though largely subterranean, adults of some species such as S. borellii are capable of long dispersive flights and phonotaxis to male calling songs to find suitable habitats and mates. Mole crickets in the genus Scapteriscus are known to be attracted to and can be caught by audio lure traps that broadcast synthesized or recorded calling songs. We report improvements in the design and production of electronic controllers for the automation of semi-permanent mole cricket trap lures as well as highly portable audio trap collection designs. Using these improved audio lure traps we collected the first reported individuals of the pest mole cricket S. borellii in California. We describe several characteristic features of the calling song of the California population including that the pulse rate is a function of soil temperature, similar to Florida populations of S. borellii. Further, we show that other calling song characteristics (carrier frequency, intensity, and pulse rate) are significantly different between the populations. PMID:24472207

  8. Playback and Feedback: Revelations of an "Encoding, Decoding" Analysis of Popular Songs Used to Teach English in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goering, Christian Z.; Wei, Huang

    2014-01-01

    In 2009 Rupke and Blank noted that the Chinese students in their study sang American songs that the researchers had never heard. This perceived dissonance could have a multitude of causes, but the authors of this article turned their attention to the curriculum used for teaching English in China to further understand the popularity and persistence…

  9. Canciones en la clase: The Why and How of Integrating Songs in Spanish by English-Speaking and Bilingual Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Bruce Dean; Mason, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Instructors are prepared to use Spanish versions of English-speaking and bilingual artists' recordings to teach language structures and enhance the five skill areas. This article reviews the literature and pedagogical use of songs and also provides a list of recordings, recommendations for classroom use, and two sample lesson plans. (Contains 20…

  10. Overtone-based pitch selection in hermit thrush song: Unexpected convergence with scale construction in human music

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, Emily L.; Gingras, Bruno; Endres, Dominik M.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Many human musical scales, including the diatonic major scale prevalent in Western music, are built partially or entirely from intervals (ratios between adjacent frequencies) corresponding to small-integer proportions drawn from the harmonic series. Scientists have long debated the extent to which principles of scale generation in human music are biologically or culturally determined. Data from animal “song” may provide new insights into this discussion. Here, by examining pitch relationships using both a simple linear regression model and a Bayesian generative model, we show that most songs of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) favor simple frequency ratios derived from the harmonic (or overtone) series. Furthermore, we show that this frequency selection results not from physical constraints governing peripheral production mechanisms but from active selection at a central level. These data provide the most rigorous empirical evidence to date of a bird song that makes use of the same mathematical principles that underlie Western and many non-Western musical scales, demonstrating surprising convergence between human and animal “song cultures.” Although there is no evidence that the songs of most bird species follow the overtone series, our findings add to a small but growing body of research showing that a preference for small-integer frequency ratios is not unique to humans. These findings thus have important implications for current debates about the origins of human musical systems and may call for a reevaluation of existing theories of musical consonance based on specific human vocal characteristics. PMID:25368163

  11. Effects of Word Games, Culturally Relevant Songs, and Stories on Students' Motivation in a Nigerian English Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajibade, Yetunde; Ndububa, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which word games and culturally relevant songs and stories could motivate senior secondary school students in Nigeria, thereby enhancing their performance in English. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used. The sample consisted of 100 senior secondary school II students randomly assigned into…

  12. Temperature coupling in cricket acoustic communication. I. Field and laboratory studies of temperature effects on calling song production and recognition in Gryllus firmus.

    PubMed

    Pires, A; Hoy, R R

    1992-08-01

    Temperature effects on calling song production and recognition were investigated in the North American field cricket, Gryllus firmus. Temporal parameters of field-recorded G. firmus calling song are strongly affected by temperature. Chirp rate and syllable rate increase, by factors of 4 and 2, respectively, as linear functions of temperature over the range in which these animals sing in the field (12 degrees-30 degrees C). Temperature affects syllable duration to a lesser extent, and does not influence calling song carrier frequency. Female phonotactic preference, measured on a spherical treadmill in the laboratory, also changes with temperature such that warmer females prefer songs with faster chirp and syllable rates. Best phonotaxis, measured as accuracy of orientation to the sound source, and highest walking velocity, occur in response to temperature-matched songs at 15 degrees, 21 degrees, and 30 degrees C. Experiments under semi-natural conditions in an outdoor arena revealed that females perform phonotaxis at temperatures as low as 13 degrees C. Taken together, the song and phonotaxis data demonstrate that this communication system is temperature coupled. A strategy is outlined by which temperature coupling may be exploited to test hypotheses about the organization of neural networks subserving song recognition. PMID:1403992

  13. The role of complexity on reading, memory, and appreciation of song lyrics and science exposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, Shannon Nicole

