Science.gov

Sample records for neuroscience held 12-13

  1. Report on the B-Fields at NIF Workshop Held at LLNL October 12-13, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Moody, J. D.

    2015-12-13

    A national ICF laboratory workshop on requirements for a magnetized target capability on NIF was held by NIF at LLNL on October 12 and 13, attended by experts from LLNL, SNL, LLE, LANL, GA, and NRL. Advocates for indirect drive (LLNL), magnetic (Z) drive (SNL), polar direct drive (LLE), and basic science needing applied B (many institutions) presented and discussed requirements for the magnetized target capabilities they would like to see. 30T capability was most frequently requested. A phased operation increasing the field in steps experimentally can be envisioned. The NIF management will take the inputs from the scientific community represented at the workshop and recommend pulse-powered magnet parameters for NIF that best meet the collective user requests. In parallel, LLNL will continue investigating magnets for future generations that might be powered by compact laser-B-field generators (Moody, Fujioka, Santos, Woolsey, Pollock). The NIF facility engineers will start to analyze compatibility of the recommended pulsed magnet parameters (size, field, rise time, materials) with NIF chamber constraints, diagnostic access, and final optics protection against debris in FY16. The objective of this assessment will be to develop a schedule for achieving an initial Bfield capability. Based on an initial assessment, room temperature magnetized gas capsules will be fielded on NIF first. Magnetized cryo-ice-layered targets will take longer (more compatibility issues). Magnetized wetted foam DT targets (Olson) may have somewhat fewer compatibility issues making them a more likely choice for the first cryo-ice-layered target fielded with applied Bz.

  2. Neurosciences

    MedlinePlus

    Neurosciences refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the nervous system. The nervous system is ... meningitis Stroke DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING Neurologists and other neuroscience specialists use special tests and imaging techniques to ...

  3. Neurosciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007456.htm Neurosciences To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurosciences refers to the branch of medicine that focuses ...

  4. Antibiotic resistance--action to promote new technologies: report of an EU Intergovernmental Conference held in Birmingham, UK, 12-13 December 2005.

    PubMed

    Finch, R; Hunter, P A

    2006-09-01

    The increase in microorganisms that have developed resistance to currently available antimicrobial agents has become a major cause for concern worldwide. These organisms are widespread in hospitals but also occur increasingly in the community. Some of these strains are multiresistant and the agents available to treat infections caused by them are few and dwindling. Over recent years there have been a number of responses by national, international and professional bodies to this situation, many aimed at curbing this unprecedented growth in resistance, but there is an increasing recognition that a major problem in the management of infections caused by such organisms is the paucity of new drugs, vaccines and diagnostic aids. A conference, organized by the Specialist Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance (SACAR) on behalf of the UK Department of Health and sponsored by the BSAC, was held in Birmingham in December 2005 with the aim of addressing these problems. Conference attendees included those from academia, industry, funding agencies, healthcare management, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA), the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), European Directorates and representatives of EU governments. Following a number of keynote presentations which identified major issues, there were a series of workshops which addressed specific questions and produced a number of recommendations. These recommendations were discussed by all delegates. The lack of new anti-infectives and the reasons for this were discussed in some detail. Major pharmaceutical companies no longer find this area as financially rewarding as other therapeutic areas while smaller biotechnology companies, who are seen as more innovative, are hampered by a lack of funding. In spite of a few marked successes, the use of vaccines has had minimal impact in the field of bacterial infections, and progress in this field also suffers from a lack of funding. Diagnostics could aid in the

  5. Addressing Literacy through Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steve; Tallal, Paula A.

    2006-01-01

    Brain is the source of all human thoughts, feelings and emotions. Now the mysteries of the human brain are rapidly being elucidated by neuroscience research. For more than 150 years, neuroscience has held that most of the brain's functionality develops during critical periods in early childhood and that once past these critical periods, the window…

  6. 19 CFR 12.13 - Unclaimed shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unclaimed shipments. 12.13 Section 12.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Plants and Plant Products § 12.13 Unclaimed shipments. (a) If plants...

  7. 18 CFR 12.13 - Verification form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Verification form. 12.13 Section 12.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  8. 18 CFR 12.13 - Verification form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Verification form. 12.13 Section 12.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  9. 18 CFR 12.13 - Verification form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Verification form. 12.13 Section 12.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  10. 18 CFR 12.13 - Verification form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Verification form. 12.13 Section 12.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  11. 18 CFR 12.13 - Verification form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification form. 12.13 Section 12.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  12. Skin Regeneration Symposium Cambridge, 12-13 April 2016.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rosalind

    2016-07-01

    The Annual Skin Regeneration Symposium, held in Cambridge, UK, 12-13 April 2016, explored the latest advancements in skin repair, regeneration and restoration, and the impact this has on patients. With over 140 delegates from the disciplines of burn and trauma care, chronic wounds and esthetic medicine, the symposium sparked lively debate and the sharing of results from interesting case studies, clinical trials and basic research to support the use of a Regenerative Epithelial Suspension produced using the ReCell(®) technology. Furthermore, it enabled delegates and speakers alike to share ideas and discuss how to improve the quality of care for patients. PMID:27357476

  13. 19 CFR 12.13 - Unclaimed shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Plants and Plant Products § 12.13 Unclaimed shipments. (a) If plants or plant products enterable into the United States under the rules and regulations promulgated by...

  14. Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  15. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  16. 46 CFR 12.13-1 - Documentary evidence required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Documentary evidence required. 12.13-1 Section 12.13-1... RATING ENDORSEMENTS Persons Designated To Provide Medical Care on Board Ship § 12.13-1 Documentary... medical care on board ship, shall hold documentary evidence attesting that the person has attended...

  17. 46 CFR 12.13-1 - Documentary evidence required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentary evidence required. 12.13-1 Section 12.13-1... RATING ENDORSEMENTS Persons Designated To Provide Medical Care on Board Ship § 12.13-1 Documentary... medical care on board ship, shall hold documentary evidence attesting that the person has attended...

  18. 46 CFR 12.13-3 - Basis of documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis of documentary evidence. 12.13-3 Section 12.13-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR RATING ENDORSEMENTS Persons Designated To Provide Medical Care on Board Ship § 12.13-3 Basis...

  19. 46 CFR 12.13-1 - Documentary evidence required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentary evidence required. 12.13-1 Section 12.13-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR RATING ENDORSEMENTS Persons Designated To Provide Medical Care on Board Ship § 12.13-1 Documentary evidence required. Each person designated...

  20. 46 CFR 12.13-1 - Documentary evidence required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentary evidence required. 12.13-1 Section 12.13-1... RATING ENDORSEMENTS Persons Designated To Provide Medical Care on Board Ship § 12.13-1 Documentary... medical care on board ship, shall hold documentary evidence attesting that the person has attended...

  1. 46 CFR 111.12-13 - Propulsion generator protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion generator protection. 111.12-13 Section 111.12-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-13 Propulsion...

  2. 46 CFR 111.12-13 - Propulsion generator protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion generator protection. 111.12-13 Section 111.12-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-13 Propulsion...

  3. 46 CFR 111.12-13 - Propulsion generator protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion generator protection. 111.12-13 Section 111.12-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-13 Propulsion...

  4. 46 CFR 111.12-13 - Propulsion generator protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion generator protection. 111.12-13 Section 111.12-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-13 Propulsion...

  5. 46 CFR 111.12-13 - Propulsion generator protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion generator protection. 111.12-13 Section 111.12-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-13 Propulsion...

  6. NEUROSCIENCE: Tips for Neuroscience Neophytes.

    PubMed

    Helmuth, L

    2000-10-27

    It takes half a year to process the more than 12,000 abstract submissions for the Society for Neuroscience meeting. So researchers have to write abstracts precise enough to land them in the appropriate session and attract people to their presentation, yet open-ended enough to cover fresh data come conference time. PMID:17780507

  7. 46 CFR 12.13-3 - Basis of documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis of documentary evidence. 12.13-3 Section 12.13-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR... documentary evidence. The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection will issue such documentary evidence to...

  8. 46 CFR 12.13-3 - Basis of documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis of documentary evidence. 12.13-3 Section 12.13-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR... documentary evidence. The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection will issue such documentary evidence to...

  9. 46 CFR 12.13-3 - Basis of documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis of documentary evidence. 12.13-3 Section 12.13-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR... documentary evidence. The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection will issue such documentary evidence to...

  10. Neuroethics: a modern context for ethics in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Illes, Judy; Bird, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Neuroethics, a recently modernized field at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience, is founded on centuries of discussion of the ethical issues associated with mind and behavior. Broadly defined, neuroethics is concerned with ethical, legal and social policy implications of neuroscience, and with aspects of neuroscience research itself. Advances in neuroscience increasingly challenge long-held views of the self and the individual's relationship to society. Neuroscience also has led to innovations in clinical medicine that have not only therapeutic but also non-therapeutic dimensions that extend well beyond previously charted boundaries. The exponential increase in cross-disciplinary research, the commercialization of cognitive neuroscience, the impetus for training in ethics, and the increased attention being paid to public understanding of science all illuminate the important role of neuroethics in neuroscience. PMID:16859760

  11. Neuroethics: a modern context for ethics in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Illes, Judy; Bird, Stephanie J

    2006-09-01

    Neuroethics, a recently modernized field at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience, is founded on centuries of discussion of the ethical issues associated with mind and behavior. Broadly defined, neuroethics is concerned with ethical, legal and social policy implications of neuroscience, and with aspects of neuroscience research itself. Advances in neuroscience increasingly challenge long-held views of the self and the individual's relationship to society. Neuroscience also has led to innovations in clinical medicine that have not only therapeutic but also non-therapeutic dimensions that extend well beyond previously charted boundaries. The exponential increase in cross-disciplinary research, the commercialization of cognitive neuroscience, the impetus for training in ethics, and the increased attention being paid to public understanding of science all illuminate the important role of neuroethics in neuroscience. PMID:16859760

  12. Neuroscience in the Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Heather L.; Chudler, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of movies as an instructional tool for the topic of neurosciences. Provides a list of neuroscience films and a preview sheet example prepared for the movie "A Beautiful Mind". Explains copyright issues for teachers. (YDS)

  13. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  14. 17 CFR 210.12-13 - Investments other than securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Investments other than... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-13 Investments other...

  15. 17 CFR 210.12-13 - Investments other than securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Investments other than... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-13 Investments other...

  16. Dietary Habits of Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Graham, Mike; Boobier, Wyndham; Baker, Julien; Davies, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the dietary habits of Welsh 12-13 year olds. A cohort of 84 boys and 81 girls, age 12.9 SD 0.3 years; body mass 51.3 SD 12.6kg; and stature 1.54 SD 0.08m, completed a food frequency questionnaire and seven-day food diary. Mean daily kilocalories (kcal/d), and percentages of total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, and protein,…

  17. Educational Neuroscience: Neuroethical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalancette, Helene; Campbell, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Research design and methods in educational neuroscience involve using neuroscientific tools such as brain image technologies to investigate cognitive functions and inform educational practices. The ethical challenges raised by research in social neuroscience have become the focus of neuroethics, a sub-discipline of bioethics. More specifically…

  18. Teaching Neuroscience at a Religious Institution: Pedagogical Models for Handling Neuroscience and Theology

    PubMed Central

    Struthers, William M.

    2003-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience makes it one of the most fascinating and complex subjects to address in the classroom. This can be compounded, however, by the addition of theology or a faith-related context at a religious institution (RI). The addition of theology and faith can enrich student appreciation and understanding of neuroscience and stimulate discussion in the classroom. This provides a practical way to make the course content relevant to students who may see neuroscience as antagonistic towards their faith. Over the past century questions of human experience and personhood that were long held to be under the authority of religion now can be addressed from findings in neuroscience. While there has been debate on a variety of topics which range from positions on origins to ethical questions about the nature of research (i.e. stem cells, cloning), it is important that teaching faculty at RIs be prepared to deal with the hard questions faced by students of faith. Recommendations for faculty are given including: self assessment of personal position on matters of faith and science, framing a number of models for the integration of neuroscience and theology, ‘Worldviews’, and mentoring students who are struggling with reconciling their faith with neuroscience. While this paper is designed for teachers at RIs, it may also aid teaching faculty at other institutions who may benefit from an awareness of this framework and aid in teaching students of faith in a secular setting. PMID:23741199

  19. Global Trends in Higher Education and Their Impact on the Region. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, June 12-13, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.; Kurakbayev, Kairat, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Education presents conference proceedings of the annual Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum held June 12-13, 2013, at Nazarbayev University. The theme of this year's Forum is "Global Trends in Higher Education and their Impact on the Region". Many internationally-recognized higher…

  20. Neuroscience in Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Kostović, I; Judas, M

    1991-05-01

    This survey is a personal account of the present status of neuroscience in Yugoslavia within the context of recent upheavals in Eastern Europe. The current situation in Yugoslavia, characterized by the absence of a Federal Ministry of Science and a poor scientific communication between federal states (republics), does not allow a comprehensive overview of neuroscience at the federal level. Even more difficult is to envisage the prospects of Yugoslav neuroscience in the light of European integration. Several problems serve to illustrate the present situation concerning Yugoslav neuroscience. First, the weakness of the self-organization of science in Yugoslavia during the past 20 years is still the most important denominator in the current trend of neuroscience. Second, different Yugoslav republics have significantly different systems of science funding and evaluation, which reflect very plainly different levels of democratic (and socioeconomic) changes that were attained during 1990. Third, due to the different numbers of trained scientists, facilities and equipment, funds and levels of international scientific cooperation there are major differences between republics in the tempo of progress towards real achievements in science. Finally, the present explosive development of neuroscience and the proclamation of the 'Decade of the Brain' will hopefully stimulate Yugoslav neuroscientists to seek better programmes of neuroscience research and to improve the extent and quality of international cooperation. PMID:1713716

  1. Interoperability of Neuroscience Modeling Software

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Robert C.; Gewaltig, Marc-Oliver; Gleeson, Padraig; Bhalla, Upinder S.; Cornelis, Hugo; Hines, Michael L.; Howell, Fredrick W.; Muller, Eilif; Stiles, Joel R.; Wils, Stefan; De Schutter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience increasingly uses computational models to assist in the exploration and interpretation of complex phenomena. As a result, considerable effort is invested in the development of software tools and technologies for numerical simulations and for the creation and publication of models. The diversity of related tools leads to the duplication of effort and hinders model reuse. Development practices and technologies that support interoperability between software systems therefore play an important role in making the modeling process more efficient and in ensuring that published models can be reliably and easily reused. Various forms of interoperability are possible including the development of portable model description standards, the adoption of common simulation languages or the use of standardized middleware. Each of these approaches finds applications within the broad range of current modeling activity. However more effort is required in many areas to enable new scientific questions to be addressed. Here we present the conclusions of the “Neuro-IT Interoperability of Simulators” workshop, held at the 11th computational neuroscience meeting in Edinburgh (July 19-20 2006; http://www.cnsorg.org). We assess the current state of interoperability of neural simulation software and explore the future directions that will enable the field to advance. PMID:17873374

  2. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  3. Causes of the Sep. 12-13, 2014 geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Rooksoon; Park, Sung-Hong; Kim, Sujin

    2015-08-01

    Solar cycle 24 is very modest compared to previous solar cycles. The solar maximum phase may have been reached in the middle of 2014 and the sunspot number has decreased since the beginning of 2015. During this period, it has been reported that only few events produced strong X-class flares, solar proton events, and geomagnetic storms. In this study we have investigated causes of the multiple geomagnetic storms occurred on September 12-13, 2014. The geomagnetic storm forecast model based on the CME observations was used for identification of the causes of the geomagnetic storms. Details of the solar source region were investigated to give an answer why the geomagnetic storms were not so strong even though they were related to fast coronal mass ejections with large earth-ward direction. As a result, we found that the first weak storm was driven by the CME related to M4.6 flare and the second minor storm was driven by one of the fast CMEs related to strong X1.6 flare. Our result shows that the reason why the second storm was not strong is that it was caused by the CME with northward magnetic field. Therefore we suggest that one of the essential ingredients for geomagnetic storm forecasting is to find out the magnetic field direction of earth-ward CMEs, which can be accomplished by investigating magnetic fields of their solar source regions a few days before their arrival to the earth.

  4. Decision Neuroscience: Neuroeconomics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David V.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Few aspects of human cognition are more personal than the choices we make. Our decisions – from the mundane to the impossibly complex – continually shape the courses of our lives. In recent years, researchers have applied the tools of neuroscience to understand the mechanisms that underlie decision making, as part of the new discipline of decision neuroscience. A primary goal of this emerging field has been to identify the processes that underlie specific decision variables, including the value of rewards, the uncertainty associated with particular outcomes, and the consequences of social interactions. Recent work suggests potential neural substrates that integrate these variables, potentially reflecting a common neural currency for value, to facilitate value comparisons. Despite the successes of decision neuroscience research for elucidating brain mechanisms, significant challenges remain. These include building new conceptual frameworks for decision making, integrating research findings across disparate techniques and species, and extending results from neuroscience to shape economic theory. To overcome these challenges, future research will likely focus on interpersonal variability in decision making, with the eventual goal of creating biologically plausible models for individual choice. PMID:22754602

  5. Neuroscience, Magic, and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Presbury, Jack; Cowan, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in neuroscience have identified principles, such as attention management and change blindness, which stage magicians exploit to create illusions. Neuroscientists have also revealed how mirror neurons and oxytocin enhance the impact of magic. In other words, magicians are just as much practitioners of sleight of mind as they are of…

  6. Neuroscience in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    For generations, teachers in the early elementary years have urged their young pupils to use their brains. They're still offering the same encouragement, but nowadays they can know even more about what they're talking about. Recent advances in neuroscience--from detailed scans of the brain to ongoing research on teaching methods that increase…

  7. Linking Neuroscience and Psychoanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    This review discusses the relationship between neuroscience and psychoanalysis and introduces a new scientific method called neuro-psychoanalysis, a combination of the two phenomena. A significant difference between the two is that psychoanalysis has not evolved scientifically since it has not developed objective methods for testing ideas that it…

  8. Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, U.

    2004-01-01

    Neuroscience is a relatively new discipline encompassing neurology, psychology and biology. It has made great strides in the last 100 years, during which many aspects of the physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology and structure of the vertebrate brain have been understood. Understanding of some of the basic perceptual, cognitive, attentional,…

  9. Cognitive Network Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Medaglia, John D.; Lynall, Mary-Ellen; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Network science provides theoretical, computational, and empirical tools that can be used to understand the structure and function of the human brain in novel ways using simple concepts and mathematical representations. Network neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that is providing considerable insight into human structural connectivity, functional connectivity while at rest, changes in functional networks over time (dynamics), and how these properties differ in clinical populations. In addition, a number of studies have begun to quantify network characteristics in a variety of cognitive processes and provide a context for understanding cognition from a network perspective. In this review, we outline the contributions of network science to cognitive neuroscience. We describe the methodology of network science as applied to the particular case of neuroimaging data and review its uses in investigating a range of cognitive functions including sensory processing, language, emotion, attention, cognitive control, learning, and memory. In conclusion, we discuss current frontiers and the specific challenges that must be overcome to integrate these complementary disciplines of network science and cognitive neuroscience. Increased communication between cognitive neuroscientists and network scientists could lead to significant discoveries under an emerging scientific intersection known as cognitive network neuroscience. PMID:25803596

  10. Neuroscience and Global Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ruscio, Michael G.; Korey, Chris; Birck, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Traditional study abroad experiences take a variety of forms with most incorporating extensive cultural emersion and a focus on global learning skills. Here we ask the question: Can this type of experience co-exist with a quality scientific experience and continued progression through a typically rigorous undergraduate neuroscience curriculum? What are the potential costs and benefits of this approach? How do we increase student awareness of study abroad opportunities and inspire them to participate? We outline programs that have done this with some success and point out ways to cultivate this approach for future programs. These programs represent a variety of approaches in both their duration and role in a given curriculum. We discuss a one-week first year seminar program in Berlin, a summer study abroad course in Munich and Berlin, semester experiences and other options offered through the Danish Institute for Study Abroad in Copenhagen. Each of these experiences offers opportunities for interfacing global learning with neuroscience. PMID:26240528

  11. Magic and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian

    2016-05-23

    In recent years, neuroscientists have shown an increasing interest in magic. One reason for this is the parallels that can be drawn between concepts that have long been discussed in magic theory, particularly misdirection, and those that are routinely studied in cognitive neuroscience, such as attention and, as argued in this essay, different forms of memory. A second and perhaps more attractive justification for this growing interest is that magic tricks offer novel experimental approaches to cognitive neuroscience. In fact, magicians continuously demonstrate in very engaging ways one of the most basic principles of brain function - how the brain constructs a subjective reality using assumptions based on relatively little and ambiguous information. PMID:27218839

  12. [Origins and first steps of the Spanish Society for Neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Reinoso Suárez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    I recall the background, the environment, the people and the events that led to the birth of the Spanish Society for Neuroscience (SENC) and remember how and why the multidisciplinary Neurobiology teachers at the Medical School of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid decided to organize the First Meeting of Spanish Neurobiologists in 1979. Our principal aim was to promote Neuroscience research in Spain. For this was necessary: to know each other, support each other and organize and set up a modern and solid framework for training young researchers in Neuroscience. After reporting the results and circumstances of the first two Meetings, in 1980 and 1981, I discuss the impact of the Sixth European Neuroscience Congress held in Torremolinos in 1982 on Neuroscience in our country. The 1983 Meeting of the Spanish Neurobiologists decided to create the Spanish Society for Neuroscience. The effort of the heterogeneous Management Commission, the preparation of the Bylaws, the selection of the first members and the birth of the Society in 1985 are outlined. I continue in describing the components and work of the three first Boards of Directors and events of the corresponding Congresses until the consolidation of SENC in national and international scientific fields. My talk runs through the development of our Society, its growth in membership and quality and our hopes for the future. PMID:18777849

  13. Seven challenges for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Markram, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuroscience has to become "big science" - we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with "rungs" linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such "data ladders" will help us to meet the third challenge - the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need. PMID:24139651

  14. Managing knowledge in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Crasto, Chiquito J; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2007-01-01

    Processing text from scientific literature has become a necessity due to the burgeoning amounts of information that are fast becoming available, stemming from advances in electronic information technology. We created a program, NeuroText ( http://senselab.med.yale.edu/textmine/neurotext.pl ), designed specifically to extract information relevant to neuroscience-specific databases, NeuronDB and CellPropDB ( http://senselab.med.yale.edu/senselab/ ), housed at the Yale University School of Medicine. NeuroText extracts relevant information from the Neuroscience literature in a two-step process: each step parses text at different levels of granularity. NeuroText uses an expert-mediated knowledge base and combines the techniques of indexing, contextual parsing, semantic and lexical parsing, and supervised and non-supervised learning to extract information. The constrains, metadata elements, and rules for information extraction are stored in the knowledge base. NeuroText was created as a pilot project to process 3 years of publications in Journal of Neuroscience and was subsequently tested for 40,000 PubMed abstracts. We also present here a template to create domain non-specific knowledge base that when linked to a text-processing tool like NeuroText can be used to extract knowledge in other fields of research. PMID:18368357

  15. CRACking ion channel targets: 2nd annual Ion Channel Targets Conference. 12-13 September 2006, Boston, MA, USA.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The 2nd Annual Ion Channel Targets (ICT) Conference (by Select Bioscience LLC) was held in Boston on 12-13 September 2006. A healthy mixture of scientists from pharma, biotech and academic sectors attended the meeting. The speaker list reflected this mixture. In general, the conference focused on new ion channel targets and the methods for studying them in detail. Keynote lectures from Professors David Clapham (Harvard Medical School, USA) and Reinhold Penner (University of Hawaii, USA) set the tone by highlighting recent findings with a voltage-gated proton channel (Clapham), cation channel in sperm (Clapham) and the calcium-release-activated calcium channel (Penner). Also described at ICT were voltage-gated sodium, potassium, transmembrane-receptor-potential channels, as well as ligand-gated nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) and GABA type A receptors. PMID:17150038

  16. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  17. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  18. Cognitive Neuroscience Meets Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Hannula, Minna M.; Schneider, Michael; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    While there has been much theoretical debate concerning the relationship between neuroscience and education, researchers have started to collaborate across both disciplines, giving rise to the interdisciplinary research field of neuroscience and education. The present contribution tries to reflect on the challenges of this new field of empirical…

  19. Toward an organizational cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael J R; Senior, Carl

    2007-11-01

    The research strategy adopted in this article is to connect two different discourses and the ideas, methods, and outputs they contain-these being cognitive neuroscience and organization theory. The main contribution of the article is to present an agenda for the field of organizational cognitive neuroscience. We define what is meant by the term, outline its background, identify why it is important as a new research direction, and then conclude by drawing on Damasio's levels of life regulation as a framework to bind together existing organizational cognitive neuroscience. The article begins by setting the wider debate behind the emergence of organizational cognitive neuroscience by revisiting the nature-nurture debate and uses Pinker to demonstrate that the connection between mind and matter has not been resolved, that new directions are opening up to better understand human nature, and that organizational cognitive neuroscience is one fruitful path forward. PMID:17717101

  20. Service Learning in Neuroscience Courses

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Kristina S.; Kennedy, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating service learning (SL) components can be a very powerful way to engage students, add relevance, and develop community-building skills. SL experiences can play important roles in neuroscience classes, although the roles can be different depending on the needs of the classes. In this paper, we will present two models of incorporating service learning into neuroscience courses. The first model gives an example of using SL in a non-majors course, and the second model gives an example of using SL in a neuroscience class for neuroscience concentrators. After describing the two sets of experiences, we summarize the positive aspects and the challenges involved in creating SL components in neuroscience courses, develop some keys to success, and then provide a list of additional resources. PMID:23493330

  1. Technical advances power neuroscience

    SciTech Connect

    Barinaga, M.

    1991-01-01

    New techniques are helping researchers study the development of nerve cells in cell cultures and in vivo. These new methods are offering insights into the brain that were not available even a couple of years ago. Among the new advances discussed are imaging technology for evaluating the thinking human brain. One area in which researchers have made recent progress is the quest for ways to create immortal cell lines from specific types of nerve cells. Other projects using genetically engineered retroviruses and tumor-inducing genes, as well as gene regulation are discussed. Recent advances in neuroscience techniques apply not only to neurons, but also to whole brains as well. One example is a high-resulution electroencephalogram (EEG). Although the EEG cannot pin down the actual sites of activity as precisely as static brain imaging methods, it complements them with real-time recording that can keep up with the very rapid pace of brain activity.

  2. Nature Neuroscience Review

    PubMed Central

    Maze, Ian; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Shao, Ningyi; Mitchell, Amanda; Sun, HaoSheng; Akbarian, Schahram; Allis, C. David; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, rapid advances in epigenomics research have extensively characterized critical roles for chromatin regulatory events during normal periods of eukaryotic cell development and plasticity, as well as part of aberrant processes implicated in human disease. Application of such approaches to studies of the central nervous system (CNS), however, is more recent. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of currently available tools to analyze neuroepigenomics data, as well as a discussion of pending challenges specific to the field of neuroscience. Integration of numerous unbiased genome-wide and proteomic approaches will be necessary to fully understand the neuroepigenome and the extraordinarily complex nature of the human brain. This will be critical to the development of future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies aimed at alleviating the vast array of heterogeneous and genetically distinct disorders of the CNS. PMID:25349914

  3. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-15

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?.

  4. Neurosciences - A neurosurgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J

    1999-03-01

    The advancements in the field of science in the past fifty years have highlighted the need to integrate all fields of human endeavours and have emphasised interdependency of various disciplines. The separation of humanities, therefore, from neurosciences is a preposterous practical joke on all thinking men. With the human genome project on the anvil, biotechnology is making significant headway holding out promise for organ regeneration. Macro evolution is over, but micro-evolution continues in the brain. Neural Darwinism thus, continues to evolve as long as individual remains conscious and has memory. In the milieu of widely varying internal physiological mechanisms and external stimuli, an alternative theory to preprogrammed directionalism is proposed by three mechanisms namely developmental variation and selection, experiential selections and reentrant signalling. Reentrant signalling reorients and correlates the external inputs leading to psychic development preceding the development of consciousness. The cholinergic and aminergic neuro-modelling systems are well suited to serve as value systems. The main achievement of consciousness is to bring together the many categorizations involved in perceptions into a SCENE. Another part of evolution involved capacity of reentrant signalling to be guided by a value system where it is provided with a lot of choices. With 10(13) neurons and 10(16) connections, freedom of choice may manifest into a 'Buddha' or a 'Hitler'. As part of the evolutionary process, it was interesting how capacity to categorize the need to worship by referring to environment outside evolved into a search within our minds. As the next stage of evolution, neuroscience may, thus, serve as the next gateway to understanding the mind and soul. PMID:10339700

  5. Contemporary neuroscience in the media.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Waldman, Sarah; Rosenberg, Jarett; Illes, Judy

    2010-08-01

    Technological innovations in neuroscience have opened new windows to the understanding of brain function and the neuronal underpinnings of brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders and social behavior. Public interest and support for neuroscience research through initiatives like the Decade of the Brain project and increasingly diverse brain-related initiatives have created new interfaces between neuroscience and society. Against this backdrop of dynamic innovation, we set out to examine how different features of neuroscience are depicted in print media. We used the 'guided news' function of the LexisNexis Academic database with keyword searches to find news articles published between 1995 and 2004 in major U.S. and U.K. English-language news sources. We performed searches on headlines, lead paragraphs, and body terms to maximize search yields. All articles were coded for overall tone of coverage, details on reported studies, presence of ethical, legal, and social discussion as well as the emerging interpretations of neuroscience - in the form of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy. We found that print media coverage of the use of neurotechnology for diagnosis or therapy in neuropsychiatric disorders was generally optimistic. We also found that, even within articles that were identified as research reports, many did not provide details about research studies. We also gained additional insights into the previously identified phenomena of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy showing some profound impacts of neuroscience on personal identity and policy-making. Our results highlight the implications of transfer of neuroscience knowledge to society given the substantial and authoritative weight ascribed to neuroscience knowledge in defining who we are. We also discuss the impact of these findings on neuroscience and on the respective contributions of the social sciences and the biological sciences in contemporary psychiatry and mental

  6. Optogenetics enlightens neuroscience drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Optogenetics - the use of light and genetics to manipulate and monitor the activities of defined cell populations - has already had a transformative impact on basic neuroscience research. Now, the conceptual and methodological advances associated with optogenetic approaches are providing fresh momentum to neuroscience drug discovery, particularly in areas that are stalled on the concept of 'fixing the brain chemistry'. Optogenetics is beginning to translate and transit into drug discovery in several key domains, including target discovery, high-throughput screening and novel therapeutic approaches to disease states. Here, we discuss the exciting potential of optogenetic technologies to transform neuroscience drug discovery. PMID:26612666

  7. What Can Neuroscience Bring to Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Educational neuroscience promises to incorporate emerging insights from neuroscience into education, and is an exiting renovation of cognitive science in education. But unlike cognitive neuroscience--which aims to explain how the mind is embodied--educational neuroscience necessarily incorporates values that reflect the kind of citizen and the…

  8. The unsolved problems of neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Some problems in neuroscience are nearly solved. For others, solutions are decades away. The current pace of advances in methods forces us to take stock, to ask where we are going, and what we should research next. PMID:25703689

  9. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  10. Opera and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Opera is the most complete form of theatrical representation, characterized by musical accompaniment, both instrumental and vocal. It has played an important role in sociocultural spheres, affecting the various social strata and reflecting customs and ideas in different centuries. Composers have created pieces that have also shown the development of medicine. Since the birth of opera in seventeenth century in Italy, neuroscience has played an important role in influencing the representation of madness and neurological aspects. From the Folly of the Renaissance, a path toward a representation of madness was developed, initially linked to the myths of classical antiquity. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, madness was represented as comical or funny, of a loving nature and influenced by the spread of the Commedia dell'Arte (Comedy of Art). In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the first scientific theories of the mind, insanity took more precise connotations and was separated from other psychiatric and neurological diseases. The operas of the twentieth century depicted psychiatric and neurological diseases, taking into account newer medical and scientific discoveries. PMID:25684301

  11. Nanotechnology, nanotoxicology, and neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Won Hyuk; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Stucky, Galen D.; Suh, Yoo-Hun

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology, which deals with features as small as a 1 billionth of a meter, began to enter into mainstream physical sciences and engineering some 20 years ago. Recent applications of nanoscience include the use of nanoscale materials in electronics, catalysis, and biomedical research. Among these applications, strong interest has been shown to biological processes such as blood coagulation control and multimodal bioimaging, which has brought about a new and exciting research field called nanobiotechnology. Biotechnology, which itself also dates back ∼30 years, involves the manipulation of macroscopic biological systems such as cells and mice in order to understand why and how molecular level mechanisms affect specific biological functions, e.g., the role of APP (amyloid precursor protein) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review aims (1) to introduce key concepts and materials from nanotechnology to a non-physical sciences community; (2) to introduce several state-of-the-art examples of current nanotechnology that were either constructed for use in biological systems or that can, in time, be utilized for biomedical research; (3) to provide recent excerpts in nanotoxicology and multifunctional nanoparticle systems (MFNPSs); and (4) to propose areas in neuroscience that may benefit from research at the interface of neurobiologically important systems and nanostructured materials. PMID:18926873

  12. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond. PMID:25370373

  13. Neuroscience of meditation.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vinod D

    2006-01-01

    Dhyana-Yoga is a Sanskrit word for the ancient discipline of meditation, as a means to Samadhi or enlightenment. Samadhi is a self-absorptive, adaptive state with realization of one's being in harmony with reality. It is unitive, undifferentiated, reality-consciousness, an essential being, which can only be experienced by spontaneous intuition and self-understanding. Modern neuroscience can help us to better understand Dhyana-Yoga. This article discusses topics including brain-mind-reality, consciousness, attention, emotional intelligence, sense of self, meditative mind, and meditative brain. A new hypothesis is proposed for a better understanding of the meditative mind. Meditation is an art of being serene and alert in the present moment, instead of constantly struggling to change or to become. It is an art of efficient management of attentional energy with total engagement (poornata, presence, mindfulness) or disengagement (shunyata, silence, emptiness). In both states, there is an experience of spontaneous unity with no sense of situational interactive self or personal time. It is a simultaneous, participatory consciousness rather than a dualistic, sequential attentiveness. There is a natural sense of well being with self-understanding, spontaneous joy, serenity, freedom, and self-fulfillment. It is where the ultimate pursuit of happiness and the search for meaning of life resolve. One realizes the truth of one's harmonious being in nature and nature in oneself. It is being alive at its fullest, when each conscious moment becomes a dynamic process of discovery and continuous learning of the ever-new unfolding reality. PMID:17370019

  14. Cognitive neuroscience in space.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, Gabriel G

    2014-01-01

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond. PMID:25370373

  15. Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is an emerging technique of great potential for investigating the chemical architecture in biological matrices. Although the potential for studying neurobiological systems is evident, the relevance of the technique for application in neuroscience is still in its infancy. In the present Review, a principal overview of the different approaches, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry, is provided with particular focus on their strengths and limitations for studying different neurochemical species in situ and in vitro. The potential of the various approaches is discussed based on both fundamental and biomedical neuroscience research. This Review aims to serve as a general guide to familiarize the neuroscience community and other biomedical researchers with the technique, highlighting its great potential and suitability for comprehensive and specific chemical imaging. PMID:23530951

  16. Critical neuroscience meets medical humanities.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This programmatic theory paper sketches a conceptual framework that might inspire work in critical Medical Humanities. For this purpose, Kaushik Sunder Rajan's account of biocapital is revisited and discussed in relation to the perspective of a critical neuroscience. Critical neuroscience is an encompassing positioning towards the recent public prominence of the brain and brain-related practices, tools and discourses. The proposed analytical scheme has five focal nodes: capital, life, technoscience, (neoliberal) politics and subjectivity. A special emphasis will be placed on contemporary framings of subjectivity, as it is here where deep-reaching entanglements of personhood with scientific practice and discourse, medical and informational technologies, and economic formations are most evident. Notably, the emerging subject position of the 'prospective health consumer' will be discussed as it figures prominently in the terrain between neuroscience and other medico-scientific disciplines. PMID:26052114

  17. From baconian to popperian neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The development of neuroscience over the past 50 years has some similarities with the development of physics in the 17th century. Towards the beginning of that century, Bacon promoted the systematic gathering of experimental data and the induction of scientific truth; towards the end, Newton expressed his principles of gravitation and motion in a concise set of mathematical equations that made precise falsifiable predictions. This paper expresses the opinion that as neuroscience comes of age, it needs to move away from amassing large quantities of data about the brain, and adopt a popperian model in which theories are developed that can make strong falsifiable predictions and guide future experimental work. PMID:22330680

  18. Introduction to The neurosciences and music IV: learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, E; Demorest, S M; Fujioka, T; Halpern, A R; Hannon, E E; Loui, P; Majno, M; Oechslin, M S; Osborne, N; Overy, K; Palmer, C; Peretz, I; Pfordresher, P Q; Särkämö, T; Wan, C Y; Zatorre, R J

    2012-04-01

    The conference entitled "The Neurosciences and Music-IV: Learning and Memory'' was held at the University of Edinburgh from June 9-12, 2011, jointly hosted by the Mariani Foundation and the Institute for Music in Human and Social Development, and involving nearly 500 international delegates. Two opening workshops, three large and vibrant poster sessions, and nine invited symposia introduced a diverse range of recent research findings and discussed current research directions. Here, the proceedings are introduced by the workshop and symposia leaders on topics including working with children, rhythm perception, language processing, cultural learning, memory, musical imagery, neural plasticity, stroke rehabilitation, autism, and amusia. The rich diversity of the interdisciplinary research presented suggests that the future of music neuroscience looks both exciting and promising, and that important implications for music rehabilitation and therapy are being discovered. PMID:22524334

  19. WNT Stimulation Dissociates a Frizzled 4 Inactive-State Complex with Gα12/13.

    PubMed

    Arthofer, Elisa; Hot, Belma; Petersen, Julian; Strakova, Katerina; Jäger, Stefan; Grundmann, Manuel; Kostenis, Evi; Gutkind, J Silvio; Schulte, Gunnar

    2016-10-01

    Frizzleds (FZDs) are unconventional G protein-coupled receptors that belong to the class Frizzled. They are bound and activated by the Wingless/Int-1 lipoglycoprotein (WNT) family of secreted lipoglycoproteins. To date, mechanisms of signal initiation and FZD-G protein coupling remain poorly understood. Previously, we showed that FZD6 assembles with Gαi1/Gαq (but not with Gαs, Gαo and Ga12/13), and that these inactive-state complexes are dissociated by WNTs and regulated by the phosphoprotein Dishevelled (DVL). Here, we investigated the inactive-state assembly of heterotrimeric G proteins with FZD4, a receptor important in retinal vascular development and frequently mutated in Norrie disease or familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Live-cell imaging experiments using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching show that human FZD4 assembles-in a DVL-independent manner-with Gα12/13 but not representatives of other heterotrimeric G protein subfamilies, such as Gαi1, Gαo, Gαs, and Gαq The FZD4-G protein complex dissociates upon stimulation with WNT-3A, WNT-5A, WNT-7A, and WNT-10B. In addition, WNT-induced dynamic mass redistribution changes in untransfected and, even more so, in FZD4 green fluorescent protein-transfected cells depend on Gα12/13 Furthermore, expression of FZD4 and Gα12 or Gα13 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells induces WNT-dependent membrane recruitment of p115-RHOGEF (RHO guanine nucleotide exchange factor, molecular weight 115 kDa), a direct target of Gα12/13 signaling, underlining the functionality of an FZD4-Gα12/13-RHO signaling axis. In summary, Gα12/13-mediated WNT/FZD4 signaling through p115-RHOGEF offers an intriguing and previously unappreciated mechanistic link of FZD4 signaling to cytoskeletal rearrangements and RHO signaling with implications for the regulation of angiogenesis during embryonic and tumor development. PMID:27458145

  20. Can Neuroscience Construct a Literate Gendered Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, David

    2011-01-01

    The construction of boys as a gendered culture is not usually associated with neuroscience. Exceptions are publications and presentations by consultants on boys' education who adopt a "brain-based" perspective. From a neuroscience perspective, my analysis indicates the selective use of primary neuroscience research to construct and perpetuate…

  1. The neuroscience of motivated cognition.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brent L; Zaki, Jamil

    2015-02-01

    Goals and needs shape individuals' thinking, a phenomenon known as motivated cognition. We highlight research from social psychology and cognitive neuroscience that provides insight into the structure of motivated cognition. In addition to demonstrating its ubiquity, we suggest that motivated cognition is often effortless and pervades information processing. PMID:25640642

  2. Neuroscience, Education and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha

    2004-01-01

    The discipline of neuroscience draws from the fields of neurology, psychology, physiology and biology, but is best understood in the wider world as brain science. Of particular interest for education is the development of techniques for imaging the brain as it performs different cognitive functions. Cognitive neuroimaging has already led to…

  3. Neuroscience Laboratory and Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Mary Louise Ed.; Frame, Kathy Ed.

    This publication is part of a larger project involving partnerships between high school biology teachers and neuroscientists. It contains neuroscience laboratories and classroom activities, most of which provide opportunities for students to design and conduct their own experiments. Each lab contains directions for both teachers and students and…

  4. Does Neuroscience Matter for Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    2011-01-01

    In this review essay, Francis Schrag focuses on two recent anthologies dealing completely or in part with the role of neuroscience in learning and education: The "Jossey-Bass Reader on the Brain and Learning", edited by Jossey-Bass Publishers, and "New Philosophies of Learning", edited by Ruth Cigman and Andrew Davis. Schrag argues that…

  5. The Future of Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Kurt W.; Goswami, Usha; Geake, John

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of the emerging field of educational neuroscience and the broader movement called Mind, Brain, and Education is to join biology with cognitive science, development, and education so that education can be grounded more solidly in research on learning and teaching. To avoid misdirection, the growing worldwide movement needs to avoid…

  6. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  7. Dyslexia, Learning, and Pedagogical Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Angela J; Nicolson, Roderick I

    2007-01-01

    The explosion in neuroscientific knowledge has profound implications for education, and we advocate the establishment of the new discipline of "pedagogical neuroscience" designed to combine psychological, medical, and educational perspectives. We propose that specific learning disabilities provide the crucible in which the discipline may be…

  8. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development.

