Ndiaye, M; Sene-Diouf, F; Diop, A G; Ndao, A K; Ndiaye, M M; Ndiaye, I P
Child neurology is a relatively young speciality of neurosciences which is at the frontier of Neurology and Paediatrics. Its development has been impulsed by the diagnosis techniques such as Neurobiology, Genetics, Neuroimaging and pedo-psychology. We conducted a retrospective survey among the in-patients from January 1980 to December 1997 in the service of Neurology of the University Hospital. Have been included children ranged from 0 to 15 years old without any racial, sexual or origin distinctive. In Neurology Department, children of 0 to 15 years old represent 10.06% of the in-patients received from 1980 to 1997. The mortality rate was 9.23%. The diseases are dominated by epilepsy and infantile encephalopathies with 31.02%, infectious diseases with 19.36% represented by tuberculosis, other bacterial, viral and parasitical etiologies, tumors with 10.36%, vascular pathology and degenerative disorders. PMID:11957278
Commercial and spontaneous developing tourism praxis is visibly ahead of its theory. Health function in tourism praxis is actually not visible. It is also similar in some theoretical works. L. Turos (historian and educator) says that tourism "is a cognitive, emotional, esthetical, social and moral experience…" (Turos 1996). W. Gaworecki (1998) sees tourism's functions differently. He writes that tourism finds reflections in different human life spheres: social, psychological, cultural, spatial and economical, and among ten tourism functions he mentions, as the two first: leisure and health. W. Alejziak (1999) sees humanistic tourism's values even more distinctly. He claims that "tourism is permanent and more and more important element of contemporary human's needs structure. It is human, who is most important here". In postmodern human's needs structure tourism can realize rarely perceived health-prophylactic needs through different forms of rest, same as needs from widely recognized health therapy range. Human's health - somatic, as well as psychic - is shaped mainly by their interactivity with natural environment. The Lublin region is characterized, from recreational-sanatorium side, by two national parks and seventeen landscape parks, thus it should realize health needs firstly by tourism. Nineteen spacious natural environments create a unique occasion for recreational-sanatorium forms of Lublin tourism. Completing Toyne's (1978) term - health-recreational bio-climate, which is built with such elements as: air pressure, humidity, air temperature and sun operation (Riedl 1998), "recreational surface", the Lublin region is very advantageous for keeping homeo- and heterostasis of a human. Special beneficial effects on health are to be experienced on the Lublin lake areas, very rich in natural values and forest areas, offering therapeutic bio-climate. Recreational-sanatorium forms of tourism in these environments are the content of this article.
Tibussek, Daniel; Klepper, Jörg; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Kurlemann, Gerhard; Rating, Dietz; Wohlrab, Gabriele; Wolff, Markus; Schmitt, Bernhard
Objectives This report aims to define treatment goals, to summarize the evidence level (EL) of different treatment options for infantile spasms (IS), both in terms of efficacy and adverse effect, and to give recommendations for the management of IS. Methods The Cochrane and Medline (1966-July 2014) databases were searched. Literature known to the guideline working group and identified through citations was also considered. The results of previously published guidelines were taken into account in our analysis. Rating the level of evidence followed the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Recommendations If IS are suspected, electroencephalogram (EEG) should be performed within a few days and, if confirmed, treatment should be initiated immediately. Response to first-line treatments should be evaluated clinically and electroencephalographically after 14 days.Adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosteroids, and vigabatrin are the first-line drugs for the treatment of IS. In children with tuberous sclerosis complex, vigabatrin is the treatment of first choice. Ketogenic diet, sulthiame, topiramate, valproate, zonisamide, and benzodiazepines can be used when first-line drugs have proved ineffective. Children refractory to drug therapy should be evaluated for epilepsy surgery, especially if focal brain lesions are present.Regular follow-up controls, including EEG (preferably sleep EEG) and standardized developmental assessment are recommended. PMID:26910805
Groppa, S.; Oliviero, A.; Eisen, A.; Quartarone, A.; Cohen, L.G.; Mall, V.; Kaelin-Lang, A.; Mima, T.; Rossi, S.; Thickbroom, G.W.; Rossini, P.M.; Ziemann, U.; Valls-Solé, J.; Siebner, H.R.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an established neurophysiological tool to examine the integrity of the fast-conducting corticomotor pathways in a wide range of diseases associated with motor dysfunction. This includes but is not limited to patients with multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, movement disorders, disorders affecting the spinal cord, facial and other cranial nerves. These guidelines cover practical aspects of TMS in a clinical setting. We first discuss the technical and physiological aspects of TMS that are relevant for the diagnostic use of TMS. We then lay out the general principles that apply to a standardized clinical examination of the fast-conducting corticomotor pathways with single-pulse TMS. This is followed by a detailed description of how to examine corticomotor conduction to the hand, leg, trunk and facial muscles in patients. Additional sections cover safety issues, the triple stimulation technique, and neuropediatric aspects of TMS. PMID:22349304
Background The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool is a validated questionnaire used to assess the methodological quality of clinical guidelines (CGs). We used the AGREE II tool to assess the development process, the methodological quality, and the quality of reporting of available pediatric CGs for the management of headache in children. We also studied the variability in responses related to the characteristics of eleven Italian neuropediatric centers, showing similarities and differences in the main recommendations reported in CGs. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted from January 2002 to June 2013 on Mediline, the Cochrane database, the National Guideline Clearinghouse website and the NHS evidence search tool, using the following terms: headache, cephalalgia, guidelines and children (MESH or text words). Six CGs providing information on the diagnosis and management of headache and specific recommendations for children were selected. Eleven neuropediatric centers assessed the overall quality and the appropriateness of all available CGs using of the AGREE II instrument. Results Six CGs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified and assessed by 11 reviewers. Our study showed that the NICE CGs was “strongly recommended” while the French and Danish CGs were mainly “not recommended”. The comparison between the overall quality score of the French CGs and the NICE CGs was statistically significant (6.54 ± 0.69 vs 4.18 ± 1.08; p =0.001). The correlation analysis between quality domain score and guideline publication date showed a statistically significant association only for the “editorial independence” domain (r = 0.842 p = 0.035). The intra-class coefficients showed that the 11 reviewers had the highest agreement for the Lewis CGs (r = 0.857), and the lowest one for the NICE CGs (r = 0.656). Statistical analyses showed that professionals from outpatient services