    The primary goal of this dissertation was to examine whether variations in the complexity of texts, readers, and tasks have a systematic influence on the comprehension, memory, and appreciation of texts. A second purpose of this dissertation was to investigate whether the same relationships exists across different genres of text, specifically song lyrics and science texts. In two experiments, variations in the complexity of three dimensions of the reading process served as independent variables. These were the number interpretations that readers were instructed to generate per text (i.e., instruction), the cognitive flexibility of the reader (cognitive flexibility), and text clarity (clarity). Three dependent measures were assessed: reading times, memory, and appreciation of the texts. Four theoretical positions were tested: the encoding variability hypothesis, script theories, the polyvalence assumption, and the construction-integration model. Predictions were derived from these theoretical positions and tested empirically. The two experiments used a 3 (instruction) x 2 (cognitive flexibility) x 2 (text clarity) factorial design to test the theoretical predictions. Experiment 1 was conducted with song lyrics as stimuli, whereas Experiment 2 tested scientific texts. The three levels of instruction were (1) no instructions on producing interpretations (no-interpretation condition), (2) produce one interpretation (single-interpretation condition), and (3) produce as many interpretations as possible (many-interpretation condition). There were two levels of cognitive flexibility: high versus low. Participants were categorized into high vs. low flexibility based on a composite of three measures: The Adult Torrance Test Abbreviated, Epistemological Belief Scale, and Openness portion of the NEO personality inventory (Neuroticism, Extroversion, and Openness). There were two levels of text clarity: clear versus unclear. The results revealed that text clarity was the most

  14. The Songbird as a Percussionist: Syntactic Rules for Non-Vocal Sound and Song Production in Java Sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Masayo; Mori, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Music and dance are two remarkable human characteristics that are closely related. Communication through integrated vocal and motional signals is also common in the courtship displays of birds. The contribution of songbird studies to our understanding of vocal learning has already shed some light on the cognitive underpinnings of musical ability. Moreover, recent pioneering research has begun to show how animals can synchronize their behaviors with external stimuli, like metronome beats. However, few studies have applied such perspectives to unraveling how animals can integrate multimodal communicative signals that have natural functions. Additionally, studies have rarely asked how well these behaviors are learned. With this in mind, here we cast a spotlight on an unusual animal behavior: non-vocal sound production associated with singing in the Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora), a songbird. We show that male Java sparrows coordinate their bill-click sounds with the syntax of their song-note sequences, similar to percussionists. Analysis showed that they produced clicks frequently toward the beginning of songs and before/after specific song notes. We also show that bill-clicking patterns are similar between social fathers and their sons, suggesting that these behaviors might be learned from models or linked to learning-based vocalizations. Individuals untutored by conspecifics also exhibited stereotypical bill-clicking patterns in relation to song-note sequence, indicating that while the production of bill clicking itself is intrinsic, its syncopation appears to develop with songs. This paints an intriguing picture in which non-vocal sounds are integrated with vocal courtship signals in a songbird, a model that we expect will contribute to the further understanding of multimodal communication. PMID:25992841

  15. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Selection: QTL Mapping of Male Song and Female Receiver Traits in an Acoustic Moth

    PubMed Central

    Limousin, Denis; Streiff, Réjane; Courtois, Brigitte; Dupuy, Virginie; Alem, Sylvain; Greenfield, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Models of indirect (genetic) benefits sexual selection predict linkage disequilibria between genes that influence male traits and female preferences, owing to non-random mate choice or physical linkage. Such linkage disequilibria can accelerate the evolution of traits and preferences to exaggerated levels. Both theory and recent empirical findings on species recognition suggest that such linkage disequilibria may result from physical linkage or pleiotropy, but very little work has addressed this possibility within the context of sexual selection. We studied the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits by analyzing signals and preferences in an acoustic moth, Achroia grisella, in which males attract females with a train of ultrasound pulses and females prefer loud songs and a fast pulse rhythm. Both male signal characters and female preferences are repeatable and heritable traits. Moreover, female choice is based largely on male song, while males do not appear to provide direct benefits at mating. Thus, some genetic correlation between song and preference traits is expected. We employed a standard crossing design between inbred lines and used AFLP markers to build a linkage map for this species and locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence male song and female preference. Our analyses mostly revealed QTLs of moderate strength that influence various male signal and female receiver traits, but one QTL was found that exerts a major influence on the pulse-pair rate of male song, a critical trait in female attraction. However, we found no evidence of specific co-localization of QTLs influencing male signal and female receiver traits on the same linkage groups. This finding suggests that the sexual selection process would proceed at a modest rate in A. grisella and that evolution toward exaggerated character states may be tempered. We suggest that this equilibrium state may be more the norm than the exception among animal species. PMID:22957082

  16. Patterns of Song across Natural and Anthropogenic Soundscapes Suggest That White-Crowned Sparrows Minimize Acoustic Masking and Maximize Signal Content.