    PubMed

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn's account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of "higher" cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool's motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn's famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  9. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Molly Malany

    2016-01-01

    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  10. Brain Matters: Neuroscience and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a relationship between neuroscience and creativity for the sake of religious education. Citing creativity as a process that involves both originality and value, the writing articulates Howard Gardner's interplay between the talent of the person, the internal demands of a discipline, and the quality judgment of the field.…

  11. Neuroscience, Play, and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    This paper presents a brief overview of the array of neuroscience research as it applies to play and child development. The paper discusses research showing the importance of play for brain growth and child development, and recommends that families, schools and other social and corporate institutions rearrange their attitudes and priorities about…

  12. Brains rule! fun = learning = neuroscience literacy.

    PubMed

    Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M; Mu, Keli; Phelps, Cynthia L; Houtz, Lynne E; Royeen, Charlotte B

    2002-10-01

    Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions is a project designed to improve neuroscience literacy among children and the general public by applying a model where neuroscience professionals transfer knowledge and enthusiasm about neuroscience through fun, engaging hands-on activities. This educational model draws strength from many national and local partnerships of neuroscience professionals to coordinate expositions across the country in a variety of local communities. Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions uses a flexible science fair-like format to engage children in the process of science and teach about neuroscience concepts, facts, and professions. Neuroscience literacy is important to everyday life and helps individuals better understand themselves, make informed decisions about health and drug use, participate knowledgeably in governmental and social issues, and better understand scientific advancements. In this study, children's ratings of Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions activities were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Analysis of the responses revealed that overall the children perceived the learning activities as fun and interesting and believed that they learned something about the brain and nervous system after engaging in the activities. The Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions education model can be an effective tool in improving neuroscience literacy for both children and adults. PMID:12374424

  13. Nanotechnology for in vitro neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Daniel R.; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2009-11-01

    Neurons in vitro are different from any other cell types in their sensitivity and complexity. Growing, differentiating, transfecting, and recording from single neurons and neuronal networks all present particular challenges. Some of the difficulties arise from the small scale of cellular structures, and have already seen substantial advances due to nanotechnology, particularly highly fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles. Other issues have less obvious solutions, but the complex and often surprising way that novel nanomaterials react with cells have suggested some revolutionary approaches. We review some of the ways nanomaterials and nanostructures can contribute to in vitro neuroscience, with a particular focus on emphasizing techniques that are widely accessible to many laboratories and on providing references to protocols and methods. The issues of nanotoxicology of greatest interest to cultured neurons are discussed. Finally, we present some future trends and challenges in nano-neuroscience.

  14. Benjamin Franklin and the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), who is better known in other fields, especially colonial politics and international diplomacy, was an early, major contributor to the neurosciences from the New World. Among his accomplishments are: experiments on medical electricity as a possible cure for the palsies and hysteria; the first descriptions of how electricity affecting the brain can cause a specific type of amnesia; supporting the idea that cranial shocks might provide a cure for melancholia; showing that the cures performed by the Mesmerists to remove obstructions, including nerve blockages, rest on gullibility and suggestion, and recognizing the dangers, including those to the nerves, posed by exposure to lead. Franklin?s neuroscience was firmly based on experiments, careful observations, and hard data ? and finding clinical relevance for new discoveries was always on his mind. PMID:16796820

  15. Optical imaging in cognitive neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming; Zeng, Shaoqun; Gong, Hui

    2002-04-01

    Cognitive neuroscience is a science of information processing. Optical techniques are playing more and more important roles in revealing the mechanisms of information processing from different levels of the nervous system. This paper gives an overview of the optical imaging approaches in cognitive neuroscience in our lab. First we introduce optical imaging of neurons with multiphoton excitation laser scanning confocal microscopy, then optical imaging of either cultured neuronal networks or nature neuronal networks with multiphoton microscopic imaging system combined with multi- electrode array, and then several optical imaging systems for intrinsic signal imaging in cortex or brain slices, which include CCD-based optical imaging system, OCT system and laser speckle imaging system. Finally we report our recent results on functional optical imaging of human brain activity.

  16. Neuroscience: viable applications in education?

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Ian M; Dommett, Eleanor J

    2010-08-01

    As a relatively young science, neuroscience is still finding its feet in potential collaborations with other disciplines. One such discipline is education, with the field of neuroeducation being on the horizon since the 1960s. However, although its achievements are now growing, the partnership has not been as successful as first hopes suggested it should be. Here the authors discuss the theoretical barriers and potential solutions to this, which have been suggested previously, with particular focus on levels of research in neuroscience and their applicability to education. Moreover, they propose that these theoretical barriers are driven and maintained by practical barriers surrounding common language and research literacy. They propose that by overcoming these practical barriers through appropriate training and shared experience, neuroeducation can reach its full potential. PMID:20817916

  17. Floods in Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, September 12-13, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauth, Leland D.; Carswell, William J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The storm of September 12-13, 1977, produced as much as 16 inches of rainfall in the Kansas City, Missouri-Kansas area, left 25 persons dead, many homeless, and over 50 million dollars in damages. Flood hydrographs taken from U.S. Geological Survey gaging-stations reflected two storms occurring within 24 hours. Measured precipitation indicated each storm event to be near a 100-year, 24-hour rainfall frequency. Peak discharges determined at selected locations in areas of greater rainfall depths exceeded those of the 100-year floods. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Flood of September 12-13, 1982 in Gibson, Carroll, and Madison Counties, western Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Clarence H.; Gamble, Charles R.; Bingham, Roy H.

    1986-01-01

    Intense rainfall on September 12-13, 1982, caused severe local flooding along many streams in Gibson County in western Tennessee. The rainfall resulted from remnants of Hurricane Chris combining with a cool front moving across the western half of the State. A maximum 1-hr rainfall intensity of 3.3 in was recorded at Humboldt. Peak discharge exceeded the 100-yr flood on many small streams. The floods caused three deaths and about 15.3 million dollars damage to crops, roads and bridges, businesses, and residential areas. Long-time residents of Gibson County reported that stream stages have not been as high since at least 1922. (USGS)

  19. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge and Neuropsychiatric Skills Into Psychiatry: The Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Schildkrout, Barbara; Benjamin, Sheldon; Lauterbach, Margo D

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the integration of neuroscience knowledge and neuropsychiatric skills into general psychiatric practice would facilitate expanded approaches to diagnosis, formulation, and treatment while positioning practitioners to utilize findings from emerging brain research. There is growing consensus that the field of psychiatry would benefit from more familiarity with neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Yet there remain numerous factors impeding the integration of these domains of knowledge into general psychiatry.The authors make recommendations to move the field forward, focusing on the need for advocacy by psychiatry and medical organizations and changes in psychiatry education at all levels. For individual psychiatrists, the recommendations target obstacles to attaining expanded neuroscience and neuropsychiatry education and barriers stemming from widely held, often unspoken beliefs. For the system of psychiatric care, recommendations address the conceptual and physical separation of psychiatry from medicine, overemphasis on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and on psychopharmacology, and different systems in medicine and psychiatry for handling reimbursement and patient records. For psychiatry residency training, recommendations focus on expanding neuroscience/neuropsychiatry faculty and integrating neuroscience education throughout the curriculum.Psychiatry traditionally concerns itself with helping individuals construct meaningful life narratives. Brain function is one of the fundamental determinants of individuality. It is now possible for psychiatrists to integrate knowledge of neuroscience into understanding the whole person by asking, What person has this brain? How does this brain make this person unique? How does this brain make this disorder unique? What treatment will help this disorder in this person with this brain? PMID:26630604

  20. The neuroscience of "free will".

    PubMed

    Tancredi, Laurence R

    2007-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience over the past 40 or more years are causing a re-visiting of an old debate: Does man possess free will over his actions, or do forces out of his control determine his behavior? Philosophers and biologists since the beginning of recorded history have taken positions on each side of the debate. Recent discoveries of brain activation prior to conscious awareness and genetic conditions that induce impulsive violent behavior are fortifying the perspective that biological determinism is basic to the human condition. But some contemporary thinkers are conflicted in this viewpoint since "free will" is a necessary element for self-determination and for attributing personal responsibility for one's actions. Hence, modifications of strict determinism have emerged which try to incorporate the features of determinism enforced by neuroscience findings with some element of "free will", making the two seemingly opposed positions compatible. How successful this will be to rescue "free will" in the long term depends on future discoveries in neuroscience and genetics. PMID:17393401

  1. NSDF: Neuroscience Simulation Data Format.

    PubMed

    Ray, Subhasis; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Bhalla, Upinder S; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2016-04-01

    Data interchange is emerging as an essential aspect of modern neuroscience. In the areas of computational neuroscience and systems biology there are multiple model definition formats, which have contributed strongly to the development of an ecosystem of simulation and analysis tools. Here we report the development of the Neuroscience Simulation Data Format (NSDF) which extends this ecosystem to the data generated in simulations. NSDF is designed to store simulator output across scales: from multiscale chemical and electrical signaling models, to detailed single-neuron and network models, to abstract neural nets. It is self-documenting, efficient, modular, and scalable, both in terms of novel data types and in terms of data volume. NSDF is simulator-independent, and can be used by a range of standalone analysis and visualization tools. It may also be used to store variety of experimental data. NSDF is based on the widely used HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format 5) specification and is open, platform-independent, and portable. PMID:26585711

  2. How neuroscience can inform consumer research.

    PubMed

    Kenning, Peter H; Plassmann, Hilke

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a rapidly growing approach within consumer research has developed under the label of "consumer neuroscience." Its goal is to use insights and methods from neuroscience to enhance the understanding of consumer behavior. In this paper we aim to provide an overview of questions of interest to consumer researchers, to present initial research findings, and to outline potential implications for consumer research. In order to do so, we first discuss the term "consumer neuroscience" and give a brief description of recently discussed issues in consumer research. We then provide a review and short description of initial empirical evidence from past studies in consumer neuroscience. Next, we present an example of how consumer research or, more specifically, customer loyalty research, may benefit from the consumer neuroscience approach. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications and suggestions for future research in the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. PMID:19144585

  3. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas. PMID:23859089

  4. Floods in Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, September 12-13, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauth, L.D.; Carswell, W.J., Jr.; Chin, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    The storms of Sept. 12-13, 1977, delivered as much as 16 in. of rain, with average rainfall exceeding 10 in. in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Twenty-five lives were lost, many were left homeless, and damages exceeded $80 million. Data obtained by the National Weather Service and the U.S. Geological Survey indicate that two record-setting rainstorms occurred within 24 hours. The first storm, in the early morning, thoroughly soaked the local drainage basins. The second storm, centered along the Brush and Round Grove Creek basins, resulted in a devastating flash flood. Peak discharges were determined during and after this major flood at gaging stations and selected miscellaneous locations. Streamflows and flood volumes in many locations far exceeded estimated values for the 100-year flood. (USGS)

  5. How neuroscience might advance the law.

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Erin Ann

    2004-01-01

    This essay discusses the strengths and limitations of the new, growing field of law and biology and suggests that advancements in neuroscience can help to bolster that field. It also briefly discusses some ways that neuroscience can help to improve the workings of law more generally. PMID:15590609

  6. Three Requirements for Justifying an Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruby, George G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the past quarter century, efforts to bridge between research in the neurosciences and research, theory, and practice in education have grown from a mere hope to noteworthy scholarly sophistication. Many dedicated educational researchers have developed the secondary expertise in the necessary neurosciences and related fields to…

  7. Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Patty

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…

  8. Cognitive Neuroscience Discoveries and Educational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes seven movement-related areas of cognitive neuroscience research that will play key roles in shifting the current behavioral orientation of teaching and learning to an orientation that also incorporates cognitive neuroscience discoveries. These areas of brain research include: (1) mirroring system; (2) plastic…

  9. Educational Neuroscience: Its Position, Aims and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meulen, Anna; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Ruyter, Doret

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in the discussion on educational neuroscience is the transfer of thought and findings between neuroscience and education. In addition to factual confusions in this transfer in the form of neuromyths, logical confusions, or neuro-misconceptions, can be identified. We consider these transfer difficulties in light of the way…

  10. Neuroscience and Special Education. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief overview of how links are being developed between the rapidly expanding field of neuroscience and the practice of special education. The first part of the document introduces definitions and terminology, provides an overview of how findings from neuroscience are being applied to the field of…

  11. Theory and methods in cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Ahmad R.; Harada, Tokiko; Mano, Yoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Parrish, Todd B.; Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research discipline that investigates cultural variation in psychological, neural and genomic processes as a means of articulating the bidirectional relationship of these processes and their emergent properties. Research in cultural neuroscience integrates theory and methods from anthropology, cultural psychology, neuroscience and neurogenetics. Here, we review a set of core theoretical and methodological challenges facing researchers when planning and conducting cultural neuroscience studies, and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges. In particular, we focus on the problems of defining culture and culturally appropriate experimental tasks, comparing neuroimaging data acquired from different populations and scanner sites and identifying functional genetic polymorphisms relevant to culture. Implications of cultural neuroscience research for addressing current issues in population health disparities are discussed. PMID:20592044

  12. How cognitive theory guides neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael J.; Badre, David

    2015-01-01

    The field of cognitive science studies latent, unobservable cognitive processes that generate observable behaviors. Similarly, cognitive neuroscience attempts to link latent cognitive processes with the neural mechanisms that generate them. Although neural processes are partially observable (with imaging and electrophysiology), it would be a mistake to ‘skip’ the cognitive level and pursue a purely neuroscientific enterprise to studying behavior. In fact, virtually all of the major advances in understanding the neural basis of behavior over the last century have relied fundamentally on principles of cognition for guiding the appropriate measurements, manipulations, tasks, and interpretations. We provide several examples from the domains of episodic memory, working memory and cognitive control, and decision making in which cognitive theorizing and prior experimentation has been essential in guiding neuroscientific investigations and discoveries. PMID:25496988

  13. Neuroscience and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M N; Buchholz, B A; Hillegonds, D J; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, enabling safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving: microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability, or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 {micro}g/kg). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets of neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the timescale of decades. We will here review how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.

  14. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Wenthur, Cody J

    2016-08-17

    As the first drug to see widespread use for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methylphenidate was the forerunner and catalyst to the modern era of rapidly increasing diagnosis, treatment, and medication development for this condition. During its often controversial history, it has variously elucidated the importance of dopamine signaling in memory and attention, provoked concerns about pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement, driven innovation in controlled-release technologies and enantiospecific therapeutics, and stimulated debate about the impact of pharmaceutical sales techniques on the practice of medicine. In this Review, we will illustrate the history and importance of methylphenidate to ADHD treatment and neuroscience in general, as well as provide key information about its synthesis, structure-activity relationship, pharmacological activity, metabolism, manufacturing, FDA-approved indications, and adverse effects. PMID:27409720

  15. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy in Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Albert; Nebel, Michaela; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews recent work involving the application of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to the study of individual cultured living cells, with an emphasis on topographical and functional imaging of neuronal and secretory cells of the nervous and endocrine system. The basic principles of biological SECM and associated negative amperometric-feedback and generator/collector-mode SECM imaging are discussed, and successful use of the methodology for screening soft and fragile membranous objects is outlined. The drawbacks of the constant-height mode of probe movement and the benefits of the constant-distance mode of SECM operation are described. Finally, representative examples of constant-height and constant-distance mode SECM on a variety of live cells are highlighted to demonstrate the current status of single-cell SECM in general and of SECM in neuroscience in particular.

  16. Degradation of phorbol 12,13-diacetate in aqueous solution by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongmany, Santi; Furuta, Masakazu; Matsuura, Hiroto; Okuda, Shuichi; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Yasuaki

    2014-12-01

    Phorbol esters (PEs) are highly toxic compounds that cause skin irritation, inflammation, and tumor promotion upon contact with humans or animals. These compounds are naturally present in Jatropha curcas L. To promote the use of J. curcas seed oil in bio-diesel production industries and reduce environmental concerns, it is necessary to find methods of degrading PEs. In this study, the degradation of phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA), as a representative PE, in aqueous solution at a concentration of 10 mg/L by 60Co-γ-irradiation was investigated. The results demonstrate that PDA was effectively degraded by this treatment and the degradation efficiency increased with the absorbed dose within the range of 0.5-3 kGy. Complete degradation of PDA was achieved at a dose of 3 kGy. In the presence of radical scavengers (i.e., methanol, tert-butanol, 2-propanol), reactive species from water radiolysis were scavenged, and significant inhibition of PDA degradation was observed at absorbed doses less than 1 kGy. In the presence of nitrous oxide, the generation of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) was promoted during gamma irradiation and PDA degradation was drastically enhanced.

  17. Prevalence of dental caries in 12-13-year-old Jordanian students.

    PubMed

    Albashaireh, Z; al-Hadi Hamasha, A

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the caries experience of 12-13-year-old 6th grade students in Jordan. A total of 694 students were selected randomly from a list of schools teaching 6th grade students in Irbid, Jordan. The data were collected by interview and clinical examination performed by two examiners. Dental examinations were done by using dental mirrors and probes under artificial light in classrooms and the diagnosis of dental caries was made by the criteria recommended by the World Health Organisation (1987). On average students had 24.4 sound teeth, 2.3 decayed teeth (D), 0.05 missing teeth (M) and 0.16 filled teeth (F). The mean DMFT index was 2.51. The D represents 92% of the DMF cases. Of the students examined 188 were caries free (27.1%). Of the 19,432 permanent teeth examined the highest frequency of dental caries (61%) and fillings (77%) was found in first molars, and these were the most commonly missing teeth (67%). Second molars and second premolars had the second and third highest frequencies respectively, whereas incisors and canines were the least affected teeth (< 2%). PMID:12061150

  18. Infusing Neuroscience into Teacher Professional Development

    PubMed Central

    Dubinsky, Janet M; Roehrig, Gillian; Varma, Sashank

    2015-01-01

    Bruer (1997) advocated connecting neuroscience and education indirectly through the intermediate discipline of psychology. We argue for a parallel route: the neurobiology of learning, and in particular the core concept of plasticity, have the potential to directly transform teacher preparation and professional development, and ultimately to affect how students think about their own learning. We present a case study of how the core concepts of neuroscience can be brought to in-service teachers – the BrainU workshops. We then discuss how neuroscience can be meaningfully integrated into pre-service teacher preparation, focusing on institutional and cultural barriers. PMID:26139861

  19. Neurotalk: improving the communication of neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Illes, Judy; Moser, Mary Anne; McCormick, Jennifer B; Racine, Eric; Blakeslee, Sandra; Caplan, Arthur; Hayden, Erika Check; Ingram, Jay; Lohwater, Tiffany; McKnight, Peter; Nicholson, Christie; Phillips, Anthony; Sauvé, Kevin D; Snell, Elaine; Weiss, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing pressure for neuroscientists to communicate their research and the societal implications of their findings to the public. Communicating science is challenging, and the transformation of communication by digital and interactive media increases the complexity of the challenge. To facilitate dialogue with the public in this new media landscape, we suggest three courses of action for the neuroscience community: a cultural shift that explicitly recognizes and rewards public outreach, the identification and development of neuroscience communication experts, and ongoing empirical research on the public communication of neuroscience. PMID:19953102

  20. Challenges and opportunities in social neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Decety, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Social species are so characterized because they form organizations that extend beyond the individual. The goal of social neuroscience is to investigate the biological mechanisms that underlie these social structures, processes, and behavior and the influences between social and neural structures and processes. Such an endeavor is challenging because it necessitates the integration of multiple levels. Mapping across systems and levels (from genome to social groups and cultures) requires interdisciplinary expertise, comparative studies, innovative methods, and integrative conceptual analysis. Examples of how social neuroscience is contributing to our understanding of the functions of the brain and nervous system are described, and societal implications of social neuroscience are considered. PMID:21251011

  1. Kinetically Blocked Stable 5,6:12,13-Dibenzozethrene: A Laterally π-Extended Zethrene with Enhanced Diradical Character.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Priya; Das, Soumyajit; Phan, Hoa; Herng, Tun Seng; Ding, Jun; Wu, Jishan

    2016-06-17

    Although the ground-state and physical properties of zethrene and recently invented 1,2:8,9-dibenzozethrene have been well studied, the other dibenzozethrene isomer, i.e., 5,6:12,13-dibenzozethrene, remained unexplored. A short synthetic route to a kinetically blocked stable 5,6:12,13-dibenzozethrene derivative 5 is presented. The ground state is found to be open-shell singlet experimentally, and the theoretical y0 was enhanced to 0.414, which corroborates nicely with the experimental and theoretical singlet-triplet energy gap. PMID:27227758

  2. Tsunami Generated By the Volcano Eruption On July 12-13, 2003 At Montserrat, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelinovsky, E.; Zahibo, N.; Dunkley, P.; Edmonds, M.; Herd, R.; Talipova, T.; Kozelkov, A.; Nikolkina, I.

    2004-05-01

    Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, has been undergoing a lava dome forming eruption since 1995. A major collapse of the dome occurred on 12-13 July 2003 and was accompanied by explosive activity. This was the largest dome-collapse to date at Soufriere Hills Volcano. The collapse was a prolonged event. Continuous pyroclastic flows began in the Tar River Valley on the eastern side of the volcano at 09:30 local time 12 July. From 10.45 onwards these reached the sea and at 18:30 the flows became larger and more energetic as the collapse progressively cut back into the hotter interior of the dome. The collapse reached its most energetic phase between 21.50 12 July and 0.50 13 July when a sequence of very large pyroclastic flows entered the sea and pyroclastic surges traveled up to 3 km across the surface of the sea. The climax of the collapse occurred at 23.35 when a very large pyroclastic flow impacted the sea and pyroclastic surges devastated 10 km22 on the NE flank of the volcano. A number of explosive events took place during this collapse, with the largest occurring at 23.52, which produced ash clouds to a height of 15 km. Various photos of this event can be found in the website of the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (http://www.mvo.ms). A field survey of the coastal area was conducted after the event by the staff of the Montserrat Volcano Observatory. A strandline of charred trees and other floating objects was found on the coast at Farm Bay (16.45'N, 62.09'W). The strandline is located about 100-200 m from the shoreline at a height of 4 m above sea level (eye estimates) approximately 2-4 km north of the mouth of the Tar River Valley where the pyroclastic flows impacted the sea on 12-13 July. Cyclone activity was high in September 2003 (Hurricanes Fabian and Isabel) and the strandline of charred trees may have resulted as from a tsunami related to the dome-collapse, as well from a storm surge. Taking into account the local character of this

  3. A neuroscience agenda for counseling psychology research.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development. PMID:25285708

  4. Implementation of an Integrated Neuroscience Unit.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Rory P; Franker, Lauren; Sterchi, Suzanne; Sani, Sepehr

    2016-02-01

    Many challenges exist in today's health care delivery system, and much focus and research are invested into ways to improve care with cost-effective measures. Specialty-specific dedicated care units are one solution for inpatient hospital care because they improve outcomes and decrease mortality. The neuroscience population encompasses a wide variety of diagnoses of spinal to cranial issues with a wide spectrum of needs varying from one patient to the next. Neuroscience care must be patient-specific during the course of frequent acuity changes, and one way to achieve this is through a neuroscience-focused unit. Few resources are available on how to implement this type of unit. Advanced practice nurses are committed to providing high-quality, safe, and cost-effective care and are instrumental in the success of instituting a unit dedicated to the care of neuroscience patients. PMID:26909452

  5. Enhanced decision making through neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Jung, TP; Makeig, Scott

    2012-06-01

    We propose to enhance the decision making of pilot, co-pilot teams, over a range of vehicle platforms, with the aid of neuroscience. The goal is to optimize this collaborative decision making interplay in time-critical, stressful situations. We will research and measure human facial expressions, personality typing, and brainwave measurements to help answer questions related to optimum decision-making in group situations. Further, we propose to examine the nature of intuition in this decision making process. The brainwave measurements will be facilitated by a University of California, San Diego (UCSD) developed wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) sensing cap. We propose to measure brainwaves covering the whole head area with an electrode density of N=256, and yet keep within the limiting wireless bandwidth capability of m=32 readouts. This is possible because solving Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and finding the hidden brainwave sources allow us to concentrate selective measurements with an organized sparse source -->s sensing matrix [Φs], rather than the traditional purely random compressive sensing (CS) matrix[Φ].

  6. The neuroscience of musical improvisation.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Roger E

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have recently begun to examine the neural basis of musical improvisation, one of the most complex forms of creative behavior. The emerging field of improvisation neuroscience has implications not only for the study of artistic expertise, but also for understanding the neural underpinnings of domain-general processes such as motor control and language production. This review synthesizes functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) studies of musical improvisation, including vocal and instrumental improvisation, with samples of jazz pianists, classical musicians, freestyle rap artists, and non-musicians. A network of prefrontal brain regions commonly linked to improvisatory behavior is highlighted, including the pre-supplementary motor area, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal premotor cortex. Activation of premotor and lateral prefrontal regions suggests that a seemingly unconstrained behavior may actually benefit from motor planning and cognitive control. Yet activation of cortical midline regions points to a role of spontaneous cognition characteristic of the default network. Together, such results may reflect cooperation between large-scale brain networks associated with cognitive control and spontaneous thought. The improvisation literature is integrated with Pressing's theoretical model, and discussed within the broader context of research on the brain basis of creative cognition. PMID:25601088

  7. Molecular Biology Masterclasses--Developing Practical Skills and Building Links with Higher Education in Years 12/13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Paul; Cooper, Phillippa; Skidmore, Nick

    2008-01-01

    A one day practical course in molecular biology skills suitable for year 12/13 students is described. Colleagues from partner schools and colleges were trained by university staff in basic techniques and then collaborated in the design of a course suitable for their own students. Participants carried out a transformation of "E.coli" cells with a…

  8. Integrating recent advances in neuroscience into undergraduate neuroscience and physiology courses.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Corey L

    2002-12-01

    Neuroscience has enjoyed tremendous growth over the past 20 years, including a substantial increase in the number of neuroscience departments, programs, and courses at the undergraduate level. To meet the need of new neuroscience courses, there has also been growth in the number of introductory neuroscience textbooks designed for undergraduates. However, textbooks typically trail current knowledge by five to ten years, especially in neuroscience where our understanding is increasing rapidly. Consequently, it is often important to supplement neuroscience and physiology textbooks with information about recent findings in neuroscience. To design supplementary educational material, it is essential first to identify the educational objectives of the program and the characteristics of the learners, which can differ dramatically between undergraduate and graduate or professional students. Four principles that may serve the selection and design of supplementary material for undergraduate neuroscience and physiology courses are that (1) material must be interesting to the undergraduates, (2) material should reinforce previously learned concepts, (3) students must be adequately prepared, and (4) the teacher and student must have sufficient appropriate resources. PMID:12443998

  9. Time scales in cognitive neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Papo, David

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience boils down to describing the ways in which cognitive function results from brain activity. In turn, brain activity shows complex fluctuations, with structure at many spatio-temporal scales. Exactly how cognitive function inherits the physical dimensions of neural activity, though, is highly non-trivial, and so are generally the corresponding dimensions of cognitive phenomena. As for any physical phenomenon, when studying cognitive function, the first conceptual step should be that of establishing its dimensions. Here, we provide a systematic presentation of the temporal aspects of task-related brain activity, from the smallest scale of the brain imaging technique's resolution, to the observation time of a given experiment, through the characteristic time scales of the process under study. We first review some standard assumptions on the temporal scales of cognitive function. In spite of their general use, these assumptions hold true to a high degree of approximation for many cognitive (viz. fast perceptual) processes, but have their limitations for other ones (e.g., thinking or reasoning). We define in a rigorous way the temporal quantifiers of cognition at all scales, and illustrate how they qualitatively vary as a function of the properties of the cognitive process under study. We propose that each phenomenon should be approached with its own set of theoretical, methodological and analytical tools. In particular, we show that when treating cognitive processes such as thinking or reasoning, complex properties of ongoing brain activity, which can be drastically simplified when considering fast (e.g., perceptual) processes, start playing a major role, and not only characterize the temporal properties of task-related brain activity, but also determine the conditions for proper observation of the phenomena. Finally, some implications on the design of experiments, data analyses, and the choice of recording parameters are discussed. PMID:23626578

  10. Resource management and operations in central North Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary November 12-13, 2015, Bismarck, ND

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Shuurman, Gregor; Symstad, Amy; Ray, Andrea; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Miller, Brian; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the central North Dakota focal area, with an emphasis on Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The report explainsscenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the central North Dakota focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held November 12-13, 2015 in Bismarck, ND, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  11. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  12. Hand-held medical robots.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake. PMID:24927713

  13. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  14. Mapping the semantic structure of cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Beam, Elizabeth; Appelbaum, L Gregory; Jack, Jordynn; Moody, James; Huettel, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive neuroscience, as a discipline, links the biological systems studied by neuroscience to the processing constructs studied by psychology. By mapping these relations throughout the literature of cognitive neuroscience, we visualize the semantic structure of the discipline and point to directions for future research that will advance its integrative goal. For this purpose, network text analyses were applied to an exhaustive corpus of abstracts collected from five major journals over a 30-month period, including every study that used fMRI to investigate psychological processes. From this, we generate network maps that illustrate the relationships among psychological and anatomical terms, along with centrality statistics that guide inferences about network structure. Three terms--prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex--dominate the network structure with their high frequency in the literature and the density of their connections with other neuroanatomical terms. From network statistics, we identify terms that are understudied compared with their importance in the network (e.g., insula and thalamus), are underspecified in the language of the discipline (e.g., terms associated with executive function), or are imperfectly integrated with other concepts (e.g., subdisciplines like decision neuroscience that are disconnected from the main network). Taking these results as the basis for prescriptive recommendations, we conclude that semantic analyses provide useful guidance for cognitive neuroscience as a discipline, both by illustrating systematic biases in the conduct and presentation of research and by identifying directions that may be most productive for future research. PMID:24666126

  15. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    PubMed Central

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  16. Security implications and governance of cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kosal, Margaret E; Huang, Jonathan Y

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, significant efforts have been made toward elucidating the potential of the human brain. Spanning fields as disparate as psychology, biomedicine, computer science, mathematics, electrical engineering, and chemistry, research venturing into the growing domains of cognitive neuroscience and brain research has become fundamentally interdisciplinary. Among the most interesting and consequential applications to international security are the military and defense community's interests in the potential of cognitive neuroscience findings and technologies. In the United States, multiple governmental agencies are actively pursuing such endeavors, including the Department of Defense, which has invested over $3 billion in the last decade to conduct research on defense-related innovations. This study explores governance and security issues surrounding cognitive neuroscience research with regard to potential security-related applications and reports scientists' views on the role of researchers in these areas through a survey of over 200 active cognitive neuroscientists. PMID:26399948

  17. Neuroaesthetics: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Aesthetic Experience.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Marcus T; Zaidel, Dahlia W; Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin; Leder, Helmut; Chatterjee, Anjan; Nadal, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    The field of neuroaesthetics has gained in popularity in recent years but also attracted criticism from the perspectives both of the humanities and the sciences. In an effort to consolidate research in the field, we characterize neuroaesthetics as the cognitive neuroscience of aesthetic experience, drawing on long traditions of research in empirical aesthetics on the one hand and cognitive neuroscience on the other. We clarify the aims and scope of the field, identifying relations among neuroscientific investigations of aesthetics, beauty, and art. The approach we advocate takes as its object of study a wide spectrum of aesthetic experiences, resulting from interactions of individuals, sensory stimuli, and context. Drawing on its parent fields, a cognitive neuroscience of aesthetics would investigate the complex cognitive processes and functional networks of brain regions involved in those experiences without placing a value on them. Thus, the cognitive neuroscientific approach may develop in a way that is mutually complementary to approaches in the humanities. PMID:26993278

  18. Current emotion research in cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Classical theories of emotion have long debated the extent to which human emotion is a universal or culturally-constructed experience. Recent advances in emotion research in cultural neuroscience highlight several aspects of emotional generation and experience that are both phylogenetically conserved as well as constructed within human cultural contexts. This review highlights theories and methods from cultural neuroscience that examine how cultural and biological processes shape emotional generation, experience and regulation across multiple time scales. Recent advances in the neurobiological basis of culture-bound syndromes, such as Hwa-Byung (fire illness), provide further novel insights into emotion and mental health across cultures. Implications of emotion research in cultural neuroscience for population health disparities in psychopathology and global mental health will be discussed. PMID:26346827

  19. Exploring sensory neuroscience through experience and experiment.

    PubMed

    Wyttenbach, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Many phenomena that we take for granted are illusions - color and motion on a TV or computer monitor, for example, or the impression of space in a stereo music recording. Even the stable image that we perceive when looking directly at the real world is illusory. One of the important lessons from sensory neuroscience is that our perception of the world is constructed rather than received. Sensory illusions effectively capture student interest, but how do you then move on to substantive discussion of neuroscience? This article illustrates several illusions, attempts to connect them to neuroscience, and shows how students can explore and experiment with them. Even when (as is often the case) there is no agreed-upon mechanistic explanation for an illusion, students can form hypotheses and test them by manipulating stimuli and measuring their effects. In effect, students can experiment with illusions using themselves as subjects. PMID:23493966

  20. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  1. Conceptual Challenges and Directions for Social Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Social neuroscience has been enormously successful and is making major contributions to fields ranging from psychiatry to economics. Yet deep and interesting conceptual challenges abound. Is social information processing domain specific? Is it universal or susceptible to individual differences and effects of culture? Are there uniquely human social cognitive abilities? What is the “social brain,” and how do we map social psychological processes onto it? Animal models together with fMRI and other cognitive neuroscience approaches in humans are providing an unprecedented level of detail and many surprising results. It may well be that social neuroscience in the near future will give us an entirely new view of who we are, how we evolved, and what might be in store for the future of our species. PMID:20346753

  2. Criminal Responsibility, Free Will, and Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, David

    This chapter identifies retributive and consequentialist purposes of the criminal law, and it outlines arguments that retribution should be abandoned, in cluding arguments, based on philosophy and neuroscience, that free will and re sponsibility are illusions. The author suggests that there are good reasons to retain retribution, and identifies ways in which this might be supported, including com patibilist and libertarian views of free will. The author gives reasons for preferring libertarian views, and concludes by considering the role that neuroscience may be expected to play in the future development of the law.

  3. The changing brain: Neuroscience and the enduring import of everyday experience.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Discourses of 'neuroplasticity' have become increasingly apparent in the neurosciences and wider society. These connect with broader narratives about the 'changing brain' throughout the life-course. Here, we explore their presence in the talk of a range of publics. Their presence is indicative of how novel neuroscience is accepted, or not, by our participants. In particular, we suggest that any acceptance of the science relates to their personal and/or professional experiences of change (to their own or others' subjectivities) rather than to some intrinsic and widely-held significance of scientific concepts per se. Accordingly, we also submit that it is in part through the congruence of some neuroscientific claims to everyday experiences and perspectives that the former are rendered legible and salient. In this respect, 'lay' knowledge has considerable import for the wider cultural authorisation of that of 'experts'. PMID:24598481

  4. The changing brain: Neuroscience and the enduring import of everyday experience

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Discourses of ‘neuroplasticity’ have become increasingly apparent in the neurosciences and wider society. These connect with broader narratives about the ‘changing brain’ throughout the life-course. Here, we explore their presence in the talk of a range of publics. Their presence is indicative of how novel neuroscience is accepted, or not, by our participants. In particular, we suggest that any acceptance of the science relates to their personal and/or professional experiences of change (to their own or others’ subjectivities) rather than to some intrinsic and widely-held significance of scientific concepts per se. Accordingly, we also submit that it is in part through the congruence of some neuroscientific claims to everyday experiences and perspectives that the former are rendered legible and salient. In this respect, ‘lay’ knowledge has considerable import for the wider cultural authorisation of that of ‘experts’. PMID:24598481

  5. Scientific and Pragmatic Challenges for Bridging Education and Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sashank; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Educational neuroscience is an emerging effort to integrate neuroscience methods, particularly functional neuroimaging, with behavioral methods to address issues of learning and instruction. This article consolidates common concerns about connecting education and neuroscience. One set of concerns is scientific: in-principle differences in methods,…

  6. Transect workshop held in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazangi, Muawia

    A workshop on the progress of the Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project in the Middle East and Africa (see maps) was held January 15-17 in Cairo, Egypt. (Transect plans in the region have been described in Eos, 69, p. 124). It was jointly organized and funded by the Egyptian National Committee of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Lithosphere Program coordinating Committee CC-7 of GGT. A. Ashour of Cairo University, Egypt, chaired the workshop; the general secretary was S. Riad of Assiut University, Egypt, who was responsible for most of the organization, scheduling and implementation of the workshop.

  7. Invertebrate neuroscience and CephsInAction at the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience Meeting Cagliari 2015.

    PubMed

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Fiorito, Graziano; Ponte, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate neuroscience, and in particular cephalopod research, is well represented in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the recent meeting of the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience in Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia (12-15 June 2015) provided an excellent opportunity for invertebrate contributions. Furthermore, the Chair of an EU COST Action for cephalopod research (FA1301; www.cephsinaction.org ), Giovanna Ponte, together with Graziano Fiorito from the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, aligned a meeting of research groups working in the field of cephalopod neurophysiology from across Europe to coincide with the neuroscience meeting. This provided an exciting forum for exchange of ideas. Here we provide brief highlights of both events and an explanation of the activities of the COST Action for the broader invertebrate neuroscience community. PMID:26386979

  8. The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

  9. Large scale digital atlases in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawrylycz, M.; Feng, D.; Lau, C.; Kuan, C.; Miller, J.; Dang, C.; Ng, L.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging in neuroscience has revolutionized our current understanding of brain structure, architecture and increasingly its function. Many characteristics of morphology, cell type, and neuronal circuitry have been elucidated through methods of neuroimaging. Combining this data in a meaningful, standardized, and accessible manner is the scope and goal of the digital brain atlas. Digital brain atlases are used today in neuroscience to characterize the spatial organization of neuronal structures, for planning and guidance during neurosurgery, and as a reference for interpreting other data modalities such as gene expression and connectivity data. The field of digital atlases is extensive and in addition to atlases of the human includes high quality brain atlases of the mouse, rat, rhesus macaque, and other model organisms. Using techniques based on histology, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as gene expression data, modern digital atlases use probabilistic and multimodal techniques, as well as sophisticated visualization software to form an integrated product. Toward this goal, brain atlases form a common coordinate framework for summarizing, accessing, and organizing this knowledge and will undoubtedly remain a key technology in neuroscience in the future. Since the development of its flagship project of a genome wide image-based atlas of the mouse brain, the Allen Institute for Brain Science has used imaging as a primary data modality for many of its large scale atlas projects. We present an overview of Allen Institute digital atlases in neuroscience, with a focus on the challenges and opportunities for image processing and computation.

  10. Neuroscience insights improve neurorehabilitation of poststroke aphasia.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Marcelo L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2011-02-01

    The treatment of aphasias-acquired language disorders-caused by stroke and other neurological conditions has benefitted from insights from neuroscience and neuropsychology. Hebbian mechanisms suggest that massed practice and exploitation of residual neurological capacities can aid neurorehabilitation of patients with poststroke aphasia, and progress in basic neuroscience research indicates that the language system of the human brain is functionally interwoven with perceptual and motor systems. Intensive speech and language therapies, including constraint-induced aphasia therapy, that activate both the linguistic and concordant motor circuits utilize the knowledge gained from these advances in neuroscience research and can lead to surprisingly rapid improvements in language performance, even in patients with chronic aphasia. Drug-based therapies alone and in conjunction with behavioral language therapies also increase language performance in patients with aphasia. Furthermore, noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical stimulation techniques that target neuronal activity within perilesional areas might help patients with aphasia to regain lost language functions. Intensive language-action therapies that lead to rapid improvements in language skills might provide a new opportunity for investigating fast plastic neuronal changes in the areas of the brain associated with language processing. Here, we review progress in basic neuroscience research and its translational impact on the neurorehabilitation of language disorders after stroke. PMID:21297651

  11. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. PMID:26359754

  12. Social Neuroscience of Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…

  13. Educational Neuroscience: What Can We Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in interest, research, and publications exploring ways in which educational practices might be influenced by neuroscience. The idea that a greater understanding of how the brain works can improve teaching and learning is very seductive, but what can teachers and other professionals working in education learn from…

  14. Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Unravelling the Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Morrison, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically examines the application of research into cognitive neuroscience to educational contexts. It first considers recent warnings from within the neuroscientific community itself about the limitations of current neuroscientific knowledge and the urgent need to dispel popular "neuromyths" which have become accepted in many…

  15. Infusing Neuroscience into Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubinsky, Janet M.; Roehrig, Gillian; Varma, Sashank

    2013-01-01

    Bruer advocated connecting neuroscience and education indirectly through the intermediate discipline of psychology. We argue for a parallel route: The neurobiology of learning, and in particular the core concept of "plasticity," have the potential to directly transform teacher preparation and professional development, and ultimately to…

  16. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience: Origins, Issues, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.; Snyder, Kelly A.; Roberts, Ralph J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary explains how the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience (DCN) holds the promise of a much wider interdisciplinary integration across sciences concerned with development: psychology, molecular genetics, neurobiology, and evolutionary developmental biology. First we present a brief history of DCN, including the key theoretical…

  17. Foundationalism and Neuroscience; Silence and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keestra, Machiel; Cowley, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience offers more than new empirical evidence about the details of cognitive functions such as language, perception and action. Since it also shows many functions to be highly distributed, interconnected and dependent on mechanisms at different levels of processing, it challenges concepts that are traditionally used to describe these…

  18. Peak discharge on Bull Creek and tributaries, Scurry and Borden Counties, Texas, flood of April 12, 13, 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniels, L.L.