Sadek, Abdelrahim Abdrabou; Mohamed, Montaser Mohamed; Sharaf, El-Zahraa El-Said Ahmed; Magdy, Rofaida Mohamed; Allam, Ahmed Ahmed
Introduction Breath-holding spells (BHSs) are involuntary pauses of breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness. They usually occur in response to an upsetting or surprising situation. Breath-holding spells are usually caused by either a change in the usual breathing pattern or a slowing of the heart rate. In some children, BHSs may be related to iron deficiency anemia. The aim of the work was to study the clinical and laboratory profile of BPHs in children presented to the Neuropediatric Clinic at Sohag University Hospital. Methods An observational prospective study was done at Sohag University Hospital over a period of one year on children diagnosed as having BHSs by clinical history and laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count (CBC), serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron binding capacity, and Electroencephalography (EEG). Results During the period of study (one year), we reviewed data of 32 children who had been diagnosed as having BHSs. We found that cyanotic spells (71.88%) predominated over pallid spells. There were positive family histories (31.25%) and consanguinity (53.135) in the studied patients. We found a high incidence of iron deficiency anemia (62.5%) in association with BHS. Abnormal EEGs were found in (65.63%) of studied children. Conclusion BHS is a common, important problem associated with iron deficiency anemia, which is, in turn, a common nutritional problem in our country. PMID:27279996
Benarroch, Fortu; Warman, Orly; Gross-Tsur, Varda
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a chronic, familial disorder, characterized by involuntary motor and phonic tics that wax and wane in severity. TS is frequently accompanied by behavioral, emotional and cognitive problems that are often more incapacitating than the tic disorder itself. After a review of the disorder, in which the multidisciplinary aspects are emphasized, the article describes the clinical features of 60 children with TS, 49 boys and 11 girls, aged 13 +/- 3.6 years (mean SD), treated in the Neuropediatric Unit at Shaare Zedek Medical Center. The children described had both motor and vocal tics, but also had ADHD (n = 44), obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 32), learning disabilities (with 12 children learning in special education frameworks) and behavioral disorders (n = 36). The clinical profile of this group of children with TS is similar to that reported on referred patients regardless of cultural background. Since children with TS manifest multiple comorbidities, optimal therapy mandates the cooperation of a multidisciplinary team including a pediatric neurologist, a child psychiatrist, a psychologist and a family therapist. Working in concert, these specialists can implement a multimodal approach, addressing the neurological and psychiatric aspects of TS as well as enhancing the child's coping skills with the disorder itself and its consequences. PMID:16642633
Krieg, Sandro M; Sonanini, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Focke, Axel; Gerstl, Lucia; Heinen, Florian
Aim For children with medical complexity, interdisciplinary treatment approaches are required to address the various aspects defined within the biopsychosocial model. Methods The present study identifies dimensions of the biopsychosocial model to generate a standardized visualized severity score for chronic neurological diseases in children. We demonstrate the score's applicability and usefulness in clinical practice among clinicians with and without pediatric board certification with the aid of illustrative patient cases. The results are compared by Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Nine dimensions were identified as the basis for the development of the score, which consists of five grades of severity for each of the selected neuropediatric subsections. All board-certified pediatricians would recommend the application of the severity score in clinical routine. Furthermore, a good correlation was revealed between direct and indirect (severity score) assessment. Interpretation The severity score developed in this study takes into account biopsychosocial aspects of chronic diseases while being comprehensible and easily applicable in clinical routine-a biopsychosocial signature serving as an excellent, striking communication basis within the interdisciplinary team. However, upcoming studies including more patient cases are needed for further refinement. PMID:27228000
Thomsen, P H; Jensen, J
Organic aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have previously been described and hypotheses of biological etiology have been suggested. Sixty-one patients, 8-17 years of age, who fulfilled the DSM-III criteria for OCD in a review of the records were compared with 117 matched control patients for organic features. The indicators chosen for an organic concept were neurological signs, more than mild electroencephalographic abnormality, specific developmental disorder and attention deficit, and their defining property of an organic concept was confirmed by latent class analysis. Neurological signs was the most sensitive and specific indicator. Significantly fewer OCD children than control patients were assigned to the organic class. Almost all the types of obsessive-compulsive symptoms were more related to the non-organic class. Such extroverted symptoms as behavioral problems and loss of temper were significantly more frequent in patients assigned to the latent organic class, whereas symptoms of phobia and depressive mood were more often present in patients belonging to the nonorganic class. No difference was found between OCD patients and controls as to frequency of birth complications. The findings do not support the evidence of OCD having signs of major cerebral disturbance found by conventional neuropediatric methods. PMID:1746293