    PubMed

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Danner, Raymond M; Danner, Julie E; Derryberry, Graham E; Phillips, Jennifer N; Lipshutz, Sara E; Gentry, Katherine; Luther, David A

    2016-01-01

    Soundscapes pose both evolutionarily recent and long-standing sources of selection on acoustic communication. We currently know more about the impact of evolutionarily recent human-generated noise on communication than we do about how natural sounds such as pounding surf have shaped communication signals over evolutionary time. Based on signal detection theory, we hypothesized that acoustic phenotypes will vary with both anthropogenic and natural background noise levels and that similar mechanisms of cultural evolution and/or behavioral flexibility may underlie this variation. We studied song characteristics of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli) across a noise gradient that includes both anthropogenic and natural sources of noise in San Francisco and Marin counties, California, USA. Both anthropogenic and natural soundscapes contain high amplitude low frequency noise (traffic or surf, respectively), so we predicted that birds would produce songs with higher minimum frequencies in areas with higher amplitude background noise to avoid auditory masking. We also anticipated that song minimum frequencies would be higher than the projected lower frequency limit of hearing based on site-specific masking profiles. Background noise was a strong predictor of song minimum frequency, both within a local noise gradient of three urban sites with the same song dialect and cultural evolutionary history, and across the regional noise gradient, which encompasses 11 urban and rural sites, several dialects, and several anthropogenic and natural sources of noise. Among rural sites alone, background noise tended to predict song minimum frequency, indicating that urban sites were not solely responsible for driving the regional pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that songs vary with local and regional soundscapes regardless of the source of noise. Song minimum frequency from five core study sites was also higher than the lower frequency limit of hearing

  17. Patterns of Song across Natural and Anthropogenic Soundscapes Suggest That White-Crowned Sparrows Minimize Acoustic Masking and Maximize Signal Content

    PubMed Central

    Derryberry, Graham E.; Phillips, Jennifer N.; Lipshutz, Sara E.; Gentry, Katherine; Luther, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Soundscapes pose both evolutionarily recent and long-standing sources of selection on acoustic communication. We currently know more about the impact of evolutionarily recent human-generated noise on communication than we do about how natural sounds such as pounding surf have shaped communication signals over evolutionary time. Based on signal detection theory, we hypothesized that acoustic phenotypes will vary with both anthropogenic and natural background noise levels and that similar mechanisms of cultural evolution and/or behavioral flexibility may underlie this variation. We studied song characteristics of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli) across a noise gradient that includes both anthropogenic and natural sources of noise in San Francisco and Marin counties, California, USA. Both anthropogenic and natural soundscapes contain high amplitude low frequency noise (traffic or surf, respectively), so we predicted that birds would produce songs with higher minimum frequencies in areas with higher amplitude background noise to avoid auditory masking. We also anticipated that song minimum frequencies would be higher than the projected lower frequency limit of hearing based on site-specific masking profiles. Background noise was a strong predictor of song minimum frequency, both within a local noise gradient of three urban sites with the same song dialect and cultural evolutionary history, and across the regional noise gradient, which encompasses 11 urban and rural sites, several dialects, and several anthropogenic and natural sources of noise. Among rural sites alone, background noise tended to predict song minimum frequency, indicating that urban sites were not solely responsible for driving the regional pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that songs vary with local and regional soundscapes regardless of the source of noise. Song minimum frequency from five core study sites was also higher than the lower frequency limit of hearing

  18. [Differences of concept and entity of xiao-named herb between Shennong's Herbal Classic and Song-edition Treatise on Febrile Disease and Golden Chamber].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Zhen-Guo; Lu, Xing

    2012-01-01

    There are significant differences of the XIAO-named herb between Shennong's Herbal Classic and the Song-edition Treatise on Febrile Disease and Synopsis of the Golden Chamber. The reasons are: (1) With the development of history, differentiation of herb category and effect kept changing from the Han Dynasty to the Song Dynasty, which led to the differences in concept and entity of herbs in different periods. (2) Lin Yi of the Song Dynasty may have redefined some herb's names according to the current situation when he revised Zhang Zhongjing's works. PMID:22613473

  19. Male calling song provides a reliable signal of immune function in a cricket.

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, J J; Siva-Jothy, M T

    2000-01-01

    A critical prediction of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis is that the expression of secondary sexual traits should be positively correlated with pathogen resistance ability This correlation is necessary if females are to be able to use a particular sexual trait as an indicator of a male's resistance ability. In this study we document a positive correlation between a sexually selected component of the calling song of male house crickets (the number of syllables per chirp) and haemocyte load, an important determinant of the ability to encapsulate pathogens in insects. The results indicate that, by favouring males which produce more syllables per chirp, females may also select males with higher pathogen resistance ability, potentially generating either direct or indirect selection on female mating preferences. PMID:10902682

  20. Calling song signals and temporal preference functions in the cricket Teleogryllus leo.

    PubMed

    Rothbart, M M; Hennig, R M

    2012-11-01

    The acoustic display of many cricket species consists of trains of pulses (chirps) with intermittent pauses. Here, we investigated the temporal cues that females of the cricket Teleogryllus leo used to detect a pulse and a chirp pattern on two different time scales. For both patterns, females accepted a wide range of combinations that covered the respective pulse and chirp parameters in the songs of males. In tests with a continuous series of pulses at different modulation frequencies, the transfer function of pattern discrimination was also determined. Females exhibited two ranges of high response scores indicating two temporal filters with an inhibitory interaction. For the modulation frequency of the pulse pattern, the peak of the preference function was rather sharply tuned and at a lower pulse rate than produced by males. These results show that the combined output of both filters did not increase selectivity, but rather enlarged the accepted range of signals. PMID:22945775