    1954-01-01

    This report contains a description of the rainfall pattern producing the flood of April 12, 13, 1954, in the Bull Creek watershed, the results of indirect determinations of peak discharges and estimates of flows at several points in that watershed, and a comparison of the peak stage at the discontinued gaging station on Bull Creek near Ira, Tex., with other floods on record. Field work consisted of transit-stadia surveys at five locations to develop high-water profiles and cross-sections, performed within two weeks after flood occurred.

  19. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Coden-Bellefontaine quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohman, Larry R.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along coastal areas of Mobile Bay between Bellefontaine and Point Judith, Alabama, are shown on a topographic map. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. Most of the waterfront improvements in Mobile Bay were either destroyed or heavily damaged. The town of Bayou La Batre, Alabama, was extensively flooded. (USGS)

  20. Neuroscience and the soul: competing explanations for the human experience.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S; Hepler, Justin

    2013-04-01

    The development of fMRI techniques has generated a boom of neuroscience research across the psychological sciences, and revealed neural correlates for many psychological phenomena seen as central to the human experience (e.g., morality, agency). Meanwhile, the rise of neuroscience has reignited old debates over mind-body dualism and the soul. While some scientists use neuroscience to bolster a material account of consciousness, others point to unexplained neural phenomena to defend dualism and a spiritual perspective on the mind. In two experiments we examine how exposure to neuroscience research impacts belief in the soul. We find that belief in soul decreases when neuroscience provides strong mechanistic explanations for mind. But when explanatory gaps in neuroscience research are emphasized, belief in soul is enhanced, suggesting that physical and metaphysical explanations may be used reflexively as alternative theories for mind. Implications for the future of belief in soul and neuroscience research are discussed. PMID:23318352

  1. Measurements of developing teeth, and carpals and epiphyses of the ulna and radius for assessing new cut-offs at the age thresholds of 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 years.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; De Luca, S; Cingolani, M; Ferrante, L

    2015-08-01

    The minimum age of criminal responsibility is the youngest age at which children may be held liable for infringements of penal laws. New cut-offs at the age thresholds of 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 years were determined by applying three different methods: measurement of open apices in tooth roots (T); the ratio between the total area of carpal bones and epiphyses of the ulna and radius (HW); and the combined method (THW). The sample consisted of 291 Italian children (152 boys, 139 girls), aged between 5 and 15 years. The sensitivity and specificity were established. As regards THW, specificity reached the maximum of 95% in boys aged 10, and the minimum of 87% in boys aged 11. The best score of the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was obtained in boys at 10 years with the THW method and the worst in girls of 12 with the HW method. PMID:26165659

  2. Forgetting the madeleine: Proust and the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Bray, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Marcel Proust's famous madeleine experience, in which a man recalls his past through intense concentration after he tastes a cake dipped in tea, has been dubbed the "Proust Phenomenon" by researchers in the neurosciences. The passage in Proust's novel, however, has been systematically misread in the scientific literature due to the complexity and the ambiguity built into the text. A review of work by neuroscientists, popular science writers, and literature scholars suggests that the most productive interdisciplinary research occurs not where two disciplines converge (the madeleine as olfactory memory cue), but rather where they diverge (phenomenal description over quantitative analysis). This chapter argues that researchers in neuroscience and neuroaesthetics should forget the madeleine in Proust to investigate not only the other cognitive insights offered by Proust's vast novel, In Search of Lost Time, but also the ways in which Proust's novel seeks to bridge the distance between autobiographical experience and critical analysis. PMID:24290259

  3. Neuroscience, moral reasoning, and the law.

    PubMed

    Knabb, Joshua J; Welsh, Robert K; Ziebell, Joseph G; Reimer, Kevin S

    2009-01-01

    Modern advancements in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology have given neuroscientists the opportunity to more fully appreciate the brain's contribution to human behavior and decision making. Morality and moral reasoning are relative newcomers to the growing literature on decision neuroscience. With recent attention given to the salience of moral factors (e.g. moral emotions, moral reasoning) in the process of decision making, neuroscientists have begun to offer helpful frameworks for understanding the interplay between the brain, morality, and human decision making. These frameworks are relatively unfamiliar to the community of forensic psychologists, despite the fact that they offer an improved understanding of judicial decision making from a biological perspective. This article presents a framework reviewing how event-feature-emotion complexes (EFEC) are relevant to jurors and understanding complex criminal behavior. Future directions regarding converging fields of neuroscience and legal decision making are considered. PMID:19241396

  4. Cyber-workstation for computational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Digiovanna, Jack; Rattanatamrong, Prapaporn; Zhao, Ming; Mahmoudi, Babak; Hermer, Linda; Figueiredo, Renato; Principe, Jose C; Fortes, Jose; Sanchez, Justin C

    2010-01-01

    A Cyber-Workstation (CW) to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists to develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g. recursive least-squares regressor) by specifying appropriate connections in a block-diagram. Then, adaptive middleware transparently implements these user specifications using the full power of remote grid-computing hardware. In effect, the middleware deploys an on-demand and flexible neuroscience research test-bed to provide the neurophysiology laboratory extensive computational power from an outside source. The CW consolidates distributed software and hardware resources to support time-critical and/or resource-demanding computing during data collection from behaving animals. This power and flexibility is important as experimental and theoretical neuroscience evolves based on insights gained from data-intensive experiments, new technologies and engineering methodologies. This paper describes briefly the computational infrastructure and its most relevant components. Each component is discussed within a systematic process of setting up an in vivo, neuroscience experiment. Furthermore, a co-adaptive brain machine interface is implemented on the CW to illustrate how this integrated computational and experimental platform can be used to study systems neurophysiology and learning in a behavior task. We believe this implementation is also the first remote execution and adaptation of a brain-machine interface. PMID:20126436

  5. Cyber-Workstation for Computational Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Rattanatamrong, Prapaporn; Zhao, Ming; Mahmoudi, Babak; Hermer, Linda; Figueiredo, Renato; Principe, Jose C.; Fortes, Jose; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    A Cyber-Workstation (CW) to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists to develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g. recursive least-squares regressor) by specifying appropriate connections in a block-diagram. Then, adaptive middleware transparently implements these user specifications using the full power of remote grid-computing hardware. In effect, the middleware deploys an on-demand and flexible neuroscience research test-bed to provide the neurophysiology laboratory extensive computational power from an outside source. The CW consolidates distributed software and hardware resources to support time-critical and/or resource-demanding computing during data collection from behaving animals. This power and flexibility is important as experimental and theoretical neuroscience evolves based on insights gained from data-intensive experiments, new technologies and engineering methodologies. This paper describes briefly the computational infrastructure and its most relevant components. Each component is discussed within a systematic process of setting up an in vivo, neuroscience experiment. Furthermore, a co-adaptive brain machine interface is implemented on the CW to illustrate how this integrated computational and experimental platform can be used to study systems neurophysiology and learning in a behavior task. We believe this implementation is also the first remote execution and adaptation of a brain-machine interface. PMID:20126436

  6. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Diazepam (Valium)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diazepam (Valium) is among the most successful drugs from the onset of the psychopharmacological revolution that began during the 1950s. Efficacious in treating a wide-spectrum of CNS disorders, including anxiety and epilepsy, it set the standard for pharmacotherapy in terms of potency, onset of action, and safety. In this Review, the legacy of diazepam to chemical neuroscience will be considered along with its synthesis, pharmacology, drug metabolism, adverse events and dependence, clinical use, and regulatory issues. PMID:24552479

  7. Neuroscience, power and culture: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Vrecko, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In line with their vast expansion over the last few decades, the brain sciences -- including neurobiology, psychopharmacology, biological psychiatry, and brain imaging -- are becoming increasingly prominent in a variety of cultural formations, from self-help guides and the arts to advertising and public health programmes. This article, which introduces the special issue of "History of the Human Science" on "Neuroscience, Power and Culture," considers the ways that social and historical research can, through empirical investigations grounded in the observation of what is actually happening and has already happened in the sciences of mind and brain, complement speculative discussions of the possible social implications of neuroscience that now appear regularly in the media and in philosophical bioethics. It suggests that the neurosciences are best understood in terms of their lineage within the "psy"-disciplines, and that, accordingly, our analyses of them will be strengthened by drawing on existing literatures on the history and politics of psychology -- particularly those that analyze formations of knowledge, power and subjectivity associated with the discipline and its practical applications. Additionally, it argues against taking today's neuroscientific facts and brain-targetting technologies as starting points for analysis, and for greater recognition of the ways that these are shaped by historical, cultural and political-economic forces. PMID:20514752

  8. DREADDS: Use and application in behavioral neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle S; Bucci, David J; Luikart, Bryan W; Mahler, Stephen V

    2016-04-01

    Technological advances over the last decade are changing the face of behavioral neuroscience research. Here we review recent work on the use of one such transformative tool in behavioral neuroscience research, chemogenetics (or Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs, DREADDS). As transformative technologies such as DREADDs are introduced, applied, and refined, their utility in addressing complex questions about behavior and cognition becomes clear and exciting. In the behavioral neuroscience field, remarkable new findings now regularly appear as a result of the ability to monitor and intervene in neural processes with high anatomical precision as animals behave in complex task environments. As these new tools are applied to behavioral questions, individualized procedures for their use find their way into diverse labs. Thus, "tips of the trade" become important for wide dissemination not only for laboratories that are using the tools but also for those who are interested in incorporating them into their own work. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date perspective on how the DREADD technique is being used for research on learning and memory, decision making, and goal-directed behavior, as well as to provide suggestions and considerations for current and future users based on our collective experience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913540

  9. On the marriage of cognition and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, A R; Fitzpatrick, S M; Friston, K J

    2001-12-01

    This paper summarizes five major themes of discussion stemming from a recent workshop at the University of Toronto. The focus of the workshop was whether the phenomenology of cognition has a direct translation to the biological processes of the brain. The study of this translation is the goal of cognitive neuroscience. The themes were: (1) the influence of context on the understanding of brain function, in which regional activity may have different functional relevance depending on activity in the rest of the brain; (2) the merger of anatomy and function, emphasizing how interfacing at the systems level can have the potential to aid in the understanding of how anatomy constrains function; (3) the development of mathematical measures that take advantage of organizing principles of the nervous system; (4) the observation that the relation between "top-down" and "bottom-up" both neurally and conceptually could be better appreciated through a more principled mathematical approach; and (5) a central role for large-scale neural modeling to bridge basic neurophysiology and anatomy. Despite the consensus on these themes, there are several challenges for the field. Significant obstacles arise from the multidisciplinary nature of cognitive neuroscience, in which terms do not mean the same thing across disciplines (e.g., networks and systems). The imprecision of explanations for cognitive neuroscience data was also seen as a significant problem, suggesting that more principled attempts at explicit model specifications and prediction will be necessary for the field to develop. PMID:11707079

  10. The Future of Psychiatry as Clinical Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Charles F.; Lewis, David A.; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Kupfer, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics. The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry’s mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management. PMID:19318776

  11. Revolutionary Impact of Nanodrug Delivery on Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Khanbabaie, Reza; Jahanshahi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Brain research is the most expanding interdisciplinary research that is using the state of the art techniques to overcome limitations in order to conduct more accurate and effective experiments. Drug delivery to the target site in the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most difficult steps in neuroscience researches and therapies. Taking advantage of the nanoscale structure of neural cells (both neurons and glia); nanodrug delivery (second generation of biotechnological products) has a potential revolutionary impact into the basic understanding, visualization and therapeutic applications of neuroscience. Current review article firstly provides an overview of preparation and characterization, purification and separation, loading and delivering of nanodrugs. Different types of nanoparticle bioproducts and a number of methods for their fabrication and delivery systems including (carbon) nanotubes are explained. In the second part, neuroscience and nervous system drugs are deeply investigated. Different mechanisms in which nanoparticles enhance the uptake and clearance of molecules form cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are discussed. The focus is on nanodrugs that are being used or have potential to improve neural researches, diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23730260

  12. Neuroscience and the fallacies of functionalism.

    PubMed

    Reddy, William M

    2010-01-01

    Smail's "On Deep History and the Brain" is rightly critical of the functionalist fallacies that have plagued evolutionary theory, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology. However, his attempt to improve on these efforts relies on functional explanations that themselves oversimplify the lessons of neuroscience. In addition, like explanations in evolutionary psychology, they are highly speculative and cannot be confirmed or disproved by evidence. Neuroscience research is too diverse to yield a single picture of brain functioning. Some recent developments in neuroscience research, however, do suggest that cognitive processing provides a kind of “operating system” that can support a great diversity of cultural material. These developments include evidence of “top-down” processing in motor control, in visual processing, in speech recognition, and in “emotion regulation.” The constraints that such a system may place on cultural learning and transmission are worth investigating. At the same time, historians are well advised to remain wary of the pitfalls of functionalism. PMID:20941878

  13. Operational neuroscience: neurophysiological measures in applied environments.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Amy A

    2007-05-01

    There is, without question, an interest within the military services to understand, account for, and adapt to the cognitive state of the individual warfighter. As the field of neuroscience has matured through investments from numerous government agencies, we are on the cusp of being able to move confidently from the lab into the field--and deepen our understanding of the cognitive issues embedded in the warfighting environment. However, as we edge closer to this integration--it is critical for researchers in this arena to understand the landscape they are entering-reflected not only in the challenges of each task or operational environment but also in the individual differences intrinsic to each warfighter. The research papers in this section cover this spectrum, including individual differences and their prediction of adaptability to high-stress environments, the influence of sleep-deprivation on neurophysiological measures of stimulus categorization, neurophysiological measures of stress in the training environment and, finally, real-time neural measures of task engagement, mental workload and vigilance. It is clear from this research, and other work detailed in this supplement, that the judicious use of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and physiology in the applied environment is desirable for both researchers and operators. In fact, we suggest that these investigations merit a field designation unto their own: Operational Neuroscience. It is our hope that the discussion of this new field of study will galvanize others to increase the confidence and utility of this research through their own investigations. PMID:17547320

  14. Revolutionary impact of nanodrug delivery on neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Khanbabaie, Reza; Jahanshahi, Mohsen

    2012-12-01

    Brain research is the most expanding interdisciplinary research that is using the state of the art techniques to overcome limitations in order to conduct more accurate and effective experiments. Drug delivery to the target site in the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most difficult steps in neuroscience researches and therapies. Taking advantage of the nanoscale structure of neural cells (both neurons and glia); nanodrug delivery (second generation of biotechnological products) has a potential revolutionary impact into the basic understanding, visualization and therapeutic applications of neuroscience. Current review article firstly provides an overview of preparation and characterization, purification and separation, loading and delivering of nanodrugs. Different types of nanoparticle bioproducts and a number of methods for their fabrication and delivery systems including (carbon) nanotubes are explained. In the second part, neuroscience and nervous system drugs are deeply investigated. Different mechanisms in which nanoparticles enhance the uptake and clearance of molecules form cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are discussed. The focus is on nanodrugs that are being used or have potential to improve neural researches, diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23730260

  15. FIRST BH COCHRANE SYMPOSIUM HELD

    PubMed Central

    Mahmic-Kaknjo, Mersiha; Novo, Ahmed; Krleza-Jeric, Karmela

    2016-01-01

    The first BH Cochrane Symposium was held on 12 October 2015 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH), organized by the Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Healthcare in Federation of BH (AKAZ) and Medical Faculty University of Sarajevo. A group of ten national and international experts presented the Cochrane organization and systematic reviews, as well as the IMPACT Observatory, development of guidelines in BH, and the role of AKAZ. Examples of the development and use of Cochrane reviews in evidence informed decision making in health as well as research integrity were presented and discussed. Major BH decision makers and interested professionals from all over BH participated in a symposium and its lively discussion, especially from the perspective of Cochrane and its activities in BH, and the collaboration with the Croatian Cochrane. It can be expected that this symposium will inspire further growth of participation and use of Cochrane in BH and increase the awareness of various aspects of evidence informed medicine and research integrity. PMID:27047274

  16. Neuroscience Investigations: An Overview of Studies Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.

    1999-01-01

    The neural processes that mediate human spatial orientation and adaptive changes occurring in response to the sensory rearrangement encountered during orbital flight are primarily studied through second and third order responses. In the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) neuroscience investigations, the following were measured: (1) eye movements during acquisition of either static or moving visual targets, (2) postural and locomotor responses provoked by unexpected movement of the support surface, changes in the interaction of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular information, changes in the major postural muscles via descending pathways, or changes in locomotor pathways, and (3) verbal reports of perceived self-orientation and self-motion which enhance and complement conclusions drawn from the analysis of oculomotor, postural, and locomotor responses. In spaceflight operations, spatial orientation can be defined as situational awareness, where crew member perception of attitude, position, or motion of the spacecraft or other objects in three-dimensional space, including orientation of one's own body, is congruent with actual physical events. Perception of spatial orientation is determined by integrating information from several sensory modalities. This involves higher levels of processing within the central nervous system that control eye movements, locomotion, and stable posture. Spaceflight operational problems occur when responses to the incorrectly perceived spatial orientation are compensatory in nature. Neuroscience investigations were conducted in conjunction with U. S. Space Shuttle flights to evaluate possible changes in the ability of an astronaut to land the Shuttle or effectively perform an emergency post-landing egress following microgravity adaptation during space flights of variable length. While the results of various sensory motor and spatial orientation tests could have an impact on future space flights, our knowledge of

  17. The adhesion GPCR Gpr56 regulates oligodendrocyte development via interactions with Gα12/13 and RhoA

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Sarah D.; Garcia, Cynthia; Piao, Xianhua; Gutmann, David H.; Monk, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    In the vertebrate central nervous system, myelinating oligodendrocytes are postmitotic and derive from proliferative oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). The molecular mechanisms that govern oligodendrocyte development are incompletely understood, but recent studies implicate the adhesion class of G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) as important regulators of myelination. Here, we use zebrafish and mouse models to dissect the function of the aGPCR Gpr56 in oligodendrocyte development. We show that gpr56 is expressed during early stages of oligodendrocyte development. Additionally, we observe a significant reduction of mature oligodendrocyte number and of myelinated axons in gpr56 zebrafish mutants. This reduction results from decreased OPC proliferation, rather than increased cell death or altered neural precursor differentiation potential. Finally, we show that these functions are mediated by Gα12/13 proteins and Rho activation. Together, our data establish Gpr56 as a regulator of oligodendrocyte development. PMID:25607772

  18. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Structures of 12-, 13-, and 14-atom Bimetallic Ni/Al Clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexer, Eric F.; Parks, Eric K.; Riley, Stephen J.; Krissinel, Evgueni B.; Jellinek, Julius

    2002-03-01

    Results of a combined experimental/theoretical study of the structures of isolated 12-, 13-, and 14-atom mixed Ni/Al clusters are presented and discussed. All the possible compositions are considered for each cluster size. The experimental probes capitalize on the fact that N2 molecules adsorb on Ni but not on Al within the time and temperature regimes of the flow tube reactor cluster source. The theoretical predictions of the cluster structures are derived from a semi-empirical many-body potential. The measurements are consistent with icosahedral-based conformations obtained in computations. Moreover, the experimental measurements are in remarkable accord with the detailed theoretically determined distribution of the Ni and Al atoms within the clusters. --------------------- *Work supported by: U.S. Dept. of Energy, Division of Chemical Sciences, Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38

  19. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast Orange Beach quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Orange Beach topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of Wolf Bay, Perdido Bay, and Bayou St. John and adjacent areas in the vicinity of Orange Beach, Ala., and along the beaches exposed to the Gulf of Mexico, from Romar Beach, Ala., eastward to Perdido Key, in Florida. Damage from wind and tidal waves was widespread. The greatest damage occurred along Perdido Key in Alabama and Florida where many homes were destroyed and the highway was washed out in several places. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  20. Rheological properties in discotic liquid crystalline phases of 2,3,7,8,12,13-hexa(n-tetradecanoyloxy)truxene.

    PubMed

    Negita, Keishi; Kawano, Chiharu; Moriya, Keiichi

    2004-08-01

    Measurements of rheological properties, including the electrorheological effect, are made in liquid crystalline phases, discotic nematic (ND) and discotic disordered rectangular columnar (Drd) phases, of 2,3,7,8,12,13-hexa(n-tetradecanoyloxy)truxene. It is found that the fluidity of the ND phase is Newtonian and an application of high electric field perpendicular to the flow direction (velocity gradient direction) causes a decrease of the viscosity. These results indicate that a flow alignment of the director occurs with its orientation near the velocity gradient direction and the signs of the Leslie coefficients alpha2 and alpha3 are positive. From the temperature dependence of alpha2, instability of the flow alignment structure in ND and Drd phases is also discussed. PMID:15447504

  1. A new macrocyclic trichothecene, 12,13-deoxyroridin E, produced by the marine-derived fungus Myrothecium roridum collected in Palau.

    PubMed

    Namikoshi, M; Akano, K; Meguro, S; Kasuga, I; Mine, Y; Takahashi, T; Kobayashi, H

    2001-03-01

    A new macrocyclic trichothecene, 12,13-deoxyroridin E (1), and three known compounds, roridin E (2), verrucarin A (3), and verrucarin J (4), were obtained as cytotoxic components from the marine-derived fungus Myrothecium roridum, isolated in Palau. 12,13-Deoxyroridin E is the second example of a macrocyclic trichothecene possessing a double bond at C-12-C-13 and was about 80-fold less cytotoxic than roridin E, the epoxide variant. PMID:11277768

  2. 38 CFR 12.13 - Posting of notice of the provisions of Pub. L. No. 734, 75th Congress (38 U.S.C. 16-16j).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting of notice of the provisions of Pub. L. No. 734, 75th Congress (38 U.S.C. 16-16j). 12.13 Section 12.13 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS DISPOSITION OF VETERAN'S PERSONAL FUNDS AND EFFECTS Disposition of Veteran's Personal...

  3. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-induced, protein kinase C-mediated contraction of rabbit bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tanchun; Kendig, Derek M; Trappanese, Danielle M; Smolock, Elaine M; Moreland, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Contraction of bladder smooth muscle is predominantly initiated by M(3) muscarinic receptor-mediated activation of the G(q/11)-phospholipase C β-protein kinase C (PKC) and the G(12/13)-RhoGEF-Rho kinase (ROCK) pathways. However, these pathways and their downstream effectors are not well understood in bladder smooth muscle. We used phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), and 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG), activators of PKC, in this investigation. We were interested in dissecting the role(s) of PKC and to clarify the signaling pathways in bladder smooth muscle contraction, especially the potential cross-talk with ROCK and their downstream effectors in regulating myosin light chain phosphatase activity and force. To achieve this goal, the study was performed in the presence or absence of the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide-1 (Bis) or the ROCK inhibitor H-1152. Phosphorylation levels of Thr(38)-CPI-17 and Thr(696)/Thr(850) myosin phosphatase target subunit (MYPT1) were measured during PDBu or DOG stimulation using site specific antibodies. PDBu-induced contraction in bladder smooth muscle involved both activation of PKC and PKC-dependent activation of ROCK. CPI-17 as a major downstream effector, is phosphorylated by PKC and ROCK during PDBu and DOG stimulation. Our results suggest that Thr(696) and Thr(850)-MYPT1 phosphorylation are not involved in the regulation of a PDBu-induced contraction. The results also demonstrate that bladder smooth muscle contains a constitutively active isoform of ROCK that may play an important role in the regulation of bladder smooth muscle basal tone. Together with the results from our previous study, we developed a working model to describe the complex signaling pathways that regulate contraction of bladder smooth muscle. PMID:22232602

  4. Quantifying (12/13)CH(4) migration and fate following sub-surface release to an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Atkinson, B; Meredith, W; Snape, C; Steven, M; Hoch, A; Lever, D

    2014-07-01

    Following gas generation in a Geological Disposal Facility (GDF), (14)C-containing gases could migrate through the geosphere, eventually diffusing into soils at the Earth's surface. This paper reports summary results from laboratory and field experiments to obtain information on the probable rates of a) diffusive transport and b) oxidation of (12/13)CH(4) (as a surrogate for (14)CH4) in a typical agricultural soil in the UK. Rates of CH(4) oxidation were generally low in the field and undisturbed soil columns, though a re-packed column of homogenised topsoil oxidised ambient atmospheric CH(4) 20× faster than an undisturbed soil column. In contrast to low observed rates of CH(4) oxidation, the effective diffusion of CH(4) through the soil was rapid. Isotopically labelled CH(4) injected at a depth of 45 cm in the field diffused to the surface and exited the soil over a time period ranging from 8 to 24 h. The rate of CH(4) diffusion through the soil was increased by the presence of ryegrass roots which increased soil porosity and decreased water content. δ(13)C values for laboratory column soils after labelled CH(4) injection experiments showed no sign of residual (13)C, despite the extremely high δ(13)C values of the injected (12/13)CH(4). If laboratory observations are confirmed by measurements in field samples it can be concluded that the majority of (14)CH(4) from a GDF which enters a soil with low methanotrophic activity will be lost to the free atmosphere after diffusing rapidly through the soil column. PMID:23958331

  5. Recent advances in basic neurosciences and brain disease: from synapses to behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Guo-Qiang; Bolshakov, Vadim; Bu, Guojun; Cahill, Catherine M; Chen, Zhou-Feng; Collingridge, Graham L; Cooper, Robin L; Coorssen, Jens R; El-Husseini, Alaa; Galhardo, Vasco; Gan, Wen-Biao; Gu, Jianguo; Inoue, Kazuhide; Isaac, John; Iwata, Koichi; Jia, Zhengping; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Kawamata, Mikito; Kida, Satoshi; Klann, Eric; Kohno, Tatsuro; Li, Min; Li, Xiao-Jiang; MacDonald, John F; Nader, Karim; Nguyen, Peter V; Oh, Uhtaek; Ren, Ke; Roder, John C; Salter, Michael W; Song, Weihong; Sugita, Shuzo; Tang, Shao-Jun; Tao, Yuanxiang; Wang, Yu Tian; Woo, Newton; Woodin, Melanie A; Yan, Zhen; Yoshimura, Megumu; Xu, Ming; Xu, Zao C; Zhang, Xia; Zhen, Mei; Zhuo, Min

    2006-01-01

    Understanding basic neuronal mechanisms hold the hope for future treatment of brain disease. The 1st international conference on synapse, memory, drug addiction and pain was held in beautiful downtown Toronto, Canada on August 21–23, 2006. Unlike other traditional conferences, this new meeting focused on three major aims: (1) to promote new and cutting edge research in neuroscience; (2) to encourage international information exchange and scientific collaborations; and (3) to provide a platform for active scientists to discuss new findings. Up to 64 investigators presented their recent discoveries, from basic synaptic mechanisms to genes related to human brain disease. This meeting was in part sponsored by Molecular Pain, together with University of Toronto (Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology as well as Center for the Study of Pain). Our goal for this meeting is to promote future active scientific collaborations and improve human health through fundamental basic neuroscience researches. The second international meeting on Neurons and Brain Disease will be held in Toronto (August 29–31, 2007). PMID:17196111

  6. Textpresso for Neuroscience: Searching the Full Text of Thousands of Neuroscience Research Papers

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, Arun; Teal, Tracy K.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Textpresso is a text-mining system for scientific literature. Its two major features are access to the full text of research papers and the development and use of categories of biological concepts as well as categories that describe or relate objects. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these categories and/or keywords within an entire literature. Here we describe Textpresso for Neuroscience, part of the core Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). The Textpresso site currently consists of 67,500 full text papers and 131,300 abstracts. We show that using categories in literature can make a pure keyword query more refined and meaningful. We also show how semantic queries can be formulated with categories only. We explain the build and content of the database and describe the main features of the web pages and the advanced search options. We also give detailed illustrations of the web service developed to provide programmatic access to Textpresso. This web service is used by the NIF interface to access Textpresso. The standalone website of Textpresso for Neuroscience can be accessed at http://www.textpresso.org/neuroscience/. PMID:18949581

  7. Bayesian networks in neuroscience: a survey.

    PubMed

    Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks are a type of probabilistic graphical models lie at the intersection between statistics and machine learning. They have been shown to be powerful tools to encode dependence relationships among the variables of a domain under uncertainty. Thanks to their generality, Bayesian networks can accommodate continuous and discrete variables, as well as temporal processes. In this paper we review Bayesian networks and how they can be learned automatically from data by means of structure learning algorithms. Also, we examine how a user can take advantage of these networks for reasoning by exact or approximate inference algorithms that propagate the given evidence through the graphical structure. Despite their applicability in many fields, they have been little used in neuroscience, where they have focused on specific problems, like functional connectivity analysis from neuroimaging data. Here we survey key research in neuroscience where Bayesian networks have been used with different aims: discover associations between variables, perform probabilistic reasoning over the model, and classify new observations with and without supervision. The networks are learned from data of any kind-morphological, electrophysiological, -omics and neuroimaging-, thereby broadening the scope-molecular, cellular, structural, functional, cognitive and medical- of the brain aspects to be studied. PMID:25360109

  8. Bayesian networks in neuroscience: a survey

    PubMed Central

    Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks are a type of probabilistic graphical models lie at the intersection between statistics and machine learning. They have been shown to be powerful tools to encode dependence relationships among the variables of a domain under uncertainty. Thanks to their generality, Bayesian networks can accommodate continuous and discrete variables, as well as temporal processes. In this paper we review Bayesian networks and how they can be learned automatically from data by means of structure learning algorithms. Also, we examine how a user can take advantage of these networks for reasoning by exact or approximate inference algorithms that propagate the given evidence through the graphical structure. Despite their applicability in many fields, they have been little used in neuroscience, where they have focused on specific problems, like functional connectivity analysis from neuroimaging data. Here we survey key research in neuroscience where Bayesian networks have been used with different aims: discover associations between variables, perform probabilistic reasoning over the model, and classify new observations with and without supervision. The networks are learned from data of any kind–morphological, electrophysiological, -omics and neuroimaging–, thereby broadening the scope–molecular, cellular, structural, functional, cognitive and medical– of the brain aspects to be studied. PMID:25360109

  9. Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Andrews, Anne M.; Boyden, Edward S.; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Fraser, Scott E.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Looger, Loren L.; Masmanidis, Sotiris; McEuen, Paul L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Park, Hongkun; Peterka, Darcy S.; Reid, Clay; Roukes, Michael L.; Scherer, Axel; Schnitzer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Shepard, Kenneth L.; Tsao, Doris; Turrigiano, Gina; Weiss, Paul S.; Xu, Chris; Yuste, Rafael; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We attribute this disparity, in part, to limitations in current methodologies. Traditional neurophysiological approaches record the activities of one neuron or a few neurons at a time. Neurochemical approaches focus on single neurotransmitters. Yet, there is an increasing realization that neural circuits operate at emergent levels, where the interactions between hundreds or thousands of neurons, utilizing multiple chemical transmitters, generate functional states. Brains function at the nanoscale, so tools to study brains must ultimately operate at this scale, as well. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to provide a rich toolkit of novel methods to explore brain function by enabling simultaneous measurement and manipulation of activity of thousands or even millions of neurons. We and others refer to this goal as the Brain Activity Mapping Project. In this Nano Focus, we discuss how recent developments in nanoscale analysis tools and in the design and synthesis of nanomaterials have generated optical, electrical, and chemical methods that can readily be adapted for use in neuroscience. These approaches represent exciting areas of technical development and research. Moreover, unique opportunities exist for nanoscientists, nanotechnologists, and other physical scientists and engineers to contribute to tackling the challenging problems involved in understanding the fundamentals of brain function. PMID:23514423

  10. History and neuroscience: an integrative legacy.

    PubMed

    Casper, Stephen T

    2014-03-01

    The attitudes that characterize the contemporary "neuro-turn" were strikingly commonplace as part of the self-fashioning of social identity in the biographies and personal papers of past neurologists and neuroscientists. Indeed, one fundamental connection between nineteenth- and twentieth-century neurology and contemporary neuroscience appears to be the value that workers in both domains attach to the idea of integration, a vision of neural science and medicine that connected reductionist science to broader inquiries about the mind, brain, and human nature and in so doing supposedly resolved once and for all questions germane to the human sciences, humanities, and arts. How those attitudes were produced and reproduced first in neurology and then in neuroscience; in what way they were constructed and disciplined, thereby eventuating in the contested sciences and medicines of the mind, brain, and nervous system; and even how they garnered ever-wider contemporary purchase in cultures and societies are thus fascinating problems for historians of science and medicine. Such problems shed light on ethics, practices, controversies, and the uneasy social relations within those scientific and medical domains. But more to the point of this essay: they also account for the apparent epistemological weight now accorded "the neuro" in our contemporary moment. They thus illuminate in a rather different way why historians have suddenly discovered the value of "the neuro". PMID:24855875

  11. New small quantum dots for neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvin, Paul

    2014-03-01

    In "New Small Quantum Dots for Neuroscience," Paul Selvin (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) notes how the details of synapsis activity in the brain involves chemical receptors that facilitate the creation of the electrical connection between two nerves. In order to understand the details of this neuroscience phenomenon you need to be able to "see" what is happening at the scale of these receptors, which is around 10 nanometers. This is smaller than the diffraction limit of normal microscopy and it takes place on a 3 dimensional structure. Selvin describes the development of small quantum dots (on the order of 6-9 microns) that are surface-sensitized to interact with the receptors. This allows the application of photo-activated localized microscopy (PALM), a superresolution microscopy that can be scanned through focus to develop a 3D map on a scale that is the same size as the emitter, which in this case are the small quantum dots. The quantum dots are stable in time and provide access to the receptors which allows the imaging of the interactions taking place at the synoptic level.

  12. "Scientific roots" of dualism in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2006-07-01

    Although the dualistic concept is unpopular among neuroscientists involved in experimental studies of the brain, neurophysiological literature is full of covert dualistic statements on the possibility of understanding neural mechanisms of human consciousness. Particularly, the covert dualistic attitude is exhibited in the unwillingness to discuss neural mechanisms of consciousness, leaving the problem of consciousness to psychologists and philosophers. This covert dualism seems to be rooted in the main paradigm of neuroscience that suggests that cognitive functions, such as language production and comprehension, face recognition, declarative memory, emotions, etc., are performed by neural networks consisting of simple elements. I argue that neural networks of any complexity consisting of neurons whose function is limited to the generation of electrical potentials and the transmission of signals to other neurons are hardly capable of producing human mental activity, including consciousness. Based on results obtained in physiological, morphological, clinical, and genetic studies of cognitive functions (mainly linguistic ones), I advocate the hypothesis that the performance of cognitive functions is based on complex cooperative activity of "complex" neurons that are carriers of "elementary cognition." The uniqueness of human cognitive functions, which has a genetic basis, is determined by the specificity of genes expressed by these "complex" neurons. The main goal of the review is to show that the identification of the genes implicated in cognitive functions and the understanding of a functional role of their products is a possible way to overcome covert dualism in neuroscience. PMID:16935408

  13. Society for Neuroscience - 39th Annual Meeting. Part 1 - Novel therapies for the treatment of CNS disorders and pain.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamahi, Asma; Kirkham, Konrad; Hookes, Livia

    2009-12-01

    The 39th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (SFN), held in Chicago, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of neuroscience. This conference report highlights selected presentations on nicotinic ACh receptor alpha7 agonists, cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists, transient receptor potential channel antagonists, spinal mechanotransmission modulation, a COX-1 inhibitor, a NaV/CaV blocker, an opioid modulator and a novel triple reuptake inhibitor with potential antidepressant, anxiolytic and analgesic activity. Investigational drugs discussed include JN-711 (Novartis AG), NESS-070C5 and NESS-080C5 (both being developed by CeNeRx BioPharma Inc), RQ-00203078 (RaQualia Pharma Inc), HC-030031 (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc/Hydra Biosciences Inc), A-967079 (Abbott Laboratories), TRL-382 (Toray Industries Inc), NP-A (Neuromed Pharmaceuticals Inc) and RDC-5768 (Alkermes Inc). PMID:19943210

  14. Visualizing Neuroscience: Learning about the Brain through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudler, Eric H.; Konrady, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Neuroscience is a subject that can motivate, excite, and stimulate the curiosity of everyone However, the study of the brain is made difficult by an abundance of new vocabulary words and abstract concepts. Although neuroscience has the potential to inspire students, many teachers find it difficult to include a study of the brain in their…

  15. No Brain Left Behind: Consequences of Neuroscience Discourse for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busso, Daniel S.; Pollack, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Educational neuroscience represents a concerted interdisciplinary effort to bring the fields of cognitive science, neuroscience and education to bear on classroom practice. This article draws attention to the current and potential implications of importing biological ideas, language and imagery into education. By analysing examples of brain-based…

  16. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  17. Explaining the Alluring Influence of Neuroscience Information on Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Rebecca E.; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking…

  18. Towards an Understanding of Neuroscience for Science Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience have brought new insights to the development of cognitive functions. These data are of considerable interest to educators concerned with how students learn. This review documents some of the recent findings in neuroscience, which is richer in describing cognitive functions than affective aspects of learning. A brief…

  19. Principles of Learning, Implications for Teaching: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience aims to improve our understanding of aspects of human learning and performance by combining data acquired with the new brain imaging technologies with data acquired in cognitive psychology paradigms. Both neuroscience and psychology use the philosophical assumptions underpinning the natural sciences, namely the scientific…

  20. Brain Matters: A Journey with Neuroscience and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscience continues to enjoy a renaissance of study and a range of responses, both in explorations of religious experience and in educational practice. Neuroscience, as an interdisciplinary field, attained a new ascendancy at the end of the 20th century, known as the decade of the brain. New insights continue to influence education and public…

  1. Can Cognitive Neuroscience Ground a Science of Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I review recent findings in cognitive neuroscience in learning, particularly in the learning of mathematics and of reading. I argue that while cognitive neuroscience is in its infancy as a field, theories of learning will need to incorporate and account for this growing body of empirical data.

  2. Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training

    PubMed Central

    Onarheim, Balder; Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching “applied creativity” and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied NeuroCreativity (ANC) program, taught at business schools in Denmark and Canada. In line with previous studies of successful creativity training programs the ANC participants are first introduced to cognitive concepts of creativity, before applying these concepts to a relevant real world creative problem. The novelty in the ANC program is that the conceptualization of creativity is built on neuroscience, and a crucial aspect of the course is giving the students a thorough understanding of the neuroscience of creativity. Previous studies have reported that the conceptualization of creativity used in such training is of major importance for the success of the training, and we believe that the neuroscience of creativity offers a novel conceptualization for creativity training. Here we present pre/post-training tests showing that ANC students gained more fluency in divergent thinking (a traditional measure of trait creativity) than those in highly similar courses without the neuroscience component, suggesting that principles from neuroscience can contribute effectively to creativity training and produce measurable results on creativity tests. The evidence presented indicates that the inclusion of neuroscience principles in a creativity course can in 8 weeks increase divergent thinking skills with an individual relative average of 28.5%. PMID:24137120

  3. A Model for Bridging the Gap between Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    As the brain sciences make advances in our understanding of how the human brain functions, many educators are looking to findings from the neurosciences to inform classroom teaching methodologies. This paper takes the view that the neurosciences are an excellent source of knowledge regarding learning processes, but also provides a warning…

  4. Neuroscience and the Soul: Competing Explanations for the Human Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S.; Hepler, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The development of fMRI techniques has generated a boom of neuroscience research across the psychological sciences, and revealed neural correlates for many psychological phenomena seen as central to the human experience (e.g., morality, agency). Meanwhile, the rise of neuroscience has reignited old debates over mind-body dualism and the soul.…

  5. Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, Balder; Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching "applied creativity" and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied NeuroCreativity (ANC) program, taught at business schools in Denmark and Canada. In line with previous studies of successful creativity training programs the ANC participants are first introduced to cognitive concepts of creativity, before applying these concepts to a relevant real world creative problem. The novelty in the ANC program is that the conceptualization of creativity is built on neuroscience, and a crucial aspect of the course is giving the students a thorough understanding of the neuroscience of creativity. Previous studies have reported that the conceptualization of creativity used in such training is of major importance for the success of the training, and we believe that the neuroscience of creativity offers a novel conceptualization for creativity training. Here we present pre/post-training tests showing that ANC students gained more fluency in divergent thinking (a traditional measure of trait creativity) than those in highly similar courses without the neuroscience component, suggesting that principles from neuroscience can contribute effectively to creativity training and produce measurable results on creativity tests. The evidence presented indicates that the inclusion of neuroscience principles in a creativity course can in 8 weeks increase divergent thinking skills with an individual relative average of 28.5%. PMID:24137120

  6. Choosing a Hand-Held Inventory Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lois; Hughes, Janet; Neff, Verne; Notartomas, Trish

    2008-01-01

    In spring of 2006, a task force was charged to look at the feasibility of acquiring hand-held inventory devices for the Pennsylvania State University Libraries (PSUL). The task force's charge was not to look at the whole concept of doing an inventory, but rather to focus on the feasibility of acquiring hand-held devices to use in an inventory.…

  7. Progression in Careers Education. Report on a NICEC/CRAC Invitational Policy Consultation Held on 12-13 March 1998 at the Belmont Hotel, Leicester. CRAC NICEC Conference Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tony

    Twenty-seven representatives from the United Kingdom's Department for Education and Employment (DfEE), higher education (HE), careers services, careers service companies, schools, further education colleges, local education authorities, and relevant national organizations met to discuss ways of forming and enhancing partnerships between guidance…

  8. Vocational Education Improvement Act Amendments of 1967; Hearings before the General Subcommittee on Education...on H.R. 8525 and Related Bills...Held in Washington, D.C., April 12, 13, 17, 1967. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Testimony relative to the Vocational Education Improvement Act Amendments of 1967 as given in three Committee sessions is presented in the form of verbatim oral questions and answers, prepared statements, letters, and supplemental materials. Major prepared statements were by (1) Harold Howe II, (2) Grant Venn, (3) The Division of Adult and…

  9. Ultrahigh field NMR and MRI: Science at a crossroads. Report on a jointly-funded NSF, NIH and DOE workshop, held on November 12-13, 2015 in Bethesda, Maryland, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polenova, Tatyana; Budinger, Thomas F.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance plays a central role in academic, industrial and medical research. NMR is widely used for characterizing the structure, chemistry and dynamic properties of new materials, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, in both the liquid and solid phases. NMR also provides detailed functional information on biological macromolecules and their assemblies, in vitro, in membranes and even in whole cells. In vivo, MRI/S are used for clinical diagnosis and prognosis of disease, for non-invasive studies of human physiology and metabolism in general, and for evaluating brain function, in particular. MRI/S is also a key technology for imaging small organisms at the cellular level, monitoring catalysis in chemical reactors and other scientific areas where non-destructive characterizations of structure and dynamics in complex systems are needed. At the heart of all the MR methods are strong, stable and homogeneous magnets built from low-temperature superconductors (LTS), which are essential to these experiments. Further developments in NMR/MRI are hampered because the ultimate limit of the attainable field strengths of persistent LTS magnets has now been reached. Fortunately, recent breakthroughs in new high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and hybrid LTS/HTS magnet technologies promise to greatly increase the achievable field strength of NMR magnets and to decrease the operational complexity of high field human MRI infrastructures, thereby enabling new applications at the forefront of modern multidisciplinary research.

  10. A Comparison Between Phorbol 12 Myristate 13 Acetate and Phorbol 12, 13 Dibutyrate in Human Melanocyte Culture

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Melanocyte culture is an integral part of the studies of skin biology and cosmetic applications. After the introduction of selective medium for the culture of human melanocyte using Phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate (PMA) in 1982, a lot of methods of culturing were tried but till date PMA is a preferred mitogen because of its cost effectiveness compared to growth factors. We have tried to preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of another phorbol ester, Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu) in melanocyte culture because of its less hydrophobic nature compared to PMA. This property minimizes the trace amount of mitogen in cell culture after washing off and hence does not interfere in other biological assays. Aim To evaluate the differences in the melanocyte survival rate, morphology and mitotic index when grown in media supplemented with PMA and PDBu. Materials and Methods Foreskins were collected from children undergoing circumcision. Epidermal cells were isolated from foreskin and cultured using PMA and PDBu. Melanocytes in culture were monitored for the better establishment and documented. In proliferative assay, melanocytes were treated with PMA and PDBu for 24, 48 and 72 hours and proliferation was measured using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method. Results When cultured, melanocytes acquired proliferative status and bipolar morphology quicker in PDBu medium than in PMA medium. Keratinocytes survived as contamination in PMA medium whereas PDBu medium had minimal keratinocytes. MTT assay showed that PDBu has higher proliferative induction capacity than PMA. In even lower concentration of PDBu in medium, melanocytes survived till 72 hours without significant cell loss in compared to PMA medium. Conclusion PDBu can be a valuable replacement for PMA in human melanocyte culture. Higher proliferation induction, unfavourable to keratinocyte survival and less hydrophobicity make PDBu a promising alternative for quicker

  11. Kinetics and subcellular localization of specific [3H]phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate binding by mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, W G; Kochenburger, R J; Castagna, M; Blumberg, P M

    1981-07-01

    The specific binding of [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ([3H]-PDBU) to particulate preparations from mouse brain has been further characterized. Kinetic analysis, using a filtration assay to measure binding, yielded a second-order rate constant at 23 degrees of 3.75 X 10(7) M-1 min-1 and a first-order dissociation rate constant of 0.21 min-1. The Kd of 5.6 nM calculated from the kinetic data agreed well with the value determined previously in equilibrium binding studies. The Kd for [3H]PDBU binding varied only slightly with temperature. From its temperature dependence, [3H]PDBU binding appeared to be associated with a small increase in enthalpy (delta H degrees = +0.4 kcal/mol) and a large increase in entropy (delta S degrees = +38 e.u.). Such values are characteristic for hydrophobic interactions. The dissociation rate constant for binding, in contrast to the Kd, varied dramatically with temperature. The half-time for release ranged from 1.75 min at 30 degrees to 62 min at 4 degrees. The Kd for binding was Ca2+ sensitive; chelation of Ca2+ by ethyleneglycolbis(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetraacetic acid increased the Kd 2.4-fold. Upon subcellular fractionation, the specific [3H]PDBU binding activity was exclusively particulate; no binding to cytosol was detectable. Binding clearly did not correlate with nuclear or mitochondrial markers. On the other hand, a broader distribution of binding activity was seen on sucrose density gradients than for either Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase activity or binding of quinuclidinyl benzilate (a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist). The localization of specific [3H]PDBU binding to the plasma membrane therefore remains uncertain. PMID:6941848

  12. Proteomics for Protein Expression Profiling in Neuroscience*

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Willard M.; Hemby, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    As the technology of proteomics moves from a theoretical approach to a practical reality, neuroscientists will have to determine the most appropriate applications for this technology. Neuroscientists will have to surmount difficulties particular to their research, such as limited sample amounts, heterogeneous cellular compositions in samples, and the fact that many proteins of interest are rare, hydrophobic proteins. This review examines protein isolation and protein fractionation and separation using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry proteomic methods. Methods for quantifying relative protein expression between samples (e.g., 2-DIGE, and ICAT) are also described. The coverage of the proteome, ability to detect membrane proteins, resource requirements, and quantitative reliability of different approaches is also discussed. Although there are many challenges in proteomic neuroscience, this field promises many rewards in the future. PMID:15176464

  13. The cognitive neuroscience of crossmodal correspondences

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Charles; Parise, Cesare V.

    2012-01-01

    In a recent article, N. Bien, S. ten Oever, R. Goebel, and A. T. Sack (2012) used event-related potentials to investigate the consequences of crossmodal correspondences (the “natural” mapping of features, or dimensions, of experience across sensory modalities) on the time course of neural information processing. Then, by selectively lesioning the right intraparietal cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation, these researchers went on to demonstrate (for the first time) that it is possible to temporarily eliminate the effect of crossmodal congruency on multisensory integration (specifically on the spatial ventriloquism effect). These results are especially exciting given the possibility that the cognitive neuroscience methodology utilized by Bien et al. (2012) holds for dissociating between putatively different kinds of crossmodal correspondence in future research. PMID:23145291

  14. The cognitive neuroscience of working memory.

    PubMed

    D'Esposito, Mark; Postle, Bradley R

    2015-01-01

    For more than 50 years, psychologists and neuroscientists have recognized the importance of a working memory to coordinate processing when multiple goals are active and to guide behavior with information that is not present in the immediate environment. In recent years, psychological theory and cognitive neuroscience data have converged on the idea that information is encoded into working memory by allocating attention to internal representations, whether semantic long-term memory (e.g., letters, digits, words), sensory, or motoric. Thus, information-based multivariate analyses of human functional MRI data typically find evidence for the temporary representation of stimuli in regions that also process this information in nonworking memory contexts. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), on the other hand, exerts control over behavior by biasing the salience of mnemonic representations and adjudicating among competing, context-dependent rules. The "control of the controller" emerges from a complex interplay between PFC and striatal circuits and ascending dopaminergic neuromodulatory signals. PMID:25251486

  15. Neuroscience of Self and Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Heatherton, Todd F.

    2011-01-01

    As a social species, humans have a fundamental need to belong that encourages behaviors consistent with being a good group member. Being a good group member requires the capacity for self-regulation, which allows people to alter or inhibit behaviors that would place them at risk for group exclusion. Self-regulation requires four psychological components. First, people need to be aware of their behavior so as to gauge it against societal norms. Second, people need to understand how others are reacting to their behavior so as to predict how others will respond to them. This necessitates a third mechanism, which detects threat, especially in complex social situations. Finally, there needs to be a mechanism for resolving discrepancies between self-knowledge and social expectations or norms, thereby motivating behavior to resolve any conflict that exists. This article reviews recent social neuroscience research on the psychological components that support the human capacity for self-regulation. PMID:21126181

  16. Neuroscience Training for the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Akil, Huda; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Cardozo, David Lopes; Koroshetz, Walter; Posey Norris, Sheena M; Sherer, Todd; Sherman, S Murray; Thiels, Edda

    2016-06-01

    The field of neuroscience is enjoying a rapid expansion in scope, coupled with a remarkable broadening of conceptual approaches, scientific tools, and clinical applications. This growth poses new challenges for academic training programs as they prepare young neuroscientists for a more complex, competitive, and diverse career landscape. Multiple stakeholders, including academia, federal funding agencies, industry, scientific societies, private foundations, and other public and private sector contributors, need to be actively engaged in supporting this broad training effort. A renewed commitment to a more forward-looking, flexible yet integrative training vision offers opportunities for a bright future for young neuroscientists as they assume the role of vanguard of the enterprise that enriches our understanding of the brain. PMID:27253446

  17. Cognitive-affective neuroscience of depersonalization.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Simeon, Daphne

    2009-09-01

    Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is characterized by a subjective sense of detachment from one's own being and a sense of unreality. An examination of the psychobiology of depersonalization symptoms may be useful in understanding the cognitive-affective neuroscience of embodiment. DPD may be mediated by neurocircuitry and neurotransmitters involved in the integration of sensory processing and of the body schema, and in the mediation of emotional experience and the identification of feelings. For example, DPD has been found to involve autonomic blunting, deactivation of sub-cortical structures, and disturbances in molecular systems in such circuitry. An evolutionary perspective suggests that attenuation of emotional responses, mediated by deactivation of limbic structures, may sometimes be advantageous in response to inescapable stress. PMID:19890227

  18. Trends in Programming Languages for Neuroscience Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Andrew P.; Hines, Michael L.; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing. PMID:20198154

  19. Integrative neuroscience approach to neuropsychiatric lupus

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Elizabeth L.; Rey, Carson; Huerta, Tomás S.; Huerta, Patricio T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a succinct review of our approach to study the interactions between the DNA-reactive antibodies that cross-react with the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, denoted DNRABs, and their brain targets in subjects with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). We have analyzed the DNRAB-based brain symptomatology in mouse models of NPSLE by using an integrative neuroscience approach, which includes behavioral assessment coupled with electrophysiological studies of neural networks and synaptic connections in target brain regions, such as the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Our results suggest a framework for understanding the interactions between immune factors and neural networks. PMID:26467973

  20. Mechanisms, determination and the metaphysics of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Soom, Patrice

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, I evaluate recently defended mechanistic accounts of the unity of neuroscience from a metaphysical point of view. Considering the mechanistic framework in general (Sections 2 and 3), I argue that explanations of this kind are essentially reductive (Section 4). The reductive character of mechanistic explanations provides a sufficiency criterion, according to which the mechanism underlying a certain phenomenon is sufficient for the latter. Thus, the concept of supervenience can be used in order to describe the relation between mechanisms and phenomena (Section 5). Against this background, I show that the mechanistic framework is subject to the causal exclusion problem and faces the classical metaphysical options when it comes to the relations obtaining between different levels of mechanisms (Section 6). Finally, an attempt to improve the metaphysics of mechanisms is made (Section 7) and further difficulties are pointed out (Section 8). PMID:22771724

  1. Aphasia therapy on a neuroscience basis

    PubMed Central

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Berthier, Marcelo L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Brain research has documented that the cortical mechanisms for language and action are tightly interwoven and, concurrently, new approaches to language therapy in neurological patients are being developed that implement language training in the context of relevant linguistic and non-linguistic actions, therefore taking advantage of the mutual connections of language and action systems in the brain. A further well-known neuroscience principle is that learning at the neuronal level is driven by correlation; consequently, new approaches to language therapy emphasise massed practice in a short time, thus maximising therapy quantity and frequency and, therefore, correlation at the behavioural and neuronal levels. Learned non-use of unsuccessful actions plays a major role in the chronification of neurological deficits, and behavioural approaches to therapy have therefore employed shaping and other learning techniques to counteract such non-use. Aims Advances in theoretical and experimental neuroscience have important implications for clinical practice. We exemplify this in the domain of aphasia rehabilitation. Main Contribution Whereas classical wisdom had been that aphasia cannot be significantly improved at a chronic stage, we here review evidence that one type of intensive language-action therapy (ILAT)—constraint-induced aphasia therapy—led to significant improvement of language performance in patients with chronic aphasia. We discuss perspectives for further improving speech-language therapy, including drug treatment that may be particularly fruitful when applied in conjunction with behavioural treatment. In a final section we highlight intensive and rapid therapy studies in chronic aphasia as a unique tool for exploring the cortical reorganisation of language. Conclusions We conclude that intensive language action therapy is an efficient tool for improving language functions even at chronic stages of aphasia. Therapy studies using this technique can

  2. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience. PMID:27107796

  3. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  4. Intentional Excellence in the Baldwin Wallace University Neuroscience Program

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jacqueline K.; Peppers, Kieth; Mickley, G. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Society for Neuroscience recognized Baldwin Wallace University’s (BWU) undergraduate Neuroscience program as their Program of the Year for 2012. This award acknowledged the “accomplishments of a neuroscience department or program for excellence in educating neuroscientists and providing innovative models to which other programs can aspire.” The Neuroscience program grew out of students interested in studying the biological basis of behavior. BWU’s neuroscience major is research-intensive, and all students are required to produce an empirically-based senior thesis. This requirement challenges program resources, and the demand for faculty attention is high. Thus, we developed an intentional 3-step peer mentoring system that encourages our students to collaborate with and learn from, not only faculty, but each other. Peer mentoring occurs in the curriculum, faculty research labs, and as students complete their senior theses. As the program has grown with over 80 current majors, we have developed a new Neuroscience Methods course to train students on the safety, ethics, and practice of research in the neuroscience laboratory space. Students in this course leave with the skills and knowledge to assist senior level students with their theses and to begin the process of developing their own projects in the laboratory. Further, our students indicate that their “peer mentorship was excellent,” “helped them gain confidence,” and “allowed them to be more successful in their research.” PMID:26240522

  5. Intentional Excellence in the Baldwin Wallace University Neuroscience Program.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jacqueline K; Peppers, Kieth; Mickley, G Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Society for Neuroscience recognized Baldwin Wallace University's (BWU) undergraduate Neuroscience program as their Program of the Year for 2012. This award acknowledged the "accomplishments of a neuroscience department or program for excellence in educating neuroscientists and providing innovative models to which other programs can aspire." The Neuroscience program grew out of students interested in studying the biological basis of behavior. BWU's neuroscience major is research-intensive, and all students are required to produce an empirically-based senior thesis. This requirement challenges program resources, and the demand for faculty attention is high. Thus, we developed an intentional 3-step peer mentoring system that encourages our students to collaborate with and learn from, not only faculty, but each other. Peer mentoring occurs in the curriculum, faculty research labs, and as students complete their senior theses. As the program has grown with over 80 current majors, we have developed a new Neuroscience Methods course to train students on the safety, ethics, and practice of research in the neuroscience laboratory space. Students in this course leave with the skills and knowledge to assist senior level students with their theses and to begin the process of developing their own projects in the laboratory. Further, our students indicate that their "peer mentorship was excellent," "helped them gain confidence," and "allowed them to be more successful in their research." PMID:26240522

  6. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex vocabularies: building comprehensive ontologies for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bug, William J; Ascoli, Giorgio A; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R; Larson, Stephen D; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-09-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF. PMID:18975148

  7. For the law, neuroscience changes nothing and everything.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Joshua; Cohen, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly growing field of cognitive neuroscience holds the promise of explaining the operations of the mind in terms of the physical operations of the brain. Some suggest that our emerging understanding of the physical causes of human (mis)behaviour will have a transformative effect on the law. Others argue that new neuroscience will provide only new details and that existing legal doctrine can accommodate whatever new information neuroscience will provide. We argue that neuroscience will probably have a transformative effect on the law, despite the fact that existing legal doctrine can, in principle, accommodate whatever neuroscience will tell us. New neuroscience will change the law, not by undermining its current assumptions, but by transforming people's moral intuitions about free will and responsibility. This change in moral outlook will result not from the discovery of crucial new facts or clever new arguments, but from a new appreciation of old arguments, bolstered by vivid new illustrations provided by cognitive neuroscience. We foresee, and recommend, a shift away from punishment aimed at retribution in favour of a more progressive, consequentialist approach to the criminal law. PMID:15590618

  8. For the law, neuroscience changes nothing and everything.

    PubMed

    Greene, Joshua; Cohen, Jonathan

    2004-11-29

    The rapidly growing field of cognitive neuroscience holds the promise of explaining the operations of the mind in terms of the physical operations of the brain. Some suggest that our emerging understanding of the physical causes of human (mis)behaviour will have a transformative effect on the law. Others argue that new neuroscience will provide only new details and that existing legal doctrine can accommodate whatever new information neuroscience will provide. We argue that neuroscience will probably have a transformative effect on the law, despite the fact that existing legal doctrine can, in principle, accommodate whatever neuroscience will tell us. New neuroscience will change the law, not by undermining its current assumptions, but by transforming people's moral intuitions about free will and responsibility. This change in moral outlook will result not from the discovery of crucial new facts or clever new arguments, but from a new appreciation of old arguments, bolstered by vivid new illustrations provided by cognitive neuroscience. We foresee, and recommend, a shift away from punishment aimed at retribution in favour of a more progressive, consequentialist approach to the criminal law. PMID:15590618

  9. NeuroTalk: Improving the Communication of Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Mary Anne; McCormick, Jennifer B.; Racine, Eric; Blakeslee, Sandra; Caplan, Arthur; Hayden, Erika Check; Ingram, Jay; Lohwater, Tiffany; McKnight, Peter; Nicholson, Christie; Phillips, Anthony; Sauvé, Kevin D.; Snell, Elaine; Weiss, Sam

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing pressure for neuroscientists to communicate their research and the societal implications of their findings to the public. Communicating science is challenging and the transformation of communication by digital and interactive media makes the challenge even greater. To successfully facilitate dialogue with the public in this new media landscape we suggest three courses of action for the neuroscience community: a cultural shift that explicitly recognizes and rewards public outreach, the identification and development of neuroscience communication experts, and ongoing empirical research on public communication of neuroscience. PMID:19953102

  10. Spheres of Influence: What Shapes Young People's Aspirations at Age 12/13 and What Are the Implications for Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Wong, Billy

    2014-01-01

    Young people's aspirations remain an enduring focus of education policy interest and concern. Drawing on data from an ongoing five-year study of young people's science and career aspirations (age 10-14), this paper asks what do young people aspire to at age 12/13, and what influences these aspirations? It outlines the main aspirations…

  11. Evidence of Secular Changes in Physical Activity and Fitness, but Not Adiposity and Diet, in Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non E.; Williams, D. R. R.; Rowe, David A.; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate secular trends in selected cardiovascular disease risk factors (namely adiposity, physical activity, physical fitness and diet) in a sample of Welsh 12-13 year olds between 2002 and 2007. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A secondary school based in South West Wales. Method: Two studies in…

  12. Temporal patterns of gene expression during calyx of held development.

    PubMed

    Kolson, Douglas R; Wan, Jun; Wu, Jonathan; Dehoff, Marlin; Brandebura, Ashley N; Qian, Jiang; Mathers, Peter H; Spirou, George A

    2016-02-01

    Relating changes in gene expression to discrete developmental events remains an elusive challenge in neuroscience, in part because most neural territories are comprised of multiple cell types that mature over extended periods of time. The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) is an attractive vertebrate model system that contains a nearly homogeneous population of neurons, which are innervated by large glutamatergic nerve terminals called calyces of Held (CH). Key steps in maturation of CHs and MNTB neurons, including CH growth and competition, occur very quickly for most cells between postnatal days (P)2 and P6. Therefore, we characterized genome-wide changes in this system, with dense temporal sampling during the first postnatal week. We identified 541 genes whose expression changed significantly between P0-6 and clustered them into eight groups based on temporal expression profiles. Candidate genes from each of the eight profile groups were validated in separate samples by qPCR. Our tissue sample permitted comparison of known glial and neuronal transcripts and revealed that monotonically increasing or decreasing expression profiles tended to be associated with glia and neurons, respectively. Gene ontology revealed enrichment of genes involved in axon pathfinding, cell differentiation, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix. The latter category included elements of perineuronal nets, a prominent feature of MNTB neurons that is morphologically distinct by P6, when CH growth and competition are resolved onto nearly all MNTB neurons. These results provide a genetic framework for investigation of general mechanisms responsible for nerve terminal growth and maturation. PMID:26014473

  13. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD. PMID:25745371

  14. A retrospective view on research in neuroscience in Norway.

    PubMed

    Gjerstad, L; Gilhus, N E; Storstein, A

    2008-01-01

    This brief historical review on neuroscience in Norway shows a comparatively high research activity with many important results. The Norwegian zoologist Fridtjof Nansen, who later became a famous Arctic explorer, was the first to formulate the neuron doctrine. 'The Oslo School of Neuroanatomy' contributed enormously to the understanding of the detailed anatomy and chemistry of the central nervous system. Norwegian neurophysiologists made important findings from studies of hippocampus including the inhibitory basket cell, the LTP phenomenon and the 'hippocampal-slice-technique'. In clinical neuroscience the description of Refsum's disease and studies of myasthenia gravis and multiple sclerosis have been of particular importance. Two of 13 centres of excellence in Norway selected in 2003 were from neuroscience, and The Norwegian Research Council has its own programme for neuroscience. The Norwegian Neurological Association arranges annual meetings to promote interest in neurological research. PMID:18439214

  15. The relations between neuroscience and human behavioral science.

    PubMed Central

    Strumwasser, F

    1994-01-01

    Neuroscience seeks to understand how the human brain, perhaps the most complex electrochemical machine in the universe, works, in terms of molecules, membranes, cells and cell assemblies, development, plasticity, learning, memory, cognition, and behavior. The human behavioral sciences, in particular psychiatry and clinical psychology, deal with disorders of human behavior and mentation. The gap between neuroscience and the human behavioral sciences is still large. However, some major advances in neuroscience over the last two decades have diminished the span. This article reviews the major advances of neuroscience in six areas with relevance to the behavioral sciences: (a) evolution of the nervous system; (b) visualizing activity in the human brain; (c) plasticity of the cerebral cortex; (d) receptors, ion channels, and second/third messengers; (e) molecular genetic approaches; and (f) understanding integrative systems with networks and circadian clocks as examples. PMID:7513347

  16. [Felice Fontana precursor of neurosciences (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Disertori, B; Piazza, M

    1981-01-01

    The A.A. insert the life and work of the naturalist and chemist Felice Fontana, born in Pomarolo (Trentino), in the frame of 18th century sciences, beside other great names of that century like Carolus Linnaeus, Réaumur, von Haller, Spallanzani, Morgagni, Priestley and Lavoisier. In the field of general biology, the discovery of nucleus and nucleolus and consequently the discovery of the eukaryotic cell, as we say in our days, in his, as well as the one of anabiosis. The A.A. enucleate and analyse the contributions of Fontana to the neurosciences; he has discovered the axon and the myelinic sheath half century before Remak and Purknije; he found out that the white matter of the brain is made of fibres alike those of nerves and the grey matter is made of globules (i.e. cells) mixed up with fibres; he discovered in the retina a part of coming out from the brain; he described the transversal bands of fibres of the skeletal muscles; he was the first to introduce into physiology the law of "all and nothing"; he attributed the irritability to the whole animal life; he identified the pupillar reflexes to the light, the reflex of accommodation, the consensual reflex, the psycho-emotive mydriasis and at last the myosis of sleep. He made experimental searches about nerves and recognised their regeneration, he enumerated various pathological intracranial masses, he made an important anatomopathological research about hydatid cyst in the brain of the sheep affected by "capostorno" and madness, he demonstrated their parasitical nature (he said that the hydated cysts were covered inside by small animals), he come out to formulate the hypothesis that some neuropsychiatric diseases of man can depend from similar aetiology. He declared that passions may have pathological effects (psyco-somatic aetiology), but he has also drawned the attention against the danager of aprioristical generalisation of neurogenical causes in all diseases. The A.A. give to Fontana the palm of precursor

  17. What we can learn from second animal neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2013-01-01

    There are several facets of second person neuroscience that can benefit from comparisons with animal behavioral neuroscience studies. This commentary will address the challenges involved in obtaining quantitative data from second person techniques, the role of stress in inducing robust responses, the use of interactive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and the value of applying interactive methods to studies of aggression and depression. PMID:23883762

  18. Gaining translational momentum: more zebrafish models for neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J; Stewart, Adam Michael

    2014-12-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular model organism in translational neuroscience and biological psychiatry research. Here we discuss conceptual, practical and other related aspects of using zebrafish in this field ("from tank to bedside"), and critically evaluate both advantages and limitations of zebrafish models of human brain disorders. We emphasize the need to more actively develop zebrafish models for neuroscience research focusing on complex traits. PMID:24593944

  19. K-12 Neuroscience Education Outreach Program: Interactive Activities for Educating Students about Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Alex L.; Erickson, Kristen J.; Bilsky, Edward J.; Hillman, Susan J.; Burman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The University of New England’s Center for Excellence in the Neurosciences has developed a successful and growing K-12 outreach program that incorporates undergraduate and graduate/professional students. The program has several goals, including raising awareness about fundamental issues in neuroscience, supplementing science education in area schools and enhancing undergraduate and graduate/professional students’ academic knowledge and skill set. The outreach curriculum is centered on core neuroscience themes including: Brain Safety, Neuroanatomy, Drugs of Abuse and Addiction, Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders, and Cognition and Brain Function. For each theme, lesson plans were developed based upon interactive, small-group activities. Additionally, we’ve organized our themes in a “Grow-up, Grow-out” approach. Grow-up refers to returning to a common theme, increasing in complexity as we revisit students from early elementary through high school. Grow-out refers to integrating other scientific fields into our lessons, such as the chemistry of addiction, the physics of brain injury and neuronal imaging. One of the more successful components of our program is our innovative team-based model of curriculum design. By creating a team of undergraduate, graduate/professional students and faculty, we create a unique multi-level mentoring opportunity that appears to be successful in enhancing undergraduate students’ skills and knowledge. Preliminary assessments suggest that undergraduates believe they are enhancing their content knowledge and professional skills through our program. Additionally, we’re having a significant, short-term impact on K-12 interest in science. Overall, our program appears to be enhancing the academic experience of our undergraduates and exciting K-12 students about the brain and science in general. PMID:25565921

  20. K-12 Neuroscience Education Outreach Program: Interactive Activities for Educating Students about Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Deal, Alex L; Erickson, Kristen J; Bilsky, Edward J; Hillman, Susan J; Burman, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The University of New England's Center for Excellence in the Neurosciences has developed a successful and growing K-12 outreach program that incorporates undergraduate and graduate/professional students. The program has several goals, including raising awareness about fundamental issues in neuroscience, supplementing science education in area schools and enhancing undergraduate and graduate/professional students' academic knowledge and skill set. The outreach curriculum is centered on core neuroscience themes including: Brain Safety, Neuroanatomy, Drugs of Abuse and Addiction, Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders, and Cognition and Brain Function. For each theme, lesson plans were developed based upon interactive, small-group activities. Additionally, we've organized our themes in a "Grow-up, Grow-out" approach. Grow-up refers to returning to a common theme, increasing in complexity as we revisit students from early elementary through high school. Grow-out refers to integrating other scientific fields into our lessons, such as the chemistry of addiction, the physics of brain injury and neuronal imaging. One of the more successful components of our program is our innovative team-based model of curriculum design. By creating a team of undergraduate, graduate/professional students and faculty, we create a unique multi-level mentoring opportunity that appears to be successful in enhancing undergraduate students' skills and knowledge. Preliminary assessments suggest that undergraduates believe they are enhancing their content knowledge and professional skills through our program. Additionally, we're having a significant, short-term impact on K-12 interest in science. Overall, our program appears to be enhancing the academic experience of our undergraduates and exciting K-12 students about the brain and science in general. PMID:25565921

  1. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by ‘culture’ and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed. PMID:19959484

  2. Community-based, Experiential Learning for Second Year Neuroscience Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Heather J.; Ramos-Goyette, Sharon; McCoy, John G.; Tirrell, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Service learning is becoming a keystone of the undergraduate learning experience. At Stonehill College, we implemented a service learning course, called a Learning Community, in Neuroscience. This course was created to complement the basic research available to Stonehill Neuroscience majors with experience in a more applied and “clinical” setting. The Neuroscience Learning Community is designed to promote a deep understanding of Neuroscience by combining traditional classroom instruction with clinical perspectives and real-life experiences. This Neuroscience Learning Community helps students translate abstract concepts within the context of neurodevelopment by providing students with contextual experience in a real-life, unscripted setting. The experiential learning outside of the classroom enabled students to participate in informed discussions in the classroom, especially with regard to neurodevelopmental disorders. We believe that all students taking this course gain an understanding of the importance of basic and applied Neuroscience as it relates to the individual and the community. Students also have used this concrete, learning-by-doing experience to make informed decisions about career paths and choice of major. PMID:24319392

  3. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Suparna

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by 'culture' and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed. PMID:19959484

  4. And the Winner Is: Inviting Hollywood into the Neuroscience Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Wiertelak, Eric P.

    2002-01-01

    Both short excerpts from, and full-length presentation of feature films have been used with success in undergraduate instruction. Studies of such use of films has revealed that incorporation of film viewing within courses can promote both content mastery and the development of critical thinking skills. This article discusses and provides examples of successful use of two methods that may be used to incorporate a variety of full-length feature films into neuroscience instruction. One, the “neuro-cinema” pairs the presentation of a film featuring extensive neuroscience content with primary literature reading assignments, group discussion and writing exercises. The second, a neuroscience film series, features group discussion of movies of perhaps more limited relevance to neuroscience. An additional goal of this article is provide the reader with initial resources for the selection of potential film titles for use in neuroscience education. Three extensive tables are included to provide a wide range of title suggestions appropriate for use in activities such as the neuro-cinema, the neuroscience film series, or for more limited use as short “clips” in classroom instruction. PMID:23493171

  5. An online multimedia resource in behavioral neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lane, David M; Tang, Zhihua

    2003-01-01

    The advance of web-based technology has stimulated innovation in education. This paper discusses the development and evaluation of an online multimedia resource for undergraduate-level behavioral neuroscience education. This resource surveys four major subject areas: language, attention and perception, thinking, and autism. It employs audio and video streaming, online demonstration experiments, computer simulation, and internet links. This online resource has two distinct advantages over a paper textbook. First, a considerable proportion of the content is conveyed using multimedia, thus making the learning experience more vivid and dynamic. Second, its interactive components provide opportunities for students to participate in the various experimental tasks introduced in the text and to compare their own performance with those of others. This hands-on experience not only enables students to gain in-depth procedural knowledge of the tasks but also has positive effects on their motivation. Feedback from three undergraduate classes that used this resource as supplementary material showed that students were highly positive about its pedagogical values. This free resource is available on the web at http://psych.rice.edu/mmtbn/. PMID:23493962

  6. [Newly developed nomenclature (Neuroscience-based Nomenclature)].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2016-06-01

    The current nomenclature is based on clinical indications; for example, drugs used for mania and psychosis are classified as "mood stabilizers" and "antipsychotic drugs", respectively. This discrepancy between their names and indications often confuses patients and their caregivers and sometimes leads to a misunderstanding of the effects of prescribed medications. In addition, up-to-date scientific knowledge on these drugs has not been reflected in the current nomenclature. To overcome these limitations of the current nomenclature, following an initiative of the European Congress of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP), a taskforce for psychotropic nomenclature was established with representatives from 5 international organizations, including the Asian College of Neuropsychopharmacology (AsCNP). The mission of this taskforce is to provide a pharmacologically-driven (rather than indication-based) nomenclature, which is now referred to as Neuroscience-based Nomenclature (NbN). The NbN project has just started. Since it always takes time to change the culture, we understand the transition will likely involve some expected and unexpected responses from the field. However, we believe that such responses and feedback will surely improve the quality of the NbN, which in turn will be beneficial for clinicians, researchers, and patients as well as their caregivers. PMID:27506083

  7. Considering anger from a cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    PubMed

    Blair, R J R

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to consider anger from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Five main claims are made: First, reactive aggression is the ultimate behavioral expression of anger and thus we can begin to understand anger by understanding reactive aggression. Second, neural systems implicated in reactive aggression (amygdala, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray; the basic threat system) are critically implicated in anger. Factors such as exposure to extreme threat that increase the responsiveness of these systems, should be (and are in the context of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), associated with increased anger. Third, regions of frontal cortex implicated in regulating the basic threat system, when dysfunctional (e.g., in the context of lesions) should be associated with increased anger. Fourth, frustration occurs when an individual continues to do an action in the expectation of a reward but does not actually receive that reward, and is associated with anger. Individuals who show impairment in the ability to alter behavioral responding when actions no longer receive their expected rewards should be (and are in the context of psychopathy) associated with increased anger. Fifth, someone not doing what another person wants them to do (particularly if this thwarts the person's goal) is frustrating and consequently anger inducing. The response to such a frustrating social event relies on the neural architecture implicated in changing behavioral responses in non-social frustrating situations. PMID:22267973

  8. Towards a two-body neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Guillaume

    2011-05-01

    Recent work from our interdisciplinary research group has revealed the emergence of inter-brain synchronization across multiple frequency bands during social interaction.1 Our findings result from the close collaboration between experts who study neural dynamics and developmental psychology. The initial aim of the collaboration was to combine knowledge from these two fields in order to move from a classical one-brain neuroscience towards a novel two-body approach. A new technique called hyperscanning has made it possible to study the neural activity of two individuals simultaneously. However, this advanced methodology was not sufficient in itself. What remained to be found was a way to promote real-time reciprocal social interaction between two individuals during brain recording and analyze the neural and behavioral phenomenon from an inter-individual perspective. Approaches used in infancy research to study nonverbal communication and coordination, between a mother and her child for example, have so far been poorly applied to neuroimaging experiments. We thus adapted an ecological two-body experiment inspired by the use of spontaneous imitation in preverbal infants. Numerous methodological and theoretical problems had to be overcome, ranging from the choice of a common time-unit for behavioral and brain recordings to the creation of algorithms for data processing between distant brain regions in different brains. This article will discuss the underlying issues and perspectives involved in elucidating the pathway from individual to social theories of cognition. PMID:21980578

  9. Robotics and neuroscience: a rhythmic interaction.

    PubMed

    Ronsse, Renaud; Lefèvre, Philippe; Sepulchre, Rodolphe

    2008-05-01

    At the crossing between motor control neuroscience and robotics system theory, the paper presents a rhythmic experiment that is amenable both to handy laboratory implementation and simple mathematical modeling. The experiment is based on an impact juggling task, requiring the coordination of two upper-limb effectors and some phase-locking with the trajectories of one or several juggled objects. We describe the experiment, its implementation and the mathematical model used for the analysis. Our underlying research focuses on the role of sensory feedback in rhythmic tasks. In a robotic implementation of our experiment, we study the minimum feedback that is required to achieve robust control. A limited source of feedback, measuring only the impact times, is shown to give promising results. A second field of investigation concerns the human behavior in the same impact juggling task. We study how a variation of the tempo induces a transition between two distinct control strategies with different sensory feedback requirements. Analogies and differences between the robotic and human behaviors are obviously of high relevance in such a flexible setup. PMID:18490135

  10. THE COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE OF WORKING MEMORY

    PubMed Central

    D’Esposito, Mark; Postle, Bradley R.

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years, psychologists and neuroscientists have recognized the importance of a “working memory” to coordinate processing when multiple goals are active, and to guide behavior with information that is not present in the immediate environment. In recent years, psychological theory and cognitive neuroscience data have converged on the idea that information is encoded into working memory via the allocation of attention to internal representations – be they semantic long-term memory (e.g., letters, digits, words), sensory, or motoric. Thus, information-based multivariate analyses of human functional MRI data typically find evidence for the temporary representation of stimuli in regions that also process this information in nonworking-memory contexts. The prefrontal cortex, on the other hand, exerts control over behavior by biasing the salience of mnemonic representations, and adjudicating among competing, context-dependent rules. The “control of the controller” emerges from a complex interplay between PFC and striatal circuits, and ascending dopaminergic neuromodulatory signals. PMID:25251486

  11. Educational neuroscience: definitional, methodological, and interpretive issues.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, James P; Vu, Lien T

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we hope to accomplish three aims as follows: (1) provide greater clarity regarding the nature and scope of the field of educational neuroscience, (2) propose a framework for understanding when and how neuroscientific research could be informative for educational practice, and (3) describe some examples of neuroscientific findings from the domains of reading and mathematics that are informative according to this framework. We propose that psychological models of learning-related processes should be the basis of instructional decisions, and that neuroscientific evidence in combination with traditional evidence from psychological experiments should be used to decide among competing psychological models. Our review of the neuroscientific evidence for both reading and mathematics suggests that while much has been learned over the past 20 years, there is still a 'disconnect' between contemporary psychological models that emphasize higher level skills and neuroscientific studies that focus on lower level skills. Moreover, few researchers have used neuroscientific evidence to decide among psychological models, but have focused instead on identifying the brain regions that subtend component skills of reading and math. Nevertheless, neuroscientific studies have confirmed the intrinsic relationship between reading and spoken language, revealed interesting predictive relationships between anatomical structures and reading and math disabilities, and there is the potential for fruitful collaborations between neuroscientists and psychologists in the future. PMID:26263226

  12. The cognitive neuroscience of signed language.

    PubMed

    Rönnberg, J; Söderfeldt, B; Risberg, J

    2000-12-01

    The present article is an assessment of the current state of knowledge in the field of cognitive neuroscience of signed language. Reviewed lesion data show that the left hemisphere is dominant for perception and production of signed language in aphasics, in a fashion similar to spoken language aphasia. Several neuropsychological dissociations support this claim: Non-linguistic visuospatial functions can be dissociated from spatial functions and general motor deficits can be dissociated from execution of signs. Reviewed imaging data corroborate the lesion data in that the importance of the left hemisphere is re-confirmed. The data also establish the role of the right hemisphere in signed language processing. Alternative hypotheses regarding what aspects of signed language processing are handled by the right hemisphere are currently tested. The second section of the paper starts by addressing the role that early acquisition of signed and spoken language play for the neurofunctional activation patterns in the brain. Compensatory cognitive and communicative enhancements have also been documented as a function of early sign language use, suggesting an interesting interaction between language and cognition. Recent behavioural data on sign processing in working memory--a cognitive system important for language perception and production suggest e.g. phonological loop effects analogous to those obtained for speech processing. Neuroimaging studies will have to address this potential communality. PMID:11194414

  13. Neurosurgery, "neurospine," and neuroscience: a vital synergy?

    PubMed

    Nowitzke, Adrian

    2008-10-01

    A fundamental dilemma that faces both neurosurgery in general and the subspecialty field of spine surgery is the question of whether those who trained in the former and now work in the latter should maintain their links with their origins and remain under the broader umbrella of neurosurgery, or whether they should develop their own organizational structure and identity separate from organized neurosurgery. This challenge raises many questions with respect to future potential for growth and development, professional identity, and collegiality. This paper is an edited version of an invited speech to the 2007 Annual Meeting of the Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. It uses the concept of synergy to review relevant history and explore possible future options for neurosurgery, neurospine, and neuroscience. An example from medical politics is used to illustrate the importance of perspective in approaching these questions, and examples of current therapeutic cutting-edge endeavors highlight the need for team-based behavior that takes a broad view. The premise of the paper is that while individual and specialty aspirations need to be acknowledged, considered, and managed, the results from truly working together will be greater than the sum of the individual efforts-synergy. PMID:18939916

  14. Scandinavian neuroscience during the Nazi era.

    PubMed

    Kondziella, Daniel; Hansen, Klaus; Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2013-07-01

    Although Scandinavian neuroscience has a proud history, its status during the Nazi era has been overlooked. In fact, prominent neuroscientists in German-occupied Denmark and Norway, as well as in neutral Sweden, were directly affected. Mogens Fog, Poul Thygesen (Denmark) and Haakon Sæthre (Norway) were resistance fighters, tortured by the Gestapo: Thygesen was imprisoned in concentration camps and Sæthre executed. Jan Jansen (Norway), another neuroscientist resistor, escaped to Sweden, returning under disguise to continue fighting. Fritz Buchthal (Denmark) was one of almost 8000 Jews escaping deportation by fleeing from Copenhagen to Sweden. In contrast, Carl Værnet (Denmark) became a collaborator, conducting inhuman experiments in Buchenwald concentration camp, and Herman Lundborg (Sweden) and Thorleif Østrem (Norway) advanced racial hygiene in order to maintain the "superior genetic pool of the Nordic race." Compared to other Nazi-occupied countries, there was a high ratio of resistance fighters to collaborators and victims among the neuroscientists in Scandinavia. PMID:23786731

  15. "Me & my brain": exposing neuroscience's closet dualism.

    PubMed

    Mudrik, Liad; Maoz, Uri

    2015-02-01

    Our intuitive concept of the relations between brain and mind is increasingly challenged by the scientific world view. Yet, although few neuroscientists openly endorse Cartesian dualism, careful reading reveals dualistic intuitions in prominent neuroscientific texts. Here, we present the "double-subject fallacy": treating the brain and the entire person as two independent subjects who can simultaneously occupy divergent psychological states and even have complex interactions with each other-as in "my brain knew before I did." Although at first, such writing may appear like harmless, or even cute, shorthand, a closer look suggests that it can be seriously misleading. Surprisingly, this confused writing appears in various cognitive-neuroscience texts, from prominent peer-reviewed articles to books intended for lay audience. Far from being merely metaphorical or figurative, this type of writing demonstrates that dualistic intuitions are still deeply rooted in contemporary thought, affecting even the most rigorous practitioners of the neuroscientific method. We discuss the origins of such writing and its effects on the scientific arena as well as demonstrate its relevance to the debate on legal and moral responsibility. PMID:25244112

  16. Towards a two-body neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent work from our interdisciplinary research group has revealed the emergence of inter-brain synchronization across multiple frequency bands during social interaction.1 Our findings result from the close collaboration between experts who study neural dynamics and developmental psychology. The initial aim of the collaboration was to combine knowledge from these two fields in order to move from a classical one-brain neuroscience towards a novel two-body approach. A new technique called hyperscanning has made it possible to study the neural activity of two individuals simultaneously. However, this advanced methodology was not sufficient in itself. What remained to be found was a way to promote real-time reciprocal social interaction between two individuals during brain recording and analyze the neural and behavioral phenomenon from an inter-individual perspective. Approaches used in infancy research to study nonverbal communication and coordination, between a mother and her child for example, have so far been poorly applied to neuroimaging experiments. We thus adapted an ecological two-body experiment inspired by the use of spontaneous imitation in preverbal infants. Numerous methodological and theoretical problems had to be overcome, ranging from the choice of a common time-unit for behavioral and brain recordings to the creation of algorithms for data processing between distant brain regions in different brains. This article will discuss the underlying issues and perspectives involved in elucidating the pathway from individual to social theories of cognition. PMID:21980578

  17. Cognitive neuroscience of human counterfactual reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoeck, Nicole; Watson, Patrick D.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Counterfactual reasoning is a hallmark of human thought, enabling the capacity to shift from perceiving the immediate environment to an alternative, imagined perspective. Mental representations of counterfactual possibilities (e.g., imagined past events or future outcomes not yet at hand) provide the basis for learning from past experience, enable planning and prediction, support creativity and insight, and give rise to emotions and social attributions (e.g., regret and blame). Yet remarkably little is known about the psychological and neural foundations of counterfactual reasoning. In this review, we survey recent findings from psychology and neuroscience indicating that counterfactual thought depends on an integrative network of systems for affective processing, mental simulation, and cognitive control. We review evidence to elucidate how these mechanisms are systematically altered through psychiatric illness and neurological disease. We propose that counterfactual thinking depends on the coordination of multiple information processing systems that together enable adaptive behavior and goal-directed decision making and make recommendations for the study of counterfactual inference in health, aging, and disease. PMID:26257633

  18. Sex Bias in Neuroscience and Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Zucker, Irving

    2010-01-01

    Female mammals have long been neglected in biomedical research. The NIH mandated enrollment of women in human clinical trials in 1993, but no similar initiatives exist to foster research on female animals. We reviewed sex bias in research on mammals in 10 biological fields for 2009 and their historical precedents. Male bias was evident in 8 disciplines and most prominent in neuroscience, with single-sex studies of male animals outnumbering those of females 5.5 to 1. In the past half-century, male bias in non-human studies has increased while declining in human studies. Studies of both sexes frequently fail to analyze results by sex. Underrepresentation of females in animal models of disease is also commonplace, and our understanding of female biology is compromised by these deficiencies. The majority of articles in several journals are conducted on rats and mice to the exclusion of other useful animal models. The belief that non-human female mammals are intrinsically more variable than males and too troublesome for routine inclusion in research protocols is without foundation. We recommend that when only one sex is studied, this should be indicated in article titles, and that funding agencies favor proposals that investigate both sexes and analyze data by sex. PMID:20620164

  19. FTY720 Phosphate Activates Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 2 and Selectively Couples to Gα12/13/Rho/ROCK to Induce Myofibroblast Contraction.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Katrin; Monnier, Lucile; Menyhart, Katalin; Bolinger, Matthias; Studer, Rolf; Nayler, Oliver; Gatfield, John

    2015-06-01

    FTY720 phosphate (FTY720-P; 2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, monodihydrogen phosphate ester) is a nonselective sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist thought to be devoid of activity at the S1P2 receptor subtype. However, we have recently shown that FTY720-P displays significant S1P2 receptor agonist activity in recombinant cells and fibroblasts expressing endogenous S1P2 receptors. To elucidate the S1P2-dependent signaling pathways that were activated by FTY720-P, we employed second messenger assays and impedance-based assays in combination with pharmacological and small interfering RNA-based pathway inhibition in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-S1P2 cells as well as human lung myofibroblasts generated in vitro. In CHO-S1P2 cells, FTY720-P did not modulate cAMP or calcium levels. However, reporter-gene assays, impedance-based assays with a selective Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Gα12/13 knockdown and activated Rho-pull-down assays demonstrated that FTY720-P potently activated Gα12/13/Rho/ROCK signaling. S1P similarly activated Gα12/13/Rho/ROCK signaling via S1P2 receptors, whereas the two selective S1P1 receptor agonists (Z,Z)-5-(3-chloro-4-[(2R)-2,3-dihydroxy-propoxy]-benzylidene)-2-propylimino-3-o-tolyl-thiazolidin-4-one (ponesimond) and 5-[4-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)thiophen-2-yl]-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]1,2,4-oxadiazole (SEW2871) were inactive. In lung myofibroblasts, which mainly expressed the S1P2 receptor subtype, we showed that FTY720-P selectively activated the Gα12/13/Rho/ROCK pathway via the S1P2 receptor. Moreover, the activation of the Gα12/13/Rho/ROCK pathway in myofibroblasts by FTY720-P caused potent myofibroblast contraction similar to that induced by the natural ligand S1P. Thus, complementing second messenger assays with unbiased label-free assays or phenotypic assays in native expression systems can uncover activation of additional pathways, such as Gα12/13/Rho/ROCK signaling. PMID

  20. Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2001-01-01

    A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

  1. Linkage analysis of chromosome 22q12-13 in a United Kingdom/Icelandic sample of 23 multiplex schizophrenia families

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, G.; Read, T.; Butler, R.

    1995-08-14

    A possible linkage to a genetic subtype of schizophrenia and related disorders has been reported on the long arm of chromosome 22 at q12-13. However formal statistical tests in a combined sample could not reject homogeneity and prove that there was linked subgroup of families. We have studied 23 schizophrenia pedigrees to test whether some multiplex schizophrenia families may be linked to the microsatellite markers D22S274 and D22S283 which span the 22q12-13 region. Two point followed by multipoint lod and non-parametric linkage analyses under the assumption of heterogeneity provided no evidence for linkage over the relevant region. 16 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Synthesis and unusual properties of the first 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetraalkylporphyrin

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON,NORA Y.; MEDFORTH,CRAIG J.; NURCO,DANIEL J.; JIA,SONG-LING; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; SMITH,KEVIN M.

    2000-03-06

    The new perhalogenated porphyrin 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)porphinato-nickel(II) exhibits several striking features, including an extremely ruffled macrocycle with a very short Ni-N distance, an unusually red-shifted optical spectrum, and, surprisingly, hindered rotation of the meso-trifluoromethyl substituents ({Delta}G{sub 278}{sup +} = 47 kJ/mol).

  3. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system identification paradigm where the experimental goal is to estimate and possibly compare sensory processing models. We discuss various theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive firing rate optimization, including optimization with stimulus space constraints, firing rate adaptation, and possible network constraints on the optimal stimulus. We consider the problem of system identification, and show how accurate estimation of non-linear models can be highly dependent on the stimulus set used to probe the network. We suggest that optimizing stimuli for accurate model estimation may make it possible to successfully identify non-linear models which are otherwise intractable, and summarize several recent studies of this type. Finally, we present a two-stage stimulus design procedure which combines the dual goals of model estimation and model comparison and may be especially useful for system identification experiments where the appropriate model is unknown beforehand. We propose that fast, on-line stimulus optimization enabled by increasing computer power can make it practical to move sensory neuroscience away from a descriptive paradigm and toward a new paradigm of real-time model estimation and comparison. PMID:23761737

  4. [Adolescent psychosis, can neuroscience improve prediction?].

    PubMed

    Holzer, L; Halfon, O; Jaugey, L

    2008-04-01

    Developments in the field of neuroscience have created a high level of interest in the subject of adolescent psychosis, particularly in relation to prediction and prevention. As the medical practice of adolescent psychosis and its treatment is characterised by a heterogeneity which is both symptomatic and evolutive, the somewhat poor prognosis of chronic development justifies the research performed: apparent indicators of schizophrenic disorders on the one hand and specific endophenotypes on the other are becoming increasingly important. The significant progresses made on the human genome show that the genetic predetermination in current psychiatric pathologies is complex and subject to moderating effects and there is therefore significant potential for nature-nurture interactions (between the environment and the genes). The road to be followed in researching the phenotypic expression of a psychosis gene is long and winding and is susceptible to many external influences at various levels with different effects. Neurobiological, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroanatomical studies help to identify endophenotypes, which allow researchers to create identifying "markers" along this winding road. The endophenotypes could make it possible to redefine the nosological categories and enhance understanding of the physiopathology of schizophrenia. In a predictive approach, large-scale retrospective and prospective studies make it possible to identify risk factors, which are compatible with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, the predictive value of such markers or risk indicators is not yet sufficiently developed to offer a reliable early-detection method or possible schizophrenia prevention measures. Nonetheless, new developments show promise against the background of a possible future nosographic revolution, based on a paradigm shift. It is perhaps on the basis of homogeneous endophenotypes in particular that we will be able to

  5. The role of prediction in social neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Elliot C.; Brüne, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that the brain is constantly making predictions about future events. Theories of prediction in perception, action and learning suggest that the brain serves to reduce the discrepancies between expectation and actual experience, i.e., by reducing the prediction error. Forward models of action and perception propose the generation of a predictive internal representation of the expected sensory outcome, which is matched to the actual sensory feedback. Shared neural representations have been found when experiencing one's own and observing other's actions, rewards, errors, and emotions such as fear and pain. These general principles of the “predictive brain” are well established and have already begun to be applied to social aspects of cognition. The application and relevance of these predictive principles to social cognition are discussed in this article. Evidence is presented to argue that simple non-social cognitive processes can be extended to explain complex cognitive processes required for social interaction, with common neural activity seen for both social and non-social cognitions. A number of studies are included which demonstrate that bottom-up sensory input and top-down expectancies can be modulated by social information. The concept of competing social forward models and a partially distinct category of social prediction errors are introduced. The evolutionary implications of a “social predictive brain” are also mentioned, along with the implications on psychopathology. The review presents a number of testable hypotheses and novel comparisons that aim to stimulate further discussion and integration between currently disparate fields of research, with regard to computational models, behavioral and neurophysiological data. This promotes a relatively new platform for inquiry in social neuroscience with implications in social learning, theory of mind, empathy, the evolution of the social brain, and potential strategies for treating

  6. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition's impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition—from entire diets to specific nutrients—affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i) methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns (NBPs), along with (ii) modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging. PMID:27375409

  7. Extending the mind: a review of ethnographies of neuroscience practice

    PubMed Central

    Mahfoud, Tara

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews ethnographies of neuroscience laboratories in the United States and Europe, organizing them into three main sections: (1) descriptions of the capabilities and limitations of technologies used in neuroimaging laboratories to map “activity” or “function” onto structural models of the brain; (2) discussions of the “distributed” or “extended” mind in neuroscience practice; and (3) the implications of neuroscience research and the power of brain images outside the laboratory. I will try to show the importance of ethnographic work in such settings, and place this body of ethnographic work within its historical framework—such ethnographies largely emerged within the Decade of the Brain, as announced by former President of the United States George H. W. Bush in 1990. The main argument is that neuroscience research and the context within which it is taking place has changed since the 1990’s—specifically with the launch of “big science” projects such as the Human Brain Project (HBP) in the European Union and the BRAIN initiative in the United States. There is an opportunity for more research into the institutional and politico-economic context within which neuroscience research is taking place, and for continued engagement between the social and biological sciences. PMID:24936177

  8. High performance hand-held gas chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.M.

    1998-04-28

    The Microtechnology Center of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a high performance hand-held, real time detection gas chromatograph (HHGC) by Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology. The total weight of this hand-held gas chromatograph is about five lbs., with a physical size of 8{close_quotes} x 5{close_quotes} x 3{close_quotes} including carrier gas and battery. It consumes about 12 watts of electrical power with a response time on the order of one to two minutes. This HHGC has an average effective theoretical plate of about 40k. Presently, its sensitivity is limited by its thermal sensitive detector at PPM. Like a conventional G.C., this HHGC consists mainly of three major components: (1) the sample injector, (2) the column, and (3) the detector with related electronics. The present HHGC injector is a modified version of the conventional injector. Its separation column is fabricated completely on silicon wafers by means of MEMS technology. This separation column has a circular cross section with a diameter of 100 pm. The detector developed for this hand-held GC is a thermal conductivity detector fabricated on a silicon nitride window by MEMS technology. A normal Wheatstone bridge is used. The signal is fed into a PC and displayed through LabView software.

  9. Interactive Social Neuroscience to Study Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rolison, Max J.; Naples, Adam J.; McPartland, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative “interactive social neuroscience” methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD. PMID:25745371

  10. Neuroscience-driven discovery and development of sleep therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dresler, M; Spoormaker, V I; Beitinger, P; Czisch, M; Kimura, M; Steiger, A; Holsboer, F

    2014-03-01

    Until recently, neuroscience has given sleep research and discovery of better treatments of sleep disturbances little attention, despite the fact that disturbed sleep has overwhelming impact on human health. Sleep is a complex phenomenon in which specific psychological, electrophysiological, neurochemical, endocrinological, immunological and genetic factors are involved. The brain as both the generator and main object of sleep is obviously of particular interest, which makes a neuroscience-driven view the most promising approach to evaluate clinical implications and applications of sleep research. Polysomnography as the gold standard of sleep research, complemented by brain imaging, neuroendocrine testing, genomics and other laboratory measures can help to create composite biomarkers that allow maximizing the effects of individualized therapies while minimizing adverse effects. Here we review the current state of the neuroscience of sleep, sleep disorders and sleep therapeutics and will give some leads to promote the discovery and development of sleep medicines that are better than those we have today. PMID:24189488

  11. The social life of the brain: Neuroscience in society

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is viewed by a range of actors and institutions as a powerful means of creating new knowledge about our selves and societies. This article documents the shifts in expertise and identities potentially being propelled by neuroscientific research. It details the framing and effects of neuroscience within several social domains, including education and mental health, discussing some of the intellectual and professional projects it has animated therein (such as neuroethics). The analysis attends to the cultural logics by which the brain is sometimes made salient in society; simultaneously, it points towards some of parameters of the territory within which the social life of the brain plays out. Instances of societal resistance and agnosticism are discussed, which may render problematic sociological research on neuroscience in society that assumes the universal import of neuroscientific knowledge (as either an object of celebration or critique). This article concludes with reflections on how sociotechnical novelty is produced and ascribed, and the implications of this. PMID:24285875

  12. Applications of Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreary, J. Keiko

    Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MEMRI) has proven itself to be a beneficial technique in the field of Neuroscience. This thesis applies MEMRI to studies in neuroscience by first establishing the limitations concerning the use of MEMRI in live rats. Experiment 1 used an osmotic pump for manganese (Mn) delivery to the lateral ventricles for acquisition of anatomical images using MEMRI. From my knowledge, this was the first method demonstrating slow infusion of Mn to the lateral ventricles. In Experiment 2, MEMRI was used for volumetric analysis the whole brain and hippocampus of prenatally stressed rats. To my knowledge, this study was the first to investigate the effect of generational prenatal stress on the structure of a rat's brain using MEMRI and histology. Additionally, Experiment 2 investigated the use of a subcutaneous osmotic pump to deliver Mn for MEMRI. A summary on the use of MEMRI in Neuroscience concludes this thesis, with a discussion on the methods used and related technical considerations.

  13. Developing a Team-taught Capstone Course in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Susan; Hassebrock, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses are becoming increasingly visible on college and university campuses. In this paper, we describe a capstone experience for undergraduate students pursuing our neuroscience concentration. The course is intended to provide an in-depth and interdisciplinary examination of contemporary topics in the field of neuroscience, and is designed for students who have completed the majority of requirements for the concentration. We describe the evolution of such a course, the goals and objectives of the course, and offer a workable model for similar courses in the context of a liberal arts institution. We summarize the positive aspects of such a course, describe the challenges involved in creating a course of this nature, and offer suggestions for successful similar capstone courses in Neuroscience. PMID:23493882

  14. The cognitive neuroscience toolkit for the neuroeconomist: A functional overview

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI. PMID:21796272

  15. Sharing and reusing gene expression profiling data in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiang; Pavlidis, Paul

    2010-01-01

    As public availability of gene expression profiling data increases, it is natural to ask how these data can be used by neuroscientists. Here we review the public availability of high-throughput expression data in neuroscience and how it has been re-used, and tools that have been developed to facilitate re-use. There is increasing interest in making expression data re-use a routine part of the neuroscience tool-kit, but there are a number of challenges. Data must become more readily available in public databases; efforts to encourage investigators to make data available are important, as is education on the benefits of public data release. Once released, data must be better-annotated. Techniques and tools for data re-use are also in need of improvement. Integration of expression profiling data with neuroscience-specific resources such as anatomical atlases will further increase the value of expression data. PMID:17917127

  16. The Cognitive Atlas: Toward a Knowledge Foundation for Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Poldrack, Russell A.; Kittur, Aniket; Kalar, Donald; Miller, Eric; Seppa, Christian; Gil, Yolanda; Parker, D. Stott; Sabb, Fred W.; Bilder, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience aims to map mental processes onto brain function, which begs the question of what “mental processes” exist and how they relate to the tasks that are used to manipulate and measure them. This topic has been addressed informally in prior work, but we propose that cumulative progress in cognitive neuroscience requires a more systematic approach to representing the mental entities that are being mapped to brain function and the tasks used to manipulate and measure mental processes. We describe a new open collaborative project that aims to provide a knowledge base for cognitive neuroscience, called the Cognitive Atlas (accessible online at http://www.cognitiveatlas.org), and outline how this project has the potential to drive novel discoveries about both mind and brain. PMID:21922006

  17. BrainFrame: a knowledge visualization system for the neurosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Steven J.; Shaw, Chris D.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience has benefited from an explosion of new experimental techniques; many have only become feasible in the wake of improvements in computing speed and data storage. At the same time, these new computation-intensive techniques have led to a growing gulf between the data and the knowledge extracted from those data. That is, in the neurosciences there is a paucity of effective knowledge management techniques and an accelerating accumulation of experimental data. The purpose of the project described in the present paper is to create a visualization of the knowledge base of the neurosciences. At run-time, this 'BrainFrame' project accesses several web-based ontologies and generates a semantically zoomable representation of any one of many levels of the human nervous system.

  18. Neuroscience and the law: philosophical differences and practical constraints.

    PubMed

    Martell, Daniel A

    2009-01-01

    Controversies surrounding the value of neuroscience as forensic evidence are explored from the perspective of the philosophy of mind, as well as from a practical analysis of the state of the scientific research literature. At a fundamental philosophical level there are profound differences in how law and neuroscience view the issue of criminal responsibility along the continuum from free will to determinism. At a more practical level, significant limitations in the current state of neuroimaging research constrain its ability to inform legal decision-making. Scientifically supported and unsupported forensic applications for brain imaging are discussed, and recommendations for forensic report writing are offered. PMID:19267425

  19. The Development and Analysis of Integrated Neuroscience Data

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Joshua I.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on developing novel neuroscience technologies, in particular on recording from more neurons. There has thus been increasing discussion about how to analyze the resulting big datasets. What has received less attention is that over the last 30 years, papers in neuroscience have progressively integrated more approaches, such as electrophysiology, anatomy, and genetics. As such, there has been little discussion on how to combine and analyze this multimodal data. Here, we describe the growth of multimodal approaches, and discuss the needed analysis advancements to make sense of this data. PMID:26903852

  20. Empathy Examined From Perspectives of Neuroscience and Artistic Imagination.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Michael A; Grossenbacher, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    This response to Ian E. Wickramasekera II's article, Mysteries of Hypnosis and the Self Are Revealed by the Psychology and Neuroscience of Empathy, is addressed from a joint perspective on consciousness comprising two related orientations: neuroscience and artistic imagination. We find that the central importance of empathy to empathic involvement theory (Wickramasekera II, 2015) reflects the pivotal nature of empathy in the brain and in the relational exchange implicit in the psychotherapeutic process, particularly when using art in therapy. We offer a preliminary unpacking of the roles related to key psychological processes, such as imagination, that are implicated in clinical uses of verbal and visual empathic resonance. PMID:26675152

  1. Brainhack: a collaborative workshop for the open neuroscience community.

    PubMed

    Cameron Craddock, R; S Margulies, Daniel; Bellec, Pierre; Nolan Nichols, B; Alcauter, Sarael; A Barrios, Fernando; Burnod, Yves; J Cannistraci, Christopher; Cohen-Adad, Julien; De Leener, Benjamin; Dery, Sebastien; Downar, Jonathan; Dunlop, Katharine; R Franco, Alexandre; Seligman Froehlich, Caroline; J Gerber, Andrew; S Ghosh, Satrajit; J Grabowski, Thomas; Hill, Sean; Sólon Heinsfeld, Anibal; Matthew Hutchison, R; Kundu, Prantik; R Laird, Angela; Liew, Sook-Lei; J Lurie, Daniel; G McLaren, Donald; Meneguzzi, Felipe; Mennes, Maarten; Mesmoudi, Salma; O'Connor, David; H Pasaye, Erick; Peltier, Scott; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Prasad, Gautam; Fraga Pereira, Ramon; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Rokem, Ariel; S Saad, Ziad; Shi, Yonggang; C Strother, Stephen; Toro, Roberto; Q Uddin, Lucina; D Van Horn, John; W Van Meter, John; C Welsh, Robert; Xu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Brainhack events offer a novel workshop format with participant-generated content that caters to the rapidly growing open neuroscience community. Including components from hackathons and unconferences, as well as parallel educational sessions, Brainhack fosters novel collaborations around the interests of its attendees. Here we provide an overview of its structure, past events, and example projects. Additionally, we outline current innovations such as regional events and post-conference publications. Through introducing Brainhack to the wider neuroscience community, we hope to provide a unique conference format that promotes the features of collaborative, open science. PMID:27042293

  2. Contemplative Neuroscience as an Approach to Volitional Consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Evan

    This chapter presents a methodological approach to volitional consciousness for cognitive neuroscience based on studying the voluntary self-generation and self-regulation of mental states in meditation. Called contemplative neuroscience, this approach views attention, awareness, and emotion regulation as flexible and trainable skills, and works with experimental participants who have undergone training in contemplative practices designed to hone these skills. Drawing from research on the dynamical neural correlates of contemplative mental states and theories of large-scale neural coordination dynamics, I argue for the importance of global system causation in brain activity and present an "interventionist" approach to intentional causation.

  3. Study of the 20,22Ne+20,22Ne and 10,12,13,14,15C+12C Fusion Reactions with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; DiGiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Pardo, R. C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.

    2016-05-01

    A highly efficient MUlti-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) detector has been developed for measurements of fusion reactions. A study of fusion cross sections in the 10,12,13,14,15C+12C and 20,22Ne+20,22Ne systems has been performed at ATLAS. Experimental results and comparison with theoretical predictions are presented. Furthermore, results of direct measurements of the 17O(α, n)20Ne, 23Ne(α, p)26Mg and 23Ne(α, n)26Al reactions will be discussed.

  4. Relation between paramagnetic entropy and disordered local moment in La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 magnetocaloric compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Asaya

    2016-06-01

    The paramagnetic fluctuations are investigated in La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13. The disordered local moment (DLM) is represented by the first principle calculations. With a reduction of the volume, the DLM amplitude decreases gradually. In the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity ρ under hydrostatic pressure, an upturn in the variation of ρ in the paramagnetic state was observed with decreasing temperature, which is originated from the Curie-Weiss-type DLM fluctuations. In the vicinity of the critical pressure for disappearance of the DLM, the variation of ρ as a function of log(T) was observed.

  5. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Heron Bay, Little Dauphin Island, Fort Morgan, and Fort Morgan NW quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohman, Larry R.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the southeastern tip of Mobile County, including Dauphin Island, Alabama. Nearly all the mainland area shown on the map was inundated by the tidal surge. The Dauphin Island Parkway Bridge (Alabama State Highway 163) was almost totally demolished. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  6. Hand-held and automated breast ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Kimme-Smith, C.

    1985-01-01

    The book is a guide for physicians and technologists who use US as an adjunct to mammography; it carefully outlines the pros and cons of US of the breast and its role in the diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. After an introduction that discusses the philosophy of breast US, the chapters cover the physics of US and instrumentation (both hand-held transducers as well as automated water path scanners), then proceed to a discussion of the normal breast. Sections on benign disorders, malignant lesions, and pitfalls of diagnosis are followed by quiz cases.

  7. Can the Differences between Education and Neuroscience Be Overcome by Mind, Brain, and Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Boba M.

    2009-01-01

    The new field of Mind, Brain, and Education (MBE)--sometimes called educational neuroscience--is posited as a mediator between neuroscience and education. Several foundational concerns, however, can be raised about this emerging field. The differences between neuroscience and education are many, including differences in their histories,…

  8. Neuroscience in its context. Neuroscience and psychology in the work of Wilhelm Wundt.

    PubMed

    Ziche, P

    1999-01-01

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), the first to establish an Institute devoted exclusively to psychological research in Germany, started his career as a (neuro)physiologist. He gradually turned into a psychologist in the 1860's and 1870's, at a time when neuroscience had to deal with the problem of giving an adequate physiological interpretation of the data accumulated by neuroanatomy. Neither the functional interpretation of brain morphology, nor the options provided by the reflex model seemed acceptable to Wundt. In his Physiological Psychology, first published in 1874, Wundt adds another aspect to this discussion by showing that psychology may help, and indeed is required, to clarify some of the most controversial problems in brain research. He thus became a key figure in neuroscience's struggle to locate itself within the various research traditions. The following theses will be argued for: 1. Wundt's turn to psychology resulted from his view that the methodological basis of physiological brain research of the time was unsatisfactory. 2. Psychology, in its attempt to solve these problems, implied a new conception of an interaction between experimental and theoretical brain research. 3. Wundt tried to demonstrate the necessity of psychological considerations for experimental brain research. These points are discussed with reference to Wundt's treatment of the localization of functions in the brain. According to Wundt, psychology can show, by analyzing the complex structure of intellect and will, that mental phenomena can be realized in the brain only in the form of complex interations of the elements of the brain. The results of the psychological considerations imply that a strict localizations cannot be correct; but they are also turned against the conception of a complete functional equivalence of the various parts of the cortext. For Wundt, a reconstruction of brain processes cannot start with neurones, but only with patterns of a functional organization of brain

  9. Land Subsidence International Symposium held in Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Third International Symposium on Land Subsidence was held March 18-25, 1984, in Venice, Italy. Sponsors were the Ground-Water Commission of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Italian National Research Council (CNR), the Italian Regions of Veneto and Emilia-Romagna, the Italian Municipalities of Venice, Ravenna, and Modena, the Venice Province, and the European Research Office. Cosponsors included the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMFE), and the Association of Geoscientists for International Development (AGID).Organized within the framework of UNESCO's International Hydrological Program, the symposium brought together over 200 international interdisciplinary specialists in the problems of land subsidence due to fluid and mineral withdrawal. Because man's continuing heavy development of groundwater, gas, oil, and minerals is changing the natural regime and thus causing more and more subsiding areas in the world, there had been sufficient new land subsidence occurrence, problems, research, and remedial measures since the 1976 Second International Symposium held in Anaheim, California, to develop a most interesting program of nearly 100 papers from about 30 countries. The program consisted of papers covering case histories of fluid and mineral withdrawal, engineering theory and analysis, karst “sink-hole”-type subsidence, subsidence due to dewatering of organic deposits or due to application of water (hydrocompaction), instrumentation, legal, socioeconomic, and environmental effects of land subsidence, and remedial works.

  10. A hand-held immaterial volumetric display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, Antti; Rakkolainen, Ismo

    2014-03-01

    We have created an ultralight, movable, "immaterial" fogscreen. It is based on the fogscreen mid-air imaging technology. The hand-held unit is roughly the size and weight of an ordinary toaster. If the screen is tracked, it can be swept in the air to create mid-air slices of volumetric objects, or to show augmented reality (AR) content on top of real objects. Interfacing devices and methodologies, such as hand and gesture trackers, camera-based trackers and object recognition, can make the screen interactive. The user can easily interact with any physical object or virtual information, as the screen is permeable. Any real objects can be seen through the screen, instead of e.g., through a video-based augmented reality screen. It creates a mixed reality setup where both the real world object and the augmented reality content can be viewed and interacted with simultaneously. The hand-held mid-air screen can be used e.g., as a novel collaborating or classroom tool for individual students or small groups.

  11. Genetics and Neuroscience in Dyslexia: Perspectives for Education and Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte-Korne, Gerd; Ludwig, Kerstin U.; el Sharkawy, Jennifer; Nothen, Markus M.; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Hoffmann, Per

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of the causes of a developmental disorder like dyslexia has received recent input from both neuroscience and genetics. The discovery of 4 candidate genes for dyslexia and the identification of neuronal networks engaged when children read and spell are the basis for introducing this knowledge into education. However, the input…

  12. Educational Neuroscience: New Horizons for Research in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines an initiative in mathematics education research that aims to augment qualitative methods of research into mathematical cognition and learning with quantitative methods of psychometrics and psychophysiology. Background and motivation are provided for this initiative, which is coming to be referred to as educational neuroscience.…

  13. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  14. The use of repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Nordt, Marisa; Hoehl, Stefanie; Weigelt, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Repetition suppression paradigms allow a more detailed look at brain functioning than classical paradigms and have been applied vigorously in adult cognitive neuroscience. These paradigms are well suited for studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience as they can be applied without collecting a behavioral response and across all age groups. Furthermore, repetition suppression paradigms can be employed in various neuroscience techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the present article we review studies using repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience covering the age range from infancy to adolescence. Our first goal is to point out characteristics of developmental repetition suppression effects. In doing so, we discuss the relationship of the direction of repetition effects (suppression vs enhancement) with developmental factors, and address the question how the direction of repetition effects might be related to looking-time effects in behavioral infant paradigms, the most prominently used behavioral measure in infant research. To highlight the potential of repetition suppression paradigms, our second goal is to provide an overview on the insights recently obtained by applying repetition paradigms in neurodevelopmental studies, including research on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We conclude that repetition suppression paradigms are valuable tools for investigating neurodevelopmental processes, while at the same time we highlight the necessity for further studies that disentangle methodological and developmental factors. PMID:27161033

  15. The Emerging Neuroscience of Third-Party Punishment.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Frank; Hoffman, Morris

    2016-08-01

    Although it is far too early to say that cognitive neuroscience will have any direct impact on how we sentence criminals, patterns are nevertheless emerging that suggest a neural framework for punishment that could one day have important legal and social consequences. PMID:27369844

  16. Cognitive neuroscience of synesthesia: Introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This Special Issue of Cognitive Neuroscience showcases the latest theories and findings in research on synesthesia. The various contributions are discussed in relation to three broad themes: Models and neural mechanisms; new types of synesthesia; and cognitive profile and demographic characteristics. PMID:26274902

  17. Neuroscience Perspectives on Disparities in School Readiness and Cognitive Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Tottenham, Nim; Casey, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article allows readers to look at racial and ethnic disparities in school readiness from a neuroscience perspective. Although researchers have traditionally measured gaps in school readiness using broad achievement tests, they can now assess readiness in terms of more specific brain-based cognitive functions. Three neurocognitive…

  18. Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

  19. Brain-Based Learning and Educational Neuroscience: Boundary Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelenbosch, Rosanne; Kupper, Frank; Krabbendam, Lydia; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been given to "bridging the gap" between neuroscience and educational practice. In order to gain better understanding of the nature of this gap and of possibilities to enable the linking process, we have taken a boundary perspective on these two fields and the brain-based learning approach, focusing on…

  20. The Implications of Social Neuroscience for Social Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, James C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Social disability represents a unifying feature in the diverse group of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Social neuroscience is the study of brain mechanisms supporting interpersonal interaction. In this paper, we review brain imaging studies of the social brain and highlight practical applications of these scientific insights.…

  1. Brain Awareness Day: A Service-Learning Experience in Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Cecilia M.

    2007-01-01

    Three local colleges in the Lehigh Valley collaborate on a service-learning project called Brain Awareness Day to enhance neuroscience literacy among the public regarding the functions of the brain and benefits of brain research. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  2. Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children's early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be…

  3. Learning and Understanding Division: A Study in Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Stephen R.; Cimen, O. Arda; Handscomb, K.

    2009-01-01

    A widely recognized concern in elementary school mathematics education is that teachers' understanding of the mathematical curricular content generally appears quite fragmented, sparsely connected, and procedurally oriented. This pilot study applies methods of educational neuroscience to investigate and improve preservice teachers' learning and…

  4. Building a Bridge from Neuroscience to the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Neuroscience and cognitive science relating to education are hot topics. They receive extensive but simplified coverage in the mass media, and there is a booming business in "brain-booster" books and products, which claim to be based on the research. Eric Jensen advocates more collaboration among scientists from the full variety of disciplines…

  5. Applying Cognitive Neuroscience Research to Education: The Case of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzir, Tami; Pare-Blagoev, Juliana

    2006-01-01

    Neuroscience has provided fascinating glimpses into the brain's development and function. Despite remarkable progress, brain research has not yet been successfully brought to bear in many fields of educational psychology. In this article, work on literacy serves as a test case for an examination of potential future bridges linking mind, brain, and…

  6. The RAVE-O Intervention: Connecting Neuroscience to the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Maryanne; Barzillai, Mirit; Gottwald, Stephanie; Miller, Lynne; Spencer, Kathleen; Norton, Elizabeth; Lovett, Maureen; Morris, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which knowledge from the cognitive neurosciences, linguistics, and education interact to deepen our understanding of reading's complexity and to inform reading intervention. We first describe how research on brain abnormalities and naming speed processes has shaped both our conceptualization of reading…

  7. Interpreting BOLD: towards a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hall, Catherine N; Howarth, Clare; Kurth-Nelson, Zebulun; Mishra, Anusha

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive neuroscience depends on the use of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe brain function. Although commonly used as a surrogate measure of neuronal activity, BOLD signals actually reflect changes in brain blood oxygenation. Understanding the mechanisms linking neuronal activity to vascular perfusion is, therefore, critical in interpreting BOLD. Advances in cellular neuroscience demonstrating differences in this neurovascular relationship in different brain regions, conditions or pathologies are often not accounted for when interpreting BOLD. Meanwhile, within cognitive neuroscience, the increasing use of high magnetic field strengths and the development of model-based tasks and analyses have broadened the capability of BOLD signals to inform us about the underlying neuronal activity, but these methods are less well understood by cellular neuroscientists. In 2016, a Royal Society Theo Murphy Meeting brought scientists from the two communities together to discuss these issues. Here, we consolidate the main conclusions arising from that meeting. We discuss areas of consensus about what BOLD fMRI can tell us about underlying neuronal activity, and how advanced modelling techniques have improved our ability to use and interpret BOLD. We also highlight areas of controversy in understanding BOLD and suggest research directions required to resolve these issues.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574302

  8. The Importance of Single-Trial Analyses in Cognitive Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Mark; Spaak, Eelke

    2016-07-01

    Theories of working memory typically assume that information is maintained via persistent neural activity. By contrast, Lundqvist et al. report that single-trial delay activity is actually 'bursty'; the classic profile of persistent activity is an artefact of trial-wise averaging. Tackling brain-behaviour relationships at the single-trial level is an important future direction for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:27237797

  9. Learning with Interactive Computer Graphics in the Undergraduate Neuroscience Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pani, John R.; Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Mattingly, William; Roberts, Joshua; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Instruction of neuroanatomy depends on graphical representation and extended self-study. As a consequence, computer-based learning environments that incorporate interactive graphics should facilitate instruction in this area. The present study evaluated such a system in the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. The system used the method of…

  10. Best Practices: The Neuroscience Program at Central Michigan University.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Gary L

    2015-01-01

    The original design of our program at Central Michigan University (CMU) and its evolving curriculum were directly influenced by Faculty for Undergraduate (FUN) workshops at Davidson College, Oberlin College, Trinity College, and Macalester College. The course content, laboratory exercises, and pedagogy used were informed by excellent articles in the Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education (JUNE) and presentations at these FUN workshops and meetings over the years. Like the program at Baldwin-Wallace College, which was a previous winner of the Undergraduate Neuroscience Program of the Year Award, as selected by the Committee on Neuroscience Departments and Programs (CNDP) of the Society for Neuroscience (SfN, our program stresses the importance of inquiry-based, hands-on research experience for our undergraduates and utilizes a peer-mentoring system. A distinct advantage that is employed at CMU is the use of graduate student mentors, which allows us to expand our peer-mentorship to distinct research teams that are focused on a specific research project. Developing our program was not easy. The present manuscript reviews the long and arduous journey (including ways in which we navigated some difficult internal political issues) we made to build a strong program. Hopefully, this description may prove helpful for other evolving programs, in terms of avoiding certain pitfalls and overcoming obstacles, as well as selecting practices that have proven to be successful at our institution. PMID:26240523

  11. A Role for Neuroscience in Shaping Contemporary Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca; Bryant, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Advanced technologies have made it possible for neuroscientists to make remarkable discoveries regarding how our brains learn. This research should provide new insights into the designs of learning environments. This essay is an attempt to suggest how the possibilities of neuroscience might be employed to meet contemporary educational demands,…

  12. Fever management practices of neuroscience nurses: national and regional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Kirkness, Catherine J; Mitchell, Pamela H; Webb, Deborah J

    2007-06-01

    Neuroscience patients with fever may have worse outcomes than those who are afebrile. However, neuroscience nurses who encounter this common problem face a translational gap between patient-outcomes research and bedside practice because there is no current evidence-based standard of care for fever management of the neurologically vulnerable patient. The aim of this study was to determine if there are trends in national practices for fever and hyperthermia management of the neurologically vulnerable patient. A 15-item mailed questionnaire was used to determine national and regional trends in fever and hyperthermia management and decision making by neuroscience nurses. Members of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses were surveyed (N = 1,225) and returned 328 usable surveys. Fewer than 20% of respondents reported having an explicit fever management protocol in place for neurologic patients, and 12.5% reported having a nonspecific patient protocol available for fever management. Several clear and consistent patterns in interventions for fever and hyperthermia management were seen nationally, including acetaminophen administration at a dose of 650 mg every 4 hours, ice packs, water cooling blankets, and tepid bathing. However, regional differences were seen in intervention choices and initial temperature to treat. PMID:17591411

  13. Best Practices: The Neuroscience Program at Central Michigan University

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    The original design of our program at Central Michigan University (CMU) and its evolving curriculum were directly influenced by Faculty for Undergraduate (FUN) workshops at Davidson College, Oberlin College, Trinity College, and Macalester College. The course content, laboratory exercises, and pedagogy used were informed by excellent articles in the Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education (JUNE) and presentations at these FUN workshops and meetings over the years. Like the program at Baldwin-Wallace College, which was a previous winner of the Undergraduate Neuroscience Program of the Year Award, as selected by the Committee on Neuroscience Departments and Programs (CNDP) of the Society for Neuroscience (SfN, our program stresses the importance of inquiry-based, hands-on research experience for our undergraduates and utilizes a peer-mentoring system. A distinct advantage that is employed at CMU is the use of graduate student mentors, which allows us to expand our peer-mentorship to distinct research teams that are focused on a specific research project. Developing our program was not easy. The present manuscript reviews the long and arduous journey (including ways in which we navigated some difficult internal political issues) we made to build a strong program. Hopefully, this description may prove helpful for other evolving programs, in terms of avoiding certain pitfalls and overcoming obstacles, as well as selecting practices that have proven to be successful at our institution. PMID:26240523

  14. A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between…

  15. Mirroring, Mentalizing, and the Social Neuroscience of Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spunt, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Listening to another speak is a basic process in social cognition. In the social neurosciences, there are relatively few studies that directly bear on listening; however, numerous studies have investigated the neural bases of some of the likely constituents of successful listening. In this article, I review some of this work as it relates to…

  16. Point of View: Taking a Cue from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, Eleanor A.

    2015-01-01

    This column shares reflections or thoughtful opinions on issues of broad interest to the community. This article encourages teachers to use emerging scientific evidence to change classroom culture--accept the evidence from neuroscience and find ways to make classrooms less stressful and more successful.

  17. Bayesian Just-So Stories in Psychology and Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    According to Bayesian theories in psychology and neuroscience, minds and brains are (near) optimal in solving a wide range of tasks. We challenge this view and argue that more traditional, non-Bayesian approaches are more promising. We make 3 main arguments. First, we show that the empirical evidence for Bayesian theories in psychology is weak.…

  18. How Does Neuroscience Inform the Study of Cognitive Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles A.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Richmond, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    The fields of developmental psychology and developmental neuroscience have existed independently of one another for many years. This is unfortunate, as knowledge of how the brain develops can inform the study of behavioral development. In this paper, we provide two examples of how knowledge about brain development has improved our understanding of…

  19. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas. T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway. PMID:26523124

  20. An Online, Interactive Approach to Teaching Neuroscience to Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leslie; Moreno, Janette; Willcockson, Irmgard; Smith, Donna; Mayes, Janice

    2006-01-01

    Most of today's students are skilled in instant messaging, Web browsing, online games, and blogs. These have become part of the social landscape and have changed how we learn and where we learn. The question becomes how to harness the attractiveness and ubiquity of electronic venues toward the goal of teaching neuroscience. At the Rice University…

  1. Neuroscience and Education: Blind Spots in a Strange Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Volker

    2012-01-01

    This article--mainly referring to the situation in Germany--consists of three parts. In a first section the current presence of neurosciences in the public discourse will be described in order to illuminate the background which is relevant for contemporary educational thinking. The prefix "neuro-" is ubiquitous today and therefore concepts like…

  2. The Impact of Neuroscience on Music Education Advocacy and Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Amber Dahlen

    2011-01-01

    This content analysis examines how philosophy and advocacy articles published between 2005 and 2010 were influenced by current neuroscience research. The contents of twelve journals were explored, resulting in the inclusion of forty-five articles in this analysis. Recently, there has been a growing interest in neuroscientific research on music.…

  3. Validity assessment and determination of the cutoff value for the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need among 12-13 year-olds in Southern Chinese.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-Yu; Jian, Fan; Long, Hu; Lu, Yun; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zhi; He, Yu-Wei; Wamalwa, Peter; Wang, Jing; Ye, Nian-Song; Wang, Sheng; Lai, Wen-Li

    2012-06-01

    To validate the use of the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) in assessing orthodontic treatment need among 12-13 year-olds in southern China, we determined the threshold value of ICON based on Chinese orthodontists' judgments. The samples consisted of 335 students in grade 7 from 16 randomly selected middle schools in Chengdu, China. Three associate professors provided ICON scores for each participant and the results were compared with the gold standard judgments from 25 experts on treatment needs. Based on the gold standard, 195 casts belonged to the treatment category, while the rest 140 belonged to the no-treatment category. With the international cutoff point of 43, the sensitivity and specificity of the ICON score were 0.29 and 0.98.The best compromise between sensitivity and specificity in Chengdu, compared with the gold standard, was found at a cutoff point of 29, and the sensitivity and specificity were 0.88 and 0.83. When used to evaluate the treatment need of 12-13 year-olds in southern China, the international ICON cutoff value did not correspond well with Chinese orthodontists' judgments; a lower cutoff value of 29 offered a greater sensitivity and specificity with respect to expert orthodontists' perception of treatment need. PMID:22653551

  4. What is a representative brain? Neuroscience meets population science

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Hyde, Luke W.; Mitchell, Colter; Faul, Jessica; Gonzalez, Richard; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Keating, Daniel P.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Martz, Meghan E.; Maslowsky, Julie; Morrison, Frederick J.; Noll, Douglas C.; Patrick, Megan E.; Pfeffer, Fabian T.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Thomason, Moriah E.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Monk, Christopher S.; Schulenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    The last decades of neuroscience research have produced immense progress in the methods available to understand brain structure and function. Social, cognitive, clinical, affective, economic, communication, and developmental neurosciences have begun to map the relationships between neuro-psychological processes and behavioral outcomes, yielding a new understanding of human behavior and promising interventions. However, a limitation of this fast moving research is that most findings are based on small samples of convenience. Furthermore, our understanding of individual differences may be distorted by unrepresentative samples, undermining findings regarding brain–behavior mechanisms. These limitations are issues that social demographers, epidemiologists, and other population scientists have tackled, with solutions that can be applied to neuroscience. By contrast, nearly all social science disciplines, including social demography, sociology, political science, economics, communication science, and psychology, make assumptions about processes that involve the brain, but have incorporated neural measures to differing, and often limited, degrees; many still treat the brain as a black box. In this article, we describe and promote a perspective—population neuroscience—that leverages interdisciplinary expertise to (i) emphasize the importance of sampling to more clearly define the relevant populations and sampling strategies needed when using neuroscience methods to address such questions; and (ii) deepen understanding of mechanisms within population science by providing insight regarding underlying neural mechanisms. Doing so will increase our confidence in the generalizability of the findings. We provide examples to illustrate the population neuroscience approach for specific types of research questions and discuss the potential for theoretical and applied advances from this approach across areas. PMID:24151336

  5. NeuroLex.org: an online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Stephen D.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review. In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex. PMID:24009581

  6. A new research trend in social neuroscience: Towards an interactive-brain neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    The ability to flexibly modulate our behaviors in social contexts and to successfully interact with other persons is a fundamental, but pivotal, requirement for human survival. Although previous social neuroscience research with single individuals has contributed greatly to our understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying social perception and social emotions, much of the dynamic nature of interactions between persons remains beyond the reach of single-brain studies. This has led to a growing argument for a shift to the simultaneous measurement of the brain activity of two or more individuals in realistic social interactions-an approach termed "hyperscanning." Although this approach offers important promise in unlocking the brain's role in truly social situations, there are multiple procedural and theoretical questions that require review and analysis. In this paper we discuss this research trend from four aspects: hyperscanning apparatus, experimental task, quantification method, and theoretical interpretation. We also give four suggestions for future research: (a) electroencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy are useful tools by which to explore the interactive brain in more ecological settings; (b) games are an appropriate method to simulate daily life interactions; (c) transfer entropy may be an important method by which to quantify directed exchange of information between brains; and (d) more explanation is needed of the results of interbrain synchronization itself. PMID:26271937

  7. Microfluidic MEMS hand-held flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafton, Meggie M. G.; Maleki, Teimour; Zordan, Michael D.; Reece, Lisa M.; Byrnes, Ron; Jones, Alan; Todd, Paul; Leary, James F.

    2011-02-01

    Due to a number of recent technological advances, a hand-held flow cytometer can be achieved by use of semiconductor illuminators, optical sensors (all battery powered) and sensitive cell markers such as immuno-quantum dot (Qdot) labels. The specific application described is of a handheld blood analyzer that can quickly process a drop of whole, unfractionated human peripheral blood by real-time, on-chip magnetic separation of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) and further fluorescence analysis of Qdot labeled WBC subsets. Various microfluidic patterns were fabricated in PDMS and used to characterize flow of single cells and magnetic deflection of magnetically labeled cells. An LED excitation, avalanche photodiode detection system (SensL Technologies, Ltd., Cork, Ireland) was used for immuno-Qdot detection of WBC subsets. A static optical setup was used to determine the sensitivity of the detection system. In this work we demonstrate: valve-less, on-chip magnetic sorting of immunomagnetically labeled white blood cells, bright Qdot labeling of lymphocytes, and counting of labeled white blood cells. Comparisons of these results with conventional flow cytometric analyses are reported. Sample preparation efficiency was determined by labeling of isolated white blood cells. Appropriate flow rates were determined for optical detection and confirmed with flowing particles. Several enabling technologies required for a truly portable, battery powered, hand-held flow cytometer for use in future point-of-care diagnostic devices have been demonstrated. The combining of these technologies into an integrated handheld instrument is in progress and results on whole blood cell analysis are to be reported in another paper.

  8. Report of the first Asia-Pacific influenza summit, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI), Bangkok, 12-13 June 2012.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lance C; Smith, David W; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    On June 12-13, 2012, the Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) convened jointly with the Influenza Foundation of Thailand and the Thailand Department of Disease Control, the First Asia-Pacific Influenza Summit. The objectives of the meeting were to review the current state of official influenza control policies in Asia-Pacific countries; identify, summarize and communicate influenza control strategies that have successfully increased vaccine uptake in the region; develop policy and advocacy approaches to improve influenza vaccine uptake in high-risk groups and healthcare workers in the region; and establish collaborative relationships to promote best practices for the control of influenza. In moving forward, the challenge for the region will be establishing collaborations able to effectively communicate risk and key messages about influenza vaccination. PMID:23809609

  9. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Gulf Breeze-Fort Barrancas quadrangles, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, Marvin A.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Gulf Breeze-Fort Barrancas topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of Big Lagoon, Pensacola Bay, Santa Rosa Sound, and the Gulf of Mexico from Seaglades eastward to Pensacola Beach, Florida. The still water elevations ranged from about 5 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum in sheltered areas to about 7.5 feet in areas subject to wind setup. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  10. Biological responsiveness to the phorbol esters and specific binding of (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a manipulable genetic system

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, K.K.; Chritton, S.; Blumberg, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of its suitability for genetic studies, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was examined for its responsiveness to the phorbol esters. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate had three effects. It inhibited the increase in animal size during growth; it decreased the yield of progeny; and it caused uncoordinated movement of the adult. The effects on nematode size, progeny yield, and movement were quantitated. Concentrations of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate yielding half-maximal responses were 440, 460, and 170 nM, respectively. As was expected from the biological responsiveness of the nematodes, specific, saturable binding of phorbol ester to nematode extracts was found. (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate bound with a dissociation constant of 26.8 +/- 3.9 nM. At saturation, 5.7 +/- 1.4 pmole/mg protein was bound.

  11. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Pine Beach, St. Andrews Bay and Fort Morgan quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of St. Andrews Bay, Mobile Bay, and Bon Secour Bay from Fort Morgan eastward to about four miles east of Gasque, Ala. The storm tide went completely across the land between the beach and Mobile Bay throughout much of the area. Most homes on the beach side of Alabama State Highway 180 were completely destroyed, and the highway was washed out in several places. Damage to homes and other structures on the bay side was not as great. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  12. 27 CFR 46.207 - Articles held in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles held in bond. 46... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.207 Articles held in bond. If the dealer is a manufacturer or an export warehouse proprietor and holds articles in TTB bond on April 1, 2009, the...

  13. 27 CFR 46.207 - Articles held in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles held in bond. 46... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.207 Articles held in bond. If the dealer is a manufacturer or an export warehouse proprietor and holds articles in TTB bond on April 1, 2009, the...

  14. 27 CFR 46.207 - Articles held in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Articles held in bond. 46... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.207 Articles held in bond. If the dealer is a manufacturer or an export warehouse proprietor and holds articles in TTB bond on April 1, 2009, the...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  2. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  7. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  8. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  12. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  15. 27 CFR 46.207 - Articles held in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles held in bond. 46... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.207 Articles held in bond. If the dealer is a manufacturer or an export warehouse proprietor and holds articles in TTB bond on April 1, 2009, the...

  16. 27 CFR 46.207 - Articles held in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articles held in bond. 46... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.207 Articles held in bond. If the dealer is a manufacturer or an export warehouse proprietor and holds articles in TTB bond on April 1, 2009, the...

  17. SOCIAL NEUROSCIENCE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Berntson, Gary G.; Decety, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Social species create emergent organizations beyond the individual. These emergent structures evolved hand in hand with neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social neuroscience seeks to specify the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms underlying social behavior, and in so doing to understand the associations and influences between social and biological levels of organization. Success in the field, therefore, is not measured in terms of the contributions to social psychology per se, but rather in terms of the specification of the biological mechanisms underlying social interactions and behavior—one of the major problems for the neurosciences to address in the 21st century. PMID:24409007

  18. SOCIAL NEUROSCIENCE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Berntson, Gary G; Decety, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Social species create emergent organizations beyond the individual. These emergent structures evolved hand in hand with neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social neuroscience seeks to specify the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms underlying social behavior, and in so doing to understand the associations and influences between social and biological levels of organization. Success in the field, therefore, is not measured in terms of the contributions to social psychology per se, but rather in terms of the specification of the biological mechanisms underlying social interactions and behavior-one of the major problems for the neurosciences to address in the 21(st) century. PMID:24409007

  19. Spanish validation of the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales.

    PubMed

    Abella, Víctor; Panksepp, Jaak; Manga, Dionisio; Bárcena, Carmen; Iglesias, José A

    2011-11-01

    The Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales have been designed to provide a personality assessment tool based on six distinct affective systems. The six neural systems involved were labeled PLAY, SEEK, CARE, FEAR, ANGER and SADNESS. Spirituality has been integrated into the questionnaire as a seventh dimension because, in opinion of Panksepp and his colleagues is one of the most interesting human emotion. The aim of the present paper was introduce the validation of the Spanish version of Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales and their first psychometric results in a sample of 411 college students. Participants completed the Spanish version of ANPS, just as a personality scale of five factors (NEO-FFI-R), and the Scales of Positive and Negative Affect (PANAS). The factor structure obtained and psychometric properties of the scales indicate that the Spanish version of the scales provides an effective tool to measure the seven dimensions of personality proposal in the original questionnaire. PMID:22059336

  20. Genome Engineering with TALE and CRISPR Systems in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han B.; Sundberg, Brynn N.; Sigafoos, Ashley N.; Clark, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancement in genome engineering technology is changing the landscape of biological research and providing neuroscientists with an opportunity to develop new methodologies to ask critical research questions. This advancement is highlighted by the increased use of programmable DNA-binding agents (PDBAs) such as transcription activator-like effector (TALE) and RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas) systems. These PDBAs fused or co-expressed with various effector domains allow precise modification of genomic sequences and gene expression levels. These technologies mirror and extend beyond classic gene targeting methods contributing to the development of novel tools for basic and clinical neuroscience. In this Review, we discuss the recent development in genome engineering and potential applications of this technology in the field of neuroscience. PMID:27092173

  1. Intracortical Brain-Machine Interfaces Advance Sensorimotor Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Karen E.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) decode brain activity to control external devices. Over the past two decades, the BMI community has grown tremendously and reached some impressive milestones, including the first human clinical trials using chronically implanted intracortical electrodes. It has also contributed experimental paradigms and important findings to basic neuroscience. In this review, we discuss neuroscience achievements stemming from BMI research, specifically that based upon upper limb prosthetic control with intracortical microelectrodes. We will focus on three main areas: first, we discuss progress in neural coding of reaches in motor cortex, describing recent results linking high dimensional representations of cortical activity to muscle activation. Next, we describe recent findings on learning and plasticity in motor cortex on various time scales. Finally, we discuss how bidirectional BMIs have led to better understanding of somatosensation in and related to motor cortex. PMID:27445663

  2. Kalman meets neuron - the intersection of control theory and neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, Steven

    2009-03-01

    Since the 1950s, we have developed mature theories of modern control theory and computational neuroscience with almost no interaction between these disciplines. With the advent of computationally efficient nonlinear Kalman filtering techniques, along with improved neuroscience models which provide increasingly accurate reconstruction of dynamics in a variety of important normal and disease states in the brain, the prospects for a synergistic interaction between these fields are now strong. I will show recent examples of the use of nonlinear control theory for the assimilation and control of single neuron dynamics, a novel framework for dynamic clamp, the modulation of oscillatory wave dynamics in brain cortex, a control framework for Parkinsonian dynamics and seizures, and the use of optimized parameter model networks to assimilate complex network data.

  3. Population Disparities in Mental Health: Insights From Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    By 2050, nearly 1 in 5 Americans (19%) will be an immigrant, including Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, compared to the 1 in 8 (12%) in 2005. They will vary in the extent to which they are at risk for mental health disorders. Given this increase in cultural diversity within the United States and costly population health disparities across cultural groups, it is essential to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how culture affects basic psychological and biological mechanisms. We examine these basic mechanisms that underlie population disparities in mental health through cultural neuroscience. We discuss the challenges to and opportunities for cultural neuroscience research to determine sociocultural and biological factors that confer risk for and resilience to mental health disorders across the globe. PMID:23927543

  4. Interacting and paradoxical forces in neuroscience and society

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jennifer; Hallmayer, Joachim; Illes, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Discoveries in the field of neuroscience are a natural source of discourse among scientists and have long been disseminated to the public. Historically, as news of findings has travelled between communities, it has elicited both expected and unusual reactions. What scientific landmarks promote discourse within the professional community? Do the same findings achieve a place in the public eye? How does the media choose what is newsworthy, and why does the public react the way it does? Drawing on examples of past challenges at the crossroads of neuroscience and society and on a case study of trends in one neurogenetic disease, autism, we explore the dialectical forces interacting in scientific and public discourse. PMID:17237806

  5. Pathological Choice: The Neuroscience of Gambling and Gambling Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Averbeck, Bruno; Payer, Doris; Sescousse, Guillaume; Winstanley, Catharine A.; Xue, Gui

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and “irrationality.” Second, excessive gambling involvement (i.e., pathological gambling) is currently conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, and research on this condition may provide insights into addictive mechanisms in the absence of exogenous drug effects. This article is a summary of topics covered in a Society for Neuroscience minisymposium, focusing on recent advances in understanding the neural basis of gambling behavior, including translational findings in rodents and nonhuman primates, which have begun to delineate neural circuitry and neurochemistry involved. PMID:24198353

  6. Primate comparative neuroscience using magnetic resonance imaging: promises and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Rogier B.; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; Verhagen, Lennart; Sallet, Jérôme; Miller, Karla L.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Barton, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Primate comparative anatomy is an established field that has made rich and substantial contributions to neuroscience. However, the labor-intensive techniques employed mean that most comparisons are often based on a small number of species, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn. In this review we explore how new developments in magnetic resonance imaging have the potential to apply comparative neuroscience to a much wider range of species, allowing it to realize an even greater potential. We discuss (1) new advances in the types of data that can be acquired, (2) novel methods for extracting meaningful measures from such data that can be compared between species, and (3) methods to analyse these measures within a phylogenetic framework. Together these developments will allow researchers to characterize the relationship between different brains, the ecological niche they occupy, and the behavior they produce in more detail than ever before. PMID:25339857

  7. The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Lyric A; Newsome, William T; Anderson, David J; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Brown, Emery N; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P; Hudson, Kathy L; Ling, Geoffrey S F; MacLeish, Peter R; Marder, Eve; Normann, Richard A; Sanes, Joshua R; Schnitzer, Mark J; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Tank, David W; Tsien, Roger Y; Ugurbil, Kamil; Wingfield, John C

    2015-05-19

    The evolution of the field of neuroscience has been propelled by the advent of novel technological capabilities, and the pace at which these capabilities are being developed has accelerated dramatically in the past decade. Capitalizing on this momentum, the United States launched the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative to develop and apply new tools and technologies for revolutionizing our understanding of the brain. In this article, we review the scientific vision for this initiative set forth by the National Institutes of Health and discuss its implications for the future of neuroscience research. Particular emphasis is given to its potential impact on the mapping and study of neural circuits, and how this knowledge will transform our understanding of the complexity of the human brain and its diverse array of behaviours, perceptions, thoughts and emotions. PMID:25823863

  8. Laughter as a scientific problem: An adventure in sidewalk neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Provine, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Laughter is a stereotyped, innate, human play vocalization that provides an ideal simple system for neurobehavioral analyses of the sort usually associated with such animal models as walking, wing-flapping, and bird song. Laughter research is in its early stages, where the frontiers are near and accessible to simple observational procedures termed "sidewalk neuroscience." The basic, nontechnical approach of describing the act of laughter and when humans do it has revealed a variety of phenomena of social and neurological significance. Findings include the acoustic structure of laughter, the minimal voluntary control of laughter, contagiousness, the "punctuation effect" that describes the placement of laughter in conversation, the dominance of speech over laughter, the role of breath control in the evolution of speech, the evolutionary trajectory of laughter in primates, and the role of laughter in human matching and mating. If one knows where to look and how to see, advances in neuroscience are accessible to anyone and require minimal resources. PMID:26131571

  9. Using Neuroscience to Broaden Emotion Regulation: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Elliot T.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral research on emotion regulation thus far has focused on conscious and deliberative strategies such as reappraisal. Neuroscience investigations into emotion regulation have followed suit. However, neuroimaging tools now open the door to investigate more automatic forms of emotion regulation that take place incidentally and potentially outside of participant awareness that have previously been difficult to examine. The present paper reviews studies on the neuroscience of intentional/deliberate emotion regulation and identifies opportunities for future directions that have not yet been addressed. The authors suggest a broad framework for emotion regulation that includes both deliberative and incidental forms. This framework allows insights from incidental emotion regulation to address open questions about existing work, and vice versa. Several studies relevant to incidental emotion regulation are reviewed with the goal of providing an empirical and methodological groundwork for future research. Finally, several theoretical issues for incidental and intentional emotion regulation are discussed. PMID:24052803

  10. The metaphysical lessons of synthetic biology and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Baertschi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I examine some important metaphysical lessons that are often presented as derived from two new scientific disciplines: synthetic biology and neuroscience. I analyse four of them: the nature of life, the existence of a soul (the mind-body problem), personhood, and free will. Many caveats are in order, and each 'advance' or each case should be assessed for itself. I conclude that a main lesson can nevertheless be learned: in conjunction with modern science, neuroscience and synthetic biology allow us to enrich old metaphysical debates, to deepen and even renew them. In particular, it becomes less and less plausible to consider life, mind, person, and agency as non-natural or non-physical entities. PMID:26152897

  11. Mathematical Frameworks for Oscillatory Network Dynamics in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ashwin, Peter; Coombes, Stephen; Nicks, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    The tools of weakly coupled phase oscillator theory have had a profound impact on the neuroscience community, providing insight into a variety of network behaviours ranging from central pattern generation to synchronisation, as well as predicting novel network states such as chimeras. However, there are many instances where this theory is expected to break down, say in the presence of strong coupling, or must be carefully interpreted, as in the presence of stochastic forcing. There are also surprises in the dynamical complexity of the attractors that can robustly appear-for example, heteroclinic network attractors. In this review we present a set of mathematical tools that are suitable for addressing the dynamics of oscillatory neural networks, broadening from a standard phase oscillator perspective to provide a practical framework for further successful applications of mathematics to understanding network dynamics in neuroscience. PMID:26739133

  12. How Social Neuroscience Can Inform Theories of Social Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Swencionis, Jillian K.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2016-01-01

    Social comparison pervades our interactions with others, informing us of our standing and motivating improvement, but producing negative emotional and behavioral consequences that can harm relationships and lead to poor health outcomes. Social neuroscience research has begun to illuminate some mechanisms by which status divides lead to interpersonal consequences. This review integrates core findings on the neuroscience of social comparison processes, showing the effects of comparing the self to relevant others on dimensions of competence and warmth. The literature converges to suggest that relative status divides initiate social comparison processes, that upward and downward comparisons initiate pain- and pleasure- related neural responses, and that these responses can predict people's kindly or aggressive intentions toward one another. Across different types of comparisons, brain regions involved in mentalizing are also sometimes involved. Along with future work, the research reviewed here may inform efforts to mitigate negative outcomes of constant social comparisons. PMID:24486767

  13. The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, Lyric A.; Newsome, William T.; Anderson, David J.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.; Brown, Emery N.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Hudson, Kathy L.; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; MacLeish, Peter R.; Marder, Eve; Normann, Richard A.; Sanes, Joshua R.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Tank, David W.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Ugurbil, Kamil; Wingfield, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the field of neuroscience has been propelled by the advent of novel technological capabilities, and the pace at which these capabilities are being developed has accelerated dramatically in the past decade. Capitalizing on this momentum, the United States launched the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative to develop and apply new tools and technologies for revolutionizing our understanding of the brain. In this article, we review the scientific vision for this initiative set forth by the National Institutes of Health and discuss its implications for the future of neuroscience research. Particular emphasis is given to its potential impact on the mapping and study of neural circuits, and how this knowledge will transform our understanding of the complexity of the human brain and its diverse array of behaviours, perceptions, thoughts and emotions. PMID:25823863

  14. [Hand-held echocardiography in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Mondillo, Sergio; Galderisi, Maurizio

    2005-05-01

    In the last years the industry has created echocardiographic portable machines of reduced size, available for a growing number of operators. After the first experiences of the '70s, hand-held echocardiography (HHE) is earned interesting commercial positions. The transportability of these machines allows to perform examinations outside the echo-lab and provides diagnostic information in heterogeneous locations such as intensive care unit, emergency room and outpatient structures, at the bedside and even in ambulance. HHE can be useful for detection of several pathologies including aortic aneurysms and left ventricular hypertrophy, regional wall motion abnormalities, pericardial and pleural effusion. To date, four main kinds of HHE can be distinguished: a first, high-cost variety, including miniaturized machines, equipped with instrumentations of standard echocardiography and even new softwares for tissue Doppler and myocardial contrast echocardiography; a second kind of machines of high level but not miniaturized; a third (intermediate level and low cost), and a fourth one (basic level and very low cost), including "cardioscopes" corresponding to the ultrasound stethoscope, able to complete efficaciously the clinical examination. The introduction of HHE opens controversy about its diagnostic accuracy, the opportunity to establish the clinical scenario where it should be utilized and the identification of the potential users and the needed competence level. Preliminary experiences show the possibility of improving and anticipating the diagnosis of several cardiac diseases but also the need to plan specific ultrasound training to avoid inappropriate use of HHE. PMID:15934422

  15. Clear differences in hand-held dermoscopes.

    PubMed

    Blum, Andreas; Jaworski, Simone

    2006-12-01

    In order to correctly evaluate melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin tumors using a hand-held dermoscope, it is essential to have adequate magnification and illumination to allow the differential structures to be clearly seen. One example of a dysplastic compound melanocytic nevus and a thin malignant melanoma were examined with five different handheld dermoscopes (Heine Delta 10, Heine Delta 20, Dermogenius and Dermlite Foto 37 with and without glass plate) in order to assess the image quality. The magnification was identical in all dermoscopes. In the newer dermoscopes (Heine Delta 20, Dermogenius and Dermlite Foto 37 with and without glass plate) the light sources were clearly improved, as now 6 or 24 LEDs, respectively, are employed. This distinctly improved the image quality with regard to color and visible differential structures compared to the dermoscope (Heine Delta 10) with only one light source. Clear differences is assessing differential structures were seen in one dermoscope (Dermlite Foto 37 without glass plate). Using this dermoscope without any glass plate or liquid between the dermoscope and the skin, exophytic tumors were better visualized in a three-dimensional fashion but fewer differential structures were seen. PMID:17176414

  16. NEURO.TV: Neuroscience Education on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    L, Xie Diana; L, Miller Steven; LEANNE, Boucher; L, Kubie John; FRANCOIS, Gariépy Jean-

    2014-01-01

    NEURO.tv is a new educational project that seeks to bring advanced concepts in neuroscience to the general public. We film one-hour discussions with leading neuroscientists, philosophers, and psychologists who have had significant impact on our current understanding of brain function, and we publish these discussions on YouTube, iTunes, and other social media outlets. Here, we explain the motivations behind this new program. PMID:25246839

  17. Gender disparity in the academic pipeline: women in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Smith, D O

    1993-08-01

    The percentages of females at critical steps in the academic career ladder were examined for one specific field, neuroscience. There was a slight attrition among females completing the Ph.D. However, the major drop-off occurred when qualified post-doctorates did not apply for faculty positions. Remedial actions should focus on not only the graduate school environment but also on the more critical postdoctoral experience. PMID:8248855

  18. Introductory Life Science Mathematics and Quantitative Neuroscience Courses

    PubMed Central

    Olifer, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    We describe two sets of courses designed to enhance the mathematical, statistical, and computational training of life science undergraduates at Emory College. The first course is an introductory sequence in differential and integral calculus, modeling with differential equations, probability, and inferential statistics. The second is an upper-division course in computational neuroscience. We provide a description of each course, detailed syllabi, examples of content, and a brief discussion of the main issues encountered in developing and offering the courses. PMID:20810971

  19. Time to connect: bringing social context into addiction neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Markus; Epstein, David H; Nader, Michael A; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-09-01

    Research on the neural substrates of drug reward, withdrawal and relapse has yet to be translated into significant advances in the treatment of addiction. One potential reason is that this research has not captured a common feature of human addiction: progressive social exclusion and marginalization. We propose that research aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms that link these processes to drug seeking and drug taking would help to make addiction neuroscience research more clinically relevant. PMID:27277868

  20. Plastic neuroscience: studying what the brain cares about

    PubMed Central

    Dumit, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on Allan Newell's “You can't play 20 questions with nature and win,” this article proposes that neuroscience needs to go beyond binary hypothesis testing and design experiments that follow what neurons care about. Examples from Lettvin et. al. are used to demonstrate that one can experimentally play with neurons and generate surprising results. In this manner, brains are not confused with persons, rather, persons are understood to do things with their brains. PMID:24795589

  1. NEURO.TV: Neuroscience Education on the Internet.

    PubMed

    L, Xie Diana; L, Miller Steven; Leanne, Boucher; L, Kubie John; Francois, Gariépy Jean-

    2014-05-01

    NEURO.tv is a new educational project that seeks to bring advanced concepts in neuroscience to the general public. We film one-hour discussions with leading neuroscientists, philosophers, and psychologists who have had significant impact on our current understanding of brain function, and we publish these discussions on YouTube, iTunes, and other social media outlets. Here, we explain the motivations behind this new program. PMID:25246839

  2. A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Stress and Health

    PubMed Central

    Muscatell, Keely A.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological stress is a major risk factor for the development and progression of a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, and major depression. A growing body of research suggests that long-term, stress-induced activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may lead to increases in inflammation, which is known to play a key role in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases. Furthermore, the burgeoning fields of social neuroscience and health neuroscience have begun to identify the neurocognitive mechanisms by which stress may lead to these physiological changes. Here we review the literature examining the neurocognitive correlates of stress-induced SNS, HPA, and inflammatory responses. Specifically, we summarize the results of neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural correlates of stress-related increases in SNS, HPA, and inflammatory activity. A set of neural systems involved in threat processing, safety processing, and social cognition are suggested as key contributors to stress-related changes in physiology. We conclude by offering suggestions for future research in the exciting new field of health neuroscience. PMID:23227112

  3. Compassion, ethics, and neuroscience: neuroethics through Buddhist eyes.

    PubMed

    Tsomo, Karma Lekshe

    2012-09-01

    As scientists advance knowledge of the brain and develop technologies to measure, evaluate, and manipulate brain function, numerous questions arise for religious adherents. If neuroscientists can conclusively establish that there is a functional network between neural impulses and an individual's capacity for moral evaluation of situations, this will naturally lead to questions about the relationship between such a network and constructions of moral value and ethical human behavior. For example, if cognitive neuroscience can show that there is a neurophysiological basis for the moral appraisal of situations, it may be argued that the world's religions, which have traditionally been the keepers and purveyors of ethical values, are rendered either spurious or irrelevant. The questions point up broader dilemmas in the interface between science and religion, and raise concerns about the ethics of neurological research and experimentation. Since human beings will still arbitrate what is "moral" or "ethical," how can religious perspectives enrich the dialogue on neuroethical issues and how can neuroscience enrich dialogue on religion? Buddhist views on the nature of consciousness and methods of practice, especially meditation practice, may contribute to discussions on neuroscience and theories about the interrelationship between consciousness and ethical awareness by exploring the role that karma, intentionality, and compassion play in Buddhist understandings of the interrelationship between consciousness and ethics. PMID:22618161

  4. A Series of Computational Neuroscience Labs Increases Comfort with MATLAB

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations allow for a low-cost, reliable means to demonstrate complex and often times inaccessible concepts to undergraduates. However, students without prior computer programming training may find working with code-based simulations to be intimidating and distracting. A series of computational neuroscience labs involving the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, an Integrate-and-Fire model, and a Hopfield Memory network were used in an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory component of an introductory level course. Using short focused surveys before and after each lab, student comfort levels were shown to increase drastically from a majority of students being uncomfortable or with neutral feelings about working in the MATLAB environment to a vast majority of students being comfortable working in the environment. Though change was reported within each lab, a series of labs was necessary in order to establish a lasting high level of comfort. Comfort working with code is important as a first step in acquiring computational skills that are required to address many questions within neuroscience. PMID:26557798

  5. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators' complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a "functional MI" theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers' concerns about teaching and learning. PMID:24391613

  6. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators’ complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a “functional MI” theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers’ concerns about teaching and learning. PMID:24391613

  7. A historical perspective on the collaboration between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Sauvagnat, François; Wiss, Matthias; Clément, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article is to present and discuss the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience from a historical viewpoint. We start by examining how Sigmund Freud can be viewed as a pioneer in the interaction between these two fields. Freud was himself a neurologist and had maintained an interest in biology as he developed the key concepts of psychoanalysis. His ideas regarding psychosomatics are described. We will also explore how the concept of drive is essential to the connection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Then, we describe several key actors and historical events and characters at the interface of these two fields, namely Sándor Radó Lawrence S. Kubie and Mc Culloch, the debates that took place during the Macy conferences, as well as the positions of Jacques Lacan, George L. Engel, and Eric Kandel. Finally, we present a synthesis of the main fields in which the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience are already fruitful, and those where they should be developed: the classification of mental diseases, the link between the scientific and psychic dimensions, therapeutics, the organization of the body, intersubjectivity, the subjective division and ambivalence, as well as transferential effects like such as the placebo and nocebo effects. In the conclusion, we advocate several strategic alliances and underscore the complementarity between rigorous scientific experimentation and the individualized psychoanalytic approach. PMID:20951802

  8. A Series of Computational Neuroscience Labs Increases Comfort with MATLAB.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David F

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations allow for a low-cost, reliable means to demonstrate complex and often times inaccessible concepts to undergraduates. However, students without prior computer programming training may find working with code-based simulations to be intimidating and distracting. A series of computational neuroscience labs involving the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, an Integrate-and-Fire model, and a Hopfield Memory network were used in an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory component of an introductory level course. Using short focused surveys before and after each lab, student comfort levels were shown to increase drastically from a majority of students being uncomfortable or with neutral feelings about working in the MATLAB environment to a vast majority of students being comfortable working in the environment. Though change was reported within each lab, a series of labs was necessary in order to establish a lasting high level of comfort. Comfort working with code is important as a first step in acquiring computational skills that are required to address many questions within neuroscience. PMID:26557798

  9. Technical evolutions of the french multipurpose instruments for cognitive neurosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bois, JM; Legrand, G.; Matsakis, Y.; Venet, M.; McIntyre, J.; Shulenin, A.

    Since the first French flight in space in 1982, the CNES has developed a wide range of instruments, especially in the field of Neurosciences. The design of these instruments has considerably evolved from rather simple equipment up to much more sophisticated tools that are being specially tayloried for these missions. Four major phases can be identified: - a simple adaptation of an echographe leading to the first neurosciences experiments (the ARAGATZ'88 mission), - the ILLUSIONS and VIMINAL instruments used during the ANTARES'92 and ALTAIR'93 missions, - the COGNILAB instrument developed for the CASSIOPEE'96 mission, to be re-used in 1997 and in 1999, - a preliminary design of the 1999 mission payload, including virtual reality concepts, in a modular design to adapt to the European COF. Aside from the evolution of scientific requirements, the experience gained during the flights led to progressive improvements in the different technical parts, including visual system, body restraint systems, accessories, such as a force feedback joystick, computer and software, etc. This paper describes the technical evolutions in the CNES Neurosciences program.

  10. From Effectiveness to Excellence: State School Improvement Policies and Programs. Proceedings of a Seminar (Portland, Oregon, September 12-13, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Goal Based Education Program.

    This report constitutes proceedings of a seminar held in Portland, Oregon (September 1983), by representatives of 15 state education agencies, conceived as a forum for exploring state-level policy and program options. Four topical areas were the subject of speaker presentations: "The Effective Schooling Research Base," by Ronald M. Smith…

  11. AUTHENTIC INVOLVEMENT IN INTERDISCIPLINARY DESIGN, PROCEEDINGS OF CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN EDUCATION (3D, CARNEGIE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, JULY 12-13, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BULKELEY, PETER Z.

    REPORTED ARE THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN EDUCATION. ITS CONCERNS WERE THE CRITICISM AND DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS OF DESIGN LABORATORY WORKSHOPS HELD EARLIER AT EACH OF THE PARTICIPATING INSTITUTIONS. WORKSHOPS WERE CONCERNED WITH FACULTY DEVELOPMENT TO DETERMINE WHETHER TEACHERS, MANY OF WHOM WERE EXPERIENCED IN…

  12. Developing the Next Generation of Civic-Minded Neuroscience Scholars: Incorporating Service Learning and Advocacy Throughout a Neuroscience Program.

    PubMed

    Fox, Cecilia M

    2015-01-01

    The Neuroscience Program of Moravian College aspires to produce well-informed, morally responsible and civically engaged individuals who will become the next generation of community leaders. Through the integration of service learning and advocacy into a Neuroscience curriculum, undergraduates are consistently involved in meaningful community service with instruction and reflection that enriches their learning experience, teaches civic responsibility and strengthens their college and local communities. As a result of our brain awareness outreach programming, formation of a local Society for Neuroscience chapter and advocacy for scientific funding initiatives, we have created a model of student engagement that has connected the academic to the practical in life altering ways for our undergraduates. Our service experiences have become an educational awakening as critical reflective thought creates new meaning and leads to growth and the ability to take informed actions. As expressed in our students' portfolio writings, our service learning endeavors have lead to personal growth, contributed to humane conditions and engaged these citizens in purposeful association with one another. PMID:26557792

  13. Developing the Next Generation of Civic-Minded Neuroscience Scholars: Incorporating Service Learning and Advocacy Throughout a Neuroscience Program

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    The Neuroscience Program of Moravian College aspires to produce well-informed, morally responsible and civically engaged individuals who will become the next generation of community leaders. Through the integration of service learning and advocacy into a Neuroscience curriculum, undergraduates are consistently involved in meaningful community service with instruction and reflection that enriches their learning experience, teaches civic responsibility and strengthens their college and local communities. As a result of our brain awareness outreach programming, formation of a local Society for Neuroscience chapter and advocacy for scientific funding initiatives, we have created a model of student engagement that has connected the academic to the practical in life altering ways for our undergraduates. Our service experiences have become an educational awakening as critical reflective thought creates new meaning and leads to growth and the ability to take informed actions. As expressed in our students’ portfolio writings, our service learning endeavors have lead to personal growth, contributed to humane conditions and engaged these citizens in purposeful association with one another. PMID:26557792

  14. Modular Digital Course in Undergraduate Neuroscience Education (MDCUNE): A Website Offering Free Digital Tools for Neuroscience Educators.

    PubMed

    Grisham, William

    2009-01-01

    We are providing free digital resources for teaching neuroscience labs at http://mdcune.psych.ucla.edu/. These resources will ultimately include materials for teaching laboratories in electrophysiology of neuronal circuits (SWIMMY), a Neuroinformatics/Bioinformatics module, and two modules for investigating the effects of hormones on early CNS development-one focusing on the development of the song system and one focusing on sex differences in spinal cord motor neurons. All of these modules are inquiry based-students gain from genuine experiences in doing actual studies rather than just simulations. These materials should provide instructors the ability to provide good quality laboratory experiences regardless of resource limitations. Currently, modules on sex differences in the spinal cord and virtual neural circuits (SWIMMY) are available on our website. More will be available in summer 2009 and 2010. SWIMMY was demonstrated at the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) Workshop-The Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Interactions, interdisciplines, and curricular best practices at Macalester College in July 2008. PMID:23494065

  15. The 12-13 January 2011 lava fountain of Mt. Etna volcano: total mass and grain-size evaluation of the fallout deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Cristaldi, Antonio; Lo Castro, Maria Deborah; Scollo, Simona

    2013-04-01

    South-East Crater (SEC) of Mt Etna, Italy, is renowned for its sequences of paroxysms, otherwise called episodic eruptions, which produced more than 150 events since 1998. Each episode typically gives rise to eruption columns and fallout deposits over distances of up to several tens of km from the vent. The last sequence consisted of twenty-five lava fountains occurred between 12 January 2011 and 24 April 2012. The 2011-12 sequence began from a pit-vent located on the eastern flank of the cone; with time, the intense and recurrent paroxysmal activity was able to build a new cone above the SEC, renamed New South-East Crater. The first episode was preceded by the resumption of Strombolian activity on 11 January 2011; late in the afternoon of 12 January, the increasing of explosion intensity and frequency led to the formation of powerful magma jets and a dense eruption column which moved toward SSW. The paroxysmal activity lasted about 1 hour and half; afterward it almost abruptly stopped early on 13 January, thus causing also the end of the eruption plume. Based on prevalent winds blowing in the Etnean area, most of the fallout deposits from Etna disperse their tephra fallout eastward toward the Valle del Bove depression, difficulty accessible in the upper part, then reaching the Ionian Sea. These peculiar conditions usually prevent direct observation of the deposit within 5 km from and 15 km beyond the eruptive vent. The 12-13 January lava fountain fallout, conversely, was dispersed over the South of Etna, exceeding the southern coastline of Sicily and thus giving the chance to map, sample and describe for more than 100 km the tephra fallout, passing from a black scoria deposit to ash deposit (90 % of which formed by sideromelane particles). In particular, the proximal deposit (up to 5 km of distance from SEC) was composed of a continuous to almost continuous tephra blanket containing decimetric-sized scoriae to coarse lapilli, while the most distal sites were

  16. Nu Rho Psi, The National Honor Society in Neuroscience: A decade of progress

    PubMed Central

    Hesp, Zoe C.; Cousens, Graham A.; Becker, Lora; Zee, Michele C.; Mickley, G. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Nu Rho Psi, the National Honor Society in Neuroscience, celebrates its 10th anniversary by reflecting back upon a decade’s worth of growth, successes, and accomplishments of its membership. Fundamentally, Nu Rho Psi seeks to engage the nation’s best and brightest science students early in their educational pursuits and steer them towards future careers in neuroscience, thereby driving higher quality neuroscience education and research at all levels. This article details the history of Nu Rho Psi since its founding by the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) and reviews the current programs, benefits, and future initiatives of the Society. We make the case that Nu Rho Psi has enhanced the opportunities for undergraduate students of neuroscience and created a new culture among this vital cohort of budding scientists, reminiscent of the substantial network of faculty educators and departments of neuroscience established by FUN. PMID:27385933

  17. Nu Rho Psi, The National Honor Society in Neuroscience: A decade of progress.

    PubMed

    Hesp, Zoe C; Cousens, Graham A; Becker, Lora; Zee, Michele C; Mickley, G Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Nu Rho Psi, the National Honor Society in Neuroscience, celebrates its 10th anniversary by reflecting back upon a decade's worth of growth, successes, and accomplishments of its membership. Fundamentally, Nu Rho Psi seeks to engage the nation's best and brightest science students early in their educational pursuits and steer them towards future careers in neuroscience, thereby driving higher quality neuroscience education and research at all levels. This article details the history of Nu Rho Psi since its founding by the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) and reviews the current programs, benefits, and future initiatives of the Society. We make the case that Nu Rho Psi has enhanced the opportunities for undergraduate students of neuroscience and created a new culture among this vital cohort of budding scientists, reminiscent of the substantial network of faculty educators and departments of neuroscience established by FUN. PMID:27385933

  18. Representivity of incompletely sampled fall deposits in estimating eruption source parameters: a test using the 12-13 January 2011 lava fountain deposit from Mt. Etna volcano, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Scollo, Simona; Cristaldi, Antonio; Lo Castro, Maria Deborah

    2014-10-01

    The Southeast Crater (SEC) of Mt. Etna, Italy, is renowned for its high activity, mainly long-lived eruptions consisting of sequences of individual paroxysmal episodes which have produced more than 150 eruptive events since 1998. Each episode typically forms eruption columns followed by tephra fallout over distances of up to about 100 km from the vent. One of the last sequences consisted of 25 lava fountaining events, which took place between January 2011 and April 2012 from a pit-vent on the eastern flank of the SEC and built a new scoria cone renamed New Southeast Crater. The first episode on 12-13 January 2011 produced tephra fallout which was unusually dispersed toward to the South extending out over the Mediterranean Sea. The southerly deposition of tephra permitted an extensive survey at distances between ~1 and ~100 km, providing an excellent characterization of the tephra deposit. Here, we document the stratigraphy of the 12-13 January fallout deposit, draw its dispersal, and reconstruct its isopleth map. These data are then used to estimate the main eruption source parameters. The total erupted mass (TEM) was calculated by using four different methodologies which give a mean value of 1.5 ± 0.4 × 108 kg. The mass eruption rate (MER) is 2.5 ± 0.7 × 104 kg/s using eruption duration of 100 min. The total grain-size (TGS) distribution, peaked at -3 phi, ranges between -5 and 5 phi and has a median value of -1.4 phi. Further, for the eruption column height, we obtained respective values of 6.8-13.8 km by using the method of Carey and Sparks (1986) and 3.4 ± 0.3 km by using the methods of Wilson and Walker 1987), Mastin et al. (2009), and Pistolesi et al. (2011) and considering the mean value of MER from the deposit. We also evaluated the uncertainty and reliability of TEM and TGS for scenarios where the proximal and distal samples are not obtainable. This is achieved by only using a sector spanning the downwind distances between 6 and 23 km. This scenario

  19. Building Neural Networks Within the Academy: Connecting Neuroscience to Other Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Wichlinski, Lawrence J.

    2009-01-01

    Never before in human history has there been a more exciting time to be studying neuroscience. By extension, the opportunities have never been greater to examine how contemporary findings in neuroscience might relate to other areas of human inquiry. Over the last two decades I have participated in a number of formal and informal attempts to connect neuroscience and psychology to other academic disciplines in the context of interdisciplinary courses. Herein lies a brief overview of my experiences with these undertakings. PMID:23493585

  20. A Quantitative Examination of Undergraduate Neuroscience Majors Applying and Matriculating to Osteopathic Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Raddy L.; Guercio, Erik; Levitan, Thomas; O’Malley, Shannon; Smith, Phoebe T.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduates choose to become neuroscience majors for a number of reasons including future career goals. Faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs understand that many neuroscience majors have aspirations of applying and matriculating to medical school (Prichard, 2015); however a quantitative understanding of this particular student population remains unknown, especially in the context of the national growth in undergraduate neuroscience education (Ramos et al., 2011). In the present report, we use medical school application data to establish a novel quantitative understanding of the number of neuroscience majors that apply and matriculate to osteopathic medical school. Our data indicate that a substantial number of neuroscience majors do indeed apply and matriculate to medical school compared to other majors in the life sciences, math and physical sciences, and humanities. These data are relevant to faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs and suggest that when programmatic, curricular, and training decisions are made, they should be made in the context of the diverse motivations and professional goals of neuroscience majors including careers in medicine. Finally, our novel quantitative approach of determining student motivation and professional goals based on application/matriculation data, can complement traditional methods such as surveys and questionnaires and can be used to determine the extent to which neuroscience majors apply to other professional and graduate degree programs. PMID:27385924

  1. A Quantitative Examination of Undergraduate Neuroscience Majors Applying and Matriculating to Osteopathic Medical School.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Raddy L; Guercio, Erik; Levitan, Thomas; O'Malley, Shannon; Smith, Phoebe T

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduates choose to become neuroscience majors for a number of reasons including future career goals. Faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs understand that many neuroscience majors have aspirations of applying and matriculating to medical school (Prichard, 2015); however a quantitative understanding of this particular student population remains unknown, especially in the context of the national growth in undergraduate neuroscience education (Ramos et al., 2011). In the present report, we use medical school application data to establish a novel quantitative understanding of the number of neuroscience majors that apply and matriculate to osteopathic medical school. Our data indicate that a substantial number of neuroscience majors do indeed apply and matriculate to medical school compared to other majors in the life sciences, math and physical sciences, and humanities. These data are relevant to faculty and administration of undergraduate neuroscience programs and suggest that when programmatic, curricular, and training decisions are made, they should be made in the context of the diverse motivations and professional goals of neuroscience majors including careers in medicine. Finally, our novel quantitative approach of determining student motivation and professional goals based on application/matriculation data, can complement traditional methods such as surveys and questionnaires and can be used to determine the extent to which neuroscience majors apply to other professional and graduate degree programs. PMID:27385924

  2. A high-resolution annotated physical map of the human chromosome 13q12-13 region containing the breast cancer susceptibility locus BRCA2.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, S G; Cayanis, E; de Fatima Bonaldo, M; Bowcock, A M; Deaven, L L; Edelman, I S; Gallardo, T; Kalachikov, S; Lawton, L; Longmire, J L; Lovett, M; Osborne-Lawrence, S; Rothstein, R; Russo, J J; Soares, M B; Sunjevaric, I; Venkatraj, V S; Warburton, D; Zhang, P; Efstratiadis, A

    1996-01-01

    Various types of physical mapping data were assembled by developing a set of computer programs (Integrated Mapping Package) to derive a detailed, annotated map of a 4-Mb region of human chromosome 13 that includes the BRCA2 locus. The final assembly consists of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig with 42 members spanning the 13q12-13 region and aligned contigs of 399 cosmids established by cross-hybridization between the cosmids, which were selected from a chromosome 13-specific cosmid library using inter-Alu PCR probes from the YACs. The end sequences of 60 cosmids spaced nearly evenly across the map were used to generate sequence-tagged sites (STSs), which were mapped to the YACs by PCR. A contig framework was generated by STS content mapping, and the map was assembled on this scaffold. Additional annotation was provided by 72 expressed sequences and 10 genetic markers that were positioned on the map by hybridization to cosmids. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8570617

  3. Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, a disorder affecting skeletal strength and vision, is assigned to chromosome region 11q12-13

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yaoqin; Liu, Jin; Warman, M.L.

    1996-07-01

    Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome (OPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe juvenile-onset osteoporosis and congenital or juvenile-onset blindness. The pathogenic mechanism is not known. Clinical, biochemical, and microscopic analyses suggest that OPS may be a disorder of matrix homeostasis rather than a disorder of matrix structure. Consequently, identification of the OPS gene and its protein product could provide insights regarding common osteoporotic conditions, such as postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. As a first step toward determining the cause of OPS, we utilized a combination of traditional linkage analysis and homozygosity mapping to assign the OPS locus to chromosome region 11q12-13. Mapping was accomplished by analyzing 16 DNA samples (seven affected individuals) from three different consanguineous kindreds. Studies in 10 additional families narrowed the candidate region, supported locus homogeneity, and did not detect founder effects. The OPS locus maps to a 13-cM interval between D11S1298 and D11S971 and most likely lies in a 3-cM region between GSTP1 and D11S1296. At present, no strong candidate genes colocalize with OPS. 33 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Distribution of Spinal Sensitization Evoked by Inflammatory Pain Using Local Spinal Cord Glucose Utilization Combined with 3H-Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate Binding in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seiko, Yasuda; Kozo, Ishikawa; Yoshihiro, Matsumoto; Toru, Ariyoshi; Hironori, Sasaki; Yuika, Ida; Yasutake, Iwanaga; Hae-Kyu, Kim; Osamu, Nakanishi; Toshizo, Ishikawa

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Hyperalgesia following tissue injury is induced by plasticity in neurotransmission. Few investigators have considered the ascending input which activates the superficial of spinal cord. The aim was to examine neurotransmission and nociceptive processing in the spinal cord after mustard-oil (MO) injection. Both in vitro and in vivo autoradiographs were employed for neuronal activity and transmission in discrete spinal cord regions using the 14C-2-deoxyglucose method and 3H-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (3H-PDBu) binding sites. Methods. To quantify the hyperalgesia evoked by MO, the flinching was counted for 60 min after MO (20%, 50 μL) injection in Wistar rats. Simultaneous determination of 14C-2-deoxyglucose and 3H-PDBu binding was used for a direct observation of neuronal/metabolic changes and intracellular signaling in the spinal cord. Results. MO injection evoked an increase in flinching for 60 min. LSCGU significantly increased in the Rexed I-II with 3H-PDBu binding in the ipsilateral side of spinal cord. Discussion. We clearly demonstrated that the hyperalgesia is primarily relevant to increased neuronal activation with PKC activation in the Rexed I-II of the spinal cord. In addition, functional changes such as “neuronal plasticity” may result in increased neuronal excitability and a central sensitization. PMID:27335874

  5. Computation of measures of effect size for neuroscience data sets.

    PubMed

    Hentschke, Harald; Stüttgen, Maik C

    2011-12-01

    The overwhelming majority of research in the neurosciences employs P-values stemming from tests of statistical significance to decide on the presence or absence of an effect of some treatment variable. Although a continuous variable, the P-value is commonly used to reach a dichotomous decision about the presence of an effect around an arbitrary criterion of 0.05. This analysis strategy is widely used, but has been heavily criticized in the past decades. To counter frequent misinterpretations of P-values, it has been advocated to complement or replace P-values with measures of effect size (MES). Many psychological, biological and medical journals now recommend reporting appropriate MES. One hindrance to the more frequent use of MES may be their scarcity in standard statistical software packages. Also, the arguably most widespread data analysis software in neuroscience, matlab, does not provide MES beyond correlation and receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Here we review the most common criticisms of significance testing and provide several examples from neuroscience where use of MES conveys insights not amenable through the use of P-values alone. We introduce an open-access matlab toolbox providing a wide range of MES to complement the frequently used types of hypothesis tests, such as t-tests and analysis of variance. The accompanying documentation provides calculation formulae, intuitive explanations and example calculations for each measure. The toolbox described is usable without sophisticated statistical knowledge and should be useful to neuroscientists wishing to enhance their repertoire of statistical reporting. PMID:22082031

  6. Cephalopods in neuroscience: regulations, research and the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Graziano; Affuso, Andrea; Anderson, David B; Basil, Jennifer; Bonnaud, Laure; Botta, Giovanni; Cole, Alison; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Dennison, Ngaire; Dickel, Ludovic; Di Cosmo, Anna; Di Cristo, Carlo; Gestal, Camino; Fonseca, Rute; Grasso, Frank; Kristiansen, Tore; Kuba, Michael; Maffucci, Fulvio; Manciocco, Arianna; Mark, Felix Christopher; Melillo, Daniela; Osorio, Daniel; Palumbo, Anna; Perkins, Kerry; Ponte, Giovanna; Raspa, Marcello; Shashar, Nadav; Smith, Jane; Smith, David; Sykes, António; Villanueva, Roger; Tublitz, Nathan; Zullo, Letizia; Andrews, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Cephalopods have been utilised in neuroscience research for more than 100 years particularly because of their phenotypic plasticity, complex and centralised nervous system, tractability for studies of learning and cellular mechanisms of memory (e.g. long-term potentiation) and anatomical features facilitating physiological studies (e.g. squid giant axon and synapse). On 1 January 2013, research using any of the about 700 extant species of "live cephalopods" became regulated within the European Union by Directive 2010/63/EU on the "Protection of Animals used for Scientific Purposes", giving cephalopods the same EU legal protection as previously afforded only to vertebrates. The Directive has a number of implications, particularly for neuroscience research. These include: (1) projects will need justification, authorisation from local competent authorities, and be subject to review including a harm-benefit assessment and adherence to the 3Rs principles (Replacement, Refinement and Reduction). (2) To support project evaluation and compliance with the new EU law, guidelines specific to cephalopods will need to be developed, covering capture, transport, handling, housing, care, maintenance, health monitoring, humane anaesthesia, analgesia and euthanasia. (3) Objective criteria need to be developed to identify signs of pain, suffering, distress and lasting harm particularly in the context of their induction by an experimental procedure. Despite diversity of views existing on some of these topics, this paper reviews the above topics and describes the approaches being taken by the cephalopod research community (represented by the authorship) to produce "guidelines" and the potential contribution of neuroscience research to cephalopod welfare. PMID:24385049

  7. The Clinical Neuroscience Course: Viewing Mental Health from Neurobiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Kelly G.

    2005-01-01

    Although the field of neuroscience is booming, a challenge for researchers in mental health disciplines is the integration of basic research findings into applied clinical approaches leading to effective therapies. Recently the National Institute of Mental Health called for translational research grants to encourage collaboration between neuroscientists and mental health professionals. In order for this “clinical neuroscience” to emerge and thrive, an important first step is the provision of appropriate course offerings so that future neuroscience researchers and mental health practitioners will have a common neurobiological base from which to make informed decisions about the most efficacious treatments for mental illnesses. Accordingly, an integrative course, Clinical Neuroscience, was developed to address these issues. After reviewing the historical origins of this emerging discipline, students are exposed to fundamental overviews of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neural development before approaching the neurobiological components of several disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, depression, Tourette’s syndrome, drug abuse, obsessive compulsive disorder). Finally, the maintenance of mental health is emphasized as topics such as psychoneuroimmunology, coping with stress, and eating regulation are discussed. Important themes emphasized in this course include (1) the consideration of only empirically based evidence, (2) the view that mental illness represents a disruption of neurobiological homeostasis, (3) the acknowledgement that, because the brain is a plastic organ, the clinical relevance of environmental and behavioral influences is difficult to overestimate, and (4) the recognition of the value of ecologically relevant animal models in the investigation of various aspects of mental illness. Because of the importance of stress maintenance in mental health, exercises have been developed to increase students’ awareness of their own coping strategies

  8. Representational Similarity Analysis – Connecting the Branches of Systems Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Mur, Marieke; Bandettini, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for systems neuroscience is to quantitatively relate its three major branches of research: brain-activity measurement, behavioral measurement, and computational modeling. Using measured brain-activity patterns to evaluate computational network models is complicated by the need to define the correspondency between the units of the model and the channels of the brain-activity data, e.g., single-cell recordings or voxels from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Similar correspondency problems complicate relating activity patterns between different modalities of brain-activity measurement (e.g., fMRI and invasive or scalp electrophysiology), and between subjects and species. In order to bridge these divides, we suggest abstracting from the activity patterns themselves and computing representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs), which characterize the information carried by a given representation in a brain or model. Building on a rich psychological and mathematical literature on similarity analysis, we propose a new experimental and data-analytical framework called representational similarity analysis (RSA), in which multi-channel measures of neural activity are quantitatively related to each other and to computational theory and behavior by comparing RDMs. We demonstrate RSA by relating representations of visual objects as measured with fMRI in early visual cortex and the fusiform face area to computational models spanning a wide range of complexities. The RDMs are simultaneously related via second-level application of multidimensional scaling and tested using randomization and bootstrap techniques. We discuss the broad potential of RSA, including novel approaches to experimental design, and argue that these ideas, which have deep roots in psychology and neuroscience, will allow the integrated quantitative analysis of data from all three branches, thus contributing to a more unified systems neuroscience. PMID:19104670

  9. The embodied brain: towards a radical embodied cognitive neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Kiverstein, Julian; Miller, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In this programmatic paper we explain why a radical embodied cognitive neuroscience is needed. We argue for such a claim based on problems that have arisen in cognitive neuroscience for the project of localizing function to specific brain structures. The problems come from research concerned with functional and structural connectivity that strongly suggests that the function a brain region serves is dynamic, and changes over time. We argue that in order to determine the function of a specific brain area, neuroscientists need to zoom out and look at the larger organism-environment system. We therefore argue that instead of looking to cognitive psychology for an analysis of psychological functions, cognitive neuroscience should look to an ecological dynamical psychology. A second aim of our paper is to develop an account of embodied cognition based on the inseparability of cognitive and emotional processing in the brain. We argue that emotions are best understood in terms of action readiness (Frijda, 1986, 2007) in the context of the organism’s ongoing skillful engagement with the environment (Rietveld, 2008; Bruineberg and Rietveld, 2014; Kiverstein and Rietveld, 2015, forthcoming). States of action readiness involve the whole living body of the organism, and are elicited by possibilities for action in the environment that matter to the organism. Since emotion and cognition are inseparable processes in the brain it follows that what is true of emotion is also true of cognition. Cognitive processes are likewise processes taking place in the whole living body of an organism as it engages with relevant possibilities for action. PMID:25999836

  10. The embodied brain: towards a radical embodied cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kiverstein, Julian; Miller, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In this programmatic paper we explain why a radical embodied cognitive neuroscience is needed. We argue for such a claim based on problems that have arisen in cognitive neuroscience for the project of localizing function to specific brain structures. The problems come from research concerned with functional and structural connectivity that strongly suggests that the function a brain region serves is dynamic, and changes over time. We argue that in order to determine the function of a specific brain area, neuroscientists need to zoom out and look at the larger organism-environment system. We therefore argue that instead of looking to cognitive psychology for an analysis of psychological functions, cognitive neuroscience should look to an ecological dynamical psychology. A second aim of our paper is to develop an account of embodied cognition based on the inseparability of cognitive and emotional processing in the brain. We argue that emotions are best understood in terms of action readiness (Frijda, 1986, 2007) in the context of the organism's ongoing skillful engagement with the environment (Rietveld, 2008; Bruineberg and Rietveld, 2014; Kiverstein and Rietveld, 2015, forthcoming). States of action readiness involve the whole living body of the organism, and are elicited by possibilities for action in the environment that matter to the organism. Since emotion and cognition are inseparable processes in the brain it follows that what is true of emotion is also true of cognition. Cognitive processes are likewise processes taking place in the whole living body of an organism as it engages with relevant possibilities for action. PMID:25999836

  11. In vivo Coherent Raman Imaging for Neuroscience Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    The use of coherent Raman imaging is described for applications in neuroscience. Myelin imaging of the spinal cord can be performed with Raman imaging through the use of the vibration in carbon-hydrogen bonds, dominant in lipids. First, we demonstrate in vivo histomorphometry in live animal for characterization of myelin-related nervous system pathologies. This is used to characterize spinal cord health during multiple sclerosis. Second, Raman spectroscopy of tissue is discussed. We discuss the challenges that live animal imaging brings, together with important aspects of coherent Raman imaging in tissue.

  12. Funding Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: CCLI Yesterday and Today

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Nancy L.; Small, Jeanne R.; Woodin, Terry

    2006-01-01

    For over 20 years, the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) at the National Science Foundation (NSF) has been supporting undergraduate curricula in the sciences, including neuroscience. NSF’s priorities in undergraduate education, however, have evolved during that period, and the competition for grants has increased. This history and overview of the current Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement program (CCLI) illustrates the changing philosophy of DUE with regard to its curricular programs. It is hoped that understanding the current emphasis on assessing the outcomes of curricular changes and disseminating their results will help interested science faculty write better proposals and compete more effectively for funds. PMID:23493497

  13. John Hughlings Jackson and the conceptual foundations of the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, S H

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral localization, including hierarchical organization of the nervous system, was the critical conceptual advance that made possible the development of modern neuroscience in the nineteenth century. Some of our most basic ideas about neural organization were contributed by Hughlings Jackson. In the early twentieth century, Charles Sherrington combined localization with the neurone theory to create the paradigm of neurophysiological integration. Because Sherrington was educated in the Jacksonian tradition of British neurology, Sherringtonian integration contains ideas that are derived from Jackson and from Herbert Spencer. PMID:11640240

  14. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Adolescent Sexual Risk and Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Ryman, Sephira G; Gillman, Arielle S; Weiland, Barbara J; Thayer, Rachel E; Bryan, Angela D

    2016-01-01

    Human adolescents engage in very high rates of unprotected sex. This behavior has a high potential for unintended, serious, and sustained health consequences including HIV/AIDS. Despite these serious health consequences, we know little about the neural and cognitive factors that influence adolescents' decision-making around sex, and their potential overlap with behaviorally co-occurring risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Thus, in this review, we evaluate the developmental neuroscience of sexual risk and alcohol use for human adolescents with an eye to relevant prevention and intervention implications. PMID:26290051

  15. Applications of CRISPR-Cas systems in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Heidenreich, Matthias; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing tools, and in particular those based on CRISPR-Cas systems, are accelerating the pace of biological research and enabling targeted genetic interrogation in virtually any organism and cell type. These tools have opened the door to the development of new model systems for studying the complexity of the nervous system, including animal and stem cell-derived in vitro models. Precise and efficient gene editing using CRISPR-Cas systems has the potential to advance both basic and translational neuroscience research. PMID:26656253

  16. The challenge of non-ergodicity in network neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Medaglia, John D; Ramanathan, Deepa M; Venkatesan, Umesh M; Hillary, Frank G

    2011-01-01

    Ergodicity can be assumed when the structure of data is consistent across individuals and time. Neural network approaches do not frequently test for ergodicity in data which holds important consequences for data integration and intepretation. To demonstrate this problem, we present several network models in healthy and clinical samples where there exists considerable heterogeneity across individuals. We offer suggestions for the analysis, interpretation, and reporting of neural network data. The goal is to arrive at an understanding of the sources of non-ergodicity and approaches for valid network modeling in neuroscience. PMID:22149675

  17. The Neuroscience of Memory: Implications for the Courtroom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although memory can be hazy at times, it is often assumed that memories of violent or otherwise stressful events are so well-encoded that they are largely indelible and that confidently retrieved memories are likely to be accurate. However, findings from basic psychological research and neuroscience studies indicate that memory is a reconstructive process that is susceptible to distortion. In the courtroom, even minor memory distortions can have severe consequences that are in part driven by common misunderstandings about memory, e.g. expecting memory to be more veridical than it may actually be. PMID:23942467

  18. Neuroscience, Ethics, and National Security: The State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Tennison, Michael N.; Moreno, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    National security organizations in the United States, including the armed services and the intelligence community, have developed a close relationship with the scientific establishment. The latest technology often fuels warfighting and counter-intelligence capacities, providing the tactical advantages thought necessary to maintain geopolitical dominance and national security. Neuroscience has emerged as a prominent focus within this milieu, annually receiving hundreds of millions of Department of Defense dollars. Its role in national security operations raises ethical issues that need to be addressed to ensure the pragmatic synthesis of ethical accountability and national security. PMID:22448146

  19. Computational Neuroscience: Modeling the Systems Biology of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kotaleski, Jeanette Hellgren; Blackwell, Kim T.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Synaptic plasticity is a mechanism proposed to underlie learning and memory. The complexity of the interactions between ion channels, enzymes, and genes involved in synaptic plasticity impedes a deep understanding of this phenomenon. Computer modeling is an approach to investigate the information processing that is performed by signaling pathways underlying synaptic plasticity. In the past few years, new software developments that blend computational neuroscience techniques with systems biology techniques have allowed large-scale, quantitative modeling of synaptic plasticity in neurons. We highlight significant advancements produced by these modeling efforts and introduce promising approaches that utilize advancements in live cell imaging. PMID:20300102

  20. External reviews, internal influences: consultations and the undergraduate neuroscience curriculum.

    PubMed

    Wiertelak, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 FUN established the FUN Program and Department Consultations Service, or FUN-PDCS. Since that founding, the service has provided numerous consultation recommendations to undergraduate programs seeking assistance with external program reviews, designing and improving courses and many other programmatic needs. FUN-PDCS, like FUN, is primarily a grassroots organization and draws on the expertise of the FUN membership to aid programs in their more personalized pursuit of the FUN mission: to promote and improve undergraduate neuroscience education and research. PMID:23493648

  1. Neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: From responsibility to dangerousness. Ethical and legal implications of using neuroscience for dangerousness assessments.

    PubMed

    Gkotsi, Georgia Martha; Gasser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility. Judges confronted with the pressure to ensure public security may tend to interpret neuroscientific knowledge and data as an objective and reliable way of evaluating one's risk of reoffending. First, we aim to show how the current socio-legal context has reshaped the task of the forensic psychiatrist, with dangerousness assessments prevailing. In the second part, we examine from a critical point of view the promise of neuroscience to serve a better criminal justice system by offering new tools for risk assessment. Then we aim to explain why neuroscientific evidence is likely to be used as evidence of dangerousness of the defendants. On a theoretical level, the current tendency in criminal policies to focus on prognostics of dangerousness seems to be "justified" by a utilitarian approach to punishment, supposedly revealed by new neuroscientific discoveries that challenge the notions of free will and responsibility. Although often promoted as progressive and humane, we believe that this approach could lead to an instrumentalization of neuroscience in the interest of public safety and give rise to interventions which could entail ethical caveats and run counter to the interests of the offenders. The last part of this paper deals with some of these issues-the danger of stigmatization for brain damaged offenders because of

  2. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  3. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  7. 12 CFR 745.10 - Accounts held by government depositors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounts held by government depositors. 745.10 Section 745.10 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SHARE INSURANCE AND APPENDIX Clarification and Definition of Account Insurance Coverage § 745.10 Accounts held by government depositors....

  8. 12 CFR 745.10 - Accounts held by government depositors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounts held by government depositors. 745.10 Section 745.10 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SHARE INSURANCE AND APPENDIX Clarification and Definition of Account Insurance Coverage § 745.10 Accounts held by government depositors....

  9. 12 CFR 745.10 - Accounts held by government depositors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounts held by government depositors. 745.10 Section 745.10 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SHARE INSURANCE AND APPENDIX Clarification and Definition of Account Insurance Coverage § 745.10 Accounts held by government depositors....

  10. Myosin light chain phosphorylation in sup 32 P-labeled rabbit aorta stimulated by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate and phenylephrine

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, H.A.; Oren, J.W.; Benscoter, H.A. )

    1989-12-15

    The mechanism(s) of force development in vascular smooth muscle following pharmacological activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters are not known. In this study, we examined the myosin light chain phosphorylation response following stimulation by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) or phenylephrine in rabbit aorta which had been incubated with 32PO4 in order to label ATP pools. Through tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of myosin light chain from intact tissue and comparison to controls using purified components, we inferred that Ca2+-dependent force stimulated by PDB was associated with small increases in serine-19 phosphorylation, consistent with a contractile mechanism involving indirect activation of myosin light chain kinase. Additional residues, consistent with the in vitro substrate specificity of protein kinase C, were also observed to be phosphorylated in response to PDB and represented proportionately a larger fraction of the total phosphorylated myosin light chain in Ca2+-depleted tissues. Stimulation by an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist (phenylephrine) resulted in phosphorylation of residues which were consistent with an activation mechanism involving myosin light chain kinase only. These results indicate that in rabbit aorta the contractile effects of PDB may be partially mediated by Ca2+-dependent activation of myosin light chain kinase. However, the data do not rule out a component of the PDB-stimulated contractile response which is independent of myosin light chain phosphorylation on the serine-19 residue. In addition, activation by a more physiological stimulus, phenylephrine, does not result in protein kinase C-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation.

  11. Supercomputers ready for use as discovery machines for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Helias, Moritz; Kunkel, Susanne; Masumoto, Gen; Igarashi, Jun; Eppler, Jochen Martin; Ishii, Shin; Fukai, Tomoki; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    NEST is a widely used tool to simulate biological spiking neural networks. Here we explain the improvements, guided by a mathematical model of memory consumption, that enable us to exploit for the first time the computational power of the K supercomputer for neuroscience. Multi-threaded components for wiring and simulation combine 8 cores per MPI process to achieve excellent scaling. K is capable of simulating networks corresponding to a brain area with 10(8) neurons and 10(12) synapses in the worst case scenario of random connectivity; for larger networks of the brain its hierarchical organization can be exploited to constrain the number of communicating computer nodes. We discuss the limits of the software technology, comparing maximum filling scaling plots for K and the JUGENE BG/P system. The usability of these machines for network simulations has become comparable to running simulations on a single PC. Turn-around times in the range of minutes even for the largest systems enable a quasi interactive working style and render simulations on this scale a practical tool for computational neuroscience. PMID:23129998

  12. Supercomputers Ready for Use as Discovery Machines for Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Helias, Moritz; Kunkel, Susanne; Masumoto, Gen; Igarashi, Jun; Eppler, Jochen Martin; Ishii, Shin; Fukai, Tomoki; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    NEST is a widely used tool to simulate biological spiking neural networks. Here we explain the improvements, guided by a mathematical model of memory consumption, that enable us to exploit for the first time the computational power of the K supercomputer for neuroscience. Multi-threaded components for wiring and simulation combine 8 cores per MPI process to achieve excellent scaling. K is capable of simulating networks corresponding to a brain area with 108 neurons and 1012 synapses in the worst case scenario of random connectivity; for larger networks of the brain its hierarchical organization can be exploited to constrain the number of communicating computer nodes. We discuss the limits of the software technology, comparing maximum filling scaling plots for K and the JUGENE BG/P system. The usability of these machines for network simulations has become comparable to running simulations on a single PC. Turn-around times in the range of minutes even for the largest systems enable a quasi interactive working style and render simulations on this scale a practical tool for computational neuroscience. PMID:23129998

  13. Behavioral Observation of Xenopus Tadpole Swimming for Neuroscience Labs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Chang; Wagner, Monica; Porter, Nicola J.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience labs benefit from reliable, easily-monitored neural responses mediated by well-studied neural pathways. Xenopus laevis tadpoles have been used as a simple vertebrate model preparation in motor control studies. Most of the neuronal pathways underlying different aspects of tadpole swimming behavior have been revealed. These include the skin mechanosensory touch and pineal eye light-sensing pathways whose activation can initiate swimming, and the cement gland pressure-sensing pathway responsible for stopping swimming. A simple transection in the hindbrain can cut off the pineal eye and cement gland pathways from the swimming circuit in the spinal cord, resulting in losses of corresponding functions. Additionally, some pharmacological experiments targeting neurotransmission can be designed to affect swimming and, fluorescence-conjugated α–bungarotoxin can be used to label nicotinic receptors at neuromuscular junctions. These experiments can be readily adapted for undergraduate neuroscience teaching labs. Possible expansions of some experiments for more sophisticated pharmacological or neurophysiological labs are also discussed. PMID:24693257

  14. Semisupervised Clustering by Iterative Partition and Regression with Neuroscience Applications

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Guoqi; Wu, Yuehua; Ferrari, Davide; Qiao, Puxue; Hollande, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Regression clustering is a mixture of unsupervised and supervised statistical learning and data mining method which is found in a wide range of applications including artificial intelligence and neuroscience. It performs unsupervised learning when it clusters the data according to their respective unobserved regression hyperplanes. The method also performs supervised learning when it fits regression hyperplanes to the corresponding data clusters. Applying regression clustering in practice requires means of determining the underlying number of clusters in the data, finding the cluster label of each data point, and estimating the regression coefficients of the model. In this paper, we review the estimation and selection issues in regression clustering with regard to the least squares and robust statistical methods. We also provide a model selection based technique to determine the number of regression clusters underlying the data. We further develop a computing procedure for regression clustering estimation and selection. Finally, simulation studies are presented for assessing the procedure, together with analyzing a real data set on RGB cell marking in neuroscience to illustrate and interpret the method. PMID:27212939

  15. The use of case studies in teaching undergraduate neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Meil, William M

    2007-01-01

    Case studies have been the cornerstone of many discoveries in neurology and continue to be an indispensable source of knowledge. Attaching a name, face, and story to the study of neurological disorders makes them more "real" and memorable. This article describes the value of the case study methodology and its advantages as a pedagogical approach. It also illustrates how the seminal case of H.M. can be used to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the case study methodology. Three exercises are described for incorporating case studies into neuroscience courses. The first exercise requires students to conduct a literature review regarding their assigned case and then design an experiment to address a lingering question regarding that neurological disorder. Survey results of 90 students provide quantitative and qualitative support for this approach. The vast majority of students indicated this exercise was a valuable learning experience; sparked interest in the topic and in biopsychology; increased their knowledge and stimulated critical thinking. The second exercise discusses how students might conduct their own case studies. The third exercise emphasizes the use of case studies as a platform to examine competing hypotheses regarding neurological conditions and their treatment. A table listing case studies appropriate for undergraduate neuroscience courses is included. Cases are categorized by the type of neurological disorder and notes regarding the nature of and content of each case are provided. PMID:23493154

  16. Cognitive Neuroscience and Causal Inference: Implications for Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Nadine; de Bruin, Leon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate to what extent it is justified to draw conclusions about causal relations between brain states and mental states from cognitive neuroscience studies. We first explain the views of two prominent proponents of the interventionist account of causation: Woodward and Baumgartner. We then discuss the implications of their views in the context of traditional cognitive neuroscience studies in which the effect of changes in mental state on changes in brain states is investigated. After this, we turn to brain stimulation studies in which brain states are manipulated to investigate the effects on mental states. We argue that, depending on whether one sides with Woodward or Baumgartner, it is possible to draw causal conclusions from both types of studies (Woodward) or from brain stimulation studies only (Baumgartner). We show what happens to these conclusions if we adopt different views of the relation between mental states and brain states. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for psychiatry and the treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:27486408

  17. Indestructible plastic: the neuroscience of the new aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Constance; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, research on experience-dependent plasticity has provided valuable insight on adaptation to environmental input across the lifespan, and advances in understanding the minute cellular changes underlying the brain’s capacity for self-reorganization have opened exciting new possibilities for treating illness and injury. Ongoing work in this line of inquiry has also come to deeply influence another field: cognitive neuroscience of the normal aging. This complex process, once considered inevitable or beyond the reach of treatment, has been transformed into an arena of intense investigation and strategic intervention. However, important questions remain about this characterization of the aging brain, and the assumptions it makes about the social, cultural, and biological space occupied by cognition in the older individual and body. The following paper will provide a critical examination of the move from basic experiments on the neurophysiology of experience-dependent plasticity to the growing market for (and public conception of) cognitive aging as a medicalized space for intervention by neuroscience-backed technologies. Entangled with changing concepts of normality, pathology, and self-preservation, we will argue that this new understanding, led by personalized cognitive training strategies, is approaching a point where interdisciplinary research is crucial to provide a holistic and nuanced understanding of the aging process. This new outlook will allow us to move forward in a space where our knowledge, like our new conception of the brain, is never static. PMID:24782746

  18. Cognitive Neuroscience and Causal Inference: Implications for Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Nadine; de Bruin, Leon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate to what extent it is justified to draw conclusions about causal relations between brain states and mental states from cognitive neuroscience studies. We first explain the views of two prominent proponents of the interventionist account of causation: Woodward and Baumgartner. We then discuss the implications of their views in the context of traditional cognitive neuroscience studies in which the effect of changes in mental state on changes in brain states is investigated. After this, we turn to brain stimulation studies in which brain states are manipulated to investigate the effects on mental states. We argue that, depending on whether one sides with Woodward or Baumgartner, it is possible to draw causal conclusions from both types of studies (Woodward) or from brain stimulation studies only (Baumgartner). We show what happens to these conclusions if we adopt different views of the relation between mental states and brain states. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for psychiatry and the treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:27486408

  19. Prevention Neuroscience: A new frontier for preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Prevention neuroscience may be defined as follows: an interdisciplinary field concerned with the neurobiological factors that influence susceptibility to preventable disease, disability or mortality. It includes, but is not limited to: examination of brain health as an outcome, brain activity as a predictor of health outcomes, brain structures/systems as causal determinants of health outcomes (e.g., health behaviours), and the brain as a mediator of other causal influences (e.g., social conditions) on health outcomes. This commentary describes concepts, theory and research illustrating each of these scenarios using exercise, smoking cessation, dietary behaviour, and health disparities as examples. It is argued that neuroscience may provide both concepts and methods that may be possible (even fruitful) to incorporate into preventive medicine research and health promotion practise. Although public health practitioners and cognitive neuroscientists have not traditionally crossed paths outside of the context of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and other dementias, it is easy to envision a future where many common disease prevention activities involve collaboration between the two disciplines, and the cache of tools available to the preventive medicine expert includes neuroimaging and neuromodulation techniques. PMID:26876625

  20. The marmoset monkey as a model for visual neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jude F.; Leopold, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been valuable as a primate model in biomedical research. Interest in this species has grown recently, in part due to the successful demonstration of transgenic marmosets. Here we examine the prospects of the marmoset model for visual neuroscience research, adopting a comparative framework to place the marmoset within a broader evolutionary context. The marmoset’s small brain bears most of the organizational features of other primates, and its smooth surface offers practical advantages over the macaque for areal mapping, laminar electrode penetration, and two-photon and optical imaging. Behaviorally, marmosets are more limited at performing regimented psychophysical tasks, but do readily accept the head restraint that is necessary for accurate eye tracking and neurophysiology, and can perform simple discriminations. Their natural gaze behavior closely resembles that of other primates, with a tendency to focus on objects of social interest including faces. Their immaturity at birth and routine twinning also makes them ideal for the study of postnatal visual development. These experimental factors, together with the theoretical advantages inherent in comparing anatomy, physiology, and behavior across related species, make the marmoset an excellent model for visual neuroscience. PMID:25683292

  1. The development of reading impairment: a cognitive neuroscience model.

    PubMed

    McCandliss, Bruce D; Noble, Kimberly G

    2003-01-01

    This review discusses recent cognitive neuroscience investigations into the biological bases of developmental dyslexia, a common disorder impacting approximately 5 to 17 percent of the population. Our aim is to summarize central findings from several lines of evidence that converge on pivotal aspects of the brain bases of developmental dyslexia. We highlight ways in which the approaches and methodologies of developmental cognitive neuroscience that are addressed in this special issue-including neuroimaging, human genetics, refinement of cognitive and biological phenotypes, neural plasticity and computational model-can be employed in uncovering the biological bases of this disorder. Taking a developmental perspective on the biological bases of dyslexia, we propose a simple cascading model for the developmental progression of this disorder, in which individual differences in brain areas associated with phonological processing might influence the specialization of visual areas involved in the rapid processing of written words. We also discuss recent efforts to understand the impact of successful reading interventions in terms of changes within cortical circuits associated with reading ability. PMID:12953299

  2. Indestructible plastic: the neuroscience of the new aging brain.

    PubMed

    Holman, Constance; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, research on experience-dependent plasticity has provided valuable insight on adaptation to environmental input across the lifespan, and advances in understanding the minute cellular changes underlying the brain's capacity for self-reorganization have opened exciting new possibilities for treating illness and injury. Ongoing work in this line of inquiry has also come to deeply influence another field: cognitive neuroscience of the normal aging. This complex process, once considered inevitable or beyond the reach of treatment, has been transformed into an arena of intense investigation and strategic intervention. However, important questions remain about this characterization of the aging brain, and the assumptions it makes about the social, cultural, and biological space occupied by cognition in the older individual and body. The following paper will provide a critical examination of the move from basic experiments on the neurophysiology of experience-dependent plasticity to the growing market for (and public conception of) cognitive aging as a medicalized space for intervention by neuroscience-backed technologies. Entangled with changing concepts of normality, pathology, and self-preservation, we will argue that this new understanding, led by personalized cognitive training strategies, is approaching a point where interdisciplinary research is crucial to provide a holistic and nuanced understanding of the aging process. This new outlook will allow us to move forward in a space where our knowledge, like our new conception of the brain, is never static. PMID:24782746

  3. The Use of Case Studies in Teaching Undergraduate Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Meil, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Case studies have been the cornerstone of many discoveries in neurology and continue to be an indispensable source of knowledge. Attaching a name, face, and story to the study of neurological disorders makes them more “real” and memorable. This article describes the value of the case study methodology and its advantages as a pedagogical approach. It also illustrates how the seminal case of H.M. can be used to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the case study methodology. Three exercises are described for incorporating case studies into neuroscience courses. The first exercise requires students to conduct a literature review regarding their assigned case and then design an experiment to address a lingering question regarding that neurological disorder. Survey results of 90 students provide quantitative and qualitative support for this approach. The vast majority of students indicated this exercise was a valuable learning experience; sparked interest in the topic and in biopsychology; increased their knowledge and stimulated critical thinking. The second exercise discusses how students might conduct their own case studies. The third exercise emphasizes the use of case studies as a platform to examine competing hypotheses regarding neurological conditions and their treatment. A table listing case studies appropriate for undergraduate neuroscience courses is included. Cases are categorized by the type of neurological disorder and notes regarding the nature of and content of each case are provided. PMID:23493154

  4. Approaches for targeted proteomics and its potential applications in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sumit; Chourasia, Dipti; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-09-01

    An extensive guide on practicable and significant quantitative proteomic approaches in neuroscience research is important not only because of the existing overwhelming limitations but also for gaining valuable understanding into brain function and deciphering proteomics from the workbench to the bedside. Early methodologies to understand the functioning of biological systems are now improving with high-throughput technologies, which allow analysis of various samples concurrently, or of thousand of analytes in a particular sample. Quantitative proteomic approaches include both gel-based and non-gel-based methods that can be further divided into different labelling approaches. This review will emphasize the role of existing technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their applications in neuroscience. This review will also discuss advanced approaches for targeted proteomics using isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) coupled with laser capture microdissection (LCM) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. This technology can further be extended to single cell proteomics in other areas of biological sciences and can be combined with other 'omics' approaches to reveal the mechanism of a cellular alterations. This approach may lead to further investigation in basic biology, disease analysis and surveillance, as well as drug discovery. Although numerous challenges still exist, we are confident that this approach will increase the understanding of pathological mechanisms involved in neuroendocrinology, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders by delivering protein biomarker signatures for brain dysfunction. PMID:26333406

  5. Common Data Model for Neuroscience Data and Data Model Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Daniel; Knuth, Kevin H.; Abato, Michael; Erde, Steven M.; White, Thomas; DeBellis, Robert; Gardner, Esther P.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Generalizing the data models underlying two prototype neurophysiology databases, the authors describe and propose the Common Data Model (CDM) as a framework for federating a broad spectrum of disparate neuroscience information resources. Design: Each component of the CDM derives from one of five superclasses—data, site, method, model, and reference—or from relations defined between them. A hierarchic attribute-value scheme for metadata enables interoperability with variable tree depth to serve specific intra- or broad inter-domain queries. To mediate data exchange between disparate systems, the authors propose a set of XML-derived schema for describing not only data sets but data models. These include biophysical description markup language (BDML), which mediates interoperability between data resources by providing a meta-description for the CDM. Results: The set of superclasses potentially spans data needs of contemporary neuroscience. Data elements abstracted from neurophysiology time series and histogram data represent data sets that differ in dimension and concordance. Site elements transcend neurons to describe subcellular compartments, circuits, regions, or slices; non-neuroanatomic sites include sequences to patients. Methods and models are highly domain-dependent. Conclusions: True federation of data resources requires explicit public description, in a metalanguage, of the contents, query methods, data formats, and data models of each data resource. Any data model that can be derived from the defined superclasses is potentially conformant and interoperability can be enabled by recognition of BDML-described compatibilities. Such metadescriptions can buffer technologic changes. PMID:11141510

  6. Hardware-accelerated interactive data visualization for neuroscience in Python

    PubMed Central

    Rossant, Cyrille; Harris, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    Large datasets are becoming more and more common in science, particularly in neuroscience where experimental techniques are rapidly evolving. Obtaining interpretable results from raw data can sometimes be done automatically; however, there are numerous situations where there is a need, at all processing stages, to visualize the data in an interactive way. This enables the scientist to gain intuition, discover unexpected patterns, and find guidance about subsequent analysis steps. Existing visualization tools mostly focus on static publication-quality figures and do not support interactive visualization of large datasets. While working on Python software for visualization of neurophysiological data, we developed techniques to leverage the computational power of modern graphics cards for high-performance interactive data visualization. We were able to achieve very high performance despite the interpreted and dynamic nature of Python, by using state-of-the-art, fast libraries such as NumPy, PyOpenGL, and PyTables. We present applications of these methods to visualization of neurophysiological data. We believe our tools will be useful in a broad range of domains, in neuroscience and beyond, where there is an increasing need for scalable and fast interactive visualization. PMID:24391582

  7. Dispatches from the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society meeting 2014. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Brigman, Jonathan L; Young, Jared W; Pletnikov, Mikhail; Kent, Stephen

    2015-12-15

    The International Behavioral Neuroscience Society (IBNS) was founded in 1992 to fill the need for a focused meeting of the international research community to discuss issues important for the development and progress of this scientific discipline. In the 20 plus years since its founding, IBNS has become a hub for the dissemination of new research, development of important research collaborations, support and networking for young investigators, and for outreach and education to the community. This work is covered in part by offering special sessions during the meeting for late-breaking scientific discoveries from a range of disciplines as well as background and seniority level of the presenters. This special issue is a culmination of the late-breaking research presented at the IBNS 2014 meeting. The manuscripts of this Special Issue cover a variety of themes, including, stress, depression, the intersection of monoamine systems and behavior, substance use disorders, attentional processes, and awareness and acceptance of brain training. This wide range of topics and interest as well as range in seniority of presenters demonstrate the driving interest of IBNS in advancing knowledge in behavioral neuroscience as well as supporting scientists at every level. PMID:26549148

  8. The Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; McLean, Bernice R.

    This educators guide discusses the brain and contains activities on neuroscience. Activities include: (1) "The Space Life Sciences"; (2) "Space Neuroscience: A Special Area within the Space Life Sciences"; (3) "Space Life Sciences Research"; (4) "Neurolab: A Special Space Mission to Study the Nervous System"; (5) "The Nervous System"; (6)…

  9. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge into Social Work Education: A Case-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Marcia; Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2011-01-01

    New knowledge from the rapidly growing field of neuroscience has important implications for our understanding of human behavior in the social environment, yet little of this knowledge has made its way into social work education. This article presents a model for integrating neuroscience into instruction on human development, the bio psychosocial…

  10. Brain-(Not) Based Education: Dangers of Misunderstanding and Misapplication of Neuroscience Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alferink, Larry A.; Farmer-Dougan, Valeri

    2010-01-01

    Oversimplification or inappropriate interpretation of complex neuroscience research is widespread among curricula claiming that brain-based approaches are effective for improved learning and retention. We examine recent curricula claiming to be based on neuroscience research, discuss the implications of such misinterpretation for special…

  11. Advances in the Use of Neuroscience Methods in Research on Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience offers a series of tools and methodologies that allow researchers in the field of learning and instruction to complement and extend the knowledge they have accumulated through decades of behavioral research. The appropriateness of these methods depends on the research question at hand. Cognitive neuroscience methods allow…

  12. The Neuroscience of Mathematical Cognition and Learning. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 136

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looi, Chung Yen; Thompson, Jacqueline; Krause, Beatrix; Kadosh, Roi Cohen

    2016-01-01

    The synergistic potential of cognitive neuroscience and education for efficient learning has attracted considerable interest from the general public, teachers, parents, academics and policymakers alike. This review is aimed at providing 1) an accessible and general overview of the research progress made in cognitive neuroscience research in…

  13. The Brain Goes to School: Strengthening the Education-Neuroscience Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Investigations on the brain processes using a technology such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have led to the creation of a new field of research that bridges the gap between cognitive psychology and neuroscience: "cognitive neuroscience." Within this new field, studies examining the processes of learning and developing are…

  14. The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience for the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution…

  15. Explain the Brain: Websites to Help Scientists Teach Neuroscience to the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudler, Eric H.; Bergsman, Kristen Clapper

    2014-01-01

    The field of neuroscience has experienced enormous growth over the past few decades. Educators look to neuroscience to become better teachers; lawyers and judges explore the literature to gain insight into court cases; and marketers consider the use of brain scans to glean information about consumer preferences. With this increased interest in…

  16. Neuroscience & the Classroom: Making Connections. A Video Course for Grades K-12 Teachers and School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annenberg Learner, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Exciting developments in the field of neuroscience are leading to a new understanding of how the brain works that is beginning to transform teaching in the classroom. "Neuroscience & the Classroom: Making Connections" brings together researchers and educators in a dialog about how insights into brain function can be harnessed by teachers for use…

  17. Review of Research: Neuroscience and Reading--A Review for Reading Education Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruby, George G.; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we lay the groundwork for an interdisciplinary conversation between literacy education research and relevant neuroscience research. We review recent neuroscience research on correlates of proposed cognitive subprocesses in text decoding and reading comprehension and analyze some of the methodological and conceptual challenges of…

  18. Changing Our Minds: The Struggle To Generate a Humanistic Neuroscience Language through Metaphors from Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Delores D.

    While the physiological explanations from neuroscience help explain the mechanisms of learning, they fall short of explaining the sociocultural and phenomenological factors that determine a stressful versus a challenging interpretation of experience. For this reason, neuroscience seems less than useful to classroom teachers. A major obstacle in…

  19. Neuroscience and Education: How Best to Filter out the Neurononsense from Our Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which neuroscience is being applied to education, both on a classroom level and also on the level of curricular reform in Northern Ireland. The article reviews recent research in the area of neuroscience and education and examines a number of popular "neuromyths." It urges the educational world to take a more…

  20. Boundary as Bridge: An Analysis of the Educational Neuroscience Literature from a Boundary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Catherine; Beauchamp, Miriam H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the emerging field of educational neuroscience, concerns exist that the impact of neuroscience research on education has been less effective than hoped. In seeking a way forward, it may be useful to consider the problems of integrating two complex fields in the context of disciplinary boundaries. Here, a boundary perspective is used as a…

  1. Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Undergraduates for Careers in Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R.; Atapattu, Ranga K.

    2010-01-01

    Preparing students for a career in cognitive neuroscience may be especially challenging due to the expense and complexity of many types of cognitive neuroscience technologies. However, it is possible to train students in cognitive neuroscience at a primarily undergraduate university (PUI) in both the classroom and the laboratory. First, we propose specific methods that can be used in the classroom to make cognitive neuroscience material accessible. We also suggest ways to introduce cognitive neuroscience methodology through lab-based courses or activities. Second, we offer suggestions on how to conduct more complex functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) research with undergraduates at a small school. We hope that these suggestions will be a helpful guide for those wishing to prepare their students for further studies and careers in this exciting and challenging field. PMID:23495003

  2. Operationalized psychodynamic diagnosis as an instrument to transfer psychodynamic constructs into neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Henrik; Stasch, Michael; Cierpka, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical article makes a contribution to the field of “psychoanalytically informed neuroscience”. First, central characteristics of psychoanalysis and neuroscience are briefly described leading into three epistemic dichotomies. Neuroscience versus psychoanalysis display almost opposing methodological approaches (reduction vs. expansion), test quality emphases (reliability vs. validity) and meaning of results (correlation vs. explanation). The critical point is to reach an intermediate level: in neuroscience an adequate position integrating both aspects—objective and subjective—of dual-aspect monism, and in psychoanalysis the appropriate level for the scientific investigation of its central concepts. As a suggestion to reach that level in both fields the system of Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD; OPD Task Force, 2008) is presented. Combining aspects of both fields areas, expansion and reduction as well as reliability and validity, OPD could be a fruitful tool to transfer psychodynamic constructs into neuroscience. The article closes with a short description of recent applications of OPD in neuroscience. PMID:24298247

  3. How has neuroscience affected lay understandings of personhood? A review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The prominence of neuroscience in the public sphere has escalated in recent years, provoking questions about how the public engages with neuroscientific ideas. Commentaries on neuroscience’s role in society often present it as having revolutionary implications, fundamentally overturning established beliefs about personhood. The purpose of this article is to collate and review the extant empirical evidence on the influence of neuroscience on commonsense understandings of personhood. The article evaluates the scope of neuroscience’s presence in public consciousness and examines the empirical evidence for three frequently encountered claims about neuroscience’s societal influence: that neuroscience fosters a conception of the self that is based in biology, that neuroscience promotes conceptions of individual fate as predetermined, and that neuroscience attenuates the stigma attached to particular social categories. It concludes that many neuroscientific ideas have assimilated in ways that perpetuate rather than challenge existing modes of understanding self, others and society. PMID:23833053

  4. Managing orthopedics and neurosciences costs through standard treatment protocols.

    PubMed

    McGinnity, E S; Pluth, T E

    1994-06-01

    High-cost, high-volume specialty programs such as orthopedics and neurosciences find themselves in a position of evaluating the costs and in some cases the appropriateness of medical practices in response to payer scrutiny and provider selection processes. Orthopedics and neurosciences programs are at a stage of development analogous to that of cardiovascular care several years ago. Many of the same trends have come into play, such as payer "carve-outs" for orthopedic services, payer selection of centers of excellence based on cost and quality, reduction of Medicare reimbursement, greater use of high-cost technology, the decline of profitability due to "older, sicker, and tougher" patients, and the recent emergence of national orthopedic specialty networks oriented to national contracts for care. In an era in which payers demand value on both sides of the cost-plus-quality equation, programs are challenged to maximize the return on a patient population rife with "no-win" situations. In the orthopedic service line these include a high proportion of Medicare patients and chronic conditions such as workers' compensation medical back cases or repetitive motion injuries, which can be elusive to diagnose and expensive to treat. Many hospitals continue to lose money on joint replacement surgeries, the largest-volume orthopedic inpatient service, primarily because of the high Medicare population and the cost of implants. Neuroservices, while still relatively well reimbursed, face a rising proportion of Medicare payments as patients live longer and develop chronic, degenerative conditions. Inpatient days are decreasing due to payer pressures to limit hospital stays and to shift inpatient care to outpatient services. Some hospitals "have lost interest in (the orthopedic) service line during the last five years because of recent trends in orthopedic-related inpatient volume and payment." But by managing costs strategically, both the neurosciences and orthopedics service lines

  5. The effects of phorbol 12,13-diacetate on responses of guinea-pig isolated trachea to methylxanthines, isoprenaline and ryanodine.

    PubMed Central

    Cortijo, J.; Sanz, C. M.; Villagrasa, V.; Morcillo, E. J.; Small, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    1. Using guinea-pig isolated trachea, we have studied how phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) modulates mechanical responses of the tissue to methylxanthines, isoprenaline and ryanodine. 2. Caffeine (10 microM-5 mM), theophylline (10 microM-5 mM) and isoprenaline (1 nM-1 microM), each inhibited the spontaneous tone of the trachea. Pretreatment with PDA (0.1-10 microM) converted relaxant responses to high concentrations of the methylxanthines into contractions. PDA produced no equivalent effect against isoprenaline. Pretreatment with verapamil (1 or 10 microM), nifedipine (0.1 microM) or incubation with Ca(2+)-free, EGTA (0.1 mM)-containing physiological salt solution (PSS) suppressed the contraction produced by caffeine or theophylline in PDA (5 microM)-treated tissues. 3. The ability of PDA (5 microM) to convert caffeine-induced relaxation into caffeine-induced contraction was retained in tissues pretreated with a combination of atropine (1 microM) and mepyramine (1 microM) and in tissues denuded of the airway epithelium. 4. Caffeine (10 microM-5 mM), theophylline (10 microM-5 mM) and isoprenaline (1 nM-1 microM), each relaxed trachea contracted with histamine (0.1 mM). The relaxation induced by caffeine, theophylline and isoprenaline was markedly reduced in the presence of PDA (5 microM) and the responses to high concentrations of caffeine and theophylline, but not those to isoprenaline, were reversed to contractions. Verapamil (10 microM) prevented the effects of PDA against caffeine- or theophylline-induced relaxation. 5. PDA (1 microM) enhanced the tracheal spasm produced by caffeine (10 mM) and theophylline (10 mM) in indomethacin (2.8 microM)-treated trachea maintained at 20 degrees C. This enhancement was reduced in the presence of verapamil (10 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8019755

  6. Positive Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology: A Transdiagnostic Cultural Neuroscience Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hechtman, Lisa A.; Raila, Hannah; Chiao, Joan Y.; Gruber, June

    2013-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. Given the significant public health costs and the tremendous variance in national prevalence rates associated with many disorders of positive emotion, it is critical to reach an understanding of how cultural factors, along with biological factors, mutually influence positive emotion regulation. Progress in this domain has been relatively unexplored, however, underscoring the need for an integrative review and empirical roadmap for investigating the cultural neuroscientific contributions to positive emotion disturbance for both affective and clinical science domains. The present paper thus provides a multidisciplinary, cultural neuroscience approach to better understand positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. We conclude with a future roadmap for researchers aimed at harnessing positive emotion and alleviating the burden of mental illness cross-culturally. PMID:24812583

  7. Alphavirus vectors as tools in neuroscience and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    Alphavirus-based vectors have been engineered for in vitro and in vivo expression of heterelogous genes. The rapid and easy generation of replication-deficient recombinant particles and the broad range of host cell infection have made alphaviruses attractive vehicles for applications in neuroscience and gene therapy. Efficient delivery to primary neurons and hippocampal slices has allowed localization studies of gene expression and electrophysiological recordings of ion channels. Alphavirus vectors have also been applied for in vivo delivery to rodent brain. Due to the strong local transient expression provided by alphavirus vectors a number of immunization and gene therapy approaches have demonstrated both therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy in various animal models. PMID:26307195

  8. Dissociative experience and cultural neuroscience: narrative, metaphor and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Rebecca; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2008-03-01

    Approaches to trance and possession in anthropology have tended to use outmoded models drawn from psychodynamic theory or treated such dissociative phenomena as purely discursive processes of attributing action and experience to agencies other than the self. Within psychology and psychiatry, understanding of dissociative disorders has been hindered by polemical "either/or" arguments: either dissociative disorders are real, spontaneous alterations in brain states that reflect basic neurobiological phenomena, or they are imaginary, socially constructed role performances dictated by interpersonal expectations, power dynamics and cultural scripts. In this paper, we outline an approach to dissociative phenomena, including trance, possession and spiritual and healing practices, that integrates the neuropsychological notions of underlying mechanism with sociocultural processes of the narrative construction and social presentation of the self. This integrative model, grounded in a cultural neuroscience, can advance ethnographic studies of dissociation and inform clinical approaches to dissociation through careful consideration of the impact of social context. PMID:18213511

  9. Methodological Issues in the Neuroscience of Moral Judgement

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy; Shackel, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Neuroscience and psychology have recently turned their attention to the study of the subpersonal underpinnings of moral judgment. In this article we critically examine an influential strand of research originating in Greene's neuroimaging studies of ‘utilitarian’ and ‘non-utilitarian’ moral judgement. We argue that given that the explananda of this research are specific personal-level states—moral judgments with certain propositional contents—its methodology has to be sensitive to criteria for ascribing states with such contents to subjects. We argue that current research has often failed to meet this constraint by failing to correctly ‘fix’ key aspects of moral judgment, criticism we support by detailed examples from the scientific literature. PMID:22427714

  10. Practical application of artificial neural networks in the neurosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, Antonio

    1995-04-01

    This article presents a practical application of artificial multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks in neurosciences. The data that are processed are labeled data from the visual analysis of electrical signals of human sleep. The objective of this work is to automatically classify into sleep stages the electrophysiological signals recorded from electrodes placed on a sleeping patient. Two large data bases were designed by experts in order to realize this study. One data base was used to train the network and the other to test its generalization capacity. The classification results obtained with the MLP network were compared to a type K nearest neighbor Knn non-parametric classification method. The MLP network gave a better result in terms of classification than the Knn method. Both classification techniques were implemented on a transputer system. With both networks in their final configuration, the MLP network was 160 times faster than the Knn model in classifying a sleep period.

  11. THE CRIMINAL PSYCHOPATH: HISTORY, NEUROSCIENCE, TREATMENT, AND ECONOMICS

    PubMed Central

    Kiehl, Kent A.; Hoffman, Morris B.

    2014-01-01

    The manuscript surveys the history of psychopathic personality, from its origins in psychiatric folklore to its modern assessment in the forensic arena. Individuals with psychopathic personality, or psychopaths, have a disproportionate impact on the criminal justice system. Psychopaths are twenty to twenty-five times more likely than non-psychopaths to be in prison, four to eight times more likely to violently recidivate compared to non-psychopaths, and are resistant to most forms of treatment. This article presents the most current clinical efforts and neuroscience research in the field of psychopathy. Given psychopathy’s enormous impact on society in general and on the criminal justice system in particular, there are significant benefits to increasing awareness of the condition. This review also highlights a recent, compelling and cost-effective treatment program that has shown a significant reduction in violent recidivism in youth on a putative trajectory to psychopathic personality. PMID:24944437

  12. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H; Galuska, Chad M; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although there is a fundamental discrepancy between these two approaches, the emerging neuroscience of reinforcement and choice behavior eventually may shed light on the brain mechanisms involved in excessive drug use. Behavioral scientists could assist in this understanding by devoting more attention to the assessment of differences in the reinforcing strength of drugs and by attempting to develop and validate behavioral models of addiction. PMID:16596985

  13. Constructing Memory, Imagination, and Empathy: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gaesser, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Studies on memory, imagination, and empathy have largely progressed in isolation. Consequently, humans’ empathic tendencies to care about and help other people are considered independent of our ability to remember and imagine events. Despite this theoretical autonomy, work from across psychology, and neuroscience suggests that these cognitive abilities may be linked. In the present paper, I tentatively propose that humans’ ability to vividly imagine specific events (as supported by constructive memory) may facilitate prosocial intentions and behavior. Evidence of a relationship between memory, imagination, and empathy comes from research that shows imagination influences the perceived and actual likelihood an event occurs, improves intergroup relations, and shares a neural basis with memory and empathy. Although many questions remain, this paper outlines a new direction for research that investigates the role of imagination in promoting empathy and prosocial behavior. PMID:23440064

  14. Temporal Decision-Making: Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Christian C.

    2009-01-01

    Decisions frequently have consequences that play out over time and these temporal factors can exert strong influences on behavior. For example, decision-makers exhibit delay discounting, behaving as though immediately consumable goods are more valuable than those available only after some delay. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we are now beginning to characterize the physiological bases of such behavior in humans and to link work on this topic from neuroscience, psychology, and economics. Here we review recent neurocognitive investigations of temporal decision-making and outline the theoretical picture that is beginning to take shape. Taken as a whole, this body of work illustrates the progress made in understanding temporal choice behavior. However, we also note several questions that remain unresolved and areas where future work is needed. PMID:19898688

  15. Zebrafish models for translational neuroscience research: from tank to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Braubach, Oliver; Spitsbergen, Jan; Gerlai, Robert; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is emerging as a new important species for studying mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction. Focusing on selected central nervous system (CNS) disorders (brain cancer, epilepsy, and anxiety) and using them as examples, we discuss the value of zebrafish models in translational neuroscience. We further evaluate the contribution of zebrafish to neuroimaging, circuit level, and drug discovery research. Outlining the role of zebrafish in modeling a wide range of human brain disorders, we also summarize recent applications and existing challenges in this field. Finally, we emphasize the potential of zebrafish models in behavioral phenomics and high-throughput genetic/small molecule screening, which is critical for CNS drug discovery and identifying novel candidate genes. PMID:24726051

  16. Demystifying cognitive flexibility: Implications for clinical and developmental neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Dajani, Dina R; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive flexibility, the readiness with which one can selectively switch between mental processes to generate appropriate behavioral responses, develops in a protracted manner and is compromised in several prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders. It is unclear whether cognitive flexibility arises from neural substrates distinct from the executive control network (ECN) or from the interplay of nodes within this and other networks. Here we review neuroimaging studies of cognitive flexibility, focusing on set shifting and task switching. We propose that more consistent operationalization and study of cognitive flexibility is required in clinical and developmental neuroscience. We suggest that an important avenue for future research is the characterization of the relationship between neural flexibility and cognitive flexibility in typical and atypical development. PMID:26343956

  17. The place of human psychophysics in modern neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Read, J C A

    2015-06-18

    Human psychophysics is the quantitative measurement of our own perceptions. In essence, it is simply a more sophisticated version of what humans have done since time immemorial: noticed and reflected upon what we can see, hear, and feel. In the 21st century, when hugely powerful techniques are available that enable us to probe the innermost structure and function of nervous systems, is human psychophysics still relevant? I argue that it is, and that in combination with other techniques, it will continue to be a key part of neuroscience for the foreseeable future. I discuss these points in detail using the example of binocular stereopsis, where human psychophysics in combination with physiology and computational vision, has made a substantial contribution. PMID:24880153

  18. A neuroscience approach to managing athletes with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Puentedura, Emilio J; Louw, Adriaan

    2012-08-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common complaint within the athletic population and is commonly managed through a biomedical approach. The injured or damaged structure causing the LBP is identified and treated, and complete recovery from the episode is expected. Clinical experience shows us that often, athletes with LBP will not recover from their episode and may continue their sports participation despite persistent pain, or they may limit participation. Recent neuroscience research into the biology of pain suggests that clinicians involved in the management of athletes with LBP should embrace a biopsychosocial approach by engaging the brain and nervous system. This manuscript provides an overview of such a biopsychosocial approach, and presents information on the neurobiology of the athlete's pain experience. PMID:22814445

  19. Cultural neuroscience: biology of the mind in cultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejung S; Sasaki, Joni Y

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a review of how cultural contexts shape and are shaped by psychological and neurobiological processes. We propose a framework that aims to culturally contextualize behavioral, genetic, neural, and physiological processes. Empirical evidence is presented to offer concrete examples of how neurobiological processes underlie social behaviors, and how these components are interconnected in larger cultural contexts. These findings provide some understanding of how the meanings shared by cultural experiences trigger a neurobiological, psychological, and behavioral chain of events, and how these events may be coordinated and maintained within a person. The review concludes with a reflection on the current state of cultural neuroscience and questions for the field to address. PMID:24050186

  20. Computational psychiatry as a bridge from neuroscience to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Huys, Quentin J M; Maia, Tiago V; Frank, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Translating advances in neuroscience into benefits for patients with mental illness presents enormous challenges because it involves both the most complex organ, the brain, and its interaction with a similarly complex environment. Dealing with such complexities demands powerful techniques. Computational psychiatry combines multiple levels and types of computation with multiple types of data in an effort to improve understanding, prediction and treatment of mental illness. Computational psychiatry, broadly defined, encompasses two complementary approaches: data driven and theory driven. Data-driven approaches apply machine-learning methods to high-dimensional data to improve classification of disease, predict treatment outcomes or improve treatment selection. These approaches are generally agnostic as to the underlying mechanisms. Theory-driven approaches, in contrast, use models that instantiate prior knowledge of, or explicit hypotheses about, such mechanisms, possibly at multiple levels of analysis and abstraction. We review recent advances in both approaches, with an emphasis on clinical applications, and highlight the utility of combining them. PMID:26906507

  1. Reading beyond the glance: eye tracking in neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Popa, Livia; Selejan, Ovidiu; Scott, Allan; Mureşanu, Dafin F; Balea, Maria; Rafila, Alexandru

    2015-05-01

    From an interdisciplinary approach, the neurosciences (NSs) represent the junction of many fields (biology, chemistry, medicine, computer science, and psychology) and aim to explore the structural and functional aspects of the nervous system. Among modern neurophysiological methods that "measure" different processes of the human brain to salience stimuli, a special place belongs to eye tracking (ET). By detecting eye position, gaze direction, sequence of eye movement and visual adaptation during cognitive activities, ET is an effective tool for experimental psychology and neurological research. It provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the gaze, which is very useful in understanding choice behavior and perceptual decision making. In the high tech era, ET has several applications related to the interaction between humans and computers. Herein, ET is used to evaluate the spatial orienting of attention, the performance in visual tasks, the reactions to information on websites, the customer response to advertising, and the emotional and cognitive impact of various spurs to the brain. PMID:25604577

  2. Essentializing the binary self: individualism and collectivism in cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Mateo, M.; Cabanis, M.; Stenmanns, J.; Krach, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within the emerging field of cultural neuroscience (CN) one branch of research focuses on the neural underpinnings of “individualistic/Western” vs. “collectivistic/Eastern” self-views. These studies uncritically adopt essentialist assumptions from classic cross-cultural research, mainly following the tradition of Markus and Kitayama (1991), into the domain of functional neuroimaging. In this perspective article we analyze recent publications and conference proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping (2012) and problematize the essentialist and simplistic understanding of “culture” in these studies. Further, we argue against the binary structure of the drawn “cultural” comparisons and their underlying Eurocentrism. Finally we scrutinize whether valuations within the constructed binarities bear the risk of constructing and reproducing a postcolonial, orientalist argumentation pattern. PMID:23801954

  3. Vision and Art: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Neuroscience Education

    PubMed Central

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Conway, Bevil R.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate institutions are increasingly adopting neuroscience within their curricula, although it is unclear how best to implement this material given the interdisciplinary nature of the field, which requires knowledge of basic physics, chemistry, biology and psychology. This difficulty is compounded by declines over recent decades in the amount of physics education that students receive in high school, which hinders students’ ability to grasp basic principles of neuroscience. Here we discuss our experiences as teacher (BRC) and student (RLS) with an undergraduate course in Vision and Art. The course capitalizes on students’ prior interest in visual art to motivate an understanding of the physiological and computational neural processes that underlie vision; our aim is that the learning strategies that students acquire as a result of the format and interdisciplinary approach of the course will increase students’ critical thinking skills and benefit them as they pursue other domains of inquiry. The course includes both expert lectures on central themes of vision along with a problem-based learning (PBL) laboratory component that directly engages the students as empirical scientists. We outline the syllabus, the motivation for using PBL, and describe a number of hands-on laboratory exercises, many of which require only inexpensive and readily available equipment. We have developed a website that we hope will facilitate student-driven inquiry beyond the classroom and foster inter-institutional collaboration in this endeavor. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the potential limitations of the course and how to evaluate the success of the course and the website. PMID:23493842

  4. Using the Humanities to Teach Neuroscience to Non-majors.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Hewlet G; Richeimer, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We developed and offered a sequence of neuroscience courses geared toward changing the way non-science students interact with the sciences. Although we accepted students from all majors and at all class levels, our target population was first and second year students who were majoring in the fine arts or the humanities, or who had not yet declared a major. Our goal was to engage these students in science in general and neuroscience in particular by teaching science in a way that was accessible and relevant to their intellectual experiences. Our methodology was to teach scientific principles through the humanities by using course material that is at the intersection of the sciences and the humanities and by changing the classroom experience for both faculty and students. Examples of our course materials included the works of Oliver Sacks, V.S. Ramachandran, Martha Nussbaum, Virginia Woolf and Karl Popper, among others. To change the classroom experience we used a model of team-teaching, which required the simultaneous presence of two faculty members in the classroom for all classes. We changed the structure of the classroom experience from the traditional authority model to a model in which inquiry, debate, and intellectual responsibility were central. We wanted the students to have an appreciation of science not only as an endeavor guided by evidence and experimentation, but also a public discourse driven by creativity and controversy. The courses attracted a significant number of humanities and fine arts students, many of whom had already completed their basic science requirement. PMID:26240533

  5. Career Transitions for Faculty Members committed to Undergraduate Neuroscience Education

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights some of the critical issues that were discussed during a breakout session on career transitions at the 2014 Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) Workshop at Ithaca College on Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Challenges and Solutions in Creating and Sustaining Programs. Topics included: (1) transitioning from graduate school or a postdoc position to an assistant professor position; (2) preparing for promotion and tenure decisions; (3) balancing teaching, research, and service during a career in academics; (4) exploring alternative career options, including moving to another institution, taking on an administrative position, and working in industry; and (5) deciding when and how to retire. Much of the discussion focused on special challenges that women and minorities face in the academic environment. Participants offered valuable insights and suggestions for helping new faculty members prepare for reappointment, promotion, and tenure decisions, including utilizing networking connections within FUN for letters of support and collaborative opportunities. These networking opportunities were also valued by participants who were in rather unique positions, such as transitioning from a purely administrative role back to a regular faculty position or handling the extra burden of being a chair or program director with essentially the same research and grant-writing expectations of a regular faculty member. The session proved to be enlightening for most participants and though several questions and concerns remained unanswered, several ideas and insights were shared by the participants and a sense of empathy for the unique circumstances many of the participants were experiencing provided an atmosphere of comradery and support that often emanates from these FUN workshop sessions. PMID:26240524

  6. Fluorine-18 labeled tracers for PET studies in the neurosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yu-Shin; Fowler, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    This chapter focuses on fluorine-18, the positron emitter with the longest half-life, the lowest positron energy and probably, the most challenging chemistry. The incorporation of F-18 into organic compounds presents many challenges, including: the need to synthesize and purify the compound within a 2--3 hour time frame; the limited number of labeled precursor molecules; the need to work on a microscale; and the need to produce radiotracers which are chemically and radiochemically pure, sterile and pyrogen-free, and suitable for intravenous injection. The PET method and F-18 labeling of organic molecules are described followed by highlights of the applications of F-18 labeled compounds in the neurosciences and neuropharmacology. It is important to emphasize the essential and pivotal role that organic synthesis has played in the progression of the PET field over the past twenty years from one in which only a handful of institutions possessed the instrumentation and staff to carry out research to the present-day situation where there are more than 200 PET centers worldwide. During this period PET has become an important scientific tool in the neurosciences, cardiology and oncology. It is important to point out that PET is by no means a mature field. The fact that a hundreds of different F-18 labeled compounds have been developed but only a few possess the necessary selectivity and sensitivity in vivo to track a specific biochemical process illustrates this and underscores a major difficulty in radiotracer development, namely the selection of priority structures for synthesis and the complexities of the interactions between chemical compounds and living systems. New developments in rapid organic synthesis are needed in order to investigate new molecular targets and to improve the quantitative nature of PET experiments.

  7. What's so critical about Critical Neuroscience? Rethinking experiment, enacting critique.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Des; Matusall, Svenja; Skewes, Joshua; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In the midst of on-going hype about the power and potency of the new brain sciences, scholars within "Critical Neuroscience" have called for a more nuanced and sceptical neuroscientific knowledge-practice. Drawing especially on the Frankfurt School, they urge neuroscientists towards a more critical approach-one that re-inscribes the objects and practices of neuroscientific knowledge within webs of social, cultural, historical and political-economic contingency. This paper is an attempt to open up the black-box of "critique" within Critical Neuroscience itself. Specifically, we argue that limiting enactments of critique to the invocation of context misses the force of what a highly-stylized and tightly-bound neuroscientific experiment can actually do. We show that, within the neuroscientific experiment itself, the world-excluding and context-denying "rules of the game" may also enact critique, in novel and surprising forms, while remaining formally independent of the workings of society, and culture, and history. To demonstrate this possibility, we analyze the Optimally Interacting Minds (OIM) paradigm, a neuroscientific experiment that used classical psychophysical methods to show that, in some situations, people worked better as a collective, and not as individuals-a claim that works precisely against reactionary tendencies that prioritize individual over collective agency, but that was generated and legitimized entirely within the formal, context-denying conventions of neuroscientific experimentation. At the heart of this paper is a claim that it was precisely the rigors and rules of the experimental game that allowed these scientists to enact some surprisingly critical, and even radical, gestures. We conclude by suggesting that, in the midst of large-scale neuroscientific initiatives, it may be "experiment", and not "context", that forms the meeting-ground between neuro-biological and socio-political research practices. PMID:24910605

  8. Career Transitions for Faculty Members committed to Undergraduate Neuroscience Education.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Gary L

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights some of the critical issues that were discussed during a breakout session on career transitions at the 2014 Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) Workshop at Ithaca College on Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Challenges and Solutions in Creating and Sustaining Programs. Topics included: (1) transitioning from graduate school or a postdoc position to an assistant professor position; (2) preparing for promotion and tenure decisions; (3) balancing teaching, research, and service during a career in academics; (4) exploring alternative career options, including moving to another institution, taking on an administrative position, and working in industry; and (5) deciding when and how to retire. Much of the discussion focused on special challenges that women and minorities face in the academic environment. Participants offered valuable insights and suggestions for helping new faculty members prepare for reappointment, promotion, and tenure decisions, including utilizing networking connections within FUN for letters of support and collaborative opportunities. These networking opportunities were also valued by participants who were in rather unique positions, such as transitioning from a purely administrative role back to a regular faculty position or handling the extra burden of being a chair or program director with essentially the same research and grant-writing expectations of a regular faculty member. The session proved to be enlightening for most participants and though several questions and concerns remained unanswered, several ideas and insights were shared by the participants and a sense of empathy for the unique circumstances many of the participants were experiencing provided an atmosphere of comradery and support that often emanates from these FUN workshop sessions. PMID:26240524

  9. How neuroscience will change our view on consciousness.

    PubMed

    Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-09-01

    Is there consciousness in machines? Or in animals? What happens to consciousness when we are asleep, or in vegetative state? These are just a few examples of the many questions about consciousness that are troubling scientists and laypersons alike. Moreover, these questions share a striking feature: They seem to have been around forever, yet neither science nor philosophy has been able to provide an answer. Why is that? In my view, the main reason is that the study of consciousness is dominated by what we know from introspection and behavior. This has fooled us into thinking that we know what we are conscious of. The scientific equivalent of this is Global Workspace theory. But in fact we don't know what we are conscious of, as I will explain from a simple experiment in visual perception. Once we acknowledge that, it is clear that we need other evidence about the presence or absence of a conscious sensation than introspection or behavior. Assuming the brain has something to do with it, I will demonstrate how arguments from neuroscience, together with theoretical and ontological arguments, can help us resolve what the exact nature of our conscious sensation is. It turns out that we see much more than we think, and that Global Workspace theory is all about access but not about seeing. The exercise is an example of how neuroscience will move us away from psychological intuitions about consciousness, and hence depict a notion of consciousness that may go against our deepest conviction: "My consciousness is mine, and mine alone." It's not. PMID:24168336

  10. Vision and art: an interdisciplinary approach to neuroscience education.

    PubMed

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Conway, Bevil R

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate institutions are increasingly adopting neuroscience within their curricula, although it is unclear how best to implement this material given the interdisciplinary nature of the field, which requires knowledge of basic physics, chemistry, biology and psychology. This difficulty is compounded by declines over recent decades in the amount of physics education that students receive in high school, which hinders students' ability to grasp basic principles of neuroscience. Here we discuss our experiences as teacher (BRC) and student (RLS) with an undergraduate course in Vision and Art. The course capitalizes on students' prior interest in visual art to motivate an understanding of the physiological and computational neural processes that underlie vision; our aim is that the learning strategies that students acquire as a result of the format and interdisciplinary approach of the course will increase students' critical thinking skills and benefit them as they pursue other domains of inquiry. The course includes both expert lectures on central themes of vision along with a problem-based learning (PBL) laboratory component that directly engages the students as empirical scientists. We outline the syllabus, the motivation for using PBL, and describe a number of hands-on laboratory exercises, many of which require only inexpensive and readily available equipment. We have developed a website that we hope will facilitate student-driven inquiry beyond the classroom and foster inter-institutional collaboration in this endeavor. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the potential limitations of the course and how to evaluate the success of the course and the website. PMID:23493842

  11. Using the Humanities to Teach Neuroscience to Non-majors

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Hewlet G.; Richeimer, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We developed and offered a sequence of neuroscience courses geared toward changing the way non-science students interact with the sciences. Although we accepted students from all majors and at all class levels, our target population was first and second year students who were majoring in the fine arts or the humanities, or who had not yet declared a major. Our goal was to engage these students in science in general and neuroscience in particular by teaching science in a way that was accessible and relevant to their intellectual experiences. Our methodology was to teach scientific principles through the humanities by using course material that is at the intersection of the sciences and the humanities and by changing the classroom experience for both faculty and students. Examples of our course materials included the works of Oliver Sacks, V.S. Ramachandran, Martha Nussbaum, Virginia Woolf and Karl Popper, among others. To change the classroom experience we used a model of team-teaching, which required the simultaneous presence of two faculty members in the classroom for all classes. We changed the structure of the classroom experience from the traditional authority model to a model in which inquiry, debate, and intellectual responsibility were central. We wanted the students to have an appreciation of science not only as an endeavor guided by evidence and experimentation, but also a public discourse driven by creativity and controversy. The courses attracted a significant number of humanities and fine arts students, many of whom had already completed their basic science requirement. PMID:26240533

  12. 9. GATEHOUSE, INTERIOR, COUNTERSHAFT WHICH HELD BELT ATTACHED TO ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GATEHOUSE, INTERIOR, COUNTERSHAFT WHICH HELD BELT ATTACHED TO ENGINE FOR HYPOCHLORITE MIXER, VIEW EAST - Lake Roland Dam, Gatehouse, Spanning outlet of Lake Roland near Woodbridge Road, Towson, Baltimore County, MD

  13. 9. Photocopy of Blueprint (Original held by the Community end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of Blueprint (Original held by the Community end Economic Development Department, City of Detroit), C. Howard Crane, Architect. CROSS SECTION THROUGH STADIUM, NOVEMBER 27, 1926. (4' x 5' negative) - Olympia Arena, 5920 Grand River Avenue, Detroit, MI

  14. 7. Photocopy of Blueprint (Original held by the Community end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of Blueprint (Original held by the Community end Economic Development Department, City of Detroit), C. Howard Crane, Architect. FIRST FLOOR PLAN, NOVEMBER 13, 1927. (4' x 5' negative) - Olympia Arena, 5920 Grand River Avenue, Detroit, MI

  15. Workshop targets development of geodetic transient detection methods: 2009 SCEC Annual Meeting: Workshop on transient anomalous strain detection; Palm Springs, California, 12-13 September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray-Moraleda, Jessica R.; Lohman, Rowena

    2010-01-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) is a community of researchers at institutions worldwide working to improve understanding of earthquakes and mitigate earthquake risk. One of SCEC's priority objectives is to “develop a geodetic network processing system that will detect anomalous strain transients.” Given the growing number of continuously recording geodetic networks consisting of hundreds of stations, an automated means for systematically searching data for transient signals, especially in near real time, is critical for network operations, hazard monitoring, and event response. The SCEC Transient Detection Test Exercise began in 2008 to foster an active community of researchers working on this problem, explore promising methods, and combine effective approaches in novel ways. A workshop was held in California to assess what has been learned thus far and discuss areas of focus as the project moves forward.

  16. Electronic, Hand-Held, Wireless Text-And-Graphics Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed electronic, hand-held, wireless viewer presents written material to reader in way that closely resembles that of paper reading material. Viewer presents text and graphics like those normally found in books, newspapers, and magazines. Its hand-held and wireless features enable it to be used in positions and areas where books and magazines are normally used. Device consists primarily of two parts: the receiver/information store and viewing screen.

  17. Automated Hand-Held UXO Detection, Classification & Discrimination Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Thomas H.

    2000-06-12

    The research focused on procedures for target discrimination and classification using hand-held EMI sensors. The idea is to have a small, portable sensor that can be operated in a sweep or similar pattern in front of the operator, and that is capable of distinguishing between buried UXO and clutter on the spot. Curing Phase 1, we developed the processing techniques for distinguishing between buried UXO and clutter using the EM61-HH hand-held metal detector.

  18. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Ittersum, Miriam W; van Wilgen, C Paul; van der Schans, Cees P; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W; Nijs, Jo

    2014-11-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A double-blind, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial with 6-month follow-up was conducted. Patients with FM (n = 114) that consented to participate were randomly allocated to receive either written pain neuroscience education or written relaxation training. Written pain neuroscience education comprised of a booklet with pain neuroscience education plus a telephone call to clarify any difficulties; the relaxation group received a booklet with relaxation education and a telephone call. The revised illness perception questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire were used as outcome measures. Both patients and assessors were blinded. Repeated-measures analyses with last observation carried forward principle were performed. Cohen's d effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all within-group changes and between-group differences. The results reveal that written pain neuroscience education does not change the impact of FM on daily life, catastrophizing, or perceived symptoms of patients with FM. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education improved beliefs in a chronic timeline of FM (P = 0.03; ES = 0.50), but it does not impact upon other domains of illness perceptions. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education slightly improved illness perceptions of patients with FM, but it did not impart clinically meaningful effects on pain, catastrophizing, or the impact of FM on daily life. Face-to-face sessions of pain neuroscience education are required to change inappropriate cognitions and perceived health in patients with FM. PMID:24251724

  19. A translational neuroscience perspective on mindfulness meditation as a prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-03-01

    Mindfulness meditation research mainly focuses on psychological outcomes such as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional functioning. However, the neuroscience literature on mindfulness meditation has grown in recent years. This paper provides an overview of relevant neuroscience and psychological research on the effects of mindfulness meditation. We propose a translational prevention framework of mindfulness and its effects. Drawing upon the principles of prevention science, this framework integrates neuroscience and prevention research and postulates underlying brain regulatory mechanisms that explain the impact of mindfulness on psychological outcomes via self-regulation mechanisms linked to underlying brain systems. We conclude by discussing potential clinical and practice implications of this model and directions for future research. PMID:27012254

  20. Research on Estrogen and Behavior Is a 'Hot Topic' at the 2011 Society for Neuroscience Meeting

    ScienceCinema

    Anat Biegon

    2013-07-19

    The Society for Neuroscience has selected recent research on estrogen and its effect on behavior conducted at BNL for its "hot topics" book distributed to reporters attending the society's 2011 meeting in Washington, D.C., November 12-16.